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Sample records for marine particles development

  1. Optical assessment of large marine particles: Development of an imaging and analysis system for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Final report, June 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, I.D.; Gardner, W.D.

    1997-04-01

    The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) has been to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean. The overall objective of this work within OMP was to develop an instrument package to measure the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment at a rate sufficient to integrate the observed particle distributions into the coupled physical and biogeochemical models necessary to understand the shelf and slope as a system. Pursuant to this the authors have developed a video and optical instrument package (LAPS: Large Aggregate Profiling System) and assembled the computer and software methods to routinely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the `marine snow` size particles (dia. > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean. The instrument package collects aggregate abundance and size spectrum data using two video camera/strobe subsystems with a third subsystem collecting CTD, beam attenuation and fluorescence data. Additionally, measurements of particle flux were made with sediment traps deployed on the continental slope in conjunction with the physical oceanography mooring program. The authors envisioned a three stages development of the instrument package: (1) design, assembly, and laboratory testing of all components and the package as a whole, (2) a short period of laboratory and field testing of the instrument package to determine the best operational parameters, and (3) operations within a framework of complementary analytical sampling such as an appropriate process study funded under the OMP. The first two stages were covered by this proposal and completed. The third stage was limited to scoping work with the LAPS and deployment of sediment traps.

  2. Optical assessment of large marine particles: development of an imaging and analysis system for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Annual report, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, I.D.; Gardner, W.D.

    1994-12-31

    The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) is to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean (Program Announcement, 1991). A major component of the OMP will be to measure carbon flux on the shelf and across the shelf to the slope and open ocean. In the first round of OMP funding we proposed to develop an optical instrument package and the analytical techniques to measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the ``marine snow`` size particles (diameters > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean (McCave, 1975; Asper, 1987; Walsh and Gardner, 1992). The overall objective of this proposal was to develop an instrument package and the analytical techniques to precisely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment at a rate sufficient to integrate the observed particle distributions into the coupled physical and biogeochemical models necessary to understand the shelf and slope as a system. We envisioned three stages of development of the instrument package: (1) design, assembly, and laboratory testing of all components and the package as a whole, (2) a short period of laboratory and field testing of the instrument package to determine the best operational parameters, and (3) operations within a framework of complementary analytical sampling such as an appropriate process study funded under the OMP. The first two stages were covered by this proposal. A renewal proposal follows to cover the third stage. 6 figs.

  3. Fractionation of iron isotopes during leaching of natural particles by acidic and circumneutral leaches and development of an optimal leach for marine particulate iron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revels, Brandi N.; Zhang, Ruifeng; Adkins, Jess F.; John, Seth G.

    2015-10-01

    during leaching of silicates and clays but only minimally fractionated during dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides. Two different analytical models were developed to explain the relationship between amount of Fe leached and δ56Fe, one of which assumes mixing between two Fe phases with different δ56Fe and different dissolution rates, and the other of which assumes dissolution of a single phase with a kinetic isotope effect. We apply both models to fit results from the acidic leaches of MESS-3 and find that the fit for both models is very similar, suggesting that isotope data will never be sufficient to distinguish between these two processes for natural materials. Next, we utilize our data to choose an optimal leach for application to marine particles. The oxalate-EDTA leach is well-suited to this purpose because it does not greatly fractionate Fe isotopes for a diversity of particle types over a wide variety of leaching conditions, and because it approximates the conditions by which particulate Fe dissolves in the oceans. We recommend a 2 h leach at 90 °C with 0.1 M oxalate and 0.05 M EDTA at pH 8 to measure labile "ligand-leachable" particulate δ56Fe on natural marine materials with a range of compositions.

  4. Carbonaceous particles reduce marine microgel formation.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Ruei-Feng; Chin, Wei-Chun; Lee, Chon-Lin

    2014-01-01

    An increase in ambient carbonaceous particle (CNP) levels has been found, potentially leading to significant environmental/health hazards. These particles will ultimately enter the oceanic environment and interact with dissolved organic carbon. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of their behavior, transport, and fate in marine systems is still much needed. This study, using carbon black (CB, 14 nm) nanoparticles as a model, aimed to investigate the impact of CNPs on marine microgel formation, a critical shunt between DOC and particulate organic carbon that potentially represents a ~70-Gt organic carbon flux. We found that CB can enhance the stability of DOC polymers and reduce microgel equilibrium sizes in concentration as low as 1 μgL(-1) CB, possibly due to negative surface charges on CB that decrease cross-linking bridges through Ca(2+) bonds. The reduction of marine microgel formation induced by CB could lead to a decrease in the downward transportation of microbial substrates and nutrients, and therefore, could have a significant impact on the carbon cycle and the marine ecosystem. PMID:25068549

  5. Carbonaceous particles reduce marine microgel formation

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Ruei-Feng; Chin, Wei-Chun; Lee, Chon-Lin

    2014-01-01

    An increase in ambient carbonaceous particle (CNP) levels has been found, potentially leading to significant environmental/health hazards. These particles will ultimately enter the oceanic environment and interact with dissolved organic carbon. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of their behavior, transport, and fate in marine systems is still much needed. This study, using carbon black (CB, 14 nm) nanoparticles as a model, aimed to investigate the impact of CNPs on marine microgel formation, a critical shunt between DOC and particulate organic carbon that potentially represents a ~70-Gt organic carbon flux. We found that CB can enhance the stability of DOC polymers and reduce microgel equilibrium sizes in concentration as low as 1 μgL−1 CB, possibly due to negative surface charges on CB that decrease cross-linking bridges through Ca2+ bonds. The reduction of marine microgel formation induced by CB could lead to a decrease in the downward transportation of microbial substrates and nutrients, and therefore, could have a significant impact on the carbon cycle and the marine ecosystem. PMID:25068549

  6. Intermittent particle dynamics in marine coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renosh, P. R.; Schmitt, F. G.; Loisel, H.

    2015-10-01

    Marine coastal processes are highly variable over different space scales and timescales. In this paper we analyse the intermittency properties of particle size distribution (PSD) recorded every second using a LISST instrument (Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry). The particle concentrations have been recorded over 32 size classes from 2.5 to 500 μm, at 1 Hz resolution. Such information is used to estimate at each time step the hyperbolic slope of the particle size distribution, and to consider its dynamics. Shannon entropy, as an indicator of the randomness, is estimated at each time step and its dynamics is analysed. Furthermore, particles are separated into four classes according to their size, and the intermittent properties of these classes are considered. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used, associated with arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis (AHSA), in order to retrieve scaling multifractal moment functions, for scales from 10 s to 8 min. The intermittent properties of two other indicators of particle concentration are also considered in the same range of scales: the total volume concentration Cvol-total and the particulate beam attenuation coefficient cp(670). Both show quite similar intermittent dynamics and are characterised by the same exponents. Globally we find here negative Hurst exponents (meaning the small scales show larger fluctuation than large scales) for each time series considered, and nonlinear moment functions.

  7. Expression and Self-Assembly of Virus-Like Particles from Two Genotypes of Marine Vesiviruses and Development of an ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequences encoding the major capsid protein (VP1) from two marine vesivirus isolates (Steller sea lion viruses V810 and V1415) were engineered for expression of virus-like particles (VLPs) in the baculovirus system. The resulting VLPs were morphologically similar to native vesivirus virions. Purif...

  8. Settling velocity of marine microplastic particles: laboratory tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachenko, Igor; Khatmullina, Lilia; Chubarenko, Irina; Stepanova, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    An assessment of the settling velocity of different classes of microplastic particles (< 5 mm) is crucial for the prediction of their transport and fate. The Reynolds numbers for the settling microplastic particles is usually outside the Stokes range (Re << 1), but still far from fully developed turbulent flow (Re >105). Even for such transitional regime, the settling velocity of the particles that could be treated as more or less smooth spheres can be predicted with high accuracy by relationships available in publications. This is not the case for the non-spherical particles like fibres or flakes. There are quite a large number of quasi-theoretical or semi-empirical approaches that take into account the shape and roughness of the particles, usually in the applications to transport of natural sediments. Some engineering formulas for the settling velocity are also developed which have simpler structure along with high degree of accuracy on the set of experimental data. For marine microplastic particles, the absence of relationship between the settling velocity and the properties of the particle requires testing on the samples of marine microplastics. Besides small fragments of rigid plastic (granules, microbeads), there are also fibres and thin plastic sheets (flakes) with some degree of flexibility. The applicability of available formulae to thin and/or flexible plastic particles again requires verification by experiments. The set of laboratory experiments on settling of microplastic particles of various shapes and excess densities in homogeneous water is reported. The particles were collected in water column, bottom sediments and on the beaches of the South-Eastern Baltic. The experiments demonstrate not just different regimes of motion but different manner of the sinking of spheres, flakes and fibres. The very definition of the "settling velocity" has a specific meaning for every kind of a particle shape. The results of test measurements are compared with

  9. Particles in the oceans: Implication for a safe marine environment.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Julian; Corsi, Ilaria; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-10-01

    Strategies and technologies for the ecosafety assessment and design of engineered particles entering the marine environment are urgently needed. As the application of nanoparticles in science and technology grows, the need to understand their impact on the marine environment becomes increasingly important. This Editorial introduces a Special Issue on the topic of a sustainable and safety use of nanoparticles for protecting, recovering and supporting the oceans' environment and consequently human health. The issue focus on the impact of micro/nano-plastics and metallic nanoparticles on marine organisms, as well as some methodological aspects associated to the eco/toxicity and analytical approaches for in deep physico-chemical characterization of nanoparticles in marine waters and sediment media. Important and urgent topics are addressed in the field of nano-ecosafety in order to assess more precisely both exposure routes and environmental hazards of nanoparticles in the ocean. Ecotoxicological and toxicological data, obtained using a wide variety of organisms representative of different trophic levels and biological organization, from whole animals to macromolecules, will be useful for a better definition of cleaner and safer nanoparticles. Efforts in developing a broad understanding of target species, expected results, benchmarks and timelines, will be of primary importance. PMID:26515473

  10. Regional signatures in the organic composition of marine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Keene, William C.; Kieber, David J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.

    2013-05-01

    Marine aerosol particles play an important role in the earth's radiative balance, yet the sources and composition of the organic fraction remain largely unconstrained. Recent measurements have been made in order to characterize the sources, composition, and concentration of aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer. The organic composition of submicron particles derived from multiple seawater regions have been measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cluster analysis of FTIR organic spectra suggest different spectral signatures based on collection location, seawater composition, and ambient conditions. Measurements including non-refractory aerosol composition from a high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), seawater composition, and wind speed were used to interpret the cluster results, depending on the availability from each campaign. FTIR spectra of ambient particles are compared to FTIR spectra of primary marine particles generated from model ocean systems to infer the ambient particle production mechanisms and aging processes. Recent measurements used in the comparison include ambient and generated marine aerosol particles measured off the coast of California during CalNex in May and June 2010. Remote ambient marine aerosol particles were collected 100 miles off the coast of Monterey in the eastern Pacific during the EPEACE experiment in July 2011. Ambient and generated marine particles were measured in two different seawater types during WACS 2012 including colder, more productive water off the coast of the northeastern United States and warmer, oligotrophic water in the Sargasso Sea. These particles are also compared with those measured in the southeastern Pacific during VOCALS and the north Atlantic during ICEALOT.

  11. Measurements of Gas and Particle Emissions From Commercial Marine Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E.; Lerner, B.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T.

    2005-12-01

    Commercial marine vessels are powered by large diesel engines with power outputs up to 80 MW and typically consume high-sulfur fuel. They can be viewed as small floating power plants that produce large quantities of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particles. Thus these vessels can be significant pollution sources globally, regionally (e.g., coastal shipping lanes) and locally (e.g., ports). Assessment of this significance is done via emission inventory modelling in which activity factors are combined with emission factors to produce estimates of source strengths over different scales. This work addresses potential uncertainties in marine vessel emission factors. Measurements of trace gases and particles in the exhaust plumes from commercial marine vessels were made from the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the 2002 and 2004 NEAQS missions in the Gulf of Maine. Numerous encounters with these exhaust plumes provided the opportunity to examine emission of NOx, SO2, CO, CO2, particle number, and particle composition from these ships. Data from these studies suggest that emission factors used in current inventories may not adequately represent emission from ships under actual operating conditions. For example, our NOy data indicate that current inventories may overestimate these emissions by 20-30%. Though emission of CO by marine diesel engines is typically very low, several encounters with diesel-powered fishing vessel exhaust plumes showed high levels of CO which may indicate that engine maintenance plays a large role in the actual emissions from these vessels. Particle composition data from a container ship plume indicate that sub-micron mass was principally organic and not sulfate while literature data suggest a strong dependence of particle mass emission on the fuel sulfur level. In this presentation we will discuss the emission factors determined from our data and the importance of marine vessel emissions at different scales.

  12. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T. W.; Ladino, L. A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Breckels, M. N.; Brooks, I. M.; Browse, J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Judd, C.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, L. A.; Najera, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Rae, S.; Schiller, C. L.; Si, M.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Whale, Thomas; Wong, J P S; Wurl, O.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Abbatt, JPD; Aller, Josephine Y.; Bertram, Allan K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-09

    The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3–11. Here we show that material in the sea surface microlayer, which is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea- spray aerosol12–21, nucleates ice under conditions that occur in mixed-phase clouds and high-altitude ice clouds. The ice active material is likely biogenic and is less than ~0.2 ?m in size. We also show that organic material (exudate) released by a common marine diatom nucleates ice when separated from cells and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates are a candidate for the observed ice nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. By combining our measurements with global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, we show that ice nucleating particles of marine origin are dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic.

  13. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Theodore W; Ladino, Luis A; Alpert, Peter A; Breckels, Mark N; Brooks, Ian M; Browse, Jo; Burrows, Susannah M; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Huffman, J Alex; Judd, Christopher; Kilthau, Wendy P; Mason, Ryan H; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, Lisa A; Nájera, Juan J; Polishchuk, Elena; Rae, Stuart; Schiller, Corinne L; Si, Meng; Temprado, Jesús Vergara; Whale, Thomas F; Wong, Jenny P S; Wurl, Oliver; Yakobi-Hancock, Jacqueline D; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Aller, Josephine Y; Bertram, Allan K; Knopf, Daniel A; Murray, Benjamin J

    2015-09-10

    The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean. PMID:26354482

  14. A marine biogenic source of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Theodore W.; Ladino, Luis A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Chance, Rosie; Whale, Thomas F.; Vergara Temprado, Jesús; Burrows, Susannah M.; Breckels, Mark N.; Kilthau, Wendy P.; Browse, Jo; Bertram, Allan K.; Miller, Lisa A.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Hamilton, Jacqui F.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Brooks, Ian M.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Aller, Josephine Y.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2016-04-01

    There are limited observations describing marine sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs), despite sea spray aerosol being one of the dominant sources of atmospheric particles globally. Evidence indicates that some marine aerosol particles act as INPs, but the source of these particles is unclear. The sea surface microlayer is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea-spray aerosol. We show that the sea surface microlayer is enriched in INPs that nucleate ice under conditions pertinent to both high-altitude ice clouds and low to mid-altitude mixed-phase clouds. The INPs pass through 0.2 μm pore filters, are heat sensitive and spectroscopic analysis indicates the presence of material consistent with phytoplankton exudates. Mass spectrometric analysis of solid phase extracted dissolved organic material from microlayer and sub-surface water samples showed that the relative abundance of certain ions correlated with microlayer ice nucleation activity. However, these ions were not themselves directly responsible for ice nucleation. We propose that material associated with phytoplankton exudates is a candidate for the observed activity of the microlayer samples. We show that laboratory produced exudate from a ubiquitous marine diatom contains INPs despite its separation from diatom cells. Finally we use a parameterisation of our field data to estimate the atmospheric INP contribution from primary marine organic emissions using a global model and test the model against existing INP measurements in the remote oceans. We find that biogenic marine INPs can be dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean.

  15. Characteristics of aerosolized ice forming marine biogenic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Peter A.

    Ice particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere existing as the sole constituents of glaciated cirrus clouds or coexisting with supercooled liquid droplets in mixed-phase clouds. Aerosol particles serving as heterogeneous ice nuclei for ice crystal formation impact the global radiative balance by modification of cloud radiative properties, and thus climate. Atmospheric ice formation is not a well understood process and represents great uncertainty for climate prediction. The oceans which cover the majority of the earth's surface host nearly half the total global primary productivity and contribute to the greatest aerosol production by mass. However, the effect of biological activity on particle aerosolization, particle composition, and ice nucleation is not well established. This dissertation investigates the link between marine biological activity, aerosol particle production, physical/chemical particle characteristics, and ice nucleation under controlled laboratory conditions. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions of particles from bursting bubbles generated by plunging water jets and aeration through frits in a seawater mesocosm containing bacteria and/or phytoplankton cultures, were measured as a function of biological activity. Total particle production significantly increases primarily due to enhanced aerosolization of particles ≤100 nm in diameter attributable to the presence and growth of phytoplankton. Furthermore, hygroscopicity measurements indicate primary organic material associated with the sea salt particles, providing additional evidence for the importance of marine biological activity for ocean derived aerosol composition. Ice nucleation experiments show that these organic rich particles nucleate ice efficiently in the immersion and deposition modes, which underscores their importance in mixed-phase and cirrus cloud formation processes. In separate ice nucleation experiments employing pure cultures of Thalassiosira pseudonana, Nannochloris

  16. Collection and analysis of marine particles for trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefry, John H.; Trocine, Robert P.

    Field and laboratory practices for the collection and analysis of suspended particles from the marine environment have evolved considerably during the past two decades. However, many of these practices have not been discussed or disseminated in great detail throughout the literature. The timely organization of a workshop on "The Analysis and Characterization of Marine Particles" encourages reevaluation and sharing of collective experiences. We have been fortunate to collect particles from a wide variety of environments including the Mississippi River and Delta [Trefry and Presley, 1976; Trefry et al., 1985, 1986], the hypersaline Orca Basin [Trefry et al., 1984] , and hydrothermal vent plumes in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans [Trefry et al., 1985; Nelsen et al., 1986/1987; Trocine and Trefry, 1988]. Some of our practices and thoughts follow, focusing primarily on sampling and analysis for trace elements. Some additional details for Sampling hydrothermal plumes are also provided.

  17. Ice Formation Potential of Field-Collected Marine Biogenic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrion-Matta, A.; Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Marine biogenic particles composed mainly of sea salt and organic material aerosolized from a mesocosm in laboratory experiments have recently been found to act as ice nuclei. How these particles relate to those collected from sea spray under ambient conditions in the field is unknown. This study reports on the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of particles collected during the marine aerosol characterization experiment (MACE) on the south shore of Long Island, New York. Ambient aerosol size distributions were measured and particles were collected on hydrophobically coated substrates and subsequently used for ice nucleation experiments using an ice nucleation cell coupled to an optical microscope. This technique allows detection of ice formation for temperatures between 200 and 273 K and for relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) from 100% up to water saturation. Individual ice nucleating particles were identified for subsequent chemical and physical characterization using both X-ray and electron micro-spectroscopic techniques. Concentrations of bacteria, viruses, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the bulk seawater, sea-surface microlayer (SML), and in sea spray were determined using established methods and related to airborne sea spray particles and their ice nucleation potential. Onshore aerosol size distribution measurements taken at 5 m height and 10 m away from the breaking waves, revealed a peak maximum at 100 nm and Ntot = 6.8 x 10^2 cm^-3. Bacterial, viral, and TEP were found to be enriched in the SML. Ambient particles collected during MACE were found to nucleate ice efficiently, e. g. at 215 K, ice nucleation occurred on average at 125% RHice. Results of aerosol size distributions and ice nucleation efficiencies are compared to laboratory bubble bursting experiments in which natural seawater was used. The goal of this study is to understand the connection between sea spray aerosolization and atmospheric ice cloud formation and to

  18. Marine Cloud Brightening: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, J.; Gadian, A.; Kleypas, J. A.; Parkes, B.; Hauser, R.; Salter, S.

    2012-12-01

    source region to give a world map of the influence of each spray region. This might be positive, negative or neutral. We obtained statistically significant results for precipitation in both directions at places far from the spray source, even in the opposite hemisphere, over eight 20 year runs. We may be able to reduce the probability of both floods and droughts by directing movements and activity of spray vessels. Our modeling indicates that MCB seeding of marine stratocumulus clouds in regions where hurricanes spawn or develop could reduce sea-surface-temperatures [SST] sufficiently to reduce hurricane intensity by perhaps one Category. Further modeling indicates that substantial coral bleaching predicted to result from CO2-doubling, in 3 important coral regions, might be essentially eliminated by MCB seeding.

  19. The influence of marine biogenic particles on ice phase initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol particles vary in composition with many being biogenic and of terrestrial or marine origin. Efficient ice forming biogenic particles are typically thought to be of terrestrial origin; however, recent data demonstrate that marine biogenic particles can act as ice nuclei (IN) in both immersion and deposition modes, with and without association of NaCl. These results are significant given that ocean derived particles including phytoplankton, microorganisms, transparent exopolymers, and colloidal gels become aerosolized from the sea surface microlayer through wave breaking and bubble bursting. Such particles typically include sea salt, but in situ observations of air masses associated with phytoplankton blooms have identified organic compounds as significant mass contributors to aerosol loading. Here we present results from experiments with Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nanochloris atomus, phytoplankton with distinctly different cell walls: silica, calcite, and cellulose fibrils, respectively, as efficient IN in immersion and deposition modes at typical tropospheric conditions. In a separate set of experiments, submicron size particles with and without organics are generated through bubble bursting in a custom built seawater tank. Subsequently collected, these particles are observed using a coupled cooling stage/optical microscope, for their ice nucleation potential as a function of particle temperature (T), water activity (aw), relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice), droplet volume, and particle surface area. In the immersion mode, fragmented and intact cells of T. pseudonana and N. atomus enhance ice nucleation in aqueous NaCl solution droplets by ~10-30 K and 10-20 K above the homogeneous freezing limit, and for a range of aw of 1.0-0.8, while E. huxleyi do not enhance freezing temperatures. In the deposition mode, all three species nucleate ice for RHice as low as ~120%, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer

  20. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  1. In Brief: Developing marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-11-01

    A draft framework for the development of a national system of marine protected areas (MPA) has been released for public comment by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Under the proposed framework, an MPA is any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by U.S. federal, state, local, or other government regulations ``to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.'' About 1500 marine conservation areas initially would qualify as MPAs. The national system is intended to guide cooperative efforts among various parties and thus increase protection of these areas. The framework goals for a national system include: advancing conservation and management of marine resources through ecosystem-based approaches, and enhancing effective coordination and integration among MPAs in the national system and within the broader context of ecosystem-based management.

  2. Techniques employed for detection of hot particles in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Pillsbury, G D

    2007-09-01

    During the decommissioning of the Maine Yankee nuclear plant, several methods were developed and employed to survey for hot particles in the marine environment surrounding the site. The methods used and the sensitivities achieved in the search for environmentally dispersed particles during the various decommissioning activities performed are described in detail. Surveys were performed on dry soil, exposed marine sediment and submerged marine sediment. Survey techniques ranged from the use of the basic NaI detector coupled to a count rate meter to an intrinsic germanium detector deployed in a submarine housing coupled to a multi-channel analyser. The initial surveys consisted of collecting samples of marine sediment, spreading them out over a 1 m2 surface in a thin layer, and scanning the deposited sediment by hand using a 5 cm by 5 cm NaI detector coupled to a standard count rate meter. This technique was later replaced by walkover scans with the 5 cm by 5 cm NaI detector moved in a serpentine pattern over the sediment surface. By coupling the detector to a 'smart meter', an alarm set point could be used to alert the surveyor to the presence of a particle within the instrument's field of view. A similar technique, with the detector mounted in a watertight housing secured to the end of a pole, was also employed to scan underwater locations. The most sensitive method developed for performing underwater surveys was the use of the intrinsic germanium detector placed in a submarine housing. Detailed descriptions of the methods employed and the results obtained are presented. This work demonstrates that there are several approaches to surveying for discrete particles in the marine environment and the relative merits of each are considered. PMID:17768317

  3. FINE PARTICLE CHARGING DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the changing of fine particles by unipolar ions in an electric field, and evaluation of a specially designed small pilot-scale (600-1000 acfm) precharging device. Following an extensive review of the lit...

  4. Self-assembly of marine exudate particles and their impact on the CCN properties of nascent marine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, S.; Zimmermann, K.; Ryder, O. S.; Campbell, N.; Collins, D. B.; Gianneschi, N.; Bertram, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous self-assembly of marine exudate particles has previously been observed in filtered seawater samples. The chemicophysical properties of these particles may alter the chemical composition and CCN properties of nascent marine aerosol, yet to date simultaneous measurement of seawater exudate particle formation rates and number distributions, with aerosol particle formation rates and CCN activity are lacking. Here, we use a novel Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART) system to experimentally mimic a phytoplankton bloom via sequential addition of biological surrogates, including sterol, galactose, lipopolysaccharide, BSA protein, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Nascent sea-spray aerosol are generated in the MART system via a continuous plunging waterfall. Exudate particle assembly in the water is monitored via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain both the assembly kinetics of the particles as well as particle number distributions Simultaneous characterization of both particle production rates and super-saturated particle hygroscopicity are also discussed. This study permits analysis of the controlling role of the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon in setting the production rates of colloidal material in the surface oceans.

  5. On some physical and dynamical properties of microplastic particles in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Chubarenko, I; Bagaev, A; Zobkov, M; Esiukova, E

    2016-07-15

    Simplified physical models and geometrical considerations reveal general physical and dynamical properties of microplastic particles (0.5-5mm) of different density, shape and size in marine environment. Windage of extremely light foamed particles, surface area and fouling rate of slightly positively buoyant microplastic spheres, films and fibres and settling velocities of negatively buoyant particles are analysed. For the Baltic Sea dimensions and under the considered idealised external conditions, (i) only one day is required for a foamed polystyrene particle to cross the sea (ca. 250km); (ii) polyethylene fibres should spend about 6-8months in the euphotic zone before sinking due to bio-fouling, whilst spherical particles can be retained on the surface up to 10-15years; (iii) for heavy microplastic particles, the time of settling through the water column in the central Gotland basin (ca. 250m) is less than 18h. Proper physical setting of the problem of microplastics transport and developing of physically-based parameterisations are seen as applications. PMID:27184128

  6. Simulation of Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines in Unsteady Flow using Vortex Particle Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sale, Danny; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    A vortex particle method has been developed to study the performance and wake characteristics of Marine Hydrokinetic turbines. The goals are to understand mean flow and turbulent eddy effects on wake evolution, and the unsteady loading on the rotor and support structures. The vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian method involving both vortex particle and spatial mesh discretizations. Particle strengths are modified by vortex stretching, diffusion, and body forces; these terms in the vorticity transport equation involve differential operators and are computed more efficiently on a Cartesian mesh using finite differences. High-order and moment-conserving interpolations allow the particles and mesh to exchange field quantities and particle strengths. An immersed boundary method which introduces a penalization term in the vorticity transport equations provides an efficient way to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition on solid boundaries. To provide further computational speedup, we investigate the use of multicore processors and graphics processing units using the OpenMP and OpenCL interfaces within the Parallel Particle-Mesh Library.

  7. Comparison of bacterial communities on limnic versus coastal marine particles reveals profound differences in colonization.

    PubMed

    Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Zeder, Michael; Ionescu, Danny; Orlić, Sandi; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Amann, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    Marine and limnic particles are hotspots of organic matter mineralization significantly affecting biogeochemical element cycling. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes were combined to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition on limnic and coastal marine particles > 5 and > 10 μm respectively. Limnic particles were more abundant (average: 1 × 10(7) l(-1)), smaller in size (average areas: 471 versus 2050 μm(2)) and more densely colonized (average densities: 7.3 versus 3.6 cells 100 μm(-2)) than marine ones. Limnic particle-associated (PA) bacteria harboured Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and unlike previously suggested sizeable populations of Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Marine particles were colonized by Planctomycetes and Betaproteobacteria additionally to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Large differences in individual particle colonization could be detected. High-throughput sequencing revealed a significant overlap of PA and free-living (FL) bacteria highlighting an underestimated connectivity between both fractions. PA bacteria were in 14/21 cases more diverse than FL bacteria, reflecting a high heterogeneity in the particle microenvironment. We propose that a ratio of Chao 1 indices of PA/FL < 1 indicates the presence of rather homogeneously colonized particles. The identification of different bacterial families enriched on either limnic or marine particles demonstrates that, despite the seemingly similar ecological niches, PA communities of both environments differ substantially. PMID:24674021

  8. Microbial interactions lead to rapid micro-scale successions on model marine particles.

    PubMed

    Datta, Manoshi S; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Gore, Jeff; Polz, Martin F; Cordero, Otto X

    2016-01-01

    In the ocean, organic particles harbour diverse bacterial communities, which collectively digest and recycle essential nutrients. Traits like motility and exo-enzyme production allow individual taxa to colonize and exploit particle resources, but it remains unclear how community dynamics emerge from these individual traits. Here we track the taxon and trait dynamics of bacteria attached to model marine particles and demonstrate that particle-attached communities undergo rapid, reproducible successions driven by ecological interactions. Motile, particle-degrading taxa are selected for during early successional stages. However, this selective pressure is later relaxed when secondary consumers invade, which are unable to use the particle resource but, instead, rely on carbon from primary degraders. This creates a trophic chain that shifts community metabolism away from the particle substrate. These results suggest that primary successions may shape particle-attached bacterial communities in the ocean and that rapid community-wide metabolic shifts could limit rates of marine particle degradation. PMID:27311813

  9. Microbial interactions lead to rapid micro-scale successions on model marine particles

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Manoshi S.; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Gore, Jeff; Polz, Martin F.; Cordero, Otto X.

    2016-01-01

    In the ocean, organic particles harbour diverse bacterial communities, which collectively digest and recycle essential nutrients. Traits like motility and exo-enzyme production allow individual taxa to colonize and exploit particle resources, but it remains unclear how community dynamics emerge from these individual traits. Here we track the taxon and trait dynamics of bacteria attached to model marine particles and demonstrate that particle-attached communities undergo rapid, reproducible successions driven by ecological interactions. Motile, particle-degrading taxa are selected for during early successional stages. However, this selective pressure is later relaxed when secondary consumers invade, which are unable to use the particle resource but, instead, rely on carbon from primary degraders. This creates a trophic chain that shifts community metabolism away from the particle substrate. These results suggest that primary successions may shape particle-attached bacterial communities in the ocean and that rapid community-wide metabolic shifts could limit rates of marine particle degradation. PMID:27311813

  10. Composition of 15-85 nm particles in marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, M. J.; Whitehead, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Monahan, C.; McFiggans, G.; Smith, J. N.

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of 15-85 nm diameter particles was measured at Mace Head, Ireland, during May 2011 using the TDCIMS (thermal desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Measurable levels of chloride, sodium, and sulfate were present in essentially all collected samples of these particles at this coastal Atlantic site. Acetaldehyde and benzoic acid were also frequently detected. Concomitant particle hygroscopicity observations usually showed a sea-salt mode and a lower hygroscopicity mode with growth factors near to that of ammonium sulfate. There were many periods lasting from hours to about 2 days during which the 10-60 nm particle number increased dramatically in polar oceanic air. These periods were correlated with the presence of benzoic acid in the particles and an increase in the number of lower hygroscopicity mode particles. Very small (< 10 nm) particles were also present, suggesting that new particle formation contributed to these nanoparticle enhancement events.

  11. Identification of an organic coating on marine aerosol particles by TOF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, Heikki; Juhanoja, Jyrki; Kupiainen, Kaarle

    2002-08-01

    Marine aerosol particles play an important role in atmospheric processes. It has been suggested that as marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants. This theory has been supported only by indirect evidence. Recently, we gave new morphological indication of such organic coating without however providing molecular speciation. Here we have studied the surface of marine aerosol particles by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), which is very suitable for surface research due to its unique combination of surface sensitivity and the detailed molecular information obtained. Spectra from the outermost surface gave high intensity for palmitic acid and lower peaks for other fatty acids. According to TOF-SIMS images, palmitic acid was distributed on small particles, similar with the marine particles. Sputtering stripped palmitic acid and revealed the inner core of the sea-salt particles. Our results show that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the studied aerosol particles.

  12. Coated particle waste form development

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  13. Composition of 15-80 nm particles in marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, M. J.; Whitehead, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Monahan, C.; McFiggans, G.; Smith, J. N.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of 15-80 nm diameter particles was measured at Mace Head, Ireland, during May 2011 using the TDCIMS (Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer). Measurable levels of chloride, sodium, and sulfate were present in essentially all collected samples of these particles at this coastal Atlantic site. Organic compounds were rarely detectable, but this was likely an instrumental limitation. Concomitant particle hygroscopicity observations usually showed two main modes, one which contained a large sea salt component and another which was likely dominated by sulfate. There were several occasions lasting from hours to about two days during which 10-60 nm particle number increased dramatically in polar oceanic air. During these events, the sulfate mode increased substantially in number. This observation, along with the presence of very small (<10 nm) particles during the events, suggests that the particles were formed by homogeneous nucleation, followed by subsequent growth by sulfuric acid and potentially other vapors. The frequency of the events and similarity of event particles to background particles suggest that these events are important contributors of nanoparticles in this environment.

  14. Characterization of particles from a marine engine operating at low loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Maria; Salo, Kent; Hallquist, Åsa M.; Fridell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Particle emissions from a marine diesel engine operating at low loads with four different fuels were characterized with respect to particle number (PN) and particle mass (PM), size distribution, volatility and chemical composition. The four different fuels used were Swedish Environmental class 1 (MK1) and class 3 diesel (MK3), heavy fuel oil (HFO, 0.12 wt% S) and marine diesel oil (MDO, 0.52 wt% S). The measurements were performed for a marine diesel engine in a test-bed engine lab and the particle emissions were measured with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer and a Dust Monitor, giving the number concentrations in the size range of 5.6-560 nm and 300 nm to 20 μm, respectively. To quantify the amount of solid particles a thermodenuder was used. Additionally, filter samples were taken for gravimetric, black carbon (BC) and elemental analysis. The particle emissions showed a bimodal size distribution by number and the number concentrations were dominated by nanoparticles (diameter (Dp) < 50 nm). The nanoparticles measured were both primary and secondary particles, depending on fuel and engine load, while the particles with Dp > 50 nm generally were solid primary particles. Combustion of HFO resulted in the highest PN and PM concentrations. Emission factors (EFs) for PM and PN for both the total particle emissions and the fraction of primary, solid particles are presented for different fuels and loads. EFs for nitrogen oxides (NOx), BC and some elements (Ca, Fe, V, Ni, Zn) are presented as well. This study contributes to understanding particle emissions from potential future fuels as well as emissions in ports and coastal areas where lower engine loads are common.

  15. In situ video and diffraction analysis of marine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunven, Michel; Gentien, P.; Kononen, K.; Le Gall, E.; Daniélou, M. M.

    2003-08-01

    A design for a new underwater video-system to detect and observe suspended particles is presented. Particles are collected and isolated in a rectangular box where they are highly illuminated by a white light plane. The total field of view is determined. The camera, equipped with a remote controlled zoom, can resolve particles sizes ranging from 25 μm to several millimetres. Real-time image analyses are therefore performed. Particle counts and size spectra are calculated and displayed. Total light intensity scattered by the illuminated particles is closely related to the back-scattering values determined by an optical back-scatter sensor. A particle size analyser using diffraction analysis is associated to this video-system on a custom profiler. Hydrological parameters are measured by a standard CTD probe associated to a chlorophyll sensor. Results are acquired and graphically presented in real time. This custom profiler presents numerous advantages in oceanographic research. Two examples of its use in different coastal areas are presented. In an estuary, temporal evolution of particle characteristics was described in relation to the tide cycle. While the video-system allows direct visualization and characterization of the largest particles, the particle-size analyser performs precise quantification of the finest ones. It was shown that the two methods were in accordance for quantification of large aggregates, which were observed around slack tide when salinity decreased. Video analyses cannot be performed above 25 mg l -1 dry weight equivalent. The system reliability, resolution and limits were also demonstrated during a cruise in the Gulf of Finland. A typical profile is presented here showing different layers, one characterized by the association of heterotrophic flagellates and detritals, and another dominated by zooplankton, the surface layer being characterized by cyanobacterial colonies. Video associated to diffraction analyses allows the study of

  16. The Development of a Virtual Marine Museum for Educational Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarng, Wermhuar; Change, Mei-Yu; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Ya-Wen; Liou, Hsin-Hun

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the computer animation and virtual reality technologies for developing a virtual marine museum. The museum consists of three exhibition areas. The first area displays fishes in freshwater, including creeks, rivers, and dams in Taiwan. The second area exhibits marine ecology and creatures of different…

  17. MODIS Observations of Ship Tracks: The Response of Marine Stratus to Smoke Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, J. A.; Segrin, M. S.; Tahnk, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    Ship tracks offer a unique opportunity for studying the response of marine stratus to increased particle concentrations. The study of ship tracks avoids the difficulties encountered in regional and global studies of cloud systems affected by haze in that in order to deduce the aerosol effects in the regional studies the response of clouds to the thermodynamics of the air mass in which the haze is imbedded must also be accounted for. With ship tracks, polluted clouds are compared with unpolluted clouds separated by only a few kilometers thereby insuring that the thermodynamics of the environments are on average the same and the only difference is the elevated particle concentrations in the polluted clouds. While marine stratus represent a specific cloud system having behavior that may not be representative of all low-level cloud types, such clouds nonetheless offer opportunities for testing the fidelity of at least a subset of cloud models. The use of MODIS observations to study ship tracks follows an earlier study based on AVHRR data. The earlier study demonstrated that polluted clouds lost on average approximately 20 percent of their liquid water. The finding contradicts the widely accepted theory that precipitation is suppressed in polluted clouds and thus should lead to increased cloud liquid water, cloud lifetimes, and cloud cover. The MODIS observations and the new analysis schemes developed for use with the MODIS data include several improvements on the earlier study with AVHRR data. First, MODIS radiances at 1.6 and 2.1 microns provide additional measures of cloud droplet radii thereby providing additional assessments of the changes in cloud liquid water which for the AVHRR observations were restricted to the use of 3.7-micron radiances to obtain droplet radii. Second, the new analysis procedures account for partial cloud cover in the 1-km fields of view and thus provide an objective means for estimating the growth in cloud liquid water due to increased

  18. Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the California Current

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2008-03-12

    Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.

  19. Exploring the ocean for new drug developments: Marine pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Malve, Harshad

    2016-01-01

    Disease ailments are changing the patterns, and the new diseases are emerging due to changing environments. The enormous growth of world population has overburdened the existing resources for the drugs. And hence, the drug manufacturers are always on the lookout for new resources to develop effective and safe drugs for the increasing demands of the world population. Seventy-five percentage of earth's surface is covered by water but research into the pharmacology of marine organisms is limited, and most of it still remains unexplored. Marine environment represents countless and diverse resource for new drugs to combat major diseases such as cancer or malaria. It also offers an ecological resource comprising a variety of aquatic plants and animals. These aquatic organisms are screened for antibacterial, immunomodulator, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, analgesic, and antimalarial properties. They are used for new drug developments extensively across the world. Marine pharmacology offers the scope for research on these drugs of marine origin. Few institutes in India offer such opportunities which can help us in the quest for new drugs. This is an extensive review of the drugs developed and the potential new drug candidates from marine origin along with the opportunities for research on marine derived products. It also gives the information about the institutes in India which offer marine pharmacology related courses. PMID:27134458

  20. Exploring the ocean for new drug developments: Marine pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Malve, Harshad

    2016-01-01

    Disease ailments are changing the patterns, and the new diseases are emerging due to changing environments. The enormous growth of world population has overburdened the existing resources for the drugs. And hence, the drug manufacturers are always on the lookout for new resources to develop effective and safe drugs for the increasing demands of the world population. Seventy-five percentage of earth's surface is covered by water but research into the pharmacology of marine organisms is limited, and most of it still remains unexplored. Marine environment represents countless and diverse resource for new drugs to combat major diseases such as cancer or malaria. It also offers an ecological resource comprising a variety of aquatic plants and animals. These aquatic organisms are screened for antibacterial, immunomodulator, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, analgesic, and antimalarial properties. They are used for new drug developments extensively across the world. Marine pharmacology offers the scope for research on these drugs of marine origin. Few institutes in India offer such opportunities which can help us in the quest for new drugs. This is an extensive review of the drugs developed and the potential new drug candidates from marine origin along with the opportunities for research on marine derived products. It also gives the information about the institutes in India which offer marine pharmacology related courses. PMID:27134458

  1. Enhancing effect of marine oligotrophy on environmental concentrations of particle-reactive trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffree, R.A.; Szymczak, R.

    2000-05-15

    A biogeochemical model has been previously developed that explains the inverse and nonlinear relationship between Po-210 concentration in zooplankton and their biomass, under oligotrophic conditions in French Polynesia. In this study the model structure was reviewed to determine a set of biogeochemical behaviors of Po-210, proposed to be critical to its environmental enhancement under oligotrophy: this set was then used to identify 25 other elements with comparable behaviors to Po-210. Field investigation in the Timor Sea showed that four of these a priori identified elements, viz. Cd, Co, Pb, and Mn as well as Cr and Ni, showed elevated water concentrations with reduced particle removal rates in the euphotic zone, results that are consistent with those previously obtained for Po-210 and the proposed explanatory model. These findings point to the enhanced susceptibility to contamination with particle-reactive elements of oligotrophic marine systems, whose degree and geographic extent may be enhanced by projected increases in sea surface temperatures from global warming.

  2. CFD development for macro particle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiang; Glenn, Chance; Xiao, Zhigang; Zhang, Sijun

    2014-05-01

    Numerous industrial operations involve fluid-particle systems, in which both phases display very complex behaviour. Some examples include fluidisation technology in catalytic reactors, pneumatic transportation of grain or powder materials, carbon nanotube alignment in the nano-devices and circuit integration and so on. In this paper, a macro particle method is developed to model the fluid-particle flows. The macro particle is formed by a collection of micro-sized particles so that the number of macro particles to be tracked is much less than the number of smaller particles. Unlike the calculations of instantaneous point variables of fluid phase with moving discrete boundaries of the smaller particles with direct numerical simulation, the boundary of each macro particle is just dealt with the blocked-off approach. On the other hand, the flow fields based on the present method is solved by original Navier-Stokes, rather than the modified ones based on the locally averaged theorem. The flow fields are solved on the length scale of computational cells, while the resolutions of solid particles are the size of macro particle, which is determined as needed in specific applications. The macro particle method is validated by several selected cases, which demonstrate that the macro particle method could accurately resolve fluid-particle systems in an efficient, robust and flexible fashion.

  3. Atmospheric new particle formation as a source of CCN in the eastern Mediterranean marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivitis, N.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kouvarakis, G.; Stavroulas, I.; Bougiatioti, A.; Nenes, A.; Manninen, H. E.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2015-08-01

    While cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production associated with atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is thought to be frequent throughout the continental boundary layers, few studies on this phenomenon in marine air exist. Here, based on simultaneous measurement of particle number size distributions, CCN properties and aerosol chemical composition, we present the first direct evidence on CCN production resulting from NPF in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. We show that condensation of both gaseous sulfuric acid and organic compounds from multiple sources leads to the rapid growth of nucleated particles to CCN sizes in this environment during the summertime. Sub-100 nm particles were found to be substantially less hygroscopic than larger particles during the period with active NPF and growth (the value of κ was lower by 0.2-0.4 for 60 nm particles compared with 120 nm particles), probably due to enrichment of organic material in the sub-100 nm size range. The aerosol hygroscopicity tended to be at minimum just before the noon and at maximum in the afternoon, which was very likely due to the higher sulfate-to-organic ratios and higher degree of oxidation of the organic material during the afternoon. Simultaneous with the formation of new particles during daytime, particles formed during the previous day or even earlier were growing into the size range relevant to cloud droplet activation, and the particles formed in the atmosphere were possibly mixed with long-range-transported particles.

  4. Preliminary study on the development of syntactic foams for marine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Z.; Islam, M. M.; Ku, H.

    2013-08-01

    This paper focuses on the comparison of various types of matrix materials and their mechanical properties for development of syntactic foams for marine applications. Generally, syntactic foams are close pore foams fabricated by the mechanical mixing of hollow microsphere particles in a polymeric matrix resin. From the literature review, it was found that there are several polymeric resins that have been used for development of syntactic foams such as epoxy, cyanate ester, polypropylene, polysialate and vinyl ester. In this paper, a comparative discussion is presented on the mechanical properties of hollow glass particles mixing with polymeric resins for development of syntactic foams for the use of these composites in bulk applications such as marine structures.

  5. Particle accelerator development: Selected examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie

    2016-03-01

    About 30 years ago, I was among several students mentored by Professor Yang at Stony Brook to enter the field of particle accelerator physics. Since then, I have been fortunate to work on several major accelerator projects in USA and in China, guided and at times directly supported by Professor Yang. The field of accelerator physics is flourishing worldwide both providing indispensable tools for fundamental physics research and covering an increasingly wide spectrum of applications beneficial to our society.

  6. Particle Accelerator Development: Selected Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie

    About 30 years ago, I was among several students mentored by Professor Yang at Stony Brook to enter the field of particle accelerator physics. Since then, I have been fortunate to work on several major accelerator projects in USA and in China, guided and at times directly supported by Professor Yang. The field of accelerator physics is flourishing worldwide both providing indispensable tools for fundamental physics research and covering an increasingly wide spectrum of applications beneficial to our society.

  7. Atmospheric new particle formation as source of CCN in the Eastern Mediterranean marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivitis, N.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kouvarakis, G.; Stavroulas, I.; Bougiatioti, A.; Nenes, A.; Manninen, H. E.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2015-04-01

    While Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) production associated with atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is thought to be frequent throughout the continental boundary layers, few studies on this phenomenon in marine air exist. Here, based on simultaneous measurement of particle number size distributions, CCN properties and aerosol chemical composition, we present the first direct evidence on CCN production resulting from NPF in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. We show that condensation of both gaseous sulfuric acid and organic compounds from multiple sources leads to the rapid growth of nucleated particles to CCN sizes in this environment during the summertime. Sub-100 nm particles were found to be substantially less hygroscopic than larger particles during the period with active NPF and growth (0.2-0.4 lower κ between the 60 and 120 nm particles), probably due to enrichment of organic material in the sub-100 nm size range. The aerosol hygroscopicity tended to be at minimum just before the noon and at maximum in afternoon, which was very likely due to the higher sulfate to organic ratios and higher degree of oxidation of the organic material during the afternoon. Simultaneously to the formation of new particles during daytime, particles formed in the previous day or even earlier were growing into the size range relevant to cloud droplet activation, and the particles formed in the atmosphere were possibly mixed with long-range transported particles.

  8. Aerosolization, Chemical Characterization, Hygroscopicity and Ice Formation of Marine Biogenic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    were enhanced with time compared with larger sizes. In contrast, all particle sizes were equally enhanced when frits were used. Aerosolized particles were hygroscopic, a finding with significance for warm cloud formation and potential liquid-to-ice phase transformations. Aqueous and dry aerosolized particles from biologically active mesocosm water were found to efficiently nucleate ice exposed to supersaturated water vapor. The majority of particles, including those nucleating ice, consisted of a sea salt core coated with organic material dominated by the carboxyl functional group, and corresponded to a particle type commonly found in marine air. Our results provide improved estimates of marine aerosol production, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity, as well as an accurate physical and chemical representation of ice nucleation by marine biogenic aerosol particles for use in cloud and climate models.

  9. Using habitat suitability index and particle dispersion models for early detection of marine invaders.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Graeme J; Hurren, Helen; Oldman, John; Haskew, Rachel

    2006-08-01

    Eradication and control of invasive species are often possible only if populations are detected when they are small and localized. To be efficient, detection surveys should be targeted at locations where there is the greatest risk of incursions. We examine the utility of habitat suitability index (HSI) and particle dispersion models for targeting sampling for marine pests. Habitat suitability index models are a simple way to identify suitable habitat when species distribution data are lacking. We compared the performance of HSI models with statistical models derived from independent data from New Zealand on the distribution of two nonindigenous bivalves: Theora lubrica and Musculista senhousia. Logistic regression models developed using the HSI scores as predictors of the presence/absence of Theora and Musculista explained 26.7% and 6.2% of the deviance in the data, respectively. Odds ratios for the HSI scores were greater than unity, indicating that they were genuine predictors of the presence/ absence of each species. The fit and predictive accuracy of each logistic model were improved when simulated patterns of dispersion from the nearest port were added as a predictor variable. Nevertheless, the combined model explained, at best, 46.5% of the deviance in the distribution of Theora and correctly predicted 56% of true presences and 50% of all cases. Omission errors were between 6% and 16%. Although statistical distribution models built directly from environmental predictors always outperformed the equivalent HSI models, the gain in model fit and accuracy was modest. High residual deviance in both types of model suggests that the distributions realized by Theora and Musculista in the field data were influenced by factors not explicitly modeled as explanatory variables and by error in the environmental data used to project suitable habitat for the species. Our results highlight the difficulty of accurately predicting the distribution of invasive marine species that

  10. Accumulation of Cu and Zn in discarded antifouling paint particles by the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammon, Melanie; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-10-01

    The short-term (5 day) accumulation of Cu and Zn in different tissues of the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea, has been studied in the presence of ˜10 mg l -1 of antifouling paint particles and pre- or simultaneously contaminated algal food ( Ulva lactuca). Accumulation of Cu was observed in the head-foot, digestive gland-gonad complex and gills to extents dependent on how and when food was contaminated and administered. However, retention of Zn was only observed in the gills and only when L. littorea and U. lactuca were simultaneously exposed to paint particles. Relative to the alga, faecal material was highly enriched in Zn, suggesting that the animal is able to rapidly eliminate this metal, most likely through the formation and egestion of insoluble phosphate granules. Thus, L. littorea is a useful biomonitor of marine contamination by antifouling applications in respect of Cu but not Zn.

  11. The oceanographic toolbox for the collection of sinking and suspended marine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Andrew M. P.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Sanders, Richard; Riley, Jennifer S.; Marsay, Chris; Smith, Helen E. K.; Sargent, Elizabeth C.; Lampitt, Richard S.; Bishop, James K. B.

    2015-04-01

    Marine particles play a central role in controlling the transport, cycling, and inventories of many major elements and trace elements and isotopes throughout the oceans. Studies seeking to elucidate the biogeochemical roles of marine particles often require reliable ways to collect them from the ocean. Here, we review the oceanographic toolbox of techniques and instrumentation that are employed to collect both suspended and sinking particles. With these tools, it is possible to determine both the concentrations and vertical fluxes of important elements and individual particle types. We describe the various methods for quantifying the concentrations of particulate matter with in situ pumps, towed sampling devices, bottle collectors, and large volume capture devices. The uses of various types of flux collection platforms are discussed including surface tethered, neutrally buoyant, and bottom moored devices. We address the issues of sediment trap collection biases and the apparent inconsistencies that can arise due to differences in the temporal and spatial scales sampled by the various methodologies. Special attention is given to collection considerations made for the analysis of trace metals and isotopes, as these methodologies are of high importance to the ongoing GEOTRACES program which seeks to identify the processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes in the ocean. With the emergence of new particle collection methodologies and the continued reliance on traditional collection methods, it is imperative that we combine these multiple approaches in ways that will help improve their accuracy and precision while enhancing their utility in advancing understanding of the biogeochemical and ecological roles of marine particles.

  12. Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from the Marine Boundary Layer Over the California Current

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Rebecca J; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V; Zaveri, Rahul A; Berkowitz, Carl M; Tyliszczak, T; Gilles, Marry K; Laskin, Alexander

    2008-02-27

    Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a complementary combination of microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from an air mass that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with the characteristic ratios of CH3SO3-/nss-SO42-> 0.6. Although this value seems too high for a mid-latitude site, our model calculations suggest that high CH3SO3-/nss-SO42- ratios are expected during the early stages of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation when CH3SO3H forms more rapidly than H2SO4.

  13. Dispersal kernel estimation: A comparison of empirical and modelled particle dispersion in a coastal marine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrycik, Janelle M.; Chassé, Joël; Ruddick, Barry R.; Taggart, Christopher T.

    2013-11-01

    Early life-stage dispersal influences recruitment and is of significance in explaining the distribution and connectivity of marine species. Motivations for quantifying dispersal range from biodiversity conservation to the design of marine reserves and the mitigation of species invasions. Here we compare estimates of real particle dispersion in a coastal marine environment with similar estimates provided by hydrodynamic modelling. We do so by using a system of magnetically attractive particles (MAPs) and a magnetic-collector array that provides measures of Lagrangian dispersion based on the time-integration of MAPs dispersing through the array. MAPs released as a point source in a coastal marine location dispersed through the collector array over a 5-7 d period. A virtual release and observed (real-time) environmental conditions were used in a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate the dispersal of virtual particles (VPs). The number of MAPs captured throughout the collector array and the number of VPs that passed through each corresponding model location were enumerated and compared. Although VP dispersal reflected several aspects of the observed MAP dispersal, the comparisons demonstrated model sensitivity to the small-scale (random-walk) particle diffusivity parameter (Kp). The one-dimensional dispersal kernel for the MAPs had an e-folding scale estimate in the range of 5.19-11.44 km, while those from the model simulations were comparable at 1.89-6.52 km, and also demonstrated sensitivity to Kp. Variations among comparisons are related to the value of Kp used in modelling and are postulated to be related to MAP losses from the water column and (or) shear dispersion acting on the MAPs; a process that is constrained in the model. Our demonstration indicates a promising new way of 1) quantitatively and empirically estimating the dispersal kernel in aquatic systems, and 2) quantitatively assessing and (or) improving regional hydrodynamic

  14. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongYoub; Wallis, Chris; Schelegle, Edward S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Plopper, Charles G.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Kumfer, Ben; Kennedy, Ian M.; Chan, Jackie K. W.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 through 25, and lung function and airway architecture were evaluated 81 days of age. In a separate group of rats, cell proliferation was examined after a single particle exposure at 7 days of age. Early life exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particles altered distal airway architecture and resulted in subtle changes in lung mechanics. Early life exposure to 212 nm high OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture but did alter lung mechanics in a manner suggestive of central airway changes. In contrast, early life exposure to 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture or mechanics. A single 6-h exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particle decreased airway cell proliferation, whereas 212 nm high OC/EC particles increased it and 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not. The early life exposure to ultrafine, high OC/EC particles results in persistent alterations in distal airway architecture that is characterized by an initial decrease in airway cell proliferation. PMID:20634362

  15. The Development of Marine Science in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Francisco J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the maritime history of Latin America and its development of marine science. The need for the Latin American nations to incorporate the oceans into their development process is emphasized in order for them to continue and expand exploitation of living resources. (Author/SA)

  16. FDPS: Framework for Developing Particle Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasawa, Masaki; Tanikawa, Ataru; Hosono, Natsuki; Nitadori, Keigo; Muranushi, Takayuki; Makino, Junichiro

    2016-04-01

    FDPS provides the necessary functions for efficient parallel execution of particle-based simulations as templates independent of the data structure of particles and the functional form of the interaction. It is used to develop particle-based simulation programs for large-scale distributed-memory parallel supercomputers. FDPS includes templates for domain decomposition, redistribution of particles, and gathering of particle information for interaction calculation. It uses algorithms such as Barnes-Hut tree method for long-range interactions; methods to limit the calculation to neighbor particles are used for short-range interactions. FDPS reduces the time and effort necessary to write a simple, sequential and unoptimized program of O(N^2) calculation cost, and produces compiled programs that will run efficiently on large-scale parallel supercomputers.

  17. Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonaschütz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2013-10-01

    During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs): between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH) of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C) and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) increased with plume age: from < 0.001 to 0.2, and from 2.42 to 4.96 μg m-3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

  18. Primary and secondary particles chemical composition of marine emissions from Mediterranean seawaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, Barbara; Meme, Aurelie; Rmili, Badr; Pey, Jorge; Marchand, Nicolas; Schwier, Allison; Sellegri, Karine; Charriere, Bruno; Sempere, Richard; Mas, Sebastien; Parin, David

    2015-04-01

    Marine emissions are among the largest source of both primary particles and do highly contribute secondary organic aerosols (SOA) at a global scale. Whereas physical processes control the primary production of marine aerosols, biological activity is responsible for most of the organic fraction released from marine sources, potentially transformed into SOA when exposed to atmospheric oxidants. The Mediterranean atmosphere displays important concentrations of SOA, especially in summer, when atmospheric oxidants and photochemical activity are at their maximum. The origin of these elevated concentrations of SOA remain unclear. Here we present the results from a mesocosms study in a remote location in Corsica and a chamber study (using fresh sea water from Western Mediterranean) as part of the Source of marine Aerosol particles in the Mediterranean atmosphere (SAM) project. The mesocosm study was conducted at the Oceanographic and Marine Station STARESO (Corsica) in May 2013. One mesocosm was used as a control (with no enrichment) and the other two were enriched with nitrate and phosphate respecting Redfield ratio (N:P = 16) in order to produce a bloom of biological activity. Physical and chemical properties of the enclosed water samples together with their surrounding atmosphere were monitored during 20 days by a multi-instrumental high-time resolution set-up. In parallel, numerous additional measurements were conducted including water temperature, incident light, pH, conductivity, chemical and biological analyses, fluorescence of chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen concentration. The chamber studies were performed in a Teflon chamber of 1. 5m3 that accommodates a pyrex-container for the fresh sea-water samples. After injection of sea-water in the pyrex-container, the system is allowed to stabilize to 20-30 minutes, then it was exposed to 60-100ppbv of ozone and/or UV-A irradiation. Aerosol concentrations and their physical characteristics were followed by means of Scanning

  19. Application of data on seawater light scattering for the study of marine particles: a selective review focusing on Russian literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelevich, Oleg V.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a selective review of applications of data on seawater light scattering for the study and monitoring of marine particles. Particular emphasis is placed on ocean waters and the seas surrounding Russia, where earlier studies by the author with his coworkers are little known because published mostly in Russian. In those assessments, methods of solving the inverse problem of seawater light scattering have been developed. Low-parametric models of optical properties were created by means of statistical analyses of experimental data, solving the inverse problem and comparing results derived from optical methods with those based on particle counts. Estimates of the volume and mass concentrations of suspended matter and its components were derived from light-scattering data for different regions. The potential of using optical methods for assessing spatiotemporal variability in suspended matter supply, propagation, and distribution is also considered.

  20. Marine ecology service reuse through taxonomy-oriented SPL development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Pol`la, Matias; Arias, Maximiliano; del Socorro Doldan, Maria; Morsan, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, reusing software applications encourages researchers and industrials to collaborate in order to increase software quality and to reduce software development costs. However, effective reuse is not easy and only a limited portion of reusable models actually offers effective evidence regarding their appropriateness, usability and/or effectiveness. Focusing reuse on a particular domain, such as marine ecology, allows us to narrow the scope; and along with a systematic approach such as software product line development, helps us to potentially improving reuse. From our experiences developing a subdomain-oriented software product line (SPL for the marine ecology subdomain), in this paper we describe semantic resources created for assisting this development and thus promoting systematic software reuse. The main contributions of our work are focused on the definition of a standard conceptual model for marine ecology applications together with a set of services and guides which assist the process of product derivation. The services are structured in a service taxonomy (as a specialization of the ISO 19119 std) in which we create a new set of categories and services built over a conceptual model for marine ecology applications. We also define and exemplify a set of guides for composing the services of the taxonomy in order to fulfill different functionalities of particular systems in the subdomain.

  1. High-temperature LDV seed particle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such

  2. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) > 3 nm, black carbon (BC) concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1), a 4 h enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb), BC (~ 1400 ng m-3) and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm-3) with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. A wind direction change lead to a dramatic reduction in BB tracers and a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm. The dominant mode increased in size to 80 nm over 5 h in calm sunny conditions, accompanied by an increase in ozone. Due to an enhancement in BC but not CO during particle growth, the presence of BB emissions during this period could not be confirmed. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80) to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 ± 8 %), higher during the particle growth period (77 ± 4 %) and higher still (104 ± 3 %) in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000 and 5000 CCN cm-3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6-34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2) CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed

  3. Effects of soot deposition on particle dynamics and microbial processes in marine surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Xavier; Lefèvre, Jérôme; Torréton, Jean-Pascal; Bettarel, Yvan; Pringault, Olivier; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Marchesiello, Patrick; Menkes, Christophe; Rodier, Martine; Migon, Christophe; Motegi, Chiaki; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Legendre, Louis

    2014-07-01

    Large amounts of soot are continuously deposited on the global ocean. Even though significant concentrations of soot particles are found in marine waters, the effects of these aerosols on ocean ecosystems are currently unknown. Using a combination of in situ and experimental data, and results from an atmospheric transport model, we show that the deposition of soot particles from an oil-fired power plant impacted biogeochemical properties and the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem in tropical oligotrophic oceanic waters off New Caledonia. Deposition was followed by a major increase in the volume concentration of suspended particles, a change in the particle size spectra that resulted from a stimulation of aggregation processes, a 5% decrease in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a decreases of 33 and 23% in viral and free bacterial abundances, respectively, and a factor ~2 increase in the activity of particle-attached bacteria suggesting that soot introduced in the system favored bacterial growth. These patterns were confirmed by experiments with natural seawater conducted with both soot aerosols collected in the study area and standard diesel soot. The data suggest a strong impact of soot deposition on ocean surface particles, DOC, and microbial processes, at least near emission hot spots.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  5. Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological activity can contain sea salts associated with organic material, with smaller particles containing a larger mass fraction of organics than larger particles. This likely indicates a link between phytoplankton productivity in oceans and particulate organic material in marine air. Once aerosolized, particles with significant amount of organic material can affect cloud activation and formation of ice crystals, among other atmospheric processes, thus influencing climate. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, in which concentrations of biological organisms can reach up to 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms. Here we present results of bubble bursting aerosol production from a seawater mesocosm containing artificial seawater, natural seawater and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species. These phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emilianaia huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus), possessed siliceous frustules, calcareous frustules and no frustules, respectively. Bubbles were generated employing recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions and bulk aerosol organic composition were measured as a function of phytoplankton growth, and chlorophyll composition and particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the water were determined. Finally, particles were collected on substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, their elemental compositions were determined using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEMEDAX), and their carbon speciation was determined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle size distributions exposed to dry and humidified air employing

  6. Characterizing marine particles and their impact on biogeochemical cycles in the GEOTRACES program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert F.; Hayes, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) are of priority interest in several subdisciplines of oceanography. For example, the vital role of trace element micronutrients in regulating the growth of marine organisms, which, in turn, may influence the structure and composition of marine ecosystems, is now well established (Morel and Price, 2003; Twining and Baines, 2013). Natural distributions of some TEIs have been severely impacted by anthropogenic emissions, leading to substantial perturbations of natural ocean inventories. Pb and Hg, for example, (Lamborg et al., 2002; Schaule and Patterson, 1981), may represent a significant threat to human food supply. Furthermore, much of our knowledge of past variability in the ocean environment, including the ocean's role in climate change, has been developed using TEI proxies archived in marine substrates such as sediments, corals and microfossils. Research in each of these areas relies on a comprehensive knowledge of the distributions of TEIs in the ocean, and on the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions. With numerous processes affecting the regional supply and removal of TEIs in the ocean, a comprehensive understanding of the marine biogeochemical cycles of TEIs can be attained only by a global, coordinated, international effort. GEOTRACES, an international program designed to study the marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes (Anderson et al., 2014; Henderson et al., 2007), aims to achieve these goals.

  7. Asian dust particles converted into aqueous droplets under remote marine atmospheric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tobo, Yutaka; Zhang, Daizhou; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2010-01-01

    The chemical history of dust particles in the atmosphere is crucial for assessing their impact on both the Earth’s climate and ecosystem. So far, a number of studies have shown that, in the vicinity of strong anthropogenic emission sources, Ca-rich dust particles can be converted into aqueous droplets mainly by the reaction with gaseous HNO3 to form Ca(NO3)2. Here we show that other similar processes have the potential to be activated under typical remote marine atmospheric conditions. Based on field measurements at several sites in East Asia and thermodynamic predictions, we examined the possibility for the formation of two highly soluble calcium salts, Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2, which can deliquesce at low relative humidity. According to the results, the conversion of insoluble CaCO3 to Ca(NO3)2 tends to be dominated over urban and industrialized areas of the Asian continent, where the concentrations of HNO3 exceed those of HCl ([HNO3/HCl] >  ∼ 1). In this regime, CaCl2 is hardly detected from dust particles. However, the generation of CaCl2 becomes detectable around the Japan Islands, where the concentrations of HCl are much higher than those of HNO3 ([HNO3/HCl] <  ∼ 0.3). We suggest that elevated concentrations of HCl in the remote marine boundary layer are sufficient to modify Ca-rich particles in dust storms and can play a more important role in forming a deliquescent layer on the particle surfaces as they are transported toward remote ocean regions. PMID:20921372

  8. Marine management efforts for the Pagerungan gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamzah, A.; Saleh, A.A.; Budhi, T.S.

    1996-12-31

    ARCO and Pertamina in Indonesia have developed and are producing from gas reserves in the Pagerungan Field. The substantial commercial gas reserves of Pagerungan Field were discovered 1985. The gas producing facilities were built in 1991-1993 on Pagerungan and were designed for 350 MMSCFD of dry gas and 3,500 bbl/day of condensate. About 9 of the 16 planned wells are producing. The gas and condensate sales commenced on January 1994. In Pagerungan island, the aquatic marine environment plays an important role in sustaining organisms which in turn provide both employment and business opportunities for the local people. The Pagerungan gas development has been completed with a series of environmental studies. The studies point out that the development is likely to have a significant impact on the marine environment. For this reason, the company are responsible for managing and monitoring these possible effects and taking action to mitigate potential or actual problems.

  9. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak

  10. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemicalmore » reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group

  11. Modeling of microphysics and optics of aerosol particles in the marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, Gennady

    2013-05-01

    We present a microphysical model for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, height above sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (RH), are investigated. At present, the model covers the ranges H = 0 - 25 m, U = 3 - 18 km s-1, X ≤ 120 km and RH = 40 - 98%. The latest version of the Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles model (MaexPro) is described and applied for the computation and analysis of the spectral profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients α(λ) in the wavelength band λ = 0.2-12 μm. MaexPro is based on the aforementioned aerosol model assuming spherically shaped aerosol particles and the well-known Mie theory. The spectral profiles of α(λ) calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable tool for investigating the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  12. The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

    2006-04-01

    Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments worldwide. Interestingly, organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events to potential CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and high biological activity (HBA, i.e. a high mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in spring 2002. Additionally, a PHA-UCPC (pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter) technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity (LBA, i.e. a lower mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in October 2002. The overall results of the UFO-TDMA and the PHA-UCPC measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine/coastal biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation by iodine, hydroxyl radical, and ozone. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the UFO-TDMA results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to

  13. Application of the Garrlic Algorithm for the Characterization of Dust and Marine Particles Utilizing the Lidar-Sunphotometer Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekeri, Alexandra; Amiridis, Vassilis; Lopatin, Anton; Marinou, Eleni; Kokkalis, Panos; Solomos, Stavros; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Wandinger, Ulla; Ansmann, Albert; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Dubovik, Oleg

    2016-06-01

    The importance of studying the vertical distribution of aerosol plumes is prominent in regional and climate studies. The new Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data algorithm (GARRLiC) provides this opportunity combining active and passive ground-based remote sensing from lidar and sunphotometer measurements. Here, we utilize GARRLiC capabilities for the characterization of Saharan dust and marine particles at the Eastern Mediterranean region during the Characterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust And Marine origin Experiment (CHARADMExp). Two different case studies are presented, a dust-dominated case which we managed to characterize successfully in terms of the particle microphysical properties and their vertical distribution and a case of two separate layers of marine and dust particles for which the characterization proved to be more challenging.

  14. European Community`s program in marine resources development

    SciTech Connect

    Lenoble, J.P.; Jarmache, E.

    1995-12-01

    The European Community launched already several research program in the different fields of social and industrial activities. The Fourth Framework Programme is divided into 4 main activities comporting a total of 18 programs. These programs are dealing with general topics as information and communication, industrial technologies, environment, life sciences and technologies, energy, transport and socioeconomic research. One line is devoted to marine sciences and technology, but offshore activities could also be included in the other topics as offshore oil and gas in energy, ship building and harbor in transport, aquaculture and fisheries in life sciences and technology, etc. In order to maintain a coherent approach toward offshore activities, the European maritime industries met intensively front 1991 to 1994 and recommended a series of proposal for Research and Development of marine resources. The methodology and content of these proposals is exposed.

  15. On the modeling of the bottom particles segregation with non-linear diffusion equations: application to the marine sand ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiguercha, Djlalli; Bennis, Anne-claire; Ezersky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The elliptical motion in surface waves causes an oscillating motion of the sand grains leading to the formation of ripple patterns on the bottom. Investigation how the grains with different properties are distributed inside the ripples is a difficult task because of the segration of particle. The work of Fernandez et al. (2003) was extended from one-dimensional to two-dimensional case. A new numerical model, based on these non-linear diffusion equations, was developed to simulate the grain distribution inside the marine sand ripples. The one and two-dimensional models are validated on several test cases where segregation appears. Starting from an homogeneous mixture of grains, the two-dimensional simulations demonstrate different segregation patterns: a) formation of zones with high concentration of light and heavy particles, b) formation of «cat's eye» patterns, c) appearance of inverse Brazil nut effect. Comparisons of numerical results with the new set of field data and wave flume experiments show that the two-dimensional non-linear diffusion equations allow us to reproduce qualitatively experimental results on particles segregation.

  16. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-01

    The sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) have been investigated with a range of physical and chemical measurements from open-ocean research cruises. This study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) of aMA from five ocean regions to show the following: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMA that can be identified as mainly atmospheric primary marine (ocean derived) aerosol particles (aPMA) is 65 ± 12% hydroxyl, 21 ± 9% alkane, 6 ± 6% amine, and 7 ± 8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal or continental emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model-generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater (gPMA, which has 55 ± 14% hydroxyl, 32 ± 14% alkane, and 13 ± 3% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied and the ratio of organic carbon to sodium (OC/Na+) in the gPMA remained nearly constant over a broad range of chlorophyll a concentrations, the gPMA alkane group fraction appeared to increase with chlorophyll a concentrations (r = 0.66). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (42 ± 9%) compared to gPMA from nonproductive seawater (22 ± 10%), perhaps due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of

  17. Effects of Inorganic Particles on Metabolism by a Periphytic Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Andrew S.; Gerchakov, Sol M.; Millero, Frank J.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements were made of adsorption of a periphytic marine bacterium, glucose, and glutamic acid to inorganic particles in seawater and defined bacterial growth medium. Measurements of the metabolism of bacteria were made in the presence and absence of particles by microcalorimetry and radiorespirometry. It was found that hydroxyapatite adsorbs glutamic acid, but not glucose, from the experimental medium. It was also found that hydroxyapatite adsorbs essentially all of the bacteria from the medium when the bacterial concentration is approximately 6 × 105 bacteria per ml. If the bacterial concentration is approximately 6 × 107, then only a small fraction of cells become attached. It was therefore possible to select bacterial concentrations and organic nutrients so that bacterial attachment, organic nutrient adsorption, or both would occur in different experiments. In this experimental system the metabolism by attached and nonattached bacteria of adsorbing and nonadsorbing organic nutrients was measured. The results show that bacterial activity in this model system was not enhanced by the particles, regardless of whether the bacteria, the organic nutrient, or both were associated with the surface. In fact, the respiratory activity of the attached bacteria was diminished in comparison with that of free bacteria. PMID:16346191

  18. The developing framework of marine ecotoxicology: Pollutants as a variable in marine ecosystems?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, Samuel N.

    1996-01-01

    Marine ecosystems include a subset in which at least some interrelated geochemical, biochemical, physiological, population and community characteristics are changed by pollutants. Moderate contamination is relatively widespread in coastal and estuarine ecosystems, so the subset of ecosystems with at least some processes affected could be relatively large. Pollutant influences have changed and will probably continue to change on time scales of decades. Biological exposures and dose in such ecosystems are species-specific and determined by how the species is exposed to different environmental media and the geochemistry of individual pollutants within those media. Bioaccumulation models offer significant promise for interpreting such exposures. Biological responses to pollutants need to be more directly linked to exposure and dose. At the level of the individual this might be improved by better understanding relationships between tissue concentrations of pollutants and responses to pollutants. Multi-discipline field and laboratory studies combined with advanced understanding of some basic processes have reduced the ambiguities in interpreting a few physiological/organismic responses to pollutants in nature. Recognition of pollutant-induced patterns in population responses could lead to similar advances. A rational framework for ecotoxicology is developing, but its further advance is dependent upon better integration of ecotoxicology with basic marine ecology and biology.

  19. Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2011-03-15

    Emissions from harbor-craft significantly affect air quality in populated regions near ports and inland waterways. This research measured regulated and unregulated emissions from an in-use EPA Tier 2 marine propulsion engine on a ferry operating in a bay following standard methods. A special effort was made to monitor continuously both the total Particulate Mass (PM) mass emissions and the real-time Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The engine was operated following the loads in ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle for comparison with the certification standards and across biodiesel blends. Real-time measurements were also made during a typical cruise in the bay. Results showed the in-use nitrogen oxide (NOx) and PM(2.5) emission factors were within the not to exceed standard for Tier 2 marine engines. Comparing across fuels we observed the following: a) no statistically significant change in NO(x) emissions with biodiesel blends (B20, B50); b) ∼ 16% and ∼ 25% reduction of PM(2.5) mass emissions with B20 and B50 respectively; c) a larger organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratio and organic mass (OM) to OC ratio with B50 compared to B20 and B0; d) a significant number of ultrafine nuclei and a smaller mass mean diameter with increasing blend-levels of biodiesel. The real-time monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions during a typical cruise in the San Francisco Bay (in-use cycle) revealed important effects of ocean/bay currents on emissions: NO(x) and CO(2) increased 3-fold; PM(2.5) mass increased 6-fold; and ultrafine particles disappeared due to the effect of bay currents. This finding has implications on the use of certification values instead of actual in-use emission values when developing inventories. Emission factors for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported as supplemental data. PMID:21344849

  20. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. ); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. )

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  1. Marine Fisheries Case Studies. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Case Study No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakroff, Marilyn; DuBois, Random

    This guide was developed to aid Peace Corps volunteers interested in programming marine fisheries projects. Although these projects are not new to the Peace Corps, new staff members may not be aware of the history of marine fisheries efforts in their country. Chapter 1 discusses all past marine fisheries projects initiated by the Peace Corps in…

  2. Paulsenella Chatton (Dinophyta), ectoparasites of marine diatoms: development and taxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drebes, G.; Schnepf, E.

    1988-09-01

    All members of the dinophyte Paulsenella are ectoparasites on marine planktonic diatoms. At present three species are known, two of which are described here for the first time. The taxonomy of the type species, P. chaetoceratis, is paid critical attention. The species are clearly distinguished by their host specificity and additionally by differences in morphology, especially of the trophonts. Using clonal cultures the life cycles of the three species are compared. The vegetative development may be interrupted by formation of temporary and resting cysts. In ageing cultures, stages with nuclear cyclosis occur, believed to indicate meiosis. In P. vonstoschii, the meiospores are capable of developing into resting cysts. As yet, knowledge on sexual reproduction is still incomplete.

  3. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; Lauer, P.; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; Schlager, H.; Weingartner, E.

    2007-10-01

    Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel)-1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel)-1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC). Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  4. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; Lauer, P.; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; Schlager, H.; Weingartner, E.

    2008-05-01

    Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel)-1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel)-1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC). Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  5. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving chemical tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity, sodium and methanesulfonic acid, indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated. This finding illustrates that additional measurements are needed to improve parameterizations of INPs and their

  6. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated.

  7. National Data Program for the Marine Environment Technical Development Plan. Final Report, Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    System Development Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    A national data program for the marine environment is recommended. Volume 2 includes: (1) objectives, scope, and methodology; (2) summary of the technical development plan; (3) agency development plans - Great Lakes and coastal development and (4) marine data network development plans. (Author)

  8. Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. -N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ≤ 1.5 μm) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42−, followed by Na+, Cl, Org (total organics), NH4+, and NO3, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH4+ to SO42− equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO42−. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol

  9. Marine Resources and Legal-Political Arrangements for Their Development; Volume 3, Panel Reports of the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources, Washington, DC.

    The Marine Resources Panel addressed itself to three tasks: describing the current rate of exploration and exploitation of marine resources and the physical, economic, and legal conditions under which they are produced; identifying deterrents to development and efficient utilization of marine resources; and recommending programs that will remove…

  10. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Development Risk Management Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Snowberg, David; Weber, Jochem

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, the global marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry has suffered a number of serious technological and commercial setbacks. To help reduce the risks of industry failures and advance the development of new technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an MHK Risk Management Framework. By addressing uncertainties, the MHK Risk Management Framework increases the likelihood of successful development of an MHK technology. It covers projects of any technical readiness level (TRL) or technical performance level (TPL) and all risk types (e.g. technological risk, regulatory risk, commercial risk) over the development cycle. This framework is intended for the development and deployment of a single MHK technology—not for multiple device deployments within a plant. This risk framework is intended to meet DOE’s risk management expectations for the MHK technology research and development efforts of the Water Power Program (see Appendix A). It also provides an overview of other relevant risk management tools and documentation.1 This framework emphasizes design and risk reviews as formal gates to ensure risks are managed throughout the technology development cycle. Section 1 presents the recommended technology development cycle, Sections 2 and 3 present tools to assess the TRL and TPL of the project, respectively. Section 4 presents a risk management process with design and risk reviews for actively managing risk within the project, and Section 5 presents a detailed description of a risk registry to collect the risk management information into one living document. Section 6 presents recommendations for collecting and using lessons learned throughout the development process.

  11. MISTRA mechanism development: A new mechanism focused on marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer, Peter; Sommariva, Roberto; von Glasow, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The tropospheric multiphase chemistry of halogen compounds plays a key role in marine environments. Moreover, halogen compounds have an impact on the tropospheric oxidation capacity and climate. With more than two thirds of the Earth's surface covered with oceans, effects are of global importance. Various conditions are found in marine environments ranging from pristine regions to polluted regimes in the continental outflow. Furthermore, there are important sources for halogen compounds over land, such as volcanoes, salt lakes, or emissions from industrial processes. To assess the impact of halogen chemistry with numerical models under these distinct conditions, a multiphase mechanism has been developed in the last decades and applied successfully in numerous box and 1D model studies. Contributions from these model studies helped to identify important chemical cycles affecting the composition and chemistry of the troposphere. However, several discrepancies between model results and field measurements remain. Therefore, a major revision of the chemical mechanism has been performed including an update of the kinetic data and the addition of new reaction cycles. The extended mechansims have been evaluated in several model studies with the 1D model MISTRA. Current work focuses at the identification of the most important reaction cycles, which led to significant changes in the concentration-time profiles of several halogen species. Subsequently, the mechanism will be reduced to the most imporatant reactions, which are currently investigated. As regional and global model studies become more important to identify the importance of tropospheric halogen multiphase chemistry, the goal is to derive parameterisations for the most important halogen chemistry cycles, which can than be implemented in regional and global 3D models. In the reduction process, the extented MISTRA version will serve as a benchmark to assess the quality and accuracy of the reduced mechansim versions.

  12. The impact of port emissions and marine biogenics on the single-particle chemistry of marine aerosol measured on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNEX 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, C. J.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Prather, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Marine environments are characterized by low particle concentrations and, as such, are sensitive to changes in particle number concentration and chemistry induced by biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Measurements of both gas phase and particle phase emissions on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNEX 2010 field campaign provided an opportunity to examine the impact of anthropogenic and marine biogenic emissions on particle chemistry along the California coast. Real-time, single-particle measurements made using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) revealed the single-particle mixing state of the sampled marine aerosols. Submicron particles (0.2-1.0 um) containing organic carbon, elemental carbon mixed with organic carbon, and unique V-containing particles previously detected in port regions were prevalent throughout the Southern California coast; most of these particles were also associated with sulfate. Measurements made in the deep water channel near Sacramento, CA revealed dramatically different particle chemistry that was characterized by organic carbon and amines. Particles measured further away from the continent toward the open ocean were influenced by marine biological activity due to a phytoplankton bloom that was occurring off the California coast. During this sampling period, unique ocean-derived particles containing internal mixtures of Mg and organic carbon were detected in addition to unique particles containing elemental S ions, which were only detected at night. An aerosol generator used to bubble seawater in order to characterize primary emissions from the ocean confirmed that the Mg-organic carbon and S-containing particles were indeed emitted from the ocean. These measurements reveal the strong impact of both port emissions as well as marine biogenic emissions on aerosol chemistry along the California coast.

  13. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95–98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets. PMID:26940454

  14. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-03-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95–98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets.

  15. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bochdansky, Alexander B; Clouse, Melissa A; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of "dragon kings." Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95-98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets. PMID:26940454

  16. Massive-scale aircraft observations of giant sea-salt aerosol particle size distributions in atmospheric marine boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    iant sea-salt aerosol particles (dry radius, rd > 0.5 μm) occur nearly everywhere in the marine boundary layer and frequently above. This study presents observations of atmospheric sea-salt size distributions in the range 0.7 < rd < 14 μm based on external impaction of sea-spray aerosol particles onto microscope polycarbonate microscope slides. The slides have very large sample volumes, typically about 250 L over a 10-second sampling period. This provides unprecedented sampling of giant sea-salt particles for flights in marine boundary layer air. The slides were subsequently analyzed in a humidified chamber using dual optical digital microscopy. At a relative humidity of 90% the sea-salt aerosol particles form spherical cap drops. Based on measurement the volume of the spherical cap drop and assuming NaCl composition, the Kohler equation is used to derive the dry salt mass of tens of thousands of individual aerosol particles on each slide. Size distributions are given with a 0.2 μm resolution. The slides were exposed from the NSF/NCAR C-130 research aircraft during the 2008 VOCALS project off the coast of northern Chile and the 2011 ICE-T in the Caribbean. In each deployment, size distributions using hundreds of slides are used to relate fitted log-normal size distributions parameters to wind speed, altitude and other atmospheric conditions. The size distributions provide a unique observational set for initializing cloud models with coarse-mode aerosol particle observations for marine atmospheres.

  17. Planar Particle Imaging Doppler Velocimetry Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    2000-01-01

    Two current techniques exist for the measurement of planar, three-component velocity fields. Both techniques require multiple views of the illumination plane in order to extract all three velocity components. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a high-resolution, high accuracy, planar velocimetry technique that provides valuable instantaneous velocity information in aeropropulsion test facilities. PIV can provide three-component flow-field measurements using a two-camera, stereo viewing configuration. Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) is another planar velocimetry technique that can provide three component flow-field measurements; however, it requires three detector systems that must be located at oblique angles from the measurement plane. The three-dimensional configurations of either technique require multiple (DGV) or at least large (stereo PIV) optical access ports in the facility in which the measurements are being conducted. Optical access is extremely limited in aeropropulsion test facilities. In many cases, only one optical access port is available. A hybrid measurement technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, planar particle image and Doppler velocimetry (PPIDV), which combines elements from both the PIV and DGV techniques into a single detection system that can measure all three components of velocity across a planar region of a flow field through a single optical access port. In the standard PIV technique, a pulsed laser is used to illuminate the flow field at two closely spaced instances in time, which are recorded on a "frame-straddling" camera, yielding a pair of single-exposure image frames. The PIV camera is oriented perpendicular to the light sheet, and the processed PIV data yield the two-component velocity field in the plane of the light sheet. In the standard DGV technique, an injection-seeded Nd:YAG pulsed laser light sheet illuminates the seeded flow field, and three receiver systems are used to measure three components

  18. Microscale Simulations of Shock Interaction with Large Assembly of Particles for Developing Point-Particle Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Siddharth; Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Sridharan, Prashanth; Jackson, Tom; Balachandar, S.; University of Florida Team

    2015-06-01

    Micrsoscale simulations are being conducted for developing point-particle models that are needed for macroscale simulations of explosive dispersal of particles. These particle models are required to compute instantaneous force and heat transfer between particles and surroundings. A strategy for a sequence of microscale simulations has been devised for systematic development of hybrid surrogate models that are applicable at conditions representative of explosive dispersal. The microscale simulations examine particle force dependence on: Mach number, Reynolds number, and volume fraction (particle arrangements such as cubic, face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic and random). Future plans include investigation of sequences of fully-resolved microscale simulations consisting of an array of particles subjected to more realistic time-dependent flows that progressively better approximate the problem of explosive dispersal. Additionally, effects of particle shape, size, and number as well as the transient particle deformation dependence on parameters including: (a) particle material, (b) medium material, (c) multiple particles, (d) incoming shock pressure and speed, (e) medium to particle impedance ratio, (f) particle shape and orientation to shock, etc. are being investigated.

  19. The sign of the radiative forcing from marine cloud brightening depends on both particle size and injection amount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlterskjæR, K.; KristjáNsson, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Marine cloud brightening (MCB) is a proposed technique to limit global warming through injections of sea spray into the marine boundary layer. Using the Norwegian Earth System Model, the sensitivity of MCB to sea salt amount and particle size was studied by running a set of simulations in which Aitken (re = 0.04 µm), accumulation (re = 0.22 µm), or coarse (re = 2.46 µm) mode sea salt emissions were increased uniformly by 10-11 to 10-8 kg m-2 s-1. As desired, accumulation mode particles had a negative radiative effect of down to -3.3 W m-2. Conversely, for Aitken mode particles, injections of 10-10 kg m-2 s-1 or greater led to a positive forcing of up to 8.4 W m-2, caused by a strong competition effect combined with the high critical supersaturation of Aitken mode sea salt. The coarse mode particles gave a positive forcing of up to 1.2 W m-2 because of a decrease in activation of background aerosols. Sensitivity experiments show that the competition effect dominated our results. MCB may have a cooling effect, but if the wrong size or injection amount is used, our simulations show a warming effect on the climate system.

  20. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  1. Effect of Type and Concentration of Ballasting Particles on Sinking Rate of Marine Snow Produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, Lionel; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d-1 increase in sinking speed for a 5×105 µm3 ml-1 increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds. PMID:24086610

  2. 76 FR 25362 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Butanol Fuel Blend Usage With Marine Outboard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Butanol Fuel Blend Usage With Marine... Agreement (CRADA) to identify and investigate the use of butanol fuel blends within marine outboard...

  3. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common framework for global marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years marine research has become increasingly multidisciplinary in its approach with a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data as a result. This requirement for easily discoverable and readily available marine data is currently being addressed by a number of regional initiatives with projects such as SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) in Australia, having implemented local infrastructures to facilitate the exchange of standardised marine datasets. However, each of these systems has been developed to address local requirements and created in isolation from those in other regions.Multidisciplinary marine research on a global scale necessitates a common framework for marine data management which is based on existing data systems. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform project is seeking to address this requirement by bringing together selected regional marine e-infrastructures for the purposes of developing interoperability across them. By identifying the areas of commonality and incompatibility between these data infrastructures, and leveraging the development activities and expertise of these individual systems, three prototype interoperability solutions are being created which demonstrate the effective sharing of marine data and associated metadata across the participating regional data infrastructures as well as with other target international systems such as GEO, COPERNICUS etc.These interoperability solutions combined with agreed best practice and approved standards, form the basis of a common global approach to marine data management which can be adopted by the wider marine research community. To encourage implementation of these interoperability solutions by other regional marine data infrastructures an impact assessment is being conducted to determine both the technical and financial implications of deploying them

  4. Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

    2014-05-01

    Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test

  5. Marine Education: Guidelines for Curriculum Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympus Research Corp., Boston, MA.

    This report describes the status of marine career education in the United States as of July 1975. The objectives of this work are: (1) to assess the current and future manpower needs, (2) to determine the extent of curriculum offerings, (3) to report the availability of relevant materials, (4) to describe the need for new program offerings, (5) to…

  6. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania, 41° S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) > 3 nm, black carbon (BC) concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monixide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1), a four hour enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb), BC (~ 1400 ng m-3) and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm-3) with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. Dilution of the plume resulted in a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm, and then growth to 80 nm over 5 h. This was accompanied by an increase in O3, suggesting that photochemical processing of air and condensation of low volatility oxidation products may be driving particle growth. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80) to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 %), higher during the particle growth event (77 %) and higher still (104 %) in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000-5000 CCN cm-3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6-34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2) CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed (ΔO3 / ΔCO 0.001-0.074). A shortlived increase in NMOCs by a factor of 10 corresponded

  7. Cycling of lithogenic marine particles in the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Lam, Phoebe J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present, describe, and model the first size-fractionated (0.8-51 μm; >51 μm) water-column particulate trace metal results from the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect in situ pumping survey, with a focus on the lithogenic tracer elements Al, Fe and Ti. This examination of basin-wide, full-depth distributions of particulate elements elucidates many inputs and processes-some for bulk lithogenic material, others element-specific-which are presented via concentration distributions, elemental ratios, size-fractionation dynamics, and steady-state inventories. Key lithogenic inputs from African dust, North American boundary interactions, the Mediterranean outflow, hydrothermal systems, and benthic nepheloid layers are described. Using the refractory lithogenic tracer Ti, we develop a 1-D model for lithogenic particle distributions and test the sensitivities of size-fractionated open-ocean particulate Ti profiles to biotically driven aggregation, disaggregation rates, vertical sinking speeds, and dust input rates. We discuss applications of this lithogenic model to particle cycling in general, and to POC cycling specifically.

  8. Contribution to the Understanding of Particle Motion Perception in Marine Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    André, Michel; Kaifu, Kenzo; Solé, Marta; van der Schaar, Mike; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Balastegui, Andreu; Sánchez, Antonio M; Castell, Joan V

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrates potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise. Exposure to anthropogenic sound sources could have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The availability of novel laser Doppler vibrometer techniques has recently opened the possibility of measuring whole body (distance, velocity, and acceleration) vibration as a direct stimulus eliciting statocyst response, offering the scientific community a new level of understanding of the marine invertebrate hearing mechanism. PMID:26610943

  9. Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

  10. Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) production by marine phytoplankton in response to increasing CO2 : laboratory and field mesocosm experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Heemann, C.; Schartau, M.; Schneider, U.; Thoms, S.; Delille, B.; Jacquet, S.; Riebesell, U.; Zondervan, I.

    2003-04-01

    The export of organic carbon to the deep ocean is mediated by sinking of large particles, such as marine snow, the formation of which is enhanced in the presence of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) . TEP form from dissolved and colloidal polysaccharides by aggregation processes. Especially when running into nutrient limitation phytoplankton organisms are a source of TEP in pelagic ecosystems as the cells release a significant amount of the assimilated carbon in the form of polysaccharides. Because CO_2 concentration influences carbon assimilation rates, we hypothesized that polysaccharide exudation and aggregation into TEP is related to CO_2 concentration under nutrient limiting conditions. We tested this hypothesis in several lab and outdoor experiments with natural populations and cultures of phytoplankton exposed to various levels of CO_2 concentrations. Our results indicate that TEP production increases with CO_2 concentration and provides an enhanced sink for carbon during phytoplankton blooms.

  11. Assessing the Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development on Marine and Estuarine Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-07-30

    The world’s oceans and estuaries offer an enormous potential to meet the nation’s growing demand for energy. The use of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to harness the power of wave and tidal energy could contribute significantly toward meeting federal- and state-mandated renewable energy goals while supplying a substantial amount of clean energy to coastal communities. Locations along the eastern and western coasts of the United States between 40° and 70° north latitude are ideal for MHK deployment, and recent estimates of energy potential for the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California suggest that up to 25 gigawatts could be generated from wave and tidal devices in these areas. Because energy derived from wave and tidal devices is highly predictable, their inclusion in our energy portfolio could help balance available sources of energy production, including hydroelectric, coal, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal, and others.

  12. Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Targeted and Single Particle Subcellular Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-03-12

    The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube.

  13. Variability of CCN Activation Behaviour of Aerosol Particles in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Silvia; Dieckmann, Katrin; Hartmann, Susan; Schäfer, Michael; Wu, Zhijun; Merkel, Maik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2013-04-01

    The variability of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activation behaviour and total CCN number concentrations was investigated during three ship cruises. Measurements were performed in a mobile laboratory on the German research vessel FS Polarstern cruising between Cape Town and Bremerhaven (April / May and October / November 2011) as well as between Punta Arenas and Bremerhaven (April / May 2012). CCN size distributions were measured for supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.4% using a Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (DMT, USA). Aerosol particle and CCN total number concentrations as well as the hygroscopicity parameter κ (Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007) were determined. Furthermore, size distribution data were collected. The hygroscopicity parameter κ featured a high variability during the cruises, with a median κ-value of 0.52 ± 0.26. The κ-values are depended on air mass origin; and are as expected mainly dominated by marine influences, but also long range transport of aerosol particles was detected. In the Celtic Sea, κ was found to be lower than that of clean marine aerosol particles (0.72 ± 0.24; Pringle et al., 2010) with κ-values ~0.2, possibly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Europe. Close to the West African coast particle hygroscopicity was found to be influenced by the Saharan dust plume, resulting in low κ-values ~0.25. Petters, M.D. and S.M. Kreidenweis (2007), A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity, Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 7, 1961-1971. Pringle, K.J., H. Tost, A. Pozzer, U. Pöschl, and J. Lelieveld (2010), Global distribution of the effective aerosol hygroscopicity parameter for CCN activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5241-5255.

  14. Current Development Status of a Particle Size Analyzer for Coated Particle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew T; Hunn, John D; Karnowski, Thomas Paul

    2007-08-01

    Work was performed to develop a prototype Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) for application to coated particle fuel characterization. This system was based on a light obscuration method and targeted towards high throughput analysis. Although never matured to the point of replacing existing lower throughput optical microscopy shadowgraph methods, the system was successfully applied to automating the counting of large particle samples for increased accuracy in calculating mean particle properties based on measurements of multiparticle samples. The measurement of particle size with the PSA was compared to current shadowgraph techniques and found to result in considerably greater throughput at the cost of larger measurement uncertainty. The current algorithm used by the PSA is more sensitive to particle shape and this is a likely cause of the greater uncertainty when attempting to measure average particle diameter. The use of the PSA to measure particle shape will require further development. Particle transport through the PSA and stability of the light source/detector are key elements in the successful application of this technique. A number of system pitfalls were studied and addressed.

  15. The impact of particle size, relative humidity, and sulfur dioxide on iron solubility in simulated atmospheric marine aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Benton T; Marcotte, Aurelie R; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Majestic, Brian J

    2015-06-16

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans, and its most significant source is atmospheric deposition. To understand the pathways of iron solubilization during atmospheric transport, we exposed size segregated simulated marine aerosols to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide at arid (23 ± 1% relative humidity, RH) and marine (98 ± 1% RH) conditions. Relative iron solubility increased as the particle size decreased for goethite and hematite, while for magnetite, the relative solubility was similar for all of the fine size fractions (2.5-0.25 μm) investigated but higher than the coarse size fraction (10-2.5 μm). Goethite and hematite showed increased solubility at arid RH, but no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two humidity levels for magnetite. There was no correlation between iron solubility and exposure to SO2 in any mineral for any size fraction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements showed no change in iron speciation [Fe(II) and Fe(III)] in any minerals following SO2 exposure. SEM-EDS measurements of SO2-exposed goethite revealed small amounts of sulfur uptake on the samples; however, the incorporated sulfur did not affect iron solubility. Our results show that although sulfur is incorporated into particles via gas-phase processes, changes in iron solubility also depend on other species in the aerosol. PMID:26000788

  16. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-15

    The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. PMID:24279956

  17. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, B C; Lind, O C; Bradshaw, C; Salbu, B

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as (137)Cs and (90)Sr/(90)Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gyh(-1)) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the "no-effect dose" are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example potential

  18. [Contribution of Particle Size and Surface Coating of Silver Nanoparticles to Its Toxicity in Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Yi, Jun; Qiang, Li-yuan; Cheng, Jin-ping

    2016-05-15

    Due to the unique antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in commercial applications. In this study, the toxicity of three kinds of AgNPs with different sizes and surface coatings to marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (S. costatum) was studied, which was one of the dominant species in estuarine and coastal areas. All three kinds of tested AgNPs inhibited the growth of exposed S. costatum under acute exposure condition, and the order of toxicity was 10 nm-OA > 10 nm-PVP > 20 nm-PVP. Given the condition of similar particle size, oil amine surface coated AgNPs were more toxic than polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) surface coated AgNPs in S. costatum in term of cytotoxicity. With the same surface coating, the toxicity of AgNPs in S. costatum was affected by its hydrodynamic diameter and exposure concentrations. When the concentration of AgNPs was less than 500 µg · L⁻¹, larger sized AgNPs showed greater toxicity; When the concentration was greater than or equal to 500 µg · L⁻¹, smaller AgNPs exhibited greater toxicity. At molecular level, 50 µg · L⁻¹ 10nm-PVP significantly upregulated expression level of 3HfcpA (P < 0.05) and significantly downregulated expression level of Dl (P < 0.05), and 500 µg · L⁻¹ 10nm-OA significantly upregulated 3HfcpA expression (P < 0.05), while 20 nm-PVP treatment group didn't show any significant change. Exposed diatom demonstrated sensitive photosynthesis response to small size and PVP coated silver nanoparticles at molecular level. This study suggested that the toxicity of AgNPs to marine microalgae was largely controlled by the particle size, surface coating, exposure medium, exposure concentration and other factors. The smaller the particle size, the greater the toxicity of AgNPs, and the particle size of AgNPs played an important role in the toxicity of AgNPs in marine diatom S. costatum. PMID:27506055

  19. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F.; McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C.

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  20. Mind the Gap: furthering the development of an international collaboration in marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H. M.; Miller, S. P.; Proctor, R.; Schaap, D.

    2012-12-01

    A large and ever increasing amount of marine data is available throughout Europe, USA, Australia and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collection is high and the data itself often irreplaceable. At a time when the demand for marine data is growing while financial resources for its collection are being dramatically reduced the need to maximise its re-use is becoming a priority for marine data managers. A number of barriers to the re-use of marine data currently exist due to the various formats, standards, vocabularies etc. used by the organisations engaged in collecting and managing this data. These challenges are already being addressed at a regional level by projects in Europe (Geo-Seas, SeaDataNet etc.), USA (R2R) and Australia (IMOS). To expand these projects further and bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) will establish a collaborative platform which will facilitate the development of a common approach to marine data management. Proactive dissemination of the outcomes and products of this project will promote adoption of the common standards and practices developed by the ODIP project to other organisations and regions beyond the 20 original consortium partners. To demonstrate this coordinated approach several joint prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential solutions for solving the marine data management issues identified within the different marine disciplines. These prototypes will also be used to illustrate the effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and international boundaries through the development of common practices and standards in marine data management.

  1. Mind the Gap: furthering the development of EU-US collaboration in marine geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H. M.; Miller, S. P.; Schaap, D.; Geo-Seas Consortium Partners

    2011-12-01

    There is a large and ever increasing amount of marine geological and geophysical data available throughout Europe, the USA and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collecting it is very high and there is therefore a need to maximise the potential re-use of this data wherever possible. Facilitating this is becoming an increasingly important aspect of marine geosciences data management as the need for marine data increases at a time when the financial resources for data acquisition are being dramatically reduced. A significant barrier to this re-use of marine geosciences data is the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of marine geosciences data at a regional, national and international scale. This is also proving to be a barrier to the development of interoperability with other data types at a time when there is a need to develop a more holistic approach to marine research. These challenges are currently being addressed within Europe by a number of EU funded initiatives, the objectives of which are an improvement in the discovery and access to marine data. The Geo-Seas project is just one of these initiatives, the focus of which is the development of an e-infrastructure for the delivery of standardised marine geological and geophysical data across Europe. The project is developing this e-infrastructure by adopting and adapting the methodologies of the related SeaDataNet project which currently provides an e-infrastructure for the management of oceanographic data. This re-use of the existing technologies has lead to the development a joint multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the delivery or both geoscientific and oceanographic data. In order to develop this initiative further and bridge the gap between these European projects and those being undertaken by colleagues in both the US and elsewhere a

  2. Investigating Primary Marine Aerosol Properties: CCN Activity of Sea Salt and Mixed Inorganic–Organic Particles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sea spray particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater containing salt and organic matter in a stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a diffuser or by water jet impingement on the seawater surface. Three objectives were addressed in this study. First, CCN activities of NaCl and two types of artificial sea salt containing only inorganic components were measured to establish a baseline for further measurements of mixed organic–inorganic particles. Second, the effect of varying bubble residence time in the bulk seawater solution on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. Finally, CCN activities of particles produced from jet impingement were compared with those produced from diffuser aeration. Analyses indicate a considerable amount of organic enrichment in the jet-produced particles relative to the bulk seawater composition when sodium laurate, an organic surfactant, is present in the seawater. In this case, the production of a thick foam layer during impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not equal. PMID:22809370

  3. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Mani

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  4. Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. M.; Butcher, A. C.; Rosenoern, T.; Coz, E.; Lieke, K. I.; de Leeuw, G.; Nilsson, E. D.; Bilde, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sea salt particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater in a closed stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. The two-component artificial seawater consisted of salt, either NaCl or sea salt, and one organic compound in deionized water. Several organic molecules representative of oceanic organic matter were investigated. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a porous diffuser or by water jet impingement on the surface of the artificial seawater. The effect of bubble lifetime, which was controlled by varying the depth of the diffuser in the water column, on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. The CCN activities of particles produced from diffuser-generated bubbles were generally governed by the high hygroscopicity of salt, such that activation was indistinguishable from that of salt, except in the case of very low mass ratio of salt to organic matter in the seawater solution. There was, however, a considerable decrease in CCN activity for particles produced from jet impingement on seawater that had a salinity of 10‰ and contained 0.45 mM of sodium laurate, an organic surfactant. The production of a thick foam layer from impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not similar. Accurate conclusions from observed CCN activities of particles from artificial seawater containing organic matter require knowledge of the CCN activity of the inorganic component, especially as a small amount of the inorganic can heavily influence activation. Therefore, the CCN activity of both artificial sea salt and NaCl were measured and compared. Part of the discrepancy observed between the CCN activities of the two salts may be due to morphological differences, which were investigated using

  5. Oil-particle interactions and submergence from crude oil spills in marine and freshwater environments: review of the science and future research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Boufadel, Michael C.; Johnson, Rex; Lee, Kenneth W.; Graan, Thomas P.; Bejarano, Adriana C.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Waterman, David; Capone, Daniel M.; Hayter, Earl; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Dekker, Timothy; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Hassan, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about oil-particle interactions in coastal marine environments, there remains a need for additional science on methods to detect and quantify the presence of OPAs and to understand their effects on containment and recovery of oil spilled under various temperature regimes and in different aquatic habitats including freshwater environments.

  6. Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed beads mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.

    2016-02-01

    Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed beads mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The beads mill consist of glass beads, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of beads mill is the performance of the designed on separating the beads with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of beads mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass beads with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after beads mill, it is concluded that the current design of bead mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.

  7. European Marine Background Ice Nucleating Particle concentrations Measured at the Mace Head Station, Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, James; Kanji, Zamin A.; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Ice formation is an important process which controls cloud microphysical properties and can be critical in the creation of precipitation, therefore influencing the hydrological cycle and energy budget of the Earth. Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) can greatly increase the temperature and rate of ice formation, but the sources and geographical distributions of these particles is not well understood. Mace Head in Ireland is a coastal site on the north eastern edge of Europe with prevailing winds generally from the Atlantic Ocean with little continental influence. Observations of INP concentration from August 2015 using the Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC) at temperature of -30 C are presented. Correlations between the INP and meteorological conditions and aerosol compositions are made, as well as comparisons with commonly used INP concentration parameterisations. Observed INP concentrations are generally low, suggesting that oceanic sources in this region do not contribute significant numbers of INP to the global distribution.

  8. Toxicity and accumulation of silver nanoparticles during development of the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    García-Alonso, Javier; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Neus; Misra, Superb K.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants affecting species at the population level generate ecological instability in natural systems. The success of early life stages, such as those of aquatic invertebrates, is highly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Silver released into the environment from emerging nanotechnology represents such a threat. Sediments are sinks for numerous pollutants, which aggregate and/or associate with depositing suspended particles. Deposit feeder such as the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which has a large associated literature on its development, is an excellent model organism for exposure studies in coastal environments. We exposed eggs, larvae, juveniles and adults of P. dumerilii to various concentrations of citrate (cit-Ag NPs) or humic acid (HA-Ag NPs) capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as well to dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3). We showed that mortality and abnormal development rate increased with younger life stages. While adults and juvenile were the most tolerant life stages, fertilized eggs were highly sensitive to AgNO3, cit-Ag NPs and HA-Ag NPs. Exposures to HA-Ag NPs triggered the highest cute toxicity responses in P. dumerilii and in most cases both Ag NPs were more toxic than AgNO3. Uptake rate of HA-Ag NPs in adult worms was also higher than from other Ag forms, consistent with toxicity to other life stages. The early stages of the life cycle of marine coastal organisms are more affected by Ag NPs than the juvenile or adult life stages, indicating that exposure experiments at the larval level contribute to realistic eco-toxicological studies in aquatic environments.

  9. Toxicity and accumulation of silver nanoparticles during development of the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii.

    PubMed

    García-Alonso, Javier; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Neus; Misra, Superb K; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Luoma, Samuel N; Rainbow, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    Pollutants affecting species at the population level generate ecological instability in natural systems. The success of early life stages, such as those of aquatic invertebrates, is highly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Silver released into the environment from emerging nanotechnology represents such a threat. Sediments are sinks for numerous pollutants, which aggregate and/or associate with depositing suspended particles. Deposit feeder such as the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which has a large associated literature on its development, is an excellent model organism for exposure studies in coastal environments. We exposed eggs, larvae, juveniles and adults of P. dumerilii to various concentrations of citrate (cit-Ag NPs) or humic acid (HA-Ag NPs) capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as well to dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3). We showed that mortality and abnormal development rate increased with younger life stages. While adults and juvenile were the most tolerant life stages, fertilized eggs were highly sensitive to AgNO3, cit-Ag NPs and HA-Ag NPs. Exposures to HA-Ag NPs triggered the highest cute toxicity responses in P. dumerilii and in most cases both Ag NPs were more toxic than AgNO3. Uptake rate of HA-Ag NPs in adult worms was also higher than from other Ag forms, consistent with toxicity to other life stages. The early stages of the life cycle of marine coastal organisms are more affected by Ag NPs than the juvenile or adult life stages, indicating that exposure experiments at the larval level contribute to realistic eco-toxicological studies in aquatic environments. PMID:24514586

  10. Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind−1•d−1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P<0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P<0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  11. The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

  12. Alkaloids from marine invertebrates as important leads for anticancer drugs discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Imperatore, Concetta; Aiello, Anna; D'Aniello, Filomena; Senese, Maria; Menna, Marialuisa

    2014-01-01

    The present review describes research on novel natural antitumor alkaloids isolated from marine invertebrates. The structure, origin, and confirmed cytotoxic activity of more than 130 novel alkaloids belonging to several structural families (indoles, pyrroles, pyrazines, quinolines, and pyridoacridines), together with some of their synthetic analogs, are illustrated. Recent discoveries concerning the current state of the potential and/or development of some of them as new drugs, as well as the current knowledge regarding their modes of action, are also summarized. A special emphasis is given to the role of marine invertebrate alkaloids as an important source of leads for anticancer drug discovery. PMID:25490431

  13. Temporal succession in carbon incorporation from macromolecules by particle-attached bacteria in marine microcosms.

    PubMed

    Mayali, Xavier; Stewart, Benjamin; Mabery, Shalini; Weber, Peter K

    2016-02-01

    We investigated bacterial carbon assimilation from stable isotope-labelled macromolecular substrates (proteins; lipids; and two types of polysaccharides, starch and cellobiose) while attached to killed diatom detrital particles during laboratory microcosms incubated for 17 days. Using Chip-SIP (secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of RNA microarrays), we identified generalist operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the genera Colwellia, Glaciecola, Pseudoalteromonas and Rheinheimera, and from the Bacteroidetes, genera Owenweeksia and Maribacter, that incorporated the four tested substrates throughout the incubation period. Many of these OTUs exhibited the highest isotope incorporation relative to the others, indicating that they were likely the most active. Additional OTUs from the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria exhibited generally (but not always) lower activity and did not incorporate all tested substrates at all times, showing species succession in organic carbon incorporation. We also found evidence to suggest that both generalist and specialist OTUs changed their relative substrate incorporation over time, presumably in response to changing substrate availability as the particles aged. This pattern was demonstrated by temporal succession from relatively higher starch incorporation early in the incubations, eventually switching to higher cellobiose incorporation after 2 weeks. PMID:26525158

  14. Marine Information Centre Development: An Introductory Manual. Manuals and Guides 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Allan

    The purpose of this introductory manual is briefly to explain and put into context the elements involved in marine information center development and operation. Its goal is to provide an overview and create an awareness of the range of the inter-connected procedures, activities, and products that make up an information service. The introductory…

  15. Recent Advances in the Discovery and Development of Marine Microbial Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Feng; Hao, Yu-You; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Marine microbial natural products (MMNPs) have attracted increasing attention from microbiologists, taxonomists, ecologists, agronomists, chemists and evolutionary biologists during the last few decades. Numerous studies have indicated that diverse marine microbes appear to have the capacity to produce an impressive array of MMNPs exhibiting a wide variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular agents. Marine microorganisms represent an underexplored reservoir for the discovery of MMNPs with unique scaffolds and for exploitation in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. This review focuses on MMNPs discovery and development over the past decades, including innovative isolation and culture methods, strategies for discovering novel MMNPs via routine screenings, metagenomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology. The potential problems and future directions for exploring MMNPs are also discussed. PMID:23528949

  16. Current developments in marine microbiology: high-pressure biotechnology and the genetic engineering of piezophiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Xuegong; Bartlett, Douglas H; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    A key aspect of marine environments is elevated pressure; for example, ∼70% of the ocean is at a pressure of at least 38MPa. Many types of Bacteria and Archaea reside under these high pressures, which drive oceanic biogeochemical cycles and catalyze reactions among rocks, sediments and fluids. Most marine prokaryotes are classified as piezotolerant or as (obligate)-piezophiles with few cultivated relatives. The biochemistry and physiology of these organisms are largely unknown. Recently, high-pressure cultivation technology has been combined with omics and DNA recombination methodologies to examine the physiology of piezophilic marine microorganisms. We are now beginning to understand the adaptive mechanisms of these organisms, along with their ecological functions and evolutionary processes. This knowledge is leading to the further development of high-pressure-based biotechnology. PMID:25776196

  17. HEASD PM RESEARCH METHODS: PARTICLE METHODS EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FRM developed by NERL forms the backbone of the EPA's national monitoring strategy. It is the measurement that defines attainment of the new standard. However, the agency has numerous other needs in assessing the physical and chemical characteristics of ambient fine particl...

  18. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans. PMID:26088539

  19. Development of WO3 Thin Films Using Nanoscale Silicon Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Park, Chul

    2000-06-01

    The WO3-x-0.1TiO2-y thin films prepared by the sol-gel route exhibit increased lifetime and stability. A sol-gel solution mixed with nanoscopic silicon oxide particles (40 nm, 200 nm) was spin-coated onto an indium tin oxide (ITO)-covered glass substrate followed by further surface development by chemical etching. A significantly faster response time of the electrochromic cell due to the increase of the surface area of the WO3/electrolyte interface and enhancement of the lithium ion diffusion rate have been obtained. The coloration efficiency was found to be much higher in the areas surrounding incorporated nanoscale particles.

  20. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara ); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt )

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions

  1. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common approach to marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H.; Schaap, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports this ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. To address these issues, the ODIP project is creating a co-ordination platform between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts will come together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first ODIP workshop. These topics are: use of controlled

  2. Global Simulations of Radiative Forcing from Sea Salt Injections into Marine Clouds: The Effect of Injection Rate and Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alterskjaer, K.; Kristjánsson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sea salt seeding of low level marine clouds is a suggested technique to counteract or slow global warming. The injected sea salt is to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and through the aerosol indirect effect increase the cloud albedo and therefore the reflection of solar radiation from the earth-atmosphere system. Using the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) we investigate the global radiative forcing achieved through sea salt seeding as a function of both (i) emission rate and (ii) sea salt particle size. The injection rates are uniform and confined over ocean between 30°S and 30°N, and range from 10-9 to 10-11 kg m-2 s-1. The size of the particles ranges from a dry modal radius of 0.022 μm to 0.13 μm, with geometric standard deviations of 1.59. The study includes aerosol indirect effects both in the shortwave and the longwave and investigates the direct radiative effect of the added sea salt particles. Preliminary results show that increasing emissions of the 0.13 μm sea salt mode leads to an aerosol indirect effect of between -3.4 Wm-2 and -0.04 Wm-2, depending on emission rate. The maximum achieved forcing is close to cancelling the positive forcing resulting from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (-3.8 Wm-2). Results also show that the direct effect of the sea salt parties is much larger than previously assumed, and the total radiative effect and the cooling potential of this geo-engineering technique may therefore be much greater than what has been assumed earlier. We find that ignoring the direct effect of sea salt may lead to serious errors in determining both the effectiveness of sea salt seeding and possible side effects. The longwave forcing resulting from a change in cloud emissivity with added sea salt is found to be negligible. Results also show that the size of the added sea salt is of crucial importance for the achieved radiative forcing. While adding large sea salt particles leads to a significant negative forcing at the

  3. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  4. The effect of dynamic operating conditions on nano-particle emissions from a light-duty diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyungmin; Jeong, Yeonhwan

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the nano-sized particle emission characteristics from a small turbocharged common rail diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels. The experiments were conducted under dynamic engine operating conditions, such as steady-state, cold start, and transient conditions. The particle number and size distributions were analyzed with a high resolution PM analyzer. The diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) had an insignificant effect on the reduction in particle number, but particle number emissions were drastically reduced by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) at various steady conditions. Under high speed and load conditions, the particle filtering efficiency was decreased by the partial combustion of trapped particles inside the DPF because of the high exhaust temperature caused by the increased particle number concentration. Retarded fuel injection timing and higher EGR rates led to increased particle number emissions. As the temperature inside the DPF increased from 25 °C to 300 °C, the peak particle number level was reduced by 70% compared to cold start conditions. High levels of nucleation mode particle generation were found in the deceleration phases during the transient tests.

  5. Charged Particle Environment Definition for NGST: Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Evans, Steven W.; Hardage, Donna M.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    NGST will operate in a halo orbit about the L2 point, 1.5 million km from the Earth, where the spacecraft will periodically travel through the magnetotail region. There are a number of tools available to calculate the high energy, ionizing radiation particle environment from galactic cosmic rays and from solar disturbances. However, space environment tools are not generally available to provide assessments of charged particle environment and its variations in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail at L2 distances. An engineering-level phenomenology code (LRAD) was therefore developed to facilitate the definition of charged particle environments in the vicinity of the L2 point in support of the NGST program. LRAD contains models tied to satellite measurement data of the solar wind and magnetotail regions. The model provides particle flux and fluence calculations necessary to predict spacecraft charging conditions and the degradation of materials used in the construction of NGST. This paper describes the LRAD environment models for the deep magnetotail (XGSE < -100 Re) and solar wind, and presents predictions of the charged particle environment for NGST.

  6. Soils developed from marine and moraine deposits on the Billefjord coast, West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.

    2012-11-01

    Morphogenetic features of soils developed from noncalcareous and calcareous deposits of the marine and glacial origins on the coasts of Billefjord and Petunia Bay in West Spitsbergen are studied. Grayhumus (soddy) soils develop from noncalcareous deposits; they consist of the AO-AY-C horizons and differ from analogous soils in other locations in a higher bulk content of calcium, a close to neutral reaction, and a relatively high degree of base saturation. Gray-humus residually calcareous soils (AO-AYca-Cca) developed from calcareous deposits have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction; their exchange complex is almost completely saturated with bases. The soils that developed from both marine and moraine deposits are generally similar in their major genetic features. The profiles of all the soils are not differentiated with respect to the contents of major elements, including oxalate-soluble forms of aluminum and iron. Gley features are also absent in the profiles of these soils.

  7. Variations in the methanesulfonate to sulfate molar ratio in submicrometer marine aerosol particles over the south Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Timothy S.; Calhoun, Julie A.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    1992-01-01

    Seawater concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and atmospheric concentrations of DMS, sulfur dioxide, methanesulfonate (MSA), and non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate were measured over the eastern Pacific Ocean between 105 deg and 110 deg W from 20 deg N to 60 deg S during February and March 1989. Although the samples collected in the Southern Hemisphere appear to be of marine origin, no significant correlation was found between the latitudinal distributions of DMS, SO2, MSA, and nss SO4(2-). However, an inverse correlation was found between atmospheric temperature and the MSA to nss SO4(2-) molar ratio in submicrometer aerosol particles with a decrease in temperature corresponding to an increase in the molar ratio. Although this trend is consistent with laboratory results indicating the favored production of MSA at lower temperatures, it is contrary to Southern Hemisphere baseline station data. This suggests either a decrease in the supply of DMS relative to nonmarine sources of nss SO4(2-) at the baseline stations in winter or additional mechanisms that affect the relative production of MSA and nss SO4(2-).

  8. Experimental studies of wave-particle interactions in space using particle correlators: results and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, M.; Buckley, A.; Carozzi, T.; Beloff, N.

    The technique of particle correlation measures directly electron modulations that result from naturally occurring and actively stimulated wave-particle interactions in space plasmas. In the past this technique has been used for studies of beam-plasma interactions, caused by both natural auroral electron beams via sounding rockets and by artificially generated electron beams on Shuttle missions: TSS-1/-TSS -1R. It has also been applied to studies of how electrons become energised by waves injected from in-situ transmitters (OEDIPUS-C). All four ESA Cluster-II spacecraft launched in 2000 to study the outer magnetosphere, cusp, and bow shock were implemented with electron correlators. Here the prevalent broader band wave-particle interactions have been more difficult to extract. However, the application of new statistical algorithms has permitted these correlators to provide a novel insight into turbulence occurring and also provided an independent means whereby electron count rates can be corrected for detector saturation effects. Present work involves technical improvements to both sensor design and correlator implementation that enable many electron energy-angle combinations to be simultaneously monitored for wave-particle interactions. A b oad energy -angler range spectrograph connected to a multi-channel, multi-frequency range FPGA implemented array of correlators is scheduled to fly early 2004. Neural network techniques previously flown on TSS -1 , TSS-1R, and statistical tests developed for Cluster-II will be used on-board to select data to be transmitted.

  9. Marine toxicity tests development with a New Zealand echinoid

    SciTech Connect

    Nipper, M.G.; Roper, D.S.; Martin, M.L.; Williams, E.K.

    1995-12-31

    The generally low levels of contamination around New Zealand lead to the search for a sensitive toxicity test, which could be used to screen effluent and to detect contaminant effects in coastal waters and sediments. Echinoid early life stage tests were considered ideal candidates. However, the adaptation of international toxicity test methods to indigenous species has not been straightforward or troublefree! The echinoid Fellaster zelandiae was selected because it is abundant around New Zealand and is fertile year round. Fertilization tests showed that gamete density, rather than sperm/egg ratio, was a crucial factor for successful control fertilization rates. This method, however, presented several problems related to (1) temporal variability in the quality of sperm batches, (2) rapid reduction of egg quality and viability after spawning, and (3) highly variable sensitivity in reference toxicant tests. Embryo tests were more reliable, with good control results (> 80% normal embryos) and consistent sensitivity to a reference toxicant, zinc sulfate. EC{sub 50} values averaged 0.06 mg Zn/L, comparable to the sensitivity of echinoid species used elsewhere. Brine prepared by freezing seawater was suitable for adjusting the salinity of effluents, with more than 90% normal embryos developing in brine diluted with UV-treated deionized water as a test-control. The assessment of the embryo development test as a tool for screening sediment toxicity (using sediment pore water), is presently underway, concurrently with growth and behavioral endpoint tests using indigenous amphipods and bivalves.

  10. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, T; Matsunaga, N; Tsubaki, K; Tanaka, T

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 mumol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:3020006

  11. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil.

    PubMed

    Estrada, J D; Boeneke, C; Bechtel, P; Sathivel, S

    2011-12-01

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate its characteristics during 1 mo of storage. Unpurified salmon oil (USO) was purified (PSO) and both USO and PSO were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total oxidation, free fatty acids (FFA), and moisture content. A stable emulsion was prepared with 7% PSO, 22% gum arabic, 11% maltodextrin, and 60% water. The emulsion was spray-dried to produce MSO. The MSO was added to strawberry-flavored yogurt (SYMSO) before pasteurization and homogenization, and a control (SY) without MSO was produced. Both yogurts were stored for 1 mo at 4°C and we determined the quality characteristics including acidity (pH), syneresis, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), fatty acid methyl ester composition, color, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Total oxidation (unitless) of USO, PSO, and MSO was calculated to be 20.7±1.26, 10.9±0.1, and 13.4±0.25, respectively. Free fatty acid contents were 1.61±0.19%, 0.59±0.02%, and 0.77±0.02% for USO, PSO, and MSO, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids in MSO and in SYMSO, but neither was detected in SY. Fortification of SY with MSO had no significant effect on yogurt pH or syneresis. A decrease in concentration of lactic acid bacteria was observed during the storage of all yogurts. Thiobarbituric acid values significantly increased as storage time increased and SY had a significantly lighter (higher L*) and less yellow (lower b*) color than SYMSO. Although some slight differences were observed in the color and oxidation of SYMSO compared with SY, the study demonstrated that SY could be fortified with

  12. The Pandora Software Development Kit for Particle Flow Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Pandora is a robust and efficient framework for developing and running pattern-recognition algorithms. It was designed to perform particle flow calorimetry, which requires many complex pattern-recognition techniques to reconstruct the paths of individual particles through fine granularity detectors. The Pandora C++ software development kit (SDK) consists of a single library and a number of carefully designed application programming interfaces (APIs). A client application can use the Pandora APIs to pass details of tracks and hits/cells to the Pandora framework, which then creates and manages named lists of self-describing objects. These objects can be accessed by Pandora algorithms, which perform the pattern-recognition reconstruction. Development with the Pandora SDK promotes the creation of small, re-usable algorithms containing just the kernel of a specific operation. The algorithms are configured via XML and can be nested to perform complex reconstruction tasks. As the algorithms only access the Pandora objects in a controlled manner, via the APIs, the framework can perform most book-keeping and memory-management operations. The Pandora SDK has been fully exploited in the implementation of PandoraPFA, which uses over 60 algorithms to provide the state of the art in particle flow calorimetry for ILC and CLIC.

  13. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  14. Micro-fabricated polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) surfaces regulate the development of marine microbial biofilm communities.

    PubMed

    Ling, Gee Chong; Low, Min Hui; Erken, Martina; Longford, Sharon; Nielsen, Shaun; Poole, Andrew J; Steinberg, Peter; McDougald, Diane; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    This study explored an antifouling (AF) concept based on deployment of microfabricated polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) surfaces with 1-10 μm periodicity corrugated topographies in temperate marine waters. The effect of the surfaces on the development of microbial biofilms over 28 days and during different seasons, including both summer and winter, was examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) analysis for phylogenetic fingerprinting. The microscale topography significantly impacted biofilm development by altering the attachment pattern and reducing microcolony formation on the 1, 2 and 4 μm PDMS surfaces. Also, field deployments over 28 days showed a significant reduction in biovolume on the 4 and 10 μm PDMS surfaces despite altered environmental conditions. The microfabricated PDMS surfaces further significantly impacted on the community composition of the biofilms, as revealed by changes in T-RF profiles, at different stages of development. Moreover, altered biofilm resistance was demonstrated by exposing pre-established biofilms on 10 μm micro-fabricated surfaces to enhanced flagellate predation by a heterotrophic protist, Rhynchomonas nasuta. Pronounced changes in the overall marine microbial biofilm development as well as community composition warrant exploring substratum modification for marine AF applications. PMID:24558964

  15. Great skua (Stercorarius skua) movements at sea in relation to marine renewable energy developments.

    PubMed

    Wade, H M; Masden, E A; Jackson, A C; Thaxter, C B; Burton, N H K; Bouten, W; Furness, R W

    2014-10-01

    Marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) are an increasing feature of the marine environment. Owing to the relatively small number of existing developments and the early stage of their associated environmental monitoring programmes, the effects of MREDs on seabirds are not fully known. Our ability to fully predict potential effects is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding movements of seabirds at sea. We used GPS tracking to improve our understanding of the movements at sea of a protected seabird species breeding in Scotland, the great skua (Stercorarius skua), to better predict how this species may be affected by MREDs. We found that the overlap of great skuas with leased and proposed MREDs was low; particularly with offshore wind sites, which are predicted to present a greater risk to great skuas than wave or tidal-stream developments. Failed breeders overlapped with larger areas of MREDs than breeding birds but the overall overlap with core areas used remained low. Overlap with wave energy development sites was greater than for offshore wind and tidal-stream sites. Comparison of 2011 data with historical data indicates that distances travelled by great skuas have likely increased over recent decades. This suggests that basing marine spatial planning decisions on short-term tracking data could be less informative than longer-term data. PMID:25262489

  16. Development and testing of the infrared radiometer for the Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, T. C.

    1975-01-01

    The science objectives, development history, functional description, and testing of the Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 infrared radiometer are discussed. Included in the functional description section is a thorough discussion of the IRR optical system, electronic operation, and thermal control. Signal development and its conversion to engineering units is traced, starting with the radiant space object, passing through the IRR optics and electronics, and culminating with data number development and interpretation. The test program section includes discussion of IRR calibration and alignment verification. Finally, the problems and failures encountered by the IRR during the period of its development and testing are reviewed.

  17. Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae

    PubMed Central

    de Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Delorme, Natali; Atkins, John; Howard, Sunkita; Williams, James; Johnson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of noise on marine fauna at the population level requires knowledge about the vulnerability of different life-stages. Here we provide the first evidence that noise exposure during larval development produces body malformations in marine invertebrates. Scallop larvae exposed to playbacks of seismic pulses showed significant developmental delays and 46% developed body abnormalities. Similar effects were observed in all independent samples exposed to noise while no malformations were found in the control groups (4881 larvae examined). Malformations appeared in the D-veliger larval phase, perhaps due to the cumulative exposure attained by this stage or to a greater vulnerability of D-veliger to sound-mediated physiological or mechanical stress. Such strong impacts suggest that abnormalities and growth delays may also result from lower sound levels or discrete exposures during the D-stage, increasing the potential for routinely-occurring anthropogenic noise sources to affect recruitment of wild scallop larvae in natural stocks. PMID:24088868

  18. Development and application of a marine sediment porewater toxicity test using algal spores

    SciTech Connect

    Hooten, R.; Carr, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    An acute pore water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of marine macroalgae as endpoints was developed to indicate the presence of toxic compounds in marine/estuarine and sediment porewater samples. Zoospores collected from Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca were used as test organisms. Preliminary results with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a reference toxicant) indicate that zoospores germination and growth of embryonic gametophytes are as sensitive as the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development toxicity tests. Algal germination and growth data for copper, mercury and other metals will be presented. The results of tests utilizing this algal assay with sediment pore water from contaminated sediments will be compared with more traditional sediment toxicity test methods.

  19. Approach for determining the contributions of phytoplankton, colored organic material, and nonalgal particles to the total spectral absorption in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Wang, Guifeng; Hu, Shuibo

    2013-06-20

    Using a data set of 1333 samples, we assess the spectral absorption relationships of different wave bands for phytoplankton (ph) and particles. We find that a nonlinear model (second-order quadratic equations) delivers good performance in describing their spectral characteristics. Based on these spectral relationships, we develop a method for partitioning the total absorption coefficient into the contributions attributable to phytoplankton [a(ph)(λ)], colored dissolved organic material [CDOM; a(CDOM)(λ)], and nonalgal particles [NAP; a(NAP)(λ)]. This method is validated using a data set that contains 550 simultaneous measurements of phytoplankton, CDOM, and NAP from the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Dataset. We find that our method is highly efficient and robust, with significant accuracy: the relative root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 25.96%, 38.30%, and 19.96% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. The performance is still satisfactory when the method is applied to water samples from the northern South China Sea as a regional case. The computed and measured absorption coefficients (167 samples) agree well with the RMSEs, i.e., 18.50%, 32.82%, and 10.21% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. Finally, the partitioning method is applied directly to an independent data set (1160 samples) derived from the Bermuda Bio-Optics Project that contains relatively low absorption values, and we also obtain good inversion accuracy [RMSEs of 32.37%, 32.57%, and 11.52% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively]. Our results indicate that this partitioning method delivers satisfactory performance for the retrieval of a(ph), a(CDOM), and a(NAP). Therefore, this may be a useful tool for extracting absorption coefficients from in situ measurements or remotely sensed ocean-color data. PMID:23842167

  20. Development of training modules for magnetic particle inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Daigo; Eisenmann, David J.; Enyart, Darrel; Nakagawa, Norio; Lo, Chester; Orman, David

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a nondestructive evaluation technique used with ferromagnetic materials. Although the application of this method may appear straightforward, MPI combines the complicated nature of electromagnetics, metallurgical material effects, fluid-particle motion dynamics, and physiological human factors into a single inspection. To fully appreciate industry specifications such as ASTM E-1444, users should develop a basic understanding of the many factors that are involved in MPI. We have developed a series of MPI training modules that are aimed at addressing this requirement. The modules not only offer qualitative explanations, but also show quantitative explanations in terms of measurement and numerical simulation data in many instances. There are five modules in all. Module ♯1 shows characteristics of waveforms and magnetizing methods. This allows MPI practitioners to make optimum choice of waveform and magnetizing method. Module ♯2 explains how material properties relate to the magnetic characteristics. Module ♯3 shows the strength of the excitation field or the flux leakage from a crack and how it compares to the detectability of a crack by MPI. Module ♯4 shows how specimen status may influence defect detection. Module ♯5 shows the effects of particle properties on defect detection.

  1. Development of a site-specific marine water quality standard for cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Arredondo, L.A.; Brix, K.V.; Cardwell, R.D.; Marsden, A.

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to develop a site-specific marine standard for cyanide. The generic cyanide standard of 1 {micro}g/L is ``driven`` by toxicity data for eastern rock crab (Cancer irroratus) zoeae. The reported LC50 for C. irroratus is 4.9 {micro}g/L cyanide and is six times more sensitive that any other marine species tested. In order to develop a site-specific standard for Washington state, cyanide toxicity tests were conducted using the first stage zoeae of Cancer magister and Cancer oregonensis, two Cancer resident to Puget Sound, in accordance with standard ASTM test methods. Testing with C. magister and C. oregonensis resulted in Species Mean Acute Values (SMAVS) of 68 and 131 {micro}g/L cyanide based on measured test concentrations. This is considerably higher than that reported for C. irroratus, is more consistent with cyanide toxicity values for other species tested, and results in a water quality criterion of 9.85 {micro}g/L cyanide with inclusion of these values in the data set. This paper presents the test methods used and the potential effects the test results may have on the marine water quality criterion for cyanide.

  2. Marine actinomycetes as an emerging resource for the drug development pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zotchev, Sergey B

    2012-04-30

    Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinomycetes from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, yielding many important anti-infective and anti-cancer drugs. However, frequent re-discovery of the same compounds in terrestrial actinomycetes have made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinomycetes isolated from the marine environment currently receive considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. This review highlights achievements and challenges in the isolation of marine actinomycetes, some examples of bioactive metabolites identified by conventional screening, and presents new developments in the field of genome mining and heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters leading to the discovery of novel compounds. PMID:21683100

  3. Development of marine sediment toxicity identification evaluation methods using Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Mytilus edulis, and Eohaustorius estuarius

    SciTech Connect

    Wortham, G.; Cotsifas, J.S.; Taberski, K.; Hansen, S.R.

    1994-12-31

    Widespread sediment toxicity, including ``clean`` reference sites, dictates that the causes of toxicity in sediments be determined. Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE) are useful tools in characterizing compounds responsible for toxicity, but were unavailable for sediment samples. TIE methods were developed for sediment porewater and included the following components: determination of an appropriate porewater extraction process; control TIE tests using marine water and porewater evaluating species sensitivities to the fractionation procedures; validation experiments investigating the removal efficiencies of organics using C18 solid phase extraction, and metals chelation using EDTA and STS; spiking experiments to determine the effectiveness of the TIE procedure in identifying multiple toxicants. The authors determined that fractionation procedures could be applied to both marine water and porewater using S. purpuratus, M. edulis and E. estuarius as biological detectors.

  4. Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Around the World. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, L.; Whiting, J.; Geerlofs, S.; Grear, M.; Blake, K.; Coffey, A.; Massaua, M.; Brown-Saracino, J.; Battey, H.

    2013-01-01

    This Annex IV report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment addressing the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines, the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals, and the effects of energy removal on physical systems.

  5. Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Bedoya, F.; Allain, J. P.; Boyle, D. P.; Schmitt, J. C.; Onge, D. A. St.

    2014-11-01

    The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, designed to provide in situ surface characterization of plasma facing components in a tokamak environment. MAPP has been implemented for operation on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where all control and analysis systems are currently under development for full remote operation. Control systems include vacuum management, instrument power, and translational/rotational probe drive. Analysis systems include onboard Langmuir probes and all components required for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy surface analysis techniques.

  6. Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe.

    PubMed

    Lucia, M; Kaita, R; Majeski, R; Bedoya, F; Allain, J P; Boyle, D P; Schmitt, J C; Onge, D A St

    2014-11-01

    The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, designed to provide in situ surface characterization of plasma facing components in a tokamak environment. MAPP has been implemented for operation on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where all control and analysis systems are currently under development for full remote operation. Control systems include vacuum management, instrument power, and translational/rotational probe drive. Analysis systems include onboard Langmuir probes and all components required for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy surface analysis techniques. PMID:25430248

  7. Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, M. Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Boyle, D. P.; Schmitt, J. C.; Onge, D. A. St.; Bedoya, F.; Allain, J. P.

    2014-11-15

    The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, designed to provide in situ surface characterization of plasma facing components in a tokamak environment. MAPP has been implemented for operation on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where all control and analysis systems are currently under development for full remote operation. Control systems include vacuum management, instrument power, and translational/rotational probe drive. Analysis systems include onboard Langmuir probes and all components required for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy surface analysis techniques.

  8. Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Stelzer, H.

    1980-08-01

    The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown.

  9. Development of antibiotics and the future of marine microorganisms to stem the tide of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kasanah, Noer; Hamann, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics remain essential tools in the control of infectious diseases. With the emergence of new diseases, resistant forms of diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria, as well as the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, it has become essential to develop novel antibiotics. Development of the existing antibiotics involved three strategies, including discovery of new target sites, modification of existing antibiotic structures, and the identification of new resources for novel antibiotics. Marine microorganisms have clearly become an essential new resource in the discovery of new antibiotic leads. PMID:15600239

  10. Single-particle detection efficiencies of aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry during the North Atlantic marine boundary layer experiment.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M; Beddows, David C S; Freney, Evelyn J; Heal, Mathew R; Donovan, Robert J

    2006-08-15

    During the North Atlantic marine boundary layer experiment (NAMBLEX) sampling campaign at Mace Head, Ireland, both continental and maritime air masses were sampled. Aerosol was characterized both with a TSI 3800 time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) and a MOUDI microorifice impactor, and particle number counts were measured independently with an aerodynamic particle sizer. The data have been analyzed in order to elucidate factors determining the particle detection efficiencies of the ATOFMS. These are broken down according to the efficiency of the inlet system, the hit efficiency on particles which enter the sensing zone of the instrument and the sensitivity of the measured ion signal to the chemical species. A substantial matrix effect depending on the chemical composition of the aerosol sampled at the time was found, which is reflected in variations in the hit efficiency of particles entering the sensing zone of the instrument with the main desorption-ionization laser. This is in addition to the strong inverse power-law dependence of inlet transmission efficiency on particle diameter. The variation in hit efficiency with particle type is likely attributable to differences in the energetics of laser energy absorption, ablation, and ion formation. However, once variations in both inlet transmission and hit efficiencies are taken into account, no additional matrix dependence of ATOFMS response is required to obtain a linear relationship between the ion signal and the concentration of a particular chemical species. The observations show that a constant mass of material is ionized from each particle, irrespective of size. Consequently the integrated ion signal for a given chemical component and particle size class needs to be increased by a factor related to the cube of particle diameter in order to correlate with the airborne mass of that component. PMID:16955903

  11. Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).

  12. Interior flow and near-nozzle spray development in a marine-engine diesel fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hult, J.; Simmank, P.; Matlok, S.; Mayer, S.; Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-04-01

    A consolidated effort at optically characterising flow patterns, in-nozzle cavitation, and near-nozzle jet structure of a marine diesel fuel injector is presented. A combination of several optical techniques was employed to fully transparent injector models, compound metal-glass and full metal injectors. They were all based on a common real-scale dual nozzle hole geometry for a marine two-stroke diesel engine. In a stationary flow rig, flow velocities in the sac-volume and nozzle holes were measured using PIV, and in-nozzle cavitation visualized using high-resolution shadowgraphs. The effect of varying cavitation number was studied and results compared to CFD predictions. In-nozzle cavitation and near-nozzle jet structure during transient operation were visualized simultaneously, using high-speed imaging in an atmospheric pressure spray rig. Near-nozzle spray formation was investigated using ballistic imaging. Finally, the injector geometry was tested on a full-scale marine diesel engine, where the dynamics of near-nozzle jet development was visualized using high-speed shadowgraphy. The range of studies focused on a single common geometry allows a comprehensive survey of phenomena ranging from first inception of cavitation under well-controlled flow conditions to fuel jet structure at real engine conditions.

  13. Development of Pressure sensing Particles through SERS and Upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widejko, Ryan; Wang, Fenglin; Anker, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    With the increasing distance of space travel, there is a critical need for non-invasive point-of-care diagnostic techniques. According to the NASA Human Research Roadmap, the ``lack of non-invasive diagnostic imaging capability and techniques to diagnose identified Exploration Medical Conditions involving internal body parts,'' is a critical capability gap for long distance space travel. To address this gap, we developed a novel technique for non-invasive monitoring of strain on implanted devices. We constructed a prototype tension-indicating washer with an upconversion spectrum that depended upon strain. The washer was made of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixture with upconversion particles embedded in it. This mixture was cured onto a lenticular lens. Methylene blue dye solution was sealed between the lenticular lens and PDMS so that pressure on the washer displaced the dye and uncovered the upconversion particles. We also began work on a tension-indicating screw based upon surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Future work for this project is to quantitatively correlate the spectral intensity with pressure, further develop SERS washers, and construct SERS and/or upconversion screws or bolts. Non-invasive tension-indicating devices and techniques such as these can be applied to orthopedics, used as a general technique for measuring micro-strain, verifying proper assembly of equipment, and observing/studying bolt loosening.

  14. New developments in photodetection for particle physics and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, J. E.

    2000-03-01

    Photodetectors are widely used in particle and nuclear physics research. Since the beginning of the modern era of photoelectric transducers in the late 1930s, many types of devices have been developed and exploited for physics research. New performance requirements arising in physics experiments have often provided very interesting technological drivers for industry. New ideas for photo-detection are rapidly adapted by the physics community to enable more powerful experimental capabilities. This report gives a sampling of new developments in photodetection for physics research in the period since the first conference in this series, Beaune 96. Representative examples of advances in vacuum devices, solid-state devices and gaseous photodetectors are described including, where appropriate, areas where technological improvements are needed or expected.

  15. Tool kit development to refine and visualize essential climate data and information for marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, L.; Stachniewicz, J.; Shein, K. A.; Ansari, S.; Jarvis, C.

    2013-05-01

    larger gridded data products, such as NOAA's satellite Climate Data Records to the geographic boundaries of each included marine protected area (MPA). These clipped data sets are processed to produce MPA-specific analytics (e.g., files for averages, extremes, peaks over threshold, etc). Once a specific MPA has been selected, the associated data may be visualized, analyzed, and exported to other formats (e.g., netCDF, KML) from within the tool. The WCT-IMPACT tool kit will provide marine ecosystem managers with the capacity to answer such questions as what was the climate like during periods of optimal ecological health, or have climate conditions changed equally across an ecosystem's domain? The WCT-IMPACT extension is being developed specifically to address the needs of marine ecosystem managers to have access to relevant climate data and information for developing ecosystem-scale climate assessments, while retaining the ability for a WCT user to identify and access the full suite of georeferenced climate data provided by NCDC. In this tool kit development scheme, the need to coordinate with the resource managers is paramount and end user participation in an iterative process with the climate scientists is essential.

  16. Determining Risk - How to Evaluate the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copping, A. E.; Blake, K.; Zdanski, L.

    2011-12-01

    As marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development projects progress towards early deployments in the U.S., the process of determining the risks to aquatic animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes from these engineered systems continues to be a significant barrier to efficient siting and permitting. Understanding the risk of MHK installations requires that the two elements of risk - consequence and probability - be evaluated. However, standard risk assessment methodologies are not easily applied to MHK interactions with marine and riverine environment as there are few data that describe the interaction of stressors (MHK devices, anchors, foundations, mooring lines and power cables) and receptors (aquatic animals, habitats and ecosystem processes). The number of possible combinations and permutations of stressors and receptors in MHK systems is large: there are many different technologies designed to harvest energy from the tides, waves and flowing rivers; each device is planned for a specific waterbody that supports an endemic ecosystem of animals and habitats, tied together by specific physical and chemical processes. With few appropriate analogue industries in the oceans and rivers, little information on the effects of these technologies on the living world is available. Similarly, without robust data sets of interactions, mathematical probability models are difficult to apply. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists are working with MHK developers, researchers, engineers, and regulators to rank the consequences of planned MHK projects on living systems, and exploring alternative methodologies to estimate probabilities of these encounters. This paper will present the results of ERES, the Environmental Risk Evaluation System, which has been used to rank consequences for major animal groups and habitats for five MHK projects that are in advanced stages of development and/or early commercial deployment. Probability analyses have been performed for high

  17. Developing an Empirical Model for Predicting Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, R. A.; Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.; Ashley, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are powerful enhancements in the particle flux received at Earth. These events, often related to coronal mass ejections, can be disruptive to ionospheric communications, destructive to satellites, and pose a health risk to astronauts. To develop a useful forecast for the onset time and peak flux of SEP events, we are examining the radio burst, proton, and electron properties associated with the SEPs of the current solar cycle. Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010-2013, we analyzed the 123 decametric-hectometric type II solar radio burst properties, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with SEP properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. Through a principal component and logistic regression analyses, we find that the radio properties alone can be used to predict the occurrence of an SEP event with a false alarm rate of 17%, a probability of detection of 65%, and with 88% of the classifications correct. We also explore the use of the > 2 MeV electron flux to forecast proton peak flux and event onset time, with preliminary results suggesting a correlation between the peak electron and proton flux.

  18. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications. PMID:25939279

  19. Development of in vivo sponge cultures: particle feeding by the tropical sponge Pseudosuberites aff. andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Osinga, R; Kleijn, R; Groenendijk, E; Niesink, P; Tramper, J; Wijffels, R H

    2001-11-01

    The rate of food particle uptake of the tropical sponge Pseudosuberites aff. andrewsi was studied in relation to particle concentrations and particle size. A range of different concentrations of either the marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta (approximately 5-8 microm) or the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (approximately 1 microm) was supplied to the sponges. D. tertiolecta had a pronounced effect on the filtration activity of the sponges: at concentrations higher than approximately 4 x 10(5) cells/cm(3), the filtration rates dropped dramatically. Such a clear effect was not found for Synechococcus sp. The results further showed that the maximal amount of food (when expressed in organic carbon) that can be taken up per cubic centimeter of sponge volume per unit of time should in principle be sufficient to enable growth (irrespective of the food particle type). At the maximal food particle concentration that did not affect the filtration rates, the uptake of organic carbon is already highly in excess of the amount of organic carbon that the sponges need to cope with their respiratory demand. Based on these findings, a series of growth experiments was carried out in which the sponges were subjected to a constant concentration of different types of food particles (Synechococcus sp. and the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis sp). Although initial growth was sometimes observed, continuous growth at a constant rate could not be obtained. It is concluded that qualitative aspects of feeding rather than quantitative aspects are the key to successful in vivo sponge culture. PMID:14961327

  20. Strategies for weighting exposure in the development of acoustic criteria for marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James H.; Bowles, Anne E.; Gentry, Roger L.; Ellison, William T.; Finneran, James J.; Greene, Charles R., Jr.; Kastak, David; Ketten, Darlene R.; Tyack, Peter L.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Richardson, W. John; Thomas, Jeanette A.

    2005-09-01

    The Noise Exposure Criteria Group has been developing noise exposure criteria for marine mammals. Although the primary focus of the effort is development of criteria to prevent injury, the Group has also emphasized the development of exposure metrics that can be used to predict injury with accuracy and precision. Noise exposure metrics for humans have proven to be more effective when they account for psychophysical properties of the auditory system, particularly loudness perception. Usually noise is filtered using the A-weighting function, an idealized curve based on the human 40-phon equal loudness function. However, there are no empirical studies to show whether a comparable procedure for animals will improve predictions. The Noise Exposure Criteria Group panel has proposed to weight noise data by functions that admit sound throughout the frequency range of hearing in five marine mammal groupings-low frequency cetaceans (mysticetes), midfrequency cetaceans, high-frequency cetaceans, pinnipeds in air, and pinnipeds in water. The algorithm for the functions depends only on the upper and lower frequency limits of hearing and does not differentially weight frequencies based on sensitivity within the range. This procedure is considered conservative. However, if the human case may be taken as a model, it is not likely to produce precise predictions. Empirical data are essential to finding better estimators of exposure.

  1. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common framework for marine data management on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick

    2016-04-01

    The increasingly ocean basin level approach to marine research has led to a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data. This requirement for easily discoverable and readily available marine data is currently being addressed by initiatives such as SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN) with each having implemented an e-infrastructure to facilitate the discovery and re-use of standardised multidisciplinary marine datasets available from a network of distributed repositories, data centres etc. within their own region. However, these regional data systems have been developed in response to the specific requirements of their users and in line with the priorities of the funding agency. They have also been created independently of the marine data infrastructures in other regions often using different standards, data formats, technologies etc. that make integration of marine data from these regional systems for the purposes of basin level research difficult. Marine research at the ocean basin level requires a common global framework for marine data management which is based on existing regional marine data systems but provides an integrated solution for delivering interoperable marine data to the user. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP/ODIP II) project brings together those responsible for the management of the selected marine data systems and other relevant technical experts with the objective of developing interoperability across the regional e-infrastructures. The commonalities and incompatibilities between the individual data infrastructures are identified and then used as the foundation for the specification of prototype interoperability solutions which demonstrate the feasibility of sharing marine data across the regional systems and also with relevant larger global data services such as GEO, COPERNICUS, IODE, POGO etc. The potential

  2. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Ahlborg, Mandy; Bringout, Gael; Debbeler, Christina; Graeser, Matthias; Kaethner, Christian; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Medimagh, Hanne; Stelzner, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs’ response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs’ superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs’ response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle’s MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles’ iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles’ suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number of different theories and technical approaches on the way to the actual implementation of the basic concept of MPI have been seen in the last few years. Research groups around the world are working on different scanner geometries, from closed bore systems to single-sided scanners, and use reconstruction methods that are either based on actual calibration measurements or on theoretical models. This review aims at giving an overview of current developments and

  3. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F; McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C

    1992-04-01

    The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

  4. Development and testing of the pyrotechnic subsystem to the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P. (Compiler); Earnest, J.; Murphy, A.; Quinn, J.

    1971-01-01

    Design, fabrication, and testing of the Mariner Mars 1971 pyrotechnic subsystem are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on those changes from the Mariner Mars 1969 configuration. Major problems occurring in the developmental and testing phases are discussed.

  5. Development of a novel protocol for generating flavivirus reporter particles.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Igor Velado; Okamoto, Natsumi; Ito, Aki; Fukuda, Miki; Someya, Azusa; Nishino, Yosii; Sasaki, Nobuya; Maeda, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a growing public and animal health concern worldwide. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies for the infection are urgently required. Recently, viral reverse genetic systems have been developed and applied to clinical WNV virology. We developed a protocol for generating reporter virus particles (RVPs) of WNV with the aim of overcoming two major problems associated with conventional protocols, the difficulty in generating RVPs due to the specific skills required for handling RNAs, and the potential for environmental contamination by antibiotic-resistant genes encoded within the genome RNA of the RVPs. By using the proposed protocol, cells were established in which the RVP genome RNA is replicated constitutively and does not encode any antibiotic-resistant genes, and used as the cell supply for RVP genome RNA. Generation of the WNV RVPs requires only the simple transfection of the expression vectors for the viral structural proteins into the cells. Therefore, no RNA handling is required in this protocol. The WNV RVP yield obtained using this protocol was similar that obtained using the conventional protocol. According to these results, the newly developed protocol appears to be a good alternative for the generation of WNV RVPs, particularly for clinical applications. PMID:25116200

  6. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of marine caliciviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than forty different marine caliciviruses (family Caliciviridae, genus Vesivirus) have been identified from marine and terrestrial host since their initial isolation in 1972. Marine vesiviruses have previously infected swine along the Western coast of the United States and produce a disease cl...

  7. Education and Conservation Benefits of Marine Wildlife Tours: Developing Free-Choice Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeppel, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Marine wildlife tours can provide a range of education and conservation benefits for visitors, including emotional (i.e., affective) responses and learning (i.e., cognition). Interpretive programs cover the biology, ecology, and behavior of marine species; best practice guidelines; and human threats to marine areas. The author reviews the…

  8. Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Redmond, M.S.; Sewall, J.E.; Swartz, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance of these amphipods within Chesapeake Bay and methodologies for establishing cultures of amphipods which could be readily adopted by other laboratories. The second chapter reports the development of acute and chronic sediment toxicity test methods for L. plumulosus, its sensitivity to non-contaminant environmental variables, cadmium, two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The third chapter reports the authors attempts to develop a chronic sediment toxicity test with Ampelisca abdita.

  9. Axonal Transport and Neurodegeneration: How Marine Drugs Can Be Used for the Development of Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph A; Banerjee, Rupkatha; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2016-05-01

    Unlike virtually any other cells in the human body, neurons are tasked with the unique problem of transporting important factors from sites of synthesis at the cell bodies, across enormous distances, along narrow-caliber projections, to distally located nerve terminals in order to maintain cell viability. As a result, axonal transport is a highly regulated process whereby necessary cargoes of all types are packaged and shipped from one end of the neuron to the other. Interruptions in this finely tuned transport have been linked to many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggesting that this pathway is likely perturbed early in disease progression. Therefore, developing therapeutics targeted at modifying transport defects could potentially avert disease progression. In this review, we examine a variety of potential compounds identified from marine aquatic species that affect the axonal transport pathway. These compounds have been shown to function in microtubule (MT) assembly and maintenance, motor protein control, and in the regulation of protein degradation pathways, such as the autophagy-lysosome processes, which are defective in many degenerative diseases. Therefore, marine compounds have great potential in developing effective treatment strategies aimed at early defects which, over time, will restore transport and prevent cell death. PMID:27213408

  10. Axonal Transport and Neurodegeneration: How Marine Drugs Can Be Used for the Development of Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    White, Joseph A.; Banerjee, Rupkatha; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2016-01-01

    Unlike virtually any other cells in the human body, neurons are tasked with the unique problem of transporting important factors from sites of synthesis at the cell bodies, across enormous distances, along narrow-caliber projections, to distally located nerve terminals in order to maintain cell viability. As a result, axonal transport is a highly regulated process whereby necessary cargoes of all types are packaged and shipped from one end of the neuron to the other. Interruptions in this finely tuned transport have been linked to many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggesting that this pathway is likely perturbed early in disease progression. Therefore, developing therapeutics targeted at modifying transport defects could potentially avert disease progression. In this review, we examine a variety of potential compounds identified from marine aquatic species that affect the axonal transport pathway. These compounds have been shown to function in microtubule (MT) assembly and maintenance, motor protein control, and in the regulation of protein degradation pathways, such as the autophagy-lysosome processes, which are defective in many degenerative diseases. Therefore, marine compounds have great potential in developing effective treatment strategies aimed at early defects which, over time, will restore transport and prevent cell death. PMID:27213408

  11. Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

  12. Observing and simulating soil development using a chronosequence of cold raised marine terraces on Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meij, Marijn; de Kleijn, Christian; Temme, Arnaud; Zwolinski, Zbigniew; Rymer, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    The coasts of Spitsbergen are covered with raised marine beaches, developed under the isostatic rebound after the Last Glacial Maximum. This chronosequence of beaches provides a unique chance to study the speed of soil forming processes in cold and dry Arctic regions. Fieldwork was performed on gravelly marine beaches in the Ebba valley, central Spitsbergen, with ages ranging from 3.000 up to 14.000 years. The soils on 30 random selected locations were described and sampled. Results indicate several soil forming processes, which have a strong dependence on time, but also on landscape setting and vegetation presence. These processes include the accumulation of organic matter, aeolian deposition of sand and weathering and dissolution of the limestone gravel that dominates the parent material. This last process results in translocation of silt through the profile, creating silt caps on remaining limestone gravel, and when enough silt is accumulated, a Bl horizon. The carbonates from the limestone form precipitates under the gravel grains. Results support the notion that even under cold, permafrost conditions, soil formation and particularly weathering can still happen reasonably fast if some water is available. Using an early version of soilscape model LORICA, some of the pedogenic processes are simulated in order to get better insight in their dynamics and distribution in the study area. The model links geomorphic processes such as aeolian deposition, isostatic rebound and erosion to the vertical development of the soil profiles in the area.

  13. Unshelled abalone and corrupted urchins: development of marine calcifiers in a changing ocean

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Maria; Ho, Melanie; Wong, Eunice; Soars, Natalie A.; Selvakumaraswamy, Paulina; Shepard-Brennand, Hannah; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Davis, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    The most fragile skeletons produced by benthic marine calcifiers are those that larvae and juveniles make to support their bodies. Ocean warming, acidification, decreased carbonate saturation and their interactive effects are likely to impair skeletogenesis. Failure to produce skeleton in a changing ocean has negative implications for a diversity of marine species. We examined the interactive effects of warming and acidification on an abalone (Haliotis coccoradiata) and a sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) reared from fertilization in temperature and pH/pCO2 treatments in a climatically and regionally relevant setting. Exposure of ectodermal (abalone) and mesodermal (echinoid) calcifying systems to warming (+2°C to 4°C) and acidification (pH 7.6–7.8) resulted in unshelled larvae and abnormal juveniles. Haliotis development was most sensitive with no interaction between stressors. For Heliocidaris, the percentage of normal juveniles decreased in response to both stressors, although a +2°C warming diminished the negative effect of low pH. The number of spines produced decreased with increasing acidification/pCO2, and the interactive effect between stressors indicated that a +2°C warming reduced the negative effects of low pH. At +4°C, the developmental thermal tolerance was breached. Our results show that projected near-future climate change will have deleterious effects on development with differences in vulnerability in the two species. PMID:21177689

  14. The lessons learned from the development of the wind energy industry that might be applied to marine industry renewables.

    PubMed

    Garrad, Andrew

    2012-01-28

    This paper considers the early experiences of the development of wind turbines and the wind energy industry in order to try and identify lessons learned that could now be applied to the developing marine renewables technology and industry. It considers both political and commercial incentives and engineering development. PMID:22184671

  15. Development of the code MaexPro for calculation atmospheric aerosol extinction in the marine and coastal surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, Gennady A.; Shishkin, Sergey A.; Serov, Sergey A.

    2006-11-01

    In the paper the description of the last version of the code MaexPro (Marine aerosol extinction Profile) for calculation spectral and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient α( λ), aerosol sizes distribution, area distribution, volumes distribution, modes aerosol extinction spectra using standard meteorological parameters, aerosol microphysical structure, a spectral band and a height of the sensor location place is submitted. The code MaexPro is the computer program under constantly development to estimate of EO systems signal power at a location place in which a fetch is key entrance parameter. Spectral behavior α( λ) can be submitted as graphically, and as tables. Commands overplot for superposition or change of figures; profiles extrapolation; a lens; all kinds of possible copying; the data presentation, convenient for an input in code MODTRAN, and etc. are stipulated. The code MaexPro is a completely mouse-driven PC Windows program with a user-friendly interface. Calculation time of spectral and vertical profiles of α( λ) depends on the necessary wave length resolution, radius of aerosol particles and the location place height, and does not exceed tens seconds for each new meteorological condition. Other calculations characteristics, such as aerosol sizes distribution, area distribution, volumes distribution, modes aerosol extinction spectra, are performed in a few seconds.

  16. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): Developing a Common Framework for Marine Data Management on a Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H. M.; Schaap, D.

    2014-12-01

    As marine research becomes increasingly multidisciplinary in its approach there has been a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data. A number of regional initiatives are already addressing this requirement through the establishment of e-infrastructures to improve the discovery and access of marine data. Projects such as Geo-Seas and SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and IMOS in Australia have implemented local infrastructures to facilitate the exchange of standardised marine datasets. However, each of these regional initiatives has been developed to address their own requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale these is a need to develop interoperability solutions that can be implemented across these initiatives.Through a series of workshops attended by the relevant domain specialists, the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project has identified areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures and used these as the foundation for the development of three prototype interoperability solutions addressing: the use of brokering services for the purposes of providing access to the data available in the regional data discovery and access services including via the GEOSS portal the development of interoperability between cruise summary reporting systems in Europe, the USA and Australia for routine harvesting of cruise data for delivery via the Partnership for Observation of Global Oceans (POGO) portal the establishment of a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for selected sensors installed on vessels and in real-time monitoring systems using sensor web enablement (SWE) These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common global approach to the management of marine data which can be promoted to the wider marine research community. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently

  17. Optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, SłAwomir B.; Stramski, Dariusz; Stramska, Malgorzata; Reynolds, Rick A.; Wright, Vanessa M.; Miksic, Ezra Y.; Cichocka, Marta; Cieplak, Agnieszka M.

    2010-08-01

    We examined optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California, over a period of 1.5 years. Measurements included the hyperspectral inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater (particulate beam attenuation, particulate and CDOM absorption coefficients within the spectral range 300-850 nm), particle size distribution (PSD) within the diameter range 2-60 μm, and the mass concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), and chlorophyll a (Chl). The particulate assemblage spanned a wide range of concentrations and composition, from the dominance of mineral particles (POC/SPM < 0.06) with relatively steep PSDs to the high significance or dominance of organic particles (POC/SPM > 0.25) with considerably greater contribution of larger-sized particles. Large variability in the particulate characteristics produced correspondingly large variability in the IOPs; up to 100-fold variation in particulate absorption and scattering coefficients and several-fold variation in the SPM-specific and POC-specific coefficients. Analysis of these data demonstrates that knowledge of general characteristics about the particulate composition and size distribution leads to improved interpretations of the observed optical variability. We illustrate a multistep empirical approach for estimating proxies of particle concentration (SPM and POC), composition (POC/SPM), and size distribution (median diameter) from the measured IOPs in a complex coastal environment. The initial step provides information about a proxy for particle composition; other particulate characteristics are subsequently derived from relationships specific to different categories of particulate composition.

  18. The implications of developments on the Atlantic Frontier for marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, John; Wilson, Ben

    2001-05-01

    We review the available information on the distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the Atlantic Frontier area, and the literature on the potential effects of oil exploration and extraction on these species. Reliable estimates of seal abundance are only available for two species (grey and harbour seals). For grey seals and hooded seals there is also information from telemetry studies on their distribution at sea. Data on cetaceans comes from a variety of sources including whaling statistics, dedicated surveys, observers placed on vessels of opportunity, and from bottom-mounted hydrophone arrays. These indicate that the Atlantic Frontier region is of national, and possibly international, importance for a number of cetacean species. The most abundant small cetacean is likely to be the white-sided dolphin; however, smaller numbers of large whales, including endangered blue, right, fin and sei whales, and vulnerable humpback and sperm whales are also likely to be present in summer. There is growing evidence that a number of marine mammal species respond to the acoustic and physical disturbance associated with exploration for oil and gas resources, although the ecological impact of these responses is unclear. We describe how risk assessment frameworks, initially developed for evaluating the environmental impacts of hazardous chemicals, can be used to address this problem.

  19. Marine Derived Nutrients (MDN) in Riverine Ecosystems: Developing Monitoring Tools for Tracking MDN in Alaska Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinella, D. J.; Wipfli, M. S.; Walker, C.; Stricker, C. A.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study is to measure marine derived nutrient (MDN) presence and effects in stream and riparian habitats on the southern Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Year 1 approach was to link stream chemistry, marine isotope signatures, and lipid measures along a gradient from headwaters to mouth in watersheds with and without spawning salmon (i.e., N.F. Anchor River and Happy Creek, respectively). The N.F. Anchor River received 13,000 kg of chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and 2000 kg of coho (O. kisutch) biomass in 2004. Contrary to our hypothesis, NH4 concentrations were not related to salmon escapement, possibly due to rapid uptake in this apparently phosphorus-rich system. Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma), horsetail (Equisetum sp.), and macroinvertebrates collected in spawning reaches showed enriched 15N values relative to an upstream reference and Happy Valley Creek. Biota also showed a general trend toward 15N enrichment along a gradient from headwaters to mouth for both streams, suggesting that trophic complexity increased with stream size regardless of spawning salmon presence. In years 2 and 3 we will expand this study across replicate salmon and non-salmon watersheds and integrate with related studies develop a broader regional understanding of MDN effects in watersheds.

  20. The Vorticity Budgets of North Atlantic Winter Marine Extratropical Cyclones Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, R.; Sorteberg, A.

    2012-12-01

    A partitioned form of the Zwack-Okossi (Z-O) tendency equation is employed to examine the composite role of dynamic and thermodynamic forcing mechanisms to the development of North Atlantic winter marine extratropical cyclones. The results provide a further insight into the budgets of near surface cyclonic geostrophic vorticity (CGV) and their evolution during the life cycle of mid-latitude low pressure systems. Of interest are the direct, indirect and net effects of the Z-O forcing mechanisms. The direct effect shows the contribution of each process to the near surface geostrophic vorticity tendency, while the indirect effect implies the contribution from the associated vertical motion and resulting adiabatic cooling or warming. The net effect is the sum of the direct and indirect effects.We found that the vorticity advection term is the largest net contributor to the development of the marine cyclones. The net positive effect of both the temperature advection and latent heating terms is smaller owing to the induced adiabatic cooling which reduces the positive direct contributions. The direct and indirect parts of ageostrophic tendency and friction terms support each other, resulting in significant net contributions at the low center.Comparisons of the composite contributions by the Z-O forcing terms at different pressure levels over the low center indicate that, in agreement with previous studies, the commencement of significant development is accompanied with the upper level cyclonic absolute vorticity advection, upper level warm advection and mid-to low level latent heating. However, during the end of the development, mid-tropospheric net contribution by vorticity advection term and low level warm advection controls the production of CGV. The former is due to both the presence of mid-level cyclonic vorticity advection and induced adiabatic warming over the composite low center.

  1. Instrument Development for Single-Particle Albedo Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Fox, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The ASTER (Aerosol Scattering To Extinction Ratio) instrument simultaneously measures scattering and extinction by single aerosol particles from which the albedo for each particle can be determined. ASTER employs a high-Q laser cavity to amplify loses in the cavity caused by individual particles to produce measurable extinction signals. The instrument collects light in three separate channels representing backward, forward, and wide-angle scattering. The ratio of forward to total scattering provides a proxy measurement for particle size that Mie scattering calculations show to be largely independent of particle refractive index for diameters below about 2 micrometers. Laboratory measurements on particles of known sizes and scattering properties have been used to assess the performance of the instrument and as a guide for ongoing modifications for eventual field deployment. Results from the current version of the instrument will be presented and compared to previous ASTER data to demonstrate improved performance. Data taken from ambient air have shown modes of highly absorbing particles that would not have been evident from bulk measurements. The single-particle nature of the measurements will provide additional information to complement existing methods for measuring aerosol albedos in the atmosphere.

  2. New developments in particle-based tests and immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Bangs, L B

    1990-09-01

    Latex agglutination tests were invented in 1957. Thirty years later, new tests are still being devised and applied to new analytes. Reproducibility and readability continue to improve. Qualitative tests have now evolved to quantitative particle immunoassays: agglutination is detected by spectrophotometers or nephelometers, in tubes or 96-well plates. These same particles are now also being used in particle capture ELIST and ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent tests and assays) where particles are caught upon a filter and act as supports for sandwich tests (those "+/-" or "blue-dot" tests). These also can be quantified, as in the Abbott IM x assay system. Dyed microspheres now function as the color tags in over-the-counter sandwich-type pregnancy tests. In the future, results from assays using this technology could be read on reflectometers (strip readers). Currently, magnetic particles are used in solid phase radioimmunoassays and DNA probes. PMID:10148953

  3. Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine mediated particle formation in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, B. J.; Haddrell, A. E.; Peppe, S.; Davies, J. F.; Reid, J. P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Price, H. C.; Kumar, R.; Saunders, R. W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Umo, N. S.; Wilson, T. W.

    2012-09-01

    Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. These ultra-fine particles may then grow through the condensation of other materials to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of the initially nucleated particles. In laboratory simulations, hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5·H2O). In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH). On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass. Water retention in amorphous material at low RH is important for understanding the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles and uptake of other condensable material. Subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only 6%, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the small growth factor of aqueous iodic acid solution droplets is consistent with the small aerosol growth

  4. Development of Clinical Database System Specialized for Heavy Particle Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Masami; Ando, Yutaka; Yokooka, Yuki; Okuda, Yasuo; Seki, Masayoshi; Kimura, Masahiro; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a data archiving system for study of charged particle therapy. We required a data-relation mechanism between electronic medical record system (EMR) and database system, because it needs to ensure the information consistency. This paper presents the investigation results of these techniques. The standards in the medical informatics field that we focus on are Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) and 2) Health Level-7 (HL7) to archive the data. As a main cooperation function, we adapt 2 integration profiles of IHE as follows, 1) Patient Administration Management (PAM) Profile of IHE-ITI domain for patient demographic information reconciliation, 2) Enterprise Schedule Integration(ESI) profile of IHE-Radiation Oncology domain for order management between EMR and treatment management system(TMS). We also use HL7 Ver2.5 messages for exchanging the follow-up data and result of laboratory test. In the future, by implementation of this system cooperation, we will be able to ensure interoperability in the event of the EMR update. PMID:26262235

  5. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen

    2015-04-01

    Marine research is rapidly moving away from traditional discipline specific science to a wider ecosystem level approach. This more multidisciplinary approach to ocean science requires large amounts of good quality, interoperable data to be readily available for use in an increasing range of new and complex applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are already available throughout the world as a result of e-infrastructures being established at a regional level to manage and deliver marine data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. Establishing a common framework for marine data management on a global scale necessitates that there is interoperability across these existing data infrastructures and active collaboration between the organisations responsible for their management. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project is promoting co-ordination between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures including SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) in Australia, the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach the ODIP project partners are currently working together to develop several prototypes to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities between the individual regional marine data infrastructures. However, many of the issues being addressed by the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform are not specific to marine science. For this reason many of the outcomes of this international collaborative effort are equally relevant and transferable to other domains.

  6. Development and testing of the infrared interferometer spectrometer for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. H.; Schlachman, B.; Vanous, D.; Rogers, D.; Taylor, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development and testing of the infrared interferometer spectrometer is reported with emphasis on the unique features of the Mariner instrument as compared to previous IRIS instruments flown on the Nimbus meteorological research satellites. The interferometer functions in the spectral range from 50 microns to 6.3 microns. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 X 10 to the -7th power W/sq cm/ster/cm has been achieved. Major improvements that were implemented included the cesium iodide beamsplitter and electronic features to suppress the effect of vibration on the Michelson mirror motion and digital filtering through the summation of increased sampling of the infrared signal. A bit error detection and correction scheme was also implemented in order to recover the science data with a higher level of confidence over the telecommunication link.

  7. Development and testing of the television instrument for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Mariner Mars 1971 television instrument is described. It emphasizes those aspects that are different from the Mariner Mars 1969 television subsystem. The various modes of operation are described and functional descriptions of the major elements in the system summarized. An electronic description of the circuits that differ from those of Mariner Mars 1969 is also presented along with a brief description of the calibration and test sequences.

  8. Ion toxicity and the development of a salinity toxicity relationship (STR) model for marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Mount, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Salinity in effluents can cause acute toxicity to marine organisms. The toxicity of the water can be due to an excess or deficiency of common ions, which usually are not thought of as toxicants. In order to develop an understanding of this phenomenon, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted to determine the effects of single ion deficiency, single ion excess, multiple ion deficiency, multiple ion excess, and total salinity on survival of three common marine test organisms (Mysidopsis bahia, Cyprinidon variegatus, and Menidia beryllina). The ions which were manipulated in these studies were Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, Mg{sup ++}, Sr{sup ++}, Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}{minus}}, HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{sup {minus}{minus}}. Results indicate that Ca{sup ++} and K{sup +} are essential ions at normal salinities, since the deficiency of these two ions causes mortality. In contrast, the complete deficiency of Mg{sup ++}, Sr{sup ++}, B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{sup {minus}{minus}}, and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} did not affect survival. The single ion excess studies demonstrated that K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, Mg{sup ++}, and B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{sup {minus}} were acutely toxic in excess at normal salinities. Total salinity studies determined the salinity tolerance range for each species, with upper and lower LC{sub 50}s for Mysidopsis bahia at 44 g/L and 8 g/L, for Cyprinidon variegatus at 73 g/L and < 0 g/L, and for Menidia beryllina at 45 g/L and < 0 g/L. These data will be used to develop a model to predict toxicity due to common ions.

  9. Measuring the temporal evolution of aerosol composition in a remote marine environment influenced by Saharan dust outflow using a new single particle mass spectrometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Nicholas; Williams, Paul; Flynn, Michael; Taylor, Jonathan; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James; Coe, Hugh

    2016-04-01

    Refractory material constitutes a significant fraction of the atmospheric aerosol burden and has a strong influence on climate through the direct radiative effect and aerosol-cloud interactions, particularly in cold and mixed phase clouds. Composition of refractory aerosols is traditionally measured using off-line analytical techniques such as filter analyses. However, when using off-line techniques the temporal evolution of the data set is lost, meaning the measurements are difficult to relate to atmospheric processes. Recently, single particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) has proven a useful tool for the on-line study of refractory aerosols with the ability to probe size resolved chemical composition with high temporal resolution on a particle by particle basis. A new Laser Ablation Aerosol Time-of-Flight (LAAP-TOF) SPMS instrument with a modified optical detection system was deployed for ground based measurements at Praia, Cape Verde during the Ice in Cloud - Dust (ICE-D) multi-platform campaign in August 2015. A primary aim of the project was to evaluate the impact of Saharan dust on ice nucleation in mixed phase clouds. The instrument was operated over a 16 day period in which several hundred thousand single particle mass spectra were obtained from air masses with back trajectories traversing the Mid-Atlantic, Sahara Desert and West Africa. The data presented indicate external mixtures of sea salt and silicate mineral dust internally mixed with secondary species that are consistent with long range transport to a remote marine environment. The composition and size distributions measured with the LAAP-TOF are compared with measurements from an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and data from SEM-EDX analysis of filter samples. The particle number fraction identified as silicate mineral from the mass spectra correlates with a fraction of the incandescent particles measured with the SP2. We discuss the suitability of the modified

  10. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common framework for marine data management on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick

    2015-04-01

    As marine research becomes increasingly multidisciplinary in its approach there has been a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data. A number of regional initiatives are already addressing this requirement through the establishment of e-infrastructures to improve the discovery and access of marine data. Projects such as SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) in Australia have implemented local infrastructures to facilitate the exchange of standardised marine datasets. However, each of these systems has been developed to address local requirements and created in isolation from those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale there is a need to develop interoperability solutions that can be implemented across these initiatives. Through a series of workshops attended by the relevant domain specialists, the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project has identified areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures and used these as the foundation for the development of three prototype interoperability solutions addressing: 1. the use of brokering services for the purposes of providing access to the data available in the regional data discovery and access services including via the GEOSS portal 2. the development of interoperability between cruise summary reporting systems in Europe, the USA and Australia for routine harvesting of cruise data for delivery via the Partnership for Observation of Global Oceans (POGO) portal 3. the establishment of a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for selected sensors installed on vessels and in real-time monitoring systems using sensor web enablement (SWE) These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common global approach to the management of marine data which can be promoted to the wider marine research community. ODIP is a

  11. Development of marine sediment bioassays and toxicity tests for monitoring and regulation in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Thain, J.; Matthiessen, P.

    1995-12-31

    There is a need in Europe and elsewhere for a broad suite of whole-sediment bioassays and toxicity tests which can be used for routine monitoring and assessment of the marine environment and for evaluating the toxic effects of chemicals which may find their way into sediments. Until recently, few European species had been incorporated into such tests but the availability of suitable methodologies is now increasing rapidly. Perhaps the most important recent activity in this area consisted of an international ring test of acute sediment toxicity test methods which was organized by the Oslo and Paris Commissions in 1993, using up to 4 offshore chemicals as test materials. It evaluated the performance of 4 acute (5--10 day) tests involving: the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum, the bivalve mollusc Abra alba, the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina. The ring test concluded that the C. volutator test was the most appropriate for evaluating offshore chemicals, but all these methods are now widely used in Europe, both as toxicity tests and as bioassays. For example, the A. marina procedure (which has both lethal and sublethal endpoints), in combination with the C. volutator method, is now routinely used in the UK for monitoring the toxicity of estuarine sediments. Further activities are in progress. Perhaps the most important is the development of chronic marine sediment tests and bioassays which can be used to assess the long-term effects of the many sedimentary contaminants which are able to persist in this type of habitat and possibly cause delayed effects on the growth and reproduction, etc. of benthic fauna.

  12. Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, C.M.; Branch, G.; Bustamante, R.H.; Castilla, J.C.; Dugan, J.; Halpern, B.S.; Lafferty, K.D.; Leslie, H.; Lubchenco, J.; McArdle, D.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Warner, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are being established worldwide in response to a growing recognition of the conservation crisis that is building in the oceans. However, designation of reserves has been largely opportunistic, or protective measures have been implemented (often overlapping and sometimes in conflict) by different entities seeking to achieve different ends. This has created confusion among both users and enforcers, and the proliferation of different measures provides a false sense of protection where little is offered. This paper sets out a procedure grounded in current understanding of ecological processes, that allows the evaluation and selection of reserve sites in order to develop functional, interconnected networks of fully protected reserves that will fulfill multiple objectives. By fully protected we mean permanently closed to fishing and other resource extraction. We provide a framework that unifies the central aims of conservation and fishery management, while also meeting other human needs such as the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., maintenance of coastal water quality, shoreline protection, and recreational opportunities). In our scheme, candidate sites for reserves are evaluated against 12 criteria focused toward sustaining the biological integrity and productivity of marine systems at both local and regional scales. While a limited number of sites will be indispensable in a network, many will be of similar value as reserves, allowing the design of numerous alternative, biologically adequate networks. Devising multiple network designs will help ensure that ecological functionality is preserved throughout the socioeconomic evaluation process. Too often, socioeconomic criteria have dominated the process of reserve selection, potentially undermining their efficacy. We argue that application of biological criteria must precede and inform socioeconomic evaluation, since maintenance of ecosystem functioning is essential for meeting all of the goals for

  13. Development and testing of the data automation subsystem for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The data automation subsystem designed and built as part of the Mariner Mars 1971 program, sequences and controls the science instruments and formats all science data. A description of the subsystem with emphasis on major changes relative to Mariner Mars 1969 is presented. In addition, the complete test phase is described.

  14. A Sourcebook of Marine Activities Developed in the Milwaukee Great Lakes Summer Education Program, 1977 and 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Richard E., Ed.

    Twenty-seven activities dealing with the marine environment of the Great Lakes are presented. Designed for junior and senior high school students, these activities develop awareness of the biological, physical, social, economical, and aesthetic dimensions of the Great Lakes. Field trips, films, discussion, and hands-on activities are used to teach…

  15. Developing a Long-term Monitoring Program with Undergraduate Students in Marine Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, T. M.; Boryta, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    A goal of our growing marine geoscience program at Mt. San Antonio College is to involve our students in all stages of developing and running an undergraduate research project. During the initial planning phase, students develop and test their proposals. Instructor-set parameters were chosen carefully to help guide students toward manageable projects but to not limit their creativity. Projects should focus on long-term monitoring of a coastal area in southern California. During the second phase, incoming students will critique the initial proposals, modify as necessary and continue to develop the project. We intend for data collection opportunities to grow from geological and oceanographic bases to eventually include other STEM topics in biology, chemistry, math and GIS. Questions we will address include: What makes this a good research project for a community college? What are the costs and time commitments involved? How will the project benefit students and society? Additionally we will share our initial results, challenges, and unexpected pitfalls and benefits.

  16. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH3) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH3 than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH3 concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH3 concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH3 and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH3.

  17. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    SciTech Connect

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

  18. Hierarchical Population Genetic Structure in a Direct Developing Antarctic Marine Invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joseph I.; Clarke, Andrew; Clark, Melody S.; Peck, Lloyd S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between life-history variation and population structure in marine invertebrates is not straightforward. This is particularly true of polar species due to the difficulty of obtaining samples and a paucity of genomic resources from which to develop nuclear genetic markers. Such knowledge, however, is essential for understanding how different taxa may respond to climate change in the most rapidly warming regions of the planet. We therefore used over two hundred polymorphic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) to explore population connectivity at three hierachical spatial scales in the direct developing Antarctic topshell Margarella antarctica. To previously published data from five populations spanning a 1500 km transect along the length of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, we added new AFLP data for four populations separated by up to 6 km within Ryder Bay, Adelaide Island. Overall, we found a nonlinear isolation-by-distance pattern, suggestive of weaker population structure within Ryder Bay than is present over larger spatial scales. Nevertheless, significantly positive Fst values were obtained in all but two of ten pairwise population comparisons within the bay following Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. This is in contrast to a previous study of the broadcast spawner Nacella concinna that found no significant genetic differences among several of the same sites. By implication, the topshell's direct-developing lifestyle may constrain its ability to disperse even over relatively small geographic scales. PMID:23691125

  19. A Model for Particle Microphysics, Turbulent Mixing, and Radiative Transfer in the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer and Comparisons with Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, Owen B.; Hobbs, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an approx. 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gale conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The vertical profile of cloud droplet concentration is sensitive to the lower size cutoff of the droplet size distribution due to the presence of unactivated haze particles in the lower region of the modeled cloud. Increases in total droplet concentrations do not always produce less drizzle and more cloud water in the model. The radius of the mean droplet volume does not correlate consistently with drizzle, but the effective droplet radius does. The greatest impacts on cloud properties predicted by the model are produced by halving the width of the size distribution of input condensation nuclei and by omitting the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling on the condensational growth of cloud droplets. The omission of infrared scattering produces noticeable changes in cloud properties. The collection efficiencies for droplets less

  20. A Model for Particle Microphysics,Turbulent Mixing, and Radiative Transfer in the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer and Comparisons with Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, Owen B.; Hobbs, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an approx. 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gate conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The vertical profile of cloud droplet concentration is sensitive to the lower size cutoff of the droplet size distribution due to the presence of unactivated haze particles in the lower region of the modeled cloud. Increases in total droplet concentrations do not always produce less drizzle and more cloud water in the model. The radius of the mean droplet volume does not correlate consistently with drizzle, but the effective droplet radius does. The greatest impacts on cloud properties predicted by the model are produced by halving the width of the size distribution of input condensation nuclei and by omitting the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling on the condensational growth of cloud droplets. The omission of infrared scattering produces noticeable changes in cloud properties. The collection efficiencies for droplets less

  1. Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine oxide particles in the coastal marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, B. J.; Haddrell, A. E.; Peppe, S.; Davies, J. F.; Reid, J. P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Price, H. C.; Kumar, R.; Saunders, R. W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Umo, N. S.; Wilson, T. W.

    2012-03-01

    Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of these particles. Hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5 · H2O). In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH). On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass, but subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only ~6 %, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the small growth factor of aqueous iodic acid solution droplets is consistent with the small aerosol growth factors observed in field experiments.

  2. Transparent exopolymer particle production and aggregation by a marine planktonic diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii) at different growth rates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Thornton, Daniel C O

    2015-04-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) play an important role in the ocean carbon cycle as they are sticky and affect particle aggregation and the biological carbon pump. We investigated the effect of growth rate on TEP production in nitrogen limited semi-continuous cultures of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (Grunow) G. Fryxell & Hasle. Steady-state diatom concentrations and other indicators of biomass (chl a, and total carbohydrate) were inversely related to growth rate, while individual cell volume increased with growth rate. There was no change in total TEP area with growth rate; however, individual TEP were larger at high growth rates and the number of individual TEP particles was lower. TEP concentration per cell was higher at higher growth rates. SYTOX Green staining showed that <5% of the diatom population had permeable cell membranes, with the proportion increasing at low growth rates. However, TEP production rates were greater at high growth rates, refuting our hypothesis that TEP formation is dependent on dying cells with compromised cell membranes in a diatom population. Measurements of particle size distribution in the cultures using laser scattering showed that they were most aggregated at high growth rates. These results indicate a coupling between TEP production and growth rate in diatoms under N limitation, with fast growing T. weissflogii producing more TEP and aggregates. PMID:26986532

  3. Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, Sophie L.; Radford, Andrew N.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Nedelec, Brendan; Lecchini, David; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2014-07-01

    Human activities can create noise pollution and there is increasing international concern about how this may impact wildlife. There is evidence that anthropogenic noise may have detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology in many species but there are few examples of experiments showing how fitness may be directly affected. Here we use a split-brood, counterbalanced, field experiment to investigate the effect of repeated boat-noise playback during early life on the development and survival of a marine invertebrate, the sea hare Stylocheilus striatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia). We found that exposure to boat-noise playback, compared to ambient-noise playback, reduced successful development of embryos by 21% and additionally increased mortality of recently hatched larvae by 22%. Our work, on an understudied but ecologically and socio-economically important taxon, demonstrates that anthropogenic noise can affect individual fitness. Fitness costs early in life have a fundamental influence on population dynamics and resilience, with potential implications for community structure and function.

  4. Effects of barium and cadmium on the population development of the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina.

    PubMed

    Lira, V F; Santos, G A P; Derycke, S; Larrazabal, M E L; Fonsêca-Genevois, V G; Moens, T

    2011-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling often involves the use of fluids containing barium and traces of other heavy metals. These may affect the environment, but information on their toxicity to benthic biota remains scant. Here, we present results of a 10-day bioassay with the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina at different loads of barium (0-10 ,000 ppm nominal concentrations) and cadmium (0-12 ppm) in the range of concentrations reported from drilling-impacted sediments. Barium did not affect the fitness and population development of R. (P.) marina at concentrations up to 300 ppm, but did cause a decrease in population abundance and an increase in development time from concentrations of 400-2000 ppm onwards. Increased mortality occurred at 4800 ppm Ba. For cadmium, LOEC and EC₅₀ values for total population abundance were 2.95 and 8.82 ppm, respectively. Cd concentrations as low as 2.40 to 2.68 caused a decrease in the abundance of adult nematodes, indicating that assays covering more generations would likely demonstrate yet more pronounced population-level effects. Our results indicate that oil and gas drilling activities may potentially have important implications for the meiobenthos through the toxicity of barium and associated metals like cadmium. PMID:21855994

  5. Marine Science in Support for Sustainable Development of the Indian Ocean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbeck, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Indian Ocean rim is home to a significant part of the global population. Its large heat capacity and ocean circulation responds to and regulates seasonal to multi-decadal and long term climate change. In particular the monsoon type circulation regulates rain and drought patterns over India, Africa and Southern Asia. Fishing and more recently resource extraction of energy and materials make the ocean economically important. Global trade and ocean related hazards (such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, ocean de-oxygenation, loss of biodiversity, sea level rise and earth quakes and tsunamis) have important other economic impacts on all societies. On the other hand our current scientific understanding, ability to continually observe changes in the marine environment, model all aspects of the connected ocean system and develop plausible scenarios for the Indian Ocean of the future are still in its infancy. The possibility for a decade long comprehensive Indian Ocean Study in support of providing the information needed for sustainable development of the region is explored.

  6. Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Nedelec, Sophie L.; Radford, Andrew N.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Nedelec, Brendan; Lecchini, David; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities can create noise pollution and there is increasing international concern about how this may impact wildlife. There is evidence that anthropogenic noise may have detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology in many species but there are few examples of experiments showing how fitness may be directly affected. Here we use a split-brood, counterbalanced, field experiment to investigate the effect of repeated boat-noise playback during early life on the development and survival of a marine invertebrate, the sea hare Stylocheilus striatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia). We found that exposure to boat-noise playback, compared to ambient-noise playback, reduced successful development of embryos by 21% and additionally increased mortality of recently hatched larvae by 22%. Our work, on an understudied but ecologically and socio-economically important taxon, demonstrates that anthropogenic noise can affect individual fitness. Fitness costs early in life have a fundamental influence on population dynamics and resilience, with potential implications for community structure and function. PMID:25080997

  7. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linlin; Dong, Wenhong; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs), isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA). PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0) till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. PMID:26058015

  8. Engaging Scientists in K-12 Professional Development and Curriculum Development in the Context of Alaska's Large Marine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigman, M.; Anderson, A.; Deans, N. L.; Dublin, R.; Dugan, D.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Warburton, J.

    2012-12-01

    Alaska marine ecosystem-based professional development workshops have proven to be a robust context for engaging scientists from a variety of disciplines in overcoming barriers to communication and collaboration among scientists and educators. Scientists came away from scientist-teacher workshops with effective K-12 outreach strategies as well as a deeper understanding about how to contribute meaningfully to K-12 education. The establishment of the Alaskan Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE-AK) in 2009 was the catalyst for a series of professional development workshops related to the North Pacific Research Board's (NPRB) marine focus areas (Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, and Arctic Ocean) for Integrated Ecosystem Research Programs (IERPs). During 2010-2012, COSEE-AK and NPRB partnered with the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS), and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) to support a five-day professional development workshop focused on each ecosystem. The workshops brought together three types of participants: 1) Alaska-focused marine ecosystem scientists; 2) rural Alaskan teachers living within each ecosystem; and 3) teachers from outside Alaska who had research experiences with scientists in the ecosystem. Over the course of the workshops, we developed a workshop model with four objectives: 1) to increase the science content knowledge of educators and their ability to teach ecosystem science; 2) to provide the scientists an opportunity to have broader impacts from their research on educators and Alaska Native and rural students; 3) to increase the knowledge and skills of educator and scientist participants to provide effective learning experiences for K-12 students; and 4) to facilitate the collaborative development of lesson plans. A total of 28 scientists and 41 educators participated in the three workshops. The success of the workshop for the educators was

  9. Development of a Testing Platform for Scaled-Laboratory Studies of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, M. L.; Volpe, M. A.; Riley, D. R.; Krane, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    A small-scale platform for testing model hydrokinetic devices in riverine environments has been developed for the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, 1.5 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&H) at Bucknell University. This platform is being used to advance development of marine hydrokinetic technologies by providing scaled-laboratory testing in a controlled environment. The results will provide validation of numerical predictions for device effects on the local substrate. Specifically, the flume is being used to model the effect of an underwater turbine on the sediment transport through its wake flow as it converts hydrokinetic energy to power. A test bed has been designed and assembled to hold sediment of varying size and material, where a single model turbine or an array formation, can be rooted within an erodible bed to conduct scour and erosion studies. Additionally, the facility is equipped with contraction inserts to increase the range of flow speeds available for turbine testing. For accurate flow field measurements the testing platform is instrumented with a Sontek Horizon 16 MHz Micro Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) which is used to characterize the mean velocity field of the wake generated by the turbine to correlate the strength of the wake with changes in the sediment bed. Finally, the testing platform includes an HR Wallingford 2D Sediment Bed Profiler with a low-powered laser distance sensor mounted inside a waterproof housing to enable characterization of changes in bed form topology for various turbine performance regimes. The flume is equipped with a track that allows a precision 3D traversing system to position measurement probes along the length, width and depth of the flume. Model turbine performance in terms of torque and power are characterized. This testing platform for laboratory-scaled studies are instrumental in yielding physical measurements of the alteration of sediment caused by

  10. Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry and its Application in Engine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupland, J. M.; Garner, C. P.; Alcock, R. D.; Halliwell, N. A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviews Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV) as a means to make three-component velocity measurements throughout a three-dimensional flow-field of interest. A simplified treatment of three-dimensional scalar wave propagation is outlined and subsequently used to illustrate the principles of complex correlation analysis. It is shown that this type of analysis provides the three-dimensional correlation of the propagating, monochromatic fields recorded by the hologram. A similar approach is used to analyse the Object Conjugate Reconstruction (OCR) technique to resolve directional ambiguity by introducing an artificial image shift to the reconstructed particle images. An example of how these methods are used together to measure the instantaneous flow fields within a motored Diesel engine is then described.

  11. Early developments: Particle physics aspects of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays is the birthplace of elementary particle physics. The 1936 Nobel prize was shared between Victor Hess and Carl Anderson. Anderson discovered the positron in a cloud chamber. The positron was predicted by Dirac several years earlier. In subsequent cloud chamber investigations Anderson and Neddermeyer saw the muon, which for some time was considered to be a candidate for the Yukawa particle responsible for nuclear binding. Measurements with nuclear emulsions by Lattes, Powell, Occhialini and Muirhead clarified the situation by the discovery of the charged pions in cosmic rays. The cloud chamber continued to be a powerful instrument in cosmic ray studies. Rochester and Butler found V's, which turned out to be shortlived neutral kaons decaying into a pair of charged pions. Also Λ's, Σ's, and Ξ's were found in cosmic rays. But after that accelerators and storage rings took over. The unexpected renaissance of cosmic rays started with the search for solar neutrinos and the observation of the supernova 1987A. Cosmic ray neutrino results were best explained by the assumption of neutrino oscillations opening a view beyond the standard model of elementary particles. After 100 years of cosmic ray research we are again at the beginning of a new era, and cosmic rays may contribute to solve the many open questions, like dark matter and dark energy, by providing energies well beyond those of accelerators.

  12. Development of marine biotechnology as a resource for novel proteases and their role in modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Homaei, Ahmad; Lavajoo, Fatemeh; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2016-07-01

    Marine environment consists of the largest sources diversified genetic pool of material with an enormous potential for a wide variety of enzymes including proteases. A protease hydrolyzes the peptide bond and most of proteases possess many industrial applications. Marine proteases differ considerably from those found in internal or external organs of invertebrates and vertebrates. In common with all enzymes, external factors such as temperature, pH and type of media are important for the activity, catalytic efficiency, stability and proper functioning of proteases. In this review valuable characteristics of proteases in marine organisms and their applications are gathered from a wide literature survey. Considering their biochemical significance and their increasing importance in biotechnology, a thorough understanding of marine proteases functioning could be of prime importance. PMID:27086293

  13. Development and testing of the ultraviolet spectrometer for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrar, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The Mariner Mars 1971 ultraviolet spectrometer is an Ebert-Fastie type of the same basic design as the Mariner Mars 1969 instrument. Light enters the instrument and is split into component wavelengths by a scanning reflection diffraction grating. Two monochrometer exit slits allow the use of two independent photomultiplier tube sensors. Channel 1 has a spectral range of 1100 to 1692 A with a fixed gain, while Channel 2 has a spectral range of 1450 to 3528 A with an automatic step gain control, providing a dynamic range over the expected atmosphere and surface brightness of Mars. The scientific objectives, basic operation, design, testing, and calibration for the Mariner Mars 1971 ultraviolet spectrometer are described. The design discussion includes those modifications that were necessary to extend the lifetime of the instrument in order to accomplish the Mariner Mars 1971 mission objectives.

  14. Development of magnetic luminescent core/shell nanocomplex particles with fluorescence using Rhodamine 6G

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee Uk; Song, Yoon Seok; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A simple method was developed to synthesize Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite particles. ► The magnetic particle shows that highly luminescent and core/shell particles are formed. ► Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. ► The magnetic particles could detect fluorescence for the application of biosensor. -- Abstract: A simple and reproducible method was developed to synthesize a novel class of Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite core/shell particles. Using a single cobalt core, Rhodamine 6G of organic dye molecules was entrapped in a silica shell, resulting in core/shell particles of ∼200 nm diameter. Analyses using a variety of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibration sample magnetometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and fluorescence intensity demonstrated that dye molecules were trapped inside the core/shell particles. A photoluminescence investigation showed that highly luminescent and photostable core/shell particles were formed. Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. The synthesized magnetic particles could be used to detect fluorescence on glass substrate arrays for bioassay and biosensor applications.

  15. Development of Towed Marine Seismic Vibrator as an Alternative Seismic Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozasa, H.; Mikada, H.; Murakami, F.; Jamali Hondori, E.; Takekawa, J.; Asakawa, E.; Sato, F.

    2015-12-01

    The principal issue with respect to marine impulsive sources to acquire seismic data is if the emission of acoustic energy inflicts harm on marine mammals or not, since the volume of the source signal being released into the marine environment could be so large compared to the sound range of the mammals. We propose a marine seismic vibrator as an alternative to the impulsive sources to mitigate a risk of the impact to the marine environment while satisfying the necessary conditions of seismic surveys. These conditions include the repeatability and the controllability of source signals both in amplitude and phase for high-quality measurements. We, therefore, designed a towed marine seismic vibrator (MSV) as a new type marine vibratory seismic source that employed the hydraulic servo system for the controllability condition in phase and in amplitude that assures the repeatability as well. After fabricating a downsized MSV that requires the power of 30 kVA at a depth of about 250 m in water, several sea trials were conducted to test the source characteristics of the downsized MSV in terms of amplitude, frequency, horizontal and vertical directivities of the generated field. The maximum sound level satisfied the designed specification in the frequencies ranging from 3 to 300 Hz almost omnidirectionally. After checking the source characteristics, we then conducted a trial seismic survey, using both the downsized MSV and an airgun of 480 cubic-inches for comparison, with a streamer cable of 2,000m long right above a cabled earthquake observatory in the Japan Sea. The result showed that the penetration of seismic signals generated by the downsized MSV was comparable to that by the airgun, although there was a slight difference in the signal-to-noise ratio. The MSV could become a versatile source that will not harm living marine mammals as an alternative to the existing impulsive seismic sources such as airgun.

  16. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  17. Nutrition and bioprocess development for efficient biosynthesis of an antitumor compound from marine-derived fungus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiqiang; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Jiushun; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Jiao; Wang, Meixia; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2013-10-01

    An integrated nutrition and bioprocess strategy was developed for improving the biosynthesis of an antitumor compound, 1403C, by a marine-derived fungus, Halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403). First, statistical design strategies were synthetically applied to optimize the nutritional composition. The resulting 1403C production reached 2.07 g/l, which was 143.5 % higher than the original production. However, it only produced 0.44 g/l of 1403C in 5-l bioreactor fermentation. Thus, the operating parameters including culture pH, dissolved oxygen, agitation speed, impeller type and inoculum level were considered to improve the fermentation process, and an effective control strategy for 1403C production by Halorosellinia sp. submerged in a 5-l bioreactor was established. When inoculating 0.22 g/l dry biomass, controlling dissolved oxygen not lower than 30 % during the growth phase but ranging between 30 and 40 % during the stationary phase, using a double-layer six-flat-blade Rushton disc turbine agitated at 400 rpm, keeping short-term low pH and rapid-rising pH with glucose starvation, the highest 1403C production was finally obtained at 1.32 g/l, which was promoted by 200 % compared to before optimization. Fermentation scale-up was finally performed in a 500-l bioreactor, and 1403C production of 1.09 g/l was obtained. PMID:23887857

  18. Bioassay development using early life stages of the marine macroalga, Ecklonia radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Wheeler, K.D.; Roper, J.; Burridge, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    A lack of standard toxicity test methods for species native to Australia has stimulated research to overcome this deficiency. In the present work, germination inhibition was utilized as an endpoint in 48h bioassays with the marine macroalga Ecklonia radiata. E radiata is often a dominant member of temperate subtidal communities in Australia and other parts of the southern hemisphere. The alga fills an ecological niche similar to that of Macrocystis pyrifera, the giant kelp which occurs in the northern hemisphere. In an adaptation of test methods used for M. pyrifera, release of E. radiata zoospores was induced in the laboratory. Settled spores were then exposed to toxicants for 48 h and germination success was determined by scoring the spores for the development of a germination tube. At 20 C, EC{sub 50} values ranging between 53.4 and 77.4 mg/L were generated in tests with hexavalent chromium (potassium chromate). The EC{sub 50} for copper (cupric chloride) was 0.53 mg/L. Sensitivity of E. radiata to metals such as copper may have significance toward assessing the environmental impacts of some antifoulant coatings used on seagoing vessels. In future studies, growth of zoospore germination tubes and comparative sensitivity of different E. radiata populations will be examined.

  19. Development and bias assessment of a method for targeted metagenomic sequencing of marine cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Batmalle, Cécilia S; Chiang, Hsin-I; Zhang, Kun; Lomas, Michael W; Martiny, Adam C

    2014-02-01

    Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in oligotrophic waters and responsible for a significant percentage of the earth's primary production. Here we developed a method for metagenomic sequencing of sorted Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations using a transposon-based library preparation technique. First, we observed that the cell lysis technique and associated amount of input DNA had an important role in determining the DNA library quality. Second, we found that our transposon-based method provided a more even coverage distribution and matched more sequences of a reference genome than multiple displacement amplification, a commonly used method for metagenomic sequencing. We then demonstrated the method on Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus field populations from the Sargasso Sea and California Current isolated by flow cytometric sorting and found clear environmentally related differences in ecotype distributions and gene abundances. In addition, we saw a significant correspondence between metagenomic libraries sequenced with our technique and regular sequencing of bulk DNA. Our results show that this targeted method is a viable replacement for regular metagenomic approaches and will be useful for identifying the biogeography and genome content of specific marine cyanobacterial populations. PMID:24296495

  20. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28

    physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1° x 1°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6m. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4º by 5º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between clean marine aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses were carried out over 15 regions selected to be representative of different areas of the global ocean for the time period from June 2006 to April 2011. We show that for very low (less than 4 m s-1) and very high (more than 12 m s-1) wind speed conditions the mean CALIPSO-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) has little dependency on the surface wind speed. For an intermediate (between 4 and 12 m s-1) marine AOD was linearly correlated with the surface wind speed values, with a slope of 0.0062 s m-1. Results of our study suggest that considerable improvements to both optical properties of marine aerosols and their production mechanisms can be

  1. Development of Marine Sciences in Arab Universities. Meeting of Experts Held at the Marine Science Station (Aqaba, Jordan, December 1-5, 1985). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    The "Unesco Reports in Marine Science" are designed to serve as a complement to the "Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science." This report focuses on the current situation in marine sciences in Arab universities. A special meeting was convened in Jordan during December, 1985, to discuss the objectives of teaching and research in the marine…

  2. Development of a 3D particle treecode for plasma simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Benjamin; Christlieb, Andrew; Krasny, Robert

    2008-11-01

    In this work we present a fully 3-D Boundary Integral Treecode (BIT). We apply the method to several classic problems such as sheath formation and 3D simulations of a Penning trap. In addition, we investigate the ability of the solver to naturally capture Coloumb scattering. A key point in the investigation is to understand the effect of different types of regularizations, and how to appropriately incorporate the regularization in the BIT framework. This work builds on substantial efforts in 1- and 2-D. [1] R. Krasny and K. Lindsay, A particle method and adaptive treecode for vortex sheet motion in 3-D flow, JCP, Vol. 172, No. 2, 879-907 [2] K. Matyash, R. Schneider, R. Sydora, and F. Taccogna, Application of a Grid-Free Kinetic Model to the Collisionless Sheath, Contrib. Plasma Phys, Vol. 48, No. 1-3, 116-120 (2008) [3] K. Cartwright and A. Christlieb, Boundary Integral Corrected Particle in Cell, SIAM Journal on Sci. Comput., submitted [4] A. Christlieb, R. Krasny, B. Ong and J. Qiu, A Step Towards Addressing Temporal Multi-scale Problems in Plasma Physics, in prep.

  3. Osteogenic cell response to 3-D hydroxyapatite scaffolds developed via replication of natural marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S A; Choi, S Y; McKechnie, Melanie; Burke, G; Dunne, N; Walker, G; Cunningham, E; Buchanan, F

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue engineering may provide an alternative to autograft, however scaffold optimisation is required to maximize bone ingrowth. In designing scaffolds, pore architecture is important and there is evidence that cells prefer a degree of non-uniformity. The aim of this study was to compare scaffolds derived from a natural porous marine sponge (Spongia agaricina) with unique architecture to those derived from a synthetic polyurethane foam. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds of 1 cm(3) were prepared via ceramic infiltration of a marine sponge and a polyurethane (PU) foam. Human foetal osteoblasts (hFOB) were seeded at 1 × 10(5) cells/scaffold for up to 14 days. Cytotoxicity, cell number, morphology and differentiation were investigated. PU-derived scaffolds had 84-91% porosity and 99.99% pore interconnectivity. In comparison marine sponge-derived scaffolds had 56-61% porosity and 99.9% pore interconnectivity. hFOB studies showed that a greater number of cells were found on marine sponge-derived scaffolds at than on the PU scaffold but there was no significant difference in cell differentiation. X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that Si ions were released from the marine-derived scaffold. In summary, three dimensional porous constructs have been manufactured that support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation but significantly more cells were seen on marine-derived scaffolds. This could be due both to the chemistry and pore architecture of the scaffolds with an additional biological stimulus from presence of Si ions. Further in vivo tests in orthotopic models are required but this marine-derived scaffold shows promise for applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26704539

  4. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  5. Modelling the role of marine particle on large scale 231Pa, 230Th, Iron and Aluminium distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutay, J.-C.; Tagliabue, A.; Kriest, I.; van Hulten, M. M. P.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of trace elements in the ocean is governed by the combined effects of various processes, and by exchanges with external sources. Modelling these represents an opportunity to better understand and quantify the mechanisms that regulate the oceanic tracer cycles. Observations collected during the GEOTRACES program provide an opportunity to improve our knowledge regarding processes that should be considered in biogeochemical models to adequately represent the distributions of trace elements in the ocean. Here we present a synthesis about the state of the art for simulating selected trace elements in biogeochemical models: Protactinium, Thorium, Iron and Aluminium. In this contribution we pay particular attention on the role of particles in the cycling of these tracers and how they may provide additional constraints on the transfer of matter in the ocean.

  6. Evolving science of marine reserves: New developments and emerging research frontiers

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Steven D.; Lester, Sarah E.; Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Costello, Christopher; Pollnac, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The field of marine reserve science has matured greatly over the last decade, moving beyond studies of single reserves and beyond perspectives from single disciplines. This Special Feature exemplifies recent advances in marine reserve research, showing insights gained from synthetic studies of reserve networks, long-term changes within reserves, integration of social and ecological science research, and balance between reserve design for conservation as well as fishery and other commercial objectives. This rich body of research helps to inform conservation planning for marine ecosystems but also poses new challenges for further study, including how to best design integrated fisheries management and conservation systems, how to effectively evaluate the performance of entire reserve networks, and how to examine the complex coupling between ecological and socioeconomic responses to reserve networks. PMID:20978212

  7. Development of a single-axis ultrasonic levitator and the study of the radial particle oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Sebastian; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Esen, Cemal; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    This work describes the development and analysis of a new single-axis acoustic levitator, which consists of a 38 kHz Langevin-type piezoelectric transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector. The new levitator design allows to significantly reducing the electric power necessary to levitate particles and to stabilize the levitated sample in both radial and axial directions. In this investigation the lateral oscillations of a levitated particle were measured with a single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and an image evaluation technique. The lateral oscillations were measured for different values of particle diameter, particle density and applied electrical power.

  8. Development of a decision support system to manage contamination in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, A; Viarengo, A

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, contamination and its interaction with climate-change variables have been recognized as critical stressors in coastal areas, emphasizing the need for a standardized framework encompassing chemical and biological data into risk indices to support decision-making. We therefore developed an innovative, expert decision support system (Exp-DSS) for the management of contamination in marine coastal ecosystems. The Exp-DSS has two main applications: (i) to determine environmental risk and biological vulnerability in contaminated sites; and (ii) to support the management of waters and sediments by assessing the risk due to the exposure of biota to these matrices. The Exp-DSS evaluates chemical data, both as single compounds and as total toxic pressure of the mixture, to compare concentrations to effect-based thresholds (TELs and PELs). Sites are then placed into three categories of contamination: uncontaminated, mildly contaminated, and highly contaminated. In highly contaminated sites, effects on high-level ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e. survival and reproduction) are used to determine risk at the organism-population level, while ecological parameters (i.e. alterations in community structure and ecosystem functions) are considered for assessing effects on biodiversity. Changes in sublethal biomarkers are utilized to assess the stress level of the organisms in mildly contaminated sites. In Triad studies, chemical concentrations, ecotoxicological high-level effects, and ecological data are combined to determine the level of environmental risk in highly contaminated sites; chemical concentration and ecotoxicological sublethal effects are evaluated to determine biological vulnerability in mildly contaminated sites. The Exp-DSS was applied to data from the literature about sediment quality in estuarine areas of Spain, and ranked risks related to exposure to contaminated sediments from high risk (Huelva estuary) to mild risk (Guadalquivir estuary and Bay of

  9. Development of a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy for analysis of the marine phytoplankton community.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kang, Hye-Eun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404-411 bp) obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy. The novel strategy was used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure of six water samples from the East/Japan Sea: surface and 50 m depths at coastal and open-sea sites, with collections in May and July 2014. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which covered most of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal phyla, including Dinophyta, Rhodophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Cyanophyta. This highlights the importance of plastid 23S primers, which perform better than the currently used 16S primers for phytoplankton community surveys. The findings also revealed that more efforts should be made to update 23S rDNA sequences as well as those of 16S in the databases. Analysis of algal proportions in the six samples showed that community structure differed depending on location, depth and season. Across the six samples evaluated, the numbers of OTUs in each phylum were similar but their relative proportions varied. This novel strategy would allow laboratories to analyze large numbers of samples at reasonable expense, whereas this has not been possible to date due to cost and time. In addition, we expect that this strategy will generate a large amount of novel data that could potentially change established methods and tools that are currently used in the realms of

  10. Development of a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy for analysis of the marine phytoplankton community

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kang, Hye-Eun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Ahn, Do-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404–411 bp) obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy. The novel strategy was used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure of six water samples from the East/Japan Sea: surface and 50 m depths at coastal and open-sea sites, with collections in May and July 2014. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which covered most of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal phyla, including Dinophyta, Rhodophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Cyanophyta. This highlights the importance of plastid 23S primers, which perform better than the currently used 16S primers for phytoplankton community surveys. The findings also revealed that more efforts should be made to update 23S rDNA sequences as well as those of 16S in the databases. Analysis of algal proportions in the six samples showed that community structure differed depending on location, depth and season. Across the six samples evaluated, the numbers of OTUs in each phylum were similar but their relative proportions varied. This novel strategy would allow laboratories to analyze large numbers of samples at reasonable expense, whereas this has not been possible to date due to cost and time. In addition, we expect that this strategy will generate a large amount of novel data that could potentially change established methods and tools that are currently used in the realms of