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1

Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.  

SciTech Connect

The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power plants while mitigating nearby and distant impacts. Activities may include laboratory and computational modeling of mooring design or research on device spacing. The geographies, resources, technologies, and even nomenclature of the U.S. marine and hydrokinetic technology industry have yet to be fully understood or defined. The program characterizes and assesses marine and hydrokinetic devices, and then organizes the collected information into a comprehensive and searchable Web-based database, the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. The database, which reflects intergovernmental and international collaboration, provides industry with one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date public resources on marine and hydrokinetic devices.

LiVecchi, Al (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Jepsen, Richard Alan

2010-06-01

2

Developments in marine radar magnetrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetrons for civil marine radar applications have been manufactured on the e2v Chelmsford site since 1947. The earliest production was of the original S band wartime designs developed by the Radiation Laboratory at MIT but it was not long before engineers at the then English Electric Valve Company began making improvements. This paper traces the development of magnetrons for marine

Mick Brady; Martin Edwards

2010-01-01

3

Carbonaceous particles reduce marine microgel formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase in ambient carbonaceous particle (CNP) levels has been found, potentially leading to significant environmental/health hazards. These particles will ultimately enter the oceanic environment and interact with dissolved organic carbon. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of their behavior, transport, and fate in marine systems is still much needed. This study, using carbon black (CB, 14 nm) nanoparticles as a model, aimed to investigate the impact of CNPs on marine microgel formation, a critical shunt between DOC and particulate organic carbon that potentially represents a ~70-Gt organic carbon flux. We found that CB can enhance the stability of DOC polymers and reduce microgel equilibrium sizes in concentration as low as 1 ?gL-1 CB, possibly due to negative surface charges on CB that decrease cross-linking bridges through Ca2+ bonds. The reduction of marine microgel formation induced by CB could lead to a decrease in the downward transportation of microbial substrates and nutrients, and therefore, could have a significant impact on the carbon cycle and the marine ecosystem.

Shiu, Ruei-Feng; Chin, Wei-Chun; Lee, Chon-Lin

2014-07-01

4

Expanding Marine Mammal Research Development Priorities  

E-print Network

to construct a 21st-century facility at the Hatfield Marine Science Center, recruit additional researchersExpanding Marine Mammal Research Development Priorities #12;The Marine Mammal Institute provides scientific knowledge to better understand and conserve marine mammals and marine ecosystems all over

Tullos, Desiree

5

NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology  

E-print Network

NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species

6

Developing Regional Marine Ecosystem Approaches to Management  

E-print Network

Developing Regional Marine Ecosystem Approaches to Management M.C. Holliday and A.B. Gautam mechanism for adopting an ecosystem approach to living marine resource management. By April 2004, FEP encompassing regional marine ecosystem strategies across many sectors. This would enable other agencies

7

Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles.  

PubMed

Antifouling paint particles (APP) are generated during the maintenance of boats and are shed from abandoned structures and grounded ships. Although they afford a highly visible, colourful reflection of contamination in the vicinity of the source, little systematic study has been undertaken regarding the distribution, composition and effects of APP in the wider marine environment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge in respect of APP, with particular emphasis on those generated by recreational boatyards. The likely biogeochemical pathways of the biocidal and non-biocidal metals in current use (mainly Cu and Zn) are addressed in light of recent research and an understanding of the more general behaviour of contaminants in marine systems. Analyses of paint fragment composites from recreational facilities in the UK reveal chemical compositions that are similar to those representing the net signal of the original formulations; significantly, dry weight concentrations of Cu and Zn of up to about 35% and 15%, respectively, are observed and, relative to ambient dusts and sediment, elevated concentrations of other trace metals, like Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Sn, occur. These metals leach more rapidly from APP than a painted surface due to the greater surface area of pigments and additives exposed to the aqueous medium. In suspension, APP are subject to greater and more rapid environmental variation (e.g. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen) than painted hulls, while settled APP represent an important source of persistent and degradable biocides to poorly circulating environments. Through diffusion and abrasion, high concentrations of contaminants are predicted in interstitial waters that may be accumulated directly by benthic invertebrates. Animals that feed non-selectively and that are exposed to or ingest paint-contaminated sediment are able to accelerate the leaching, deposition and burial of biocides and other substances, and represent an alternative vehicle for contaminant entry into the marine foodchain. Clearly, an extensive understanding of biocide behaviour on painted surfaces is not sufficient for predictive or management purposes regarding APP. Greater caution is required by boaters and boatyards during the removal and disposal of solid wastes, and more awareness or stricter enforcement of relevant codes of practice or legislation is recommended. PMID:20060546

Turner, Andrew

2010-02-01

8

Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two ?-dicarbonyls glyoxal (CHOCHO; GLY) and methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO; MGLY) have attracted increasing attention over the past years because of their potential role in secondary organic aerosol formation. Recently Sinreich et al. (2010) suggested the open ocean as an important (so far unknown) source for GLY in the atmosphere. To date, there are few available field data of these compounds in the marine area. In this study we present measurements of GLY and MGLY in seawater and marine aerosol particles sampled during a transatlantic Polarstern cruise in spring 2011. In seawater we especially investigated the sea surface microlayer (sampled with the glass plate technique) as it is the direct interface between ocean and atmosphere. Analytical measurements were based on derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The results show that GLY and MGLY are present in the sea surface microlayer of the ocean and corresponding bulkwater with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). Significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the sea surface microlayer was found implying photochemical production of the two carbonyls though a clear connection to global radiation was not observed. On aerosol particles, both carbonyls were detected (average concentration 0.2 ng m-3) and are strongly connected to each other, suggesting similar formation mechanisms. Both carbonyls show a very good correlation with particulate oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. A slight correlation of the two carbonyls in the sea surface microlayer and in the aerosol particles was found at co-located sampling areas. In summary, the results of GLY and MGLY in marine aerosol particles and in the oceanic water give first insights towards interaction processes of these alpha dicarbonyls between ocean and atmosphere (van Pinxteren and Herrmann (2013)). References: Sinreich et al., Ship-based detection of glyoxal over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(23), 11359-11371 (2010). van Pinxteren and Herrmann, Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles: Method development and first application during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 11791-11802 (2013).

van Pinxteren, Manuela; Herrmann, Hartmut

2014-05-01

9

Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust?  

SciTech Connect

Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth’s energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

Burrows, Susannah M.; Hoose, C.; Poschl, U.; Lawrence, M.

2013-01-11

10

Ice nuclei in marine air: biogenic particles or dust?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate-related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth's energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

Burrows, S. M.; Hoose, C.; Pöschl, U.; Lawrence, M. G.

2013-01-01

11

Marine Cloud Brightening: Recent Developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our detailed review of Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB) [Latham et al. (2012) Phil Trans Roy Soc] covers our work up to late 2010. We present herein an outline of some subsequent work. Areas in which we have been particularly active in the last 2 years include; (1) seawater spray technology, (2) influence of MCB on rainfall, (3) CFD studies of Flettner Rotor stability. (4) pseudo-random studies, (5), use of MCB to weaken hurricanes and halt coral bleaching. We used the UK Met. Office HADGEM 1 ocean/atmosphere coupled climate model in all the studies mentioned below. Our treatment of MCB is as described in our 2012 paper. In all cases below our conclusions are provisional, with more work required. We have analysed research conducted by others and ourselves on the important topic of the impact of MCB on rainfall. It appears that the widely varying predictions from different studies result from differences in cloud seeding locations and amounts. This raises the possibility - which needs much more investigation - that unacceptable rainfall differences could be overcome by changing seeding locations. It may be possible to produce a world-wide, everywhere-to-everywhere transfer function of the effects of increased cloud reflectivity by using pseudo-random variation of the CCN concentration in a climate model. Tests on artificial alterations to a real daily temperature record showed that, over a 20 year run, the scatter of results of the detection of the magnitude of the alteration were about 1% of the root mean square of the natural variation. In these studies the CCN values in 89 regions of the oceans were either multiplied or divided by a chosen constant, at different random 10-day intervals, during a run of 20 years. The resulting model predictions of important meteorological parameters such as temperature, precipitation and ice extent were recorded for all the regions of the world. For each point of interest the precipitation record was correlated for each different source region to give a world map of the influence of each spray region. This might be positive, negative or neutral. We obtained statistically significant results for precipitation in both directions at places far from the spray source, even in the opposite hemisphere, over eight 20 year runs. We may be able to reduce the probability of both floods and droughts by directing movements and activity of spray vessels. Our modeling indicates that MCB seeding of marine stratocumulus clouds in regions where hurricanes spawn or develop could reduce sea-surface-temperatures [SST] sufficiently to reduce hurricane intensity by perhaps one Category. Further modeling indicates that substantial coral bleaching predicted to result from CO2-doubling, in 3 important coral regions, might be essentially eliminated by MCB seeding.

Latham, J.; Gadian, A.; Kleypas, J. A.; Parkes, B.; Hauser, R.; Salter, S.

2012-12-01

12

Microbial attachment to particles in marine and freshwater ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning electron microscopy observations ofin situ suspended marine and freshwater particles show diverse but similar modes of bacterial and fungal attachment. A survey of Sierra Nevada mountain lakes and pelagic and near-shore waters in the Pacific Ocean indicates that attachment is most noticeable in the near-surface waters where fresh dissolved and particulate input of carbon from phytoplankton and elevated temperatures

Hans W. Paerl

1975-01-01

13

New particle formation in the marine boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol measurements were made in the marine boundary layer along the coast of Washington State during the Pacific Stratus Sulfur Investigation. On April 22 the particle concentration increased to levels much higher than usual for the clean marine boundary layer. The total particulate number concentration greater than 3 nm diameter increased rapidly from about 250 cm[sup [minus]3] to 3,200 cm[sup [minus]3], remained near that level for 7 hours, and then decreased over the next 2 hours to less than 400 cm[sup [minus]3]. The change could not be attributed to either local or distant contamination. Immediately before the increase particulate surface area concentration dropped from 25 [mu]m[sup 2] cm[sup [minus]3] to less than 5 [mu]m[sup 2] cm[sup [minus]3]. The SO[sub 2] concentration increased from about 20 pptv to 40-60 pptv just before the increase in particle concentration. While these measurements cannot distinguish between changes in number concentration caused by particle nucleation versus advection or vertical mixing, clearly there was recent or continuing particle production on a mesoscale in the air mass. Related aircraft measurements and model results support the hypothesis of new particle formation. These data provide evidence that at times high concentrations of new, ultrafine particles are formed at low SO[sub 2] concentrations under mareine conditions. This homogeneous nucleation, as opposed to heterogeneous condensation on existing particles, is strongly and inversely dependent on the concentration of existing particles. 19 refs., 4 figs.

Covert, D.S. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Kapustin, V.N. (Inst. of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S. (NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Lab., Seattle, WA (United States))

1992-12-20

14

The influence of marine biogenic particles on ice phase initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol particles vary in composition with many being biogenic and of terrestrial or marine origin. Efficient ice forming biogenic particles are typically thought to be of terrestrial origin; however, recent data demonstrate that marine biogenic particles can act as ice nuclei (IN) in both immersion and deposition modes, with and without association of NaCl. These results are significant given that ocean derived particles including phytoplankton, microorganisms, transparent exopolymers, and colloidal gels become aerosolized from the sea surface microlayer through wave breaking and bubble bursting. Such particles typically include sea salt, but in situ observations of air masses associated with phytoplankton blooms have identified organic compounds as significant mass contributors to aerosol loading. Here we present results from experiments with Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nanochloris atomus, phytoplankton with distinctly different cell walls: silica, calcite, and cellulose fibrils, respectively, as efficient IN in immersion and deposition modes at typical tropospheric conditions. In a separate set of experiments, submicron size particles with and without organics are generated through bubble bursting in a custom built seawater tank. Subsequently collected, these particles are observed using a coupled cooling stage/optical microscope, for their ice nucleation potential as a function of particle temperature (T), water activity (aw), relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice), droplet volume, and particle surface area. In the immersion mode, fragmented and intact cells of T. pseudonana and N. atomus enhance ice nucleation in aqueous NaCl solution droplets by ~10-30 K and 10-20 K above the homogeneous freezing limit, and for a range of aw of 1.0-0.8, while E. huxleyi do not enhance freezing temperatures. In the deposition mode, all three species nucleate ice for RHice as low as ~120%, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer temperatures. T. pseudonana and N. atomus take up water as low as ~85% relative humidity and subsequently nucleate via immersion freezing. E. huxleyi can nucleate ice via deposition freezing for T as high as 245 K. Direct measurements of cell surface area are used to derive ice nucleation rate coefficients and contact angles, ?, following classical nucleation theory, a time-dependent description of ice nucleation. A time-independent deterministic description is used to derive ice active surface site densities. Values of ? range from 60° to 100° and depend on T and RHice in the immersion mode; however, for deposition freezing, ? can be reproduced as a function of RHice between 16° to 30°. These results underscore the importance of ocean derived biogenic particles for the formation and evolution of ice and mixed phase clouds in the atmosphere.

Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.

2011-12-01

15

FINE PARTICLE CHARGING DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the changing of fine particles by unipolar ions in an electric field, and evaluation of a specially designed small pilot-scale (600-1000 acfm) precharging device. Following an extensive review of the lit...

16

CAREERS IN MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE Marine mammal science has become a rapidly developing, and highly topical discipline that  

E-print Network

perspective. Other helpful (and entertaining) insights into career development in marine biology are provided a career in marine biology http://129.49.19.42/marinebio/mycareer.html How to become a marine biologistCAREERS IN MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE Marine mammal science has become a rapidly developing, and highly

Brierley, Andrew

17

DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MARINE AEROSOL PARTICLES AND ITS EFFECTS ON AEROSOL AND CLOUD PROPERTIES  

E-print Network

National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Marine stratus clouds play an important role particles play in the properties of marine stratus clouds, we measured aerosol and cloud properties on board Peninsula, California in the month of July as part of the 2005 Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE, http

18

Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic Sea  

E-print Network

Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic measured in terms of sound pressure level and particle acceleration level in the three Cartesian directions be either described as acoustic displacement, particle velocity, or particle acceleration, each of which can

Ladich, Friedrich

19

Analysis on the Development of Low Carbon Marine Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the perspective of low carbon economy, the paper analyzes the factors that influencing the development of low carbon economy. It is showed that the damage of marine ecological environment results in the low ability of oceans in absorbing green gas; environmental pollution leads to lowering capacity of ocean to deal with the wastes; development of related marine industries brings

Wang Cao

2011-01-01

20

Variations in the optical properties of a particle suspension associated with viral infection of marine bacteria  

E-print Network

of marine bacteria Julia Uitz,a,* Dariusz Stramski,a Anne-Claire Baudoux,b,1 Rick A. Reynolds,a Vanessa M) and associated optical variability caused by viral infection of marine heterotrophic bacteria. The PSD covering, viral abundance increased, and submicron particles were produced as bacteria were disrupted and cell

Stramski, Dariusz

21

Can new particle formation occur in the clean marine boundary layer?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of new particle formation probability in the marine boundary layer (MBL) is conducted using a detailed aerosol dynamics and gas-phase chemistry model, thermodynamically correct classical binary (H2O-H2SO4) nucleation theory, and recently developed ternary (H2O-H2SO4-NH3) nucleation theory. Additionally, the effect of boundary-layer meteorology (i.e., adiabatic cooling, small scale fluctuations, and entrainment) in enhancing nucleation is also examined. The results indicate that for typical marine conditions, binary nucleation does not occur for any realistic conditions regardless of adiabatic cooling, turbulent fluctuations, or entrainment. For polar marine conditions, binary nucleation does occur due to lower temperatures, and is enhanced due to turbulent fluctuations. An increase in detectable particle sizes (N3>3nm), is only seen after multiple boundary layer circulations for conditions of high dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations (400 ppt). Under extreme conditions of entrainment of free-troposphere layers containing very low aerosol condensation sinks and extraordinary high sulphuric acid concentrations (>108moleculescm-3), increases in detectable particles up to 10,000 cm-3 are predicted only in polar marine air, but are viewed as unlikely to occur in reality. Comparison of model simulations with observed values of DMS and sulphuric acid in polar marine air masses suggest that binary nucleation may lead to an enhancement of ~1000 cm-3 in N3 particle concentration, but not to enhancements of ~10,000 cm-3. Ternary nucleation is predicted to occur under realistic sulphuric acid (1.2×107moleculescm-3) and ammonia (>5 ppt) concentrations; however, significant growth to detectable sizes (N3) only occurs for DMS concentrations of the order of 400 ppt and very low aerosol condensation sinks, but these conditions are thought to be very infrequent in the MBL and are unlikely to make a significant contribution to the general MBL aerosol concentration. It is plausible that the background MBL aerosol concentration could be maintained by a slow, almost undetectable production rate, and not by noticeable nucleation events where large enhancements in N3 concentrations are observed. The former requires sustained DMS concentrations of the order of 100 ppt which seems unlikely. In summary, the occurrence of new particles in the unperturbed MBL would be difficult to explain by DMS emissions alone. DMS emissions can explain the occurrence of thermodynamically stable sulphate clusters, but under most conditions, to grow these clusters to detectable sizes before they are scavenged by coagulation, an additional condensable species other than DMS-derived sulphuric acid would be required. In the event, however, of significant removal of the preexisting aerosol due to precipitation, the MBL aerosol can be replenished through growth of new particle formed through ternary nucleation under moderately high DMS concentrations.

Pirjola, Liisa; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Brooks, Ian M.; Kulmala, Markku

2000-11-01

22

Coated particle waste form development  

SciTech Connect

Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

1981-12-01

23

Coated particle waste form development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coated particle waste forms were developed as part of the multibarrier concept. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed coaters, screw agitated coaters, and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders of magnitude increase in chemical durability.

Oma, K. H.; Buckwalter, C. Q.; Chick, L. A.

1981-12-01

24

Preliminary study on the development of syntactic foams for marine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the comparison of various types of matrix materials and their mechanical properties for development of syntactic foams for marine applications. Generally, syntactic foams are close pore foams fabricated by the mechanical mixing of hollow microsphere particles in a polymeric matrix resin. From the literature review, it was found that there are several polymeric resins that have been used for development of syntactic foams such as epoxy, cyanate ester, polypropylene, polysialate and vinyl ester. In this paper, a comparative discussion is presented on the mechanical properties of hollow glass particles mixing with polymeric resins for development of syntactic foams for the use of these composites in bulk applications such as marine structures.

Salleh, Z.; Islam, M. M.; Ku, H.

2013-08-01

25

76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine Inboard Engines...and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends in marine inboard engines...this notice (investigating the use of biodiesel fuel blends in marine inboard...

2011-12-16

26

Composition of 15-85 nm particles in marine air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of 15-85 nm diameter particles was measured at Mace Head, Ireland, during May 2011 using the TDCIMS (thermal desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Measurable levels of chloride, sodium, and sulfate were present in essentially all collected samples of these particles at this coastal Atlantic site. Acetaldehyde and benzoic acid were also frequently detected. Concomitant particle hygroscopicity observations usually showed a sea-salt mode and a lower hygroscopicity mode with growth factors near to that of ammonium sulfate. There were many periods lasting from hours to about 2 days during which the 10-60 nm particle number increased dramatically in polar oceanic air. These periods were correlated with the presence of benzoic acid in the particles and an increase in the number of lower hygroscopicity mode particles. Very small (< 10 nm) particles were also present, suggesting that new particle formation contributed to these nanoparticle enhancement events.

Lawler, M. J.; Whitehead, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Monahan, C.; McFiggans, G.; Smith, J. N.

2014-11-01

27

Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition following marine aggregate dredging.  

PubMed

In the UK, Government policy requires marine aggregate extraction companies to leave the seabed in a similar physical condition after the cessation of dredging. This measure is intended to promote recovery, and the return of a similar faunal community to that which existed before dredging. Whilst the policy is sensible, and in line with the principles of sustainable development, the use of the word 'similar' is open to interpretation. There is, therefore, a need to set quantifiable limits for acceptable change in sediment composition. Using a case study site, it is shown how such limits could be defined by the range of sediment particle size composition naturally found in association with the faunal assemblages in the wider region. Whilst the approach offers a number of advantages over the present system, further testing would be required before it could be recommended for use in the regulatory context. PMID:22721693

Cooper, Keith M

2012-08-01

28

Characterization of particles from a marine engine operating at low loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle emissions from a marine diesel engine operating at low loads with four different fuels were characterized with respect to particle number (PN) and particle mass (PM), size distribution, volatility and chemical composition. The four different fuels used were Swedish Environmental class 1 (MK1) and class 3 diesel (MK3), heavy fuel oil (HFO, 0.12 wt% S) and marine diesel oil (MDO, 0.52 wt% S). The measurements were performed for a marine diesel engine in a test-bed engine lab and the particle emissions were measured with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer and a Dust Monitor, giving the number concentrations in the size range of 5.6-560 nm and 300 nm to 20 ?m, respectively. To quantify the amount of solid particles a thermodenuder was used. Additionally, filter samples were taken for gravimetric, black carbon (BC) and elemental analysis. The particle emissions showed a bimodal size distribution by number and the number concentrations were dominated by nanoparticles (diameter (Dp) < 50 nm). The nanoparticles measured were both primary and secondary particles, depending on fuel and engine load, while the particles with Dp > 50 nm generally were solid primary particles. Combustion of HFO resulted in the highest PN and PM concentrations. Emission factors (EFs) for PM and PN for both the total particle emissions and the fraction of primary, solid particles are presented for different fuels and loads. EFs for nitrogen oxides (NOx), BC and some elements (Ca, Fe, V, Ni, Zn) are presented as well. This study contributes to understanding particle emissions from potential future fuels as well as emissions in ports and coastal areas where lower engine loads are common.

Anderson, Maria; Salo, Kent; Hallquist, Åsa M.; Fridell, Erik

2015-01-01

29

Development of Novel Drugs from Marine Surface Associated Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

While the oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, marine derived microbial natural products have been largely unexplored. The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds (“bioactives”) to adapt to particular environmental conditions. For example, marine surface associated microorganisms have proven to be a rich source for novel bioactives because of the necessity to evolve allelochemicals capable of protecting the producer from the fierce competition that exists between microorganisms on the surfaces of marine eukaryotes. Chemically driven interactions are also important for the establishment of cross-relationships between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, in which organisms producing antimicrobial compounds (“antimicrobials”), may protect the host surface against over colonisation in return for a nutrient rich environment. As is the case for bioactive discovery in general, progress in the detection and characterization of marine microbial bioactives has been limited by a number of obstacles, such as unsuitable culture conditions, laborious purification processes, and a lack of de-replication. However many of these limitations are now being overcome due to improved microbial cultivation techniques, microbial (meta-) genomic analysis and novel sensitive analytical tools for structural elucidation. Here we discuss how these technical advances, together with a better understanding of microbial and chemical ecology, will inevitably translate into an increase in the discovery and development of novel drugs from marine microbial sources in the future. PMID:20411108

Penesyan, Anahit; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

2010-01-01

30

Further evidence for particle nucleation in clear air adjacent to marine cumulus clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational evidence is presented for the nucleation of condensation nuclei (CN) in the clear air adjacent to an isolated, marine, cumulus cloud. Two separate regions of particle nucleation are identified: one located above the cloud top, and the second located downwind of the cloud near the level of the anvil outflow. The regions of high CN concentrations were located in

Kevin D. Perry; Peter V. Hobbs

1994-01-01

31

Numerical simulation of wave scouring beneath marine pipeline using smoothed particle hydrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approach is presented to simulate scouring due to wave around a marine pipeline on a sloping sea bed. The proposed method is similar to so-called SPH projection method and consists of three steps. The first two steps play the role of prediction, while in the third step a Poisson Equation is used

A. MIRMOHAMMADI; M. J. KETABDARI

2011-01-01

32

Thorium isotopes in the western Mediterranean Sea: an insight into the marine particle dynamics  

E-print Network

Thorium isotopes in the western Mediterranean Sea: an insight into the marine particle dynamics M a detailed view of the 230 Th^232 Th systematics in the western Mediterranean Sea in order to constrain water Mediterranean Sea requires the dissolution of 3^5% of the Th associated with all the continental particulate

Coppola, Laurent

33

Prognostics of PEM fuel cell in a particle filtering framework Marine Jouin  

E-print Network

Prognostics of PEM fuel cell in a particle filtering framework Marine Jouin , Rafael Gouriveau.jouin@femto-st.fr Abstract Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) suffer from a limited lifespan, which impedes of the proposed approach. Keywords: Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, Prognostics, Remaining useful life

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

Offshore Petroleum Resource Development and Marine Mammals: A Review and  

E-print Network

Offshore Petroleum Resource Development and Marine Mammals: A Review and Research Recommendations J with all phases of petroleum exploration and production. The physical, physiological, and behavioral ef to cause acute toxicity. However, the long- term effects of accumulation of petroleum basic data needed

35

Phylogeny and development of marine model species: strongylocentrotid sea urchins  

E-print Network

Phylogeny and development of marine model species: strongylocentrotid sea urchins Christiane H The phylogenetic relationships of ten strongy- locentrotid sea urchin species were determined using mitochondrial studied groups of sea urchins. Our phylogeny indicates that a major revision of this group is in order

Palumbi, Stephen

36

DEVELOPMENT OF A SPERM CELL TOXICITY TEST FOR MARINE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Preliminary methods for conducting a quick and sensitive sperm cell toxicity test for marine waters have been developed. This paper presents a simple static test in which sea urchin or sand dollar sperm cells are exposed to test or control solutions for short periods of time (typ...

37

Marine ecology service reuse through taxonomy-oriented SPL development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, reusing software applications encourages researchers and industrials to collaborate in order to increase software quality and to reduce software development costs. However, effective reuse is not easy and only a limited portion of reusable models actually offers effective evidence regarding their appropriateness, usability and/or effectiveness. Focusing reuse on a particular domain, such as marine ecology, allows us to narrow the scope; and along with a systematic approach such as software product line development, helps us to potentially improving reuse. From our experiences developing a subdomain-oriented software product line (SPL for the marine ecology subdomain), in this paper we describe semantic resources created for assisting this development and thus promoting systematic software reuse. The main contributions of our work are focused on the definition of a standard conceptual model for marine ecology applications together with a set of services and guides which assist the process of product derivation. The services are structured in a service taxonomy (as a specialization of the ISO 19119 std) in which we create a new set of categories and services built over a conceptual model for marine ecology applications. We also define and exemplify a set of guides for composing the services of the taxonomy in order to fulfill different functionalities of particular systems in the subdomain.

Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Pol`la, Matias; Arias, Maximiliano; del Socorro Doldan, Maria; Morsan, Enrique

2014-12-01

38

DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

39

Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the California Current  

SciTech Connect

Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.

William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

2008-03-12

40

Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development  

PubMed Central

Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 through 25, and lung function and airway architecture were evaluated 81 days of age. In a separate group of rats, cell proliferation was examined after a single particle exposure at 7 days of age. Early life exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particles altered distal airway architecture and resulted in subtle changes in lung mechanics. Early life exposure to 212 nm high OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture but did alter lung mechanics in a manner suggestive of central airway changes. In contrast, early life exposure to 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture or mechanics. A single 6-h exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particle decreased airway cell proliferation, whereas 212 nm high OC/EC particles increased it and 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not. The early life exposure to ultrafine, high OC/EC particles results in persistent alterations in distal airway architecture that is characterized by an initial decrease in airway cell proliferation. PMID:20634362

Lee, DongYoub; Wallis, Chris; Schelegle, Edward S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Plopper, Charles G.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Kumfer, Ben; Kennedy, Ian M.; Chan, Jackie K. W.

2010-01-01

41

Fucoidan as a Marine Anticancer Agent in Preclinical Development  

PubMed Central

Fucoidan is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds, crude extracts of which are commercially available as nutritional supplements. Recent studies have demonstrated antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties of fucoidan in vitro. Accordingly, the anticancer effects of fucoidan have been shown to vary depending on its structure, while it can target multiple receptors or signaling molecules in various cell types, including tumor cells and immune cells. Low toxicity and the in vitro effects of fucoidan mentioned above make it a suitable agent for cancer prevention or treatment. However, preclinical development of natural marine products requires in vivo examination of purified compounds in animal tumor models. This review discusses the effects of systemic and local administration of fucoidan on tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immune reaction and whether in vivo and in vitro results are likely applicable to the development of fucoidan as a marine anticancer drug. PMID:24477286

Kwak, Jong-Young

2014-01-01

42

The expanding role of marine microbes in pharmaceutical development  

PubMed Central

Marine microbes have received growing attention as sources of bioactive metabolites and offer a unique opportunity to both increase the number of marine natural products in clinical trials as well as expedite their development. This review focuses specifically on those molecules currently in the clinical pipeline that are established or highly likely to be produced by bacteria based on expanding circumstantial evidence. We also include an example of how compounds from harmful algal blooms may yield lead both tools for measuring environmental change as well as leads for pharmaceutical development. An example of the karlotoxin class of compounds isolated from the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum reveals a significant environmental impact in the form of massive fish kills but also provides opportunities to construct new molecules for the control cancer and serum cholesterol assisted by tools associated with rational drug design. PMID:20956080

Waters, Amanda L.; Hill, Russell T.; Place, Allen R.; Hamann, Mark T.

2010-01-01

43

The expanding role of marine microbes in pharmaceutical development.  

PubMed

Marine microbes have received growing attention as sources of bioactive metabolites and offer a unique opportunity to both increase the number of marine natural products in clinical trials as well as expedite their development. This review focuses specifically on those molecules currently in the clinical pipeline that are established or highly likely to be produced by bacteria based on expanding circumstantial evidence. We also include an example of how compounds from harmful algal blooms may yield both tools for measuring environmental change as well as leads for pharmaceutical development. An example of the karlotoxin class of compounds isolated from the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum reveals a significant environmental impact in the form of massive fish kills, but also provides opportunities to construct new molecules for the control of cancer and serum cholesterol assisted by tools associated with rational drug design. PMID:20956080

Waters, Amanda L; Hill, Russell T; Place, Allen R; Hamann, Mark T

2010-12-01

44

Fucoidan as a marine anticancer agent in preclinical development.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds, crude extracts of which are commercially available as nutritional supplements. Recent studies have demonstrated antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties of fucoidan in vitro. Accordingly, the anticancer effects of fucoidan have been shown to vary depending on its structure, while it can target multiple receptors or signaling molecules in various cell types, including tumor cells and immune cells. Low toxicity and the in vitro effects of fucoidan mentioned above make it a suitable agent for cancer prevention or treatment. However, preclinical development of natural marine products requires in vivo examination of purified compounds in animal tumor models. This review discusses the effects of systemic and local administration of fucoidan on tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immune reaction and whether in vivo and in vitro results are likely applicable to the development of fucoidan as a marine anticancer drug. PMID:24477286

Kwak, Jong-Young

2014-02-01

45

McDermott develops automatic welding unit for marine lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under development since 1976, McDermott's automatic marine pipeline-welding system has six major components: a conventional pipe-end facing machine, a conventional internal line-up clamp, a pipe-welding fixture and track assembly, a weld sequence control console, and a 600-ampere power supply for each torch. Using five gas tungsten arc welding stations, each equipped with four orbiting torches, the system can complete a

1980-01-01

46

Development and Application of Analytical Methods for Marine Toxins.  

E-print Network

??Shellfish accumulate marine toxins from their microalgal diet. The marine toxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) also accumulates in seafood, but via unknown mechanisms. Toxin determinations have traditionally… (more)

McNabb, Paul Simon

2014-01-01

47

Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from the Marine Boundary Layer Over the California Current  

SciTech Connect

Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a complementary combination of microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from an air mass that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3 -) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO4 2-) in sea-salt particles with the characteristic ratios of CH3SO3 ?/nss-SO4 2?> 0.6. Although this value seems too high for a mid-latitude site, our model calculations suggest that high CH3SO3 -/nss-SO4 2- ratios are expected during the early stages of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation when CH3SO3H forms more rapidly than H2SO4.

Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, T.; Gilles, Marry K.; Laskin, Alexander

2008-02-27

48

High-temperature LDV seed particle development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such particles would also be valuable to manufacturers of ceramic or abrasive products, and this technique may find its greatest commercial potential in those areas.

Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

1989-01-01

49

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. (Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States))

1992-04-01

50

Effects of soot deposition on particle dynamics and microbial processes in marine surface waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

amounts of soot are continuously deposited on the global ocean. Even though significant concentrations of soot particles are found in marine waters, the effects of these aerosols on ocean ecosystems are currently unknown. Using a combination of in situ and experimental data, and results from an atmospheric transport model, we show that the deposition of soot particles from an oil-fired power plant impacted biogeochemical properties and the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem in tropical oligotrophic oceanic waters off New Caledonia. Deposition was followed by a major increase in the volume concentration of suspended particles, a change in the particle size spectra that resulted from a stimulation of aggregation processes, a 5% decrease in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a decreases of 33 and 23% in viral and free bacterial abundances, respectively, and a factor ~2 increase in the activity of particle-attached bacteria suggesting that soot introduced in the system favored bacterial growth. These patterns were confirmed by experiments with natural seawater conducted with both soot aerosols collected in the study area and standard diesel soot. The data suggest a strong impact of soot deposition on ocean surface particles, DOC, and microbial processes, at least near emission hot spots.

Mari, Xavier; Lefèvre, Jérôme; Torréton, Jean-Pascal; Bettarel, Yvan; Pringault, Olivier; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Marchesiello, Patrick; Menkes, Christophe; Rodier, Martine; Migon, Christophe; Motegi, Chiaki; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Legendre, Louis

2014-07-01

51

Asian dust particles converted into aqueous droplets under remote marine atmospheric conditions  

PubMed Central

The chemical history of dust particles in the atmosphere is crucial for assessing their impact on both the Earth’s climate and ecosystem. So far, a number of studies have shown that, in the vicinity of strong anthropogenic emission sources, Ca-rich dust particles can be converted into aqueous droplets mainly by the reaction with gaseous HNO3 to form Ca(NO3)2. Here we show that other similar processes have the potential to be activated under typical remote marine atmospheric conditions. Based on field measurements at several sites in East Asia and thermodynamic predictions, we examined the possibility for the formation of two highly soluble calcium salts, Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2, which can deliquesce at low relative humidity. According to the results, the conversion of insoluble CaCO3 to Ca(NO3)2 tends to be dominated over urban and industrialized areas of the Asian continent, where the concentrations of HNO3 exceed those of HCl ([HNO3/HCl] >  ? 1). In this regime, CaCl2 is hardly detected from dust particles. However, the generation of CaCl2 becomes detectable around the Japan Islands, where the concentrations of HCl are much higher than those of HNO3 ([HNO3/HCl] <  ? 0.3). We suggest that elevated concentrations of HCl in the remote marine boundary layer are sufficient to modify Ca-rich particles in dust storms and can play a more important role in forming a deliquescent layer on the particle surfaces as they are transported toward remote ocean regions. PMID:20921372

Tobo, Yutaka; Zhang, Daizhou; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

2010-01-01

52

DRAFT REGIONAL NRM STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT MARINE AND ESTUARINE HABITAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Overview of the marine and estuarine environmental assets within the Region The Tasmanian marine and estuarine environments are a significant asset of the State. Tasmania has more coastline per unit land area than any other State in Australia - about 4900km (excluding Macquarie Island) (Australian Surveying and Land Information Group 1993). Tasmania's marine and estuarine environments include rocky reefs,

53

The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments world wide. Organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events on potential cloud condensation nuclei were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and enhanced biological activity in spring 2002. Additionally, a pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity in October 2002. The overall results of the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer and the pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine coast and open ocean biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation driven by iodine radicals, hydroxyl radicals, acid catalysis, and ozone during efficient solar radiation. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to cloud condensation nuclei and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the marine/coastal particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to marine/coastal particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

2006-10-01

54

Paulsenella Chatton (Dinophyta), ectoparasites of marine diatoms: development and taxonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All members of the dinophyte Paulsenella are ectoparasites on marine planktonic diatoms. At present three species are known, two of which are described here for the first time. The taxonomy of the type species, P. chaetoceratis, is paid critical attention. The species are clearly distinguished by their host specificity and additionally by differences in morphology, especially of the trophonts. Using clonal cultures the life cycles of the three species are compared. The vegetative development may be interrupted by formation of temporary and resting cysts. In ageing cultures, stages with nuclear cyclosis occur, believed to indicate meiosis. In P. vonstoschii, the meiospores are capable of developing into resting cysts. As yet, knowledge on sexual reproduction is still incomplete.

Drebes, G.; Schnepf, E.

1988-09-01

55

Hydroxyapatite bone substitutes developed via replication of natural marine sponges.  

PubMed

The application of synthetic cancellous bone has been shown to be highly successful when its architecture mimics that of the naturally interconnected trabeculae bone it aims to replace. The following investigation demonstrates the potential use of marine sponges as precursors in the production of ceramic based tissue engineered bone scaffolds. Three species of natural sponge, Dalmata Fina (Spongia officinalis Linnaeus, Adriatic Sea), Fina Silk (Spongia zimocca, Mediterranean) and Elephant Ear (Spongia agaricina, Caribbean) were selected for replication. A high solid content (80 %wt), low viscosity (126 mPas) hydroxyapatite slurry was developed, infiltrated into each sponge species and subsequently sintered, producing a scaffold structure that replicated pore architecture and interconnectivity of the precursor sponge. The most promising of the ceramic tissue engineered bone scaffolds developed, Spongia agaricina replicas, demonstrated an overall porosity of 56-61% with 83% of the pores ranging between 100 and 500 microm (average pore size 349 microm) and an interconnectivity of 99.92%. PMID:20012771

Cunningham, Eoin; Dunne, Nicholas; Walker, Gavin; Maggs, Christine; Wilcox, Ruth; Buchanan, Fraser

2010-08-01

56

New particle formation: Nucleation rates and spatial scales in the clean marine coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation of new, ultra-fine, aerosol particles has been observed in the clean marine coastal atmosphere under a variety of conditions. These nucleation events were observed to occur frequently over spatial scales of 10's-100' of metres and temporal scales of seconds to minutes. Two conditions appeared to be necessary for nucleation event to occur: low tide and solar irradiation. The requirement of low tide conditions suggests that the exposed shore area provides the source of new particle precursors. It is speculated that VOC and/or alkyl halide derivatives contribute to nucleation under these conditions. Nucleation rates were calculated to be ? 10³ - 104 cm-3 s-1, suggesting that the coastal zone is an important source of atmospheric nuclei.

O'Dowd, Colin D.; Geever, Michael; Hill, Martin K.; Smith, Michael H.; Jennings, S. Gerard

57

The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments worldwide. Interestingly, organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events to potential CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and high biological activity (HBA, i.e. a high mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in spring 2002. Additionally, a PHA-UCPC (pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter) technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity (LBA, i.e. a lower mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in October 2002. The overall results of the UFO-TDMA and the PHA-UCPC measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine/coastal biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation by iodine, hydroxyl radical, and ozone. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the UFO-TDMA results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to CCN and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the coastal/marine particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to coastal/marine particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

2006-04-01

58

Sources and Composition of Submicron Organic Mass in Marine Aerosol Particles  

DOE PAGESBeta

Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMAP) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production

Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, P. K.

2014-11-27

59

Modeling of microphysics and optics of aerosol particles in the marine environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a microphysical model for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 ?m particles. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, height above sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (RH), are investigated. At present, the model covers the ranges H = 0 - 25 m, U = 3 - 18 km s-1, X ? 120 km and RH = 40 - 98%. The latest version of the Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles model (MaexPro) is described and applied for the computation and analysis of the spectral profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients ?(?) in the wavelength band ? = 0.2-12 ?m. MaexPro is based on the aforementioned aerosol model assuming spherically shaped aerosol particles and the well-known Mie theory. The spectral profiles of ?(?) calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable tool for investigating the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

Kaloshin, Gennady

2013-05-01

60

Marine Resources and Legal-Political Arrangements for Their Development; Volume 3, Panel Reports of the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Marine Resources Panel addressed itself to three tasks: describing the current rate of exploration and exploitation of marine resources and the physical, economic, and legal conditions under which they are produced; identifying deterrents to development and efficient utilization of marine resources; and recommending programs that will remove…

Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources, Washington, DC.

61

Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) have been investigated with a range of physical and chemical measurements from open-ocean research cruises. This study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) of aMA from five ocean regions to show the following: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMA that can be identified as mainly atmospheric primary marine (ocean derived) aerosol particles (aPMA) is 65 ± 12% hydroxyl, 21 ± 9% alkane, 6 ± 6% amine, and 7 ± 8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal or continental emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model-generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater (gPMA, which has 55 ± 14% hydroxyl, 32 ± 14% alkane, and 13 ± 3% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied and the ratio of organic carbon to sodium (OC/Na+) in the gPMA remained nearly constant over a broad range of chlorophyll a concentrations, the gPMA alkane group fraction appeared to increase with chlorophyll a concentrations (r = 0.66). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (42 ± 9%) compared to gPMA from nonproductive seawater (22 ± 10%), perhaps due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater organic mass hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production.

Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

2014-11-01

62

Diazocyte development in the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium.  

PubMed

The establishment of non-diazotrophic cultures of the filamentous marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 enabled the first detailed investigation of the process leading to the development of its unique nitrogen-fixing cell type, the diazocyte. Trichome heterogeneity was apparent already within 3-8 h, while the differentiation of mature diazocytes, containing the nitrogenase enzyme, required 27 h after the removal of combined nitrogen. The distribution of 'pro-diazocytes' within the trichomes correlates with the localization of mature diazocytes, which suggests that pattern regulation is an early event during diazocyte development. The development was initially identified as changes in the subcellular ultrastructure, most notably the degradation of glycogen granules and gas vacuoles. These changes were preceded by the induced expression of the global nitrogen regulator ntcA at an early stage of combined nitrogen deprivation, followed by elevated expression of genes related to nitrogen metabolism and their corresponding proteins. The strongest induction (10-fold) was related to the transcription of the respiratory gene coxB2, apparent already at an early stage, which suggests an important role for respiration and the subsequent energy generation in the subcellular changes found, and in the creation of the reducing environment required for nitrogen fixation in diazocytes. PMID:22053003

Sandh, Gustaf; Xu, Linghua; Bergman, Birgitta

2012-02-01

63

Induction of reverse development in two marine Hydrozoans.  

PubMed

Cnidarians are unique organisms in the animal kingdom because of their unequalled potential to undergo reverse development (RD). The life cycle of some species can temporarily shift ordinary, downstream development from zygote to adult into the opposite ontogenetic direction by back-transformation of some life stages. The potential for RD in cnidarians offers the possibility to investigate how integrative signalling networks operate to control directionality of ontogeny (reverse vs. normal development). Striking examples are found in some hydrozoans, where RD of medusa bud or liberated medusa stages leads to rejuvenation of the post-larval polyp stage. Artificial stress may determine ontogeny reversal. We describe here the results of experimental assays on artificial induction of RD by different chemical and physical inducers on two marine hydrozoans, Turritopsis dohrnii and Hydractinia carnea, showing a different potential for RD. A cascade of morphogenetic events occurs during RD by molecular mechanisms and cellular patterns recalling larval metamorphosis. For the first time, we show here that exposure to cesium chloride (CsCl), an inducer of larval metamorphosis, may also induce RD, highlighting similarities and differences between these two master ontogenetic processes in cnidarians. PMID:17183464

Schmich, Jurgen; Kraus, Yulia; De Vito, Doris; Graziussi, Daria; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

2007-01-01

64

Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel.  

PubMed

Emissions from harbor-craft significantly affect air quality in populated regions near ports and inland waterways. This research measured regulated and unregulated emissions from an in-use EPA Tier 2 marine propulsion engine on a ferry operating in a bay following standard methods. A special effort was made to monitor continuously both the total Particulate Mass (PM) mass emissions and the real-time Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The engine was operated following the loads in ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle for comparison with the certification standards and across biodiesel blends. Real-time measurements were also made during a typical cruise in the bay. Results showed the in-use nitrogen oxide (NOx) and PM(2.5) emission factors were within the not to exceed standard for Tier 2 marine engines. Comparing across fuels we observed the following: a) no statistically significant change in NO(x) emissions with biodiesel blends (B20, B50); b) ? 16% and ? 25% reduction of PM(2.5) mass emissions with B20 and B50 respectively; c) a larger organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratio and organic mass (OM) to OC ratio with B50 compared to B20 and B0; d) a significant number of ultrafine nuclei and a smaller mass mean diameter with increasing blend-levels of biodiesel. The real-time monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions during a typical cruise in the San Francisco Bay (in-use cycle) revealed important effects of ocean/bay currents on emissions: NO(x) and CO(2) increased 3-fold; PM(2.5) mass increased 6-fold; and ultrafine particles disappeared due to the effect of bay currents. This finding has implications on the use of certification values instead of actual in-use emission values when developing inventories. Emission factors for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported as supplemental data. PMID:21344849

Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

2011-03-15

65

Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the  

E-print Network

of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations optical properties (IOP) of the water constituents (namely the absorption, scattering, and backscatteringSensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal

Chami, Malik

66

Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the Arctic?  

PubMed

Plastic litter accounts for 50-80% of waste items stranded on beaches, floating on the ocean surface and lodged in the seabed. Organic pollutants can be absorbed onto plastic particles from sea water, attached to their surfaces or included in the plastic matrix as additives. Such chemicals may be transported to remote regions by buoyant plastics and ocean currents. We have estimated mass fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Arctic via the main ocean currents and compared them to those in the dissolved state and in air. Substance fluxes with atmospheric or sea water currents account for several tons per year, whereas those mediated by plastics are four to six orders of magnitude smaller. However, the significance of various pollutant transport routes does not depend only on absolute mass fluxes but also on bioaccumulation in marine food chains. PMID:20579675

Zarfl, Christiane; Matthies, Michael

2010-10-01

67

Ozone oxidation of sulfur in sea-salt aerosol particles during the Azores Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-salt aerosol particles in the lowest tens of meters above the ocean are, typically, more than three-fourths water on a volume basis. Calculations herein indicate that aqueous-phase conversion of sulfur dioxide dissolved in the water associated with sea-salt particles (sea-salt aerosol water) supported the production of 2-8 nmolm-3 of non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO=4) during the Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (MAGE)

H. Sievering; E. Gorman; T. Ley; A. Pszenny; M. Springer-Young; J. Boatman; Y. Kim; C. Nagamoto; D. Wellman

1995-01-01

68

Chemical Composition and Sources of Coastal Marine Aerosol Particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO2?4, followed by Na+, Cl?, Org (total organics), NH+4 , and NO?3 , in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO?3 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH+4 to SO2?4 equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl? deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO2?4. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol concentrations were negligible. The very low levels of CH3SO?3 observed as well as the correlation between SO2?4 and NO?3 (which is thought primarily anthropogenic) suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO2?4 aerosol production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.- N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, John T.; Wang, Jian; Hubbe, John M.; Senum, Gunnar I.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.

2014-05-23

69

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q  

E-print Network

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q Nathan D, Lighthouse Field Station, Cromarty, Ross-shire IV11 8YL, UK a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Ship noise, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore

Aberdeen, University of

70

Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: 2. Partitioning of Methanesulfonate and non-Sea Salt Sulfate in Individual Sea Salt Particles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas phase precursor for sulfate aerosol over the oceans is dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS is emitted to the atmosphere by phytoplankton and oxidized, yielding both intermediate methane sulfonate (CH3SO3-) and final non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) products. Knowledge about the CH3SO3- to nss-SO42- partitioning in the sea salt particles over specific geographic locations is important for understanding DMS oxidation chemistry and its possible effects on clouds, i.e. the potential for new particle formation versus growth of existing droplets and particles. Unambiguous, quantitative assessment of CH3SO3- /nss-SO42- ratios in individual sea salt particles has been made possible using combined data sets from two analytical techniques: computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). In this presentation, we report the particle size specific data on the nss-S/Na and the CH3SO3- /nss-SO4^{2- } ratios measured in dry residues of marine cloud droplets and particles collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) in July 2005. Characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na > 0.10 are reported for sea salt particles, with higher values for small particles indicating extensive formation of sulfur containing salts in small particles. Characteristic ratios of CH3SO3- /nss-SO42- > 0.70 are reported with higher values for large particles, indicating the higher capacity for CH3SO3- (lower conversion to SO42- ) for large particles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that CH3SO3- /nss-SO42- have been quantitatively reported based on the individual particle measurements.

Hopkins, R. J.; Tivanski, A. V.; Desyaterik, Y.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

2006-12-01

71

Future Particle Accelerator Developments for Radiation Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade particle beam cancer therapy has seen a rapid increase in interest, and several new centers have been built, are currently under construction, or are in an advanced stage of planning. Typical treatment centers today consist of an accelerator capable of producing proton or ion beams in an energy range of interest for medical treatment, i.e. providing a penetration depth in water of about 30 cm, a beam delivery system to transport the produced beam to the patient treatment rooms, and several patient stations, allowing for an optimal usage of the continuously produced beam. This makes these centers rather large and consequently expensive. Only major hospital centers situated in an area where they can draw on a population of several million can afford such an installation. In order to spread the use of particle beam cancer therapy to a broader population base it will be necessary to scale down the facility size and cost. This can in principle be done by reducing the number of treatment rooms to one, eliminating the need of an elaborate beam delivery system, and thereby reducing the building size and cost. Such a change should be going in parallel with a reduction of the accelerator itself, and a number of approaches to this are currently being pursued. If successful, such developments could eventually lead to a compact system where all components would fit into a single shielded room, not much different in size from a typical radiation vault for radiotherapy with X-rays.

Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels

72

Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ≤ 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific ocean during the VOCALS-REx experiment between 16~October and 15 November 2008 using the US DOE G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and how they interacted with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42-, followed by Na+, Cl-, Org, NH4+, and NO3-, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3-1 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection of ~0.05 and ~0.15 ?g m-3 for anions and cations, respectively. The aerosols were strongly acidic as the NH4+ to SO42- equivalence ratio was typically < 0.3; this inferred acidity is corroborated by the conductivity of aqueous samples collected by the PILS. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, showed Cl- deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, and were externally mixed with SO42- particles as the AMS detected no NO3- whilst uptake of HNO3 occurred only on SSA particles. The SSA loading as a function of wind speed agreed with that calculated from published relationships, and contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number. Vertical distribution of MBL SSA particles (Dp ≤ ~1.5 ?m) was uniform, suggesting a very limited dilution from entrainment of free tropospheric (FT) air. It was inferred that because all of the aerosol species (except SSA) exhibited a strong land-to-sea gradient, they were of continental origin. Comparison of relative changes in median values using LOWESS fits as proxies suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, and (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) FT contributions to MBL gas and aerosols were negligible. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra obtained with the AMS showed an HOA on 28 October 2008 but not on 6 November 2008 that we attribute to a more extensive cloud processing on the later date. A highly oxidized OOA factor resembling fulvic acid was found associated with anthropogenic and biogenic sources as well as long range transported biomass burn plumes in the FT air. A sulfur-containing OOA factor identified as MSA was strongly correlated with SO42-, hence anthropogenic. The very low levels of CH3SO3- observed suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO42- aerosols production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

2013-10-01

73

Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel)-1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel)-1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC). Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 ?m, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 ?m for raw emissions to 0.10 ?m at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp?0.02 ?m. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; Lauer, P.; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; Schlager, H.; Weingartner, E.

2007-10-01

74

Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel)-1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel)-1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC). Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 ?m, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 ?m for raw emissions to 0.10 ?m at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp?0.02 ?m. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; Lauer, P.; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; Schlager, H.; Weingartner, E.

2008-05-01

75

Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test and validate, on the basis of observations, innovative integrative modelling tools in order to further strengthen our understanding of ecosystem and biodiversity changes in space and time. The resultant models are being developed for implementation as operational tools for managers, decision takers and policy makers. The project is contributing (i) to enable the adaptive development of management (ecosystem-based management approach) strategies and management measures as a result of their implementation taking into account the role of industry and relevant stakeholders, (ii) to provide economic assessment of the consequences of management practices, (iii) to identify the barriers (socio-economic and legislative) that prevent the GES to be achieved (e.g. eutrophication), (iv) to provide a set of policy options for the relevant authorities. In addition the project should propose and demonstrate the utility of innovative monitoring systems capable of providing data on a range of parameters, efficiently and effectively, that may be used as indicators of good environmental status. This contribution presents a summary of most of these aspects.

Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

2014-05-01

76

Pharmacological developments obtained from marine natural products and current pipeline perspective.  

PubMed

Marine organisms represent a new extensive source for bioactive molecules. They have the potential to provide new therapeutic alternatives to treat human diseases. In this paper, we describe and discuss a variety of isolated and semisynthetic molecules obtained from marine sources. These compounds are in phase II, phase III and at the commercialization stage of new drug development. A description of the mechanism of action, dosage used and side effects are also reported. The positive results obtained from these studies have triggered the development of new studies to evaluate the prospects for utilization of marine organisms. PMID:21425696

Galeano, Elkin; Rojas, Jhon J; Martínez, Alejandro

2011-02-01

77

DEVELOPMENT OF A TIE METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING ANIONIC METALS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several methods have been developed for characterizing and identifying toxicants in whole marine sediments including organic pollutants, cationic metals and ammonia. To date, a method for characterizing sediment toxicity caused by metals which form anionic complexes such as ar...

78

Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

79

Developing better reservoir models for Early Palaeozoic, (pre land plants), mixed continental/marine depositional systems  

E-print Network

Developing better reservoir models for Early Palaeozoic, (pre land plants), mixed continental/marine depositional systems: improving reservoir characterisation and architectural input Supervisory Team Professor George (University of Western Australia Overview Pre-Late Silurian reservoirs, which hold significant

Henderson, Gideon

80

Robust particle outline extraction and its application to digital in-line holograms of marine organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital holography offers a method of high-resolution imaging of microscopic particles and organisms in their natural environment. Automated image extraction and data processing are essential for rapid interrogation and analysis of the vast amounts of information contained in a typical hologram. In this work, we describe a robust-automated particle focusing approach, which we have developed to extract outlines of all particles contained within the sampling volume of each hologram constituting a "holovideo." The output data consists of ordered point-lists delineating polygons that match particle outlines and facilitate further processing such as extraction of focused images from the holograms themselves. The algorithm developed allows the reduction of, typically, a 2-GB holovideo to tens of megabytes, thereby greatly reducing analysis time by allowing rapid scanning of the contoured images without manual focusing. The algorithm has been demonstrated on synthetic and laboratory holograms and applied to holographic videos recorded in the North Sea. The algorithm output also lends itself to further automated analysis techniques like particle tracking or automated recognition.

Burns, Nicholas M.; Watson, John

2014-11-01

81

Modelling the formation of H 2SO 4-H 2O particles in rural, urban and marine conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The factors which affect the formation of new sulphuric acid particles in different atmospheric conditions are investigated. An atmospheric chemistry gas phase box model coupled to a three mode integral aerosol dynamics model is used. The simulations show the dependence of the concentration of nucleation mode particles on initial pre-existing particles, the intensity of UV radiation, the emissions of dimethylsulphide (DMS) and the ratio of emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and NO x present in the atmosphere. Eight different basic cases are simulated in urban, rural and marine conditions. The effects of pre-existing particles as a sink of sulphuric acid are clearly seen. The increased UV radiation is also seen to enhance particle formation via sulphuric acid route significantly.

Pirjola, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku

82

The development of artificial media for marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culturing of marine algae has proceeded slowly since MIQV~L (1890 93) succeeded in growing a few diatoms in the laboratory. Until recently most media were composed of sea water or sea water-like artificial solutions which are prone to precipitate because of the presence of several salts in concentration near saturation. In order to avoid precipitates such media must be

L. Provasoli; J. J. A. McLaughlin; M. R. Droop

1957-01-01

83

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.  

PubMed

The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. PMID:24279956

Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

2014-01-15

84

Particle acceleration in time-developing magnetic reconnection process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle trajectories and acceleration are numerically studied in time-varying electric and magnetic fields that are obtained by a previous MHD simulation of an externally driven reconnection. Electron and proton orbits are traced under the influence of the developing reconnection fields for various initial particle positions and velocities. A method of continuation of local analytic solution in a particle-pushing algorithm is

Tetsuya Sato; Hiroshi Matsumoto; Keisuke Nagai

1982-01-01

85

Developing geochemical methods for marine exploration of oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

Experimental-methodological oil exploration geochemical investigations have been carried out in the Caspian and Black seas. The bottom deposits were selected according to a differential grid, the type of which depended on geologic structure and morphology of the bottom, Lithology, and other factors. Bottom sediments were collected by scientific-research vessels using coring devices. This paper reviews the results of this testing for hydrocarbon distribution, bituminous and organic matter composition; and methane content in marine sediments.

Bagirov, V.I.; Zor'kin, L.M.; Zubayrayev, S.L.; Lopatin, N.V.

1983-01-01

86

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

1992-04-01

87

Fluid particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motion of fluid particles as they are pushed along erratic trajectories\\u000aby fluctuating pressure gradients is fundamental to transport and mixing in\\u000aturbulence. It is essential in cloud formation and atmospheric transport,\\u000aprocesses in stirred chemical reactors and combustion systems, and in the\\u000aindustrial production of nanoparticles. The perspective of particle\\u000atrajectories has been used successfully to describe mixing

Greg A. Voth; Alice M. Crawford; Jim Alexander; Eberhard Bodenschatz; A. La Porta

2001-01-01

88

Mind the Gap: furthering the development of an international collaboration in marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large and ever increasing amount of marine data is available throughout Europe, USA, Australia and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collection is high and the data itself often irreplaceable. At a time when the demand for marine data is growing while financial resources for its collection are being dramatically reduced the need to maximise its re-use is becoming a priority for marine data managers. A number of barriers to the re-use of marine data currently exist due to the various formats, standards, vocabularies etc. used by the organisations engaged in collecting and managing this data. These challenges are already being addressed at a regional level by projects in Europe (Geo-Seas, SeaDataNet etc.), USA (R2R) and Australia (IMOS). To expand these projects further and bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) will establish a collaborative platform which will facilitate the development of a common approach to marine data management. Proactive dissemination of the outcomes and products of this project will promote adoption of the common standards and practices developed by the ODIP project to other organisations and regions beyond the 20 original consortium partners. To demonstrate this coordinated approach several joint prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential solutions for solving the marine data management issues identified within the different marine disciplines. These prototypes will also be used to illustrate the effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and international boundaries through the development of common practices and standards in marine data management.

Glaves, H. M.; Miller, S. P.; Proctor, R.; Schaap, D.

2012-12-01

89

Mind the Gap: furthering the development of an international collaboration in marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large and ever increasing amount of marine data is available throughout Europe, USA, Australia and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collection is high and the data itself often irreplaceable. At a time when the demand for marine data is growing while financial resources for its collection are being dramatically reduced the need to maximise its re-use is becoming a priority for marine data managers. A number of barriers to the re-use of marine data currently exist due to the various formats, standards, vocabularies etc. used by the organisations engaged in collecting and managing this data. These challenges are already being addressed at a regional level by projects in Europe (Geo-Seas, SeaDataNet etc.), USA (R2R) and Australia (IMOS). To expand these projects further and bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) will establish a collaborative platform which will facilitate the development of a common approach to marine data management. Proactive dissemination of the outcomes and products of this project will promote adoption of the common standards and practices developed by the ODIP project to other organisations and regions beyond the 20 original consortium partners. To demonstrate this coordinated approach several joint prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential solutions for solving the marine data management issues identified within the different marine. These prototypes will also be used to illustrate the effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and international boundaries through the development of common practices and standards in marine data management.

Glaves, Helen; Miller, Stephen; Proctor, Roger; Schaap, Dick

2013-04-01

90

Assessing the Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development on Marine and Estuarine Resources  

SciTech Connect

The world’s oceans and estuaries offer an enormous potential to meet the nation’s growing demand for energy. The use of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to harness the power of wave and tidal energy could contribute significantly toward meeting federal- and state-mandated renewable energy goals while supplying a substantial amount of clean energy to coastal communities. Locations along the eastern and western coasts of the United States between 40° and 70° north latitude are ideal for MHK deployment, and recent estimates of energy potential for the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California suggest that up to 25 gigawatts could be generated from wave and tidal devices in these areas. Because energy derived from wave and tidal devices is highly predictable, their inclusion in our energy portfolio could help balance available sources of energy production, including hydroelectric, coal, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal, and others.

Ward, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Copping, Andrea E.

2010-07-30

91

Strategies for weighting exposure in the development of acoustic criteria for marine mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Noise Exposure Criteria Group has been developing noise exposure criteria for marine mammals. Although the primary focus of the effort is development of criteria to prevent injury, the Group has also emphasized the development of exposure metrics that can be used to predict injury with accuracy and precision. Noise exposure metrics for humans have proven to be more effective

James H. Miller; Anne E. Bowles; Roger L. Gentry; William T. Ellison; James J. Finneran; Charles R. Greene Jr.; David Kastak; Darlene R. Ketten; Peter L. Tyack; Paul E. Nachtigall; W. John Richardson; Jeanette A. Thomas

2005-01-01

92

Mind the Gap: furthering the development of EU-US collaboration in marine geoscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a large and ever increasing amount of marine geological and geophysical data available throughout Europe, the USA and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collecting it is very high and there is therefore a need to maximise the potential re-use of this data wherever possible. Facilitating this is becoming an increasingly important aspect of marine geosciences data management as the need for marine data increases at a time when the financial resources for data acquisition are being dramatically reduced. A significant barrier to this re-use of marine geosciences data is the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of marine geosciences data at a regional, national and international scale. This is also proving to be a barrier to the development of interoperability with other data types at a time when there is a need to develop a more holistic approach to marine research. These challenges are currently being addressed within Europe by a number of EU funded initiatives, the objectives of which are an improvement in the discovery and access to marine data. The Geo-Seas project is just one of these initiatives, the focus of which is the development of an e-infrastructure for the delivery of standardised marine geological and geophysical data across Europe. The project is developing this e-infrastructure by adopting and adapting the methodologies of the related SeaDataNet project which currently provides an e-infrastructure for the management of oceanographic data. This re-use of the existing technologies has lead to the development a joint multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the delivery or both geoscientific and oceanographic data. In order to develop this initiative further and bridge the gap between these European projects and those being undertaken by colleagues in both the US and elsewhere a number of collaborative relationships including with the US based Rolling Deck Repository (R2R) project have been developed. To facilitate these growing collaborative relationships further a new EU initiative has recently been established in parallel with the relevant funding agencies in the USA and Australia. Through the development of these collaborative initiatives and the provision of the necessary financial support there is now an opportunity to develop common standards and methodologies which will allow the development of a common multidisciplinary approach to marine science on both sides of the Atlantic.

Glaves, H. M.; Miller, S. P.; Schaap, D.; Geo-Seas Consortium Partners

2011-12-01

93

Mind the Gap: furthering the development of EU-US collaboration in marine geoscience.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a large and ever increasing amount of marine geological and geophysical data available throughout Europe, the USA and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collecting it is very high and there is therefore a need to maximise the potential re-use of this data wherever possible. Facilitating this is becoming an increasingly important aspect of marine geosciences data management as the need for marine data increases at a time when the financial resources for data acquisition are being dramatically reduced. A significant barrier to the re-use of marine geoscience data is the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of marine geosciences data at a regional, national and international scale. This is also proving to be a barrier to the development of interoperability with other data types at a time when there is a need to develop a more holistic approach to marine research. These challenges are currently being addressed within Europe by a number of EU funded initiatives, the objectives of which are an improvement in the discovery and access to marine data. The Geo-Seas project is just one of these initiatives, the focus of which is the development of an e-infrastructure for the delivery of standardised marine geological and geophysical data across Europe. The project is developing this e-infrastructure by adopting and adapting the methodologies of the SeaDataNet project which currently provides an e-infrastructure for the management of oceanographic data. This re-use of the existing technologies has lead to the development a joint multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the delivery or both geoscientific and oceanographic data. In order to expand these initiatives further and bridge the gap between these European projects and those being undertaken by colleagues in both the US and elsewhere a number of collaborative relationships have been developed. To further these growing collaborative relationships a new EU initiative has recently been proposed in parallel with the relevant funding agencies in the USA and Australia with the objective of developing common standards and methodologies which will allow the development of a common multidisciplinary approach to marine science on an international scale.

Glaves, H.; Miller, S.; Schaap, D.

2012-04-01

94

A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

2012-09-01

95

Size-dependent effects of micro polystyrene particles in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of three sizes of polystyrene (PS) microbeads (0.05, 0.5, and 6-?m diameter) on the survival, development, and fecundity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus using acute and chronic toxicity tests. T. japonicus ingested and egested all three sizes of PS beads used and exhibited no selective feeding when phytoplankton were added. The copepods (nauplius and adult females) survived all sizes of PS beads and the various concentrations tested in the acute toxicity test for 96 h. In the two-generation chronic toxicity test, 0.05-?m PS beads at a concentration greater than 12.5 ?g/mL caused the mortality of nauplii and copepodites in the F0 generation and even triggered mortality at a concentration of 1.25 ?g/mL in the next generation. In the 0.5-?m PS bead treatment, despite there being no significant effect on the F0 generation, the highest concentration (25 ?g/mL) induced a significant decrease in survival compared with the control population in the F1 generation. The 6-?m PS beads did not affect the survival of T. japonicus over two generations. The 0.5- and 6-?m PS beads caused a significant decrease in fecundity at all concentrations. These results suggest that microplastics such as micro- or nanosized PS beads may have negative impacts on marine copepods. PMID:23988225

Lee, Kyun-Woo; Shim, Won Joon; Kwon, Oh Youn; Kang, Jung-Hoon

2013-10-01

96

Measurement of particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use silicon strip detectors (originally developed for the CLEO III high\\u000aenergy particle physics experiment) to measure fluid particle trajectories in\\u000aturbulence with temporal resolution of up to 70,000 frames per second. This\\u000ahigh frame rate allows the Kolmogorov time scale of a turbulent water flow to\\u000abe fully resolved for 140 <= R_lambda <= 970. Particle trajectories exhibiting

GREG A. VOTH; A. LA PORTA; ALICE M. CRAWFORD; JIM ALEXANDER; EBERHARD BODENSCHATZ

2002-01-01

97

Spatial development of particle-laden turbulent pipe flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhomogeneity of turbulence in wall bounded flows induces the phenomenology called turbophoresis whereby inertial particles of suitable mass accumulate at the solid wall. Particles injected near the axis of a fully turbulent pipe flow, after an initial spreading phase, undergo a segregation process which eventually leads to a pseudoequilibrium distribution sufficiently downstream. Wall densities up to thousand times the reference value can be easily achieved. The process is discussed here by analyzing the direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a spatially developing particle laden pipe flow under the assumption of dilute suspension. Development phase and asymptotic state are addressed in quantitative terms. A Shannon-like entropy is introduced to quantify the level of spreading/segregation achieved by the particle distributions along the pipe. This allows to define on a physically sound basis the length of the developing region and to summarize in a single indicator the accumulation level as a function of the particle response time. By conditional statistics, it is unequivocally shown that particles approach the wall dragged by relatively fast yet comparatively rare events where highly accumulating particles follow the fluid in-rush toward the wall. On the contrary, the outward particle flux takes place in the form of much more frequent and gentle motions away from the wall. The analysis of DNS data and a simple argument highlight the role of the elongated clusters of particles at the wall as essential features responsible for the eventual asymptotic equilibrium.

Picano, F.; Sardina, G.; Casciola, C. M.

2009-09-01

98

Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Targeted and Single Particle Subcellular Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube.

Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

2004-03-12

99

Laser wakefield simulations towards development of compact particle accelerators  

E-print Network

Laser wakefield simulations towards development of compact particle accelerators C.G.R. Geddes1, D understanding of accelerator physics to advance beam performance and stability, and particle simulations model, France; 9 Oxford University, UK E-mail: cgrgeddes@lbl.gov Abstract. Laser driven wakefield accelerators

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

100

Toxicity and accumulation of silver nanoparticles during development of the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pollutants affecting species at the population level generate ecological instability in natural systems. The success of early life stages, such as those of aquatic invertebrates, is highly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Silver released into the environment from emerging nanotechnology represents such a threat. Sediments are sinks for numerous pollutants, which aggregate and/or associate with depositing suspended particles. Deposit feeder such as the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which has a large associated literature on its development, is an excellent model organism for exposure studies in coastal environments. We exposed eggs, larvae, juveniles and adults of P. dumerilii to various concentrations of citrate (cit-Ag NPs) or humic acid (HA-Ag NPs) capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as well to dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3). We showed that mortality and abnormal development rate increased with younger life stages. While adults and juvenile were the most tolerant life stages, fertilized eggs were highly sensitive to AgNO3, cit-Ag NPs and HA-Ag NPs. Exposures to HA-Ag NPs triggered the highest cute toxicity responses in P. dumerilii and in most cases both Ag NPs were more toxic than AgNO3. Uptake rate of HA-Ag NPs in adult worms was also higher than from other Ag forms, consistent with toxicity to other life stages. The early stages of the life cycle of marine coastal organisms are more affected by Ag NPs than the juvenile or adult life stages, indicating that exposure experiments at the larval level contribute to realistic eco-toxicological studies in aquatic environments.

García-Alonso, Javier; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Neus; Misra, Superb K.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

2014-01-01

101

Development of Marine Diesel Particulate Filter Using High frequency Induction Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel marine diesel particulate filter (DPF) using high frequency induction heating is developed. Particulate matter exhausted from diesel engine is trapped by the DPF and is successfully burned by induction heating. The effectiveness of the DPF system is verified by experiments.

Hatanaka, Yoshihiro; Takashima, Kohei; Kifune, Hiroyasu

102

Environmental policies and marine engines—effects on the development and adoption of innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study indicates that environmental policy interventions significantly influence the innovation processes for reducing the emissions of marine engine technology. Several different types of interventions have been important and the effect is not directly proportional to the strength or spatial coverage of the intervention. Despite its relative weakness, the MARPOL rule on NOx emissions has contributed to technology development. We

Heli Hyvättinen; Mikael Hildén

2004-01-01

103

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

2010-12-01

104

Alkaloids from Marine Invertebrates as Important Leads for Anticancer Drugs Discovery and Development.  

PubMed

The present review describes research on novel natural antitumor alkaloids isolated from marine invertebrates. The structure, origin, and confirmed cytotoxic activity of more than 130 novel alkaloids belonging to several structural families (indoles, pyrroles, pyrazines, quinolines, and pyridoacridines), together with some of their synthetic analogs, are illustrated. Recent discoveries concerning the current state of the potential and/or development of some of them as new drugs, as well as the current knowledge regarding their modes of action, are also summarized. A special emphasis is given to the role of marine invertebrate alkaloids as an important source of leads for anticancer drug discovery. PMID:25490431

Imperatore, Concetta; Aiello, Anna; D'Aniello, Filomena; Senese, Maria; Menna, Marialuisa

2014-01-01

105

Variability of CCN Activation Behaviour of Aerosol Particles in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activation behaviour and total CCN number concentrations was investigated during three ship cruises. Measurements were performed in a mobile laboratory on the German research vessel FS Polarstern cruising between Cape Town and Bremerhaven (April / May and October / November 2011) as well as between Punta Arenas and Bremerhaven (April / May 2012). CCN size distributions were measured for supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.4% using a Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (DMT, USA). Aerosol particle and CCN total number concentrations as well as the hygroscopicity parameter ? (Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007) were determined. Furthermore, size distribution data were collected. The hygroscopicity parameter ? featured a high variability during the cruises, with a median ?-value of 0.52 ± 0.26. The ?-values are depended on air mass origin; and are as expected mainly dominated by marine influences, but also long range transport of aerosol particles was detected. In the Celtic Sea, ? was found to be lower than that of clean marine aerosol particles (0.72 ± 0.24; Pringle et al., 2010) with ?-values ~0.2, possibly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Europe. Close to the West African coast particle hygroscopicity was found to be influenced by the Saharan dust plume, resulting in low ?-values ~0.25. Petters, M.D. and S.M. Kreidenweis (2007), A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity, Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 7, 1961-1971. Pringle, K.J., H. Tost, A. Pozzer, U. Pöschl, and J. Lelieveld (2010), Global distribution of the effective aerosol hygroscopicity parameter for CCN activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5241-5255.

Henning, Silvia; Dieckmann, Katrin; Hartmann, Susan; Schäfer, Michael; Wu, Zhijun; Merkel, Maik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

2013-04-01

106

Recent Advances in the Discovery and Development of Marine Microbial Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Marine microbial natural products (MMNPs) have attracted increasing attention from microbiologists, taxonomists, ecologists, agronomists, chemists and evolutionary biologists during the last few decades. Numerous studies have indicated that diverse marine microbes appear to have the capacity to produce an impressive array of MMNPs exhibiting a wide variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular agents. Marine microorganisms represent an underexplored reservoir for the discovery of MMNPs with unique scaffolds and for exploitation in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. This review focuses on MMNPs discovery and development over the past decades, including innovative isolation and culture methods, strategies for discovering novel MMNPs via routine screenings, metagenomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology. The potential problems and future directions for exploring MMNPs are also discussed. PMID:23528949

Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Feng; Hao, Yu-You; Wang, Yong

2013-01-01

107

Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines; 2) the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals; and 3) the effects of energy removal on physical systems. Each case study contains a description of environmental monitoring efforts and research studies, lessons learned, and analysis of remaining information gaps. The information collected through the Annex IV effort and referenced in this report, can be accessed on the Tethys database at http://mhk.pnnl.gov/wiki/index.php/Tethys_ Home.

Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt (US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

2013-01-15

108

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common approach to marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports this ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. To address these issues, the ODIP project is creating a co-ordination platform between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts will come together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first ODIP workshop. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential prototypes have been identified and work has now begun work to implement these solutions. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies from each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from 6 European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

Glaves, H.; Schaap, D.

2013-12-01

109

MAPPING OF CORAL REEFS FOR MANAGEMENT OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS IN DEVELOPING NATIONS USING REMOTE S  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, the Australian high commission joined other national efforts, such as the US Coral Reef Task Force, to meet the challenge of developing a remote sensingintegrated management plan to ‘conserve and protect’ coral reef ecosystems. Today, in Australia alone, over 408 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been developed conserving and protecting the country’s reef heritage (www.mpaglobal.org). These MPAs represent

CANDACE M. NEWMAN; ELLSWORTH F. LeDREW; ALAN LIM

110

Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis.  

PubMed

Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as (137)Cs and (90)Sr/(90)Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gyh(-1)) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the "no-effect dose" are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example potential recycling within a population, or trophic transfer in the food chain. PMID:25240099

Jaeschke, B C; Lind, O C; Bradshaw, C; Salbu, B

2015-01-01

111

Distribution of virus-like Particles in an OligotrophicMarine Environment (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Viruses are abundant in a variety of aquatic environments, often exceeding bacterial abundance by one order of magnitude.\\u000a In the present study, the spatial distribution of viruses in offshore waters of the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) have\\u000a been studied to determine the relationships between viruses and host communities in this oligotrophic marine environment.\\u000a Viral abundance was determined using two methods:

M. C. Alonso; F. Jimenez-Gomez; J. Rodriguez; J. J. Borrego

2001-01-01

112

The marine alga Gelidium amansii promotes the development and complexity of neuronal cytoarchitecture.  

PubMed

Neurotrophic factors are vital not only to support neuronal development but also to protect mature neurons from atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases. As an effort to explore natural sources that possess neurotrophic activity, we screened common marine algae for their neuritogenic activity in the developing rat hippocampal neurons in culture. Of the 22 seaweed species examined, ethanol extracts of Gelidium amansii (GAE) exhibited potent neuritogenic activity, followed by Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum fulvellum extracts. The effects of GAE were dose dependent with an optimum concentration of 15 µg/mL. The GAE significantly promoted the initial neuronal differentiation from the stage I into the stage II and increased the indices of axonal and dendritic development such as the length, the numbers of primary processes, and branching frequencies by a minimum of twofold compared with the vehicle control. These results show that marine algae are promising candidates for neurotrophic potentials. PMID:22438103

Hannan, Abdul; Kang, Ji-Young; Hong, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hyunsook; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

2013-01-01

113

Development and testing of the infrared radiometer for the Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science objectives, development history, functional description, and testing of the Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 infrared radiometer are discussed. Included in the functional description section is a thorough discussion of the IRR optical system, electronic operation, and thermal control. Signal development and its conversion to engineering units is traced, starting with the radiant space object, passing through the IRR optics and electronics, and culminating with data number development and interpretation. The test program section includes discussion of IRR calibration and alignment verification. Finally, the problems and failures encountered by the IRR during the period of its development and testing are reviewed.

Clarke, T. C.

1975-01-01

114

Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater  

PubMed Central

Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind?1•d?1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P<0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P<0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

2014-01-01

115

International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

2011-10-29

116

Great skua (Stercorarius skua) movements at sea in relation to marine renewable energy developments.  

PubMed

Marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) are an increasing feature of the marine environment. Owing to the relatively small number of existing developments and the early stage of their associated environmental monitoring programmes, the effects of MREDs on seabirds are not fully known. Our ability to fully predict potential effects is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding movements of seabirds at sea. We used GPS tracking to improve our understanding of the movements at sea of a protected seabird species breeding in Scotland, the great skua (Stercorarius skua), to better predict how this species may be affected by MREDs. We found that the overlap of great skuas with leased and proposed MREDs was low; particularly with offshore wind sites, which are predicted to present a greater risk to great skuas than wave or tidal-stream developments. Failed breeders overlapped with larger areas of MREDs than breeding birds but the overall overlap with core areas used remained low. Overlap with wave energy development sites was greater than for offshore wind and tidal-stream sites. Comparison of 2011 data with historical data indicates that distances travelled by great skuas have likely increased over recent decades. This suggests that basing marine spatial planning decisions on short-term tracking data could be less informative than longer-term data. PMID:25262489

Wade, H M; Masden, E A; Jackson, A C; Thaxter, C B; Burton, N H K; Bouten, W; Furness, R W

2014-10-01

117

Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae  

PubMed Central

Understanding the impact of noise on marine fauna at the population level requires knowledge about the vulnerability of different life-stages. Here we provide the first evidence that noise exposure during larval development produces body malformations in marine invertebrates. Scallop larvae exposed to playbacks of seismic pulses showed significant developmental delays and 46% developed body abnormalities. Similar effects were observed in all independent samples exposed to noise while no malformations were found in the control groups (4881 larvae examined). Malformations appeared in the D-veliger larval phase, perhaps due to the cumulative exposure attained by this stage or to a greater vulnerability of D-veliger to sound-mediated physiological or mechanical stress. Such strong impacts suggest that abnormalities and growth delays may also result from lower sound levels or discrete exposures during the D-stage, increasing the potential for routinely-occurring anthropogenic noise sources to affect recruitment of wild scallop larvae in natural stocks. PMID:24088868

de Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Delorme, Natali; Atkins, John; Howard, Sunkita; Williams, James; Johnson, Mark

2013-01-01

118

Development and application of a marine sediment porewater toxicity test using algal spores  

SciTech Connect

An acute pore water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of marine macroalgae as endpoints was developed to indicate the presence of toxic compounds in marine/estuarine and sediment porewater samples. Zoospores collected from Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca were used as test organisms. Preliminary results with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a reference toxicant) indicate that zoospores germination and growth of embryonic gametophytes are as sensitive as the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development toxicity tests. Algal germination and growth data for copper, mercury and other metals will be presented. The results of tests utilizing this algal assay with sediment pore water from contaminated sediments will be compared with more traditional sediment toxicity test methods.

Hooten, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Carr, R.S. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

119

MarineSIM: Robot simulation for marine environments  

E-print Network

Development of robust navigation algorithms for marine robotics is a challenge faced by many marine robotists. This paper presents MarineSIM, a marine robot simulation platform which provides an infrastructure to easily ...

Senarathne, P. G. C. Namal

120

Developing a portable and persistent autonomous real-time marine mammal acoustic monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods for acoustically monitoring marine mammal habitats to mitigate against potential disruptions are compromised in their effectiveness due to non-real-time analysis, such as with archival recorders, or high system noise, such as with towed hydrophone arrays used with seismic surveys. To realize the advantages of both archival and real-time analysis systems, we are developing a portable and autonomous system

Harold Cheyne; Christopher Clark; John Walrod; Norman Gholson; Michael Ornee

2011-01-01

121

Particle emissions from a marine engine: chemical composition and aromatic emission profiles under various operating conditions.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-speed four-stroke marine engine, operated on both heavy fuel oil (HFO) and distillate fuel (DF), was studied under various operating conditions. PM emission factors for organic matter, elemental carbon (soot), inorganic species and a variety of organic compounds were determined. In addition, the molecular composition of aromatic organic matter was analyzed using a novel coupling of a thermal-optical carbon analyzer with a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) mass spectrometer. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly present in an alkylated form, and the composition of the aromatic organic matter in emissions clearly resembled that of fuel. The emissions of species known to be hazardous to health (PAH, Oxy-PAH, N-PAH, transition metals) were significantly higher from HFO than from DF operation, at all engine loads. In contrast, DF usage generated higher elemental carbon emissions than HFO at typical load points (50% and 75%) for marine operation. Thus, according to this study, the sulfur emission regulations that force the usage of low-sulfur distillate fuels will also substantially decrease the emissions of currently unregulated hazardous species. However, the emissions of soot may even increase if the fuel injection system is optimized for HFO operation. PMID:25202837

Sippula, O; Stengel, B; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Rabe, R; Orasche, J; Lintelmann, J; Michalke, B; Abbaszade, G; Radischat, C; Gröger, T; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Harndorf, H; Zimmermann, R

2014-10-01

122

The accumulation of nitrosyl ruthenium by fine particles and marine organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of nitrosyl ruthenium lo0 by fine particles, algae and animals from sea water is described. The presence of ferric hydroxide on the sand and silt particles enhances RuloG accumulation. Uptake of Ru loG by marinc algae is a surface phenomenon associated with the extra-cellular polysaccharide material. Fish accumulate the nuclidc principally in the gut, gills and skin. In

RAYMOND F. JONES

1960-01-01

123

Investigating Primary Marine Aerosol Properties: CCN Activity of Sea Salt and Mixed Inorganic–Organic Particles  

PubMed Central

Sea spray particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater containing salt and organic matter in a stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a diffuser or by water jet impingement on the seawater surface. Three objectives were addressed in this study. First, CCN activities of NaCl and two types of artificial sea salt containing only inorganic components were measured to establish a baseline for further measurements of mixed organic–inorganic particles. Second, the effect of varying bubble residence time in the bulk seawater solution on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. Finally, CCN activities of particles produced from jet impingement were compared with those produced from diffuser aeration. Analyses indicate a considerable amount of organic enrichment in the jet-produced particles relative to the bulk seawater composition when sodium laurate, an organic surfactant, is present in the seawater. In this case, the production of a thick foam layer during impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not equal. PMID:22809370

2012-01-01

124

The phase of particle acceleration in the flare development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is given that the particle acceleration in flares is confined to the initial phase of the flare development preceding the Ha flare maximum and lasting for less than 10 min. The impulsive acceleration process is confined to a relatively small limited volume of about 5 × 1027 cm3 in the region of highest magnetic gradient in the flare, and

Z. Švestka

1970-01-01

125

DEVELOPMENT OF SENSITIVE MAGNETIC PARTICLE IMMUNOASSAY FOR POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sensitive magnetic particle based immunoassay for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 4-(2,4-dibromo-5-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)phenoxy)butyrate-BSA. The PBDE ligand and horse radish peroxidase were conjugated via NHS and EDA...

126

Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334-newton (300-lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. The development and in-flight performance are described and summarized of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicated upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling of the Mariner 9 subsystem are discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data. The flight performance of the subsystem was excellent, as were the performance prediction correlations. These correlations are presented.

Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

1972-01-01

127

Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-?m cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

2009-12-01

128

Development of a large-area silicon ?-particle detector.  

PubMed

Circular ion-implanted silicon detector of ?-particles with a large, 5-cm(2), sensitive area has been developed. An advantage of the detector is that the detector surface is easily cleanable with chemicals. The hardened surface of the detector shows no signs of deterioration of the spectroscopic and electrical characteristics upon repeated cleaning. The energy resolution along the diameters of the detector was (1.0±0.1)% for the 5.486-MeV ?-particles. Detailed tests of the charge collection efficiency and uniformity of the detector entrance window were also performed with a 5.5-MeV He(2+) microbeam. PMID:25016328

Tran, Linh T; Prokopovich, Dale A; Lerch, Michael L F; Petasecca, Marco; Siegele, Rainer; Reinhard, Mark I; Perevertaylo, Vladimir; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

2014-09-01

129

Marine Fisheries Marine recreational angling. Florida  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W Marine recreational angling. Florida News Bureau photo by Jack Fortune 1980 Jay D. Andrews 1 Social Considerations Associated With Marine Recreational Fishing Under FCMA/NMFS Developments Index, 1980 Papers in Marine Fisheries Review, 1980 Chad P. Dawson and Bruce T. Wilkins 12 Charles

130

Particle size distributions of methanesulfonate in the tropical pacific marine boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen high-volume cascade impactor samples were collected during a January-February, 1990, research cruise in the tropical Pacific from Panama to 180°. Aqueous extracts of the samples were analyzed for methanesulfonate (MSA), sulfate, and the seasalt tracer ion magnesium. The majority of MSA size distributions showed no pronounced maximum on submicrometer particles, as has been observed elsewhere. Analysis of the data

Alexander A. P. Pszenny

1992-01-01

131

Particle size distribution of nitrate and sulfate in the marine atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cascade impactor samples were collected at coastal sites on Sal Island, Barbados, and Virginia Key, Miami during 1974 and at two Miami coastal sites on Virginia Key and Key Biscayne during 1981. In all of the samples, the majority of the nitrate mass was found on intermediate size particles and exhibited a mass median diameter (MMD) of about 4 pm.

D. L. Savoie; J. M. Prospero

1982-01-01

132

Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the Arctic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic litter accounts for 50–80% of waste items stranded on beaches, floating on the ocean surface and lodged in the seabed. Organic pollutants can be absorbed onto plastic particles from sea water, attached to their surfaces or included in the plastic matrix as additives. Such chemicals may be transported to remote regions by buoyant plastics and ocean currents. We have

Christiane Zarfl; Michael Matthies

2010-01-01

133

SCHOOL OF MARINE SCIENCES Program of Study  

E-print Network

oceanography; aquaculture; marine biology; marine geology; marine resource development and policy; seafloor; M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Marine Biology; M.S. degree in Marine Policy; Dual M.S. degree in Marine Policy and either Oceanography or Marine Biology; M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Marine Bio

Thomas, Andrew

134

Charged Particle Environment Definition for NGST: Model Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NGST will operate in a halo orbit about the L2 point, 1.5 million km from the Earth, where the spacecraft will periodically travel through the magnetotail region. There are a number of tools available to calculate the high energy, ionizing radiation particle environment from galactic cosmic rays and from solar disturbances. However, space environment tools are not generally available to provide assessments of charged particle environment and its variations in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail at L2 distances. An engineering-level phenomenology code (LRAD) was therefore developed to facilitate the definition of charged particle environments in the vicinity of the L2 point in support of the NGST program. LRAD contains models tied to satellite measurement data of the solar wind and magnetotail regions. The model provides particle flux and fluence calculations necessary to predict spacecraft charging conditions and the degradation of materials used in the construction of NGST. This paper describes the LRAD environment models for the deep magnetotail (XGSE < -100 Re) and solar wind, and presents predictions of the charged particle environment for NGST.

Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Evans, Steven W.; Hardage, Donna M.; Suggs, Robert M.

2000-01-01

135

Development of Captive Breeding Techniques for Marine Ornamental Fish: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasingly popular aquarium hobby is fueling the rapid growth of the aquatic ornamental industry, particularly the trade of marine ornamental species. However, currently there is a heavy reliance on wild caught marine ornamentals to satisfy consumer demand. As public awareness of the plight of marine ecosystems grows, the often destructive and unmanaged exploitation of coral reefs for the marine

Jonathan A. Moorhead; Chaoshu Zeng

2010-01-01

136

Fatty acids in the marine atmosphere: Factors governing their concentrations and evaluation of organic films on sea-salt particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatty acids (C14-C32) in the marine boundary layer were measured in aerosols that were collected over the northern North Pacific from October 1996 to June 1997. Concentrations of lower molecular weight (C14-C19) saturated fatty acids (LFAs, 0.8-24 ng m-3) showed a positive correlation with sea-salt concentrations, suggesting that LFAs are released from the ocean surface to the atmosphere with sea-salt particles. The averaged ratios of [LFAs]air/[sea salt] in autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons were 1.8 (±1.3) × 10-4, 2.1 (±1.3) × 10-4, 3.7 (±2.9) × 10-4, and 4.6 (±1.8) × 10-4, respectively. The results indicate the seasonal variation of the sea-to-air flux of LFAs relative to that of sea salt with a maximum in spring to summer. The enhanced LFA flux was consistent with the satellite images of chlorophyll a over the northern North Pacific, which showed high biological productivity from spring to summer. On the basis of the ratios of [LFAs]air/[sea salt], relative humidity, and modeled size distribution of sea-salt particles, the coverage of LFAs on sea-salt particles was estimated to range from 0.3 to 14%. This study suggests that the coverage of fatty acids, together with other film-forming materials, may have a significant effect on the physicochemical properties of aerosols, which may be affected by the high biological productivity in the high latitudinal ocean.

Mochida, Michihiro; Kitamori, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Keisuke

2002-09-01

137

Seabed characterization for the development of marine renewable energy on the Pacific margin of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inventory of Canada's marine renewable energy resources based on numerical modeling of the potential tidal, wave and wind energy has been published that identifies areas with maximum resource potential. However, the inventory does not consider the seabed geological conditions that will control the safe development of seabed installations and cable corridors. The Geological Survey of Canada (Natural Resources Canada) has therefore undertaken an assessment of seafloor geological characteristics and physical environmental parameters that will be encountered during any extensive deployment of marine renewable energy systems for the Pacific offshore of Canada. Here we present an overview of seabed characterization for key sites for each of the three energy types. Narrow passages exiting the Salish Sea near the Canadian boundary with the United States and northwards out of the Strait of Georgia provide very promising sites for tidal generation. Here, elliptical fields of very large subaqueous dunes, from 12 to 28 m in height, present a significant challenge to site development. Along the exposed continental shelf of Vancouver Island focused wave-energy close to shore (40-60 m water depth) offers significant energy potential, but any engineering systems would have to be founded on a seafloor made up of a mobile gravel lag and an extensive boulder pavement. A large wind farm proposed for the Pacific North Coast would be built on an extensive shallow bank that has active sediment transport and a large field of sand ridges that have developed within a macrotidal environment. A significant challenge is providing for a safe seafloor cable corridor of over 100 km that crosses a large subaqueous dune field to connect to the electrical grid on the mainland. These examples show how geoscience has and will provide critical information to project proponents and regulators for the safe development of marine renewable energy.

Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.

2014-07-01

138

Virus-like particles in picornavirus vaccine development.  

PubMed

Virus-like particles (VLP), which are similar to natural virus particles but do not contain viral genes, have brought about significant breakthroughs in many research fields because of their unique advantages. The ordered repeating epitopes of VLP can induce immunity responses similar to those prompted by natural viral infection; thus, VLP vaccines are regarded as candidate alternatives to whole-virus vaccines. As picornavirus has serious impacts on human and animal health, the development of efficient and safe vaccines is a key endeavor in preventing virus infections. The characteristics of picornavirus capsid proteins allow the development of VLP vaccines. This paper investigates research scenarios and progress on picornavirus VLP vaccines with the aim of providing a reference for researchers focusing on virology and vaccinology. PMID:24647496

Dong, Hu; Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi

2014-05-01

139

Tool kit development to refine and visualize essential climate data and information for marine protected areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine ecosystem responses to climate variability and change such as changing water temperature, water chemistry (e.g., pH, salinity), water level, or storminess may result in adverse impacts including mass mortality, loss of habitat, increased disease susceptibility, and trophic cascade feedbacks. Unfortunately, while marine ecosystem resource managers are aware of these threats, they often lack sufficient expertise with identifying, accessing and using the many large and complex climate data products that would inform ecosystem-scale climate impact assessments. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has been working with the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Ocean Climate Center to enhance and expand the functionality of NCDC's Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) to begin to address this limitation. The WCT is a freely available, Java-based user interface (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wct/) designed to access, analyze, and display a variety of NCDC's georeferenced climate data products (e.g., satellite data, radar, reanalysis datasets, in-situ observations). However, the WCT requires the user to have already identified a data set of interest and gained access to it. This can limit its utility by users who are not knowledgeable about which data sets are relevant to their needs and where those data sets can be found. The Integrated Marine Protected Area Climate Tools (IMPACT) prototype modification to the WCT addresses those requirements through an iterative process between climate scientists and resource managers. The WCT-IMPACT prototype couples a user query approach with a quasi-expert system that determines, retrieves, and loads the appropriate data products for visualization and analysis by the user. Relevant data products are identified based on the environmental variables in which ecosystem managers have indicated an importance to their ecosystems. To improve response time, the user, through the WCT-IMPACT interface, crops (or subsets) the larger gridded data products, such as NOAA's satellite Climate Data Records to the geographic boundaries of each included marine protected area (MPA). These clipped data sets are processed to produce MPA-specific analytics (e.g., files for averages, extremes, peaks over threshold, etc). Once a specific MPA has been selected, the associated data may be visualized, analyzed, and exported to other formats (e.g., netCDF, KML) from within the tool. The WCT-IMPACT tool kit will provide marine ecosystem managers with the capacity to answer such questions as what was the climate like during periods of optimal ecological health, or have climate conditions changed equally across an ecosystem's domain? The WCT-IMPACT extension is being developed specifically to address the needs of marine ecosystem managers to have access to relevant climate data and information for developing ecosystem-scale climate assessments, while retaining the ability for a WCT user to identify and access the full suite of georeferenced climate data provided by NCDC. In this tool kit development scheme, the need to coordinate with the resource managers is paramount and end user participation in an iterative process with the climate scientists is essential.

Cecil, L.; Stachniewicz, J.; Shein, K. A.; Ansari, S.; Jarvis, C.

2013-05-01

140

Photocatalytic water splitting using semiconductor particles: History and recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall water splitting to produce H2 and O2 over a semiconductor photocatalyst using solar energy is a promising process for the large-scale production of clean, recyclable H2. Numerous attempts have been made to develop photocatalysts that function under visible-light irradiation to efficiently utilize solar energy. In general, overall water splitting over a photocatalyst particle can be achieved by modifying the

Kazuhiko Maeda

141

Temporal trends in spheroidal carbonaceous particle deposition derived from annual sediment traps and lake sediment cores and their relationship with non-marine sulphate.  

PubMed

Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) provide an unambiguous indication of atmospherically deposited contamination from industrial sources. SCP data from a 12 year annual sediment trapping and coring programme at 14 lakes based on the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network, were used to consider temporal trends in deposition and to compare these with measured non-marine sulphate fluxes. Results show good temporal coherence across a broad area of northern UK and that SCP deposition levels and are now at their lowest since the 1940s, in agreement with modelled sulphate data. SCP fluxes show reasonable linearity with measured non-marine sulphate depositional fluxes from the nearest UK Acid Deposition Monitoring Network sites, especially over the post-flue-gas desulphurisation period, but comparisons prior to 1972 are not possible due to lack of data. We speculate on whether palaeolimnological SCP data might be used to reconstruct the history of non-marine sulphate fluxes from industrial sources. PMID:15944046

Rose, N L; Monteith, D T

2005-09-01

142

The Pandora Software Development Kit for Particle Flow Calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pandora is a robust and efficient framework for developing and running pattern-recognition algorithms. It was designed to perform particle flow calorimetry, which requires many complex pattern-recognition techniques to reconstruct the paths of individual particles through fine granularity detectors. The Pandora C++ software development kit (SDK) consists of a single library and a number of carefully designed application programming interfaces (APIs). A client application can use the Pandora APIs to pass details of tracks and hits/cells to the Pandora framework, which then creates and manages named lists of self-describing objects. These objects can be accessed by Pandora algorithms, which perform the pattern-recognition reconstruction. Development with the Pandora SDK promotes the creation of small, re-usable algorithms containing just the kernel of a specific operation. The algorithms are configured via XML and can be nested to perform complex reconstruction tasks. As the algorithms only access the Pandora objects in a controlled manner, via the APIs, the framework can perform most book-keeping and memory-management operations. The Pandora SDK has been fully exploited in the implementation of PandoraPFA, which uses over 60 algorithms to provide the state of the art in particle flow calorimetry for ILC and CLIC.

Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.

2012-12-01

143

Determining Risk - How to Evaluate the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development projects progress towards early deployments in the U.S., the process of determining the risks to aquatic animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes from these engineered systems continues to be a significant barrier to efficient siting and permitting. Understanding the risk of MHK installations requires that the two elements of risk - consequence and probability - be evaluated. However, standard risk assessment methodologies are not easily applied to MHK interactions with marine and riverine environment as there are few data that describe the interaction of stressors (MHK devices, anchors, foundations, mooring lines and power cables) and receptors (aquatic animals, habitats and ecosystem processes). The number of possible combinations and permutations of stressors and receptors in MHK systems is large: there are many different technologies designed to harvest energy from the tides, waves and flowing rivers; each device is planned for a specific waterbody that supports an endemic ecosystem of animals and habitats, tied together by specific physical and chemical processes. With few appropriate analogue industries in the oceans and rivers, little information on the effects of these technologies on the living world is available. Similarly, without robust data sets of interactions, mathematical probability models are difficult to apply. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists are working with MHK developers, researchers, engineers, and regulators to rank the consequences of planned MHK projects on living systems, and exploring alternative methodologies to estimate probabilities of these encounters. This paper will present the results of ERES, the Environmental Risk Evaluation System, which has been used to rank consequences for major animal groups and habitats for five MHK projects that are in advanced stages of development and/or early commercial deployment. Probability analyses have been performed for high priority stressor/receptor interactions where data are adaptable from other industries. In addition, a methodology for evaluating the probability of encounter, and therefore risk, to an endangered marine mammal from tidal turbine blades will be presented.

Copping, A. E.; Blake, K.; Zdanski, L.

2011-12-01

144

Marine derived hamacanthins as lead for the development of novel PDGFR? protein kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

In this study, we report on pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as lead for the development of potent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive protein kinase inhibitors with implications as anti-cancer drugs. Initially, we identified the pyrazin-2(1H)-one scaffold from hamacanthins (deep sea marine sponge alkaloids) by Molecular Modeling studies as core binding motif in the ATP pocket of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), which are validated drug targets for the treatment of various neoplastic diseases. Structure-based design studies on a human RTK member PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) suggested a straight forward lead optimization strategy. Accordingly, we focused on a Medicinal Chemistry project to develop pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as optimized PDGFR binders. In order to reveal Structure-Activity-Relationships (SAR), we established a flexible synthetic route via microwave mediated ring closure to asymmetric 3,5-substituted pyrazin-2(1H)-ones and produced a set of novel compounds. Herein, we identified highly potent PDGFR binders with IC?? values in an enzymatic assay below µM range, and possessing significant activity against PDGFR dependent cancer cells. Thus, marine hamacanthin-derived pyrazin-2(1H)-ones showing interesting properties as lead for their further development towards potent PDGFR-inhibitors. PMID:24065162

Pinchuk, Boris; Johannes, Eugen; Gul, Sheraz; Schlosser, Joachim; Schaechtele, Christoph; Totzke, Frank; Peifer, Christian

2013-09-01

145

Marine Derived Hamacanthins as Lead for the Development of Novel PDGFR? Protein Kinase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report on pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as lead for the development of potent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive protein kinase inhibitors with implications as anti-cancer drugs. Initially, we identified the pyrazin-2(1H)-one scaffold from hamacanthins (deep sea marine sponge alkaloids) by Molecular Modeling studies as core binding motif in the ATP pocket of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), which are validated drug targets for the treatment of various neoplastic diseases. Structure-based design studies on a human RTK member PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) suggested a straight forward lead optimization strategy. Accordingly, we focused on a Medicinal Chemistry project to develop pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as optimized PDGFR binders. In order to reveal Structure-Activity-Relationships (SAR), we established a flexible synthetic route via microwave mediated ring closure to asymmetric 3,5-substituted pyrazin-2(1H)-ones and produced a set of novel compounds. Herein, we identified highly potent PDGFR binders with IC50 values in an enzymatic assay below µM range, and possessing significant activity against PDGFR dependent cancer cells. Thus, marine hamacanthin-derived pyrazin-2(1H)-ones showing interesting properties as lead for their further development towards potent PDGFR-inhibitors. PMID:24065162

Pinchuk, Boris; Johannes, Eugen; Gul, Sheraz; Schlosser, Joachim; Schaechtele, Christoph; Totzke, Frank; Peifer, Christian

2013-01-01

146

Variations in the methanesulfonate to sulfate molar ratio in submicrometer marine aerosol particles over the south Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seawater concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and atmospheric concentrations of DMS, sulfur dioxide, methanesulfonate (MSA), and non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate were measured over the eastern Pacific Ocean between 105 deg and 110 deg W from 20 deg N to 60 deg S during February and March 1989. Although the samples collected in the Southern Hemisphere appear to be of marine origin, no significant correlation was found between the latitudinal distributions of DMS, SO2, MSA, and nss SO4(2-). However, an inverse correlation was found between atmospheric temperature and the MSA to nss SO4(2-) molar ratio in submicrometer aerosol particles with a decrease in temperature corresponding to an increase in the molar ratio. Although this trend is consistent with laboratory results indicating the favored production of MSA at lower temperatures, it is contrary to Southern Hemisphere baseline station data. This suggests either a decrease in the supply of DMS relative to nonmarine sources of nss SO4(2-) at the baseline stations in winter or additional mechanisms that affect the relative production of MSA and nss SO4(2-).

Bates, Timothy S.; Calhoun, Julie A.; Quinn, Patricia K.

1992-06-01

147

Variations in the methanesulfonate to sulfate molar ratio in submicrometer marine aerosol particles over the south Pacific Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seawater concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and atmospheric concentrations of DMS, sulfur dioxide, methanesulfonate (MSA), and non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate were measured over the eastern Pacific Ocean between 105 deg and 110 deg W from 20 deg N to 60 deg S during February and March 1989. Although the samples collected in the Southern Hemisphere appear to be of marine origin, no significant correlation was found between the latitudinal distributions of DMS, SO2, MSA, and nss SO4(2-). However, an inverse correlation was found between atmospheric temperature and the MSA to nss SO4(2-) molar ratio in submicrometer aerosol particles with a decrease in temperature corresponding to an increase in the molar ratio. Although this trend is consistent with laboratory results indicating the favored production of MSA at lower temperatures, it is contrary to Southern Hemisphere baseline station data. This suggests either a decrease in the supply of DMS relative to nonmarine sources of nss SO4(2-) at the baseline stations in winter or additional mechanisms that affect the relative production of MSA and nss SO4(2-).

Bates, Timothy S.; Calhoun, Julie A.; Quinn, Patricia K.

1992-01-01

148

Recently developed methods in neutral-particle transport calculations: Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful, general methods for the solution of the neutral particle transport equation involve a close connection between the spatial discretization method used and the source acceleration method chosen. The first form of the transport equation, angular discretization (which is discrete ordinates) is considered as well as spatial discretization based upon a mesh arrangement. Characteristic methods are considered briefly in the context of future, desirable developments. The ideal spatial discretization method is described as having the following attributes: positive-positive boundary data yields a positive angular flux within the mesh including its boundaries; satisfies the particle balance equation over the mesh, that is, the method is conservative; possesses the diffusion limit independent of spatial mesh size, that is for a linearly isotropic flux assumption, the transport differencing reduces to a suitable diffusion equation differencing; the method is unconditionally acceleratable, i.e., for each mesh size, the method is unconditionally convergent with a source iteration acceleration.

Alcouffe, R. E.

149

Particle morphological and roughness controls on mineral surface charge development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of mineral particle morphology and roughness on potential determining ion (p.d.i.; H+, OH-) loadings achieved at synthetic lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) surfaces were predominantly investigated by potentiometry and thermodynamic modeling. Nanosized rod- (RL) and lath-shaped (LL) particles exhibiting different proportions of the same predominant crystallographic faces acquired largely comparable pH, ionic strength and counterion (NaCl, NaClO4) dependencies on p.d.i. loadings. These results supported previous claims that faces ideally containing proton silent sites only, are likely populated by additional proton active sites. This concept was supported further by results of roughened LL-like particles (LLR) also showing highly congruent pH-, ionic strength- and composition-dependent p.d.i. loadings with those of LL and RL. These loadings thereby correspond to maximal levels allowed by net attractive and repulsive forces at each solution composition, irrespective of particle morphology. Contrasting equilibration times required to achieve these loadings revealed considerably slower exchange of p.d.i. and electrolyte ions near the point of zero charge in the rough LLR than in the more idealized LL and RL particles. Thermodynamic modeling was used to test various concepts accounting for these results. The model made use of a novel framework capable of isolating electrostatic contributions from different faces, and of accounting for ion-specific double-layer properties within a single crystallographic face. These efforts made use of capacitance values for each electrolyte ions within the framework of a recently developed Variable Capacitance Model. Attempts at modeling all three particle types were used to suggest that the (0 1 0) face contains ?0.9 site nm-2 of proton active sites, a value notably constrained by recently published Na+, Cl-, and ClO4- loadings derived by cryogenic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The model presented in this work thus provides a means to predict p.d.i. loadings on multifaceted mineral particle surfaces, and can therefore be used to constrain further our understanding of mineral/water interface reactivity.

Boily, Jean-François; Kozin, Philipp A.

2014-09-01

150

Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms  

PubMed Central

Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

2010-01-01

151

Coupling between autocatalytic cell death and transparent exopolymeric particle production in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium.  

PubMed

Extracellular polysaccharide aggregates, operationally defined as transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP), are recognized as an important conduit for carbon recycling and export in aquatic systems. Yet, the factors controlling the build-up of the TEP pool are not well characterized. Here we show that increased TEP production by Trichodesmium, an oceanic bloom-forming nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) cyanobacterium, is coupled with autocatalytic programmed cell death (PCD) process. We demonstrate that PCD induction, in both laboratory cultures and natural populations, is characterized by high caspase-like activity, correlates with enhanced TEP production, and occurs under iron and phosphorus starvation, as well as under high irradiance and oxidative stress. Enhanced TEP production was not observed in actively growing populations. We provide further evidence that iron is a key trigger for the induction of PCD. We demonstrate, for the first time, the concomitant enhanced build-up of the TEP pool when Trichodesmium is Fe-stressed. These results suggest a functional linkage between activation of caspases and PCD in Trichodesmium and regulation of vertical carbon and nitrogen fluxes. We hypothesize that modulation of TEP formation and its qualities by different mortality pathways could regulate the fate of phytoplankton blooms and particulate organic matter in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:17504479

Berman-Frank, Ilana; Rosenberg, Gad; Levitan, Orly; Haramaty, Liti; Mari, Xavier

2007-06-01

152

Cell cycle arrest and activation of development in marine invertebrate deuterostomes.  

PubMed

Like most metazoans, eggs of echinoderms and tunicates (marine deuterostomes, there is no data for the cephalochordates) arrest awaiting fertilization due to the activity of the Mos/MEK/MAPK cascade and are released from this cell cycle arrest by sperm-triggered Ca2+ signals. Invertebrate deuterostome eggs display mainly three distinct types of cell cycle arrest before fertilization mediated by potentially different cytostatic factors (CSF): one CSF causes arrest during meiotic metaphase I (MI-CSF in tunicates and some starfishes), another CSF likely causes arrest during meiotic metaphase II (amphioxus), and yet another form of CSF causes arrest to occur after meiotic exit during G1 of the first mitotic cycle (G1-CSF). In tunicates and echinoderms these different CSF activities have been shown to rely on the Mos//MAPK pathway for establishment and on Ca2+ signals for their inactivation. Despite these molecular similarities, release of MI-CSF arrest is caused by APC/C activation (to destroy cyclin B) whereas release from G1-CSF is caused by stimulating S phase and the synthesis of cyclins. Further research is needed to understand how both the Mos//MAPK cascade and Ca2+ achieve these tasks in different marine invertebrate deuterostomes. Another conserved feature of eggs is that protein synthesis of specific mRNAs is necessary to proceed through oocyte maturation and to maintain CSF-induced cell cycle arrest. Then activation of development at fertilization is accompanied by an increase in the rate of protein synthesis but the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown in most of the marine deuterostomes. How the sperm-triggered Ca2+ signals cause an increase in protein synthesis has been studied mainly in sea urchin eggs. Here we review these conserved features of eggs (arrest, activation and protein synthesis) focusing on the non-vertebrate deuterostomes. PMID:24721426

Costache, Vlad; McDougall, Alex; Dumollard, Rémi

2014-08-01

153

Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe.  

PubMed

The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, designed to provide in situ surface characterization of plasma facing components in a tokamak environment. MAPP has been implemented for operation on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where all control and analysis systems are currently under development for full remote operation. Control systems include vacuum management, instrument power, and translational/rotational probe drive. Analysis systems include onboard Langmuir probes and all components required for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy surface analysis techniques. PMID:25430248

Lucia, M; Kaita, R; Majeski, R; Bedoya, F; Allain, J P; Boyle, D P; Schmitt, J C; Onge, D A St

2014-11-01

154

Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors  

SciTech Connect

The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown.

Stelzer, H.

1980-08-01

155

Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, designed to provide in situ surface characterization of plasma facing components in a tokamak environment. MAPP has been implemented for operation on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where all control and analysis systems are currently under development for full remote operation. Control systems include vacuum management, instrument power, and translational/rotational probe drive. Analysis systems include onboard Langmuir probes and all components required for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy surface analysis techniques.

Lucia, M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Bedoya, F.; Allain, J. P.; Boyle, D. P.; Schmitt, J. C.; Onge, D. A. St.

2014-11-01

156

Development and sea trials of a subsea holographic camera for large volume in-situ recording of marine organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development, construction and sea testing of An underwater holographic camera (HoloCam) for in situ recording of marine organisms and particles in large volumes of sea water. HoloCam comprises a laser, power supply, holographic recording optics, and plate holders, a water- tight housing and a support frame. Added to this are control electronics such that the entire camera is remotely operable and controllable from ship or dock-side. Uniquely the camera can simultaneously record both in-line and off-axis holograms using a pulsed frequency double Nd:YAG laser. In- line holography is capable of producing images of organisms with a resolution of better than 10 micrometers . Off-axis holograms of aquatic systems of up to 50,000 cm3 volume, have been recorded. Following initial laboratory testing, the holo-camera was evaluated in an observation tank and ultimately was tested in Loch Etive, Scotland. In-line and off-axis holograms were recorded to a depth of 100 m. We will present result on the ste dives and evaluation of the camera performance.

Watson, John; Alexander, Stephen J.; Craig, Gary; Hendry, David C.; Hobson, Peter R.; Lampitt, R. S.; Marteau, J.-M.; Nareid, Helge; Nebrensky, J. J.; Player, Michael A.; Saw, Kevin; Tipping, Keith

2002-06-01

157

The implications of developments on the Atlantic Frontier for marine mammals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the available information on the distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the Atlantic Frontier area, and the literature on the potential effects of oil exploration and extraction on these species. Reliable estimates of seal abundance are only available for two species (grey and harbour seals). For grey seals and hooded seals there is also information from telemetry studies on their distribution at sea. Data on cetaceans comes from a variety of sources including whaling statistics, dedicated surveys, observers placed on vessels of opportunity, and from bottom-mounted hydrophone arrays. These indicate that the Atlantic Frontier region is of national, and possibly international, importance for a number of cetacean species. The most abundant small cetacean is likely to be the white-sided dolphin; however, smaller numbers of large whales, including endangered blue, right, fin and sei whales, and vulnerable humpback and sperm whales are also likely to be present in summer. There is growing evidence that a number of marine mammal species respond to the acoustic and physical disturbance associated with exploration for oil and gas resources, although the ecological impact of these responses is unclear. We describe how risk assessment frameworks, initially developed for evaluating the environmental impacts of hazardous chemicals, can be used to address this problem.

Harwood, John; Wilson, Ben

2001-05-01

158

Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish.  

PubMed

As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 ?atm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 ?atm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment. PMID:24198929

Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

2013-10-01

159

Insights and Ideas Garnered from Marine Metabolites for Development of Dual-Function Acetylcholinesterase and Amyloid-? Aggregation Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Due to the diversity of biological activities that can be found in aquatic ecosystems, marine metabolites have been an active area of drug discovery for the last 30 years. Marine metabolites have been found to inhibit a number of enzymes important in the treatment of human disease. Here, we focus on marine metabolites that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is the cellular target for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. Currently, development of anticholinesterase drugs with improved potency, and drugs that act as dual acetylcholinesterase and amyloid-? aggregation inhibitors, are being sought to treat Alzheimer’s disease. Seven classes of marine metabolites are reported to possess anti-cholinesterase activity. We compared these metabolites to clinically-used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors having known mechanisms of inhibition. We performed a docking simulation and compared them to published experimental data for each metabolite to determine the most likely mechanism of inhibition for each class of marine inhibitor. Our results indicate that several marine metabolites bind to regions of the acetylcholinesterase active site that are not bound by the clinically-used drugs rivastigmine, galanthamine, donepezil, or tacrine. We use the novel poses adopted for computational drug design of tighter binding anticholinesterase drugs likely to act as inhibitors of both acetylcholinesterase activity and amyloid-? aggregation inhibition. PMID:24714126

Stoddard, Shana V.; Hamann, Mark T.; Wadkins, Randy M.

2014-01-01

160

Insights and ideas garnered from marine metabolites for development of dual-function acetylcholinesterase and amyloid-? aggregation inhibitors.  

PubMed

Due to the diversity of biological activities that can be found in aquatic ecosystems, marine metabolites have been an active area of drug discovery for the last 30 years. Marine metabolites have been found to inhibit a number of enzymes important in the treatment of human disease. Here, we focus on marine metabolites that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is the cellular target for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Currently, development of anticholinesterase drugs with improved potency, and drugs that act as dual acetylcholinesterase and amyloid-? aggregation inhibitors, are being sought to treat Alzheimer's disease. Seven classes of marine metabolites are reported to possess anti-cholinesterase activity. We compared these metabolites to clinically-used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors having known mechanisms of inhibition. We performed a docking simulation and compared them to published experimental data for each metabolite to determine the most likely mechanism of inhibition for each class of marine inhibitor. Our results indicate that several marine metabolites bind to regions of the acetylcholinesterase active site that are not bound by the clinically-used drugs rivastigmine, galanthamine, donepezil, or tacrine. We use the novel poses adopted for computational drug design of tighter binding anticholinesterase drugs likely to act as inhibitors of both acetylcholinesterase activity and amyloid-? aggregation inhibition. PMID:24714126

Stoddard, Shana V; Hamann, Mark T; Wadkins, Randy M

2014-04-01

161

Multiscale Statistical Model of Fully-Developed Turbulence Particle Accelerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the experimental measurement results of fluid particle transverse accelerations in fully developed pipe turbulence published in Nature (2001) by La Porta et al, the present authors recently develop a multiscale statistical model which considers both normal diffusion in molecular scale and anomalous diffusion in vortex scale. This model gives rise to a new probability density function, called Power-Stretched Gaussian Distribution model (PSGD). In this study, we make a further comparison of this statistical distribution model with the well-known Lévy distribution, Tsallis distribution and stretched-exponential distribution. Our model is found to have the following merits: 1) fewer parameters, 2) better fitting with experimental data, 3) more explicit physical interpretation.

Chen, Wen; Sun, Hongguang

162

MarineBio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MarineBio serves the marine biology research community with a number of online resources. Visitors are invited to "find out about new species, get involved in ocean conservation, explore dynamic research or marine life news" and to generally take part in MarineBio's "evolving tribute to all ocean life." MarineBio offers a number of message boards for keeping up-to-date with developments in the field. Many resources rely heavily on user input, such as the Web site's species inventory, which aims to be "the greatest source of the latest and most complete information about every marine plant and animal species online." MarineBio is a nonprofit project developed and maintained by marine biology researchers, Web designers, writers, and other professionals dedicated promoting marine biology and protecting marine resources.

163

An algal probe for copper speciation in marine waters: laboratory method development.  

PubMed

Laboratory-based algal assays were developed to explore the bioavailability of copper to the marine alga Thalassiosira weissflogii. A calibration strategy was developed that avoided use of the synthetic ligand ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the Aquil growth medium, thereby allowing ambient metal speciation. In a comparison of T. weissflogii cells grown in Aquil medium with EDTA to medium containing no added copper, zinc, and less than 0.003 nM of EDTA, no significant growth differences were observed after 8 d, indicating adequate stored nutrients. A 30-h assay was selected as the optimal time frame after examination of data from concentration-response experiments. Using 65Cu stable isotope additions, parameters examined included growth, chlorophyll a, copper uptake, phytochelatin production, and dissolved organic carbon excretion. The T. weissflogii specific growth rates decreased from 1.36 d(-1)( at pCu (i.e., the negative logarithmic concentration of free Cu) = 8.8 to 0.56 d(-1) at pCu = 7.8, whereas intercellular copper concentrations increased from 13.6 to 70.1 fg/cell, respectively. Calculated values of the copper concentration that caused a 50% reduction in algal growth of pCu = 7.7 and copper per algal mass of 625 microg/g were established. Using an algal assay based on EDTA-free culture medium, along with trace-metal clean techniques, the effect of copper on T. weissflogii and the speciation of copper in marine waters can be studied. PMID:16629150

Karner, Dawn A; Shafer, Martin M; Overdier, Joel T; Hemming, Jocelyn D C; Sonzogni, William C

2006-04-01

164

Processes controlling the distribution of aerosol particles in the lower marine boundary layer during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program's First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) are to determine and understand the properties and controlling factors of the aerosol in the remote marine atmosphere that are relevant to radiative forcing and climate. A key question in terms of this goal and the overall biogeochemical sulfur cycle is what factors control the formation, growth, and evolution of particles in the marine boundary layer (MBL). To address this question, simultaneous measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS), sulfur dioxide (SO2), the aerosol chemical mass size distribution, and the aerosol number size distribution from 5 to 10,000 nm diameter were made on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Discoverer. From these data we conclude that the background MBL aerosol during ACE 1 often was composed of four distinct modes: an ultrafine (UF) mode (Dp = 5-20 nm), an Aitken mode (Dp = 20-80 nm), an accumulation mode (Dp = 80-300 nm), and a coarse mode (Dp > 300 nm). The presence of UF mode particles in the MBL could be explained by convective mixing between the free troposphere (FT) and the MBL associated with cloud pumping and subsidence following cold frontal passages. There was no evidence of major new particle production in the MBL. Oceanic emissions of DMS appeared to contribute to the growth of Aitken and accumulation mode particles. Coarse mode particles were comprised primarily of sea salt. Although these particles result from turbulence at the air-sea interface, the instantaneous wind speed accounted for only one third of the variance in the coarse mode number concentration in this region.

Bates, Timothy S.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Covert, David S.; Coffman, Derek J.; Mari, Celine; Durkee, Philip A.; de Bruyn, Warren J.; Saltzman, Eric S.

1998-01-01

165

Development of a novel protocol for generating flavivirus reporter particles.  

PubMed

Infection with West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a growing public and animal health concern worldwide. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies for the infection are urgently required. Recently, viral reverse genetic systems have been developed and applied to clinical WNV virology. We developed a protocol for generating reporter virus particles (RVPs) of WNV with the aim of overcoming two major problems associated with conventional protocols, the difficulty in generating RVPs due to the specific skills required for handling RNAs, and the potential for environmental contamination by antibiotic-resistant genes encoded within the genome RNA of the RVPs. By using the proposed protocol, cells were established in which the RVP genome RNA is replicated constitutively and does not encode any antibiotic-resistant genes, and used as the cell supply for RVP genome RNA. Generation of the WNV RVPs requires only the simple transfection of the expression vectors for the viral structural proteins into the cells. Therefore, no RNA handling is required in this protocol. The WNV RVP yield obtained using this protocol was similar that obtained using the conventional protocol. According to these results, the newly developed protocol appears to be a good alternative for the generation of WNV RVPs, particularly for clinical applications. PMID:25116200

Fernández, Igor Velado; Okamoto, Natsumi; Ito, Aki; Fukuda, Miki; Someya, Azusa; Nishino, Yosii; Sasaki, Nobuya; Maeda, Akihiko

2014-11-01

166

Submicron Sea Salt Aerosol Inside and Outside of the Surf Plume: Size Segregated and Total Sea salt Aerosol Distributions by Single Particle Analysis at a Coastal Marine Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainties in the shape of the source function for sea salt aerosols as well as in the of the shape of the size distribution of sea salt aerosol in the marine boundary layer (MBL) are considered, after even greater uncertainties for dust aerosol, the biggest open question to assess the impact of aerosols on climate change [1]. In a recent intercomparison of global models, satellite retrievals and ground-based measurements, Kinne et al [2] found large discrepancies between simulated and measured aerosol extinction in the Southern Ocean, and suggested that this might be indicative of an underestimation of the contribution of submicron sea salt aerosol in current models. Although since at least Murphy et al's [3] the importance of submicron sea salt aerosol in the clean MBL for radiative forcing is recognized, high quality data on the size distribution and on the source function of sea salt in this size range is sparse. Field measurements from O'Dowd et al and Clarke et al [4,5], based on the aerosol volatility technique, yielded contrasting results in the two size regions crucial for direct and indirect forcing. We have developed a sea salt specific aerosol particle sizer [6,7], the Aerosol Sodium Detector (ASD), that in its current, improved version is able to quantitatively measure the amount of sea salt in single aerosol particles using sodium as a proxy in the range between 1 fg NaCl equivalent (95 nm NaCl dry diameter) and 7000 fg NaCl equivalent (1800 nm diameter) with a sizing accuracy better than 5% and no losses within the valid detection range. This instrument was deployed at a coastal site at Bellows AFB in Oahu, Hawaii to study the contribution of sea salt to the total aerosol load in both remote marine air and the surf zone at wind speeds up to 10 m/s. Full sea salt number size distributions were acquired continuously in 2 s samples and matched the results of a commercial aerodynamic particle sizer down to 400 nm better than 20% in all cases. The distributions showed a main submicron mode at 520 nm dry diameter as well as a second mode below 300 nm that was strongly enhanced in breaking waves, in agreement with Clarke et al's recent findings [5]. Total sea salt particle count down to the detection limit was about 12-14 part/cc at 9.5 m/s u10. In size-segregated mode, the extent of internal mixing of surf zone aerosol was monitored. The results were consistent with pure sea salt with little processing down to the detection limit of 100 nm. Average size dependent sea salt mixing ratios were calculated, with sea salt being the primary aerosol component down to 200 nm, in good agreement with Murphy et al's reported ratios [3]. The results of this study suggest a much larger contribution to total aerosol scattering by sea salt aerosols in remote marine air than current parameterizations of the sea salt size distribution imply [4,8]. They also hint at a very effective removal process of very small sea salt particles (<200 nm) formed in breaking waves in the MBL. References: 1.Penner, J. et al.,in: 3rd IPCC Report, 2001, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. p.289-348. 2.Kinne, S. et al., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 2003. 108(D20). 3.Murphy, D.M. et al., Nature, 1998, 392(6671): p.62-65. 4.O'Dowd, C.D. et al., Atmos. Environ., 1997, 31(1): p.73-80. 5.Clarke, A.D. et al., J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 2003, 20(10): p.1362-1374. 6.Clark, C.D. et al., J. Aerosol Sci., 2001, 32(6):p.765-778. 7.Campuzano-Jost, P. et al., J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 2003, 20(10):p.1421-1430. 8.Gong, S.L., Global Biogeochem. Cy., 2003, 17(4).

Campuzano-Jost, P.; Donohoue, D.; Maring, H. B.; Hynes, A. J.

2004-12-01

167

A Sourcebook of Marine Activities Developed in the Milwaukee Great Lakes Summer Education Program, 1977 and 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-seven activities dealing with the marine environment of the Great Lakes are presented. Designed for junior and senior high school students, these activities develop awareness of the biological, physical, social, economical, and aesthetic dimensions of the Great Lakes. Field trips, films, discussion, and hands-on activities are used to teach…

Haney, Richard E., Ed.

168

Types of larval development in marine bottom invertebrates, their distribution and ecological significance: a re-evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various types of larval development among marine bottom invertebrates has been discussed on the basis of ecological evidence by Thorson (1936, 1946, 1950, 1952) and Mileikovsky (1961b, 1965). The information at hand is reviewed anew in this paper and is re-evaluated in the light of modern pertinent literature. The interrelationships between certain larval types and their distribution

S. A. Mileikovsky

1971-01-01

169

Copper sensor system for unattended marine operations II: development of a polymer sensor and field tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major source of ionic copper (Cu(I) and (II)) trace metal contamination in the marine environment is the copper containing antifoulant coatings on ship hulls. Tracing this contamination is difficult. Difficult because the ionic copper released from the coatings complexes rapidly with organic and inorganic ligands in the water column. This research examines the potential for using the organic dye 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroine (BCP) embedded in the ionomeric polymer, Nafion 117, as a membrane probe sensor for quickly measuring ionic copper in seawater. Results of this study show the Nafion 117 containing BCP measures Cu(I) within 17 percent of measurements made with the Standard Method bathocuproine di-sulfonic acid (BCS) procedure. To measure total ionic copper with the membrane probe, the reductant, hydroxylamine-hydrochloride, is added to the sample. The use of the polymer with BCP allows for a rapid optical measurement. Optical measurements are possible in two ways, as a comparator and as a modification to a fiber optic probe. Response times for these devices depend on the size of the membrane used. Presently, the optical comparator using a 2 X 3 membrane takes 20 minutes to develop color. The fiber optic probe uses a 0.5 cm diameter membrane that takes 1 minute. A comparator has no electronic parts and requires only a comparison of color depth to determine the level of ionic copper in the sample. This makes it useful for monitoring. The fiber optic probe is more suitable to buoy installation and long term monitoring where data logging and archiving are needed. Therefore, the Nafion 117 polymer impregnated with BCP is a rapid method useful for detecting ionic copper released in to the marine environment.

Lamontagne, Robert A.; Foerster, John W.

1999-11-01

170

Development of marine sediment bioassays and toxicity tests for monitoring and regulation in Europe  

SciTech Connect

There is a need in Europe and elsewhere for a broad suite of whole-sediment bioassays and toxicity tests which can be used for routine monitoring and assessment of the marine environment and for evaluating the toxic effects of chemicals which may find their way into sediments. Until recently, few European species had been incorporated into such tests but the availability of suitable methodologies is now increasing rapidly. Perhaps the most important recent activity in this area consisted of an international ring test of acute sediment toxicity test methods which was organized by the Oslo and Paris Commissions in 1993, using up to 4 offshore chemicals as test materials. It evaluated the performance of 4 acute (5--10 day) tests involving: the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum, the bivalve mollusc Abra alba, the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina. The ring test concluded that the C. volutator test was the most appropriate for evaluating offshore chemicals, but all these methods are now widely used in Europe, both as toxicity tests and as bioassays. For example, the A. marina procedure (which has both lethal and sublethal endpoints), in combination with the C. volutator method, is now routinely used in the UK for monitoring the toxicity of estuarine sediments. Further activities are in progress. Perhaps the most important is the development of chronic marine sediment tests and bioassays which can be used to assess the long-term effects of the many sedimentary contaminants which are able to persist in this type of habitat and possibly cause delayed effects on the growth and reproduction, etc. of benthic fauna.

Thain, J.; Matthiessen, P.

1995-12-31

171

Hierarchical population genetic structure in a direct developing antarctic marine invertebrate.  

PubMed

Understanding the relationship between life-history variation and population structure in marine invertebrates is not straightforward. This is particularly true of polar species due to the difficulty of obtaining samples and a paucity of genomic resources from which to develop nuclear genetic markers. Such knowledge, however, is essential for understanding how different taxa may respond to climate change in the most rapidly warming regions of the planet. We therefore used over two hundred polymorphic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) to explore population connectivity at three hierachical spatial scales in the direct developing Antarctic topshell Margarella antarctica. To previously published data from five populations spanning a 1500 km transect along the length of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, we added new AFLP data for four populations separated by up to 6 km within Ryder Bay, Adelaide Island. Overall, we found a nonlinear isolation-by-distance pattern, suggestive of weaker population structure within Ryder Bay than is present over larger spatial scales. Nevertheless, significantly positive F st values were obtained in all but two of ten pairwise population comparisons within the bay following Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. This is in contrast to a previous study of the broadcast spawner Nacella concinna that found no significant genetic differences among several of the same sites. By implication, the topshell's direct-developing lifestyle may constrain its ability to disperse even over relatively small geographic scales. PMID:23691125

Hoffman, Joseph I; Clarke, Andrew; Clark, Melody S; Peck, Lloyd S

2013-01-01

172

Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH3) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH3 than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH3 concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH3 concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH3 and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH3.

Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S.

1998-01-01

173

Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores  

SciTech Connect

An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Geological Survey

1998-01-01

174

Development of Marine Sciences in Arab Universities. Meeting of Experts Held at the Marine Science Station (Aqaba, Jordan, December 1-5, 1985). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 39.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Unesco Reports in Marine Science" are designed to serve as a complement to the "Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science." This report focuses on the current situation in marine sciences in Arab universities. A special meeting was convened in Jordan during December, 1985, to discuss the objectives of teaching and research in the marine…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

175

Toward the Sustainable Development of Marine Minerals: Geological, Technological, and Economic Aspects  

E-print Network

· 4-9 October 2010 Rare and Valuable Metals for High-Tech Applications Found in Marine Ferromanganese. The rare-earth elements have recently received much attention in the scientific and popular press because Potential for Rare and Valuable Metals for High-tech Applications Found in Marine Ferromanganese Deposits Fe

176

Engaging Scientists in K-12 Professional Development and Curriculum Development in the Context of Alaska's Large Marine Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska marine ecosystem-based professional development workshops have proven to be a robust context for engaging scientists from a variety of disciplines in overcoming barriers to communication and collaboration among scientists and educators. Scientists came away from scientist-teacher workshops with effective K-12 outreach strategies as well as a deeper understanding about how to contribute meaningfully to K-12 education. The establishment of the Alaskan Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE-AK) in 2009 was the catalyst for a series of professional development workshops related to the North Pacific Research Board's (NPRB) marine focus areas (Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, and Arctic Ocean) for Integrated Ecosystem Research Programs (IERPs). During 2010-2012, COSEE-AK and NPRB partnered with the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS), and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) to support a five-day professional development workshop focused on each ecosystem. The workshops brought together three types of participants: 1) Alaska-focused marine ecosystem scientists; 2) rural Alaskan teachers living within each ecosystem; and 3) teachers from outside Alaska who had research experiences with scientists in the ecosystem. Over the course of the workshops, we developed a workshop model with four objectives: 1) to increase the science content knowledge of educators and their ability to teach ecosystem science; 2) to provide the scientists an opportunity to have broader impacts from their research on educators and Alaska Native and rural students; 3) to increase the knowledge and skills of educator and scientist participants to provide effective learning experiences for K-12 students; and 4) to facilitate the collaborative development of lesson plans. A total of 28 scientists and 41 educators participated in the three workshops. The success of the workshop for the educators was evaluated by pre- and post-workshop surveys of their perceived increase in content knowledge in specific topics and increased confidence in teaching those topics. The experiences of the scientists were evaluated based on recorded one-on-one interviews. Preliminary results indicate that the Arctic Ocean workshop was the most successful of the three in meeting the workshop objectives for both teacher and scientist participants. The gain in teachers' level of knowledge and confidence was significant for five scientific topics. Scientists reported gains in their understanding of K-12 education, working with teachers, lesson plan design, and how to make their science relevant to Alaska Native students and communities. A comparison of scientists responses from all three workshops indicate that the factors unique to the Arctic Ocean Workshop which contributed to meeting the workshop objectives in terms of scientist engagement were: 1) the sustained involvement of the scientists throughout the workshop, 2) an effective ratio of scientists to teachers (1:1), with flexibility for smaller group work), and 3) the involvement of Alaska Native scientists, educators, and community members in the collaborative work. The lesson plans have been posted to the ARCUS (http://www.polartrec.com) and MBARI (http://www.mbari/earth) websites.

Sigman, M.; Anderson, A.; Deans, N. L.; Dublin, R.; Dugan, D.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Warburton, J.

2012-12-01

177

Natural transfer of helminths of marine origin to freshwater fishes with observations on the development of Diphyllobothrium alascense.  

PubMed

Infective stages of helminths of 5 species that occur as adults in marine mammals were found in burbot, Lota lota (L.) (Gadidae), from the lower Kuskokwim River (southwestern Alaska): Diphyllobothrium alascense Rausch et Williamson, 1958; Pyramicocephalus phocarum (Fabricius, 1780); Corynosoma strumosum (Rudolphi, 1801); Corynosoma semerme (Forsell, 1904); and Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878). Some larval stages were obtained also from smelt, Osmerus mordax dentex Steindachner, an anadromous fish important as prey of burbot. Burbot, which are freshwater fish, could become paratenic hosts of those helminths by means of at least 3 interactions: by consuming marine fishes in brackish waters at river mouths, by feeding on marine fishes that enter lower reaches of rivers, or by preying on anadromous fishes as they migrate up rivers. Consumption of burbot by people may result in infection by helminths of marine origin; of those recorded, only P. decipiens may be significantly pathogenic. Attempts to rear P. phocarum in dogs were unsuccessful. Plerocercoids of D. alascense, of very small size and found only in the gastric lumen of burbot, readily infected dogs. For study of their development, strobilae were obtained at intervals of 48 hr to 32 days postinfection. In heavy infections, some strobilae developed slowly, while others underwent rapid development. PMID:10780552

Rausch, R L; Adams, A M

2000-04-01

178

Effects of barium and cadmium on the population development of the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina.  

PubMed

Offshore oil and gas drilling often involves the use of fluids containing barium and traces of other heavy metals. These may affect the environment, but information on their toxicity to benthic biota remains scant. Here, we present results of a 10-day bioassay with the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina at different loads of barium (0-10 ,000 ppm nominal concentrations) and cadmium (0-12 ppm) in the range of concentrations reported from drilling-impacted sediments. Barium did not affect the fitness and population development of R. (P.) marina at concentrations up to 300 ppm, but did cause a decrease in population abundance and an increase in development time from concentrations of 400-2000 ppm onwards. Increased mortality occurred at 4800 ppm Ba. For cadmium, LOEC and EC?? values for total population abundance were 2.95 and 8.82 ppm, respectively. Cd concentrations as low as 2.40 to 2.68 caused a decrease in the abundance of adult nematodes, indicating that assays covering more generations would likely demonstrate yet more pronounced population-level effects. Our results indicate that oil and gas drilling activities may potentially have important implications for the meiobenthos through the toxicity of barium and associated metals like cadmium. PMID:21855994

Lira, V F; Santos, G A P; Derycke, S; Larrazabal, M E L; Fonsêca-Genevois, V G; Moens, T

2011-10-01

179

Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities can create noise pollution and there is increasing international concern about how this may impact wildlife. There is evidence that anthropogenic noise may have detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology in many species but there are few examples of experiments showing how fitness may be directly affected. Here we use a split-brood, counterbalanced, field experiment to investigate the effect of repeated boat-noise playback during early life on the development and survival of a marine invertebrate, the sea hare Stylocheilus striatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia). We found that exposure to boat-noise playback, compared to ambient-noise playback, reduced successful development of embryos by 21% and additionally increased mortality of recently hatched larvae by 22%. Our work, on an understudied but ecologically and socio-economically important taxon, demonstrates that anthropogenic noise can affect individual fitness. Fitness costs early in life have a fundamental influence on population dynamics and resilience, with potential implications for community structure and function.

Nedelec, Sophie L.; Radford, Andrew N.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Nedelec, Brendan; Lecchini, David; Mills, Suzanne C.

2014-07-01

180

Marine Science in Support for Sustainable Development of the Indian Ocean Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Ocean rim is home to a significant part of the global population. Its large heat capacity and ocean circulation responds to and regulates seasonal to multi-decadal and long term climate change. In particular the monsoon type circulation regulates rain and drought patterns over India, Africa and Southern Asia. Fishing and more recently resource extraction of energy and materials make the ocean economically important. Global trade and ocean related hazards (such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, ocean de-oxygenation, loss of biodiversity, sea level rise and earth quakes and tsunamis) have important other economic impacts on all societies. On the other hand our current scientific understanding, ability to continually observe changes in the marine environment, model all aspects of the connected ocean system and develop plausible scenarios for the Indian Ocean of the future are still in its infancy. The possibility for a decade long comprehensive Indian Ocean Study in support of providing the information needed for sustainable development of the region is explored.

Visbeck, Martin

2014-05-01

181

Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data  

SciTech Connect

In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)���¢��������s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9�������°��������2.5�������° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1�������° x 1�������°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 �������µm. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4�������º by 5�������º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between ���¢��������clean marine���¢������� aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses

Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

2012-03-28

182

Development of a Testing Platform for Scaled-Laboratory Studies of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small-scale platform for testing model hydrokinetic devices in riverine environments has been developed for the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, 1.5 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&H) at Bucknell University. This platform is being used to advance development of marine hydrokinetic technologies by providing scaled-laboratory testing in a controlled environment. The results will provide validation of numerical predictions for device effects on the local substrate. Specifically, the flume is being used to model the effect of an underwater turbine on the sediment transport through its wake flow as it converts hydrokinetic energy to power. A test bed has been designed and assembled to hold sediment of varying size and material, where a single model turbine or an array formation, can be rooted within an erodible bed to conduct scour and erosion studies. Additionally, the facility is equipped with contraction inserts to increase the range of flow speeds available for turbine testing. For accurate flow field measurements the testing platform is instrumented with a Sontek Horizon 16 MHz Micro Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) which is used to characterize the mean velocity field of the wake generated by the turbine to correlate the strength of the wake with changes in the sediment bed. Finally, the testing platform includes an HR Wallingford 2D Sediment Bed Profiler with a low-powered laser distance sensor mounted inside a waterproof housing to enable characterization of changes in bed form topology for various turbine performance regimes. The flume is equipped with a track that allows a precision 3D traversing system to position measurement probes along the length, width and depth of the flume. Model turbine performance in terms of torque and power are characterized. This testing platform for laboratory-scaled studies are instrumental in yielding physical measurements of the alteration of sediment caused by variations in flow and wake structures due to the presence of marine hydrokinetic devices. These results will facilitate siting assessment for green energy technologies.

Beninati, M. L.; Volpe, M. A.; Riley, D. R.; Krane, M. H.

2010-12-01

183

Development of an electrical resistivity cone for the detection of gas hydrates in marine sediments  

E-print Network

onshore and offshore environments, as well as in permafrost and tropical regions. The presence of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments are of concern to geotechnical engineers for several reasons, including: (1) their effect on the load bearing...

McClelland, Martha Ann

1994-01-01

184

Development and Bias Assessment of a Method for Targeted Metagenomic Sequencing of Marine Cyanobacteria  

PubMed Central

Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in oligotrophic waters and responsible for a significant percentage of the earth's primary production. Here we developed a method for metagenomic sequencing of sorted Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations using a transposon-based library preparation technique. First, we observed that the cell lysis technique and associated amount of input DNA had an important role in determining the DNA library quality. Second, we found that our transposon-based method provided a more even coverage distribution and matched more sequences of a reference genome than multiple displacement amplification, a commonly used method for metagenomic sequencing. We then demonstrated the method on Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus field populations from the Sargasso Sea and California Current isolated by flow cytometric sorting and found clear environmentally related differences in ecotype distributions and gene abundances. In addition, we saw a significant correspondence between metagenomic libraries sequenced with our technique and regular sequencing of bulk DNA. Our results show that this targeted method is a viable replacement for regular metagenomic approaches and will be useful for identifying the biogeography and genome content of specific marine cyanobacterial populations. PMID:24296495

Batmalle, Cécilia S.; Chiang, Hsin-I; Zhang, Kun; Lomas, Michael W.

2014-01-01

185

Nutrition and bioprocess development for efficient biosynthesis of an antitumor compound from marine-derived fungus.  

PubMed

An integrated nutrition and bioprocess strategy was developed for improving the biosynthesis of an antitumor compound, 1403C, by a marine-derived fungus, Halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403). First, statistical design strategies were synthetically applied to optimize the nutritional composition. The resulting 1403C production reached 2.07 g/l, which was 143.5 % higher than the original production. However, it only produced 0.44 g/l of 1403C in 5-l bioreactor fermentation. Thus, the operating parameters including culture pH, dissolved oxygen, agitation speed, impeller type and inoculum level were considered to improve the fermentation process, and an effective control strategy for 1403C production by Halorosellinia sp. submerged in a 5-l bioreactor was established. When inoculating 0.22 g/l dry biomass, controlling dissolved oxygen not lower than 30 % during the growth phase but ranging between 30 and 40 % during the stationary phase, using a double-layer six-flat-blade Rushton disc turbine agitated at 400 rpm, keeping short-term low pH and rapid-rising pH with glucose starvation, the highest 1403C production was finally obtained at 1.32 g/l, which was promoted by 200 % compared to before optimization. Fermentation scale-up was finally performed in a 500-l bioreactor, and 1403C production of 1.09 g/l was obtained. PMID:23887857

Zhou, Weiqiang; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Jiushun; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Jiao; Wang, Meixia; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

2013-10-01

186

Development and bias assessment of a method for targeted metagenomic sequencing of marine cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in oligotrophic waters and responsible for a significant percentage of the earth's primary production. Here we developed a method for metagenomic sequencing of sorted Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations using a transposon-based library preparation technique. First, we observed that the cell lysis technique and associated amount of input DNA had an important role in determining the DNA library quality. Second, we found that our transposon-based method provided a more even coverage distribution and matched more sequences of a reference genome than multiple displacement amplification, a commonly used method for metagenomic sequencing. We then demonstrated the method on Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus field populations from the Sargasso Sea and California Current isolated by flow cytometric sorting and found clear environmentally related differences in ecotype distributions and gene abundances. In addition, we saw a significant correspondence between metagenomic libraries sequenced with our technique and regular sequencing of bulk DNA. Our results show that this targeted method is a viable replacement for regular metagenomic approaches and will be useful for identifying the biogeography and genome content of specific marine cyanobacterial populations. PMID:24296495

Batmalle, Cécilia S; Chiang, Hsin-I; Zhang, Kun; Lomas, Michael W; Martiny, Adam C

2014-02-01

187

Marine Fisheries On the cover  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~~ On the cover: A spring chinook gillnetter on the Columbia River at Astoria, Macrobrachium rosenbergii Departments NOAA/NMFS Developments Foreign Fishery Developments Index Papers in Marine For Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. Hobart Marine Fisheries Review (USPS 090-080) is pub

188

Research and development of two marine-degradable biopolymers. Rept. for 1 Oct 89-30 Sep 90  

SciTech Connect

The Navy is developing a biopolymeric film material suitable for fabrication into marine-disposable trash bags so that it can comply with impending national and international requirements which will prohibit the discharge of plastics into the sea. Two biopolymers, chitosan and regenerated cellulose, were selected and tested to meet this need. After 6 weeks of marine exposure, regenerated cellulose samples disappeared; after 10 weeks, chitosan samples became brittle and separated, while chitosan showed greater anaerobic degradation than regenerated cellulose in soil studies, the opposite occurred in the marine sediment environment. Aerobic degradation was much higher than anaerobic degradation for both biopolymers. To improve flexibility, 50 plasticizers were tested in chitosan. Ten percent lithium bromide and 5% lithium acetate/10% PEG 400 in chitosan were the most effective plasticizers. Regenerated cellulose films treated with lithium salt solutions also showed improved flexibility. Incorporating urea and potassium phosphate into cellulose showed that degradation could be increased in soil. Tests are ongoing to further accelerate the rate of biodegradation by increasing the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. Fabricating trash bags will require adhesive bonding. Five adhesives were evaluated with regenerated cellulose. Covinax 220, JW 2-47, and Adcote 333T proved acceptable. Chitosan requires further development to be produced and processed into bags efficiently. With minor adjustments, regenerated cellulose presently meets this requirement; thus, it is the more promising film. Progress towards the goal of developing a biopolymeric film material meeting the Navy's requirements is continuing.

Andrady, A.L.; Pegram, J.E.; Olson, T.M.

1992-03-01

189

Mariner Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

190

Development of a decision support system to manage contamination in marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

In recent years, contamination and its interaction with climate-change variables have been recognized as critical stressors in coastal areas, emphasizing the need for a standardized framework encompassing chemical and biological data into risk indices to support decision-making. We therefore developed an innovative, expert decision support system (Exp-DSS) for the management of contamination in marine coastal ecosystems. The Exp-DSS has two main applications: (i) to determine environmental risk and biological vulnerability in contaminated sites; and (ii) to support the management of waters and sediments by assessing the risk due to the exposure of biota to these matrices. The Exp-DSS evaluates chemical data, both as single compounds and as total toxic pressure of the mixture, to compare concentrations to effect-based thresholds (TELs and PELs). Sites are then placed into three categories of contamination: uncontaminated, mildly contaminated, and highly contaminated. In highly contaminated sites, effects on high-level ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e. survival and reproduction) are used to determine risk at the organism-population level, while ecological parameters (i.e. alterations in community structure and ecosystem functions) are considered for assessing effects on biodiversity. Changes in sublethal biomarkers are utilized to assess the stress level of the organisms in mildly contaminated sites. In Triad studies, chemical concentrations, ecotoxicological high-level effects, and ecological data are combined to determine the level of environmental risk in highly contaminated sites; chemical concentration and ecotoxicological sublethal effects are evaluated to determine biological vulnerability in mildly contaminated sites. The Exp-DSS was applied to data from the literature about sediment quality in estuarine areas of Spain, and ranked risks related to exposure to contaminated sediments from high risk (Huelva estuary) to mild risk (Guadalquivir estuary and Bay of Cadiz). A spreadsheet-based version of the Exp-DSS is available at the MEECE and DiSIT web sites (www.meece.eu and www.disit.unipmn.it). PMID:23892026

Dagnino, A; Viarengo, A

2014-01-01

191

Development of optical spectroscopic instruments and application to field measurements of marine trace gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halogens (X = Cl, Br, I) and organic carbon are relevant to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, are linked to atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen cycles, modify aerosols, and oxidize atmospheric mercury. The abundance of halogen radical species in the atmosphere is very low, but even concentrations of parts per trillion (1 ppt = 10-12 volume mixing ratio) or parts per quadrillion (1 ppq = 10-15 volume mixing ratio) are relevant for the aforementioned processes. Halogen radicals can be traced through measurements of halogen oxides (XO, where X = Cl, Br, I), that are ~1-10 times more abundant. However, measurements of halogen oxides are sparse, partly due to the lack of analytical techniques that enable their routine detection. In Chapters II-IV, I describe the development of a research grade Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument to measure bromine monoxide (BrO) and iodine monoxide (IO) routinely in the troposphere. I present autonomous measurements of BrO and IO in Pensacola, Florida that maximize sensitivity towards the detection of BrO in the free troposphere (altitudes >2km) from ground. The measurements are then coupled to a box-model to assess their impact on the oxidation of mercury in the atmosphere. Chapter V describes the Fast Light-Emitting-Diode Cavity-Enhanced DOAS (Fast LED-CE-DOAS) instrument and first measurements of glyoxal diurnal cycles and Eddy Covariance (EC) fluxes of glyoxal in the marine atmosphere. Glyoxal is the smallest alpha-dicarbonyl and a useful tracer molecule for fast photochemistry of hydrocarbons over oceans. The unique physical and chemical properties of glyoxal pose challenges in explaining this soluble gas over the remote ocean, and recent measurements over the open ocean currently remain unexplained by models. Results from a first cruise deployment over the tropical Pacific Ocean (TORERO field campaign) are presented.

Coburn, Sean Christopher

192

Marine Biology  

E-print Network

this  door. ”   Marine  Biology   I  joined  the  military  RIVERSIDE   Marine  Biology   A Thesis submitted in partialBiology                                                                                                                        

Zaffino, Kyle

2013-01-01

193

Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon currently growing along the Andean fluvial system on altitudes between c. 2000 up to c. 4800 m. Alnus is an important Andean forest taxa since Pliocene. In summary, the Neogene palynological record of the Amazon Fan strongly reflects and confirms the influence of the uplift of the Andes and its transcontinental character from late Miocene onwards.

Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

2014-05-01

194

Marine Animal Alert System -- Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies -- FY 2011 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal turbines to be deployed in Puget Sound in Washington State. The MAAS will help manage the risk of injury or mortality to marine animals from blade strike or contact with tidal turbines. In particular, development has focused on detection, classification, and localization of listed Southern Resident killer whales within 200 m of prototype turbines using both active and passive acoustic approaches. At the close of FY 2011, a passive acoustic system consisting of a pair of four-element star arrays and parallel processing of eight channels of acoustic receptions has been designed and built. Field tests of the prototype system are scheduled for the fourth quarter of calendar year 2011. Field deployment and testing of the passive acoustic prototype is scheduled for the first quarter of FY 2012. The design of an active acoustic system that could be built using commercially available off-the-shelf components from active acoustic system vendors is also in the final stages of design and specification.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Copping, Andrea E.

2011-09-30

195

Development of a multifunctional particle spectrometer for space radiation imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

For future exploration of the solar system, the European Space Agency (ESA) is planning missions to Mercury (BepiColombo), the Sun (SolarOrbiter) and to the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The expected intensity of radiation during such missions is hazardous for the scientific instruments and the satellite. To extend the lifetime of the satellite and its payload a multifunctional particle spectrometer

Erik Maddox; Alex Palacios; Dimitris Lampridis; Stefan Kraft; Alan Owens; Dana Tomuta; Reint Ostendorf

2008-01-01

196

Particle Deposition in Ventilation Ducts: Connectors, Bends and Developing Turbulent Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ventilation ducts the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed, and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90° duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both bare

Mark R. Sippola; William W. Nazaroff

2005-01-01

197

Development and application of a fully automatic troubleshooting method for large marine diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diesel engine is the main propulsion system for marine vessels except for a small category using gas or steam turbines. This is the result of its high efficiency, power concentration and reliability that have been improved considerably during the current decade. Despite these advantages, the engineer usually has to overcome great difficulties and mainly operational problems arising during the

D. T. Hountalas; A. D. Kouremenos

1999-01-01

198

75 FR 45527 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and Research, Development...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2-nm zone around the target shall be monitored by...informed of any aural detection of marine mammals and...2-nm zone around the target shall commence 2 hours...n); (E) Initial detection sensor; (F) Length...actual detonations (or target spot if not yet...

2010-08-03

199

77 FR 12010 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...operationally feasible, required, and safe...accomplishment of primary operational duties. Marine...level, except as required to meet testing...surveys will be required. For surveys...No Go'' decision, but the final...the following factors in relation to...effectiveness of the military readiness...

2012-02-28

200

Copper sensor system for unattended marine operations II: development of a polymer sensor and field tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major source of ionic copper (Cu(I) and (II)) trace metal contamination in the marine environment is the copper containing antifoulant coatings on ship hulls. Tracing this contamination is difficult. Difficult because the ionic copper released from the coatings complexes rapidly with organic and inorganic ligands in the water column. This research examines the potential for using the organic dye

Robert A. Lamontagne; John W. Foerster

1999-01-01

201

Developing Artificial Life Simulations of Marine Biology and Exploring Measures of Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and species data from the Scylla reef have been used to undertake research into the relationship that different measures of complexity have on simulations of Marine Biology. Experiments on behavioural, data and scale complexity have examined how these measures affect the results of simulations, especially with regard to accuracy and robustness under changing environmental conditions.

David White

2008-01-01

202

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): supporting the development of a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports an ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. The Ocean Data Interoperability (ODIP) project is creating a co-ordination platform to support collaboration between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and also the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts are coming together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first two ODIP workshops. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential interoperability solutions have been identified and work has now begun to implement these solutions within three prototype development tasks which will be outlined as part of this presentation. ODIP is a community led project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies in each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from six European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 (FP7) programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Arko, Robert; Proctor, Roger

2014-05-01

203

Early developments: Particle physics aspects of cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays is the birthplace of elementary particle physics. The 1936 Nobel prize was shared between Victor Hess and Carl Anderson. Anderson discovered the positron in a cloud chamber. The positron was predicted by Dirac several years earlier. In subsequent cloud chamber investigations Anderson and Neddermeyer saw the muon, which for some time was considered to be a candidate for the Yukawa particle responsible for nuclear binding. Measurements with nuclear emulsions by Lattes, Powell, Occhialini and Muirhead clarified the situation by the discovery of the charged pions in cosmic rays. The cloud chamber continued to be a powerful instrument in cosmic ray studies. Rochester and Butler found V's, which turned out to be shortlived neutral kaons decaying into a pair of charged pions. Also ?'s, ?'s, and ?'s were found in cosmic rays. But after that accelerators and storage rings took over. The unexpected renaissance of cosmic rays started with the search for solar neutrinos and the observation of the supernova 1987A. Cosmic ray neutrino results were best explained by the assumption of neutrino oscillations opening a view beyond the standard model of elementary particles. After 100 years of cosmic ray research we are again at the beginning of a new era, and cosmic rays may contribute to solve the many open questions, like dark matter and dark energy, by providing energies well beyond those of accelerators.

Grupen, Claus

2014-01-01

204

Marine Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

1978-01-01

205

Direct numerical simulation of particle dispersion in a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed DNS of particle-laden spatially developing turbulent boundary layer at Re?=1000-3200. We computed the Lagrangian trajectories of millions of fluid points and solid particles with Stokes number St=0.1, 1, and 5, where St=?p/?k, and ?k was computed at z+ at the streamwise location where particles were released. The particles were gradually released from a line source in the viscous sublayer, buffer layer, and log-layer. We computed the time development of particle mean displacement, dispersion, and turbulent diffusivity. Our DNS results of fluid point mean-displacements are in excellent agreement with those of Batchelor's (1964) theory. Also, our DNS results show that in general particle statistics are strongly influenced by particle's Stokes number. Such dependence is mostly caused by the particles tendency to preferentially accumulate in the viscous sublayer as their Stokes number increases. Furthermore, for t/T L < 1 where TL is the Lagrangian integral time scale, the streamwise and wall-normal dispersions are ? t2 for fluid points and ? t3 for solid particles. For 20 < t/TL < 80, the streamwise dispersion of fluid points and particles with St = 0.1 is approximately ? t5/3, while that of particles with St = 1 and 5 is approximately ? t5/2. For all cases studied and for 20 < t/T L < 80, the wall-normal dispersion is approximately ? t.

Ferrante, A.; Dodd, M.

2012-12-01

206

Development of magnetic luminescent core/shell nanocomplex particles with fluorescence using Rhodamine 6G  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? A simple method was developed to synthesize Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite particles. ? The magnetic particle shows that highly luminescent and core/shell particles are formed. ? Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. ? The magnetic particles could detect fluorescence for the application of biosensor. -- Abstract: A simple and reproducible method was developed to synthesize a novel class of Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite core/shell particles. Using a single cobalt core, Rhodamine 6G of organic dye molecules was entrapped in a silica shell, resulting in core/shell particles of ?200 nm diameter. Analyses using a variety of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibration sample magnetometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and fluorescence intensity demonstrated that dye molecules were trapped inside the core/shell particles. A photoluminescence investigation showed that highly luminescent and photostable core/shell particles were formed. Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. The synthesized magnetic particles could be used to detect fluorescence on glass substrate arrays for bioassay and biosensor applications.

Lee, Hee Uk; Song, Yoon Seok [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chulhwan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Wook, E-mail: kimsw@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-15

207

On the interactions between particles and turbulence in a fully-developed channel flow in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions between small, dense particles and fluid turbulence have been investigated in a downflow, fully-developed channel in air. The particles were selected to respond to some but not all of the scales of turbulent motions. Particle velocities and concentration fields were examined to determine particle response to turbulence. Gas-phase velocities were measured to investigate turbulence modification by particles; particle relaxation time and mass loading were varied. The channel flow was at Reynolds number 13,800. Three classes of narrowly sized spherical beads were used: 50 micron and 90 micron diameter glass beads and 70 micron diameter copper shot. The particles were smaller than the Kolmogorov scale of turbulence; particle relaxation times ranged from 18 ms to 95 ms. Particle mass loadings ranged up to 0.8 yet particle volume fractions remained under 0.02 percent. Particle and gas-phase velocities were measured by LDA, with pedestal amplitude discrimination. Particle concentration fields were determined from computer processed laser flow visualization (these experiments also used 25 micron glass beads and Lycopodium powder). Particle mean velocity profiles were flatter than air velocity profiles. Streamwise particle velocity fluctuation intensities were larger than the corresponding fluid turbulence intensities, while the opposite behavior was observed in the transverse direction. Particle number density distributions furnished evidence of preferential concentration of particles by turbulence, previously observed in the computational studies of Squires and Eaton. Gas-phase mean velocity profiles exhibited no effects of particle loading, with the air mass flow-rate held constant. Turbulence attenuation increased with both particle mass loading and particle relaxation time, with reductions in turbulence kinetic energy of up to 80 percent. Particles at low mass loadings attenuated turbulence more strongly in the transverse than in the streamwise direction, which is attributed to the different turbulence spectra seen by the particle in the two directions. Turbulence attenuation increased with distance from the wall. Estimates of the contribution of particles to the dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy, based on k-epsilon models, showed that smaller relative increases in dissipation in channel flow, compared with those in forced isotropic turbulence, corresponded to larger reductions of turbulence intensity.

Kulick, Johathan D.

208

Update to ``Reconciliation of coarse mode sea-salt aerosol particle size measurements and parameterizations at a subtropical ocean receptor site'' regarding the use of aerodynamic particle sizers in marine environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the January 2006 issue of Journal of Geophysical Research, Reid et al. presented their findings regarding the sometimes large biases found in the measurement of the size and inferred mass concentration of coarse mode sea-salt particles. This was done on the R/P Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) off of the coast of Oahu, Hawaii, where long fetches of the clean marine environment could be studied. As part of this analysis, data from optical particle counters and TSI aerodynamic particle sizers (APS) (model 3320) were compared to filter mass and chemistry. It was found that a ground-based APS 3320 gave superior performance on measurement of sea-salt properties relative to other size spectrometers when previously published correction factors were used. However, a calibration study of APS instruments by Volckens and Peters (2005) was published while Reid et al. (2006) was in press. Volckens and Peters (2005) found significant differences in counting efficiency between wet and dry particles that included evidence for particle impaction inside the APS's acceleration nozzle. This finding does not impact Reid et al.'s (2006) key results or conclusions. However, it does bear relevance to specific comments made regarding what was suggested as appropriate use of APS-type instruments. It also has bearing on some unexplained anomalous behavior in the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) wing-mounted APS unit. In this short note we briefly review the APS performance bibliography, provide correction factors for size estimates presented in Reid et al. (2006), and discuss how the most current findings impact the study of coarse mode sea salt.

Reid, Jeffrey S.; Peters, Thomas M.

2007-02-01

209

Code Development of a 3D Finite Element Particle-In-Cell Code with Adaptive Meshing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., in association with U.C. Berkeley (UCB), is developing a fully relativistic, 3D, one-species, particle-in-cell simulation code with adaptive finite element meshing. This initial version will simulate particles in quasi-static fields, which are solved by the finite element methods. In quasi-static PIC analysis, all particles are synchronized in time, and the electric and

Thuc Bui; L. Ives; J. Verbonceur; C. Birdsall

2005-01-01

210

DEVELOPMENT OF A DETERIORATION MODEL TO PROJECT FUTURE CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT CORROSION IN A DUAL MARINE BRIDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two 4.1-km-long (2.5-mi-long), 31-year-old parallel bridges in Northern Florida marine service were examined to assess and forecast the extent of concrete reinforcement corrosion. A preliminary inspection showed that the chloride concentration at the depth of the reinforcement in the cylindrical piling was approaching the level normally associated with the onset of corrosion. Future traffic projections required deciding between alternatives that

A. A. Sagüés; W. Scannell; F. W. Soh

211

Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition: testing a new approach to managing marine aggregate dredging.  

PubMed

A baseline dataset from 2005 was used to identify the spatial distribution of macrofaunal assemblages across the eastern English Channel. The range of sediment composition found in association with each assemblage was used to define limits for acceptable change at ten licensed marine aggregate extraction areas. Sediment data acquired in 2010, 4 years after the onset of dredging, were used to assess whether conditions remained within the acceptable limits. Despite the observed changes in sediment composition, the composition of sediments in and around nine extraction areas remained within pre-defined acceptable limits. At the tenth site, some of the observed changes within the licence area were judged to have gone beyond the acceptable limits. Implications of the changes are discussed, and appropriate management measures identified. The approach taken in this study offers a simple, objective and cost-effective method for assessing the significance of change, and could simplify the existing monitoring regime. PMID:23806669

Cooper, Keith M

2013-08-15

212

Particle aggregation.  

PubMed

A basic problem in marine biogeochemistry is understanding material and elemental distributions and fluxes in the oceans, and a key part of this problem is understanding the processes that affect particulate material in the ocean. Aggregation of particulate material is a primary process because it alters the transport properties of particulate material and provides a mechanism for transferring material from the dissolved into the particulate pools. Aggregation theory not only provides a framework for understanding these processes, but it also provides a means for making predictions and has been successfully used to predict maximum particle concentrations in the oceans and the fate of diatom blooms (including those from iron fertilization), the size spectra of particles in the oceans, and the size distributions of trace metals. Here we review the basic theory involved, summarize recent developments, and explore unresolved issues. PMID:21141030

Burd, Adrian B; Jackson, George A

2009-01-01

213

Taylor particle dispersion during transition to fully developed two-dimensional turbulence  

E-print Network

We report new measurements of single particle dispersion in turbulent two-dimensional (2D) flows. Laboratory experiments in electromagnetically driven and Faraday wave driven turbulence reveal a transition from weakly dispersing superdiffusive regime to strongly dispersing Brownian diffusion as the flow energy is increased in a broad range. The transition to fully developed 2D turbulence is characterized by the topological changes in the fluid particle trajectories and the development of self-similar diffusion. The degree of 2D turbulence development can be quantified by a parameter describing the deviation of single particle dispersion from the Taylor dispersion.

Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Shats, M

2014-01-01

214

Development of miniaturized submersible fluorometers for the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in marine waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most widespread organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Due to their physico-chemical properties, PAHs are persistent and mobile, can strongly bioaccumulate in food chains and are harmful to living organisms. They are thus recognized by various international organizations as priority contaminants and are included in the list of 45 priority regulated substances by the European Union. Because of their aromatic structure, PAHs are "optically active" and have inherent fluorescence properties in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral domain (200-400 nm). Therefore, UV fluorescence spectroscopy has been successfully used to develop PAH sensors (i.e. UV fluorometers). Currently, five UV submersible fluorometers are commercially available for in situ measurements of PAHs: EnviroFlu-HC (TriOS Optical Sensors, Germany), Hydrocarbon Fluorometer (Sea & Sun Technology, Germany), HydroC ™ / PAH (CONTROS, Germany), UviLux AquaTracka (Chelsea Technology Group, UK) and Cyclops-7 (Turner Designs, US). These UV fluorometers are all dedicated to the measurement of phenanthrene (?Ex /?Em: 255/360 nm), one of the most abundant and fluorescent PAHs found in the aquatic environment. In this study, we developed original, miniaturized submersible fluorometers based on deep UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for simultaneous measurements of two PAHs of interest: the MiniFluo-UV 1 for the detection of phenanthrene (PHE, at ?Ex /?Em: 255/360 nm) and naphthalene (NAP, at ?Ex /?Em: 270/340 nm), and the MiniFluo-UV 2 for the detection of fluorene (FLU, at ?Ex /?Em: 255/315 nm) and pyrene (PYR, at ?Ex /?Em: 270/380 nm). The MiniFluo-UV sensors have several features: measurements of two PAHs at the same time, small size (puck format, 80 x 60 mm), very low energy consumption (500 mW at 12V), LED monitoring, analog and numerical communication modes. The two MiniFluo-UV sensors were first tested in the laboratory: 1) on standard solutions of PHE, NAP, FLU and PYR in the range 0.1-100 µg l-1 and 2) on a water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil diluted in 0.2 µm filtered seawater (0 to 50% of WSF in seawater). Then, the MiniFluo-UV sensors were mounted onto a conductivity temperature depth (CTD) vertical profiler and tested at sea. Several profiles were performed in the Bay of Marseilles, in different harbours and hydrocarbon-impacted sites. The MiniFluo-UV measurements performed in the laboratory and in the field were associated with spectrofluorometric (EEM/PARAFAC) and/or chromatographic (GC-MS) analyses. The result obtained show that the MiniFluo-UV are pertinent and efficient tool for monitoring hydrocarbon pollutions in the marine environment. This work is a contribution of three projects labelled by the Competitivity Cluster Mer PACA: FUI SEA EXPLORER, DGCIS - Eco industries VASQUE (PI: ACSA-ALCEN, Meyreuil, France) and ANR - ECOTECH IBISCUS (PI: M. Goutx, MIO, Marseille, France).

Tedetti, Marc; Bachet, Caroline; Joffre, Pascal; Ferretto, Nicolas; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

2014-05-01

215

A contribution to knowledge of the development of marine life during the Permian and Triassic through the analysis of life histories of genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data recently published on the longevity of various marine animal genera permits in-depht study of the history of marine life. The Permo-Triassic boundary, as well as the Permian and Triassic periods themselves, constitute a particularly interesting point in the history of life in the Phanerozoic, in that they straddle the most extensive extinction ever recorded.The analysis of the development of

Salvador Reguant

2007-01-01

216

PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN A NEARLY DEVELOPED TURBULENT DUCT FLOW WITH ELECTROPHORESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with deposition of neutral and charged particles in nearly developed turbulent duct flows. The cases that the duct is vertical or horizontal and when the particles carry Boltzmann, static electrification, as well as saturation charge distributions are analyzed. The mean turbulent flow field is evaluated with the aid of the FLUENT code, using the Reynolds stress

Chunhong He; Goodarz Ahmadi

1999-01-01

217

New developments in particle characterization by laser diffraction: size and shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser diffraction has become a popular technique in many fields for measuring particle size distributions (PSDs). It is not only one of the standard techniques for laboratory measurements but is also gaining importance for on-line process monitoring and process control. This article reports some developments of this technique while recognizing the potential that still exists. In this report both particle

Zhenhua Ma; Henk G Merkus; Jan G. A. E de Smet; Camiel Heffels; Brian Scarlett

2000-01-01

218

Rapid Development of High Ice Particle Concentrations in Small Polar Maritime Cumuliform Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely high ice particle concentrations developed rapidly in the ascending tops of maritime cumulus congestus clouds after drizzle drops had already formed below this level by the collision-coalescence mechanism. In one building cloud with a top temperature no colder than 8°C, the ice particle concentrations increased from 0 to >350 L1 within 9 min. In another cloud with a top

Peter V. Hobbs; Arthur L. Rangno

1990-01-01

219

Development of a particle injection system for impurity transport study in KSTARa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solid particle injection system is developed for KSTAR. The system has a compact size, compatibility with a strong magnetic field and high vacuum environment, and the capability to inject a small amount of solid particles with a narrow injection angle. The target flight-distance of 10 cm has been achieved with a particle loss rate of less than 10%. Solid impurity particles such as tungsten and carbon will be injected by this system at the midplane in KSTAR. The impurity transport feature will be studied with a soft X-ray array, a vacuum ultra-violet diagnostic, and Stand Alone Non-Corona code.

Lee, H. Y.; Hong, Suk-Ho; Hong, Joohwan; Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Siwon; Jang, Juhyeok; Jeon, Taemin; Park, Jae Sun; Choe, Wonho

2014-11-01

220

Development of a particle injection system for impurity transport study in KSTAR  

SciTech Connect

A solid particle injection system is developed for KSTAR. The system has a compact size, compatibility with a strong magnetic field and high vacuum environment, and the capability to inject a small amount of solid particles with a narrow injection angle. The target flight-distance of 10 cm has been achieved with a particle loss rate of less than 10%. Solid impurity particles such as tungsten and carbon will be injected by this system at the midplane in KSTAR. The impurity transport feature will be studied with a soft X-ray array, a vacuum ultra-violet diagnostic, and Stand Alone Non-Corona code.

Lee, H. Y.; Hong, Joohwan; Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Siwon; Jang, Juhyeok; Jeon, Taemin; Park, Jae Sun; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea and Fusion Plasma Transport Research Center, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Suk-Ho [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-11-15

221

MARINE RESEARCH Volume 62, Number 1  

E-print Network

Journal of MARINE RESEARCH Volume 62, Number 1 Predictability of Lagrangian particle trajectories, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 90089, U.S.A. Journal of Marine Research, 62, 1

Ozgökmen, Tamay M.

222

Development of multiple-layer polymeric particles for targeted and controlled drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to develop multilayered particles consisting of a magnetic core and two encompassing shells made up of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) for targeted and controlled drug delivery. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that multilayered particles were obtained with PNIPAAm magnetic nanoparticles embedded within the PLGA shell. Factorial analysis studies also showed that the particle size was inversely proportional to the surfactant concentration and sonication power and directly proportional to the PLGA concentration. Drug-release results demonstrated that these multilayer particles produced an initial burst release and a subsequent sustained release of both bovine serum albumin (BSA) and curcumin loaded into the core and shell of the particle, respectively. BSA release was also affected by changes in temperature. In conclusion, our results indicate that the multilayered magnetic particles could be synthesized and used for targeted and controlled delivery of multiple drugs with different release mechanisms. PMID:19699325

Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Rahimi, Maham; Nattama, Sivaniarvindpriya; Wadajkar, Aniket; Nguyen, Kytai Truong

2010-01-01

223

Seawater and Detrital Marine Pb Isotopes as Monitors of Antarctic Weathering Following Ice Sheet Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparisons of seawater and detrital Pb isotopes from sites proximal to Antarctica at the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT) are being used to understand variations in continental weathering associated with the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Previous work has shown that seawater and detrital archives yield similar isotopic values during Eocene warmth, which is interpreted to record congruent chemical weathering of the continent. In contrast, distinct isotopic values for the two phases at the EOT represents increased incongruent mechanical weathering during growth of the ice sheet. For this study we expanded beyond the initial glaciation at the EOT to determine whether less dramatic changes in ice volume and climate also produce variations in weathering and intensity that are recorded by seawater and detrital Pb isotopes. We collected Nd and Pb isotope data from extractions of Fe-Mn oxide coatings of bulk decarbonated marine sediments, which preserve seawater isotopic values, and from complete dissolutions of the remaining silicate fraction for Ocean Drilling Program Site 748 on Kerguelen Plateau (1300 m modern water depth). The data spans an interval of deglaciation from ~23.5-27 Ma documented by ?18O that has been equated to a ~30% decrease in ice volume on Antarctica (Pekar and Christie-Blick, 2008, Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol.). Initial results from Site 748 include the first ?Nd values for intermediate waters in the Oligocene Southern Ocean and reveal a value of ~-8 over the entire 3.5 my interval, which is consistent with values reported for deep Indian Ocean sites at this time and similar to deeper Southern Ocean sites. Corresponding detrital ?Nd values are less radiogenic and decrease from -9 to -13 during the study interval. Detrital 206Pb/204Pb values also decrease during the warming interval, while seawater 206Pb/204Pb values increase. The decrease in detrital values indicates the composition of source materials entering the ocean changed as the ice sheet waned. Increasing seawater 206Pb/204Pb may record enhanced chemical weathering under conditions of greater water availability and warmer temperatures combined with abundant rock flour created during the preceding glacial advance. As previous studies have documented initial weathering leachates tend to be more radiogenic than the parent rock composition. Alternatively, seawater values during warming in the late Oligocene approach values recorded during initial ice sheet expansion at the EOT in Site 738, which may suggest Pb isotope variations in seawater and detrital residues are not sensitive to less dramatic intervals of climate change and ice sheet dynamics. We plan to continue this study into the Pliocene to see if we can identify the timing of the transition from a wet-based to dry-based EAIS, an event that is likely to have profound consequences for weathering on Antarctica and the offset between the two Pb isotope archives.

Fenn, C.; Martin, E. E.; Basak, C.

2011-12-01

224

Development, characterization, and application of a charged particle microbeam for radiobiological research  

E-print Network

The goal of this work is to develop a charged-particle microbeam for use in radiobiological research at the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (LABA). The purpose of this device is to precisely explore the ...

Folkert, Michael R. (Michael Ryan), 1975-

2005-01-01

225

Norovirus P particle: a subviral nanoparticle for vaccine development against norovirus, rotavirus and influenza virus  

PubMed Central

Noroviruses (NoVs) are important pathogens causing epidemic acute gastroenteritis that affects millions of people worldwide. The protruding (P) domain of the NoV capsid protein, the surface antigen of NoV, forms a 24-mer subviral particle called the P particle that is an excellent candidate vaccine against NoVs. The P particles are easily produced in Escherichia coli, highly stable and highly immunogenic. Each P domain has three surface loops that can be used for foreign antigen presentation, making the P particles a useful platform for vaccine development against other infectious diseases. This article summarizes the discovery, structure, development and applications of the P particles as a vaccine against NoVs, as well as a vaccine platform against rotavirus, influenza virus and possibly other pathogens in the future. PMID:22734641

Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

2012-01-01

226

Marine Geoscience Leadership Symposium: A New Paradigm for Early Career Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth and marine geoscientists are crossing the boundaries between traditional scientific disciplines, pushing the frontiers of scientific research, and addressing the needs of society. As it becomes increasingly important for scientists to form interdisciplinary collaborations and communicate their science to the public and policymakers, early career scientists are seeking insight into the non-traditional skills needed today to achieve a successful career. With funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Consortium for Ocean Leadership organized the first Marine Geoscience Leadership Symposium to provide valuable leadership training to early career scientists. The symposium established a new paradigm for early career workshops by focusing on the different perspectives of leadership and the varied aspects of building a successful academic career. Meeting with over 40 leaders from the academic, policy, and education communities, the symposium exposed the 25 meeting participants to leadership qualities that will help them navigate the laboratory and beyond. The discussion and activities focused on the tangible and intangible aspects of building a career, such as proposal writing, research funding, building interdisciplinary collaborations, and communicating to non-academic audiences. The symposium took place in Washington, DC, where the participants had an opportunity to meet with program officers at the National Science Foundation and to attend a science policy function on Capitol Hill. Featured speakers addressed academic issues such as multidisciplinary science initiatives, achieving tenure, and collaborative research studies. Science policy and communication to non-scientific audiences were reoccurring themes throughout the symposium. The participants spent a portion of each day discussing research priorities for the Arctic region, blue water ocean, coastal areas, and in regions of active tectonics, and then discussed how these priorities could be made accessible to policymakers. Through exposure to skills that extend beyond the classroom and laboratory, the early career researchers who participated in the first Marine Geoscience Leadership Symposium gained a rare insight into the academic and policy world that will serve them and the community well in the years to come.

Meth, C. E.; Powell, E. A.; Schuffert, J.; O'Riordan, C.

2009-12-01

227

Marine Modeling and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch (MMAB) of the Environmental Modeling Center is responsible for the development of improved numerical weather and marine prediction modeling systems. These models provide analysis and real-time forecast guidance on marine meteorological, oceanographic, and cryospheric parameters over the global oceans and coastal areas of the US. This site provides access to MMAB modeling tools for ocean waves (including an interactive presentation,) sea ice, marine meteorology, sea surface temperature and more. The site also features a mailing list, bibliography of publications, and information about modeling products still in the experimental and development phases.

National Centers For Environmental Prediction, National O.

228

Developing climate change indicators and a climate change monitoring plan for decision-makers at a National Marine Sanctuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in physical and biological components of the ecosystem along the North-central California coast have been identified as likely regional impacts of global climate change. To better monitor and address these impacts, physical and biological climate change indicators are identified for the region stretching from Bodega Head to Año Nuevo. This effort is based at the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, and it is the first of its kind within the National Marine Sanctuary system. The set of climate change indicators is developed following a rigorous and collaborative process that incorporates an extensive literature review, a large workshop with regional research scientists and managers, statistical downscaling of available general circulation model and regional climate model output, and analysis of available indicator data. Work is underway to incorporate the final set of climate change indicators into a comprehensive climate change monitoring inventory and plan, with significant input from a working group of regional scientific experts. The collaborative nature of this project helps to ensure that the chosen indicators can and will be used by scientists, natural resource managers, and state and municipal planners to monitor, track, mitigate, and develop adaptation strategies for the impacts of climate change on the North-central California coast.

Duncan, B.; Higgason, K.; Suchanek, T.; Stachowicz, J.; Cayan, D. R.

2012-12-01

229

Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.  

PubMed

The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

2014-12-28

230

Marine cloud brightening: regional applications  

PubMed Central

The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

2014-01-01

231

Towards the prediction of cohesive sediments dynamics: developing acoustic and optical measurements via in situ particle visualization.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cohesive particles in marine and costal waters remain a significant challenge to sediment transport predictions. Given the relevance to water quality, pollution, benthic ecology and coastal engineering our ability to develop process-response models of cohesive sediments is poor. Suspended cohesive particles rarely exist in their primary state but form flocs which are aggregated, heterogeneous assemblages of mineral grains, biogenic debris, bacteria and organic material. Floc formation is thus a function of numerous variables whose inter-related processes are yet to be fully elucidated. This complexity is exacerbated by a lack of suitable data, notably in characterizing floc populations. A floc may constitute over 1 million individual particles and size can range over 4 orders of magnitude within one population. The effective densities are also highly variable, and the settling velocity can therefore span several orders of magnitude (Fennessey et al., 1994; Gibbs, 1985). The challenge is to develop data acquisition techniques that will allow accurate quantification of floc characteristics for the determination of SPM concentration and settling velocities for mass settling flux calculations. Particle size ranges and concentrations are not adequately measurable by physical sampling which break up fragile flocs. Remote methods offer the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of floc particle dynamics. However, the responses of light and sound to floc particles remain uncertain. Differences in derived mass concentrations of flocculated and non-cohesive suspensions occur because OBS measures projected area concentration not mass concentration. Laser interferometry (e.g. LISST) is only applicable in relatively low concentrations, can disturb fragile flocs and requires a smooth size distribution and near-spherical particles (e.g. Wren et al., 2000). Acoustic backscatter methods are limited by a lack of data from floc-dominated environments which has restricted the development of suitable acoustic inversion algorithms. Recent innovations of in situ visualization of floc size and settling velocity using INSSEV (e.g. Fennessey et al. 1994) & LabSFLOC (e.g. Manning and Dyer, 1999) have meant a step-change in our understanding of floc dynamics. Consequently, we are now in a position to make simultaneous measurements of cohesive SPM populations using in situ, remote and physical sampling to aid development of methods that account for the flaws in remote measurements. We present selected data collected in the meso-tidal Tamar Estuary, Devon, UK over several tidal cycles. INSSEV and LabSFLOC data were acquired at multiple heights and complimented by physically sampled SPM later analysed for mass and organic content. A suite of ABS and OBS sensors were used to provide multi-frequency vertical response profiles, and a LISST-XT was positioned at INSSEV height. These measurements were augmented by vertical ADV and ADCP profiles of velocity and regular CTD profiles. Examples are shown that reveal different responses of acoustic and optical methods across the tidal cycle. These differences are compared to changes in floc characteristics, SPM concentration, organic content, floc properties, flow hydrodynamics and water density over the tidal cycle in an attempt to determine the key parameters affecting the way in which sound and light interact with flocs. Ultimately, this information will be used to develop inversion algorithms that will allow the recovery of cohesive sediment mass concentrations using combinations of acoustical and optical instruments without the need for extensive field calibrations. Fennessy, M.J., Dyer, K.R., Huntley, D.A. 1994. INSSEV: an instrument to measure the size and settling velocity of flocs in-situ. Mar. Geol., 117, 107-117. Gibbs, R.J. 1985. Estuarine flocs: their size, settling velocity and density. J. Geophys. Res., 90(C2), 3249-3251. Manning, A.J., Dyer, K.R. 1999. A laboratory examination of floc characteristics with regard to turbulent shearing. Mar. Geol, 160, 147-170. Wren, D.G., Barkall, B.D.

Schindler, Rob; Bass, Sarah; Manning, Andrew

2010-05-01

232

Minimizing collision risk between migrating raptors and marine wind farms: development of a spatial planning tool.  

PubMed

An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements of body mass, wingspan and wing area of eight European raptor species, to calculate their Best Glide Ratio (BGR). The BGR was used to construct a linear equation, which, by the use of initial take-off altitude, could be used to calculate a Theoretical Maximum Distance (TMD) from the coast, attained by these soaring-gliding raptor species. If the nearest turbine, of future marine wind farms, is placed farther away from the coast than the estimated TMD, the collision risk between the turbine blades and these gliding raptors will be minimized. The tool was demonstrated in a case study at the Rødsand II wind farm in Denmark. Data on raptor migration altitude were gathered by radar. From the TMD attained by registered soaring-gliding raptors in the area, we concluded that the Rødsand II wind farm is not sited ideally, from an ornithological point of view, as potentially all three registered species are at risk of gliding through the area swept by the turbine rotor blades, and thereby at risk of colliding with the wind turbines. PMID:20711780

Baisner, Anette Jaegerfeldt; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Yde Granath, Simon Wilhelm; Madsen, Karin Olgaard; Desholm, Mark

2010-11-01

233

Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements of body mass, wingspan and wing area of eight European raptor species, to calculate their Best Glide Ratio (BGR). The BGR was used to construct a linear equation, which, by the use of initial take-off altitude, could be used to calculate a Theoretical Maximum Distance (TMD) from the coast, attained by these soaring-gliding raptor species. If the nearest turbine, of future marine wind farms, is placed farther away from the coast than the estimated TMD, the collision risk between the turbine blades and these gliding raptors will be minimized. The tool was demonstrated in a case study at the Rødsand II wind farm in Denmark. Data on raptor migration altitude were gathered by radar. From the TMD attained by registered soaring-gliding raptors in the area, we concluded that the Rødsand II wind farm is not sited ideally, from an ornithological point of view, as potentially all three registered species are at risk of gliding through the area swept by the turbine rotor blades, and thereby at risk of colliding with the wind turbines.

Baisner, Anette Jægerfeldt; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Yde Granath, Simon Wilhelm; Madsen, Karin Ølgaard; Desholm, Mark

2010-11-01

234

On the morphological development of second-phase particles in elastically-stressed solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the equilibrium shape and the dynamics of the morphological evolution of a coherent misfitting particle in an elastically anisotropic medium. No a priori assumptions are made on the possible particle morphologies; the particle evolves in a manner consistent with both the diffusion and elastic fields surrounding the particle and the thermodynamics of interfaces in stressed solids. Through these calculations we find the thermodynamically stable equilibrium shape of a misfitting particle. By thermodynamically stable we mean that all the equilibrium conditions, elastic, chemical and interfacial are satisfied simultaneously, in contrast to previous treatments which determined the equilibrium shape by minimizing the sum of the elastic and interfacial energies for certain classes of particle shapes. We find that the equilibrium particle morphologies are not simple geometric shapes, have fourfold symmetry and a continuously varying interfacial curvature with position along the interface. Furthermore, the results show that the times required for a particle to evolve to its equilibrium morphology are likely to be within those which are accessible experimentally. In addition, we develop a general approach for determining the equilibrium shape of a particle in an elastically stressed solid.

Voorhees, P. W.; Mcfadden, G. B.; Johnson, W. C.

1992-01-01

235

Norovirus P Particle, a Novel Platform for Vaccine Development and Antibody Production?  

PubMed Central

The norovirus P particle is an octahedral nanoparticle formed by 24 copies of the protrusion (P) domain of the norovirus capsid protein. This P particle is easily produced in Escherichia coli, extremely stable, and highly immunogenic. There are three surface loops per P domain, making a total of 72 loops per particle, and these are potential sites for foreign antigen presentation for immune enhancement. To prove this concept, a small peptide (His tag, 7 amino acids [aa]) and a large antigen (rotavirus VP8, 159 aa) were inserted into one of the loops. Neither insertion affects P particle formation, while both antigens were presented well on the P particle surface. The immune-enhancement effect of the P particle was demonstrated by significantly increased antibody titers induced by the P particle-presented antigens compared to the titers induced by free antigens. In addition, the measured neutralization antibody titers and levels of protection against rotavirus shedding in mice immunized with the VP8 chimeric P particles were significantly higher than those of mice immunized with the free VP8 antigen. Sera from P particle-VP8 chimera-vaccinated animals also blocked norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) binding to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptors. From these data, the P particle appears to be an excellent vaccine platform for antigen presentation. The readily available three surface loops and the great capacity for foreign antigen insertion make this platform attractive for wide application in vaccine development and antibody production. The P particle-VP8 chimeras may serve as a dual vaccine against both rotavirus and norovirus. PMID:21068235

Tan, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Xia, Ming; Fang, Ping-An; Zhong, Weiming; McNeal, Monica; Wei, Chao; Jiang, Wen; Jiang, Xi

2011-01-01

236

Development of an adhesively bonded beryllium propulsion structure for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, testing, and fabrication of the support truss structure for the propulsion system of the Mariner 9 spacecraft are described. Support is provided by an 8.9-kg (19.5-lbm) truss assembly consisting of beryllium tubes adhesively bonded to magnesium end fittings. Beryllium was selected for the tubular struts in the truss because of its exceptionally high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Adhesive bonding, rather than riveting, was utilized to join the struts to the end fittings because of the low toughness (high notch sensitivity) of beryllium. Magnesium, used in the end fittings, resulted in a 50% weight saving over aluminum since geometric factors in the fitting design resulted in low stress areas where magnesium's lower density is a benefit.

Stevens, J. H.; Layman, W. E.

1972-01-01

237

particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore a facile and nontoxic hydrothermal route for synthesis of a Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material by using l-cysteine as the sulfur source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the complexing agent. The effects of the amount of EDTA, the mole ratio of the three metal ions, and the hydrothermal temperature and time on the phase composition of the obtained product have been systematically investigated. The addition of EDTA and an excessive dose of ZnCl2 in the hydrothermal reaction system favor the generation of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4. Pure kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 has been synthesized at 180°C for 12 h from the reaction system containing 2 mmol of EDTA at 2:2:1 of Cu/Zn/Sn. It is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy that those binary and ternary phases are absent in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 product. The kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 material synthesized by the hydrothermal process consists of flower-like particles with 250 to 400 nm in size. It is revealed that the flower-like particles are assembled from single-crystal Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoflakes with ca. 20 nm in size. The band gap of the Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material is estimated to be 1.55 eV. The films fabricated from the hierarchical Cu2ZnSnS4 particles exhibit fast photocurrent responses under intermittent visible-light irradiation, implying that they show potentials for use in solar cells and photocatalysis.

Xia, Yu; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengguo; Fang, Xiaoming; Liang, Guozheng

2014-05-01

238

Advanced development of particle beam probe diagnostic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This progress report under DOE Grant DE-FG02-85ER3211 covers the period 15 Dec. 1992 through 15 Oct. 1993. The major accomplishments of this period are summarized. The basic TEXT heavy ion beam probe including the primary beam line, the upper secondary beam line with the old 500 keV analyzer, and the lower secondary beam line with the new 2 MeV analyzer is operational, and system shake-down is now beginning. Several subsystems of the complete system design are still under development including secondary beam line sweeps, primary beam detectors, the digital control, and data acquisition system. The lower analyzer entrance aperture and detector plates also have very limited capabilities to make it possible to more rapidly obtain satisfactory initial alignment and calibration conditions. We have performed a variety of high voltage tests that establish the basic efficacy of the 2 MeV analyzer design. We have upgraded the ion optics and added vacuum chambers in our vertical test stand facility to allow us to test the 2 MeV analyzers. We have also constructed a facility for testing ion source characteristics. We analyzed data on primary beam modulation taken during the last run period and confirmed the accuracy of our simulation code. Analysis of magnetic field measurements continued.

Crowley, T. P.; Schoch, P. M.; Connor, K. A.

239

Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence Modification and Particle Dispersion in a Fully-Developed Pipe Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A LES study of the modification of turbulence in a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow by dispersed heavy particles at Re_? = 360 is presented. A 64 (radial) x 64 (azimuthal) x 128 (axial) grid has been used. An Eulerian-Lagrangian approach has been used for treating the continuous and the dispersed phases respectively. The particle equation of motion included only the drag force. Three different LES models are used in the continuous fluid simulation: (i) A “No-Model” LES (coarse-grid DNS) (ii) Smagorinsky’s model and (iii) Schumann’s model . The motivation behind employing the Schumann’s model is to study the impact of sub-grid-scale fluctuations on the particle motion and their (SGS fluctuations) modulation, in turn, by the particles. The effect of particles on fluid turbulence is investigated by tracking 100000 particles of different diameters. Our studies confirm the preferential concentration of particles in the near wall region. It is observed that the inclusion of two-way coupling reduces the preferential concentration of particles. In addition, it was found that two-way coupling attenuates the fluid turbulence. However, we expect the above trends to differ depending upon the particle diameter, volumetric and mass fractions. The effect of SGS fluctuations on the particle dispersion and turbulence modulation is also being investigated. Other relevant statistics for the continuous and the dispersed phases are collected for the cases of one-way and two-way coupling. These statistics are compared to study the modulation of turbulence by the particles.

Rani, Sarma; Pratap Vanka, Surya

1999-11-01

240

Development of the Moving Least Squares Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Approach For Inert/Energetic Material Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PRIMEX-Warhead Systems (PWS) has developed a smooth particle code based upon a methodology developed by G. Dilts (1999) referred to as MLSPH (Moving Least Squares Smooth Paticles Hydrodynamics). The object is to solve general high rate problems associated with the interaction of energetic and inert materials. Some conservative numerical schemes in cylindrical geometry were developed as well 1D, 2D, and 3D cartesian coding. We use a simple neighbor search technique that limits the computation of searching neighbor particles to one order lower compared to the total CPU time of calculation. PWSuses randomly distributed phantom particles to eliminate certain terms in the numerical growth factor, thus improving the stability of the MLSPH method. In fact, the stability factor can be close to unity. The boundary treatment is also naturally implemented by using this approach. The particle size effect has been minimized through rezoning. PWS developed a new numerical technique of second order accuracy that exactly conserves mass and volume. The rezoning technique provides smoother boundary surface and improves stability by naturally moving apart the particles that are close together. This rezoning method can be used to construct a conservative scheme for volume expansion of particles (mass conservation) that keeps the volume sum of particles equal to the volume enclosed by boundaries, this feature is not satisfied in other SPH schemes. We have also started working on the implementation of a general 3D rezoning technique for SPH. The PWS-MLSPH code is able to deal with material interactions between solid, fluid and gas. Several reaction models are contained in the code to solve problems that involves explosives. In particular the burn process of inert materials contained in an explosive matrix is handled with a 'neighbor ignition' method. That allows an explosive particle to be ignited only by another burning explosive particle that is close enough. We will present a calculation involving the interaction of inert tungsten particles in a TNT matrix. The program will eventually be modified to allow for energy release of metallic particles into the reaction zone (as a function of particle size and coating). The figure below depicts a calculation of 100 micron tungsten in a 60/40 volume ratio.

Yao, Jin; Gunger, Michael

2001-06-01

241

Developments in digital in-line holography enable validated measurement of 3D particle field dynamics.  

SciTech Connect

Digital in-line holography is an optical technique which can be applied to measure the size, three-dimensional position, and three-component velocity of disperse particle fields. This work summarizes recent developments at Sandia National Laboratories focused on improvement in measurement accuracy, experimental validation, and applications to multiphase flows. New routines are presented which reduce the uncertainty in measured position along the optical axis to a fraction of the particle diameter. Furthermore, application to liquid atomization highlights the ability to measure complex, three-dimensional structures. Finally, investigation of particles traveling at near sonic conditions prove accuracy despite significant experimental noise due to shock-waves.

Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert

2013-12-01

242

Analysis of the First Genome of a Hyperthermophilic Marine Virus-Like Particle, PAV1, Isolated from Pyrococcus abyssi? †  

PubMed Central

Only one virus-like particle (VLP) has been reported from hyperthermophilic Euryarchaeotes. This VLP, named PAV1, is shaped like a lemon and was isolated from a strain of “Pyrococcus abyssi,” a deep-sea isolate. Its genome consists of a double-stranded circular DNA of 18 kb which is also present at a high copy number (60 per chromosome) free within the host cytoplasm but is not integrated into the host chromosome. Here, we report the results of complete analysis of the PAV1 genome. All the 25 predicted genes, except 3, are located on one DNA strand. A transcription map has been made by using a reverse transcription-PCR assay. All the identified open reading frames (ORFs) are transcribed. The most significant similarities relate to four ORFs. ORF 180a shows 31% identity with ORF 181 of the pRT1 plasmid isolated from Pyrococcus sp. strain JT1. ORFs 676 and 678 present similarities with a concanavalin A-like lectin/glucanase domain, which could be involved in the process of host-virus recognition, and ORF 59 presents similarities with the transcriptional regulator CopG. The genome of PAV1 displays unique features at the nucleic and proteinic level, indicating that PAV1 should be attached at least to a novel genus or virus family. PMID:17449623

Geslin, C.; Gaillard, M.; Flament, D.; Rouault, K.; Le Romancer, M.; Prieur, D.; Erauso, G.

2007-01-01

243

The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines  

SciTech Connect

Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

2012-11-28

244

Recent developments of coatings for GCFR and HTGCR fuel particles and their performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in the fabrication and properties of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coatings, suitable for coated nuclear fuel particles, are described. Particularly, these properties have been related to the performance of fuel particles suitable for high temperature gas-cooled reactors and on a rather more tentative basis for gas-cooled fast reactors. Silicon carbide coatings cam withstand appreciable tensile stresses, particularly if the flaw size in the coating surface is minimised. This feature of silicon carbide, in addition to its dimensional stability under fast neutron dose, allows a change in the philosophy of coated particle design, in turn leading to increases in performance. Methods of preparing pure dense silicon carbide in the temperature range 1200-1700 °C are described, together with dense isotropic pyrolytic carbons which can be deposited from butane, propylene or acetylene. The effects of these advances on coated particle design are also discussed.

Ford, L. H.; Hibbert, N. S.; Martin, D. G.

1972-11-01

245

Development of a Simple Sintering Law for Fractal Aggregates Composed of Unequal Sized Primary Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sintering of silicon nanoparticle chain aggregates composed of unequal sized primary particles are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 1500 K. We consider straight chain aggregates consisting of up to 40 2.5 and 5.4 nm primary particles. The sintering time increases with increase in the total volume of the chain aggregate or with increase in the exposed initial surface area of the chain. A mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics of sintering of such chain aggregates. The model is a power law modification of the Frenkel sintering equation with the Koch-Friedlander model to include primary particle size dependence. We found that the particle size effect is a local process, and important only at the initial stage of the sintering. Thus, the effect is not significant when the aggregate becomes large. The model is amenable for use in aerosol models that might include sintering effects.

Hawa, Takumi; Zachariah, Michael

2008-03-01

246

Development of an improved method to perform single particle analysis by TIMS for nuclear safeguards.  

PubMed

A method is described that allows measuring the isotopic composition of small uranium oxide particles (less than 1?m in diameter) for nuclear safeguards purposes. In support to the development of reliable tools for the identification of uranium and plutonium signatures in trace amounts of nuclear materials, improvements in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) in combination with filament carburization and multiple ion counting (MIC) detection were investigated. The method that has been set up enables the analysis of single particles by a combination of analytical tools, thus yielding morphological, elemental and isotopic information. Hereby individual particles of certified reference materials (CRMs) containing uranium at femtogram levels were analysed. The results showed that the combination of techniques proposed in this work is suitable for the accurate determination of uranium isotope ratios in single particles with improved capabilities for the minor abundant isotopes. PMID:21296200

Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Kühn, H; Aregbe, Y

2011-02-28

247

Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2003-08-01

248

Community Involvement in Early Intervention. A Report on the Planning and Development of "Families First": An Early Intervention Program for Coordinated Family Support Services for Marin City Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the planning and development of Families First, an early intervention program to be implemented in Marin City, California. The program has been designed to integrate and coordinate the provision of a wide range of services to families of children from the third trimester of pregnancy to the age of 8 years who live in a…

Lally, J. Ronald

249

Proceedings OceanSAR 2006 Third Workshop on Coastal and Marine Applications of SAR, St. John's, NL, Canada, October 2006 Algorithm development for operational satellite SAR  

E-print Network

1 Proceedings OceanSAR 2006 ­ Third Workshop on Coastal and Marine Applications of SAR, St. John's, NL, Canada, October 2006 Algorithm development for operational satellite SAR classification, computer analysis of calibrated ERS-2 and RADARSAT ScanSAR images of Great Lakes ice cover using

250

The dynamics of particle disks. III - Dense and spinning particle disks. [development of kinetic theory for planetary rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The kinetic theory of planetary rings developed by Araki and Tremaine (1986) and Araki (1988) is extended and refined, with a focus on the implications of finite particle size: (1) nonlocal collisions and (2) finite filling factors. Consideration is given to the derivation of the equations for the local steady state, the low-optical-depth limit, and the steady state at finite filling factors (including the effects of collision inelasticity, spin degrees of freedom, and self-gravity). Numerical results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. The importance of distinguishing effects (1) and (2) at low optical depths is stressed, and the existence of vertical density profiles with layered structures at high filling factors is demonstrated.

Araki, Suguru

1991-01-01

251

Development of an Integrated Performance Model for TRISO-Coated Gas Reactor Particle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The success of gas reactors depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. The understanding and evaluation of this fuel requires development of an integrated mechanistic fuel performance model that fully describes the mechanical and physico-chemical behavior of the fuel particle under irradiation. Such a model, called PARFUME (PARticle Fuel ModEl), is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. PARFUME is based on multi-dimensional finite element modeling of TRISO-coated gas reactor fuel. The goal is to represent all potential failure mechanisms and to incorporate the statistical nature of the fuel. The model is currently focused on carbide, oxide nd oxycarbide uranium fuel kernels, while the coating layers are the classical IPyC/SiC/OPyC. This paper reviews the current status of the mechanical aspects of the model and presents results of calculations for irradiations from the New Production Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor program.

Petti, David Andrew; Miller, Gregory Kent; Martin, David George; Maki, John Thomas

2005-05-01

252

Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces - Recent Theoretical and Experimental Developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the work on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) include: 1) to obtain fundamental understanding of the physics of particle pushing and engulfment, 2) to develop mathematical models to describe the phenomenon, and 3) to perform critical experiments in the microgravity environment of space to provide benchmark data for model validation. Successful completion of this project will yield vital information relevant to a diverse area of terrestrial applications. With PEP being a long term research effort, this report will focus on advances in the theoretical treatment of the solid/liquid interface interaction with an approaching particle, experimental validation of some aspects of the developed models, and the experimental design aspects of future experiments to be performed on board the International Space Station.

Stefanescu, D. M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, P. A.

2003-01-01

253

Dounreay hot particles: the story so far.  

PubMed

The first Dounreay hot particle (hereafter 'Particle') to be formally identified was recovered from the Dounreay foreshore in 1983. A further single Particle was recovered from Sandside beach the following year. Particles have been detected and removed from the Dounreay foreshore regularly since 1984 and from the offshore sediments since 1997. Since 1997, an extensive research and development programme has been undertaken to identify the source of Particles, their movement and lifetimes in the marine environment, and their potential effects on human and environmental health. It is now known that Particles were released to the North Atlantic Ocean in the mid to late 1960s and early 1970s. There is no evidence of an on-going source of Particles from the Dounreay site today. The source of Particles recovered from the Dounreay foreshore and from local beaches is the cache currently residing in marine sediments adjacent to Dounreay. Monitoring and sediment modelling studies indicate that the Dounreay Particles are transported approximately parallel to the coast in a north-easterly direction. Studies to define contact frequencies and risks to human health suggest that the health risks associated with Particles are very low There is, however, a significant perception of risk. UKAEA will define a long-term Particle management programme via the development of a best practical environmental option (BPEO) facilitated through consultation with all stakeholders. PMID:17768316

Dennis, Frank; Morgan, Graeme; Henderson, Fiona

2007-09-01

254

SP-100 coated-particle fuel development. Phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report of Phase I of the SP-100 Coated-Particle Fuel Development Program conducted by GA Technologies Inc. for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AT03-82SF11690. The general objective of the study conducted between September and December 1982 was to evaluate coated-particle type fuel as an alternate or backup fuel to the UO/sub 2/ tile-and-fin arrangement currently incorporated into the reference design of the SP-100 reactor core. This report presents and discusses the following topics in the order listed: the need for an alternative fuel for the SP-100 nuclear reactor; an abbreviated description of the reference and coated-particle fuel module concepts; the bases and results of the study and analysis leading to the preliminary design of a coated particle suitable for the SP-100 space power reactor; incorporation of the fuel particles into compacts and heat-pipe-cooled modules; initial efforts and plans to fabricate coated-particle fuel and fuel compacts; the design and performance of the proposed alternative core relative that of the reference fuel; and a summary of critical issues and conclusions consistent with the level of effort and duration of the study.

Not Available

1983-03-01

255

Development of a particle filter framework for respiratory motion correction in nuclear medicine imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims to develop a methodological framework based on a data driven approach known as particle filters, often found in computer vision methods, to correct the effect of respiratory motion on Nuclear Medicine imaging data. Particles filters are a popular class of numerical methods for solving optimal estimation problems and we wish to use their flexibility to make an adaptive framework. In this work we use the particle filter for estimating the deformation of the internal organs of the human torso, represented by X, over a discrete time index k. The particle filter approximates the distribution of the deformation of internal organs by generating many propositions, called particles. The posterior estimate is inferred from an observation Zk of the external torso surface. We demonstrate two preliminary approaches in tracking organ deformation. In the first approach, Xk represent a small set of organ surface points. In the second approach, Xk represent a set of affine organ registration parameters to a reference time index r. Both approaches are contrasted to a comparable technique using direct mapping to infer Xk from the observation Zk. Simulations of both approaches using the XCAT phantom suggest that the particle filter-based approaches, on average performs, better.

Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Lewis, Emma; Wells, Kevin; Guy, Matthew; Goswami, Budhaditya

2010-03-01

256

Development of multinuclear giant cells during the degradation of Bioglass particles in rabbits.  

PubMed

Bioglass particles of the compositions 45s5, 52s, and 55s were implanted in the distal femoral epiphysis of rabbits. Animals were sacrificed at 7, 28, and 84 days postoperatively and specimens investigated using electron microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray analysis. The intention was to correlate the finding of different types of multinuclear giant cells (MNGC) in the center of the implantation bed with earlier hypothesized accumulated particle eluates and changed particle compositions. The distribution of Si, Na, Ca, P, O, S, and Cl throughout the implantation bed was analyzed. Bioglass particles degraded either in Si-rich remnants or in CaP-shells. MNGC of foreign body giant cell type in high numbers as well as of osteoclast-like type at later time intervals in small numbers were found on the surface of Si-rich as well as on Ca- and P-rich particle remnants. Osteoclast-like cells were detected on the particles after transformation in CaP-shells. It is concluded that the formation of different types of MNGC is determined by the composition of the substrate, that is, osteoclast-like cells develop exclusively on resorbable substrates. The absolute number of MNGC depended on the time after implantation and the solubility of the implant. Bone bonding, however, only occurred on Ca- and P-rich surfaces. PMID:15293310

Vogel, Martin; Voigt, Christian; Knabe, Christine; Radlanski, Ralf J; Gross, Ulrich M; Müller-Mai, Christian M

2004-09-01

257

Deposition of submicron particles on rough surfaces in fully developed turbulent flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open flow system was used to examine the deposition rates of submicron particles on rough walls under fully developed turbulent flow conditions in order to better understand the mechanisms neeeded to reduce airborne radioactivity in uranium mines. Mine excavation produces tunnel surfaces that can be modeled as a repeated rib geometry. This pattern was simulated in the lab by

Hahn

1982-01-01

258

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CONTINUOUS COARSE (PM10-PM2.5) PARTICLE MONITOR  

EPA Science Inventory

In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 um) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating princ...

259

Developing an in vitro technology to study the inflammation potential of ambient particle types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated levels of suspended particles in the troposphere, termed particulate matter, elicit a myriad of adverse health effects in humans, ranging from shortness of breath and wheezing to myocardial infarction and death. It is currently believed that the adverse health effects associated with particulate matter are mediated by the inflammatory response initiated by the lung following particulate matter inhalation. What remains an area of much interest is elucidating the specific properties of particulate matter, physical or chemical, that cause the upregulation of proinflammatory mediators. The basic premise of this thesis was to identify the specific chemical components of particulate matter responsible for its adverse health effects. To address this issue, instrumentation and methodology were developed wherein one could design, create, levitate and deposit particles of both known chemical composition and size onto lung cells, in vitro, followed by the monitoring of the downstream biological response. An initial study focused on the role of the endotoxin component in particulate matter toxicity. Through a series of blocking studies we found that endotoxin acted synergistically with the particle core to elicit upregulation of proinflammatory mediators, including IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and ICAM-1; all of which are associated with the NF-kappaB pathway. Through characterizing this relatively simple system, one observation became apparent: the presence of the insoluble particle core had a profound effect on the cellular response; that is to say, the particle core was not simply a delivery vector, but a determinant factor in the final intracellular location of the toxic chemical. The latter observation held true as other particle types were studied and in addition, it was found that the nature of the actual chemical species itself plays a dual role in particle toxicity; first by retaining its toxic properties and second by altering the physical properties of the particle. It stems from these findings that the toxicity of the chemical components must be studied in concert and not as individual entities.

Haddrell, Allen E.

260

Integrating conservation and development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: perception and practice.  

PubMed

Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS's management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of Alonissos claimed benefits were scant. Tourists (domestic and foreign) believe that the NMPANS is not the main attraction to Alonissos Island but is part of a composite, including serenity, aesthetic beauty, and small-scale tourism development, which can turn Alonissos Island into an ideal eco-tourism destination; a common aspiration for both the tourists and the local community by general consensus. The aim of the NMPANS to integrate conservation and development lies in (1) the effectiveness of the NMPANS management body in formulating a strategic management plan that would accommodate stakeholders' interests and aspirations and (2) a national policy of conservation and enhancement of natural resources with consistency and continuity. Quantitative assessment of the socioeconomic effectiveness of the Mediterranean MPAs using a common methodology would facilitate the identification of intraregional variation and better planning for the network of MPAs in the Mediterranean. PMID:18626688

Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

2008-11-01

261

UNIVERSITY CURRICULA IN THE MARINE SCIENCES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REPORTED IS A COMPILATION OF MARINE SCIENCE COURSES OFFERED AT AMERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. THE INFORMATION IS PROVIDED TO ASSIST STUDENTS PLANNING A CAREER IN MARINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. THREE CURRICULUM AREAS ARE INCLUDED--(1) MARINE SCIENCES, (2) OCEAN ENGINEERING, AND (3) MARINE TECHNOLOGY. LISTED FOR EACH COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY ARE…

FROSCH, ROBERT A.

262

Development of uranium reference particles for nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the oversight of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and as part of the Additional Protocol of the International Atomic Energy Agency, environmental sampling has become an important tool for the detection of non-declared nuclear activities. One extensively developed technique in environmental sampling (ES) makes use of pieces of cotton cloth called swipes to wipe surfaces in and around a nuclear facility. The dust collected on these swipes typically contains micrometer-sized uranium particles with an isotopic composition characteristic for the processes at the inspected facility. Since its implementation in the 1990s, ES has proven to be a very effective tool in the detection of clandestine activities owing to a number of highly sensitive and selective techniques, including secondary ion mass spectrometry and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. However, considering the potential consequences of the analyses, these measurements need to be subjected to a rigorous quality management system. In a continuous effort to improve the accuracy and detection efficiency of the uranium isotope ratio measurements, uranium particle reference materials are being developed by different research groups. It was concluded however, that the existing methods for the production of particulate reference materials generally do not reproduce the particles recovered from swipe samples. For this reason, we developed the aerosol deposition chamber at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements for the production of reference uranium particles that are representative of the particles collected at enrichment facilities. This method is based on the controlled hydrolysis of milligram amounts of uranium hexafluoride with a certified uranium isotopic composition. After optimization of the experimental set-up, the particles produced by the aerosol deposition chamber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The particle morphology and composition were found to be dependent on the relative humidity of the air, the exposure to ultraviolet light and the time elapsed after formation. Possible correlations between the relative amount of fluorine and the age of the particles were investigated. These results were the starting point for the first inter-laboratory measurement evaluation programme (NUSIMEP) on uranium particles.

Kips, Ruth

263

Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The ocean-energy industry is still in its infancy and device developers have provided their own equipment and procedures for testing. Currently, no testing standards exist for ocean energy devices in the United States. Furthermore, as prototype devices move from the test tank to in-water testing, the logistical challenges and costs grow exponentially. Development of a common instrumentation package that can be moved from device to device is one means of reducing testing costs and providing normalized data to the industry as a whole. As a first step, the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has initiated an effort to develop an instrumentation package to provide a tool to allow common measurements across various ocean energy devices. The effort is summarized in this paper. First, we present the current status of ocean energy devices. We then review the experiences of the wind industry in its development of the instrumentation package and discuss how they can be applied in the ocean environment. Next, the challenges that will be addressed in the development of the ocean instrumentation package are discussed. For example, the instrument package must be highly adaptable to fit a large array of devices but still conduct common measurements. Finally, some possible system configurations are outlined followed by input from the industry regarding its measurement needs, lessons learned from prior testing, and other ideas.

Nelson, E.

2010-08-01

264

Progress and hurdles in the development of influenza virus-like particle vaccines for veterinary use  

PubMed Central

Virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble infectious virus particles in structure and morphology, have been proposed to provide a new generation of vaccine candidates against various viral infections. As effective immunogens, characterized by high immunogenicity and safety, VLPs have been employed in the development of human influenza vaccines. Recently, several influenza VLP vaccines have been developed for veterinary use and successfully evaluated in swine, canine, duck, and chicken models. These VLP vaccine candidates induced protective immune responses and enabled serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals in conjunction with a diagnostic test. Here, we review the current progress of influenza VLP development as a next-generation vaccine technology in the veterinary field and discuss the challenges and future direction of this technology. PMID:25003086

2014-01-01

265

RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: GridPP: development of the UK computing Grid for particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GridPP Collaboration is building a UK computing Grid for particle physics, as part of the international effort towards computing for the Large Hadron Collider. The project, funded by the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), began in September 2001 and completed its first phase 3 years later. GridPP is a collaboration of approximately 100 researchers in 19 UK university particle physics groups, the Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils and CERN, reflecting the strategic importance of the project. In collaboration with other European and US efforts, the first phase of the project demonstrated the feasibility of developing, deploying and operating a Grid-based computing system to meet the UK needs of the Large Hadron Collider experiments. This note describes the work undertaken to achieve this goal.

Grid PP Collaboration; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Lowe, L. S.; Tan, C. L. A.; Watkins, P. M.; Bailey, D. S.; Barrass, T. A.; Brook, N. H.; Croft, R. J. H.; Kelly, M. P.; Mackay, C. K.; Metson, S.; Maroney, O. J. E.; Newbold, D. M.; Wilson, F. F.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Burke, S.; Byrom, R.; Coles, J.; Cornwall, L. A.; Djaoui, A.; Field, L.; Fisher, S. M.; Folkes, G. T.; Geddes, N. I.; Gordon, J. C.; Hicks, S. J. C.; Jensen, J. G.; Johnson, G.; Kant, D.; Kelsey, D. P.; Kuznetsov, G.; Leake, J.; Middleton, R. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Prassas, G.; Saunders, B. J.; Ross, D.; Sansum, R. A.; Shah, T.; Strong, B.; Synge, O.; Tam, R.; Thorpe, M.; Traylen, S.; Wheeler, J. F.; White, N. G. H.; Wilson, A. J.; Antcheva, I.; Artiaga, E.; Beringer, J.; Bird, I. G.; Casey, J.; Cass, A. J.; Chytracek, R.; Gallas Torreira, M. V.; Generowicz, J.; Girone, M.; Govi, G.; Harris, F.; Heikkurinen, M.; Horvath, A.; Knezo, E.; Litmaath, M.; Lubeck, M.; Moscicki, J.; Neilson, I.; Poinsignon, E.; Pokorski, W.; Ribon, A.; Sekera, Z.; Smith, D. H.; Tomlin, W. L.; van Eldik, J. E.; Wojcieszuk, J.; Brochu, F. M.; Das, S.; Harrison, K.; Hayes, M.; Hill, J. C.; Lester, C. G.; Palmer, M. J.; Parker, M. A.; Nelson, M.; Whalley, M. R.; Glover, E. W. N.; Anderson, P.; Clark, P. J.; Earl, A. D.; Holt, A.; Jackson, A.; Joo, B.; Kenway, R. D.; Maynard, C. M.; Perry, J.; Smith, L.; Thorn, S.; Trew, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Burgon-Lyon, M.; Cameron, D. G.; Doyle, A. T.; Flavell, A.; Hanlon, S. J.; Martin, D. J.; McCance, G.; Millar, A. P.; Nicholson, C.; Paterson, S. K.; Pickford, A.; Soler, P.; Speirs, F.; St. Denis, R.; Thompson, A. S.; Britton, D.; Cameron, W.; Colling, D.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P.; Egede, U.; Georgiou, K.; Lewis, P.; MacEvoy, B.; Marr, S.; Martyniak, J.; Tallini, H.; Wakefield, S.; Walker, R.; Bertram, I. A.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Evans, D.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Jones, R. W. L.; Love, P.; Downing, S.; George, M. P.; Irving, A. C.; McNeile, C.; Sroczynski, Z.; Tobin, M.; Washbrook, A. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Dallison, S.; Fairey, G.; Forti, A.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Jones, M. A. S.; Kaushal, S.; Marshall, R.; McNab, A.; Salih, S.; Werner, J. C.; Bartsch, V.; Cioffi, C.; Gronbech, P.; Harnew, N.; Harris, J. F.; Huffman, B. T.; Leslie, M.; McArthur, I.; Newman, R.; Soroko, A.; Stokes-Rees, I.; Stonjek, S.; Tseng, J.; Waters, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Arter, T. R.; Cordenonsi, R. A.; Datta, A. S.; Hartin, T.; Lloyd, S. L.; Martin, A. J.; Pearce, S. E.; Williams, C. J.; Gardner, M.; George, S.; Green, B. J.; Johal, S.; Rybkine, G.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Hodgson, P.; Robinson, M.; Tovey, D. R.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Allton, C. R.; Armour, W.; Clarke, P.; Mealor, P.; Waters, D.; Waugh, B.; West, B.

2006-01-01

266

Development of Bioadhesive Chitosan Superporous Hydrogel Composite Particles Based Intestinal Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 32 full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery. PMID:23984380

Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan

2013-01-01

267

Development of an integrated energetic neutral particle measurement system on experimental advanced full superconducting tokamak.  

PubMed

Full function integrated, compact silicon photodiode based solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) have been developed for energetic particle (EP) relevant studies on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ssNPAs will be mostly operated in advanced current mode with a few channels to be operated in conventional pulse-counting mode, aiming to simultaneously achieve individually proved ultra-fast temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution capabilities. The design details together with considerations on EAST specific engineering realities and physics requirements are presented. The system, including a group of single detectors on two vertical ports and two 16-channel arrays on a horizontal port, can provide both active and passive charge exchange measurements. ssNPA detectors, with variable thickness of ultra thin tungsten dominated foils directly deposited on the front surface, are specially fabricated and utilized to achieve about 22 keV energy resolution for deuterium particle detection. PMID:25430286

Zhu, Y B; Zhang, J Z; Qi, M Z; Xia, S B; Liu, D; Heidbrink, W W; Wan, B N; Li, J G

2014-11-01

268

Antitumor Peptides from Marine Organisms  

PubMed Central

The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides. PMID:22072999

Zheng, Lan-Hong; Wang, Yue-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Yuan; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Sun, Mi

2011-01-01

269

Development of antibiotic selection kit towards veterinary applications using glycine passivated magnetic particles.  

PubMed

Glycine functionalized (Gly/Fe3O4) and non-functionalized (Fe3O4) magnetic particles were synthesized in an autoclave and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and zeta potential. The size of the both these particles were in the range of 220-230 nm but the shape of the Gly/Fe3O4 particles was hexagonal in contrast to the spherical shape of Fe3O4 particles. The particle characterization tests confirmed that glycine was functionalized on the Gly/Fe3O4 particles, they were positively charged and possessed strong magnetic property. These particles possessed the ability to bind to bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus in the range of 72-90%. They were used to entrap bacteria from clinical mastitic milk samples from cows. The entrapped bacteria of the above species from these samples were isolated and used individually in the conventional disc-diffusion method of antibiotic susceptibility determination. The results were compared with that of the bacterial species isolated directly from the mastitic milk samples and were found to be 100% concordant (n=25). The developed portable antibiotic selection kit was tested with twenty five samples of mastitic milk. The results indicated that, antibiotic resistant bacteria turned the methylene blue in to white color while the bacteria that were killed (sensitive) retained the blue color of the dye. Thus the right choice of the antibiotic to treat cows with mastitis could be determined based on the naked eye. In conclusion, the kit gave quicker results, was easy to assay and read and can be 'farm-gate' applicable than the presently available conventional method. PMID:23932979

Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Vadivoo, V Senthil; Kumanan, Kathaperumal; Prabakaran, Rajamanickam

2014-01-15

270

Economic effects of oil and gas development on marine aquaculture leases. Study 17. Final report  

SciTech Connect

There are three primary mariculture products grown in California waters: oysters, mussels, and abalone. In total, the California mariculture industry earns revenues of about $6.5 million. Water quality degradation was the primary concern of most growers. Coliform bacteria and pesticide residues are currently threatening several shallow-water sites. Lease holders (and potential lease holders) for deep-water sites state that coliform bacteria from municipal sewer outfalls and offshore oil and gas drilling effluents are the greatest dangers to their profitability. The Southern California Educational Initiative is an attempt to determine whether such concerns are warranted. A simple model of economic externalities was described to highlight the scientific data one must gather so as to choose the optimal production levels for both energy and mariculture resources. That information is necessary to assess the economic consequences to the California mariculture industry of chronic exposure to oil and gas development. The co-development model shows that the marginal (incremental) effects of oil production on mariculture costs needs to be assessed. The model also shows that if the effects are moderated by distance from the point of discharge, such changes must be estimated in order to determine optimal lease boundaries. The report concludes that interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for designing a co-development plan that maximizes the social welfare to be gained from developing multiple coastal resources.

Caswell, M.F.

1991-03-01

271

Act as a marine biologist and develop a research project that incorporates one or more  

E-print Network

, reckless tourism and coastal development. Now, scientists say, global warming is accelerating Amherst Inception! Global Challenge:! Current practices are destroying coral reefs worldwide.! "Reefs have formulate a scientific strategy to salvage the coral reefs from the harmful affects of human interference

Auerbach, Scott M.

272

Development of a sequential extraction method for different forms of phosphorus in marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential extraction method (SEDEX) has been developed to separately quantify five sedi- mentary P reservoirs: loosely sorbed P; ferric iron-bound P, authigenic carbonate fluorapatite + biogenic apatite + CaCO,-associated P; detrital apatite P; and organic P. The SEDEX method successfully separates two of the main categories of authigenic phosphate phases called upon most often as sedimentary sinks for diagenetically

Kathleen C. Ruttenberg

1992-01-01

273

A personal sampler for aircraft engine cold start particles: laboratory development and testing.  

PubMed

Industrial hygienists in the U.S. Air Force are concerned about exposure of their personnel to jet fuel. One potential source of exposure for flightline ground crews is the plume emitted during the start of aircraft engines in extremely cold weather. The purpose of this study was to investigate a personal sampler, a small tube-and-wire electrostatic precipitator (ESP), for assessing exposure to aircraft engine cold start particles. Tests were performed in the laboratory to characterize the sampler's collection efficiency and to determine the magnitude of adsorption and evaporation artifacts. A low-temperature chamber was developed for the artifact experiments so tests could be performed at temperatures similar to actual field conditions. The ESP collected particles from 0.5 to 20 micro m diameter with greater than 98% efficiency at particle concentrations up to 100 mg/m(3). Adsorption artifacts were less than 5 micro g/m(3) when sampling a high concentration vapor stream. Evaporation artifacts were significantly lower for the ESP than for PVC membrane filters across a range of sampling times and incoming vapor concentrations. These tests indicate that the ESP provides more accurate exposure assessment results than traditional filter-based particle samplers when sampling cold start particles produced by an aircraft engine. PMID:14674798

Armendariz, Alfredo; Leith, David

2003-01-01

274

Particle motion is broadly represented in the vestibular medulla of the bullfrog across larval development  

PubMed Central

In their shallow-water habitats, bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles are exposed to both underwater and airborne sources of acoustic stimulation. We probed the representation of underwater particle motion throughout the tadpole’s dorsal medulla to determine its spatial extent over larval life. Using neurobiotin-filled micropipettes, we recorded neural activity to z-axis particle motion (frequencies of 40–200 Hz) in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN), and along the dorsal arcuate pathway. Sensitivity was comparable in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei, with estimated thresholds between 0.016 and 12.5 ?m displacement. Neither best responding frequency nor estimated threshold varied significantly over larval stage. Transport of neurobiotin from active recording sites was also stable over development. The DMN responded poorly to z-axis particle motion, but did respond to low-frequency pressure stimulation. These data suggest that particle motion is represented widely and stably in the tadpole’s vestibular medulla. This is in marked contrast to the representation of pressure stimulation in the auditory midbrain, where a transient “deaf period” of non-responsiveness and decreased connectivity occurs immediately prior to metamorphic climax. We suggest that, in bullfrogs, sensitivity to particle motion and to pressure follows different developmental trajectories. PMID:22198742

Flores, Victoria

2012-01-01

275

Development of a novel evaluation method for air particles using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a novel evaluation method for air particles using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) analysis. An L1 sensor chip modified with immobilized liposome was used as a model of the membrane of epithelial cells in organs of respiration. A test suspension of dispersed air particles was flowed onto the sensor chip. The interaction between the surface of the sensor chip and particulates in the sample solution was detected by SPR. It is deduced that the SPR measurement provides information about the adsorption/desorption behavior of the particles on the membrane. Environmentally certified reference materials, diesel particulate matter, vehicle exhaust particulates, urban particulate matter, coal fly ash, and rocks, were used as air particulate samples. Filtrates of suspensions of these samples were analyzed by SPR. Each sample revealed characteristic SPR sensor-gram patterns. For example, diesel particulate matter strongly interacted with the lipid bilayer, and was hardly dissociated. On the other hand, coal fly ash and rock particles interacted poorly with the membrane. The presented method could be used to evaluate or characterize air particles. PMID:23885351

Tanaka, Ryoya; Gomi, Ryusaku; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Nakanishi, Hiromitsu; Moriwaki, Hiroshi

2013-09-21

276

Development of Holographic Particle Velocimetry Techniques for Three-Dimensional Vortical Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of techniques to measure instantaneous velocity vector fields in three-dimensional (3D) space is the primary obstacle to further understanding of vortex dynamics and turbulence phenomena. Holographic Particle Velocimetry (HPV), which can record a 3D flow field laden with tracer particles on holograms using pulsed laser beams and measure the particle displacements, appears to be highly promising to this end. An HPV technique based on in-line holography has been implemented, which is characterized by geometric simplicity and minimal laser requirements. To overcome limitations (such as intrinsic speckle noise and large depth-of-focus) of in-line HPV, an analytical model has been developed which elucidates the nature of the speckle noise, quantifies the signal-to-noise-ratio of particle images as a function of particle field parameters, and suggests ways for further improvements in HPV concepts. Based upon these results, an off-axis HPV system has been developed in which speckle noise is suppressed and depth-of-focus is reduced, but the system complexity increases as well. Improving upon off-axis HPV, two innovative techniques--viz. multibeam, and in-line recording/off-axis viewing (IROV)--have been proposed. Proof-of-concept has been established for the multibeam HPV which utilizes the laser energy efficiently. The IROV technique, which enjoys the geometric simplicity of in-line HPV as well as the low speckle noise and small depth-of-focus of off-axis HPV has been developed and applied to measure an unstable vortex ring (Re = 1360) in water. The instantaneous velocity vector field in a 3D space (21 mm x 40 mm x 11 mm) is obtained at a spatial resolution of 1 mm. The vorticity distribution and circulation as a function of radius from the core center are calculated.

Meng, Hui

277

Development of a Promising Fish Model (Oryzias melastigma) for Assessing Multiple Responses to Stresses in the Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been “taken into labs” by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies. PMID:24724087

Dong, Sijun; Kang, Mei; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting

2014-01-01

278

Testing the junk-food hypothesis on marine birds: Effects of prey type on growth and development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The junk-food hypothesis attributes declines in productivity of marine birds and mammals to changes in the species of prey they consume and corresponding differences in nutritional quality of those prey. To test this hypothesis nestling Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) were raised in captivity under controlled conditions to determine whether the type and quality of fish consumed by young seabirds constrains their growth and development. Some nestlings were fed rations of Capelin (Mallotus villosus), Herring (Clupea pallasi) or Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) and their growth was compared with nestlings raised on equal biomass rations of Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcograma). Nestlings fed rations of herring, sand lance, or capelin experienced higher growth increments than nestlings fed pollock. The energy density of forage fish fed to nestlings had a marked effect on growth increments and could be expected to have an effect on pre- and post-fledging survival of nestlings in the wild. These results provide empirical support for the junk-food hypothesis.

Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Roby, D.D.

2006-01-01

279

Models of solar energetic particle fluxes: the mean requirements and the development prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The models of energetic solar particles (SEP) are intended for calculating the fluences and peak fluxes, which are expected to occur for a given period at any known or predicted solar activity level and to exceed their calculated sizes within a given probability. Like any other model that describes a natural phenomenon, a SEP model must reflect the objective reality, including the regular features inherent to SEP. Therefore, - as the SEP occurrence probability is proportional to solar activity, the model must predict the SEP fluxes as dependent on any solar activity level. The models that disregard the SEP fluxes during "quiet Sun" periods introduce an error of up to a few orders into their estimates of interplanetary particle flu xes; - as the SEP distribution function is accepted to be a power-law (not lognormal) function of SEP event size, the SEP model cannot disregard a great number of the minor events, which may not exceed the detection threshold of meters and can contribute much to the particle fluxes during short-term space flights and under low solar activity; - as the SEP impact is a function of the particle energy (the energy transfer to matter and the cross-sections for inelastic interactions are all energy-dependent), the particle flux must be known for any energy, i.e., the differential SEP energy spectra must be determined; - as many of the radiation effects depend on the heavy particle flux, the SEP models must include not only protons, but also all heavy ions; - as the heavy ion fluxes are relatively small (similar to the high-energy proton fluxes), any sufficiently comprehensive SEP model cannot be developed basing on the measured particle flux distribution because of the scanty statistics, but must be based on the found regular features relevant to the particle fluxes, their energy spectra included. Since the databases of SEP fluxes measured by separate instruments prove to be very different, thus indicating significant systematic errors of the measurements, any SEP m del cannot be developed without checking on the full reliability of the inputo experimental data.

Kuznetsov, N.; Nymmik, R.; Panasyuk, M.

280

Development of ITSASGIS-5D: seeking interoperability between Marine GIS layers and scientific multidimensional data using open source tools and OGC services for multidisciplinary research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2000, an intense effort was conducted in AZTI's Marine Research Division to set up a data management system which could gather all the marine datasets that were being produced by different in-house research projects. For that, a corporative GIS was designed that included a data and metadata repository, a database, a layer catalog & search application and an internet map viewer. Several layers, mostly dealing with physical, chemical and biological in-situ sampling, and basic and thematic cartography including bathymetry, geomorphology, different species habitat maps, and human pressure and activities maps, were successfully gathered in this system. Very soon, it was realised that new marine technologies yielding continuous multidimensional data, sometimes called FES (Fluid Earth System) data, were difficult to handle in this structure. The data affected, mainly included numerical oceanographic and meteorological models, remote sensing data, coastal RADAR data, and some in-situ observational systems such as CTD's casts, moored or lagrangian buoys, etc. A management system for gridded multidimensional data was developed using standardized formats (netcdf using CF conventions) and tools such as THREDDS catalog (UNIDATA/UCAR) providing web services such as OPENDAP, NCSS, and WCS, as well as ncWMS service developed by the Reading e-science Center. At present, a system (ITSASGIS-5D) is being developed, based on OGC standards and open-source tools to allow interoperability between all the data types mentioned before. This system includes, in the server side, postgresql/postgis databases and geoserver for GIS layers, and THREDDS/Opendap and ncWMS services for FES gridded data. Moreover, an on-line client is being developed to allow joint access, user configuration, data visualisation & query and data distribution. This client is using mapfish, ExtJS - GeoEXT, and openlayers libraries. Through this presentation the elements of the first released version of this system will be described and showed, together with the new topics to be developed in new versions that include among others, the integration of geoNetwork libraries and tools for both FES and GIS metadata management, and the use of new OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) to integrate non gridded multidimensional data such as time series, depth profiles or trajectories provided by different observational systems. The final aim of this approach is to contribute to the multidisciplinary access and use of marine data for management and research activities, and facilitate the implementation of integrated ecosystem based approaches in the fields of fisheries advice and management, marine spatial planning, or the implementation of the European policies such as the Water Framework Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive or the Habitat Framework Directive.

Sagarminaga, Y.; Galparsoro, I.; Reig, R.; Sánchez, J. A.

2012-04-01

281

Using ARCHON to Develop Real-World DAI Applications for Electricity Transportation and Particle Accelerator Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ARCHON,(ARchitecture for Cooperative Heterogeneous ON-line systems) was Europe’s largest ever project in the area of Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI). It devised a general-purpose architecture, software framework, and methodology,which has been used to support the development,of DAI systems in a number,of real world industrial domains. Two of these applications, electricity transportation management and particle accelerator control, have been run successfully

N. Jennings; J. M. Corera; L. Laresgoiti; E. Mamdani; F. Perriollat; P. Skarek; L. Varga

1995-01-01

282

Measurement of fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with digital particle image velocimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and unique high-resolution image acquisition system for digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) in turbulent flows is used for the measurement of fully-developed turbulent pipe flow at a Reynolds number of 5300. The flow conditions of the pipe flow match those of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) and of measurements with conventional (viz., photographic) PIV and with laser-Doppler velocimetry

J. Westerweel; A. A. Draad; J. G. Th. Hoeven; J. Oord

1996-01-01

283

Development of a Hypertrophic Ovarian Artery After Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the treatment of symptomatic leiomyomata has shown excellent short-term clinical efficacy and minimal complications, yet recurrences after successful treatments at mid- and long-term follow-up have been reported. Exact etiologies for such recurrences have not been fully understood. We present a case of symptom recurrence with the development of a hypertrophic ovarian artery after successful UAE with polyvinyl alcohol particles, successfully treated with ovarian and repeat UAEs.

Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: sikhkim@jhmi.edu; Paxton, Ben E. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)

2007-09-15

284

BODEGA MARINE LABORATORY MARINE OPERATIONS GUIDELINES  

E-print Network

BODEGA MARINE LABORATORY MARINE OPERATIONS GUIDELINES These guidelines cover small boat and diving operations at Bodega Marine Laboratory (BML). This document is intended for faculty, staff, and students

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

285

Development of Ecogenomic Sensors for Remote Detection of Marine Microbes, Their Genes and Gene Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An internet search using the phrase "ecogenomic sensor" will return numerous references that speak broadly to the idea of detecting molecular markers indicative of specific organisms, genes or other biomarkers within an environmental context. However, a strict and unified definition of "ecogenomic sensor" is lacking and the phrase may be used for laboratory-based tools and techniques as well as semi or fully autonomous systems that can be deployed outside of laboratory. We are exploring development of an ecogenomic sensor from the perspective of a field-portable device applied towards oceanographic research and water quality monitoring. The device is known as the Environmental Sample Processor, or ESP. The ESP employs wet chemistry molecular analytical techniques to autonomously assess the presence and abundance of specific organisms, their genes and/or metabolites in near real-time. Current detection chemistries rely on low- density DNA probe and protein arrays. This presentation will emphasize results from 2007-8 field trials when the ESP was moored in Monterey Bay, CA, as well as current engineering activities for improving analytical capacity of the instrument. Changes in microbial community structure at the rRNA level were observed remotely in accordance with changing chemical and physical oceanographic conditions. Current developments include incorporation of a reusable solid phase extraction column for purifying nucleic acids and a 4-channel real-time PCR module. Users can configure this system to support a variety of PCR master mixes, primer/probe combinations and control templates. An update on progress towards fielding a PCR- enabled ESP will be given along with an outline of plans for its use in coastal and oligotrophic oceanic regimes.

Scholin, C.; Preston, C.; Harris, A.; Birch, J.; Marin, R.; Jensen, S.; Roman, B.; Everlove, C.; Makarewicz, A.; Riot, V.; Hadley, D.; Benett, W.; Dzenitis, J.

2008-12-01

286

Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated CO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: ~pH 8.15 and 404 ?atm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 ?atm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 ?atm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 ?atm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 ?atm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were significantly affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish exposed to elevated CO2, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

2011-06-01

287

Development and validation of an ultrasensitive fluorescence planar waveguide biosensor for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in marine algae.  

PubMed

Marine dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium are well known producers of the potent neurotoxic paralytic shellfish toxins that can enter the food web and ultimately present a serious risk to public health in addition to causing huge economic losses. Direct coastal monitoring of Alexandrium spp. can provide early warning of potential shellfish contamination and risks to consumers and so a rapid, sensitive, portable and easy-to-use assay has been developed for this purpose using an innovative planar waveguide device. The disposable planar waveguide is comprised of a transparent substrate onto which an array of toxin-protein conjugates is deposited, assembled in a cartridge allowing the introduction of sample, and detection reagents. The competitive assay format uses a high affinity antibody to paralytic shellfish toxins with a detection signal generated via a fluorescently labelled secondary antibody. The waveguide cartridge is analysed by a simple reader device and results are displayed on a laptop computer. Assay speed has been optimised to enable measurement within 15 min. A rapid, portable sample preparation technique was developed for Alexandrium spp. in seawater to ensure analysis was completed within a short period of time. The assay was validated and the LOD and CC? were determined as 12 pg/mL and 20 pg/mL respectively with an intra-assay CV of 11.3% at the CC? and an average recovery of 106%. The highly innovative assay was proven to accurately detect toxin presence in algae sampled from the US and European waters at an unprecedented cell density of 10 cells/L. PMID:23102433

Meneely, Julie P; Campbell, Katrina; Greef, Charles; Lochhead, Michael J; Elliott, Christopher T

2013-03-15

288

3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry: Development and Applications in Small Scale Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis contains two parts of studies. In part I, a novel volumetric velocimetry technique is developed to measure the 3-D flow field of small-scale flows. The technique utilizes a color-coded pinhole plate with multiple light sources aligned to each pinhole to achieve high particle image density and large measurable depth on a single lens microscope system. A color separation algorithm and an improved particle identification algorithm are developed to identify individual particle images from each pinhole view. Furthermore, a calibration-based technique based on epi-polar line search method is developed to reconstruct the spatial coordinates of the particle, and a new two-frame tracking particle-tracking algorithm is developed to calculate the velocity field. The system was setup to achieve a magnification of 2.69, resulting in an imaging volume of 3.35 x 2.5 x 1.5 mm3 and showed satisfactory measurement accuracy. The technique was then further miniaturized to achieve a magnification of 10, resulting in a imaging volume of 600 x 600 x 600 microm3. The system was applied to a backward-facing step flow to test its ability to reconstruct the unsteady flow field with two-frame tracking. Finally, this technique was applied to a steady streaming flow field in a microfluidic device used to trap particles. The results revealed the three-dimensional flow structure that has not been observed in previous studies, and provided insights to the design of a more efficient trapping device. In part II, an in-vitro study was carried out to investigate the flow around a prosthetic venous valve. Using 2-D PIV, the dynamics of the valve motion was captured and the velocity fields were measured to investigate the effect of the sinus pocket and the coupling effect of a pair of valves. The PIV and hemodynamic results showed that the sinus pocket around the valve functioned as a flow regulator to smooth the entrained velocity profile and suppress the jet width. For current prosthetic valve design a shorter leaflets is advantageous because it prevents flow stasis and reduce the energy loss. Valve pairing tests showed that an orthogonal configuration of the valve pair result in a complicated 3-D flow around the valve, which can increase the mixing of the blood flow and prevent reversed flow in between the valves. The tests of different valve separation distance showed that the coupling effect of two valves was weakened as the separation distance increased, suggesting the existence of a separation distance between the two valves to maximize the coupling effect and keep the flow structure stable.

Tien, Wei-Hsin

289

Hydrodynamics of the developing region in hydrophobic microchannels: A dissipative particle dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is becoming a popular particle-based method to study flow through microchannels due to the ease with which the presence of biological cells or DNA chains can be modeled. Many lab-on-a-chip devices require the ability to manipulate the transport of cells or DNA chains in the fluid flow. Microchannel surfaces coated with combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials have been found useful for this purpose. In this work we study numerically the hydrodynamics of a steady nonuniform developing flow between two infinite parallel plates with hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the DPD. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces are modeled using partial-slip and no-slip boundary conditions, respectively, in the simulations. We also propose a method to model the inflow and outflow boundaries for the DPD simulations. The simulation results of the developing flow are in good agreement with analytical solutions from continuum theory for no-slip and partial-slip surfaces. The entrance region constitutes a considerable fraction of the channel length in miniaturized devices. Thus it is desirable for the length of the developing region to be short as most microfluidic devices such as cell or DNA separators and mixers are designed for the developed flow field. We study the effect of a hydrophilic strip near the inlet of a hydrophobic microchannel on the developing length. We find that the presence of the hydrophilic strip significantly reduces the developing length.

Ranjith, S. Kumar; Patnaik, B. S. V.; Vedantam, Srikanth

2013-03-01

290

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will perform experiments to examine if debris will float, or blow in the wind. They will discover which characteristics of trash affect the likelihood that it will become marine debris. Trash that floats or is easily blown around is more likely to become marine debris. As a result of this activity students will be able to define marine debris and categorize different types of debris.

Museum, Bishop

291

Marine Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 34 species of marine mammals have been documented in Costa Rican waters, representing approximately 26% of all marine\\u000a mammals worldwide. The Costa Rican marine mammal fauna consist of 30 cetacean species, one manatee, and three pinnipeds, one\\u000a of which went extinct since the 1950s. At least 31 of these species most likely also occur in other Central American countries.

Laura May-Collado

292

Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases  

PubMed Central

Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience. Therefore, some examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be discussed. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new therapies targeting the central nervous system will be addressed, with particular focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, the neuronal growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering, will be highlighted. PMID:24798925

Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

2014-01-01

293

Bacterial diversity, community structure and function associated with biofilm development in a biological aerated filter in a recirculating marine aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological aerated filter (100 l), filled with bamboo ball media, was set up for treatment of low ammonia-containing recirculating\\u000a water in a marine aquaculture system. Chemical analysis showed that it took 70 days to establish a stable efficiency, at which\\u000a more than 30% of the ammonia was removed. During the biofilm development, bacterial diversity and community structure were\\u000a determined by construction

Xi-Yan Gao; Yang Xu; Ying Liu; Zhi-Pei Liu

294

A logical stepwise approach to laser diffraction particle size distribution analysis methods development and validation.  

PubMed

In this study, a logical, stepwise, efficient approach was used to develop and validate particle size distribution analysis methods for 58 different pharmaceutical bulk powders in a timely fashion. Image analysis was used to determine particle morphology and laser diffraction particle size distribution analysis was used to evaluate the dispersion medium, dispersion concentration, sonication time, and dispersion stability. Ruggedness validation was performed, by two different analysis, on different days, with different instruments on two preparations each of two different lots of material. It was determined that if the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the median volume diameters (d50) of the four preparations for each lot was below 20%, the method was suitably rugged for use in a quality control setting. Data for methyldopa, metoprolol tartrate, and metronidazole are presented as typical method validation results for three different modes of analysis. Data at three points (d10, d50, and d90) on the distributions were tabulated and evaluated for all 58 methods validated. The median volume diameter (d50) was found to be adequate for method validation. The approach rapidly generated valid, reproducible particle size distribution analysis methodology. PMID:9653752

Barber, D; Keuter, J; Kravig, K

1998-05-01

295

75 FR 50748 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...research on disease afflicting marine mammals including viral pathogens and brevetoxin studies; development of a marine mammal histology database and atlas and marine mammal cell lines; and comparative morphology studies. The permit is issued for a...

2010-08-17

296

Marine Education for Hawaii: A Prospectus. A Report for the Hawaii Marine Education Council.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes the history and background of marine education in Hawaii, goals and objectives of marine education, guidelines for marine education implementation, and a proposed development plan for a marine education curriculum. The report also presents a general schedule of developmental activities that calls for the establishment of a…

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Curriculum Research and Development Group.

297

Technology development for the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA) suborbital ultra-high energy particle observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe technology development for the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA) mission, a planned ultra-high energy (UHE) particle observatory under development for NASA's suborbital super-pressure balloon program in Antarctica. The design is based on a novel application of toroidal reflector optics which utilizes a super-pressure balloon surface, along with a feed-array mounted on an inner membrane, to create an ultra-large radio antenna system with a synoptic view of the Antarctic ice sheet below it.

Baginski, F.; Gorham, P.

298

Development of a nano condensation particle counter battery (nano-CPCb) to infer the composition of freshly formed particles down to 1 nm in the boreal forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particle nucleation is an important environmental nano-scale process, with field measurements and modeling studies indicating that freshly nucleated particles are a significant source of global cloud condensation nuclei. However, our understanding of atmospheric nucleation and its influence on climate is limited as few ambient measurements have been made of either the nucleation rate or the chemical composition of the freshly formed clusters, both of which are necessary to constrain the nucleation mechanism and to develop a process-level model. In this study, a nano condensation particle counter battery (nano CPCb) was developed, characterized, and then deployed during an intensive field campaign to infer the size-resolved composition of freshly formed particles down to 1 nm. The nano CPCb is composed of four CPCs optimized for the detection of sub 3 nm particles, using diethylene glycol, water, and butanol as the CPC working fluids. The nano CPCb was characterized in the laboratory with mono-disperse challenge aerosols of diverse composition. By sampling electrical mobility-classified particles, the nano CPCb accounts for the strong dependence of CPC detection on particle size and charge below 3 nm. Measured differences between the various CPC responses are then attributed to composition-specific interactions between the sampled particles and the various working fluids of the nano CPCb. Characterization results for the composition dependent responses of the nano CPCb will be presented. After characterization, the nano CPCb was integrated as a detector in a Nano-SMPS system optimized for particle detection down to 1 nm. The combined instrument was deployed during an intensive field campaign in the Spring of 2013 to study atmospheric nucleation and initial growth at a long-term measurement site in the boreal forest in Hyytiälä, Finland. Preliminary measurements of freshly nucleated aerosol size distributions and the size-resolved composition-dependent response of the nano CPCb will be presented.

Kuang, C.; Kangasluoma, J.; Wimmer, D.; Rissanen, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wang, J.; Kulmala, M. T.; Petaja, T.

2013-12-01

299

'Hot particles' in the cold light of day: principles for a stakeholder and public engagement architecture relating to historic liabilities in the marine environment.  

PubMed

This paper discusses issues in stakeholder relations, focusing on the challenges of liabilities management associated with small fragments of irradiated nuclear fuel hereafter termed particles (and sometimes termed 'hot particles' in the public domain, from which this paper gets its title), produced over a number of decades from now ceased operations at Dounreay. It describes key problems confronting the nuclear industry in developing a stakeholder-relations strategy. Drawing upon examples of the stakeholder activity at Dounreay, and using an ecological metaphor, an innovative architecture for stakeholder engagement relating to nuclear issues is outlined. This is based upon the view that the solution of the stakeholder issue must reflect the complexity and connectivity of influences and interests within the stakeholder environment. It is argued that the lay public should be visualised as the stakeholder if an effective stakeholder-relations strategy is to be achieved. The importance of creating trust in a context of scientific uncertainty is highlighted. This will, it is argued, become an increasingly salient issue in the thrust for openness and transparency, two key drivers of nuclear industry public and stakeholder relations, which could make the limits of scientific knowledge and control more widely appreciated, and bring to the fore the role of lay conceptions of perceived risk. PMID:17768312

Wylie, Rick

2007-09-01

300

Linking marine biology and biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of

Rocky de Nys; Peter D Steinberg

2002-01-01

301

Development of Modeling and Simulation for Magnetic Particle Inspection Using Finite Elements  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a widely used nondestructive inspection method for aerospace applications essentially limited to experiment-based approaches. The analysis of MPI characteristics that affect sensitivity and reliability contributes not only reductions in inspection design cost and time but also improvement of analysis of experimental data. Magnetic particles are easily attracted toward a high magnetic field gradient. Selection of a magnetic field source, which produces a magnetic field gradient large enough to detect a defect in a test sample or component, is an important factor in magnetic particle inspection. In this work a finite element method (FEM) has been employed for numerical calculation of the MPI simulation technique. The FEM method is known to be suitable for complicated geometries such as defects in samples. This thesis describes the research that is aimed at providing a quantitative scientific basis for magnetic particle inspection. A new FEM solver for MPI simulation has been developed in this research for not only nonlinear reversible permeability materials but also irreversible hysteresis materials that are described by the Jiles-Atherton model. The material is assumed to have isotropic ferromagnetic properties in this research (i.e., the magnetic properties of the material are identical in all directions in a single crystal). In the research, with a direct current field mode, an MPI situation has been simulated to measure the estimated volume of magnetic particles around defect sites before and after removing any external current fields. Currently, this new MPI simulation package is limited to solving problems with the single current source from either a solenoid or an axial directional current rod.

Jun-Youl Lee

2003-05-31

302

Development and Demonstration of a Computational Tool for the Analysis of Particle Vitiation Effects in Hypersonic Propulsion Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve the understanding of particle vitiation effects in hypersonic propulsion test facilities, a quasi-one dimensional numerical tool was developed to efficiently model reacting particle-gas flows over a wide range of conditions. Features of this code include gas-phase finite-rate kinetics, a global porous-particle combustion model, mass, momentum and energy interactions between phases, and subsonic and supersonic particle drag and heat transfer models. The basic capabilities of this tool were validated against available data or other validated codes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the code a series of computations were performed for a model hypersonic propulsion test facility and scramjet. Parameters studied were simulated flight Mach number, particle size, particle mass fraction and particle material.

Perkins, Hugh Douglas

2010-01-01

303

Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.  

SciTech Connect

Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting PSD data. Finally, the SSA of the three powders was measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods, enabling the PSD to be linked to the SSA for these PETN powders. Consistent characterization of other PETN powders can be performed using the appropriate sample-specific preparation method, so that future studies can accurately identify the effect of changes in the PSD on the SSA and ultimately model EBW performance.

Young, Sharissa Gay

2005-09-01

304

Mariner-Venus 1967  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

1971-01-01

305

Developing Marine Science Instructional Materials Using Integrated Scientist-Educator Collaborative Design Teams: A Discussion of Challenges and Success Developing Real Time Data Projects for the COOL Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current reforms in science education place increasing demands on teachers and students to engage not only with scientific content but also to develop an understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry (AAAS, 1993; NRC, 1996). Teachers are expected to engage students with authentic scientific practices including posing questions, conducting observations, analyzing data, developing explanations and arguing about them using evidence. This charge is challenging for many reasons most notably the difficulty in obtaining meaningful data about complex scientific phenomena that can be used to address relevant scientific questions that are interesting and understandable to K-12 students. We believe that ocean sciences provide an excellent context for fostering scientific inquiry in the classroom. Of particular interest are the technological and scientific advances of Ocean Observing Systems, which allow scientists to continuously interact with instruments, facilities, and other scientists to explore the earth-ocean- atmosphere system remotely. Oceanographers are making long-term measurements that can also resolve episodic oceanic processes on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales crucial to resolving scientific questions related to Earth's climate, geodynamics, and marine ecosystems. The availability of a diverse array of large data sets that are easily accessible provides a unique opportunity to develop inquiry-based learning environments in which students can explore many important questions that reflect current research trends in ocean sciences. In addition, due to the interdisciplinary nature of the ocean sciences these data sets can be used to examine ocean phenomena from a chemical, physical, or biological perspective; making them particularly useful for science teaching across the disciplines. In this session we will describe some of the efforts of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence- Mid Atlantic (COSEE MA) to develop instructional materials, in which students use real-time-data (RTD) to generate explanations about important ocean phenomena. We will discuss our use of an Instructional Design Model (Gauge 1987) to: 1) assess our audience need, 2) develop an effective collaborative design team, 3) develop and evaluate the instructional product, and 4) implement professional development designed to familiarize teachers with oceans sciences as a context for scientific inquiry.

McDonnell, J.; Duncan, R. G.; Glenn, S.

2007-12-01

306

Marine Biomedicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

Bang, Frederik B.

1977-01-01

307

Marine Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

1976-01-01

308

Connecting to the Standards through Marine Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine and related environmental science topics represent a rich resource of meaningful material for New Jersey's educators as they seek to develop standards-based instructional strategies. By adopting and integrating the marine environment science programs and curriculum materials developed by the Education Program at the New Jersey Marine…

New Jersey Marine Sciences Consortium, Fort Hancock. New Jersey Sea Grant Coll. Program.

309

Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous extraction and separate measurement of oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid and flumequine from marine sediments.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method for the detection and extraction of oxolinic acid, flumequine, florfenicol and oxytetracycline from marine sediments was developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from the marine sediment using a solution of oxalic acid diluted in methanol with sonication before detection by HPLC using a diode-array detector (florfenicol and oxytetracycline) and fluorescence (oxolinic acid and flumequine). The quantification limits (QL) were 100 ng/g for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 5 ng/g for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The coefficients of variation of the repeatability and intermediate precision were less than 10% in all of the analytes. The calibration curves were linear between 50 and 500 ng/ml for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 1 and 20 ng/ml for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The recuperation rate for the analytes was above 86%. PMID:23773949

Norambuena, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Contreras, Sergio

2013-08-15

310

Design and development of the associated-particle three-dimensional imaging technique  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the development of the ``associated-particle`` imaging technique for producing low-resolution three-dimensional images of objects. Based on the t(d,n){sup 4}He reaction, the method requires access to only one side of the object being imaged and allows for the imaging of individual chemical elements in the material under observation. Studies were performed to (1) select the appropriate components of the system, including detectors, data-acquisition electronics, and neutron source, and (2) optimize experimental methods for collection and presentation of data. This report describes some of the development steps involved and provides a description of the complete final system that was developed.

Ussery, L.E.; Hollas, C.L.

1994-10-01

311

Case Study: The Dolphins of Tangalooma Case study contained in textbook: Marine Tourism: Development, Impacts and Management (1998).  

E-print Network

Case Study: The Dolphins of Tangalooma Case study contained in textbook: Marine Tourism, Australia. Since 1992 a group of wild bottlenose dolphins have been regular visitors to the beach adjacent to this resort (Orams, 1994). The dolphins visit the area nightly to receive fish handouts from tourists

312

Marine-sourced anti-cancer and cancer pain control agents in clinical and late preclinical development.  

PubMed

The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies. PMID:24424355

Newman, David J; Cragg, Gordon M

2014-01-01

313

Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development †  

PubMed Central

The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies. PMID:24424355

Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.

2014-01-01

314

Use of earth observation data and numerical modeling in the development of marine downstream services in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) is to provide, on a sustained basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues in support of public policy makers' needs. MyOcean is the implementation project of the GMES Marine Core Service (MCS), aiming at deploying the first concerted and integrated pan-European capacity for Ocean Monitoring

Urmas Raudsepp; Rivo Uiboupin; Liis Sipelgas; Priidik Lagemaa; Tarmo Kõuts; Urmas Lips

2010-01-01

315

Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Guk Bae; Yim, Dae Hyun; Jung, Sung Yong

2009-03-01

316

Development of large-area quadrant silicon detector for charged particles  

E-print Network

The quadrant silicon detector, a kind of passivated implanted planar silicon detector with quadrant structure on the junction side, gained its wide application in charged particle detection. In this paper, the manufacturing procedure, performance test and results of the quadrant silicon detector developed recently at the China Institute of Atomic Energy are presented. The detector is about 300 $\\mu$m thick with a 48$\\times$48 mm$^{2}$ active area. The leakage current under full depletion bias voltage of -16 V is about 2.5 nA, and the raising time is better than 160 ns. The energy resolution for 5.157 MeV $\\alpha$-particle is around the level of $1\\%$. Charge sharing effects between the neighboring quads, leading to complicated correlations between two quads, were observed when $\\alpha$ particles illuminated on the junction side. It is explained as a result of distortion of electric field of inter-quad region. Such events is only about $0.6\\%$ of all events and can be neglected in an actual application.

Pengfei Bao; Chengjian Lin; Feng Yang; Zhaoqiao Guo; Tianshu Guo; Lei Yang; Lijie Sun; Huiming Jia; Xinxing Xu; Nanru Ma; Huanqiao Zhang; Zuhua Liu

2014-01-28

317

Development of a polarization optical particle counter capable of aerosol type classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a polarization optical particle counter (POPC) for measuring the concentrations of aerosol types, which were classified using polarization information from particle-scattered light. Polarization sensors that detect P and S polarization components of scattered light were placed at a scattering angle of 120°. The polarization ratio is calculated as the ratio of the S component to the sum of the S and P components, and it is used to help distinguish proposed aerosol types. The POPC field observation was conducted in Fukuoka, located in the western part of Japan, in 2012. The classification rule for three aerosol types (mineral dust, air pollution, and sea-salt particles) was determined empirically on the basis of measurements during typical conditions dominated by each aerosol type. The mass concentration of each aerosol type was estimated from the POPC measurement with some assumptions. The results indicate independent seasonal variation in each aerosol mass concentration. Using black carbon as an indicator of anthropogenic aerosols, we show a correlation of 0.770 with our estimated pollution aerosol type.

Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Shiraishi, Koichi; Nakura, Yoshinobu; Enomoto, Takayuki; Miura, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Naoe, Hiroaki; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo

2014-11-01

318

Development of large-area quadrant silicon detector for charged particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quadrant silicon detector, a kind of passivated implanted planar silicon detector with quadrant structure on the junction side, gained its wide application in charged particle detection. In this paper, the manufacturing procedure, performance test and results of the quadrant silicon detector developed recently at the China Institute of Atomic Energy are presented. The detector is about 300 ?m thick with a 48 mm×48 mm active area. The leakage current under the full depletion bias voltage of ?16 V is about 2.5 nA, and the rise time is better than 160 ns. The energy resolution for a 5.157 MeV ?-particle is around the level of 1%. Charge sharing effects between the neighboring quads, leading to complicated correlations between two quads, were observed when ? particles illuminated on the junction side. It is explained as a result of distortion of the electric field of the inter-quad region. Such an event is only about 0.6% of all events and can be neglected in an actual application.

Bao, Peng-Fei; Lin, Cheng-Jian; Yang, Feng; Guo, Zhao-Qiao; Guo, Tian-Shu; Yang, Lei; Sun, Li-Jie; Jia, Hui-Ming; Xu, Xin-Xing; Ma, Nan-Ru; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Liu, Zu-Hua

2014-12-01

319

Development of porosity in an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy containing nanoscale oxide particles  

SciTech Connect

The development of porosity at 1000 C in an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy containing ultra-fine oxide particles with diameters on the order of a few nm is investigated. A comparison with an alloy fabricated by internal oxidation demonstrates that the porosity formation is associated with mechanical alloying with Y2O3 in argon. The pores grow in spite of a sub-micron grain size suggesting that the grain boundaries are not effective paths for removing entrapped gas from the pores.

Schneibel, Joachim H [ORNL; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Hoelzer, David T [ORNL; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University; Sarosi, P. M. [Ohio State University; Hayashi, Taisuke [Ohio State University; Wendt, Ullrich [Otto-von-Guericke Universitat, Magdeburg, Germany; Heyse, Hartmut [Otto-von-Guericke Universitat, Magdeburg, Germany

2007-01-01

320

Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We have examined this process following exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing charged particles in human lymphoid cells and in human epithelial cells. A comparison of the results in these systems can reveal similari-ties and differences as a function of cell type and LET. Last, we will approach the question of the relevance of genomic instability in the context of charged particle mutagenesis. In many models, it has been difficult to link these two processes. We will present data regarding the mechanistic associations between these processes. Taken together, these studies will allow the definition of conserved pathways that are likely to contribute strongly to the cancer risks for astronauts exposed to charged particle radiations. Supported by NASA grant NNJ07HC721 to A. Kronenberg and NASA grant NNX10AC12G to M. Turker.

Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

321

Marine biodiversity characteristics.  

PubMed

Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. PMID:21640952

Boeuf, Gilles

2011-05-01

322

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine debris is an environmental problem of global importance, enlisting the concern and action of scientists, policy makers, as well as the general public. This three-lesson kit focuses primarily on plastic marine debris. Students critically examine data and samples and take part in activities that explore the causes, geographical distribution, and biological impacts of marine debris. Each lesson can be completed in about 50-60 minutes, but many of the activities are discrete and can be easily rearranged to fit various curricular objectives and time constraints.

2012-01-01

323

A model for particle microphysics, turbulent mixing, and radiative transfer in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer and comparisons with measurements  

SciTech Connect

A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an {approx} 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gale conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The collection efficiencies for droplets <30-{mu}m radius, and the value of the accommodation coefficient for condensational droplet growth, have noticeable effects on cloud properties. The divergence of the horizontal wind also has a significant effect on a 12-h model simulation of cloud structure. Conclusions drawn from the model are tentative because of the limitations of the 1D model framework. A principal simplification is that the model assumes horizontal homogeneity, and, therefore, does not resolve updrafts and downdrafts. Likely consequences of this simplification include overprediction of the growth of droplets by condensation in the upper region of the cloud, underprediction of droplet condensational growth in the lower region of the cloud, and underprediction of peak supersaturations. 64 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Ackerman, A.S.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Toon, O.B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)] [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1995-04-15

324

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

SciTech Connect

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

2013-05-15

325

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

326

Using Image Pro Plus Software to Develop Particle Mapping on Genesis Solar Wind Collector Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continued success of the Genesis mission science team in analyzing solar wind collector array samples is partially based on close collaboration of the JSC curation team with science team members who develop cleaning techniques and those who assess elemental cleanliness at the levels of detection. The goal of this collaboration is to develop a reservoir of solar wind collectors of known cleanliness to be available to investigators. The heart and driving force behind this effort is Genesis mission PI Don Burnett. While JSC contributes characterization, safe clean storage, and benign collector cleaning with ultrapure water (UPW) and UV ozone, Burnett has coordinated more exotic and rigorous cleaning which is contributed by science team members. He also coordinates cleanliness assessment requiring expertise and instruments not available in curation, such as XPS, TRXRF [1,2] and synchrotron TRXRF. JSC participates by optically documenting the particle distributions as cleaning steps progress. Thus, optical document supplements SEM imaging and analysis, and elemental assessment by TRXRF.

Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.

2012-01-01

327

Development of a Low-Cost, Subscale Test System to Evaluate Particle Impingement Erosion in Nozzle Ablative Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview on the development of a low-cost, subscale test system to evaluate particle impingement erosion in nozzle ablative materials. Details are given on the need for a new test bed, solid fuel torch components, solid fuel torch test, additional uses for the solid fuel torch, the development of a supersonic blast tube (SSBT), and particle impingement material discrimination.

Lansing, Matthew D.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gordon, Gail H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

328

Development of the particle inflow gun for DNA delivery to plant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple and inexpensive particle bombardment device was constructed for delivery of DNA to plant cells. The Particle Inflow Gun (PIG) is based on acceleration of DNA-coated tungsten particles using pressurized helium in combination with a partial vacuum. The particles are accelerated directly in a helium stream rather than being supported by a macrocarrier. Bombardment parameters were partially optimized

John J. Finer; Philippe Vain; Mark W. Jones; Michael D. McMullen

1992-01-01

329

Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2

Mark R. Sippola; William W. Nazaroff

2003-01-01

330

Experiments Measuring Particle Deposition from Fully Developed Turbulent Flow in Ventilation Ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2

Mark R. Sippola; William W. Nazaroff

2004-01-01

331

Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

Kolb, James A.

332

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine ecosystem introduction to shorelines, temperate oceans, and tropical oceans. Shoreline topics cover sandy and rocky shores, barrier islands, tide pools, estuaries, salt marshes, mud flats, mangrove forests, tides, waves, currents, and shoreline animals. Students can learn about temperate ocean zonation, light, forests, patterns, and animals. The tropical oceans chapter features coral reefs and tropical ocean animals. This site would provide a comprehensive introduction for a marine ecosystems or an ocean science unit.

333

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

334

Developing a new parameterization framework for the heterogeneous ice nucleation of atmospheric aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing a new parameterization framework for the heterogeneous ice nucleation of atmospheric aerosol particles Ullrich, R., Hiranuma, N., Hoose, C., Möhler, O., Niemand, M., Steinke, I., Wagner, R. Aerosols of different nature induce microphysical processes of importance for the Earth's atmosphere. They affect not only directly the radiative budget, more importantly they essentially influence the formation and life cycles of clouds. Hence, aerosols and their ice nucleating ability are a fundamental input parameter for weather and climate models. During the previous years, the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber was used to extensively measure, under nearly realistic conditions, the ice nucleating properties of different aerosols. Numerous experiments were performed with a broad variety of aerosol types and under different freezing conditions. A reanalysis of these experiments offers the opportunity to develop a uniform parameterization framework of ice formation for many atmospherically relevant aerosols in a broad temperature and humidity range. The analysis includes both deposition nucleation and immersion freezing. The aim of this study is to develop this comprehensive parameterization for heterogeneous ice formation mainly by using the ice nucleation active site (INAS) approach. Niemand et al. (2012) already developed a temperature dependent parameterization for the INAS- density for immersion freezing on desert dust particles. In addition to a reanalysis of the ice nucleation behaviour of desert dust (Niemand et al. (2012)), volcanic ash (Steinke et al. (2010)) and organic particles (Wagner et al. (2010,2011)) this contribution will also show new results for the immersion freezing and deposition nucleation of soot aerosols. The next step will be the implementation of the parameterizations into the COSMO- ART model in order to test and demonstrate the usability of the framework. Hoose, C. and Möhler, O. (2012) Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 9817-9854 Niemand, M., Möhler, O., Vogel, B., Hoose, C., Connolly, P., Klein, H., Bingemer, H., DeMott, P.J., Skrotzki, J. and Leisner, T. (2012) J. Atmos. Sci. 69, 3077-3092 Steinke, I., Möhler, O., Kiselev, A., Niemand, M., Saathoff, H., Schnaiter, M., Skrotzki, J., Hoose, C. and Leisner, T. (2011) Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 12945-12958 Wagner, R., Möhler, O., Saathoff, H., Schnaiter, M. and Leisner, T. (2010) Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 7617-7641 Wagner, R., Möhler, O., Saathoff, H., Schnaiter, M. and Leisner, T. (2011) Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2083-2110

Ullrich, Romy; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hoose, Corinna; Möhler, Ottmar; Niemand, Monika; Steinke, Isabelle; Wagner, Robert

2014-05-01

335

Recent developments Is catch-and-release recreational angling compatible with no-take marine protected areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have become a common conservation and management tool for reducing exploitation from the commercial and recreational fisheries sectors. However, the recreational fisheries sector has the potential to be compatible with no-take MPAs when catch- and-release angling is practiced because, in theory, no fish are actually harvested. This presumes that the effects of catch-and-release angling and related

Steven J. Cooke; Andy J. Danylchuk; Sascha E. Danylchuk; Cory D. Suskie; Tony L. Goldberg

336

Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments  

SciTech Connect

This Final Report summarizes work performed under DOE STTR Phase II Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER86258 during the project period from August 2006 to August 2009. The project, “Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments,” was led by Prism Computational Sciences (Madison, WI), and involved collaboration with subcontractors University of Nevada-Reno and Voss Scientific (Albuquerque, NM). In this project, we have: ? Developed and implemented a multi-dimensional, multi-frequency radiation transport model in the LSP hybrid fluid-PIC (particle-in-cell) code [1,2]. ? Updated the LSP code to support the use of accurate equation-of-state (EOS) tables generated by Prism’s PROPACEOS [3] code to compute more accurate temperatures in high energy density physics (HEDP) plasmas. ? Updated LSP to support the use of Prism’s multi-frequency opacity tables. ? Generated equation of state and opacity data for LSP simulations for several materials being used in plasma jet experimental studies. ? Developed and implemented parallel processing techniques for the radiation physics algorithms in LSP. ? Benchmarked the new radiation transport and radiation physics algorithms in LSP and compared simulation results with analytic solutions and results from numerical radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. ? Performed simulations using Prism radiation physics codes to address issues related to radiative cooling and ionization dynamics in plasma jet experiments. ? Performed simulations to study the effects of radiation transport and radiation losses due to electrode contaminants in plasma jet experiments. ? Updated the LSP code to generate output using NetCDF to provide a better, more flexible interface to SPECT3D [4] in order to post-process LSP output. ? Updated the SPECT3D code to better support the post-processing of large-scale 2-D and 3-D datasets generated by simulation codes such as LSP. ? Updated atomic physics modeling to provide for more comprehensive and accurate atomic databases that feed into the radiation physics modeling (spectral simulations and opacity tables). ? Developed polarization spectroscopy modeling techniques suitable for diagnosing energetic particle characteristics in HEDP experiments. A description of these items is provided in this report. The above efforts lay the groundwork for utilizing the LSP and SPECT3D codes in providing simulation support for DOE-sponsored HEDP experiments, such as plasma jet and fast ignition physics experiments. We believe that taken together, the LSP and SPECT3D codes have unique capabilities for advancing our understanding of the physics of these HEDP plasmas. Based on conversations early in this project with our DOE program manager, Dr. Francis Thio, our efforts emphasized developing radiation physics and atomic modeling capabilities that can be utilized in the LSP PIC code, and performing radiation physics studies for plasma jets. A relatively minor component focused on the development of methods to diagnose energetic particle characteristics in short-pulse laser experiments related to fast ignition physics. The period of performance for the grant was extended by one year to August 2009 with a one-year no-cost extension, at the request of subcontractor University of Nevada-Reno.

MacFarlane, Joseph J [Prism Computational Sciences] [Prism Computational Sciences

2009-08-07

337

Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center  

E-print Network

in the marine sciences, oceanography, engineering, forestry, and science. The combination of location, physicalOregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center Strategic Plan December, 2006 #12;Table of the university, the Hatfield Marine Science Center has been engaged in developing a strategic plan to envision

Tullos, Desiree

338

Standardized Curriculum for Outboard Marine Engine Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for outboard marine engine mechanics was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all outboard marine engine mechanics programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for outboard marine engine…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

339

A Plan for Marine Education in Hawaii  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The plan for marine education in the elementary and secondary schools of Hawaii as devised by the Hawaii Marine Education Council in 1974 is described. The plan outlines guidelines for the development and dissemination of marine curricular programs (K-12) over the next eight years. (BT)

Klemm, E. Barbara

1976-01-01

340

Marine Science Career Awareness, Grade Four. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for fourth grade students. The unit, focusing on the various types of careers and occupations connected directly and indirectly with marine science, is divided into sections dealing with: commerce and intertidal…

Kolb, James A.

341

Towards an absolute chronology for the marine environment: the development of a 1000-year record from Arctica islandica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-series of environmental change using geochemical (stable isotope, trace element) proxies from annually-banded marine sclerochronological (coral, mollusc) records have hitherto been constrained to the life span of live-collected individuals or to floating chronologies of approximate age constrained by independent dating methods, notably radiocarbon or uranium-series dating. The construction of a long, absolute, time-series beyond the individual life-span demands statistically significant cross-matching of time-series from different specimens or individuals. We present the first cross-matched marine sclerochronological record for NW Europe based on annual growth bands of the ocean quahog Arctica islandica (Bivalvia, Mollusca). Using live- and dead-collected specimens from the Fladen Ground, North Sea, long shell growth records of over 100 years have been cross-matched between individuals demonstrating a common external environmental signal driving the growth curve of individual shells within a community. We have identified some very long-lived individuals with over 250 annual growth bands and one with 268; this is the longest-lived mollusc known to science. The cross-matching of growth-series is critical since this is the only statistically reliable way to identify missing bands or multiple bands within a single year. We have successfully cross-matched dead series (with inter-shell correlation coefficients of up to 0.68); AMS radiocarbon dates from the umbo and tip of these series support the cross-matched chronology at the one standard deviation level. These dates indicate that this cross-matched chronology covers the period between AD 1128 (range AD 1066-1182) and AD 1392 (range AD 1335-1411) within the Medieval Warm Period. We have dated shell specimens which potentially link this dated floating time-series with the cross-matched chronology of 211 years (AD 2002 to AD 1791) from live-collected specimens, and anticipate the construction of a 1000-year absolute cross-matched chronology for this area of the North Sea soon. This will enable radiocarbon dating of marine material of known absolute age to derive a continuous curve of marine reservoir change for this location through time. We also have specimens from this area which have been dated to various phases of the Holocene and into the Late-glacial, raising the probability that we will be able to construct a 10,000-year absolute chronology in the future. The successful cross-matching of Arctica islandica is a breakthrough which will transform our understanding of both spatial and temporal radiocarbon reservoir changes in coastal and shelf seas and which will provide an absolute chronological template for geochemical proxies of marine environmental change.

Forsythe, G. T. W.; Scourse, J. D.; Harris, I.; Richardson, C. A.; Jones, P.; Briffa, K.; Heinemeier, J.

2003-04-01

342

ALASKA MARINE Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program  

E-print Network

ALASKA MARINE MAMMAL PROGRAM 2012 #12;2012 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Observer Manual Contents Section 1: The Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Marine Mammal Stock Program 1.5 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Section 2: The Southeast Alaska Environment 2

343

Marine Strategy 20142019 1 Marine Strategy 20142019  

E-print Network

Marine Strategy 2014­2019 1 Marine Strategy 2014­2019 Providing Australians with marine environmental intelligence for their safety, sustainability, well-being and prosperity. #12;2 Marine Strategy 2014­2019 #12;Marine Strategy 2014­2019 3 Foreword I am pleased to present the Bureau of Meteorology

Greenslade, Diana

344

Measurement of fluid velocity development behind a circular cylinder using particle image velocimetry (PIV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a non-intrusive experimental approach for obtaining a two-dimensional velocity distribution around a 22 mm diameter circular cylinder mounted in a water tunnel. Measurements were performed for a constant Reynolds number of 7670 using a commercial standard particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Different flow patterns generated behind the circular cylinder are discussed. Both instantaneous and time-averaged velocity distributions with corresponding streamlines are obtained. Key concepts in fluid mechanics, such as contra-rotating vortices, von Kármán vortex street, and laminar-turbulent flow, are discussed. In addition, brief historical information pertaining to the development of flow measurement techniques—in particular, PIV—is described.

Goharzadeh, Afshin; Molki, Arman

2015-01-01

345

Development of Au-coated THGEM for single photon, charged particle, and neutron detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the successful development of Au-coated Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEMs) based totally on homemade industrial PCB technology in China. THGEMs with various dimensions and substrates have been produced and tested. Production achievements include sensitive areas up to 500×1000 mm2, hole diameters down to 200 ?m, thicknesses down to 150 ?m, rims from 20 to 120 ?m, and feasibility of mass production. In addition, effective techniques have been applied to improve the quality and performance of THGEMs. The effective gain, gain stability, gain uniformity, and energy resolution in Ar-based and Ne-based gas mixtures were studied. Test results of X-rays, VUV&UV lights, cosmic ray muons, and alpha particles show that these kinds of THGEMs are promising.

Xie, Yuguang; Lü, Junguang; Zhang, Aiwu; Yu, Boxiang; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Fang, Jian; Wang, Zhigang; Sun, Xilei; Liu, Yingbiao; Gao, Long; Niu, Shunli; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Wanjin; Sun, Lijun

2013-11-01

346

High Resolution Particle Characterization to Expedite Development and Regulatory Acceptance of Nanomedicines.  

PubMed

The pharmaceutical industry as well as European and US governing agencies have indicated the need for more accurate, high resolution, characterization of complex drug materials, nanomedicines, to facilitate their development and eventual approval. In particular, accurately measuring the size, zeta-potential, and concentration of nanomedicines is desired. Herein we demonstrate the comprehensive and high resolution analysis capabilities of tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) on the most widely approved nanomedicines to-date, liposomal particles. The number-based size distribution, concentration and volume fraction of liposomes formed by extrusion through a 100 nm or 200nm Nucleopore filter membrane are shown as well as how freeze-thaw aggregation changes individual liposomes and the overall size distribution. In addition, the simultaneous size and zeta-potential analysis capabilities of TRPS is used to characterize the homogeneity and difference between liposomes made with and without the addition of PEGylated phospholipids. PMID:25243846

Kozak, D; Broom, Murray; Vogel, Robert

2014-09-22

347

Marine Biological Laboratory's Marine Organisms Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research, education, and training in biology, biomedicine, and ecology. Site features the latest news and research developments from MBL. Learn why studying squid and horseshoe crabs are so important to learning about human sight and how sea urchins are shedding new light on human birth defects. All this and a searchable photo database. Site also includes resources for purchasing specimens for laboratory or display purposes.

348

Some Developments of the Equilibrium Particle Simulation Method for the Direct Simulation of Compressible Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the established technique for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. In some flows of engineering interest, such as occur for aero-braking spacecraft in the upper atmosphere, DSMC can become prohibitively expensive in CPU time because some regions of the flow, particularly on the windward side of blunt bodies, become collision dominated. As an alternative to using a hybrid DSMC and continuum gas solver (Euler or Navier-Stokes solver) this work is aimed at making the particle simulation method efficient in the high density regions of the flow. A high density, infinite collision rate limit of DSMC, the Equilibrium Particle Simulation method (EPSM) was proposed some 15 years ago. EPSM is developed here for the flow of a gas consisting of many different species of molecules and is shown to be computationally efficient (compared to DSMC) for high collision rate flows. It thus offers great potential as part of a hybrid DSMC/EPSM code which could handle flows in the transition regime between rarefied gas flows and fully continuum flows. As a first step towards this goal a pure EPSM code is described. The next step of combining DSMC and EPSM is not attempted here but should be straightforward. EPSM and DSMC are applied to Taylor-Couette flow with Kn = 0.02 and 0.0133 and S(omega) = 3). Toroidal vortices develop for both methods but some differences are found, as might be expected for the given flow conditions. EPSM appears to be less sensitive to the sequence of random numbers used in the simulation than is DSMC and may also be more dissipative. The question of the origin and the magnitude of the dissipation in EPSM is addressed. It is suggested that this analysis is also relevant to DSMC when the usual accuracy requirements on the cell size and decoupling time step are relaxed in the interests of computational efficiency.

Macrossan, M. N.

1995-01-01

349

Technology Development for the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA) Suborbital Ultra-High Energy Particle Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe technology development for the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA), the next generation balloon-borne ultra-high energy (UHE) particle observatory under development for NASA's suborbital super-pressure balloon program in Antarctica. The design is based on a novel application of toroidal reflector optics, utilizing the super-pressure balloon surface to mount an RF reflector and an internal feed-array suspended inside of the balloon, to create an ultra-large radio antenna system with a synoptic view of the Antarctic ice sheet below it. A 1/20 scale model test with an actual inflated balloon is planned for late Spring 2014 at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. A 5.8~meter diameter super-pressure balloon will be pulsed at 3~GHz to test electronics and data acquisition systems. The 1/20 scale model will also be used to investigate deployment of the EVA system. Feed deployment is a semi-autonomous process that proceeds gradually as the volume of the ascending balloon increases. A mathematical model was developed to analyze deployment of the EVA system. Numerical solutions based on the model will be compared with measurements of ascent-like shapes assumed by the physical model during inflation.

Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth; Gorham, Peter; Furer, Joshua; Miki, Christian

350

Marine Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educational resources focusing on understanding of Marine Protected Areas (MPA), their functions, themes and messages. Materials include bibliographies, MPA posters, fact sheets and worksheets. Regional workshops promote MPA issues and concepts. Information exchange options to promote collaboration include: MPA newsletter archives and workshop PowerPoint presentations; announcements for conferences, grants, internships and professional development opportunities.

2011-11-09

351

Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to chapters from an online book (PDF format), which reflects many of the recent developments in marine microbiology. Published by the National Institute of Oceanography in India, it is geared towards ocean scientists, environmentalists, aqua-culturists and seafood processing technologists. The book provides recent literature, newer analytical approaches, and an overall summary of the present understanding of marine microbiology in tropical waters. Chapters include subjects such as heterotrophic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and the sulfur cycle, hypersaline microorganisms, symbiosis, the role of fungi in detrital process, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, microbial diseases in shrimp, microzooplankton, biofilms, and more. Links are provided to each chapter in PDF format.

Ramaiah, Nagappa

352

Alkaloids in Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

Güven, Kas?m Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

2010-01-01

353

Mariner 9 navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

1973-01-01

354

The Irish Seabed Mapping Programme: INFOMAR - Integrated Mapping Survey for the Sustainable Developments of Ireland's Marine Resources. Progress to Date.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last six years, the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute of Ireland worked together on the multimillion Irish National Seabed Survey project with the purpose of mapping the Irish marine territory using a suite of remote sensing equipment, from multibeam to seismic, achieving 87% coverage of the marine zone. Ireland was the first country in the world to carry out an extensive mapping project of their extended Exclusive Economic Zone. The Irish National Seabed Survey is now succeeded by the multiyear INFOMAR Programme. INFOMAR will concentrate initially on mapping twenty-six selected priority bays, three sea areas and the fisheries-protection "Biologically Sensitive Area", and then will complete 100% mapping of the remainder of the EEZ. Designed to incorporate all elements of an integrated mapping programme, the key data acquisition will include hydrography, oceanographic, geological and heritage data. These data sets discharge Ireland's obligations under international treaties to which she is signatory and the uses of these data are vast and multipurpose: from management plans for inshore fishing, aquaculture, coastal protection and engineering works, to environmental impact assessments related to licensing activity and support to the evolving needs of integrated coastal zone management. INFOMAR also includes a data management, exchange and integration programme for the establishment of a National Marine Data Discovery and Exchange Service; providing improved dissemination of information to researchers, policy makers, the public and private sector and the adoption of standard operating procedures in data management to facilitate inter-agency data integration. During the first year of activity, INFOMAR carried out an integrated survey from the national research vessel, the RV Celtic Explorer, acquiring hydrographic, geophysical and groundtruthing data from Bantry and Dunmanus Bays, located off the South West coast of Ireland. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and small-vessel mapping surveys have also been carried out, giving detailed bathymetric, topographic and habitat information for the shoaler waters and inshore areas. This presentation will focus both on the general framework and scope of INFOMAR and the initial results and experiences of this year's survey.

Sacchetti, F.; Benetti, S.; Fitzpatrick, F.

2006-12-01

355

3-D turbulent particle dispersion submodel development. Quarterly progress report No. 1, 5 April--5 July 1991  

SciTech Connect

The lack of a mathematical description of the interactions of fluid turbulence with other physics-chemical processes is a major obstacle in modeling many industrial program. Turbulent two-phase flow is a phenomenon that is of significant practical importance to coal combustion as well as other disciplines. The interactions of fluid turbulence with the particulate phase has yet to be accurately and efficiently modeled for these industrial applications. On 15 May 1991 work was initiated to cover four major tasks toward the development of a computational submodel for turbulent particle dispersion that would be applicable to coal combustion simulations. Those four tasks are: 1. A critical evaluation of the 2-D Lagrangian particle dispersion submodel, 2. Development of a 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 3. Evaluation of the 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 4.Exploration of extensions of the Lagrangian dispersion theory to other applications including chemistry-turbulence interactions.

Smith, P.J.

1991-12-31

356

3-D turbulent particle dispersion submodel development. Quarterly progress report No. 2, 15 July--15 October 1991  

SciTech Connect

The lack of a mathematical description of the interactions of fluid turbulence with other physics-chemical processes is a major obstacle in modeling many industrial program. Turbulent two-phase flow is a phenomenon that is of significant practical importance to coal combustion as well as other disciplines. The interactions of fluid turbulence with the particulate phase has yet to be accurately and efficiently modeled for these industrial applications. On 15 May 1991 work was initiated to cover four major tasks toward the development of a computational submodel for turbulent particle dispersion that would be applicable to coal combustion simulations. Those four tasks are: 1. A critical evaluation of the 2-D Lagrangian particle dispersion submodel, 2. Development of a 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 3. Evaluation of the 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 4. Exploration of extensions of the Lagrangian dispersion theory to other applications including chemistry-turbulence interactions.

Smith, P.J.

1991-12-31

357

Development and characterization of novel starch and alkyl ketene dimer microcellular foam particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is interest in replacing inorganic fillers in paper, coatings and plastics with renewable organic fillers to improve the economics, performance and environmental aspects of such products. Starch microcellular foam (SMCF) particles are promising materials in this regard. This research was undertaken to produce SMCF particles and characterize their morphology, optical properties and interaction with water. SMCF particles were produced

Ana I. Bolivar; Richard A. Venditti; Joel J. Pawlak; Khaled El-Tahlawy

2007-01-01

358

Heavy metal effects on cellular shape changes, cleavage, and larval development of the marine gastropod mollusk, (Ilyanassa obsoleta Say)  

SciTech Connect

The spawning areas for many marine invertebrates are in intertidal zones which can be exposed to surface water run-off containing heavy metals. The cellular shape changes and cleavage patterns of Ilyanassa embryos greatly resemble those of bivalve mollusks, such as Mytilus edulis, that occur in the same intertidal areas. Determining the concentrations of heavy metals tolerated by the molluscan embryos inhabiting such clam and mussel beds therefore is of some economic significance. Moreover, such research may providedata on the heavy metal effects on the cytoskeleton. There is increasing evidence that components of the cytoskeleton, directly or indirectly, are targets for toxic agents. Polar lobe formation is a cellular shape change that resembles cytokinesis. It is seen in the fertilized eggs of many marine mollusks. Recent data with inorganic and organic Ca/sup 2 +/ antagonists suggest that both polar lobe formation and cytokinesis utilize Ca/sup 2 +/ released from sequestered, intracellular sites. Both of these cellular constrictions are associated with microfilaments and are preceded by activation steps requiring microtubules. The data presented below suggest that several heavy metals affect the microfilament-dependent steps.

Conrad, G.W.

1988-07-01

359

The Sensitivity of n-alkanes in Marine Sediments to Changes in Dustiness: Further Developing the Use of Leaf Wax Biomarkers as a Dust Proxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust plays a significant role in regulating marine biogeochemical cycles and the global heat budget. Most studies of past changes in dust input to the ocean have used inorganic tracers (Al, Fe, 232Th) and grain size analyses. More recently these records have been expanded to include organic geochemical analyses of terrestrial biomarkers. Leaf wax n-alkanes have been shown to co-vary remarkably well with traditional inorganic dust proxies in remote marine sedimentary archives (e.g. Martinez-Garcia et al. 2009). The most frequently cited reason for agreement between the two proxies is the sandblasting hypothesis, which calls for increased removal of epicuticular waxes from the leaf surface by mineral dust particles during dust storms. We present a compilation of new and archive data from a variety of open ocean sites where the sedimentary records of both mineral dust and n-alkanes can be compared. By comparing the concentration ratio of n-alkanes to a mineral dust proxy through time, we test whether there is an effect of changes in mineral dust on atmospheric entrainment of n-alkanes. Preliminary data show not only independence of leaf wax entrainment to changes in mineral dust flux, but indicate that the variability in the n-alkane/mineral dust ratio is largely driven by changes in the n-alkanes abundance, which may reflect a high sensitivity of n-alkanes to changes in climatic conditions causing dustiness. Since their carbon and hydrogen stable isotopic composition record changes in vegetation and aridity, leaf wax biomarkers thus have the potential to deconvolve the effects of wind speed, vegetation, and aridity on dustiness.

Pavia, F. J.; Winckler, G.; Nichols, J. E.

2013-12-01

360

Canadian Hydrographic Conference April 14-17, 2014 St. John's N&L Development of a fusion adaptive algorithm for marine debris detection  

E-print Network

adaptive algorithm for marine debris detection within the post-Sandy restoration framework Giuseppe Masetti Hampshire (USA) Abstract Recognition of marine debris represents a difficult task due to the extreme in the surveyed environment, targeting marine debris (modeled as objects of about 1-m size). The project

New Hampshire, University of

361

Fault Trace: Marin County, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This photograph shows the trace of a fault (in trench phase) as it passes beneath a barn. The trace developed during the April 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. The location is the Skinner Ranch, near Olema, Marin County, California.

362

Extending the Marine Microcosm Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional range of marine microcosm laboratory experiments is presented as an ideal environment to teach the entire analysis process. The microcosm lab provides student-centered approach with opportunities for collaborative learning and to develop critical communication skills.

Ryswyk, Hal Van; Hall, Eric W.; Petesch, Steven J.; Wiedeman, Alice E.

2007-01-01

363

Senior High School Earth Sciences and Marine Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed for earth sciences and marine sciences instruction in the senior high schools of Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. The subjects covered are: (1) Earth Science for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (2) Marine Biology I for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (3) Marine Biology II, Advanced, for 11th and 12th graders; (4) Marine…

Hackenberg, Mary; And Others

364

Applications of Beta Particle Detection for Synthesis and Usage of Radiotracers Developed for Positron Emission Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a noninvasive molecular imaging tool that requires the use of a radioactive compound or radiotracer which targets a molecular pathway of interest. We have developed and employed three beta particle radiation detection systems to advance PET. Specifically, the goals of these systems are to: 1. Automate dispensing of solutions containing a positron emitting isotope. 2. Monitor radioactivity on-chip during synthesis of a positron emitting radiotracer. 3. Assay cellular uptake on-chip of a positron emitting radiotracer. Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing an optimum environment for radiation workers, but also to ensure a quantitatively accurate workflow. For the first project, we describe the development and performance of a system for automated radioactivity distribution of beta particle emitting radioisotopes such as fluorine-18 (F-18). Key to the system is a radiation detector in-line with a peristaltic pump. The system demonstrates volume accuracy within 5 % for volumes of 20 muL or greater. When considering volumes of 20 muL or greater, delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested radioactivity as measured with the dose calibrator. The integration of the detector and pump leads to a flexible system that can accurately dispense solutions containing F-18 in radioactivity concentrations directly produced from a cyclotron (~ 0.1-1 mCi/muL), to low activity concentrations intended for preclinical mouse scans (~ 1-10 muCi/muL), and anywhere in between. Electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) is an attractive microfluidic platform for batch synthesis of PET radiotracers. Visualization of radioisotopes on-chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. For the second project, we describe the development and performance of a Cerenkov/real-time imaging system for PET radiotracer synthesis on EWOD. We also investigate fundamental physical characteristics of Cerenkov photon yield at different stages of [F-18]FDG synthesis on the EWOD platform. We are able to use this imaging system to optimize the mixing protocol as well as identify and correct for loss of radioactivity due to the migration of radioactive vapor outside of the EWOD heater, enabling an overall increase in the crude radiochemical yield from 50 +/- 3% (n = 3) to 72 +/- 13% (n = 5). Clinical use of PET has proven to be a critical tool for monitoring cancer treatment response. For the third project, we describe the redesign and performance of Betabox, a specialized device that incorporates PET radiotracers in an assay that gives clinicians and researchers the ability to assess the effectiveness of a drug therapy in-vitro by isolating small samples of patient tumor cells incubated in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip. We find that Betabox is a high sensitivity and low noise charged particle imaging system that can operate without significant impairment of its performance at both room and at elevated temperatures, such as those suitable for cell culture. The dark count rate is within range of the expected signal from cosmic rays, dictating a low detection limit that allows quantitative imaging of very small amounts of radioactivity. This system demonstrates the potential of direct cellular radioassay of small samples of cells (~100 cells per measurement).

Dooraghi, Alex Abreu

365

Radiation Exposure Analyses Supporting the Development of Solar Particle Event Shielding Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has plans for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Outside of LEO, large solar particle events (SPEs), which occur sporadically, can deliver a very large dose in a short amount of time. The relatively low proton energies make SPE shielding practical, and the possibility of the occurrence of a large event drives the need for SPE shielding for all deep space missions. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) RadWorks Storm Shelter Team was charged with developing minimal mass SPE storm shelter concepts for missions beyond LEO. The concepts developed included "wearable" shields, shelters that could be deployed at the onset of an event, and augmentations to the crew quarters. The radiation transport codes, human body models, and vehicle geometry tools contained in the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation In Space (OLTARIS) were used to evaluate the protection provided by each concept within a realistic space habitat and provide the concept designers with shield thickness requirements. Several different SPE models were utilized to examine the dependence of the shield requirements on the event spectrum. This paper describes the radiation analysis methods and the results of these analyses for several of the shielding concepts.

Walker, Steven A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Abston, H. Lee; Simon, Hatthew A.; Gallegos, Adam M.

2013-01-01

366

Particle-Resolved Direct Numerical Simulation for Gas-Solid Flow Model Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-solid flows in nature and industrial applications are characterized by multiscale and nonlinear interactions that manifest as rich flow physics and pose unique modeling challenges. In this article, we review particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) of the microscale governing equations for understanding gas-solid flow physics and obtaining quantitative information for model development. A clear connection between a microscale realization and meso/macroscale representation is necessary for PR-DNS to be used effectively for model development at the meso- and macroscale. Furthermore, the design of PR-DNS must address the computational challenges of parameterizing models in a high-dimensional parameter space and obtaining accurate statistics of flow properties from a finite number of realizations at acceptable grid resolution. This review also summarizes selected recent insights into the physics of momentum, kinetic energy, and heat transfer in gas-solid flows obtained from PR-DNS. Promising future applications of PR-DNS include the study of the effect of number fluctuations on hydrodynamics, instabilities in gas-solid flow, and wall-bounded flows.

Tenneti, Sudheer; Subramaniam, Shankar

2014-01-01

367

Marine aerosols: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background aerosol in the boundary layer over the remote oceans is not aged continental aerosol but, rather, is largely of marine origin. Total particle concentrations are quite uniform throughout the tropical trade wind regions and normally are in the range of 100-300 cm -3. Precipitation reduces particle concentrations, but there is apparently an in situ source of small particles which allows particle concentrations to recover to their normal background level. The fine particle mode ( r < 0.3 ?m), which comprises 90-95% of the particles but only about 5% of the total mass, cosists primarily of non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-sulfate). There is considerable evidence that nss-sulfate, which is present in concentrations ranging from about 0.2 to 1.5 ?g m -3, is formed by gas-to-particle conversion of the oxidation products of organosulfur gases (principally DMS) emitted by the ocean. The principal gas-to-particle conversion mechanisms are particle formation by homogeneous nucleation of low-volatility gas-phase reaction products, condensation of these products on existing particles, and SO 2-to-sulfate conversion in cloud droplets. The submicron portion of the particle size distribution is bimodal with peaks at 0.03 ?m and 0.1 ?m radius. The peak at 0.1 ?m is believed to be due to the growth of CCN-sized particles as a result of incloud SO 2-to-sulfate conversion. It has been speculated that the sea-to-air flux of DMS affects the number of CCN and thereby affects cloud droplet size, cloud albedo and, consequently, climate. Coarse particles ( r > 0.5 ?m) are composed primarily of sea salt. The concentration of sea salt shows a strong dependence of wind speed and ranges from about 2 ?g m -3 to as much as 50 ?g m -3 or more at wind speeds in excess of 15 m s -1. The background coarse mode also contains smaller amounts of nitrate and mineral dust. The concentration of each of these components is normally less than 5% of the mass of sea salt, although dust concentrations can occasionally equal the sea salt loading during fresh intrusions of continental dust. Nitrate is formed by gas-to-particle conversion but the relative importance of the ocean, the stratosphere and lightning as a source of the nitrogen-containing precursor gases remains uncertain. Since nitrate is not found on the fine mode particles, it probably does not result from condensation of gas-phase reaction products or from aqueous-phase oxidation of NO x in cloud droplets.

Fitzgerald, James W.

368

MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 26(4): 9971001 (October 2010) C 2010 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy  

E-print Network

Memories MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 26(4): 997­1001 (October 2010) C 2010 by the Society for Marine of the Society for Marine Mammalogy Ronald J. Schusterman had a passion for living and a passion for science. It is hard to think about the Society for Marine Mammalogy and its beginnings and development without

Reichmuth, Colleen

369

MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 26(3): 733743 (July 2010) C 2010 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy  

E-print Network

MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 26(3): 733­743 (July 2010) C 2010 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy DOI of Marine Biology and Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, 5007 Avenue U, Galveston, Texas. The secondarily aquatic lifestyle required marine mammals to develop novel sensory modalities to operate in water

Fish, Frank

370

Work Experience: Marine Biology A group of 4 to 6 potential marine biology students will spend one week in the  

E-print Network

Work Experience: Marine Biology (ID:209) Outline A group of 4 to 6 potential marine biology of studying Marine Biology at Swansea University and develop a general understanding of the different subject will experience marine sampling techniques, both on board the university research vessel and from the shore

Harman, Neal.A.

371

TOPP AS A MARINE LIFE OBSERVATORY: USING ELECTRONIC TAGS TO MONITOR THE MOVEMENTS, BEHAVIOUR AND HABITATS OF MARINE VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tagging of Pacific Pelagic (TOPP) a field program of the Census of Marine Life has proven the concept of using electronic tags to develop a Marine Life Observatory (MLO) to monitor the habitat utilization, movement patterns and behaviour of large marine predators. Given the difficulty of observing the behavior of highly pelagic marine species we know relatively little about

372

Marine Technology Student: Marine Farming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, learn how a degree in marine technology helped one student go from working at a marine farming company to becoming a partner in that company. Trevor Fay uses the GPS/GIS technology he studied in school to farm the red abalone, tracking their locations and monitoring their population. This technology helps marine farmers maintain healthy populations of sea creatures and understand more about the important ecosystem of the ocean.The video runs 4:18 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

373

The role of docosahexaenoic and the marine food web as determinants of evolution and hominid brain development: the challenge for human sustainability.  

PubMed

Life originated on this planet about 3 billion years ago. For the first 2.5 billion years of life there was ample opportunity for DNA modification. Yet there is no evidence of significant change in life forms during that time. It was not until about 600 million years ago, when the oxygen tension rose to a point where air-breathing life forms became thermodynamically possible, that a major change can be abruptly seen in the fossil record. The sudden appearance of the 32 phyla in the Cambrian fossil record was also associated with the appearance of intracellular detail not seen in previous life forms. That detail was provided by cell membranes made with lipids (membrane fats) as structural essentials. Lipids thus played a major, as yet unrecognised, role as determinants in evolution. The compartmentalisation of intracellular, specialist functions as in the nucleus, mitochondria, reticulo-endothelial system and plasma membrane led to cellular specialisation and then speciation. Thus, not only oxygen but also the marine lipids were drivers in the Cambrian explosion. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (all-cis-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid, C22:6?3 or C22:6, n-3, DHA) is a major feature of marine lipids. It requires six oxygen atoms to insert its six double bonds, so it would not have been abundant before oxidative metabolism became plentiful. DHA provided the membrane backbone for the emergence of new photoreceptors that converted photons into electricity, laying the foundation for the evolution of other signalling systems, the nervous system and the brain. Hence, the ?3 DHA from the marine food web must have played a critical role in human evolution. There is also clear evidence from molecular biology that DHA is a determinant of neuronal migration, neurogenesis and the expression of several genes involved in brain growth and function. That same process was essential to the ultimate cerebral expansion in human evolution. There is now incontrovertible support of this hypothesis from fossil evidence of human evolution taking advantage of the marine food web. Lipids are still modifying the present evolutionary phase of our species; their signature is evident in the changing panorama of non-communicable diseases. The most worrying change in disease pattern is the sharp rise in brain disorders, which, in the European Union, has overtaken the cost of all other burdens of ill health at €386 billion for the 25 member states at 2004 prices. In 2007, the UK cost was estimated at £77 billion and confirmed in 2010 at £105 billion - greater than heart disease and cancer combined. The rise in mental ill health is now being globalised. The solution to the rising vascular disorders in the last century and now brain disorders in this century lies in a radical reappraisal of the food system, which last century was focussed on protein and calories, with little attention paid to the requirements of the brain - the very organ that was the determinant of human evolution. With the marine fish catch having plateaued 20 years ago and its sustainability now under threat, a critical aspect of this revision is the development of marine agriculture from estuarine, coastal and oceanic resources. Such action is likely to play a key role in future health and intelligence. PMID:22544773

Crawford, Michael A; Broadhurst, C Leigh

2012-01-01

374

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

375

Marine envenomations.  

PubMed

This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures. PMID:24275176

Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

2014-02-01

376

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William

377

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With some knowledge of MatLab, Mathcad, Maple, or Mathmatica, one should be able to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels and practice writing about the results of a mathematical study.

Smith, David

2001-01-22

378

Marine Mammals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

Meith, Nikki

379

Seasonal and short-term variability in dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and biogenic sulfur and sea salt aerosol particles in the arctic marine boundary layer during summer and autumn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Arctic Ocean Expedition (IAOE), lasting from August to mid-October 1991, provided a unique opportunity to characterize and quantify relationships within the natural sulfur cycle in the marine boundary layer under conditions of limited anthropogenic influence. Concentrations of dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and submicrometer aerosol concentrations of methane sulfonate, non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and elemental carbon ranged from 17 to 0.05nmol m-3 (380 1 ppt(v)), 1.7 0.04nmol m-3 (38 0.9 ppt(v)), 1.4 0.002nmol m-3 (31 0.05 ppt(v), 6.9 0.03nmol m-3 (155 0.7 ppt(v)), 3.9 0.03nmol m-3 (90 0.7 ppt(v)) and 0.51 0.009nmol m-3 (11 0.2 ppt(v)), respectively. Observations showed a seasonal variation of concentrations with highest values for all the marine biogenic sulfur gas-aerosol parametres along the ice edge zone in August and lowest values over the pack ice in late September On average concentrations fell with a decline rate of about 20 40% per week. A similar seasonal change was also reflected in particulate ammonium. This therefore indicates links between the different sulfur compounds as well as between the biogenic sulfur and nitrogen cycles. Concentrations over the pack ice region were generally lower than over the open waters at the ice edge with an estimated net loss rate of roughly 35% per day of transport over the pack ice. Contrary to earlier marine sulfur studies performed outside the Arctic region, a constant methane sulfonate to non-sea-salt sulfate molar ratio was found in the submicrometer size fraction for samples with a minimal influence from fog and anthropogenic sources. This ratio had a value of 0.22 in spite of large seasonal changes in temperature and concentrations of methane sulfonate and non-sea-salt sulfate. Thus we conclude that the sum of the proceses controlling the measured particle properties do not exhibit a net temperature dependence. The one to one molar ratio of ammonium to non-sea-salt sulfate indicated a partly neutralised ammoniated sulfate aerosol. This was further verified by single particle analysis. Measurements of non-sea-salt sulfate and ammonium revealed a bimodal size distribution with about 70% of their mass found in the submicrometer size fraction. Methane sulfonate was mainly associated with submicrometer particles, with less than 8% of the mass observed in the largest particles. We have also shown that the interchange of air between the surface mixed layer and clouds, caused by atmospheric wave motions, dominated the short time variations in atmospheric DMS and submicrometer aerosol concentrations. This interchange will have a strong influence on the chemical and physical processes that control the properties of the aerosol, and deserves more attention in future work.

Leck, Caroline; Persson, Cecilia

1996-04-01

380

Coupling 16S-ITS rDNA clone libraries and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis to show marine microbial diversity: development and application to a time series.  

PubMed

We outline an approach to simultaneously assess multilevel microbial diversity patterns utilizing 16S-ITS rDNA clone libraries coupled with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Sequence data from 512 clones allowed estimation of ARISA fragment lengths associated with bacteria in a coastal marine environment. We matched 92% of ARISA peaks (each comprising >1% total amplified product) with corresponding lengths from clone libraries. These peaks with putative identification accounted for an average of 83% of total amplified community DNA. At 16S rDNA similarities <98%, most taxa displayed differences in ARISA fragment lengths >10 bp, readily detectable and suggesting ARISA resolution is near the 'species' level. Prochlorococcus abundance profiles from ARISA were strongly correlated (r2=0.86) to Prochlorococcus cell counts, indicating ARISA data are roughly proportional to actual cell abundance within a defined taxon. Analysis of ARISA profiles for 42 months elucidated patterns of microbial presence and abundance providing insights into community shifts and ecological niches for specific organisms, including a coupling of ecological patterns for taxa within the Prochlorococcus, the Gamma Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Clade-specific ARISA protocols were developed for the SAR11 and marine cyanobacteria to resolve ambiguous identifications and to perform focused studies. 16S-ITS data allowed high-resolution identification of organisms by ITS sequence analysis, and examination of microdiversity. PMID:16104869

Brown, Mark V; Schwalbach, Michael S; Hewson, Ian; Fuhrman, Jed A

2005-09-01

381

Development and Application of A Membrane-Based Thermodenuder for Measurement of Volatile Particles Emitted by A Jet Turbine Engine  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of volatile particles emitted by modern jet engines is a daunting task. Besides the complexity in sampling jet aircraft exhaust, the main difficulty lies at how to faithfully capture the phase-partition dynamics of volatile particles as they travel downstream from the engine exhaust nozzle. As a result, the physico-chemical properties of the exhaust are also transformed. We have developed a sampling instrument that aims at enabling study of the phase-partition dynamics. The objective of this research project was to design and evaluate a new thermodenuder for performing phase separation of the engine-emitted volatile particles. The backbone of the new thermodenuder is a thin metallic membrane. The membrane enables extraction of molecules that can be thermally desorbed from the condensed particulate phases and collected for subsequent chemical analysis. Toward realization of the technique in the future field aircraft emissions measurement we tested this new thermo-denuding device using laboratory-generated particles that were made of non-volatile or semi-volatile chemicals. The particle penetration efficiency, a measure of the device performance, of this thermodenuder was found to be better than 99%. Results obtained from the tests executed at a number of operating temperature conditions show reasonably good thermal separation. We have scheduled to apply this new device to characterize emissions from a T63 turboshaft engine in the spring of 2010 and are expecting to show the engine results at the conference. The test results based on the laboratory-generated particles were encouraging for the intended application. With excellent particle transmission efficiency and an ability to simultaneously measure the composition in the gas and particle phases of the engine particles, we believe the new technology will make a great contribution to measurement research of engine emissions.

Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL

2010-01-01

382

Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology  

SciTech Connect

Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

Flippo, K. A.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Gautier, D. C.; Kwan, T. J.; Montgomery, D. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO BOX 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T. E. [ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N. [University of California, San Diego, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., La Jolla, CA 92038 (United States); Gall, B.; Kovaleski, S. [University of Missouri, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Columbia MO 65211 (United States); Geissel, M.; Schollmeier, M. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Korgan, G.; Malekos, S. [Nanolabz, 661 Sierra Rose Dr., Reno, NV 89511 (United States); Lockard, T. [University of Nevada, Physics, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

2010-11-04

383

Development of a pulmonary peptide delivery system using porous nanoparticle-aggregate particles for systemic application.  

PubMed

As a non-invasive administration route, pulmonary peptide delivery for systemic application has shown great promise. However, many barriers exist that prevent effective peptide delivery. The use of porous nanoparticle-aggregate particles (PNAPs) is an excellent option because of their proper aerodynamic size and maximal deposition. However, in most cases, the spray drying heating process for PNAPs has been challenging in regard to maintaining peptide stability and activity. To overcome these issues, we developed a spray freeze-drying method for PNAP preparation. To solve the low entrapment efficiency problem of nanostructured lipid carriers, we used hydrophobic ion pair complexes to increase the lipophilicity of the peptide, thus increasing entrapment efficiency and drug loading. Here, we used a model peptide, octreotide acetate, for PNAP preparation, which has a high entrapment efficiency (>95%) and proper aerodynamic size (~3 ?m). In addition, after intrapulmonary administration, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in a rat preventive hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Our in vivo data showed significantly increased area under the curve and improved plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels for our PNAP intrapulmonary delivery system vs. the clinically used octreotide acetate delivery via subcutaneous injection. Together, PNAPs may have great potential for carrying peptide drugs for pulmonary delivery. PMID:23651645

Yang, Likai; Luo, Jing; Shi, Sanjun; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Zhirong; Gong, Tao

2013-07-15

384

Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere: Development of an alternative polarization lidar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. These Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linear or a circular polarized incident laser beam). The conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. The expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. The theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.

Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

2014-12-01

385

Development of atomic layer deposition-activated microchannel plates for single particle detection at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is used to nanoengineer functional films inside the pores of microchannel plate (MCP) electron multipliers, enabling a novel MCP manufacturing technology that substantially improves performance and opens novel applications. The authors have developed custom tools and recipes for the growth of conformal films, with optimized conductance and secondary electron emission inside very long channels (?6–20??m diameter and >600??m length, with tens of millions of channels per single MCP) by ALD. The unique ability to tune the characteristics of these ALD films enables their optimization to applications where time-resolved single particle imaging can be performed in extreme conditions, such as high counting rates at cryogenic temperatures. Adhesion of the conductive and emissive nanofilms to the 20??m pore MCP glass substrates and their mechanical stability over a very wide range of temperatures (10–700?K) were confirmed experimentally. Resistance of ALD MCPs was reproducible during multiple cool-down cycles with no film degradation observed. Optimizing resistance of novel MCPs for operation at cryogenic temperature should enable high count rate event detection at temperatures below 20?K.

Gorelikov, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@arradiance.com; Sullivan, Neal; Rouffignac, Philippe de; Li, Huazhi; Narayanamoorthy, Jayasri; Tremsin, Anton S. [Arradiance Inc., 142 North Road, Sudbury, Massachusetts 01776 (United States)

2014-03-15

386

Application of the S3M and Mcnpx Codes in Particle Detector Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor detectors can be used to detect neutrons if they are covered by a conversion layer. Some neutrons transfer their kinetic energy to hydrogen via elastic nuclear scattering in the conversion layer, and protons are produced as recoils. These protons enter the sensitive volume of the detector and are detected. In the process of detector development, Monte Carlo computer codes are necessary to simulate the detection process. This paper presents the main features of the S3M code (SRIM Supporting Software Modules) and shows its application potential. Examples are given for the neutron detectors with a conversion layer and for CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond detectors for beam-condition monitors at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Special attention is paid to the S3M statistical modules that can be of interest also for other application areas like beam transport, accelerators, ion therapy, etc. The results are generated by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) simulations used to optimize the thickness of the HDPE (high density polyethylene) conversion layer.

Pavlovi?, Márius; Sedla?ková, Katarína; Šagátová, Andrea; Strašík, Ivan

2014-02-01

387

Mobile Measurements of Gas and Particle Emissions from Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of natural gas in the Marcellus shale is increasing rapidly due to the vast quantities of natural gas stored in the formation. Transient and long-term activities have associated emissions to the atmosphere of methane, volatile organic compounds, NOx, particulates and other species from gas production and transport infrastructure. In the summer of 2012, a team of researchers from Drexel University and Aerodyne Research deployed the Aerodyne mobile laboratory (AML) and measured in-situ concentrations of gas-phase and aerosol chemical components in the main gas producing regions of Pennsylvania, with the overall goal of understanding the impacts to regional ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. State-of-the-art instruments including quantum cascade laser systems, proton transfer mass spectrometry, tunable diode lasers and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer, were used quantify concentrations of pollutants of interest. Chemical species measured include methane, ethane, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, SO2, and many volatile organic compounds, and aerosol size and chemical composition. Tracer-release techniques were employed to link sources with emissions and to quantify emission rates from gas facilities, in order to understand the regional burden of these chemical species from oil and gas development in the Marcellus. Measurements were conducted in two regions of Pennsylvania: the NE region that is predominantly dry gas (95% + methane), and the SW region where wet gas (containing greater than 5% higher hydrocarbons) is found. Regional scale measurements of current levels of air pollutants will be shown and will put into context how further development of the gas resource in one of the largest natural gas fields in the world impacts air quality in a region upwind of the highly urbanized east coast corridor.

DeCarlo, P. F.; Goetz, J. D.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Fortner, E.; Wormhoudt, J.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C. E.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.

2013-12-01

388

Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications. PMID:25203732

Kiuru, Paula; D?Auria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

2014-09-01

389

Topographic Growth, the Development of Rivers and Implications for the Marine Stratigraphic Record in SE Asia (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sediments accumulating in the marginal seas of Southeast Asia are largely delivered from the major rivers that flow from the eastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau. At the regional scale the rate of sediment delivery is controlled by the intensity of the summer monsoon, but in individual deltas the composition of sediment and rates of sedimentation are also affected by headwater capture. Recent data now indicate that significant transfer drainage between rivers occurred around the end of the Oligocene-early Miocene (~24 Ma). This key period reflects the start of significant uplift in southeastern Tibet, coupled with extension and subsidence in the marginal seas of eastern Asia driven by the rollback of the Pacific plate. U-Pb ages of zircon sand grains in the Yangtze River show that this system was close to its present configuration before 23 Ma, correlating with large-scale change in the Red River during the latter part of the Oligocene. At the same time, the Irrawaddy loses its connection with the Yarlung Tsangpo, which dates back to shortly after India-Asia collision. The Yarlung Tsangpo together with the Indus appears to be unique in forming in the collisional suture between Asia (or an intraoceanic arc) and India shortly after 50 Ma. Once these two rivers are established in the suture zone it is impossible to disrupt their flow as a result of tectonically driven uplift, but it is only in Southwest Asia that the marine record would span the entire Cenozoic history of uplift and erosion, as preserved in the Indus Fan. In contrast, the more gradual tilting of Eastern Asia towards the east through the Cenozoic has resulted in the large-scale disruption noted in the deltas. Diversion of large volumes of clastic sediment from one delta to another has implications for how we interpret the deep-sea sediment record in each location and is of commercial interest in hydrocarbon exploration in changing the availability of reservoir sands on continental margins in ways that are unrelated to either of the local tectonics or regional climate change. Only the Pearl River appears to be unaffected by the evolving topography. Provenance in its offshore basins indicates a constant source in southern China, albeit one that expands gradually inland after the rifting of the South China Sea, but without any major capture events on the scale seen in other Asian river systems. Presently the origin of the Mekong is the most enigmatic, because the marine stratigraphic record suggests its initiation during the late Miocene, at least in the present position.

Clift, P. D.; Zheng, H.

2013-12-01

390

Using ARCHON™ to develop real-world DAI applications for electricity transportation management and particle accelerator control  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARCHON™ (ARchitecture for Cooperative Heterogeneous ON-line systems) was Europe's largest ever project in the area of Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI). It devised a general-purpose architecture, software framework, and methodology which has been used to support the development of DAI systems in a number of real world industrial domains. Two of these applications, electricity transportation management and particle accelerator control, have

N. R. Jennings; J. M. Corera; I. Laresgoiti; E. H. Mamdani; F. Perriollat; P. Skarek; L. Z. Varga

1996-01-01

391

Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa (467th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Assamagan presented a talk titled “Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa,” in which he discussed the latest happenings at the LHC and ATLAS, and how African institutes’ participation in research at the LHC relates to the goals of the African School of Physics.

Assamagan, Ketevi (BNL Physics Dept) [BNL Physics Dept

2011-03-16

392

DEVELOPMENT OF A MAGNETIC PARTICLE IMMUNOASSAY FOR POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD MATRICES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sensitive magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to analyze polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water, milk, fish, and soil samples. The assay was rapid and can be used to analyze fifty samples in about one hour after sample cleanup. The assay has a limit of det...

393

Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity and inflammation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiological studies indicate that particulate air pollution constitutes a hazard for human health. Recent studies suggest that diesel exhaust possesses endocrine activity and therefore may affect reproductive outcome. This study in mice aimed to investigate whether exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST 2975) would affect gestation, postnatal development, activity, learning and memory, and biomarkers of transplacental

Karin S Hougaard; Keld A Jensen; Pernille Nordly; Camilla Taxvig; Ulla Vogel; Anne T Saber; Håkan Wallin

2008-01-01

394

PHOTOACOUSTIC DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF AEROSOL PARTICLES COLLECTED ON FILTERS: DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SUBSTRATE REFLECTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The absorptivity and imaginary index of refraction for carbon and methylene blue particles were inferred from the photoacoustic spectra of samples collected on Teflon filter substrates. Three models of varying complexity were developed to describe the photoacoustic signal as a fu...

395

Marine Iguana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No iguana wants to be cooked alive on a hot rock and then served up as dinner for a Galapagos hawk. But it turns out the marine iguanas have a strategy that warns them of the presence of hawks they canât see. They learned to tune in to a kind of police scannerâ¦the alarm calls of mockingbirds.Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

396

Mariners' Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariner's Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

397

Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will learn about the national marine sanctuaries found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and off the coast of American Samoa. They include breeding and feeding grounds of whales, sea lions, sharks, and sea turtles; significant coral reefs and kelp forest habitats; and the remains of the U.S.S. Monitor, a Civil War ironclad sunk off the coast of North Carolina.

Science Netlinks;

2002-06-10

398

Marine Cloud Brightening  

SciTech Connect

The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

2012-09-07

399

Toxicity of a secondary-treated sewage effluent to marine biota in Bass Strait, Australia: development of action trigger values for a toxicity monitoring program.  

PubMed

Melbourne Water's Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) produces a secondary-treated sewage effluent which is chlorinated and discharged into Bass Strait at Boags Rocks, Victoria, Australia. Disappearance of the sensitive brown seaweed Hormosira banksii from rock platforms immediately adjacent to the shore-line discharge was identified in the early 1990s. Subsequently, Melbourne Water and CSIRO undertook an environmental impact assessment and review of land and marine effluent disposal options, which included ambient water quality monitoring, biological monitoring, bioaccumulation studies and toxicity testing of existing effluent to assess the nature and magnitude of the environmental effects. This paper presents data from the toxicity monitoring programs since 2001. Chronic toxicity testing using macroalgal germination and cell division (H. banksii), microalgal growth rate (Nitzschia closterium) and scallop larval development (Chlamys asperrima), confirmed that ammonia was the major cause of effluent toxicity. Results from this toxicity monitoring program were used to develop action trigger values for toxicity for each species, which were then used in a refined monitoring program in 2005-2007. An upgrade of the ETP is in progress to improve nitrification/denitrification in order to reduce ammonia concentrations and the toxicity of the effluent. Toxicity testing with a simulated upgraded effluent confirmed that ammonia concentrations and toxicity were reduced. Estimated "safe" dilutions of effluent, calculated using species sensitivity distributions, decreased from 1:140-300 for existing ETP effluent to 1:20 for nitrified effluent, further confirming that treatment improvements should reduce the impact on marine biota in the vicinity of the discharge. PMID:18241892

Adams, Merrin S; Stauber, Jennifer L; Binet, Monique T; Molloy, Robert; Gregory, David

2008-01-01

400

Dining Dovekies Demand, "When, Where and What's for Dinner?" The Impact of Seasonal Changes in Snow Melt and the Development of the Arctic Marine Food Web on Seabirds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atlantic sector of the Arctic is undergoing widespread climate change with increases in air and sea temperatures which impact the timing of ice retreat, snow melt and the development of the marine food web. Dovekies (Alle alle) are small seabirds that migrate to the Atlantic Sector of the Arctic to feed in ice free waters that have abundant lipid-rich zooplankton. In the Greenland Sea, the dovekies are largely dependent on the advection of Calanus copepods into the area. We hypothesized that dovekies breeding adjacent to water masses which bring smaller, less energy-rich prey into the region (Calanus finmarchicus), work harder to find food and have higher stress levels. We tested this hypothesis by attaching time-depth recorders to provisioning dovekies at three colonies adjacent to different water masses (the West Spistbergen Current, the East Greenland Current, and the Sorkapp Current). We determined the length of time dovekies at different colonies spent at-sea collecting food for themselves and their chicks. We measured circulating corticosteroid hormone levels in their blood to assess stress levels. We collected chick meals to determine the energetic content of prey fed chicks at the different colonies. We found that dovekies are sensitive to the quality of prey available to them. Dovekies exposed to less profitable prey made longer foraging trips and worked harder while at-sea to collect prey for themselves and their chicks. Furthermore, over the past 50 years, dovekies breeding along the western shores of Spitsbergen have initiated breeding earlier in spring as their nest sites have become snow-free at earlier dates. We evaluate the impact of earlier breeding and the timing of the development of the marine food web within different currents which advect and/or support Calanus copepods into the Greenland Sea. Future possible declines in dovekies may impact terrestrial food webs which are highly influenced by the annual input of nitrogen rich guano on the tundra adjacent to dovekie breeding colonies.

Karnovsky, N. J.; Harding, A.; Welcker, J.; Brown, Z. W.; Kitaysky, A.; Kwasniewski, S.; Walkusz, W.; Gremillet, D.

2011-12-01

401

Development of a targeted metagenomic approach to study a genomic region involved in light harvesting in marine Synechococcus.  

PubMed

Synechococcus, one of the most abundant cyanobacteria in marine ecosystems, displays a broad pigment diversity. However, the in situ distribution of pigment types remains largely unknown. In this study, we combined flow cytometry cell sorting, whole-genome amplification, and fosmid library construction to target a genomic region involved in light-harvesting complex (phycobilisome) biosynthesis and regulation. Synechococcus community composition and relative contamination by heterotrophic bacteria were assessed at each step of the pipeline using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting the petB and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. This approach allowed us to control biases inherent to each method and select reliable WGA products to construct a fosmid library from a natural sample collected off Roscoff (France). Sequencing of 25 fosmids containing the targeted region led to the assembly of whole or partial phycobilisome regions. Most contigs were assigned to clades I and IV consistent with the known dominance of these clades in temperate coastal waters. However, one of the fosmids contained genes distantly related to their orthologs in reference genomes, suggesting that it belonged to a novel phylogenetic clade. Altogether, this study provides novel insights into Synechococcus community structure and pigment type diversity at a representative coastal station of the English Channel. PMID:24862161

Humily, Florian; Farrant, Gregory K; Marie, Dominique; Partensky, Frédéric; Mazard, Sophie; Perennou, Morgan; Labadie, Karine; Aury, Jean-Marc; Wincker, Patrick; Segui, Audrey Nicolas; Scanlan, David J; Garczarek, Laurence

2014-05-01

402

Aggregate breakdown and surface seal development influenced by rain intensity, slope gradient and soil particle size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aggregate breakdown is an important process which controls infiltration rate (IR) and the availability of fine materials necessary for structural sealing under rainfall. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different slope gradients, rain intensities and particle size distributions on aggregate breakdown and IR to describe the formation of surface sealing. To address this issue, 60 experiments were carried out in a 35 cm x 30 cm x 10 cm detachment tray using a rainfall simulator. By sieving a sandy loam soil, two sub-samples with different maximum aggregate sizes of 2 mm (Dmax 2 mm) and 4.75 mm (Dmax 4.75 mm) were prepared. The soils were exposed to two different rain intensities (57 and 80 mm h-1) on several slopes (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20%) each at three replications. The result showed that the most fraction percentages in soils Dmax 2 mm and Dmax 4.75 mm were in the finest size classes of 0.02 and 0.043 mm, respectively for all slope gradients and rain intensities. The soil containing finer aggregates exhibited higher transportability of pre-detached material than the soil containing larger aggregates. Also, IR increased with increasing slope gradient, rain intensity and aggregate size under unsteady state conditions because of less development of surface seal. But under steady state conditions, no significant relationship was found between slope and IR. The finding of this study revealed the importance of rain intensity, slope steepness and soil aggregate size on aggregate breakdown and seal formation, which can control infiltration rate and the consequent runoff and erosion rates.

Arjmand Sajjadi, S.; Mahmoodabadi, M.

2014-12-01

403

Sub-micrometer salt aerosol production intended for marine cloud brightening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is largely concerned with research focused on, but not restricted to, aspects of Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB), one of several geo-engineering ideas for reducing the amount of sunlight arriving at the Earth's surface, thereby compensating for global warming resulting from fossil-fuel burning. Predominant attention is given to the development of techniques for generating sprays of sub-micrometer salt particles that can enter marine stratocumulus clouds and increase their albedo, thus producing a cooling. Generation of sub-micrometer salt particles by spraying salt solutions at supercritical conditions is described, along with a description of the apparatus used. Log-normal particle size distributions having median diameters of 32 to 286 nm, with GSDs (Geometric Standard Deviations) around 2, were generated by two variations on the technique.

Neukermans, Armand; Cooper, Gary; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Jain, Sudhanshu; Latham, John; Ormond, Bob

2014-06-01

404

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