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1

Optical assessment of large marine particles: Development of an imaging and analysis system for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Final report, June 1992--May 1996  

SciTech Connect

The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) has been to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean. The overall objective of this work within OMP was to develop an instrument package to measure the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment at a rate sufficient to integrate the observed particle distributions into the coupled physical and biogeochemical models necessary to understand the shelf and slope as a system. Pursuant to this the authors have developed a video and optical instrument package (LAPS: Large Aggregate Profiling System) and assembled the computer and software methods to routinely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the `marine snow` size particles (dia. > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean. The instrument package collects aggregate abundance and size spectrum data using two video camera/strobe subsystems with a third subsystem collecting CTD, beam attenuation and fluorescence data. Additionally, measurements of particle flux were made with sediment traps deployed on the continental slope in conjunction with the physical oceanography mooring program. The authors envisioned a three stages development of the instrument package: (1) design, assembly, and laboratory testing of all components and the package as a whole, (2) a short period of laboratory and field testing of the instrument package to determine the best operational parameters, and (3) operations within a framework of complementary analytical sampling such as an appropriate process study funded under the OMP. The first two stages were covered by this proposal and completed. The third stage was limited to scoping work with the LAPS and deployment of sediment traps.

Walsh, I.D.; Gardner, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Oceanography

1997-04-01

2

Optical assessment of large marine particles: development of an imaging and analysis sytem for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Annual report, 1992-1993  

SciTech Connect

The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) is to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean (Program Announcement, 1991). A major component of the OMP will be to measure carbon flux on the shelf and across the shelf to the slope and open ocean. We are developing a video and optical instrument package (LAPS: Large Aggregate Profiling System) and the analytical techniques to precisely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the ``marine snow`` size particles (diameters > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean (McCave, 1975; Asper, 1987; Walsh and Gardner, 1992). Our goal is to use aggregate abundance and size spectrum data along with the CTD, beam attenuation and fluorescence data collected with our instrument package to collect data rapidly, repeatedly and accurately such that it is both linkable to carbon flux and usable in biophysical models. Additionally, measurements of particle flux will be made with sediment traps deployed on the continental slope in conjunction with the physical oceanography program. The combination of profiles and sections of aggregate data along with the measured mass flux and chemistry from the sediment traps will allow for a robust estimate of the mass transport and flux of organic carbon via the aggregate pathway. The LAPS will be tested in the field area during a cruise in June/July 1994. Sediment traps will also be deployed on that cruise to make the first comparisons between measured flux and aggregate abundance in the field area. Efforts to streamline the image processing have resulted in a suite of programs to handle data from capture to binned data. 5 refs.

Walsh, I.D.; Gardner, W.D.

1994-05-01

3

Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifouling paint particles (APP) are generated during the maintenance of boats and are shed from abandoned structures and grounded ships. Although they afford a highly visible, colourful reflection of contamination in the vicinity of the source, little systematic study has been undertaken regarding the distribution, composition and effects of APP in the wider marine environment. This paper reviews the state

Andrew Turner

2010-01-01

4

A holographic system for subsea recording and analysis of plankton and other marine particles (HOLOMAR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here details of the design, development, initial testing and field-deployment of the HOLOMAR system for in-situ subsea holography and analysis of marine plankton and nonliving particles. HOLOMAR comprises a submersible holographic camera (\\

John Watson; S. Alexander; V. Chalvidan; G. Craig; A. Diard; G. L. Foresti; S. Gentili; D. C. Hendry; P. R. Hobson; R. S. Lampitt; H. Nareid; J. J. Nebrensky; A. Pescetto; G. G. Pieroni; M. A. Player; K. Saw; S. Serpico; K. Tipping; A. Trucco

2003-01-01

5

Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles.  

PubMed

Antifouling paint particles (APP) are generated during the maintenance of boats and are shed from abandoned structures and grounded ships. Although they afford a highly visible, colourful reflection of contamination in the vicinity of the source, little systematic study has been undertaken regarding the distribution, composition and effects of APP in the wider marine environment. This paper reviews the state of knowledge in respect of APP, with particular emphasis on those generated by recreational boatyards. The likely biogeochemical pathways of the biocidal and non-biocidal metals in current use (mainly Cu and Zn) are addressed in light of recent research and an understanding of the more general behaviour of contaminants in marine systems. Analyses of paint fragment composites from recreational facilities in the UK reveal chemical compositions that are similar to those representing the net signal of the original formulations; significantly, dry weight concentrations of Cu and Zn of up to about 35% and 15%, respectively, are observed and, relative to ambient dusts and sediment, elevated concentrations of other trace metals, like Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Sn, occur. These metals leach more rapidly from APP than a painted surface due to the greater surface area of pigments and additives exposed to the aqueous medium. In suspension, APP are subject to greater and more rapid environmental variation (e.g. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen) than painted hulls, while settled APP represent an important source of persistent and degradable biocides to poorly circulating environments. Through diffusion and abrasion, high concentrations of contaminants are predicted in interstitial waters that may be accumulated directly by benthic invertebrates. Animals that feed non-selectively and that are exposed to or ingest paint-contaminated sediment are able to accelerate the leaching, deposition and burial of biocides and other substances, and represent an alternative vehicle for contaminant entry into the marine foodchain. Clearly, an extensive understanding of biocide behaviour on painted surfaces is not sufficient for predictive or management purposes regarding APP. Greater caution is required by boaters and boatyards during the removal and disposal of solid wastes, and more awareness or stricter enforcement of relevant codes of practice or legislation is recommended. PMID:20060546

Turner, Andrew

2010-02-01

6

Glyoxal and methylglyoxal in Atlantic seawater and marine aerosol particles: method development and first application during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical method for the determination of the alpha dicarbonyls glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY) from seawater and marine aerosol particles is presented. The method is based on derivatization with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine (PFBHA) reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The method showed good precision (RSD < 10%), sensitivity (detection limits in the low ng L-1 range), and accuracy (good agreement between external calibration and standard addition). The method was applied to determine GLY and MGLY in oceanic water sampled during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4 from Capetown to Bremerhaven in spring 2011. GLY and MGLY were determined in the sea surface microlayer (SML) of the ocean and corresponding bulk water (BW) with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). The results show a significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the SML. Furthermore, marine aerosol particles (PM1) were sampled during the cruise and analyzed for GLY (average concentration 0.19 ng m-3) and MGLY (average concentration 0.15 ng m-3). On aerosol particles, both carbonyls show a very good correlation with oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. Concentrations of GLY and MGLY in seawater and on aerosol particles were correlated to environmental parameters such as global radiation, temperature, distance to the coastline and biological activity. There are slight hints for a photochemical production of GLY and MGLY in the SML (significant enrichment in the SML, higher enrichment at higher temperature). However, a clear connection of GLY and MGLY to global radiation as well as to biological activity cannot be concluded from the data. A slight correlation between GLY and MGLY in the SML and in aerosol particles could be a hint for interactions, in particular of GLY, between seawater and the atmosphere.

van Pinxteren, M.; Herrmann, H.

2013-12-01

7

Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two ?-dicarbonyls glyoxal (CHOCHO; GLY) and methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO; MGLY) have attracted increasing attention over the past years because of their potential role in secondary organic aerosol formation. Recently Sinreich et al. (2010) suggested the open ocean as an important (so far unknown) source for GLY in the atmosphere. To date, there are few available field data of these compounds in the marine area. In this study we present measurements of GLY and MGLY in seawater and marine aerosol particles sampled during a transatlantic Polarstern cruise in spring 2011. In seawater we especially investigated the sea surface microlayer (sampled with the glass plate technique) as it is the direct interface between ocean and atmosphere. Analytical measurements were based on derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The results show that GLY and MGLY are present in the sea surface microlayer of the ocean and corresponding bulkwater with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). Significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the sea surface microlayer was found implying photochemical production of the two carbonyls though a clear connection to global radiation was not observed. On aerosol particles, both carbonyls were detected (average concentration 0.2 ng m-3) and are strongly connected to each other, suggesting similar formation mechanisms. Both carbonyls show a very good correlation with particulate oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. A slight correlation of the two carbonyls in the sea surface microlayer and in the aerosol particles was found at co-located sampling areas. In summary, the results of GLY and MGLY in marine aerosol particles and in the oceanic water give first insights towards interaction processes of these alpha dicarbonyls between ocean and atmosphere (van Pinxteren and Herrmann (2013)). References: Sinreich et al., Ship-based detection of glyoxal over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(23), 11359-11371 (2010). van Pinxteren and Herrmann, Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles: Method development and first application during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 11791-11802 (2013).

van Pinxteren, Manuela; Herrmann, Hartmut

2014-05-01

8

Ice nuclei in marine air: biogenic particles or dust?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate-related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth's energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

Burrows, S. M.; Hoose, C.; Pöschl, U.; Lawrence, M. G.

2013-01-01

9

Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic Sea  

E-print Network

using a newly developed miniature pressure-acceleration sensor. The brown meagre showed the broadestSound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic acceleration. In particular, hearing sensitivity to tone bursts of varying frequencies were measured in the red

Ladich, Friedrich

10

Antifouling biocides in discarded marine paint particles.  

PubMed

Antifouling paint fragments collected from marinas and leisure boat maintenance facilities and in the vicinity of abandoned boats have been chemically characterised. High concentrations of Cu (23-380mgg(-1)) and Zn (14-160mgg(-1)) in the samples (n=14) are consistent with the use of these metals in the principal biocidal and non-biocidal pigments in contemporary antifouling formulations. Up to about 2% and 7% of the respective metals were solvent-extractable, suggesting that organo-forms of Cu and Zn (e.g. pyrithiones) were also present. Of the organic biocides, dichlofluanid was present in most samples and at concentrations up to about 20mgg(-1). Chlorothalonil and Irgarol 1051(R) were only detected in one and four cases, respectively, and Sea Nine 211(R) was not detected in any sample. Results are discussed in terms of UK legislation regarding biocide usage and the likely effects and fate of discarded paint particles in coastal environments where boats are repaired or moored. PMID:20381093

Parks, Rachel; Donnier-Marechal, Marion; Frickers, Patricia E; Turner, Andrew; Readman, James W

2010-08-01

11

Charged particles. [effects on Mariner 9 radiometric data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrations compensating for the effects of charged particles in the ionosphere and in the interplanetary medium were applied to the Doppler tracking data acquired during Mariner 9 missions on a demonstration basis. The combined effects of the space plasma and the ionosphere were measured by a comparison of the range and Doppler observables (Differenced Range Versus Integrated Doppler (DRVID). Independent measurements of the ionospheric effects were obtained from polarimeter devices located at the Goldstone, California, tracking complex.

Madrid, G. A.

1974-01-01

12

In Brief: Developing marine protected areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A draft framework for the development of a national system of marine protected areas (MPA) has been released for public comment by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Under the proposed framework, an MPA is any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by U.S. federal, state, local, or other government regulations ``to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.'' About 1500 marine conservation areas initially would qualify as MPAs. The national system is intended to guide cooperative efforts among various parties and thus increase protection of these areas. The framework goals for a national system include: advancing conservation and management of marine resources through ecosystem-based approaches, and enhancing effective coordination and integration among MPAs in the national system and within the broader context of ecosystem-based management.

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-11-01

13

Ice Formation Potential of Field-Collected Marine Biogenic Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine biogenic particles composed mainly of sea salt and organic material aerosolized from a mesocosm in laboratory experiments have recently been found to act as ice nuclei. How these particles relate to those collected from sea spray under ambient conditions in the field is unknown. This study reports on the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of particles collected during the marine aerosol characterization experiment (MACE) on the south shore of Long Island, New York. Ambient aerosol size distributions were measured and particles were collected on hydrophobically coated substrates and subsequently used for ice nucleation experiments using an ice nucleation cell coupled to an optical microscope. This technique allows detection of ice formation for temperatures between 200 and 273 K and for relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) from 100% up to water saturation. Individual ice nucleating particles were identified for subsequent chemical and physical characterization using both X-ray and electron micro-spectroscopic techniques. Concentrations of bacteria, viruses, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the bulk seawater, sea-surface microlayer (SML), and in sea spray were determined using established methods and related to airborne sea spray particles and their ice nucleation potential. Onshore aerosol size distribution measurements taken at 5 m height and 10 m away from the breaking waves, revealed a peak maximum at 100 nm and Ntot = 6.8 x 10^2 cm^-3. Bacterial, viral, and TEP were found to be enriched in the SML. Ambient particles collected during MACE were found to nucleate ice efficiently, e. g. at 215 K, ice nucleation occurred on average at 125% RHice. Results of aerosol size distributions and ice nucleation efficiencies are compared to laboratory bubble bursting experiments in which natural seawater was used. The goal of this study is to understand the connection between sea spray aerosolization and atmospheric ice cloud formation and to provide physically and chemically based descriptions of ice nucleation for implementation in aerosol-cloud interaction models.

Carrion-Matta, A.; Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

2013-12-01

14

Experimental investigations of the development of the marine aerosol population  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a series of experiments designed to study the air mass directly above the ocean in an effort to better understand the development of the atmospheric aerosols which comprise marine haze. To determine the nature of the boundary layer haze, one must first characterize the composition and size distribution of the particles that comprise the haze, identify the source(s) of those particles and specify the source strength and growth rate of the resulting aerosol. Ultimately, of course, development of a model of the complete system is desired so that better forecasts of haze over the ocean can be made. The first set of sea measurements had two objectives: (1) to investigate the effects of environmental parameters on the emission rate of DMS from the ocean into the atmosphere, and (2) to track in the atmospheric marine boundary layer the DMS photochemistry that has been observed in laboratory photolysis studies.

Wattle, B.J.; Rogers, C.W.; Flanigan, M.C.; Pilie, R.J.

1992-10-01

15

Techniques employed for detection of hot particles in the marine environment.  

PubMed

During the decommissioning of the Maine Yankee nuclear plant, several methods were developed and employed to survey for hot particles in the marine environment surrounding the site. The methods used and the sensitivities achieved in the search for environmentally dispersed particles during the various decommissioning activities performed are described in detail. Surveys were performed on dry soil, exposed marine sediment and submerged marine sediment. Survey techniques ranged from the use of the basic NaI detector coupled to a count rate meter to an intrinsic germanium detector deployed in a submarine housing coupled to a multi-channel analyser. The initial surveys consisted of collecting samples of marine sediment, spreading them out over a 1 m2 surface in a thin layer, and scanning the deposited sediment by hand using a 5 cm by 5 cm NaI detector coupled to a standard count rate meter. This technique was later replaced by walkover scans with the 5 cm by 5 cm NaI detector moved in a serpentine pattern over the sediment surface. By coupling the detector to a 'smart meter', an alarm set point could be used to alert the surveyor to the presence of a particle within the instrument's field of view. A similar technique, with the detector mounted in a watertight housing secured to the end of a pole, was also employed to scan underwater locations. The most sensitive method developed for performing underwater surveys was the use of the intrinsic germanium detector placed in a submarine housing. Detailed descriptions of the methods employed and the results obtained are presented. This work demonstrates that there are several approaches to surveying for discrete particles in the marine environment and the relative merits of each are considered. PMID:17768317

Pillsbury, G D

2007-09-01

16

Characterization of iodine species in the marine aerosol: To understand their roles in particle formation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, iodine chemistry in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) is introduced. A series of methodologies for the\\u000a measurements of iodine species in the gas and particle phases of the coastal atmosphere has been developed. Iodine species\\u000a in the gas phase in real air samples has been determined in two field campaigns at the west coast of Ireland, indicating

Hongwei Chen; Rolf Brandt; Rolf Bandur; Thorsten Hoffmann

2006-01-01

17

FINE PARTICLE CHARGING DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the changing of fine particles by unipolar ions in an electric field, and evaluation of a specially designed small pilot-scale (600-1000 acfm) precharging device. Following an extensive review of the lit...

18

Development of Particle Flow Calorimetry  

E-print Network

This talk reviews the development of imaging calorimeters for the purpose of applying Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) to the measurement of hadronic jets at a future lepton collider. After a short introduction, the current status of PFA developments is presented, followed by a review of the major developments in electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry.

Jose Repond

2011-10-10

19

Journal of Marine Research, 46, 119-143, 1988 Cross-phyletic patterns of particle selection  

E-print Network

Journal of Marine Research, 46, 119-143, 1988 Cross-phyletic patterns of particle selection of the bivalves by inertial suction or adhesion to mucus-covered appendages appeared nonselective. 1. Introduction, Washington, 98195, U.S.A. 119 #12;120 Journal of Marine Research [46, 1 with increasing food quality (Taghon

Jumars, Pete

20

Variations in the optical properties of a particle suspension associated with viral infection of marine bacteria  

E-print Network

of marine bacteria Julia Uitz,a,* Dariusz Stramski,a Anne-Claire Baudoux,b,1 Rick A. Reynolds,a Vanessa M) and associated optical variability caused by viral infection of marine heterotrophic bacteria. The PSD covering, viral abundance increased, and submicron particles were produced as bacteria were disrupted and cell

Stramski, Dariusz

21

Drug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology-Based Research  

E-print Network

initiative for novel drug discovery. More than 70 percent of Earth's surface is covered by the ocean, whichDrug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology- Based Research Oceanyx Pharmaceuticals is a novel drug discovery and development company that leverages marine biology-based natural

Jawitz, James W.

22

Thorium isotopes in the western Mediterranean Sea: an insight into the marine particle dynamics  

E-print Network

rights reserved. Keywords: thorium; isotopes; sea water; particles; sedimentation; Mediterranean Sea 1Thorium isotopes in the western Mediterranean Sea: an insight into the marine particle dynamics M physical, chemical and biological processes and sometimes non-steady-state condi- tions [1^4]. Thorium

Coppola, Laurent

23

Can new particle formation occur in the clean marine boundary layer?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of new particle formation probability in the marine boundary layer (MBL) is conducted using a detailed aerosol dynamics and gas-phase chemistry model, thermodynamically correct classical binary (H2O-H2SO4) nucleation theory, and recently developed ternary (H2O-H2SO4-NH3) nucleation theory. Additionally, the effect of boundary-layer meteorology (i.e., adiabatic cooling, small scale fluctuations, and entrainment) in enhancing nucleation is also examined. The results indicate that for typical marine conditions, binary nucleation does not occur for any realistic conditions regardless of adiabatic cooling, turbulent fluctuations, or entrainment. For polar marine conditions, binary nucleation does occur due to lower temperatures, and is enhanced due to turbulent fluctuations. An increase in detectable particle sizes (N3>3nm), is only seen after multiple boundary layer circulations for conditions of high dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations (400 ppt). Under extreme conditions of entrainment of free-troposphere layers containing very low aerosol condensation sinks and extraordinary high sulphuric acid concentrations (>108moleculescm-3), increases in detectable particles up to 10,000 cm-3 are predicted only in polar marine air, but are viewed as unlikely to occur in reality. Comparison of model simulations with observed values of DMS and sulphuric acid in polar marine air masses suggest that binary nucleation may lead to an enhancement of ~1000 cm-3 in N3 particle concentration, but not to enhancements of ~10,000 cm-3. Ternary nucleation is predicted to occur under realistic sulphuric acid (1.2×107moleculescm-3) and ammonia (>5 ppt) concentrations; however, significant growth to detectable sizes (N3) only occurs for DMS concentrations of the order of 400 ppt and very low aerosol condensation sinks, but these conditions are thought to be very infrequent in the MBL and are unlikely to make a significant contribution to the general MBL aerosol concentration. It is plausible that the background MBL aerosol concentration could be maintained by a slow, almost undetectable production rate, and not by noticeable nucleation events where large enhancements in N3 concentrations are observed. The former requires sustained DMS concentrations of the order of 100 ppt which seems unlikely. In summary, the occurrence of new particles in the unperturbed MBL would be difficult to explain by DMS emissions alone. DMS emissions can explain the occurrence of thermodynamically stable sulphate clusters, but under most conditions, to grow these clusters to detectable sizes before they are scavenged by coagulation, an additional condensable species other than DMS-derived sulphuric acid would be required. In the event, however, of significant removal of the preexisting aerosol due to precipitation, the MBL aerosol can be replenished through growth of new particle formed through ternary nucleation under moderately high DMS concentrations.

Pirjola, Liisa; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Brooks, Ian M.; Kulmala, Markku

2000-11-01

24

Development of friendly antifouling coatings from marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the ban of TBT-based products, marine paint companies are urged to find an appropriate substitute to prevent biofouling on ship hulls. Biocides commonly used in antifouling paints to replace TBT have caused many doubts about their environmental effects. An alternative is offered by the development of antifouling coatings in which the active ingredients are compounds naturally occurring in marine

Alexandra Bazes; Fabienne Fay; K. Vallee-Rehel; E. Quemener; J.-P. Braud; N. Bourgougnon

2005-01-01

25

Coherent vortices, Lagrangian particles and the marine ecosystem Claudia Pasquero  

E-print Network

-stratified, rapidly-rotating flows that take place in a thin fluid layer. Here, thin means that the horizontal scale the vortices has much lower energy and vorticity levels, and it is feeded by vortex filamentation processes and plankton distributions, using the idealized model of two-dimensional turbulence. 2 VORTICES IN THE MARINE

Pasquero, Claudia

26

In situ video and diffraction analysis of marine particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design for a new underwater video-system to detect and observe suspended particles is presented. Particles are collected and isolated in a rectangular box where they are highly illuminated by a white light plane. The total field of view is determined. The camera, equipped with a remote controlled zoom, can resolve particles sizes ranging from 25 ?m to several millimetres. Real-time image analyses are therefore performed. Particle counts and size spectra are calculated and displayed. Total light intensity scattered by the illuminated particles is closely related to the back-scattering values determined by an optical back-scatter sensor. A particle size analyser using diffraction analysis is associated to this video-system on a custom profiler. Hydrological parameters are measured by a standard CTD probe associated to a chlorophyll sensor. Results are acquired and graphically presented in real time. This custom profiler presents numerous advantages in oceanographic research. Two examples of its use in different coastal areas are presented. In an estuary, temporal evolution of particle characteristics was described in relation to the tide cycle. While the video-system allows direct visualization and characterization of the largest particles, the particle-size analyser performs precise quantification of the finest ones. It was shown that the two methods were in accordance for quantification of large aggregates, which were observed around slack tide when salinity decreased. Video analyses cannot be performed above 25 mg l -1 dry weight equivalent. The system reliability, resolution and limits were also demonstrated during a cruise in the Gulf of Finland. A typical profile is presented here showing different layers, one characterized by the association of heterotrophic flagellates and detritals, and another dominated by zooplankton, the surface layer being characterized by cyanobacterial colonies. Video associated to diffraction analyses allows the study of flocculation processes in estuaries and a detailed description of thin layers.

Lunven, Michel; Gentien, P.; Kononen, K.; Le Gall, E.; Daniélou, M. M.

2003-08-01

27

Preliminary study on the development of syntactic foams for marine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the comparison of various types of matrix materials and their mechanical properties for development of syntactic foams for marine applications. Generally, syntactic foams are close pore foams fabricated by the mechanical mixing of hollow microsphere particles in a polymeric matrix resin. From the literature review, it was found that there are several polymeric resins that have been used for development of syntactic foams such as epoxy, cyanate ester, polypropylene, polysialate and vinyl ester. In this paper, a comparative discussion is presented on the mechanical properties of hollow glass particles mixing with polymeric resins for development of syntactic foams for the use of these composites in bulk applications such as marine structures.

Salleh, Z.; Islam, M. M.; Ku, H.

2013-08-01

28

76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine Inboard Engines...and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends in marine inboard engines...this notice (investigating the use of biodiesel fuel blends in marine inboard...

2011-12-16

29

Development of novel drugs from marine surface associated microorganisms.  

PubMed

While the oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface, marine derived microbial natural products have been largely unexplored. The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds ("bioactives") to adapt to particular environmental conditions. For example, marine surface associated microorganisms have proven to be a rich source for novel bioactives because of the necessity to evolve allelochemicals capable of protecting the producer from the fierce competition that exists between microorganisms on the surfaces of marine eukaryotes. Chemically driven interactions are also important for the establishment of cross-relationships between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, in which organisms producing antimicrobial compounds ("antimicrobials"), may protect the host surface against over colonisation in return for a nutrient rich environment. As is the case for bioactive discovery in general, progress in the detection and characterization of marine microbial bioactives has been limited by a number of obstacles, such as unsuitable culture conditions, laborious purification processes, and a lack of de-replication. However many of these limitations are now being overcome due to improved microbial cultivation techniques, microbial (meta-) genomic analysis and novel sensitive analytical tools for structural elucidation. Here we discuss how these technical advances, together with a better understanding of microbial and chemical ecology, will inevitably translate into an increase in the discovery and development of novel drugs from marine microbial sources in the future. PMID:20411108

Penesyan, Anahit; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

2010-01-01

30

Development of Novel Drugs from Marine Surface Associated Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

While the oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, marine derived microbial natural products have been largely unexplored. The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds (“bioactives”) to adapt to particular environmental conditions. For example, marine surface associated microorganisms have proven to be a rich source for novel bioactives because of the necessity to evolve allelochemicals capable of protecting the producer from the fierce competition that exists between microorganisms on the surfaces of marine eukaryotes. Chemically driven interactions are also important for the establishment of cross-relationships between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, in which organisms producing antimicrobial compounds (“antimicrobials”), may protect the host surface against over colonisation in return for a nutrient rich environment. As is the case for bioactive discovery in general, progress in the detection and characterization of marine microbial bioactives has been limited by a number of obstacles, such as unsuitable culture conditions, laborious purification processes, and a lack of de-replication. However many of these limitations are now being overcome due to improved microbial cultivation techniques, microbial (meta-) genomic analysis and novel sensitive analytical tools for structural elucidation. Here we discuss how these technical advances, together with a better understanding of microbial and chemical ecology, will inevitably translate into an increase in the discovery and development of novel drugs from marine microbial sources in the future. PMID:20411108

Penesyan, Anahit; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

2010-01-01

31

Composition of California coastal marine aerosol particles measured during CalNex 2010 and E-PEACE 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine aerosol particles play an important role in the earth's radiative balance, yet the sources and composition of the organic fraction remain largely unconstrained. Recent measurements have been made in order to characterize the sources, composition, and concentration of particles in the California coastal marine boundary layer. Ambient and generated marine aerosol particles were measured on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNex 2010 campaign in May and June 2010. Particles were collected on filters and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the functional group composition and total organic mass. Particles from two primary marine aerosol generators showed similar organic compositions, both with larger fractions of hydroxyl functional groups. Similar ambient measurements were made on board the R/V Point Sur during July 2011. Ambient marine aerosol particles were collected on filters and analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy. Samples were collected 100 miles off the coast of Monterey, CA when winds were mainly from the west and had little anthropogenic influence. Marine aerosol particles were also analyzed using a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Particles were sampled under different ambient conditions including a range of seawater chlorophyll concentrations and a range of wind speeds and directions. Changes in the ambient conditions may influence changes in the organic functional group composition of the marine particles. Simultaneously, seawater was collected and atomized onto filters to determine the functional group composition of the total organic matter in the seawater. This organic composition will be compared to the organic composition of the ambient marine particles to determine the changes upon emission and aging in the atmosphere.

Frossard, A. A.; Modini, R.; Russell, L. M.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Kieber, D. J.; Maben, J. R.; Keene, W. C.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.

2011-12-01

32

Aerosolization, Chemical Characterization, Hygroscopicity and Ice Formation of Marine Biogenic Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans cover the majority of the earth's surface, host nearly half the total global primary productivity and are a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. However, effects of biological activity on sea spray generation and composition, and subsequent cloud formation are not well understood. Our goal is to elucidate these effects which will be particularly important over nutrient rich seas, where microorganisms can reach concentrations of 10^9 per mL and along with transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) can become aerosolized. Here we report the results of mesocosm experiments in which bubbles were generated by two methods, either recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits, in natural or artificial seawater containing bacteria and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus. Over time we followed the size distribution of aerosolized particles as well as their hygroscopicity, heterogeneous ice nucleation potential, and individual physical-chemical characteristics. Numbers of cells and the mass of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), TEP (which includes polysaccharide-containing microgels and nanogels >0.4 ?m in diameter) were determined in the bulk water, the surface microlayer, and aerosolized material. Aerosolized particles were also impacted onto substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, elemental analysis using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), and determination of carbon bonding with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Regardless of bubble generation method, the overall concentration of aerosol particles, TEP, POC and DOC increased as concentrations of bacterial and phytoplankton cells increased, stabilized, and subsequently declined. Particles <100 nm generated by means of jets were enhanced with time compared with larger sizes. In contrast, all particle sizes were equally enhanced when frits were used. Aerosolized particles were hygroscopic, a finding with significance for warm cloud formation and potential liquid-to-ice phase transformations. Aqueous and dry aerosolized particles from biologically active mesocosm water were found to efficiently nucleate ice exposed to supersaturated water vapor. The majority of particles, including those nucleating ice, consisted of a sea salt core coated with organic material dominated by the carboxyl functional group, and corresponded to a particle type commonly found in marine air. Our results provide improved estimates of marine aerosol production, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity, as well as an accurate physical and chemical representation of ice nucleation by marine biogenic aerosol particles for use in cloud and climate models.

Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

2013-12-01

33

Accumulation of Cu and Zn in discarded antifouling paint particles by the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-term (5 day) accumulation of Cu and Zn in different tissues of the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea, has been studied in the presence of ˜10 mg l -1 of antifouling paint particles and pre- or simultaneously contaminated algal food ( Ulva lactuca). Accumulation of Cu was observed in the head-foot, digestive gland-gonad complex and gills to extents dependent on how and when food was contaminated and administered. However, retention of Zn was only observed in the gills and only when L. littorea and U. lactuca were simultaneously exposed to paint particles. Relative to the alga, faecal material was highly enriched in Zn, suggesting that the animal is able to rapidly eliminate this metal, most likely through the formation and egestion of insoluble phosphate granules. Thus, L. littorea is a useful biomonitor of marine contamination by antifouling applications in respect of Cu but not Zn.

Gammon, Melanie; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

2009-10-01

34

Developing a new resource for drug discovery: marine actinomycete bacteria  

E-print Network

Developing a new resource for drug discovery: marine actinomycete bacteria William Fenical & Paul R of today's pharmaceutical compendium. Yet interest in natural-product drug discovery has waned, in part. However, drug discovery strategies changed in the 1990s as techniques in combinatorial chemistry, high

Cai, Long

35

Marine Operations in the ArcticA New Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

An icebreaker hull form developed on the basis of a novel concept presents new aspects to marine operations in the arctic. The concept makes use of a fundamentally new icebreaking technique which has proved to be efficient in various kinds of ice formations resulting in a considerable reduction in the propulsion power required. The icebreaking mode of the so called

Ayres Freitas

1983-01-01

36

Marine ecology service reuse through taxonomy-oriented SPL development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, reusing software applications encourages researchers and industrials to collaborate in order to increase software quality and to reduce software development costs. However, effective reuse is not easy and only a limited portion of reusable models actually offers effective evidence regarding their appropriateness, usability and/or effectiveness. Focusing reuse on a particular domain, such as marine ecology, allows us to narrow the scope; and along with a systematic approach such as software product line development, helps us to potentially improving reuse. From our experiences developing a subdomain-oriented software product line (SPL for the marine ecology subdomain), in this paper we describe semantic resources created for assisting this development and thus promoting systematic software reuse. The main contributions of our work are focused on the definition of a standard conceptual model for marine ecology applications together with a set of services and guides which assist the process of product derivation. The services are structured in a service taxonomy (as a specialization of the ISO 19119 std) in which we create a new set of categories and services built over a conceptual model for marine ecology applications. We also define and exemplify a set of guides for composing the services of the taxonomy in order to fulfill different functionalities of particular systems in the subdomain.

Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Pol'la, Matias; Arias, Maximiliano; del Socorro Doldan, Maria; Morsan, Enrique

2014-12-01

37

Offshore Petroleum Resource Development and Marine Mammals: A Review and  

E-print Network

Offshore Petroleum Resource Development and Marine Mammals: A Review and Research Recommendations J with all phases of petroleum exploration and production. The physical, physiological, and behavioral ef to cause acute toxicity. However, the long- term effects of accumulation of petroleum basic data needed

38

Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4–200 mg L?1) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to

Andrew Turner; Heather Pollock; Murray T. Brown

2009-01-01

39

Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca.  

PubMed

The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L(-1)) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. PMID:19375205

Turner, Andrew; Pollock, Heather; Brown, Murray T

2009-01-01

40

Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development  

PubMed Central

Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 through 25, and lung function and airway architecture were evaluated 81 days of age. In a separate group of rats, cell proliferation was examined after a single particle exposure at 7 days of age. Early life exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particles altered distal airway architecture and resulted in subtle changes in lung mechanics. Early life exposure to 212 nm high OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture but did alter lung mechanics in a manner suggestive of central airway changes. In contrast, early life exposure to 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture or mechanics. A single 6-h exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particle decreased airway cell proliferation, whereas 212 nm high OC/EC particles increased it and 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not. The early life exposure to ultrafine, high OC/EC particles results in persistent alterations in distal airway architecture that is characterized by an initial decrease in airway cell proliferation. PMID:20634362

Lee, DongYoub; Wallis, Chris; Schelegle, Edward S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Plopper, Charles G.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Kumfer, Ben; Kennedy, Ian M.; Chan, Jackie K. W.

2010-01-01

41

Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs): between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH) of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C) and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) increased with plume age: from < 0.001 to 0.2, and from 2.42 to 4.96 ?g m-3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

Wonaschütz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2013-10-01

42

Supporting Marine Protected Area Development through Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2004 NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) has partnered with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to discover, explore and characterize unknown and poorly-known ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic Seaboard. These joint-efforts have led to the discovery of many sensitive deep-sea coral habitats in both the Gulf and the Atlantic. Data and information gathered during these projects will assist in protecting important ecosystems and historical sites in advance of potential future off-shore energy development. OER, BOEM and USGS have separate, yet aligned project goals enabling successful projects, which have societal, economic and environmental benefits for the nation.

McDonough, J.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; McDonald, E.

2012-12-01

43

Hygroscopic properties of organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the research vessel R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) at a relative humidity (RH) of 92% were low, but increased at higher plume ages: from 1.05 to 1.09 for 30 nm and from 1.05 to 1.1 for 150 nm dry size (contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6). Simultaneously, ratios of oxygen to carbon (O:C) increased from < 0.001 to 0.2, water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) concentrations increased from 2.42 to 4.96 ?g m-3, and organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07-0.88%. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions. An average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

Wonaschütz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2013-05-01

44

Developing Operational Oceanography for Marine Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanography for assessments necessarily depends on the purposes of the assessments and on the ocean characteristics or variables required for the various purposes. Objectives and variables all have their own inherent time- and space-scales. For variables, these may be determined by sources, transport and/or dynamics, and evolution. Socio-economic interests determine the scales inherent in objectives; these scales are liable to range from a coastal locality to global, and from hours or days to decades. Measurements are limited by available technology and funding, and cannot be expected to resolve the smaller inherent scales as well as giving the coverage sought. Hence an emphasis is placed on (i) making the most of opportunities for concurrent measurements of variables with compatible intrinsic scales, (ii) data management to exploit measurements fully, (iii) development, testing and use of models with data assimilation, to interpolate measurements, to optimise measurements' effectiveness (measurement array design) and perhaps to infer earlier conditions when measurements were scarcer, (iv) models as a means of synthesising varied information to provide assessment "products", (v) feedback from users of these products to raise the quality of (i-iv). Whilst objectives determine the variables of interest, the inherent scales of variables are emphasised as the appropriate control on the density of measurements. This may foster efficiency in operational measurements and their application through models, after further research.

Huthnance, John M.

2013-04-01

45

Fucoidan as a marine anticancer agent in preclinical development.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds, crude extracts of which are commercially available as nutritional supplements. Recent studies have demonstrated antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties of fucoidan in vitro. Accordingly, the anticancer effects of fucoidan have been shown to vary depending on its structure, while it can target multiple receptors or signaling molecules in various cell types, including tumor cells and immune cells. Low toxicity and the in vitro effects of fucoidan mentioned above make it a suitable agent for cancer prevention or treatment. However, preclinical development of natural marine products requires in vivo examination of purified compounds in animal tumor models. This review discusses the effects of systemic and local administration of fucoidan on tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immune reaction and whether in vivo and in vitro results are likely applicable to the development of fucoidan as a marine anticancer drug. PMID:24477286

Kwak, Jong-Young

2014-02-01

46

Development of Marine Toxicity Data for Ordnance Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toxicity database for ordnance compounds was generated using eight compounds of concern and marine toxicity tests with five\\u000a species from different phyla. Toxicity tests and endpoints included fertilization success and embryological development with\\u000a the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata; zoospore germination, germling length, and cell number with the green macroalga Ulva fasciata; survival and reproductive success of the polychaete Dinophilus

M. Nipper; R. S. Carr; J. M. Biedenbach; R. L. Hooten; K. Miller; S. Saepoff

2001-01-01

47

Development and Application of Analytical Methods for Marine Toxins.  

E-print Network

??Shellfish accumulate marine toxins from their microalgal diet. The marine toxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) also accumulates in seafood, but via unknown mechanisms. Toxin determinations have traditionally… (more)

McNabb, Paul Simon

2014-01-01

48

High-temperature LDV seed particle development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such particles would also be valuable to manufacturers of ceramic or abrasive products, and this technique may find its greatest commercial potential in those areas.

Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

1989-01-01

49

Journal of Marine Research, 50, 643-668, 1992 Encounter rate by turbulent shear of particles similar in  

E-print Network

available, methyl cellulose synthetic gum used for fluid thickening . For runs made in Methocel, effectiveJournal of Marine Research, 50, 643-668, 1992 Encounter rate by turbulent shear of particles To clarify the rate at which particles similar in size to the smallest eddies in a turbulent fluid encounter

Jumars, Pete

50

Asian dust particles converted into aqueous droplets under remote marine atmospheric conditions  

PubMed Central

The chemical history of dust particles in the atmosphere is crucial for assessing their impact on both the Earth’s climate and ecosystem. So far, a number of studies have shown that, in the vicinity of strong anthropogenic emission sources, Ca-rich dust particles can be converted into aqueous droplets mainly by the reaction with gaseous HNO3 to form Ca(NO3)2. Here we show that other similar processes have the potential to be activated under typical remote marine atmospheric conditions. Based on field measurements at several sites in East Asia and thermodynamic predictions, we examined the possibility for the formation of two highly soluble calcium salts, Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2, which can deliquesce at low relative humidity. According to the results, the conversion of insoluble CaCO3 to Ca(NO3)2 tends to be dominated over urban and industrialized areas of the Asian continent, where the concentrations of HNO3 exceed those of HCl ([HNO3/HCl] >  ? 1). In this regime, CaCl2 is hardly detected from dust particles. However, the generation of CaCl2 becomes detectable around the Japan Islands, where the concentrations of HCl are much higher than those of HNO3 ([HNO3/HCl] <  ? 0.3). We suggest that elevated concentrations of HCl in the remote marine boundary layer are sufficient to modify Ca-rich particles in dust storms and can play a more important role in forming a deliquescent layer on the particle surfaces as they are transported toward remote ocean regions. PMID:20921372

Tobo, Yutaka; Zhang, Daizhou; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

2010-01-01

51

The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments world wide. Organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events on potential cloud condensation nuclei were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and enhanced biological activity in spring 2002. Additionally, a pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity in October 2002. The overall results of the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer and the pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine coast and open ocean biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation driven by iodine radicals, hydroxyl radicals, acid catalysis, and ozone during efficient solar radiation. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to cloud condensation nuclei and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the marine/coastal particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to marine/coastal particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

2006-10-01

52

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. (Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States))

1992-04-01

53

Particle sizes and composition of Mars atmospheric dust based upon Viking and Mariner 9 observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars atmospheric dust can play an important role in the thermal structure of the Mars atmosphere during periods of high dust loading. However, the radiative properties of Mars atmospheric dust remain uncertain due to uncertain definitions of the dust composition and size distribution. The analysis by Toon et al., of Mariner 9 IRIS spectra during the 1971-1972 global dust storm indicated a reasonable match between the modeled 9-micron absorption of montmorillinite and the observed 9-micron absorption. Toon et al. also determined that an effective (cross-section weighted) mean radius of 2.5 microns (R(sub mode) = 0.4 microns) provided a consistent fit of montmorillinite to the IRIS dust spectra at 9 microns. Pollack et al. analyzed Viking lander observations of atmospheric extinction and scattering at visible-near IR wavelengths (0.5-1.0 microns), and obtained consistency with the Toon et al. dust size distribution when the effects of nonspherical particle shapes were included. An additional, minor (1 percent) component of visible-ultraviolet absorbing material was required to model the derived visible (0.86) and ultraviolet (0.4-0.6) single-scattering albedos of the dust, since montmorillinite does not absorb sufficiently in this wavelength region. A combined analysis of the Viking IRTM and Mariner 9 observations was conducted to reassess the model of Mars atmospheric ultraviolet-to-infrared measurements of dust absorption and scattering. The optical constants for palagonite are incorporated in a doubling-adding radiative transfer model of the Mars atmosphere to simulate Mariner 9 IRIS spectra as well as the Viking IRTM IR band observations. Visible and ultraviolet single-scattering albedos based on the Hansen and Travis Mie scattering code were also derived. A tentative conclusion is that smaller dust particles (R(sub mode) = 0.15 microns, cross-section weighted mean R = 1.2 microns) composed of palagonite provide a much improved fit to the Mariner 9 IRIS spectra; agreement with the observed ratio of visible-to-infrared extinction opacities; and ultraviolet and visible single-scattering albedos comparable to their observed values.

Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.

1993-01-01

54

[Elementary exploration of the origin and development of marine Chinese materia medica].  

PubMed

According to archaeological discoveries, humans began to make use of marine natural resources early in the Palaeolithic era. In the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, they began to use marine life as medicines and also had simple cognitions on their efficacy and processing. In the Qin and Han dynasties, people further deepened the understanding of the marine Chinese materia medica and created prescriptions making use of marine drugs. In the Tang and Song period, the number of marine Chinese materia medica species and corresponding prescriptions apparently increased. The cognitions of the property, flavor, efficacy as well as the compatible principle of marine Chinese materia medica was further deepened and the scope of their treatment also significantly expanded. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the cognition of the marine Chinese materia medica was mainly the conclusions of the previous experience. After the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with the development of science and technologies, the ability of exploiting and utilizing the marine Chinese materia medica by people dramatically increased, and the species of marine Chinese materia medica reached more than one thousand. However, the development of marine Chinese materia medica is confronted with new problems; although the number of species of marine Chinese materia medica increased, the understanding of their property and flavor is obviously lagging behind, which seriously affects the clinical application of marine Chinese materia medica. PMID:19930925

Guan, Hua-Shi; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wu, Qiang-Ming; Wang, Chang-Yun; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Deng-Zhao

2009-05-01

55

Anticancer drugs discovery and development from marine organism.  

PubMed

The chemical and biological diversity of the different marine evolutionary group is endless and therefore, this is an amazing resource for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. Comprising 34 of the 36 Phyla of life, marine ecosystems are indeed our last genetic diversity and biotechnological boundary; terrestrial systems possess only 17 Phyla. Sponges, coelenterates and microorganisms are the foremost resources of therapeutic compounds. Algae, echinoderms, tunicates, mollusks, bryozoans are also the sources of anticancer drugs from marine resources. We highlight the past and current status of marine anticancer pharmacology using different marine groups. PMID:19903164

Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Lin, Chan-Shing

2009-01-01

56

Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel.  

PubMed

Emissions from harbor-craft significantly affect air quality in populated regions near ports and inland waterways. This research measured regulated and unregulated emissions from an in-use EPA Tier 2 marine propulsion engine on a ferry operating in a bay following standard methods. A special effort was made to monitor continuously both the total Particulate Mass (PM) mass emissions and the real-time Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The engine was operated following the loads in ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle for comparison with the certification standards and across biodiesel blends. Real-time measurements were also made during a typical cruise in the bay. Results showed the in-use nitrogen oxide (NOx) and PM(2.5) emission factors were within the not to exceed standard for Tier 2 marine engines. Comparing across fuels we observed the following: a) no statistically significant change in NO(x) emissions with biodiesel blends (B20, B50); b) ? 16% and ? 25% reduction of PM(2.5) mass emissions with B20 and B50 respectively; c) a larger organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratio and organic mass (OM) to OC ratio with B50 compared to B20 and B0; d) a significant number of ultrafine nuclei and a smaller mass mean diameter with increasing blend-levels of biodiesel. The real-time monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions during a typical cruise in the San Francisco Bay (in-use cycle) revealed important effects of ocean/bay currents on emissions: NO(x) and CO(2) increased 3-fold; PM(2.5) mass increased 6-fold; and ultrafine particles disappeared due to the effect of bay currents. This finding has implications on the use of certification values instead of actual in-use emission values when developing inventories. Emission factors for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported as supplemental data. PMID:21344849

Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

2011-03-15

57

Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the Arctic?  

PubMed

Plastic litter accounts for 50-80% of waste items stranded on beaches, floating on the ocean surface and lodged in the seabed. Organic pollutants can be absorbed onto plastic particles from sea water, attached to their surfaces or included in the plastic matrix as additives. Such chemicals may be transported to remote regions by buoyant plastics and ocean currents. We have estimated mass fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Arctic via the main ocean currents and compared them to those in the dissolved state and in air. Substance fluxes with atmospheric or sea water currents account for several tons per year, whereas those mediated by plastics are four to six orders of magnitude smaller. However, the significance of various pollutant transport routes does not depend only on absolute mass fluxes but also on bioaccumulation in marine food chains. PMID:20579675

Zarfl, Christiane; Matthies, Michael

2010-10-01

58

Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ≤ 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific ocean during the VOCALS-REx experiment between 16~October and 15 November 2008 using the US DOE G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and how they interacted with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42-, followed by Na+, Cl-, Org, NH4+, and NO3-, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3-1 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection of ~0.05 and ~0.15 ?g m-3 for anions and cations, respectively. The aerosols were strongly acidic as the NH4+ to SO42- equivalence ratio was typically < 0.3; this inferred acidity is corroborated by the conductivity of aqueous samples collected by the PILS. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, showed Cl- deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, and were externally mixed with SO42- particles as the AMS detected no NO3- whilst uptake of HNO3 occurred only on SSA particles. The SSA loading as a function of wind speed agreed with that calculated from published relationships, and contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number. Vertical distribution of MBL SSA particles (Dp ≤ ~1.5 ?m) was uniform, suggesting a very limited dilution from entrainment of free tropospheric (FT) air. It was inferred that because all of the aerosol species (except SSA) exhibited a strong land-to-sea gradient, they were of continental origin. Comparison of relative changes in median values using LOWESS fits as proxies suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, and (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) FT contributions to MBL gas and aerosols were negligible. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra obtained with the AMS showed an HOA on 28 October 2008 but not on 6 November 2008 that we attribute to a more extensive cloud processing on the later date. A highly oxidized OOA factor resembling fulvic acid was found associated with anthropogenic and biogenic sources as well as long range transported biomass burn plumes in the FT air. A sulfur-containing OOA factor identified as MSA was strongly correlated with SO42-, hence anthropogenic. The very low levels of CH3SO3- observed suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO42- aerosols production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

2013-10-01

59

Trends in the development of environmentally friendly fouling-resistant marine coatings.  

PubMed

'Marine biofouling', the undesired growth of marine organisms such as microorganisms, barnacles and seaweeds on submerged surfaces, is a global problem for maritime industries, with both economic and environmental penalties. The primary strategy for combating marine fouling is to use biocide-containing paints, but environmental concerns and legislation are driving science and technology towards non-biocidal solutions based solely on physico-chemical and materials properties of coatings. Advances in nanotechnology and polymer science, and the development of novel surface designs 'bioinspired' by nature, are expected to have a significant impact on the development of a new generation of environmentally friendly marine coatings. PMID:21427715

Callow, James A; Callow, Maureen E

2011-01-01

60

Induction of reverse development in two marine Hydrozoans.  

PubMed

Cnidarians are unique organisms in the animal kingdom because of their unequalled potential to undergo reverse development (RD). The life cycle of some species can temporarily shift ordinary, downstream development from zygote to adult into the opposite ontogenetic direction by back-transformation of some life stages. The potential for RD in cnidarians offers the possibility to investigate how integrative signalling networks operate to control directionality of ontogeny (reverse vs. normal development). Striking examples are found in some hydrozoans, where RD of medusa bud or liberated medusa stages leads to rejuvenation of the post-larval polyp stage. Artificial stress may determine ontogeny reversal. We describe here the results of experimental assays on artificial induction of RD by different chemical and physical inducers on two marine hydrozoans, Turritopsis dohrnii and Hydractinia carnea, showing a different potential for RD. A cascade of morphogenetic events occurs during RD by molecular mechanisms and cellular patterns recalling larval metamorphosis. For the first time, we show here that exposure to cesium chloride (CsCl), an inducer of larval metamorphosis, may also induce RD, highlighting similarities and differences between these two master ontogenetic processes in cnidarians. PMID:17183464

Schmich, Jurgen; Kraus, Yulia; De Vito, Doris; Graziussi, Daria; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

2007-01-01

61

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing an international collaboration in marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine data is collected by thousands of organisations around the world using a variety of different instruments and platforms. The high cost of its acquisition and the fact that the data itself is often unique and irreplaceable makes its re-use a priority for marine data managers. A significant barrier to the re-use of marine data is often the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc. which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of this data at a regional, national and international scale. This lack of a common approach to how the data is managed is also hindering the development of interoperability with other disciplines at a time when there is a need to adopt a more ecosystem based approach to marine research. Initiatives in a number of regions including Europe, USA and Australia are making significant progress in addressing these issues through the development of marine data management infrastructures. However the need for a more holistic approach to marine research necessitates a move towards a common marine data management infrastructure through the development of interoperability between these regional initiatives. To bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the EU, the National Science Foundation in the USA and the Australian government have recently funded the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project. ODIP is a collaborative project between 14 organisations in Europe, USA and Australia engaged in the acquisition and management of marine data. ODIP aims to develop interoperability between the regional marine data management infrastructures and to demonstrate this co-ordination through the development of several joint prototypes that illustrate effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and national boundaries. This will ultimately lead to the development of a common infrastructure for marine data management that can be extended to other organisations and global regions.

Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Miller, Stephen; Proctor, Roger

2013-04-01

62

Evaluation of Marine Bacterial Lysogens for Development of a Marine Prophage Induction Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The demonstrated relationship between carcinogenicity of a chemical compound in mammals and its tendency to cause prophage\\u000a induction in bacteria provides a method for biologically based carcinogen screening. Because of the need for this type of\\u000a screening and the abundance of lysogens in the marine environment, 14 isolates were evaluated for the degree of prophage induction\\u000a in exponentially growing

L. McDaniel; D. W. Griffin; J. Crespo-Gomez; M. R. McLaughlin; J. H. Paul

2001-01-01

63

Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test and validate, on the basis of observations, innovative integrative modelling tools in order to further strengthen our understanding of ecosystem and biodiversity changes in space and time. The resultant models are being developed for implementation as operational tools for managers, decision takers and policy makers. The project is contributing (i) to enable the adaptive development of management (ecosystem-based management approach) strategies and management measures as a result of their implementation taking into account the role of industry and relevant stakeholders, (ii) to provide economic assessment of the consequences of management practices, (iii) to identify the barriers (socio-economic and legislative) that prevent the GES to be achieved (e.g. eutrophication), (iv) to provide a set of policy options for the relevant authorities. In addition the project should propose and demonstrate the utility of innovative monitoring systems capable of providing data on a range of parameters, efficiently and effectively, that may be used as indicators of good environmental status. This contribution presents a summary of most of these aspects.

Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

2014-05-01

64

Pharmacological developments obtained from marine natural products and current pipeline perspective.  

PubMed

Marine organisms represent a new extensive source for bioactive molecules. They have the potential to provide new therapeutic alternatives to treat human diseases. In this paper, we describe and discuss a variety of isolated and semisynthetic molecules obtained from marine sources. These compounds are in phase II, phase III and at the commercialization stage of new drug development. A description of the mechanism of action, dosage used and side effects are also reported. The positive results obtained from these studies have triggered the development of new studies to evaluate the prospects for utilization of marine organisms. PMID:21425696

Galeano, Elkin; Rojas, Jhon J; Martínez, Alejandro

2011-02-01

65

Why Brazil Did Not Develop a Merchant Marine; Brazilian Shipping and the World in the 19th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weak performance of the Brazilian merchant marine is surprising, as a huge external sector is normally expected to go hand in hand with the development of a national merchant marine. To elucidate this question, the article proposes an analysis and discussion of the development of the Brazilian merchant marine in the nineteenth century. The early focus on the extremely

Birgitte Holten

2003-01-01

66

Developing a new resource for drug discovery: marine actinomycete bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural products are both a fundamental source of new chemical diversity and an integral component of today's pharmaceutical compendium. Yet interest in natural-product drug discovery has waned, in part owing to diminishing returns from traditional resources such as soil bacteria. The oceans cover 70% of the Earth's surface and harbor most of the planet's biodiversity. Although marine plants and invertebrates

William Fenical; Paul R Jensen

2006-01-01

67

The development of artificial media for marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culturing of marine algae has proceeded slowly since MIQV~L (1890 93) succeeded in growing a few diatoms in the laboratory. Until recently most media were composed of sea water or sea water-like artificial solutions which are prone to precipitate because of the presence of several salts in concentration near saturation. In order to avoid precipitates such media must be

L. Provasoli; J. J. A. McLaughlin; M. R. Droop

1957-01-01

68

DEVELOPMENT OF A TIE METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING ANIONIC METALS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several methods have been developed for characterizing and identifying toxicants in whole marine sediments including organic pollutants, cationic metals and ammonia. To date, a method for characterizing sediment toxicity caused by metals which form anionic complexes such as ar...

69

75 FR 45527 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and Research, Development...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities and Research, Development...The Navy's activities are considered military readiness activities pursuant to the...harassment'' as it applies to a ``military readiness activity'' to read as...

2010-08-03

70

A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

2012-09-01

71

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.  

PubMed

The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. PMID:24279956

Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

2014-01-15

72

Fluid particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motion of fluid particles as they are pushed along erratic trajectories\\u000aby fluctuating pressure gradients is fundamental to transport and mixing in\\u000aturbulence. It is essential in cloud formation and atmospheric transport,\\u000aprocesses in stirred chemical reactors and combustion systems, and in the\\u000aindustrial production of nanoparticles. The perspective of particle\\u000atrajectories has been used successfully to describe mixing

Greg A. Voth; Alice M. Crawford; Jim Alexander; Eberhard Bodenschatz; A. La Porta

2001-01-01

73

Particle acceleration in time-developing magnetic reconnection process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle trajectories and acceleration are numerically studied in time-varying electric and magnetic fields that are obtained by a previous MHD simulation of an externally driven reconnection. Electron and proton orbits are traced under the influence of the developing reconnection fields for various initial particle positions and velocities. A method of continuation of local analytic solution in a particle-pushing algorithm is

Tetsuya Sato; Hiroshi Matsumoto; Keisuke Nagai

1982-01-01

74

Assessing the Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development on Marine and Estuarine Resources  

SciTech Connect

The world’s oceans and estuaries offer an enormous potential to meet the nation’s growing demand for energy. The use of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to harness the power of wave and tidal energy could contribute significantly toward meeting federal- and state-mandated renewable energy goals while supplying a substantial amount of clean energy to coastal communities. Locations along the eastern and western coasts of the United States between 40° and 70° north latitude are ideal for MHK deployment, and recent estimates of energy potential for the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California suggest that up to 25 gigawatts could be generated from wave and tidal devices in these areas. Because energy derived from wave and tidal devices is highly predictable, their inclusion in our energy portfolio could help balance available sources of energy production, including hydroelectric, coal, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal, and others.

Ward, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Copping, Andrea E.

2010-07-30

75

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q  

E-print Network

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q Nathan D, Lighthouse Field Station, Cromarty, Ross-shire IV11 8YL, UK a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Ship noise energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-develop- ment baseline, and to develop ship noise

Aberdeen, University of

76

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

1992-04-01

77

Development of a particle nanoimprinting technique by core-shell particles.  

PubMed

We developed a particle nanoimprinting technique assisted by the array of core-shell particles. Core-shell particles composed of a solid core of polystyrene and a soft shell were prepared by soap-free emulsion polymerization and subsequently seeded polymerization. By the Langmuir-Blodgett method, particles were arranged into a closely packed 2D array over the water surface and transferred onto a polystyrene (PS) substrate at a regular interval. The PS substrate was heated up above its glass transition temperature (Tg) by either UV irradiation using a high-pressure Hg lamp or heat treatment in a temperature-controlled incubator. It could be observed that a nanopatterned indented surface was formed through the denting of particles into the PS substrate (particle nanoindenting). By the detachment of particles from the substrate by ultrasonication in ethanol, nanoholes were produced over the surface (particle nanoimprinting). The depth and the wall of nanoholes and their interval were tunable by the shell thickness and the 2D packing ratio of core-shell particle monolayers. The contact angle decreased from 70 degrees of the pristine particle monolayer to 13 degrees by the particle nanoindenting, and again increased to 50 degrees by detaching the particles from the substrate to create the nanoholes. The use of nanoholes as zepto-litter volume vessels enabled us to produce and arrange nanocrystals, such as NaCl and CaCO3 (zepto-reactor). PMID:24446687

Watanabe, H; Nishimura, M; Fukui, Y; Fujimoto, K

2014-02-18

78

Isolation and characterization of oxygen-evolving thylakoid membranes and photosystem II particles from a marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis.  

PubMed

Thylakoid membranes retaining high oxygen-evolving activity (about 250 micromol O(2)/mg Chl/h) were prepared from a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, after disruption of the cells by freeze-thawing. We also succeeded in purification of Photosystem II (PSII) particles by differential centrifugation of the thylakoid membranes after treatment with 1% Triton X-100. The diatom PSII particles showed an oxygen-evolving activity of 850 and 1045 micromol O(2)/mg Chl/h in the absence and presence of CaCl(2), respectively. The PSII particles contained fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding proteins in addition to main intrinsic proteins of CP47, CP43, D2, D1, cytochrome b559, and the antenna size was estimated to be 229 Chl a per 2 molecules of pheophytin. Five extrinsic proteins were stoichiometrically released from the diatom PSII particles by alkaline Tris-treatment. Among these five extrinsic proteins, four proteins were red algal-type extrinsic proteins, namely, PsbO, PsbQ', PsbV and PsbU, whereas the other one was a novel, hypothetical protein. This is the first report on isolation and characterization of diatom PSII particles that are highly active in oxygen evolution and retain the full set of extrinsic proteins including an unknown protein. PMID:17996191

Nagao, Ryo; Ishii, Akiko; Tada, Osamu; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Okumura, Akinori; Iwai, Masako; Takahashi, Takeshi; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Enami, Isao

2007-12-01

79

Effect of temperature on cell growth and production of transparent exopolymer particles by the diatom Coscinodiscus granii isolated from marine mucilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the autumn of 2007, marine mucilage caused by the diatom Coscinodiscus granii occurred in the central area of Ariake Sound, Japan, and resulted in damage to fishery. To elucidate the mechanism underlying\\u000a the outbreak of marine mucilage, we examined the effect of temperature on cell growth and production of transparent exopolymer\\u000a particles (TEPs) in a culture of this species.

Tsuyoshi Fukao; Katsunori Kimoto; Yuichi Kotani

80

Measurement of particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use silicon strip detectors (originally developed for the CLEO III high\\u000aenergy particle physics experiment) to measure fluid particle trajectories in\\u000aturbulence with temporal resolution of up to 70,000 frames per second. This\\u000ahigh frame rate allows the Kolmogorov time scale of a turbulent water flow to\\u000abe fully resolved for 140 <= R_lambda <= 970. Particle trajectories exhibiting

GREG A. VOTH; A. LA PORTA; ALICE M. CRAWFORD; JIM ALEXANDER; EBERHARD BODENSCHATZ

2002-01-01

81

Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Targeted and Single Particle Subcellular Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube.

Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

2004-03-12

82

Developing and testing an assessment framework to guide the sustainability of the marine wildlife tourism industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in the marine wildlife tourism industry has been accompanied by concerns regarding its sustainability. This paper develops and tests a generic framework for assessing the sustainability of such ventures. The framework aims to guide the collection and collation of existing information and then use this information to identify current sustainability issues and information gaps. Development relied on a literature

Kate Rodger; Amanda Smith; David Newsome; Susan A. Moore

2011-01-01

83

Current Development Status of a Particle Size Analyzer for Coated Particle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Work was performed to develop a prototype Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) for application to coated particle fuel characterization. This system was based on a light obscuration method and targeted towards high throughput analysis. Although never matured to the point of replacing existing lower throughput optical microscopy shadowgraph methods, the system was successfully applied to automating the counting of large particle samples for increased accuracy in calculating mean particle properties based on measurements of multiparticle samples. The measurement of particle size with the PSA was compared to current shadowgraph techniques and found to result in considerably greater throughput at the cost of larger measurement uncertainty. The current algorithm used by the PSA is more sensitive to particle shape and this is a likely cause of the greater uncertainty when attempting to measure average particle diameter. The use of the PSA to measure particle shape will require further development. Particle transport through the PSA and stability of the light source/detector are key elements in the successful application of this technique. A number of system pitfalls were studied and addressed.

Nelson, Andrew T [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL

2007-08-01

84

Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean  

E-print Network

ocean is essential to understand the ocean ecology and biogeochemistry, including particle dynamics of phytoplankton, heterotrophic organ- isms, viruses, and organic detritus of various sizes. Mineral particles aggregates composed of detritus, fecal pellets, and/or attached microorganisms are directly involved

Stramski, Dariusz

85

Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the relative proportion between small-sized and larger particles in the surface ocean is essential to understand the ocean ecology and biogeochemistry, including particle dynamics and carbon cycling. We show that this information may be assessed qualitatively from satellite observations of ocean color. Such capability is based on the estimation of spectral dependence, ?, of particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp,

Hubert Loisel; Jean-Marc Nicolas; Antoine Sciandra; Dariusz Stramski; Antoine Poteau

2006-01-01

86

Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the relative proportion between small-sized and larger particles in the surface ocean is essential to understand the ocean ecology and biogeochemistry, including particle dynamics and carbon cycling. We show that this information may be assessed qualitatively from satellite observations of ocean color. Such capability is based on the estimation of spectral dependence, gamma, of particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp,

Hubert Loisel; Jean-Marc Nicolas; Antoine Sciandra; Dariusz Stramski; Antoine Poteau

2006-01-01

87

Developing human capital for successful implementation of international marine scientific research projects.  

PubMed

The oceans play a crucial role in the global environment and the sustainability of human populations, because of their involvement in climate regulation and provision of living and non-living resources to humans. Maintenance of healthy oceans in an era of increasing human pressure requires a high-level understanding of the processes occurring in the marine environment and the impacts of anthropogenic activities. Effective protection and sustainable resource management must be based, in part, on knowledge derived from successful research. Current marine research activities are being limited by a need for high-quality researchers capable of addressing critical issues in broad multidisciplinary research activities. This is particularly true for developing countries which will require the building of capacity for marine scientific research. This paper reviews the current activities aimed at increasing marine research capacity in developing and emerging countries and analyses the challenges faced, including: appropriate alignment of the research goals and societal and policy-relevant needs; training in multidisciplinary research; increasing capacity for overall synthesis of scientific data; building the capacity of technical staff; keeping highly qualified personnel in marine scientific research roles; cross-cultural issues in training; minimising duplication in training activities; improving linkages among human capital, project resources and infrastructure. Potential solutions to these challenges are provided, along with some priorities for action aimed at improving the overall research effort. PMID:24055460

Morrison, R J; Zhang, J; Urban, E R; Hall, J; Ittekkot, V; Avril, B; Hu, L; Hong, G H; Kidwai, S; Lange, C B; Lobanov, V; Machiwa, J; San Diego-McGlone, M L; Oguz, T; Plumley, F G; Yeemin, T; Zhu, W; Zuo, F

2013-12-15

88

Particle and Wave: Developing the Quantum Wave Accompanying a Classical Particle  

E-print Network

The relationship between classical and quantum mechanics is explored in an intuitive manner by the exercise of constructing a wave in association with a classical particle. Using special relativity, the time coordinate in the frame of reference of a moving particle is expressed in terms of the coordinates in the laboratory frame of reference in order to provide an initial spatiotemporal function to work from in initiating the development of a quantum wave. When temporal periodicity is ascribed to the particle, a provisional spatiotemporal function for a particle travelling at constant velocity manifests itself as an running wave characterized by parameters associated with the moving particle. A wave description for bidirectional motion is generated based on an average time coordinate for a combination of oppositely directed elementary running waves, and the resulting spatiotemporal function exhibits wave behavior characteristic of a standing wave. Ascribing directional orientation to the intrinsic periodicity of the particle introduces directional sub-states; variations in the relative number of sub-states as a function of angle in combined states lead to spatially varying magnitudes for the associated waves. Further analysis leads to full mathematical expression for all waves representing free particle motion. A generalization for particles subject to force fields enables us to develop a governing differential equation identical in form to the Schroedinger equation.

C. L. Herzenberg

2008-12-04

89

Toxicity and accumulation of silver nanoparticles during development of the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii.  

PubMed

Pollutants affecting species at the population level generate ecological instability in natural systems. The success of early life stages, such as those of aquatic invertebrates, is highly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Silver released into the environment from emerging nanotechnology represents such a threat. Sediments are sinks for numerous pollutants, which aggregate and/or associate with depositing suspended particles. Deposit feeder such as the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which has a large associated literature on its development, is an excellent model organism for exposure studies in coastal environments. We exposed eggs, larvae, juveniles and adults of P. dumerilii to various concentrations of citrate (cit-Ag NPs) or humic acid (HA-Ag NPs) capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as well to dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3). We showed that mortality and abnormal development rate increased with younger life stages. While adults and juvenile were the most tolerant life stages, fertilized eggs were highly sensitive to AgNO3, cit-Ag NPs and HA-Ag NPs. Exposures to HA-Ag NPs triggered the highest cute toxicity responses in P. dumerilii and in most cases both Ag NPs were more toxic than AgNO3. Uptake rate of HA-Ag NPs in adult worms was also higher than from other Ag forms, consistent with toxicity to other life stages. The early stages of the life cycle of marine coastal organisms are more affected by Ag NPs than the juvenile or adult life stages, indicating that exposure experiments at the larval level contribute to realistic eco-toxicological studies in aquatic environments. PMID:24514586

García-Alonso, Javier; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Neus; Misra, Superb K; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Luoma, Samuel N; Rainbow, Philip S

2014-04-01

90

Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater  

PubMed Central

Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind?1•d?1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P<0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P<0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

2014-01-01

91

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

2010-12-01

92

BlLLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE. 691): 191911207201RL PATTERNS OF CORAL REEF DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

BlLLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE. 691): 191911207201RL PATTERNS OF CORAL REEF DEVELOPMENT ON TARAWA ATOLL. Coral communities of these central reefs are dominated by clonal. fragmenting species ofen- crusting shape, and high human population density-may have influenced reef communities. 1191 CORAL REEF PAPER #12

Kerr, Alexander M.

93

Electron microscopic study of follicle cell development during vitellogenesis in the marine crustacean Isopoda, Idotea  

E-print Network

. The ultrastructure of follicle cells has been compared to that of developing oocytes in the marine crustacean isopod). A preliminary histological study (Biometry, Souty, 1978), using Besse's terminology (1976) in the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio dilatatus, distinguished three stages of vitel- logenesis sensu lato and correlated

Boyer, Edmond

94

COULOMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF OXYGEN CONSUMPTION DURING DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE INVERTEBRATE EMBRYOS AND LARVAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the metabolic rate of larval invertebrates from aquatic habitats is complicated by the problems of small size and the scarcity of suitable measurement techniques. In this study, coulometric respirometry (a new technique for the study of marine embryos and larvae) was used to explore several issues associated with the rate of energy use during embryonic and larval development of

OVE HOEGH-GULDBERG; DONAL T. MANAHAN

1995-01-01

95

DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARINE INCINERATION BIOASSAY SAMPLING SYSTEM (MIBAS) FOR AT-SEA INCINERATION TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of the Marine Incineration Bioassay Sampling System (MIBAS) for at-sea incineration testing, as part of EPA's overall evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with the incineration of hazardous wastes at sea. The related strate...

96

Development of In-vessel Type Control Rod Drive Mechanism for Marine Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly reliable control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) installed inside the reactor vessel has developed for use of an advanced marine reactor. This CRDM contributes to compactness and simplicity of the reactor system, and it can eliminate the possibility of a rod ejection accident. The CRDM works in the high temperature and high pressure water—310°C and 12 MPa, the same

Toshihisa ISHIDA; Shou IMAYOSHI; Tsutomu YORITSUNE; Hiroshi NUNOKAWA; Masa-aki OCHIAI; Yuichi ISHIZAKA

2001-01-01

97

Recent Advances in the Discovery and Development of Marine Microbial Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Marine microbial natural products (MMNPs) have attracted increasing attention from microbiologists, taxonomists, ecologists, agronomists, chemists and evolutionary biologists during the last few decades. Numerous studies have indicated that diverse marine microbes appear to have the capacity to produce an impressive array of MMNPs exhibiting a wide variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular agents. Marine microorganisms represent an underexplored reservoir for the discovery of MMNPs with unique scaffolds and for exploitation in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. This review focuses on MMNPs discovery and development over the past decades, including innovative isolation and culture methods, strategies for discovering novel MMNPs via routine screenings, metagenomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology. The potential problems and future directions for exploring MMNPs are also discussed. PMID:23528949

Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Feng; Hao, Yu-You; Wang, Yong

2013-01-01

98

Recent advances in the discovery and development of marine microbial natural products.  

PubMed

Marine microbial natural products (MMNPs) have attracted increasing attention from microbiologists, taxonomists, ecologists, agronomists, chemists and evolutionary biologists during the last few decades. Numerous studies have indicated that diverse marine microbes appear to have the capacity to produce an impressive array of MMNPs exhibiting a wide variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular agents. Marine microorganisms represent an underexplored reservoir for the discovery of MMNPs with unique scaffolds and for exploitation in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. This review focuses on MMNPs discovery and development over the past decades, including innovative isolation and culture methods, strategies for discovering novel MMNPs via routine screenings, metagenomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology. The potential problems and future directions for exploring MMNPs are also discussed. PMID:23528949

Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Feng; Hao, Yu-You; Wang, Yong

2013-03-01

99

Particle Emissions from a Marine Engine: Chemical Composition and Aromatic Emission Profiles under Various Operating Conditions.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-speed four-stroke marine engine, operated on both heavy fuel oil (HFO) and distillate fuel (DF), was studied under various operating conditions. PM emission factors for organic matter, elemental carbon (soot), inorganic species and a variety of organic compounds were determined. In addition, the molecular composition of aromatic organic matter was analyzed using a novel coupling of a thermal-optical carbon analyzer with a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) mass spectrometer. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly present in an alkylated form, and the composition of the aromatic organic matter in emissions clearly resembled that of fuel. The emissions of species known to be hazardous to health (PAH, Oxy-PAH, N-PAH, transition metals) were significantly higher from HFO than from DF operation, at all engine loads. In contrast, DF usage generated higher elemental carbon emissions than HFO at typical load points (50% and 75%) for marine operation. Thus, according to this study, the sulfur emission regulations that force the usage of low-sulfur distillate fuels will also substantially decrease the emissions of currently unregulated hazardous species. However, the emissions of soot may even increase if the fuel injection system is optimized for HFO operation. PMID:25202837

Sippula, O; Stengel, B; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Rabe, R; Orasche, J; Lintelmann, J; Michalke, B; Abbaszade, G; Radischat, C; Gröger, T; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Harndorf, H; Zimmermann, R

2014-10-01

100

Particle size dependence of alkali and alkaline earth metal enrichment in marine aerosols from Bermuda  

SciTech Connect

Three cascade impactor samples were collected from a 20-m-high tower on the southeastern coast of Bermuda. These samples were analyzed for Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When the alkali-alkakine earth metal concentrations are corrected for a soil-derived component, utilizing the atmospheric Fe concentrations, Mg, Ca, and Na are found to be present in the same relative abundances as in seawater for all particle sizes sampled. Potassium also shows no deviation from a bulk seawater composition for particles with radii greater than approx.0.5 ..mu..m. However, excess K above that expected from either a bulk seawater or soil source is observed on particles with radii less than approx.0.5 ..mu..m. While oceanic chemical fractionation processes during bubble bursting may be responsible for this excess small particle K, it is most likely due to long-range transport of K-rich particles of terrestrial vegetative origin.

Hoffman, E.J.; Hoffman, G.L.; Duce, R.A.

1980-10-20

101

Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines; 2) the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals; and 3) the effects of energy removal on physical systems. Each case study contains a description of environmental monitoring efforts and research studies, lessons learned, and analysis of remaining information gaps. The information collected through the Annex IV effort and referenced in this report, can be accessed on the Tethys database at http://mhk.pnnl.gov/wiki/index.php/Tethys_ Home.

Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt (US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

2013-01-15

102

Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-?m cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

2009-12-01

103

Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea salt particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater in a closed stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. The two-component artificial seawater consisted of salt, either NaCl or sea salt, and one organic compound in deionized water. Several organic molecules representative of oceanic organic matter were investigated. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a porous diffuser or by water jet impingement on the surface of the artificial seawater. The effect of bubble lifetime, which was controlled by varying the depth of the diffuser in the water column, on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. The CCN activities of particles produced from diffuser-generated bubbles were generally governed by the high hygroscopicity of salt, such that activation was indistinguishable from that of salt, except in the case of very low mass ratio of salt to organic matter in the seawater solution. There was, however, a considerable decrease in CCN activity for particles produced from jet impingement on seawater that had a salinity of 10‰ and contained 0.45 mM of sodium laurate, an organic surfactant. The production of a thick foam layer from impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not similar. Accurate conclusions from observed CCN activities of particles from artificial seawater containing organic matter require knowledge of the CCN activity of the inorganic component, especially as a small amount of the inorganic can heavily influence activation. Therefore, the CCN activity of both artificial sea salt and NaCl were measured and compared. Part of the discrepancy observed between the CCN activities of the two salts may be due to morphological differences, which were investigated using electron microscopy.

King, S. M.; Butcher, A. C.; Rosenoern, T.; Coz, E.; Lieke, K. I.; de Leeuw, G.; Nilsson, E. D.; Bilde, M.

2012-04-01

104

Development of HTGR-coated particle fuel technology in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of R&D works being carried out for the development of the technology for the coated fuel particles and the achievements in the first phase in Korea is described. Emphasis is given to the development of the laboratory equipment and apparatus and the first results of the experiments carried out for the kernel preparation and coating of PyC and

Young-Woo Lee; Ji-Yeon Park; Yeon Ku Kim; Kyung Chae Jeong; Woong Ki Kim; Bong Goo Kim; Young Min Kim; Moon Sung Cho

2008-01-01

105

Particle size distribution of nitrate and sulfate in the marine atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cascade impactor samples were collected at coastal sites on Sal Island, Barbados, and Virginia Key, Miami during 1974 and at two Miami coastal sites on Virginia Key and Key Biscayne during 1981. In all of the samples, the majority of the nitrate mass was found on intermediate size particles and exhibited a mass median diameter (MMD) of about 4 pm.

D. L. Savoie; J. M. Prospero

1982-01-01

106

MarineSIM: Robot simulation for marine environments  

E-print Network

Development of robust navigation algorithms for marine robotics is a challenge faced by many marine robotists. This paper presents MarineSIM, a marine robot simulation platform which provides an infrastructure to easily ...

Senarathne, P. G. C. Namal

107

Development of particle standards for testing explosive detection systems: characterization of the adhesion forces between composition 4 particles and polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to study the adhesion of particles on a surface and the gas velocity needed to overcome the adhesion and dislodge the particle from the surface. Experiments have been performed to determine the minimum detachment velocity for particles deposited on a surface by gravitational settling and by finger print transfer. Particles of Arizona road dust and

Benjamin Y. Liu; S. H. Yoo; John P. Davies; Garold L. Gresham; Susan F. Hallowell

1994-01-01

108

Thorium isotopes as analogues for ``particle-reactive'' pollutants in coastal marine environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments using radioactive tracers in microcosms of 150 l and 13 m3 volumes, which are designed to mimic Narragansett Bay, indicate that Th isotopes are good analogues for studying the removal behavior of ``particle-reactive'' pollutants such as Am, Pb, Po, Hg and Cr(III) in coastal environments. The removal of Th isotopes and Fe has been found to be closely linked

Peter H. Santschi; Dennis Adler; Michael Amdurer; Yuan-Hui Li; Joy J. Bell

1980-01-01

109

Hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleus activity of marine aerosol particles over the western North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles at 85% relative humidity and the number fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN; 0.42%, 0.23%, and 0.10% supersaturation) as a function of dry diameter (24.1–359 nm) were measured simultaneously on board R\\/V Hakuho-Maru over the western North Pacific during August–September 2008. Highly hygroscopic and unimodal growth distributions were observed, except for aerosols, which showed lower

Michihiro Mochida; Chiharu Nishita-Hara; Hiroshi Furutani; Yuzo Miyazaki; Jinyoung Jung; Kimitaka Kawamura; Mitsuo Uematsu

2011-01-01

110

International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

2011-10-29

111

The retrieval of scattering coefficient of marine particles from polarimetric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarized light in the oceans carries intrinsic information that can be utilized to estimate the optical and microphysical properties of the oceanic hydrosols. It is especially sensitive to the scattering coefficient, which cannot be retrieved from the unpolarized light used in current ocean color remote sensing algorithms. Through the unpolarized remote sensing reflectance (Rrs), these classical algorithms can only estimate backscattering coefficients bb, but the total scattering coefficient b could be solely retrieved based on the characteristics of polarized light. The correlation is quantified in this paper. Based on extensive simulations using the vector radiative transfer program RayXP, the attenuation-to-absorption ratio (c/a), from which b is readily computed, is shown to be closely related to the degree of linear polarization (DoLP). The relationship is investigated for the upwelling polarized light for several wavelengths in the visible part of the spectrum, for a complete set of viewing geometries, and for varying concentrations of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and color dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the aquatic environment. It is shown that there is an excellent correlation between the DoLP and c/a for a wide range of viewing geometries. That correlation is investigated theoretically using fitting techniques, which show that it depends not only on the general composition of water but also on the particle size distribution (PSD) of the (mainly non-algal) particles. A large dataset of Stokes components for various water compositions, measured in the field with a hyperspectral and multi-angular polarimeter, then provides the opportunity to validate the parameterized relationship between DOLP and c/a. This study opens the possibility for the retrieval of additional inherent optical properties (IOPs) from air- or space-borne DoLP measurements of the ocean.

Ibrahim, Amir; Gilerson, Alex; Stepinski, Jan; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Samir

2013-09-01

112

Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae  

PubMed Central

Understanding the impact of noise on marine fauna at the population level requires knowledge about the vulnerability of different life-stages. Here we provide the first evidence that noise exposure during larval development produces body malformations in marine invertebrates. Scallop larvae exposed to playbacks of seismic pulses showed significant developmental delays and 46% developed body abnormalities. Similar effects were observed in all independent samples exposed to noise while no malformations were found in the control groups (4881 larvae examined). Malformations appeared in the D-veliger larval phase, perhaps due to the cumulative exposure attained by this stage or to a greater vulnerability of D-veliger to sound-mediated physiological or mechanical stress. Such strong impacts suggest that abnormalities and growth delays may also result from lower sound levels or discrete exposures during the D-stage, increasing the potential for routinely-occurring anthropogenic noise sources to affect recruitment of wild scallop larvae in natural stocks. PMID:24088868

de Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Delorme, Natali; Atkins, John; Howard, Sunkita; Williams, James; Johnson, Mark

2013-01-01

113

Petroleum and mineral exploration and development in marine conservation reserves in Western Australia  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum production is of importance to the Western Australian economy earning almost $A 2.6 billion in 1993/94. Petroleum productions is based on the principle of Crown ownership of all petroleum resources and the State provides the right of access for exploration and production of these resources. Through the 1970`s and early 1980`s public concern developed regarding the potential risks of petroleum exploration within and adjacent to the State`s marine parks. A series of inquiries were held and policies developed between 1986 and 1994 resulting in a system that allows for both the protection of reserves and regulated petroleum access. This system is now being considered as a basis for mineral exploration access to the State`s marine conservation reserves, particularly in relation to diamond exploration.

Carr, W.M.B. [Land Access Unit, Perth (Australia)

1995-09-01

114

The phase of particle acceleration in the flare development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is given that the particle acceleration in flares is confined to the initial phase of the flare development preceding the Ha flare maximum and lasting for less than 10 min. The impulsive acceleration process is confined to a relatively small limited volume of about 5 × 1027 cm3 in the region of highest magnetic gradient in the flare, and

Z. Švestka

1970-01-01

115

HEASD PM RESEARCH METHODS: PARTICLE METHODS EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The FRM developed by NERL forms the backbone of the EPA's national monitoring strategy. It is the measurement that defines attainment of the new standard. However, the agency has numerous other needs in assessing the physical and chemical characteristics of ambient fine particl...

116

Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles.  

PubMed

Fragments of antifouling paint and environmental geosolids have been sampled from the island of Malta and analysed for total and bioaccessible metals. Total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were two to three orders of magnitude higher in spent antifouling composites relative to respective values in background soils and road dusts. Paint fragments were visible in geosolids taken from the immediate vicinity of boat maintenance facilities and mass balance calculations, based on Ba as a paint tracer, suggested that the most contaminated soils, road dusts and boatyard dusts contained about 1%, 7% and 9%, respectively, of antifouling particles. Human bioaccessibilities of metals were evaluated in selected samples using a physiologically based extraction technique. Accessibilities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the most contaminated solids were sufficient to be cause for concern for individuals working in the boat repair industry and to the wider, local community. PMID:19231052

Turner, Andrew; Singh, Nimisha; Richards, Jonathan P

2009-05-01

117

Development of a site-specific marine water quality standard for cyanide  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to develop a site-specific marine standard for cyanide. The generic cyanide standard of 1 {micro}g/L is ``driven`` by toxicity data for eastern rock crab (Cancer irroratus) zoeae. The reported LC50 for C. irroratus is 4.9 {micro}g/L cyanide and is six times more sensitive that any other marine species tested. In order to develop a site-specific standard for Washington state, cyanide toxicity tests were conducted using the first stage zoeae of Cancer magister and Cancer oregonensis, two Cancer resident to Puget Sound, in accordance with standard ASTM test methods. Testing with C. magister and C. oregonensis resulted in Species Mean Acute Values (SMAVS) of 68 and 131 {micro}g/L cyanide based on measured test concentrations. This is considerably higher than that reported for C. irroratus, is more consistent with cyanide toxicity values for other species tested, and results in a water quality criterion of 9.85 {micro}g/L cyanide with inclusion of these values in the data set. This paper presents the test methods used and the potential effects the test results may have on the marine water quality criterion for cyanide.

Arredondo, L.A.; Brix, K.V.; Cardwell, R.D.; Marsden, A.

1995-12-31

118

Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334-newton (300-lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. The development and in-flight performance are described and summarized of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicated upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling of the Mariner 9 subsystem are discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data. The flight performance of the subsystem was excellent, as were the performance prediction correlations. These correlations are presented.

Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

1972-01-01

119

The Effect of Organic Material on Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation - Insights from Microscopic Analysis of Field-Collected, Laboratory Generated, and Marine Biogenic Particles (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous ice nucleation has been shown to play an important role in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Although their importance is widely acknowledged, the actual effects of aerosol particles on heterogeneous ice formation are insufficiently understood. Here, we present laboratory studies investigating the ice nucleation efficiency of organic dominated anthropogenic particles impacted by different degrees of photochemical aging collected in and around Mexico City, particles sampled in Los Angeles, laboratory generated organic particles composed of humic and fulvic acids exposed to O3, and biogenic marine particles. Using the optical microscope (OM) method, heterogeneous ice nucleation by particles deposited on hydrophobically coated substrates via immersion and deposition mode has been determined. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures and corresponding nucleation rates are derived, the latter being discussed in terms of atmospherically relevant ice particle production rates. The physical and chemical characteristics of the field collected particles were determined by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), CCSEM/EDX analysis (computer controlled SEM with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays and STXM/NEXAFS (scanning transmission X-ray microscopy combined with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy). The anthropogenic particles examined nucleate ice heterogeneously at temperatures and relative humidity relevant to cirrus onset conditions observed in the northern hemisphere. Increases in organic content due to photochemical aging did not affect the particles’ IN efficiencies. Solid humic and fulvic acid particles nucleate ice via immersion and deposition modes at atmospherically relevant conditions and a corresponding ice nucleation parameterization is derived. Oxidation by O3, has various effects on the particles’ IN efficiency but no clear relationship between increased particle hydrophilicity due to oxidation and IN efficiency was found. Planktonic diatoms are the first unambiguously identified marine organism which acts as efficient IN in the immersion and deposition modes. These findings can resolve elevated atmospheric IN concentrations observed over surface waters containing phytoplankton. Heterogeneous freezing of micrometer-sized aqueous NaCl droplets containing intact diatoms as well as fragments occurs up to 30 K higher than expected by homogeneous ice nucleation. Nucleation is found to behave stochastically and is independent of diatom surface area and droplet volume. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rates are about one order of magnitude higher than homogeneous ice nucleation making diatoms and/or their fragments competitive IN even at atmospheric updrafts typically dominated by homogeneous ice nucleation. In summary, single particle resolved analytical techniques and the particles-on-substrate approach coupled to OM can provide a very useful tool to improve our understanding of the phase transition of aerosol particles.

Knopf, D. A.

2010-12-01

120

Education and Conservation Benefits of Marine Wildlife Tours: Developing Free-Choice Learning Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine wildlife tours can provide a range of education and conservation benefits for visitors, including emotional (i.e., affective) responses and learning (i.e., cognition). Interpretive programs cover the biology, ecology, and behavior of marine species; best practice guidelines; and human threats to marine areas. The author reviews the education and conservation benefits of 18 marine wildlife experiences with dolphins, whales, and

Heather Zeppel

2008-01-01

121

Virus-like particles in picornavirus vaccine development.  

PubMed

Virus-like particles (VLP), which are similar to natural virus particles but do not contain viral genes, have brought about significant breakthroughs in many research fields because of their unique advantages. The ordered repeating epitopes of VLP can induce immunity responses similar to those prompted by natural viral infection; thus, VLP vaccines are regarded as candidate alternatives to whole-virus vaccines. As picornavirus has serious impacts on human and animal health, the development of efficient and safe vaccines is a key endeavor in preventing virus infections. The characteristics of picornavirus capsid proteins allow the development of VLP vaccines. This paper investigates research scenarios and progress on picornavirus VLP vaccines with the aim of providing a reference for researchers focusing on virology and vaccinology. PMID:24647496

Dong, Hu; Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi

2014-05-01

122

The Pandora Software Development Kit for Particle Flow Calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pandora is a robust and efficient framework for developing and running pattern-recognition algorithms. It was designed to perform particle flow calorimetry, which requires many complex pattern-recognition techniques to reconstruct the paths of individual particles through fine granularity detectors. The Pandora C++ software development kit (SDK) consists of a single library and a number of carefully designed application programming interfaces (APIs). A client application can use the Pandora APIs to pass details of tracks and hits/cells to the Pandora framework, which then creates and manages named lists of self-describing objects. These objects can be accessed by Pandora algorithms, which perform the pattern-recognition reconstruction. Development with the Pandora SDK promotes the creation of small, re-usable algorithms containing just the kernel of a specific operation. The algorithms are configured via XML and can be nested to perform complex reconstruction tasks. As the algorithms only access the Pandora objects in a controlled manner, via the APIs, the framework can perform most book-keeping and memory-management operations. The Pandora SDK has been fully exploited in the implementation of PandoraPFA, which uses over 60 algorithms to provide the state of the art in particle flow calorimetry for ILC and CLIC.

Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.

2012-12-01

123

Tool kit development to refine and visualize essential climate data and information for marine protected areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine ecosystem responses to climate variability and change such as changing water temperature, water chemistry (e.g., pH, salinity), water level, or storminess may result in adverse impacts including mass mortality, loss of habitat, increased disease susceptibility, and trophic cascade feedbacks. Unfortunately, while marine ecosystem resource managers are aware of these threats, they often lack sufficient expertise with identifying, accessing and using the many large and complex climate data products that would inform ecosystem-scale climate impact assessments. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has been working with the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Ocean Climate Center to enhance and expand the functionality of NCDC's Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) to begin to address this limitation. The WCT is a freely available, Java-based user interface (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wct/) designed to access, analyze, and display a variety of NCDC's georeferenced climate data products (e.g., satellite data, radar, reanalysis datasets, in-situ observations). However, the WCT requires the user to have already identified a data set of interest and gained access to it. This can limit its utility by users who are not knowledgeable about which data sets are relevant to their needs and where those data sets can be found. The Integrated Marine Protected Area Climate Tools (IMPACT) prototype modification to the WCT addresses those requirements through an iterative process between climate scientists and resource managers. The WCT-IMPACT prototype couples a user query approach with a quasi-expert system that determines, retrieves, and loads the appropriate data products for visualization and analysis by the user. Relevant data products are identified based on the environmental variables in which ecosystem managers have indicated an importance to their ecosystems. To improve response time, the user, through the WCT-IMPACT interface, crops (or subsets) the larger gridded data products, such as NOAA's satellite Climate Data Records to the geographic boundaries of each included marine protected area (MPA). These clipped data sets are processed to produce MPA-specific analytics (e.g., files for averages, extremes, peaks over threshold, etc). Once a specific MPA has been selected, the associated data may be visualized, analyzed, and exported to other formats (e.g., netCDF, KML) from within the tool. The WCT-IMPACT tool kit will provide marine ecosystem managers with the capacity to answer such questions as what was the climate like during periods of optimal ecological health, or have climate conditions changed equally across an ecosystem's domain? The WCT-IMPACT extension is being developed specifically to address the needs of marine ecosystem managers to have access to relevant climate data and information for developing ecosystem-scale climate assessments, while retaining the ability for a WCT user to identify and access the full suite of georeferenced climate data provided by NCDC. In this tool kit development scheme, the need to coordinate with the resource managers is paramount and end user participation in an iterative process with the climate scientists is essential.

Cecil, L.; Stachniewicz, J.; Shein, K. A.; Ansari, S.; Jarvis, C.

2013-05-01

124

The development of diving in marine endotherms: preparing the skeletal muscles of dolphins, penguins, and seals for activity during submergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myoglobin is an important oxygen store for supporting aerobic diving in endotherms, yet little is known about its role during postnatal development. Therefore, we compared the postnatal development of myoglobin in marine endotherms that develop at sea (cetaceans) to those that develop on land (penguins and pinnipeds). We measured myoglobin concentrations in the major locomotor muscles of mature and immature

S. R. Noren; T. M. Williams; D. A. Pabst; W. A. McLellan; J. L. Dearolf

2001-01-01

125

Determining Risk - How to Evaluate the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development projects progress towards early deployments in the U.S., the process of determining the risks to aquatic animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes from these engineered systems continues to be a significant barrier to efficient siting and permitting. Understanding the risk of MHK installations requires that the two elements of risk - consequence and probability - be evaluated. However, standard risk assessment methodologies are not easily applied to MHK interactions with marine and riverine environment as there are few data that describe the interaction of stressors (MHK devices, anchors, foundations, mooring lines and power cables) and receptors (aquatic animals, habitats and ecosystem processes). The number of possible combinations and permutations of stressors and receptors in MHK systems is large: there are many different technologies designed to harvest energy from the tides, waves and flowing rivers; each device is planned for a specific waterbody that supports an endemic ecosystem of animals and habitats, tied together by specific physical and chemical processes. With few appropriate analogue industries in the oceans and rivers, little information on the effects of these technologies on the living world is available. Similarly, without robust data sets of interactions, mathematical probability models are difficult to apply. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists are working with MHK developers, researchers, engineers, and regulators to rank the consequences of planned MHK projects on living systems, and exploring alternative methodologies to estimate probabilities of these encounters. This paper will present the results of ERES, the Environmental Risk Evaluation System, which has been used to rank consequences for major animal groups and habitats for five MHK projects that are in advanced stages of development and/or early commercial deployment. Probability analyses have been performed for high priority stressor/receptor interactions where data are adaptable from other industries. In addition, a methodology for evaluating the probability of encounter, and therefore risk, to an endangered marine mammal from tidal turbine blades will be presented.

Copping, A. E.; Blake, K.; Zdanski, L.

2011-12-01

126

Cellular Localization of Debromohymenialdisine and Hymenialdisine in the Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Using a Newly Developed Cell Purification Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponges (Porifera), as the best known source of bioactive marine natural products in metazoans, play a significant role in\\u000a marine drug discovery and development. As sessile filter-feeding animals, a considerable portion of the sponge biomass can\\u000a be made of endosymbiotic and associated microorganisms. Understanding the cellular origin of targeted bioactive compounds\\u000a from sponges is therefore important not only for providing

Yue-Fan Song; Yi Qu; Xu-Peng Cao; Wei Zhang

127

Marine Derived Hamacanthins as Lead for the Development of Novel PDGFR? Protein Kinase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report on pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as lead for the development of potent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive protein kinase inhibitors with implications as anti-cancer drugs. Initially, we identified the pyrazin-2(1H)-one scaffold from hamacanthins (deep sea marine sponge alkaloids) by Molecular Modeling studies as core binding motif in the ATP pocket of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), which are validated drug targets for the treatment of various neoplastic diseases. Structure-based design studies on a human RTK member PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) suggested a straight forward lead optimization strategy. Accordingly, we focused on a Medicinal Chemistry project to develop pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as optimized PDGFR binders. In order to reveal Structure-Activity-Relationships (SAR), we established a flexible synthetic route via microwave mediated ring closure to asymmetric 3,5-substituted pyrazin-2(1H)-ones and produced a set of novel compounds. Herein, we identified highly potent PDGFR binders with IC50 values in an enzymatic assay below µM range, and possessing significant activity against PDGFR dependent cancer cells. Thus, marine hamacanthin-derived pyrazin-2(1H)-ones showing interesting properties as lead for their further development towards potent PDGFR-inhibitors. PMID:24065162

Pinchuk, Boris; Johannes, Eugen; Gul, Sheraz; Schlosser, Joachim; Schaechtele, Christoph; Totzke, Frank; Peifer, Christian

2013-01-01

128

Marine derived hamacanthins as lead for the development of novel PDGFR? protein kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

In this study, we report on pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as lead for the development of potent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive protein kinase inhibitors with implications as anti-cancer drugs. Initially, we identified the pyrazin-2(1H)-one scaffold from hamacanthins (deep sea marine sponge alkaloids) by Molecular Modeling studies as core binding motif in the ATP pocket of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), which are validated drug targets for the treatment of various neoplastic diseases. Structure-based design studies on a human RTK member PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) suggested a straight forward lead optimization strategy. Accordingly, we focused on a Medicinal Chemistry project to develop pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as optimized PDGFR binders. In order to reveal Structure-Activity-Relationships (SAR), we established a flexible synthetic route via microwave mediated ring closure to asymmetric 3,5-substituted pyrazin-2(1H)-ones and produced a set of novel compounds. Herein, we identified highly potent PDGFR binders with IC?? values in an enzymatic assay below µM range, and possessing significant activity against PDGFR dependent cancer cells. Thus, marine hamacanthin-derived pyrazin-2(1H)-ones showing interesting properties as lead for their further development towards potent PDGFR-inhibitors. PMID:24065162

Pinchuk, Boris; Johannes, Eugen; Gul, Sheraz; Schlosser, Joachim; Schaechtele, Christoph; Totzke, Frank; Peifer, Christian

2013-01-01

129

Is formation of NH4NO3 a critical factor for the growth of > 10 nm new particles to cloud condensation nuclei size in marine boundary layer?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last three decades, huge efforts have been taken to improve understanding of the relationship between ambient nucleation of new particles and its impact on the climate in marine boundary layer (MBL), e.g., CLAW hypothesis and studies related. However, only >40-50 nm new particles could be activated as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) under typical range of water supersatuations occurring in MBL. The knowledge gap still existed, i.e., which chemicals are critical factors in growing nucleated particles to CCN size in MBL. In this study, we found that nucleated particles in MBL cannot grow over 40 nm in absence of strong formation of NH4NO3. However, the strong formation of NH4NO3 together with organics can grow nucleated particles close to or over 50 nm in MBL. These indicate that the strong formation of NH4NO3 is a critical factor to grow nucleated particles to CCN size in MBL. However, the strong formation of NH4NO3 occurred only in polluted air mass in MBL. Thus, ambient nucleation of new particles in clear and remote MBL is probably not a source of CCN due to lack of a strong formation of NH4NO3 and the nucleation may have no impact on the climate.

Liu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Gao, H.; Zhang, T.; Yao, X.

2013-12-01

130

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

1992-04-01

131

The lessons learned from the development of the wind energy industry that might be applied to marine industry renewables.  

PubMed

This paper considers the early experiences of the development of wind turbines and the wind energy industry in order to try and identify lessons learned that could now be applied to the developing marine renewables technology and industry. It considers both political and commercial incentives and engineering development. PMID:22184671

Garrad, Andrew

2012-01-28

132

Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods  

SciTech Connect

The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance of these amphipods within Chesapeake Bay and methodologies for establishing cultures of amphipods which could be readily adopted by other laboratories. The second chapter reports the development of acute and chronic sediment toxicity test methods for L. plumulosus, its sensitivity to non-contaminant environmental variables, cadmium, two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The third chapter reports the authors attempts to develop a chronic sediment toxicity test with Ampelisca abdita.

DeWitt, T.H.; Redmond, M.S.; Sewall, J.E.; Swartz, R.C.

1992-12-01

133

Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors  

SciTech Connect

The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown.

Stelzer, H.

1980-08-01

134

Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, designed to provide in situ surface characterization of plasma facing components in a tokamak environment. MAPP has been implemented for operation on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where all control and analysis systems are currently under development for full remote operation. Control systems include vacuum management, instrument power, and translational/rotational probe drive. Analysis systems include onboard Langmuir probes and all components required for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy surface analysis techniques.

Lucia, M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Bedoya, F.; Allain, J. P.; Boyle, D. P.; Schmitt, J. C.; Onge, D. A. St.

2014-11-01

135

Developments in time analysis of particle and photon tunnelling  

E-print Network

A compact analysis of development and prospects in the study of the tunnelling evolution is given. A new systematization of various approaches to defining tunnelling times in the light of time as a quantum mechanical observable is proposed. The problem of superluminal group velocities, without violations of special relativity, is also taken in account. Then a particular attention is devoted to the presentation of new results on the analogy between particle and photon tunnelling and analysis of the causality validity during tunnelling. [PACS nos. 03.40.Kf, 03.50.De, 41.20.Jb, 41.20.Bt, 42.25.Bs, 03.30.+p, 03.65.-w].

V. S. Olkhovsky; A. Agresti

1996-12-06

136

Submicron Sea Salt Aerosol Inside and Outside of the Surf Plume: Size Segregated and Total Sea salt Aerosol Distributions by Single Particle Analysis at a Coastal Marine Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainties in the shape of the source function for sea salt aerosols as well as in the of the shape of the size distribution of sea salt aerosol in the marine boundary layer (MBL) are considered, after even greater uncertainties for dust aerosol, the biggest open question to assess the impact of aerosols on climate change [1]. In a recent intercomparison of global models, satellite retrievals and ground-based measurements, Kinne et al [2] found large discrepancies between simulated and measured aerosol extinction in the Southern Ocean, and suggested that this might be indicative of an underestimation of the contribution of submicron sea salt aerosol in current models. Although since at least Murphy et al's [3] the importance of submicron sea salt aerosol in the clean MBL for radiative forcing is recognized, high quality data on the size distribution and on the source function of sea salt in this size range is sparse. Field measurements from O'Dowd et al and Clarke et al [4,5], based on the aerosol volatility technique, yielded contrasting results in the two size regions crucial for direct and indirect forcing. We have developed a sea salt specific aerosol particle sizer [6,7], the Aerosol Sodium Detector (ASD), that in its current, improved version is able to quantitatively measure the amount of sea salt in single aerosol particles using sodium as a proxy in the range between 1 fg NaCl equivalent (95 nm NaCl dry diameter) and 7000 fg NaCl equivalent (1800 nm diameter) with a sizing accuracy better than 5% and no losses within the valid detection range. This instrument was deployed at a coastal site at Bellows AFB in Oahu, Hawaii to study the contribution of sea salt to the total aerosol load in both remote marine air and the surf zone at wind speeds up to 10 m/s. Full sea salt number size distributions were acquired continuously in 2 s samples and matched the results of a commercial aerodynamic particle sizer down to 400 nm better than 20% in all cases. The distributions showed a main submicron mode at 520 nm dry diameter as well as a second mode below 300 nm that was strongly enhanced in breaking waves, in agreement with Clarke et al's recent findings [5]. Total sea salt particle count down to the detection limit was about 12-14 part/cc at 9.5 m/s u10. In size-segregated mode, the extent of internal mixing of surf zone aerosol was monitored. The results were consistent with pure sea salt with little processing down to the detection limit of 100 nm. Average size dependent sea salt mixing ratios were calculated, with sea salt being the primary aerosol component down to 200 nm, in good agreement with Murphy et al's reported ratios [3]. The results of this study suggest a much larger contribution to total aerosol scattering by sea salt aerosols in remote marine air than current parameterizations of the sea salt size distribution imply [4,8]. They also hint at a very effective removal process of very small sea salt particles (<200 nm) formed in breaking waves in the MBL. References: 1.Penner, J. et al.,in: 3rd IPCC Report, 2001, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. p.289-348. 2.Kinne, S. et al., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 2003. 108(D20). 3.Murphy, D.M. et al., Nature, 1998, 392(6671): p.62-65. 4.O'Dowd, C.D. et al., Atmos. Environ., 1997, 31(1): p.73-80. 5.Clarke, A.D. et al., J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 2003, 20(10): p.1362-1374. 6.Clark, C.D. et al., J. Aerosol Sci., 2001, 32(6):p.765-778. 7.Campuzano-Jost, P. et al., J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 2003, 20(10):p.1421-1430. 8.Gong, S.L., Global Biogeochem. Cy., 2003, 17(4).

Campuzano-Jost, P.; Donohoue, D.; Maring, H. B.; Hynes, A. J.

2004-12-01

137

Development of Pressure sensing Particles through SERS and Upconversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing distance of space travel, there is a critical need for non-invasive point-of-care diagnostic techniques. According to the NASA Human Research Roadmap, the ``lack of non-invasive diagnostic imaging capability and techniques to diagnose identified Exploration Medical Conditions involving internal body parts,'' is a critical capability gap for long distance space travel. To address this gap, we developed a novel technique for non-invasive monitoring of strain on implanted devices. We constructed a prototype tension-indicating washer with an upconversion spectrum that depended upon strain. The washer was made of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixture with upconversion particles embedded in it. This mixture was cured onto a lenticular lens. Methylene blue dye solution was sealed between the lenticular lens and PDMS so that pressure on the washer displaced the dye and uncovered the upconversion particles. We also began work on a tension-indicating screw based upon surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Future work for this project is to quantitatively correlate the spectral intensity with pressure, further develop SERS washers, and construct SERS and/or upconversion screws or bolts. Non-invasive tension-indicating devices and techniques such as these can be applied to orthopedics, used as a general technique for measuring micro-strain, verifying proper assembly of equipment, and observing/studying bolt loosening.

Widejko, Ryan; Wang, Fenglin; Anker, Jeff

2012-03-01

138

A risk management decision: Developing a training program to prevent marine transfer spills  

SciTech Connect

Does a company really need to develop a training program to prevent marine transfer spills? The answer is yes. In today`s competitive global market the government, the community, the stockholders, and competitors expect one to be nothing short of perfect, that is, have zero pollution incidents. If and when one is less than perfect, each of the entities will hold one accountable in ways that one may not appreciate. A company can avert crises, both major and minor, with the utilization and management of an information system. The paper looks at some of the determining factors that would influence the decision to develop a Spill Prevention Program and how this approach can boost profits, improve one`s image with the buying public, increase one`s standing with government, community, and stockholders, and place one ahead of the competition.

Richards, S. [Pollution Control Representatives, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-09-01

139

Development of an underwater multispectral fluorescence based oil spill sensor system for the marine environment  

SciTech Connect

This poster describes the development of an underwater optical fluorescence sensor system to detect the presence of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the marine environment. The system is designed for long term continuous underwater operation and will be used primarily to provide real time notification of the occurrence of a petroleum leak or spill at marine facilities. The sensor utilizes broadband UV excitation from a pulsed xenon lamp to generate fluorescence emission in contaminated sea water. It can detect floating product (surface sheen) from below the surface as well as detect dissolved phase PAHs in the water column. Multispectral emission information is used to distinguish between several possible petroleum classes and also to eliminate false positive interference from non-petroleum based fluorophores such as chlorophyll, cleaning detergents, and sea dye. Real time qualitative identification yields an important advantage in terms of rapidly resolving questions of spill origin or in determining an appropriate response. The design uses the optical energy of the UV excitation source to prevent biofouling on the surface of the optical window thereby greatly extending the usable field lifetime of the {open_quotes}deploy and forget{close_quotes} instrument.

Andrews, J.M.; Lieberman, S.H. [Naval Command, San Diego, CA (United States)

1997-06-01

140

The Influence of Bioactive Oxylipins from Marine Diatoms on Invertebrate Reproduction and Development  

PubMed Central

Diatoms are one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and occupy a vital link in the transfer of photosynthetically-fixed carbon through aquatic food webs. Diatoms produce an array of biologically-active metabolites, many of which have been attributed as a form of chemical defence and may offer potential as candidate marine drugs. Of considerable interest are molecules belonging to the oxylipin family which are broadly disruptive to reproductive and developmental processes. The range of reproductive impacts includes; oocyte maturation; sperm motility; fertilization; embryogenesis and larval competence. Much of the observed bioactivity may be ascribed to disruption of intracellular calcium signalling, induction of cytoskeletal instability and promotion of apoptotic pathways. From an ecological perspective, the primary interest in diatom-oxylipins is in relation to the potential impact on energy flow in planktonic systems whereby the reproductive success of copepods (the main grazers of diatoms) is compromised. Much data exists providing evidence for and against diatom reproductive effects; however detailed knowledge of the physiological and molecular processes involved remains poor. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge of the mechanistic impacts of diatom-oxylipins on marine invertebrate reproduction and development. PMID:19841721

Caldwell, Gary S.

2009-01-01

141

Marine Derived Nutrients (MDN) in Riverine Ecosystems: Developing Monitoring Tools for Tracking MDN in Alaska Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to measure marine derived nutrient (MDN) presence and effects in stream and riparian habitats on the southern Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Year 1 approach was to link stream chemistry, marine isotope signatures, and lipid measures along a gradient from headwaters to mouth in watersheds with and without spawning salmon (i.e., N.F. Anchor River and Happy Creek, respectively). The N.F. Anchor River received 13,000 kg of chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and 2000 kg of coho (O. kisutch) biomass in 2004. Contrary to our hypothesis, NH4 concentrations were not related to salmon escapement, possibly due to rapid uptake in this apparently phosphorus-rich system. Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma), horsetail (Equisetum sp.), and macroinvertebrates collected in spawning reaches showed enriched 15N values relative to an upstream reference and Happy Valley Creek. Biota also showed a general trend toward 15N enrichment along a gradient from headwaters to mouth for both streams, suggesting that trophic complexity increased with stream size regardless of spawning salmon presence. In years 2 and 3 we will expand this study across replicate salmon and non-salmon watersheds and integrate with related studies develop a broader regional understanding of MDN effects in watersheds.

Rinella, D. J.; Wipfli, M. S.; Walker, C.; Stricker, C. A.

2005-05-01

142

Development and testing of the television instrument for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mariner Mars 1971 television instrument is described. It emphasizes those aspects that are different from the Mariner Mars 1969 television subsystem. The various modes of operation are described and functional descriptions of the major elements in the system summarized. An electronic description of the circuits that differ from those of Mariner Mars 1969 is also presented along with a brief description of the calibration and test sequences.

1971-01-01

143

SCHOOL OF MARINE SCIENCES Program of Study  

E-print Network

oceanography; aquaculture; marine biology; marine geology; marine resource development and policy; seafloor ecology; fish biology; fish pathology; fisheries science; seaweed biology; maritime studies; and ocean Island Biological Laboratory, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, the Maine Department of Marine

Thomas, Andrew

144

Autolysis in the development and dispersal of biofilms formed by the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata.  

E-print Network

??The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata produces target-specific inhibitory compounds against bacteria, algae, fungi and invertebrate larvae and is frequently found in association with living surfaces… (more)

Mai-Prochnow, Anne Gerda Erna

2006-01-01

145

Observations of the Solar Particle Event of 5 to 12 February 1965 with Mariner IV and Injun IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar cosmic ray event of 5-12 February 1965 is the most intense one of a ten month period of interplanetary observation (28 November 1964 - 30 September 1965) with Mariner 4 during the recent epoch of minimum solar activity. A full time history of th...

S. M. Krimigis, J. A. Van Allen

1967-01-01

146

Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine reserves are being established worldwide in response to a growing recognition of the conservation crisis that is building in the oceans. However, designation of reserves has been largely opportunistic, or protective measures have been implemented (often overlapping and sometimes in conflict) by different entities seeking to achieve different ends. This has created confusion among both users and enforcers, and the proliferation of different measures provides a false sense of protection where little is offered. This paper sets out a procedure grounded in current understanding of ecological processes, that allows the evaluation and selection of reserve sites in order to develop functional, interconnected networks of fully protected reserves that will fulfill multiple objectives. By fully protected we mean permanently closed to fishing and other resource extraction. We provide a framework that unifies the central aims of conservation and fishery management, while also meeting other human needs such as the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., maintenance of coastal water quality, shoreline protection, and recreational opportunities). In our scheme, candidate sites for reserves are evaluated against 12 criteria focused toward sustaining the biological integrity and productivity of marine systems at both local and regional scales. While a limited number of sites will be indispensable in a network, many will be of similar value as reserves, allowing the design of numerous alternative, biologically adequate networks. Devising multiple network designs will help ensure that ecological functionality is preserved throughout the socioeconomic evaluation process. Too often, socioeconomic criteria have dominated the process of reserve selection, potentially undermining their efficacy. We argue that application of biological criteria must precede and inform socioeconomic evaluation, since maintenance of ecosystem functioning is essential for meeting all of the goals for reserves. It is critical that stakeholders are fully involved throughout this process. Application of the proposed criteria will lead to networks whose multifunctionality will help unite the objectives of different management entities, so accelerating progress toward improved stewardship of the oceans.

Roberts, C.M.; Branch, G.; Bustamante, R.H.; Castilla, J.C.; Dugan, J.; Halpern, B.S.; Lafferty, K.D.; Leslie, H.; Lubchenco, J.; McArdle, D.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Warner, R.R.

2003-01-01

147

A Sourcebook of Marine Activities Developed in the Milwaukee Great Lakes Summer Education Program, 1977 and 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-seven activities dealing with the marine environment of the Great Lakes are presented. Designed for junior and senior high school students, these activities develop awareness of the biological, physical, social, economical, and aesthetic dimensions of the Great Lakes. Field trips, films, discussion, and hands-on activities are used to teach…

Haney, Richard E., Ed.

148

Solicitation for participation in early instrument development and mission planning for a Mariner Venus-Mercury flyby mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Planetary Programs Office of NASA is soliciting proposals for participation by scientists in the early development of instruments and in mission planning for a Mariner Venus-Mercury flyby mission. It is planned that the trajectory to Mercury will swing the spacecraft by Venus, where a gravity assist will send it on to Mercury. The report of the Space Science Board,

Anonymous

1969-01-01

149

Recent developments in the analysis and environmental chemistry of toxaphene with emphasis on the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxaphene (camphechlor) is a pesticide consisting primarily of chlorinated bornanes (CHBs) which was widely used until the mid 1980s. Toxaphene continues to be a major contaminant in marine and freshwater biota, with levels in marine fish exceeding some regulatory guideline limits. Methods of analysis for CHBs include gas chromatography with detection by electron-capture negative ion and electron ionization mass spectrometry,

Jacob de Boer; Boer de J

1995-01-01

150

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED PERFORMANCE MODEL FOR TRISO-COATED GAS REACTOR PARTICLE FUEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of gas reactors depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. The understanding and evaluation of this fuel requires development of an integrated mechanistic fuel performance model that fully describes the mechanical and physico- chemical behavior of the fuel particle under irradiation. Such a model, called PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl), is being developed at the

G. K. MILLER; D. A. PETTI; J. T. MAKI

151

Development of lipid productivities under different CO2 conditions of marine microalgae Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4.  

PubMed

Biodiesel production from microalgae has become a popular research topic. In this study, Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 isolated from the southern coast of Taiwan was selected for a detailed study on cell growth and lipid accumulation under marine salinity (3.5% sea salt). Proper CO2 was supplied as the improvement of lipid productivity. Under the optimal condition, the highest lipid productivity was 169.1mg/L/d, which was significantly higher than those reported in current studies for marine green algae. To date, only very few studies have reported a marine algae strain with both high cell growth and lipid productivity. This study demonstrated that a newly isolated marine green alga Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 would be a feasible oil producer due to its high biomass production and lipid productivity under marine salinity. PMID:24296120

Nakanishi, Akihito; Aikawa, Shimpei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

2014-01-01

152

Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH3) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH3 than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH3 concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH3 concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH3 and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH3.

Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S.

1998-01-01

153

New marine geology center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine geologists at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, have created a new Center for Marine Geology. The formation of the center is part of a university-wide effort to extend interests in marine research in all directions, Director James M. Hall said. The center, formed in April, will be a focus for the expansion of research in marine geology, for the development of marine instrumentation, for the expansion of advanced training of Third World geologists in marine geology, and for the university's interaction with the petroleum industry involved in a major play in the areas off the eastern Canadian shore, Hall said.

154

Natural transfer of helminths of marine origin to freshwater fishes with observations on the development of Diphyllobothrium alascense.  

PubMed

Infective stages of helminths of 5 species that occur as adults in marine mammals were found in burbot, Lota lota (L.) (Gadidae), from the lower Kuskokwim River (southwestern Alaska): Diphyllobothrium alascense Rausch et Williamson, 1958; Pyramicocephalus phocarum (Fabricius, 1780); Corynosoma strumosum (Rudolphi, 1801); Corynosoma semerme (Forsell, 1904); and Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878). Some larval stages were obtained also from smelt, Osmerus mordax dentex Steindachner, an anadromous fish important as prey of burbot. Burbot, which are freshwater fish, could become paratenic hosts of those helminths by means of at least 3 interactions: by consuming marine fishes in brackish waters at river mouths, by feeding on marine fishes that enter lower reaches of rivers, or by preying on anadromous fishes as they migrate up rivers. Consumption of burbot by people may result in infection by helminths of marine origin; of those recorded, only P. decipiens may be significantly pathogenic. Attempts to rear P. phocarum in dogs were unsuccessful. Plerocercoids of D. alascense, of very small size and found only in the gastric lumen of burbot, readily infected dogs. For study of their development, strobilae were obtained at intervals of 48 hr to 32 days postinfection. In heavy infections, some strobilae developed slowly, while others underwent rapid development. PMID:10780552

Rausch, R L; Adams, A M

2000-04-01

155

Engaging Scientists in K-12 Professional Development and Curriculum Development in the Context of Alaska's Large Marine Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska marine ecosystem-based professional development workshops have proven to be a robust context for engaging scientists from a variety of disciplines in overcoming barriers to communication and collaboration among scientists and educators. Scientists came away from scientist-teacher workshops with effective K-12 outreach strategies as well as a deeper understanding about how to contribute meaningfully to K-12 education. The establishment of the Alaskan Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE-AK) in 2009 was the catalyst for a series of professional development workshops related to the North Pacific Research Board's (NPRB) marine focus areas (Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, and Arctic Ocean) for Integrated Ecosystem Research Programs (IERPs). During 2010-2012, COSEE-AK and NPRB partnered with the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS), and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) to support a five-day professional development workshop focused on each ecosystem. The workshops brought together three types of participants: 1) Alaska-focused marine ecosystem scientists; 2) rural Alaskan teachers living within each ecosystem; and 3) teachers from outside Alaska who had research experiences with scientists in the ecosystem. Over the course of the workshops, we developed a workshop model with four objectives: 1) to increase the science content knowledge of educators and their ability to teach ecosystem science; 2) to provide the scientists an opportunity to have broader impacts from their research on educators and Alaska Native and rural students; 3) to increase the knowledge and skills of educator and scientist participants to provide effective learning experiences for K-12 students; and 4) to facilitate the collaborative development of lesson plans. A total of 28 scientists and 41 educators participated in the three workshops. The success of the workshop for the educators was evaluated by pre- and post-workshop surveys of their perceived increase in content knowledge in specific topics and increased confidence in teaching those topics. The experiences of the scientists were evaluated based on recorded one-on-one interviews. Preliminary results indicate that the Arctic Ocean workshop was the most successful of the three in meeting the workshop objectives for both teacher and scientist participants. The gain in teachers' level of knowledge and confidence was significant for five scientific topics. Scientists reported gains in their understanding of K-12 education, working with teachers, lesson plan design, and how to make their science relevant to Alaska Native students and communities. A comparison of scientists responses from all three workshops indicate that the factors unique to the Arctic Ocean Workshop which contributed to meeting the workshop objectives in terms of scientist engagement were: 1) the sustained involvement of the scientists throughout the workshop, 2) an effective ratio of scientists to teachers (1:1), with flexibility for smaller group work), and 3) the involvement of Alaska Native scientists, educators, and community members in the collaborative work. The lesson plans have been posted to the ARCUS (http://www.polartrec.com) and MBARI (http://www.mbari/earth) websites.

Sigman, M.; Anderson, A.; Deans, N. L.; Dublin, R.; Dugan, D.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Warburton, J.

2012-12-01

156

Marine Science in Support for Sustainable Development of the Indian Ocean Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Ocean rim is home to a significant part of the global population. Its large heat capacity and ocean circulation responds to and regulates seasonal to multi-decadal and long term climate change. In particular the monsoon type circulation regulates rain and drought patterns over India, Africa and Southern Asia. Fishing and more recently resource extraction of energy and materials make the ocean economically important. Global trade and ocean related hazards (such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, ocean de-oxygenation, loss of biodiversity, sea level rise and earth quakes and tsunamis) have important other economic impacts on all societies. On the other hand our current scientific understanding, ability to continually observe changes in the marine environment, model all aspects of the connected ocean system and develop plausible scenarios for the Indian Ocean of the future are still in its infancy. The possibility for a decade long comprehensive Indian Ocean Study in support of providing the information needed for sustainable development of the region is explored.

Visbeck, Martin

2014-05-01

157

Single-ultrafine-particle mass spectrometer development and application  

E-print Network

A single-ultrafine-particle mass spectrometer was constructed and deployed for size-resolved ultrafine aerosol composition measurements during the winter of 2002-2003 in College Station, Texas. Three separate experiments were held between December...

Glagolenko, Stanislav Yurievich

2004-11-15

158

Marine Biology  

E-print Network

this  door. ”   Marine  Biology   I  joined  the  military  RIVERSIDE   Marine  Biology   A Thesis submitted in partialBiology                                                                                                                        

Zaffino, Kyle

2013-01-01

159

Recent developments in the particle size distribution modeling of fluidized-bed olefin polymerization reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a steady-state population balance model is developed for the prediction of the particle size distribution in ethylene copolymerization FBRs operating under moderate particle agglomeration conditions. To calculate the growth rate of a single particle under internal and external heat and mass transfer limitations, the polymeric flow model (PFM) is employed. The PFM is solved together with

H. Yiannoulakis; A. Yiagopoulos; C. Kiparissides

2001-01-01

160

Development and Bias Assessment of a Method for Targeted Metagenomic Sequencing of Marine Cyanobacteria  

PubMed Central

Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in oligotrophic waters and responsible for a significant percentage of the earth's primary production. Here we developed a method for metagenomic sequencing of sorted Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations using a transposon-based library preparation technique. First, we observed that the cell lysis technique and associated amount of input DNA had an important role in determining the DNA library quality. Second, we found that our transposon-based method provided a more even coverage distribution and matched more sequences of a reference genome than multiple displacement amplification, a commonly used method for metagenomic sequencing. We then demonstrated the method on Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus field populations from the Sargasso Sea and California Current isolated by flow cytometric sorting and found clear environmentally related differences in ecotype distributions and gene abundances. In addition, we saw a significant correspondence between metagenomic libraries sequenced with our technique and regular sequencing of bulk DNA. Our results show that this targeted method is a viable replacement for regular metagenomic approaches and will be useful for identifying the biogeography and genome content of specific marine cyanobacterial populations. PMID:24296495

Batmalle, Cecilia S.; Chiang, Hsin-I; Zhang, Kun; Lomas, Michael W.

2014-01-01

161

The effect of resuspending sediment contaminated with antifouling paint particles containing Irgarol 1051 on the marine macrophyte Ulva intestinalis.  

PubMed

The effect of resuspending sediment contaminated with Irgarol 1051 based antifouling paint particles on the green macroalga Ulva intestinalis was examined. U. intestinalis was also exposed to sediment spiked with Irgarol 1051. The macroalga were exposed over 21 days to the resuspension of sediments containing 61.2 mg kg(-1) of antifouling paint particles containing Irgarol 1051 that provided aqueous Irgarol 1051 concentrations of approximately 0.3 microg l(-1), Irgarol 1051 and appropriate controls. The growth response was compared with that for 'clean' sediment. Resuspension of sediment was associated with reduced growth when compared to seawater alone. Resuspension of sediment spiked with Irgarol 1051 was associated with a greater reduction in growth, with growth being significantly reduced when sediment containing antifouling paint particles was resuspended. The data suggest that the prolonged disturbance of sediments containing antifouling paint particles in marinas represents a potential and as yet unquantified hazard to photosynthetic organisms. PMID:17482236

Tolhurst, Laura E; Barry, John; Dyer, Robert A; Thomas, Kevin V

2007-07-01

162

A Model for Particle Microphysics,Turbulent Mixing, and Radiative Transfer in the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer and Comparisons with Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an approx. 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gate conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The vertical profile of cloud droplet concentration is sensitive to the lower size cutoff of the droplet size distribution due to the presence of unactivated haze particles in the lower region of the modeled cloud. Increases in total droplet concentrations do not always produce less drizzle and more cloud water in the model. The radius of the mean droplet volume does not correlate consistently with drizzle, but the effective droplet radius does. The greatest impacts on cloud properties predicted by the model are produced by halving the width of the size distribution of input condensation nuclei and by omitting the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling on the condensational growth of cloud droplets. The omission of infrared scattering produces noticeable changes in cloud properties. The collection efficiencies for droplets less than 30-micron radius, and the value of the accommodation coefficient for condensational droplet growth, have noticeable effects on cloud properties. The divergence of the horizontal wind also has a significant effect on a 12-h model simulation of cloud structure. Conclusions drawn from the model are tentative because of the limitations of the 1D model framework. A principal simplification is that the model assumes horizontal homogeneity, and, therefore, does not resolve updrafts and downdrafts. Likely consequences of this simplification include overprediction of the growth of droplets by condensation in the upper region of the cloud, underprediction of droplet condensational growth in the lower region of the cloud, and under-prediction of peak supersaturations.

Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, Owen B.; Hobbs, Peter V.

1995-01-01

163

A Model for Particle Microphysics, Turbulent Mixing, and Radiative Transfer in the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer and Comparisons with Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an approx. 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gale conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The vertical profile of cloud droplet concentration is sensitive to the lower size cutoff of the droplet size distribution due to the presence of unactivated haze particles in the lower region of the modeled cloud. Increases in total droplet concentrations do not always produce less drizzle and more cloud water in the model. The radius of the mean droplet volume does not correlate consistently with drizzle, but the effective droplet radius does. The greatest impacts on cloud properties predicted by the model are produced by halving the width of the size distribution of input condensation nuclei and by omitting the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling on the condensational growth of cloud droplets. The omission of infrared scattering produces noticeable changes in cloud properties. The collection efficiencies for droplets less than 30-micrometers radius, and the value of the accommodation coefficient for condensational droplet growth, have noticeable effects on cloud properties. The divergence of the horizontal wind also has a significant effect on a 12-h model simulation of cloud structure. Conclusions drawn from the model are tentative because of the limitations of the 1D model framework. A principal simplification is that the model assumes horizontal homogeneity, and, therefore, does not resolve updrafts and downdrafts. Likely consequences of this simplification include overprediction of the growth of droplets by condensation in the upper region of the cloud, underprediction of droplet condensational growth in the lower region of the cloud, and underprediction of peak supersaturations.

Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, Owen B.; Hobbs, Peter V.

1995-01-01

164

An operational model to simulate post-accidental radionuclide transfers in Toulon marine area: preliminary development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of its development of post-accident management tools, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety is setting up a model to simulate radionuclide dispersion in the Toulon marine area (one of France's main military ports). The model is based on the MARS 3D code developed by IFREMER. It reproduces hydro-sedimentation phenomena in the Bay of Toulon with a horizontal spatial resolution of 100 m and 30 vertical sigma levels and also factors in radioactive decay and dissolved/particulate distribution of the radionuclides studied. With no tide, the major currents in this area are generated by the wind. The model effectively reproduces the resulting hydrodynamic phenomena, which were measured throughout the summer of 2009 in the channel that links the Little Bay to the Large Bay of Toulon. When the Mistral (wind from the West/Northwest) blows, a surface current quickly appears, which pushes water southwards from the Little Bay, and which is offset by a bottom current (upwellings). When the wind blows from the East, the currents move in the opposite direction, and southeasterly waves, dependent on wind strength and fetch, occur in the Large Bay. Here, we give an example of the simulated dispersion of radionuclides released directly into the surface waters near the Arsenal, demonstrating the constraint relative to dispersion generated by the half-closed configuration of the Little Bay. Sediment in the Little Bay also forms an area where the most highly reactive radionuclides would accumulate, and where the lack of waves has the effect of considerably limiting the phenomena of resuspension.

Duffa, Celine; Dufois, Francois; Coudray, Sylvain

2011-11-01

165

Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition: testing a new approach to managing marine aggregate dredging.  

PubMed

A baseline dataset from 2005 was used to identify the spatial distribution of macrofaunal assemblages across the eastern English Channel. The range of sediment composition found in association with each assemblage was used to define limits for acceptable change at ten licensed marine aggregate extraction areas. Sediment data acquired in 2010, 4 years after the onset of dredging, were used to assess whether conditions remained within the acceptable limits. Despite the observed changes in sediment composition, the composition of sediments in and around nine extraction areas remained within pre-defined acceptable limits. At the tenth site, some of the observed changes within the licence area were judged to have gone beyond the acceptable limits. Implications of the changes are discussed, and appropriate management measures identified. The approach taken in this study offers a simple, objective and cost-effective method for assessing the significance of change, and could simplify the existing monitoring regime. PMID:23806669

Cooper, Keith M

2013-08-15

166

Development of a decision support system to manage contamination in marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

In recent years, contamination and its interaction with climate-change variables have been recognized as critical stressors in coastal areas, emphasizing the need for a standardized framework encompassing chemical and biological data into risk indices to support decision-making. We therefore developed an innovative, expert decision support system (Exp-DSS) for the management of contamination in marine coastal ecosystems. The Exp-DSS has two main applications: (i) to determine environmental risk and biological vulnerability in contaminated sites; and (ii) to support the management of waters and sediments by assessing the risk due to the exposure of biota to these matrices. The Exp-DSS evaluates chemical data, both as single compounds and as total toxic pressure of the mixture, to compare concentrations to effect-based thresholds (TELs and PELs). Sites are then placed into three categories of contamination: uncontaminated, mildly contaminated, and highly contaminated. In highly contaminated sites, effects on high-level ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e. survival and reproduction) are used to determine risk at the organism-population level, while ecological parameters (i.e. alterations in community structure and ecosystem functions) are considered for assessing effects on biodiversity. Changes in sublethal biomarkers are utilized to assess the stress level of the organisms in mildly contaminated sites. In Triad studies, chemical concentrations, ecotoxicological high-level effects, and ecological data are combined to determine the level of environmental risk in highly contaminated sites; chemical concentration and ecotoxicological sublethal effects are evaluated to determine biological vulnerability in mildly contaminated sites. The Exp-DSS was applied to data from the literature about sediment quality in estuarine areas of Spain, and ranked risks related to exposure to contaminated sediments from high risk (Huelva estuary) to mild risk (Guadalquivir estuary and Bay of Cadiz). A spreadsheet-based version of the Exp-DSS is available at the MEECE and DiSIT web sites (www.meece.eu and www.disit.unipmn.it). PMID:23892026

Dagnino, A; Viarengo, A

2014-01-01

167

Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon currently growing along the Andean fluvial system on altitudes between c. 2000 up to c. 4800 m. Alnus is an important Andean forest taxa since Pliocene. In summary, the Neogene palynological record of the Amazon Fan strongly reflects and confirms the influence of the uplift of the Andes and its transcontinental character from late Miocene onwards.

Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

2014-05-01

168

Development of the General AntiParticle Spectrometer (GAPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GAPS experiment is foreseen to carry out a dark matter search by searching for low energy cosmic ray antideuterons with a novel detection approach. The theoretically predicted antideuteron flux resulting from secondary interactions of primary cosmic rays, e.g. protons, with the interstellar medium is very low. So far not a single cosmic antideuteron has been detected by any experiment, but well-motivated theories beyond the standard model of particle physics contain viable dark matter candidates, which could lead to a significant enhancement of the antideuteron flux due to self-annihilation of dark matter particles. GAPS is designed to achieve its goals via a series of ultra-long duration balloon flights at high altitude in Antarctica. In June 2012, a successful prototype balloon flight from the balloon base in Taiki, Japan was carried out. The presentation will report on the data analysis of the prototype flight and discuss the implications for the design of the full GAPS payload.

Von Doetinchem, Philip

169

Marine Animal Alert System -- Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies -- FY 2011 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal turbines to be deployed in Puget Sound in Washington State. The MAAS will help manage the risk of injury or mortality to marine animals from blade strike or contact with tidal turbines. In particular, development has focused on detection, classification, and localization of listed Southern Resident killer whales within 200 m of prototype turbines using both active and passive acoustic approaches. At the close of FY 2011, a passive acoustic system consisting of a pair of four-element star arrays and parallel processing of eight channels of acoustic receptions has been designed and built. Field tests of the prototype system are scheduled for the fourth quarter of calendar year 2011. Field deployment and testing of the passive acoustic prototype is scheduled for the first quarter of FY 2012. The design of an active acoustic system that could be built using commercially available off-the-shelf components from active acoustic system vendors is also in the final stages of design and specification.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Copping, Andrea E.

2011-09-30

170

Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

Tomanek, Lars

2011-01-01

171

Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings: VIII: Overview of the high-throughput measurement systems developed for a marine coating workflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combinatorial workflow has been produced for the development of novel, environmental-friendly marine coatings. A particularly challenging aspect of the workflow development was the selection and development of high-throughput screening methods that allow for some degree of prediction of coating performance in the aquatic environment of interest. The high-throughput screening methods currently in place include measurements of surface energy, viscoelastic properties, pseudobarnacle adhesion, and a suite of biological assays based on various marine organisms. An experiment involving a series of fouling-release coatings was used to correlate high-throughput screening data to data obtained from ocean site immersion testing. The results of the experiment showed that both bacterial biofilm surface coverage and storage modulus at 30 °C showed a good correlation with barnacle adhesion strength and a fair correlation with fouling rating, but surface energy and pseudobarnacle adhesion did not correlate with the results from ocean site testing.

Chisholm, Bret J.; Stafslien, Shane J.; Christianson, David A.; Gallagher-Lein, Christy; Daniels, Justin W.; Rafferty, Crystal; Wal, Lyndsi Vander; Webster, Dean C.

2007-11-01

172

Toward the Sustainable Development of Marine Minerals: Geological, Technological, and Economic Aspects  

E-print Network

. The rare-earth elements have recently received much attention in the scientific and popular press because result in less efficiency or less favorable properties for a product. The rare-earth elements, Te Potential for Rare and Valuable Metals for High-tech Applications Found in Marine Ferromanganese Deposits Fe

173

Towards the development of sustainability indicators for marine biodiversity in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widely reported indicators of biodiversity within the pressure-state- response paradigm largely comprise (i) lists of 'threatened' species, (ii) threatened species as a percentage of total native species (a state indicator) and (iii) statistics on the proportion of terrestrial or marine areas designated as 'protected' (a response indicator). It is arguable, however, that these reported indicators do not provide effective measures

Jian-hua Liu; Peter Hills

1998-01-01

174

Developments in mapping of seabed habitats for Marine Protected Area planning and monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date a total area of approximately 275 km2 of continental shelf waters within the Solitary Islands Marine Park and adjacent waters has been swath mapped. This data, combined with maps of shallow reefs digitised from aerial photos, underwater video surveys and Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis is used to create a number of spatial products such as digital elevation

Alan Jordan; Peter Davies; Tim Ingleton; Edwina Mesley; Joe Neilson; Tim Pritchard

2010-01-01

175

The Development of the Relationship between Coastal Fisheries and Marine Conservation in the Oder Estuary Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the conflicts and common interests of the coastal fishing industry and marine conservation in the Oder estuary region are analysed. The background is the author's diploma thesis about this topic in the year 2005 and a small, recently conducted survey. The 2005 survey showed that there exist many points of contact between the areas of fishery and

Lars Michaelsen

176

Development of a "genome-proxy" microarray for profiling marine microbial communities, and its application to a time series in Monterey Bay, California  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development and application of a new tool for profiling marine microbial communities. Chapter 1 places the tool in the context of the range of methods used currently. Chapter 2 describes the ...

Rich, Virginia Isabel

2008-01-01

177

Mixing state of aerosols and direct observation of carbonaceous and marine coatings on African dust by individual particle analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixing state of aerosols collected at M'Bour, Senegal, during the Special Observing Period conducted in January–February 2006 (SOP-0) of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project (AMMA), was studied by individual particle analysis. The sampling location on the Atlantic coast is particularly adapted for studying the mixing state of tropospheric aerosols since it is (1) located on the path of

Karine Deboudt; Pascal Flament; Marie Choël; Alexandre Gloter; Sophie Sobanska; Christian Colliex

2010-01-01

178

Speciation of water-soluble inorganic, organic, and total nitrogen in a background marine environment: Cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles were collected in Puerto Rico from December 2004 to March 2007 in order to investigate their chemical composition, relation to sources, and removal processes. The species analyzed were inorganic ions, metals, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC, DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and organic acids. For all samples, the dominant species were marine (Na+, Cl-), representing about 50%-65% of total content. Non-sea-salt fraction was dominated by SO42- (17%-25%), followed by water-soluble organic (2%-8%) and total nitrogen (2% -6%) compounds. Organic acids represented contributions to the organic fraction in cloud water of 20% and 6% for aerosol particles. Inorganic species were predominant in total nitrogen portion. The chemical composition of cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles were observed to be sensitive to transport patterns. Air masses from northwest Africa showed the highest concentrations of nss-Ca2+, Fe, and Al, suggesting a crustal origin. The pH values for cloud water and rainwater observed under this transport pattern were higher than background conditions, probably due to the alkalinity associated with nss-Ca2+. The highest concentrations of Cl- and SO42-, with lower pH, were measured during periods of influence from Soufriere Hills volcano eruptions, most likely due to emitted SO2 and HCl. Air masses from North America had an anthropogenic influence, where levels of nss-SO42-, TOC, and TN were higher (˜4 times) than in clean air masses. These results suggest that long-range transport could be an extra source of metals and organic/nitrogen species to the Caribbean region ecosystems.

Gioda, Adriana; Reyes-RodríGuez, Gabriel J.; Santos-Figueroa, Gilmarie; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Decesari, Stefano; Ramos, Maria Da ConceiçÃ.£O. K. V.; Bezerra Netto, Heleno J. C.; de Aquino Neto, Francisco R.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

2011-03-01

179

Development of analytical and numerical models predicting the deposition rate of electrically charged particles in turbulent channel flows  

E-print Network

An analytical model is established to predict an electrostatically charged particle deposition as a function of particle size in fully-developed turbulent pipe flow. The convectivediffusion flux equation is solved for the particle concentration as a...

Ko, Hanseo

2012-06-07

180

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): supporting the development of a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports an ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. The Ocean Data Interoperability (ODIP) project is creating a co-ordination platform to support collaboration between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and also the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts are coming together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first two ODIP workshops. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential interoperability solutions have been identified and work has now begun to implement these solutions within three prototype development tasks which will be outlined as part of this presentation. ODIP is a community led project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies in each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from six European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 (FP7) programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Arko, Robert; Proctor, Roger

2014-05-01

181

Doped hydrophobic silica nano- and micro-particles as novel agents for developing latent fingerprints.  

PubMed

Novel hydrophobic silica based particles have been developed to visualise latent fingerprints. The composition of the particles has been designed to maximise both hydrophobic and ionic interactions between a variety of coloured and fluorescent reporter molecules and the silicate backbone within the particles. The resulting doped particles retain the incorporated dyes with high affinity. In addition, a variety of sub-particles have also been embedded to again produce coloured or magnetisable hydrophobic particles. The particles can be harvested as nanoparticles or microparticles. The former are applied to latent fingerprints as an aqueous suspension and the latter as a dusting agent using brushes or a magnetic wand. Examples of the prints produced using these agents are given. The resulting prints have good definition. PMID:17418514

Theaker, Brenden J; Hudson, Katherine E; Rowell, Frederick J

2008-01-15

182

particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore a facile and nontoxic hydrothermal route for synthesis of a Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material by using l-cysteine as the sulfur source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the complexing agent. The effects of the amount of EDTA, the mole ratio of the three metal ions, and the hydrothermal temperature and time on the phase composition of the obtained product have been systematically investigated. The addition of EDTA and an excessive dose of ZnCl2 in the hydrothermal reaction system favor the generation of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4. Pure kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 has been synthesized at 180°C for 12 h from the reaction system containing 2 mmol of EDTA at 2:2:1 of Cu/Zn/Sn. It is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy that those binary and ternary phases are absent in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 product. The kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 material synthesized by the hydrothermal process consists of flower-like particles with 250 to 400 nm in size. It is revealed that the flower-like particles are assembled from single-crystal Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoflakes with ca. 20 nm in size. The band gap of the Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material is estimated to be 1.55 eV. The films fabricated from the hierarchical Cu2ZnSnS4 particles exhibit fast photocurrent responses under intermittent visible-light irradiation, implying that they show potentials for use in solar cells and photocatalysis.

Xia, Yu; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengguo; Fang, Xiaoming; Liang, Guozheng

2014-05-01

183

Development of novel electromagnetic antenna for deep target marine CSEM survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine controlled source electromagnetic method (MCSEM) is a new and versatile method for hydrocarbon detection. Deep sea hydrocarbon reservoir exploration is still challenging and expensive. Due to unreliability for the detection of DHIs using seismic data, new methods have been investigated. Sea bed logging (SBL) is a new technique for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon and has potential to reduce the risks of DHIs (direct hydrocarbon indicators) in deep sea environment. The magnitude of EM waves is very important for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon reservoir below 4000m from the sea floor. Nanotechnology has been introduced very effective and shows promising results in many research fields. Ferrite magnetic materials play an important role in many applications due to its versatile magnetic properties. The aluminum based EM antenna is developed and NiZn, YIG ferrite as magnetic feeders are used to increase the field strength from EM antenna. FESEM images show that grain size increases with the increase of sintering temperature and ranges from 30 to 60nm for Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 where as grain size increases from 45 to 110nm for Y3Fe5O12 samples. Due to better magnetic properties, samples (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4-PVDF) sintered at 950°C and (Y3Fe5O12-PVDF) sintered at 1350°C were used as magnetic feeders for the EM antenna. It was investigated that magnitude of EM waves from the novel EM antenna with (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4-PVDF) sintered at 950°C and Y3Fe5O12-PVDF) sintered at 1150°C increases up to 143% and 220% respectively in the lab scale environment. Modeling results by using CST software shows that new EM antenna with magnetic feeders has an ability to increase the D, E, B and H field components. This novel EM antenna with magnetic feeders may be used for the deep target hydrocarbon detection due to enhanced field strength. This new EM transmitter based on nanotechnology may open new horizons for oil and gas industry for deep target hydrocarbon reservoir.

Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Yahya, Noorhana; Shafie, Afza; Nasir, Nadeem; Kashif, Muhammad; Zaid, Hasnah Mohd

2012-09-01

184

Central Heating Plant site characterization report, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the methodology and results of a characterization of the operation and maintenance (O M) environment at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This characterization is part of a program intended to provide the O M staff with a computerized artificial intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist the plant staff in more efficient operation of their plant. 3 refs., 12 figs.

Not Available

1990-08-01

185

Effect of selected marine and freshwater microalgae on development and survival of the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and identified strains of marine and freshwater planktonic and benthic microalgae from the vicinity of Indian\\u000a River County, Florida (?27.5°N, 80.34°W), cultivated them in batch culture, and examined their allelopathic activity against\\u000a mosquito larvae. Additional algal material was obtained from Syracuse University and the University of Texas—Austin Algal\\u000a Culture Collection. Mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.)) from colonies maintained

Jorge R. Rey; Paul E. Hargraves; Sheila M. O’Connell

2009-01-01

186

Development of phoH as a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity?  

PubMed Central

Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment. PMID:21926220

Goldsmith, Dawn B.; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D.; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

2011-01-01

187

Development of phonon-mediated cryogenic particle detectors with electron and nuclear recoil discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations have shown that galaxies, including our own, are surrounded by halos of ``dark matter''. One possibility is that this may be an undiscovered form of matter, weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). This thesis describes the development of silicon based cryogenic particle detectors designed to directly detect interactions with these WIMPs. These detectors are part of a new class of

Sae Woo Nam

1999-01-01

188

Modeling particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation duct  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an improved Eulerian model to predict particle deposition velocity in fully developed turbulent duct flow. The model is modified based on the three-layer model by Lai and Nazaroff (Journal of Aerosol Science, 31, 463–476, 2000), accounting for turbophoresis as well as Brownian diffusion, turbulent diffusion and gravitational settling. An expression relating the turbophoretic velocity to particle relaxation

Bin Zhao; Jun Wu

2006-01-01

189

Development and analysis of startup strategies for particle bed nuclear rocket engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine concept is the focus of the Air Force's Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program. While much progress has been made in developing the concept, several technical issues remain. Perhaps foremost among these concerns is the issue of flow stability through the porous, heated bed of fuel particles. There are two complementary

David E. Suzuki

1993-01-01

190

Development of a particle injection system for impurity transport study in KSTARa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solid particle injection system is developed for KSTAR. The system has a compact size, compatibility with a strong magnetic field and high vacuum environment, and the capability to inject a small amount of solid particles with a narrow injection angle. The target flight-distance of 10 cm has been achieved with a particle loss rate of less than 10%. Solid impurity particles such as tungsten and carbon will be injected by this system at the midplane in KSTAR. The impurity transport feature will be studied with a soft X-ray array, a vacuum ultra-violet diagnostic, and Stand Alone Non-Corona code.

Lee, H. Y.; Hong, Suk-Ho; Hong, Joohwan; Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Siwon; Jang, Juhyeok; Jeon, Taemin; Park, Jae Sun; Choe, Wonho

2014-11-01

191

Marine Modeling and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch (MMAB) of the Environmental Modeling Center is responsible for the development of improved numerical weather and marine prediction modeling systems. These models provide analysis and real-time forecast guidance on marine meteorological, oceanographic, and cryospheric parameters over the global oceans and coastal areas of the US. This site provides access to MMAB modeling tools for ocean waves (including an interactive presentation,) sea ice, marine meteorology, sea surface temperature and more. The site also features a mailing list, bibliography of publications, and information about modeling products still in the experimental and development phases.

National Centers For Environmental Prediction, National O.

192

Development of miniaturized submersible fluorometers for the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in marine waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most widespread organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Due to their physico-chemical properties, PAHs are persistent and mobile, can strongly bioaccumulate in food chains and are harmful to living organisms. They are thus recognized by various international organizations as priority contaminants and are included in the list of 45 priority regulated substances by the European Union. Because of their aromatic structure, PAHs are "optically active" and have inherent fluorescence properties in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral domain (200-400 nm). Therefore, UV fluorescence spectroscopy has been successfully used to develop PAH sensors (i.e. UV fluorometers). Currently, five UV submersible fluorometers are commercially available for in situ measurements of PAHs: EnviroFlu-HC (TriOS Optical Sensors, Germany), Hydrocarbon Fluorometer (Sea & Sun Technology, Germany), HydroC ™ / PAH (CONTROS, Germany), UviLux AquaTracka (Chelsea Technology Group, UK) and Cyclops-7 (Turner Designs, US). These UV fluorometers are all dedicated to the measurement of phenanthrene (?Ex /?Em: 255/360 nm), one of the most abundant and fluorescent PAHs found in the aquatic environment. In this study, we developed original, miniaturized submersible fluorometers based on deep UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for simultaneous measurements of two PAHs of interest: the MiniFluo-UV 1 for the detection of phenanthrene (PHE, at ?Ex /?Em: 255/360 nm) and naphthalene (NAP, at ?Ex /?Em: 270/340 nm), and the MiniFluo-UV 2 for the detection of fluorene (FLU, at ?Ex /?Em: 255/315 nm) and pyrene (PYR, at ?Ex /?Em: 270/380 nm). The MiniFluo-UV sensors have several features: measurements of two PAHs at the same time, small size (puck format, 80 x 60 mm), very low energy consumption (500 mW at 12V), LED monitoring, analog and numerical communication modes. The two MiniFluo-UV sensors were first tested in the laboratory: 1) on standard solutions of PHE, NAP, FLU and PYR in the range 0.1-100 µg l-1 and 2) on a water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil diluted in 0.2 µm filtered seawater (0 to 50% of WSF in seawater). Then, the MiniFluo-UV sensors were mounted onto a conductivity temperature depth (CTD) vertical profiler and tested at sea. Several profiles were performed in the Bay of Marseilles, in different harbours and hydrocarbon-impacted sites. The MiniFluo-UV measurements performed in the laboratory and in the field were associated with spectrofluorometric (EEM/PARAFAC) and/or chromatographic (GC-MS) analyses. The result obtained show that the MiniFluo-UV are pertinent and efficient tool for monitoring hydrocarbon pollutions in the marine environment. This work is a contribution of three projects labelled by the Competitivity Cluster Mer PACA: FUI SEA EXPLORER, DGCIS - Eco industries VASQUE (PI: ACSA-ALCEN, Meyreuil, France) and ANR - ECOTECH IBISCUS (PI: M. Goutx, MIO, Marseille, France).

Tedetti, Marc; Bachet, Caroline; Joffre, Pascal; Ferretto, Nicolas; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

2014-05-01

193

Development of multiple-layer polymeric particles for targeted and controlled drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to develop multilayered particles consisting of a magnetic core and two encompassing shells made up of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) for targeted and controlled drug delivery. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that multilayered particles were obtained with PNIPAAm magnetic nanoparticles embedded within the PLGA shell. Factorial analysis studies also showed that the particle size was inversely proportional to the surfactant concentration and sonication power and directly proportional to the PLGA concentration. Drug-release results demonstrated that these multilayer particles produced an initial burst release and a subsequent sustained release of both bovine serum albumin (BSA) and curcumin loaded into the core and shell of the particle, respectively. BSA release was also affected by changes in temperature. In conclusion, our results indicate that the multilayered magnetic particles could be synthesized and used for targeted and controlled delivery of multiple drugs with different release mechanisms. PMID:19699325

Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Rahimi, Maham; Nattama, Sivaniarvindpriya; Wadajkar, Aniket; Nguyen, Kytai Truong

2010-01-01

194

Norovirus P particle: a subviral nanoparticle for vaccine development against norovirus, rotavirus and influenza virus  

PubMed Central

Noroviruses (NoVs) are important pathogens causing epidemic acute gastroenteritis that affects millions of people worldwide. The protruding (P) domain of the NoV capsid protein, the surface antigen of NoV, forms a 24-mer subviral particle called the P particle that is an excellent candidate vaccine against NoVs. The P particles are easily produced in Escherichia coli, highly stable and highly immunogenic. Each P domain has three surface loops that can be used for foreign antigen presentation, making the P particles a useful platform for vaccine development against other infectious diseases. This article summarizes the discovery, structure, development and applications of the P particles as a vaccine against NoVs, as well as a vaccine platform against rotavirus, influenza virus and possibly other pathogens in the future. PMID:22734641

Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

2012-01-01

195

DEVELOPMENT AND LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION OF A PROTOTYPE COARSE PARTICLE CONCENTRATOR FOR INHALATION TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES. (R825270)  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the development and laboratory characterization of a prototype slit nozzle virtual impactor that can be used to concentrate coarse particles. A variety of physical design and flow parameters were evaluated including different acceleration and collection sli...

196

Development, characterization, and application of a charged particle microbeam for radiobiological research  

E-print Network

The goal of this work is to develop a charged-particle microbeam for use in radiobiological research at the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (LABA). The purpose of this device is to precisely explore the ...

Folkert, Michael R. (Michael Ryan), 1975-

2005-01-01

197

Vertical distribution and in situ feeding of marine particle-grazers in relation to their food, the microplankton  

SciTech Connect

A cruise was completed to measure the vertical distributions of plant biomass, growth, size and species composition, nutritional content and the zooplankton biomass and species composition. There were no consistent differences in the size spectra of particles between the regions of highest plant biomass and highest growth rates. Species known to be noxious or distasteful to the zooplankton were not members of either assemblage. The nutritional content of the particulate matter was greatest at the plant biomass maximum. Thus there was no evidence that the region of higher plant growth rates was a better place for zooplankton to feed. The diurnal distribution of zooplankton biomass was not consistently related to the vertical distributions of plant biomass, primary productivity, or productivity/chlorophyll. At night, the vertical distribution of zooplankton biomass was consistently related to the vertical distribution of plant biomass. There were species whose vertical distributions were consistently related to either the vertical distribution of plant biomass or productivity/chlorophyll a but not primary productivity, contrary to the observations of others. The total grazing pressure, measured in situ with a new design of grazing chamber and an isotopic carrier which labels the particulate matter day and night, indicated that the daily production of plant carbon was much greater than its rate of removal by the grazers. Thus, it is not necessary for the grazer biomass maximum to be located above the chlorophyll a maximum in order for that feature to persist.

Napp, J.M.

1986-01-01

198

Seawater and Detrital Marine Pb Isotopes as Monitors of Antarctic Weathering Following Ice Sheet Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparisons of seawater and detrital Pb isotopes from sites proximal to Antarctica at the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT) are being used to understand variations in continental weathering associated with the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Previous work has shown that seawater and detrital archives yield similar isotopic values during Eocene warmth, which is interpreted to record congruent chemical weathering of the continent. In contrast, distinct isotopic values for the two phases at the EOT represents increased incongruent mechanical weathering during growth of the ice sheet. For this study we expanded beyond the initial glaciation at the EOT to determine whether less dramatic changes in ice volume and climate also produce variations in weathering and intensity that are recorded by seawater and detrital Pb isotopes. We collected Nd and Pb isotope data from extractions of Fe-Mn oxide coatings of bulk decarbonated marine sediments, which preserve seawater isotopic values, and from complete dissolutions of the remaining silicate fraction for Ocean Drilling Program Site 748 on Kerguelen Plateau (1300 m modern water depth). The data spans an interval of deglaciation from ~23.5-27 Ma documented by ?18O that has been equated to a ~30% decrease in ice volume on Antarctica (Pekar and Christie-Blick, 2008, Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol.). Initial results from Site 748 include the first ?Nd values for intermediate waters in the Oligocene Southern Ocean and reveal a value of ~-8 over the entire 3.5 my interval, which is consistent with values reported for deep Indian Ocean sites at this time and similar to deeper Southern Ocean sites. Corresponding detrital ?Nd values are less radiogenic and decrease from -9 to -13 during the study interval. Detrital 206Pb/204Pb values also decrease during the warming interval, while seawater 206Pb/204Pb values increase. The decrease in detrital values indicates the composition of source materials entering the ocean changed as the ice sheet waned. Increasing seawater 206Pb/204Pb may record enhanced chemical weathering under conditions of greater water availability and warmer temperatures combined with abundant rock flour created during the preceding glacial advance. As previous studies have documented initial weathering leachates tend to be more radiogenic than the parent rock composition. Alternatively, seawater values during warming in the late Oligocene approach values recorded during initial ice sheet expansion at the EOT in Site 738, which may suggest Pb isotope variations in seawater and detrital residues are not sensitive to less dramatic intervals of climate change and ice sheet dynamics. We plan to continue this study into the Pliocene to see if we can identify the timing of the transition from a wet-based to dry-based EAIS, an event that is likely to have profound consequences for weathering on Antarctica and the offset between the two Pb isotope archives.

Fenn, C.; Martin, E. E.; Basak, C.

2011-12-01

199

Marine Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science…

Gordon, Bernard L.

200

Development and Evaluation of a PM 10 Impactor-Inlet for a Continuous Coarse Particle Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional PM 10 inlets available operate at a flow rate of 16.7 l\\/min. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a PM 10 inlet designed to operate at 50 l\\/min to be used with a recently developed continuous coarse particle monitor (Misra et al.). Laboratory tests using polystyrene latex particles established the inlet's 50% cutpoint at 9.5

Chandan Misra; Michael D. Geller; Constantinos Sioutas; Paul A. Solomon

2003-01-01

201

Perspectives on the use of marine and freshwater hydrobiont oils for development of drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Marine foods represent a unique source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 (n-3) family. Today it is generally accepted that fish oil is important in a healthy and balanced omnivorous human diet. This favorable health perception of fish oil is however troubled by the high level of PUFA oxidation and low absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract. In this work we present and described various types of delivery systems which are used to improve PUFA and fish oil availability and oxidative stability. PMID:21315143

Averina, E S; Kutyrev, I A

2011-01-01

202

Development of geometrically-nonlinear finite element analysis for marine risers  

E-print Network

nonlinearities. The steady-state hydrodynamic drag loads quantified by Choo (6) are included to approximate the nonlinear tangential and normal drag forces act- ing upon a marine riser. The nonlinear solutions are calculated with a Modified Newton... , S;i . 6, s, i 'du+ 'r, , 6, ri;i 'du = 6'+ pI ? 'r;i 6, eef 'dv. (2. 5) Jiv By assuming that the nonlinear geometric strains, q, 3, have little contribution to the material strains and stresses, the Green-Lagrange strain tensor in the first term...

Haas, Mark Edward

2012-06-07

203

Towards the prediction of cohesive sediments dynamics: developing acoustic and optical measurements via in situ particle visualization.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cohesive particles in marine and costal waters remain a significant challenge to sediment transport predictions. Given the relevance to water quality, pollution, benthic ecology and coastal engineering our ability to develop process-response models of cohesive sediments is poor. Suspended cohesive particles rarely exist in their primary state but form flocs which are aggregated, heterogeneous assemblages of mineral grains, biogenic debris, bacteria and organic material. Floc formation is thus a function of numerous variables whose inter-related processes are yet to be fully elucidated. This complexity is exacerbated by a lack of suitable data, notably in characterizing floc populations. A floc may constitute over 1 million individual particles and size can range over 4 orders of magnitude within one population. The effective densities are also highly variable, and the settling velocity can therefore span several orders of magnitude (Fennessey et al., 1994; Gibbs, 1985). The challenge is to develop data acquisition techniques that will allow accurate quantification of floc characteristics for the determination of SPM concentration and settling velocities for mass settling flux calculations. Particle size ranges and concentrations are not adequately measurable by physical sampling which break up fragile flocs. Remote methods offer the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of floc particle dynamics. However, the responses of light and sound to floc particles remain uncertain. Differences in derived mass concentrations of flocculated and non-cohesive suspensions occur because OBS measures projected area concentration not mass concentration. Laser interferometry (e.g. LISST) is only applicable in relatively low concentrations, can disturb fragile flocs and requires a smooth size distribution and near-spherical particles (e.g. Wren et al., 2000). Acoustic backscatter methods are limited by a lack of data from floc-dominated environments which has restricted the development of suitable acoustic inversion algorithms. Recent innovations of in situ visualization of floc size and settling velocity using INSSEV (e.g. Fennessey et al. 1994) & LabSFLOC (e.g. Manning and Dyer, 1999) have meant a step-change in our understanding of floc dynamics. Consequently, we are now in a position to make simultaneous measurements of cohesive SPM populations using in situ, remote and physical sampling to aid development of methods that account for the flaws in remote measurements. We present selected data collected in the meso-tidal Tamar Estuary, Devon, UK over several tidal cycles. INSSEV and LabSFLOC data were acquired at multiple heights and complimented by physically sampled SPM later analysed for mass and organic content. A suite of ABS and OBS sensors were used to provide multi-frequency vertical response profiles, and a LISST-XT was positioned at INSSEV height. These measurements were augmented by vertical ADV and ADCP profiles of velocity and regular CTD profiles. Examples are shown that reveal different responses of acoustic and optical methods across the tidal cycle. These differences are compared to changes in floc characteristics, SPM concentration, organic content, floc properties, flow hydrodynamics and water density over the tidal cycle in an attempt to determine the key parameters affecting the way in which sound and light interact with flocs. Ultimately, this information will be used to develop inversion algorithms that will allow the recovery of cohesive sediment mass concentrations using combinations of acoustical and optical instruments without the need for extensive field calibrations. Fennessy, M.J., Dyer, K.R., Huntley, D.A. 1994. INSSEV: an instrument to measure the size and settling velocity of flocs in-situ. Mar. Geol., 117, 107-117. Gibbs, R.J. 1985. Estuarine flocs: their size, settling velocity and density. J. Geophys. Res., 90(C2), 3249-3251. Manning, A.J., Dyer, K.R. 1999. A laboratory examination of floc characteristics with regard to turbulent shearing. Mar. Geol, 160, 147-170. Wren, D.G., Barkall, B.D.

Schindler, Rob; Bass, Sarah; Manning, Andrew

2010-05-01

204

Norovirus P Particle, a Novel Platform for Vaccine Development and Antibody Production?  

PubMed Central

The norovirus P particle is an octahedral nanoparticle formed by 24 copies of the protrusion (P) domain of the norovirus capsid protein. This P particle is easily produced in Escherichia coli, extremely stable, and highly immunogenic. There are three surface loops per P domain, making a total of 72 loops per particle, and these are potential sites for foreign antigen presentation for immune enhancement. To prove this concept, a small peptide (His tag, 7 amino acids [aa]) and a large antigen (rotavirus VP8, 159 aa) were inserted into one of the loops. Neither insertion affects P particle formation, while both antigens were presented well on the P particle surface. The immune-enhancement effect of the P particle was demonstrated by significantly increased antibody titers induced by the P particle-presented antigens compared to the titers induced by free antigens. In addition, the measured neutralization antibody titers and levels of protection against rotavirus shedding in mice immunized with the VP8 chimeric P particles were significantly higher than those of mice immunized with the free VP8 antigen. Sera from P particle-VP8 chimera-vaccinated animals also blocked norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) binding to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptors. From these data, the P particle appears to be an excellent vaccine platform for antigen presentation. The readily available three surface loops and the great capacity for foreign antigen insertion make this platform attractive for wide application in vaccine development and antibody production. The P particle-VP8 chimeras may serve as a dual vaccine against both rotavirus and norovirus. PMID:21068235

Tan, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Xia, Ming; Fang, Ping-An; Zhong, Weiming; McNeal, Monica; Wei, Chao; Jiang, Wen; Jiang, Xi

2011-01-01

205

Comparative analysis of European wide marine ecosystem shifts: a large-scale approach for developing the basis for ecosystem-based management.  

PubMed

Abrupt and rapid ecosystem shifts (where major reorganizations of food-web and community structures occur), commonly termed regime shifts, are changes between contrasting and persisting states of ecosystem structure and function. These shifts have been increasingly reported for exploited marine ecosystems around the world from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic. Understanding the drivers and mechanisms leading to marine ecosystem shifts is crucial in developing adaptive management strategies to achieve sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystems. An international workshop on a comparative approach to analysing these marine ecosystem shifts was held at Hamburg University, Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany on 1-3 November 2010. Twenty-seven scientists from 14 countries attended the meeting, representing specialists from seven marine regions, including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Barents Sea, the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Bay of Biscay and the Scotian Shelf off the Canadian East coast. The goal of the workshop was to conduct the first large-scale comparison of marine ecosystem regime shifts across multiple regional areas, in order to support the development of ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:21270025

Möllmann, Christian; Conversi, Alessandra; Edwards, Martin

2011-08-23

206

Marine Organic Aerosols and Their Implication to Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact that marine organic aerosols have been hypothesized to affect climate through their impact on cloud microphysical properties, emission parameterizations have only recently been available and have not undergone extensive model evaluation. In a literature review of the chemical and physical characteristics of marine organic aerosols, recent trends indicate that these aerosols are externally-mixed with sea-salt and can influence the size distribution towards larger and more numerous particles. Simulations of the emission of secondary and primary marine organic aerosols are performed using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.7 model, with primary organic aerosols (POA) having a much larger effect on surface aerosol mass concentrations. To develop an improved marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, observations of organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol (OMSSA), chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chl-a]), and 10 meter wind speed (U10) at two coastal sites are used to multivariable size-resolved parameterization that has global emissions of 2.8 to 5.6 Tg C yr-1 whose seasonality is more consistent with observations. These emissions, as well as several previously published marine POA emission parameterizations, are evaluated within the GEOS-Chem modeling framework. From this evaluation, marine POA emissions directly related to [Chl-a] best predicted the seasonality of surface concentrations while no parameterization performed well predicting episodic events. The climate impact of marine organic aerosols is determined by implementation of their emissions into the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with aerosol microphysics. The combination of marine secondary organic aerosols, methane sulfonate, and primary organic aerosol contribute up to 400 ng m -3 in annual average submicron organic aerosol mass concentration. Compared to the simulations without marine organic aerosols, the simulations with externally-mixed marine POA emissions have a 20% increase in the surface cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration near biologically productive ocean regions. The simulations only including secondary marine organic aerosol sources or internally-mixed marine POA emissions did not have large differences in the surface CCN concentration relative to the simulations with marine organic aerosols. Model simulations with and without marine organic aerosol and anthropogenic emissions are compared to determine the impact of marine organic aerosols on the current and preindustrial climate. Marine organic aerosols increase the model-predicted aerosol indirect forcing estimate by ˜0.1 W m -2 mainly due to changes in cloud microphysical properties in the pristine preindustrial climate.

Gannt, Brett Daniel

207

Marine Attitude Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

208

Development of an adhesively bonded beryllium propulsion structure for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, testing, and fabrication of the support truss structure for the propulsion system of the Mariner 9 spacecraft are described. Support is provided by an 8.9-kg (19.5-lbm) truss assembly consisting of beryllium tubes adhesively bonded to magnesium end fittings. Beryllium was selected for the tubular struts in the truss because of its exceptionally high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Adhesive bonding, rather than riveting, was utilized to join the struts to the end fittings because of the low toughness (high notch sensitivity) of beryllium. Magnesium, used in the end fittings, resulted in a 50% weight saving over aluminum since geometric factors in the fitting design resulted in low stress areas where magnesium's lower density is a benefit.

Stevens, J. H.; Layman, W. E.

1972-01-01

209

Marine bioorganic chemistry as the base of marine biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies carried out at the Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and at other centers of structural investigation of marine organism metabolites were used as examples to consider some features of the biochemistry of marine natural products and the achievements of marine bioorganic chemistry, which open up ways to the development

G. B. Elyakov; V. A. Stonik

2003-01-01

210

Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

Pendse, H.P.

1992-10-01

211

Development of the Moving Least Squares Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Approach For Inert/Energetic Material Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PRIMEX-Warhead Systems (PWS) has developed a smooth particle code based upon a methodology developed by G. Dilts (1999) referred to as MLSPH (Moving Least Squares Smooth Paticles Hydrodynamics). The object is to solve general high rate problems associated with the interaction of energetic and inert materials. Some conservative numerical schemes in cylindrical geometry were developed as well 1D, 2D, and 3D cartesian coding. We use a simple neighbor search technique that limits the computation of searching neighbor particles to one order lower compared to the total CPU time of calculation. PWSuses randomly distributed phantom particles to eliminate certain terms in the numerical growth factor, thus improving the stability of the MLSPH method. In fact, the stability factor can be close to unity. The boundary treatment is also naturally implemented by using this approach. The particle size effect has been minimized through rezoning. PWS developed a new numerical technique of second order accuracy that exactly conserves mass and volume. The rezoning technique provides smoother boundary surface and improves stability by naturally moving apart the particles that are close together. This rezoning method can be used to construct a conservative scheme for volume expansion of particles (mass conservation) that keeps the volume sum of particles equal to the volume enclosed by boundaries, this feature is not satisfied in other SPH schemes. We have also started working on the implementation of a general 3D rezoning technique for SPH. The PWS-MLSPH code is able to deal with material interactions between solid, fluid and gas. Several reaction models are contained in the code to solve problems that involves explosives. In particular the burn process of inert materials contained in an explosive matrix is handled with a 'neighbor ignition' method. That allows an explosive particle to be ignited only by another burning explosive particle that is close enough. We will present a calculation involving the interaction of inert tungsten particles in a TNT matrix. The program will eventually be modified to allow for energy release of metallic particles into the reaction zone (as a function of particle size and coating). The figure below depicts a calculation of 100 micron tungsten in a 60/40 volume ratio.

Yao, Jin; Gunger, Michael

2001-06-01

212

Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics.

Dusek, J.; Kottapalli, A. G. P.; Woo, M. E.; Asadnia, M.; Miao, J.; Lang, J. H.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

2013-01-01

213

Marine Biotechnology: A New Vision and Strategy for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine Board-ESF The Marine Board provides a pan-European platform for its member organisations to develop common priorities, to advance marine research, and to bridge the gap between science and policy in order to meet future marine science challenges and opportunities. The Marine Board was established in 1995 to facilitate enhanced cooperation between European marine science organisations (both research institutes and

J. Querellou; T. Børresen; C. Boyen; A. Dobson; M. Höfle; A. Ianora; M. Jaspars; A. Kijjoa; J. Olafsen; G. Rigos; R. H. Wijffels

2010-01-01

214

Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

Kolb, James A.

215

Marine Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biotechnology based upon genes from the marine environment (sometimes referred to as “blue-biotechnology”) has a considerable,\\u000a if hitherto relatively unused, potential because of the enormous phylogenetic diversity of marine organisms and the potential\\u000a for novel undiscovered biological mechanisms, including biochemical pathways. The increasing knowledge of marine genomics\\u000a has started to have a major impact on the field of marine biotechnology.

Joel Querellou; Jean-Paul Cadoret; Michael J. Allen; Jonas Collén

216

An optimized method for delivering flow tracer particles to intravital fluid environments in the developing zebrafish.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that intravital flow-structure interactions are critical morphogens for normal embryonic development and disease progression, but fluid mechanical studies aimed at investigating these interactions have been limited in their ability to visualize and quantify fluid flow. In this study, we describe a protocol for injecting small (?1.0 ?m) tracer particles into fluid beds of the larval zebrafish to facilitate microscale fluid mechanical analyses. The microinjection apparatus and associated borosilicate pipette design, typically blunt-tipped with a 2-4 micron tip O.D., yielded highly linear (r(2)=0.99) in vitro bolus ejection volumes. The physical characteristics of the tracer particles were optimized for efficient particle delivery. Seeding densities suitable for quantitative blood flow mapping (?50 thousand tracers per fish) were routinely achieved and had no adverse effects on zebrafish physiology or long-term survivorship. The data and methods reported here will prove valuable for a broad range of in vivo imaging technologies [e.g., particle-tracking velocimetry, ?-Doppler, digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), and 4-dimensional-DPIV] which rely on tracer particles to visualize and quantify fluid flow in the developing zebrafish. PMID:22985309

Craig, Michael P; Gilday, Steven D; Dabiri, Dana; Hove, Jay R

2012-09-01

217

An Optimized Method for Delivering Flow Tracer Particles to Intravital Fluid Environments in the Developing Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Abstract Growing evidence suggests that intravital flow–structure interactions are critical morphogens for normal embryonic development and disease progression, but fluid mechanical studies aimed at investigating these interactions have been limited in their ability to visualize and quantify fluid flow. In this study, we describe a protocol for injecting small (?1.0??m) tracer particles into fluid beds of the larval zebrafish to facilitate microscale fluid mechanical analyses. The microinjection apparatus and associated borosilicate pipette design, typically blunt-tipped with a 2–4 micron tip O.D., yielded highly linear (r2=0.99) in vitro bolus ejection volumes. The physical characteristics of the tracer particles were optimized for efficient particle delivery. Seeding densities suitable for quantitative blood flow mapping (?50 thousand tracers per fish) were routinely achieved and had no adverse effects on zebrafish physiology or long-term survivorship. The data and methods reported here will prove valuable for a broad range of in vivo imaging technologies [e.g., particle-tracking velocimetry, ?-Doppler, digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), and 4-dimensional-DPIV] which rely on tracer particles to visualize and quantify fluid flow in the developing zebrafish. PMID:22985309

Gilday, Steven D.; Dabiri, Dana; Hove, Jay R.

2012-01-01

218

Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Ji?í; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

2014-02-01

219

The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines  

SciTech Connect

Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

2012-11-28

220

Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2003-08-01

221

The dynamics of particle disks. III - Dense and spinning particle disks. [development of kinetic theory for planetary rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The kinetic theory of planetary rings developed by Araki and Tremaine (1986) and Araki (1988) is extended and refined, with a focus on the implications of finite particle size: (1) nonlocal collisions and (2) finite filling factors. Consideration is given to the derivation of the equations for the local steady state, the low-optical-depth limit, and the steady state at finite filling factors (including the effects of collision inelasticity, spin degrees of freedom, and self-gravity). Numerical results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. The importance of distinguishing effects (1) and (2) at low optical depths is stressed, and the existence of vertical density profiles with layered structures at high filling factors is demonstrated.

Araki, Suguru

1991-01-01

222

Transcriptome Analysis and SNP Development Can Resolve Population Differentiation of Streblospio benedicti, a Developmentally Dimorphic Marine Annelid  

PubMed Central

Next-generation sequencing technology is now frequently being used to develop genomic tools for non-model organisms, which are generally important for advancing studies of evolutionary ecology. One such species, the marine annelid Streblospio benedicti, is an ideal system to study the evolutionary consequences of larval life history mode because the species displays a rare offspring dimorphism termed poecilogony, where females can produce either many small offspring or a few large ones. To further develop S. benedicti as a model system for studies of life history evolution, we apply 454 sequencing to characterize the transcriptome for embryos, larvae, and juveniles of this species, for which no genomic resources are currently available. Here we performed a de novo alignment of 336,715 reads generated by a quarter GS-FLX (Roche 454) run, which produced 7,222 contigs. We developed a novel approach for evaluating the site frequency spectrum across the transcriptome to identify potential signatures of selection. We also developed 84 novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for this species that are used to distinguish coastal populations of S. benedicti. We validated the SNPs by genotyping individuals of different developmental modes using the BeadXPress Golden Gate assay (Illumina). This allowed us to evaluate markers that may be associated with life-history mode. PMID:22359608

Zakas, Christina; Schult, Nancy; McHugh, Damhnait; Jones, Kenneth L.; Wares, John P.

2012-01-01

223

Developing an in vitro technology to study the inflammation potential of ambient particle types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated levels of suspended particles in the troposphere, termed particulate matter, elicit a myriad of adverse health effects in humans, ranging from shortness of breath and wheezing to myocardial infarction and death. It is currently believed that the adverse health effects associated with particulate matter are mediated by the inflammatory response initiated by the lung following particulate matter inhalation. What remains an area of much interest is elucidating the specific properties of particulate matter, physical or chemical, that cause the upregulation of proinflammatory mediators. The basic premise of this thesis was to identify the specific chemical components of particulate matter responsible for its adverse health effects. To address this issue, instrumentation and methodology were developed wherein one could design, create, levitate and deposit particles of both known chemical composition and size onto lung cells, in vitro, followed by the monitoring of the downstream biological response. An initial study focused on the role of the endotoxin component in particulate matter toxicity. Through a series of blocking studies we found that endotoxin acted synergistically with the particle core to elicit upregulation of proinflammatory mediators, including IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and ICAM-1; all of which are associated with the NF-kappaB pathway. Through characterizing this relatively simple system, one observation became apparent: the presence of the insoluble particle core had a profound effect on the cellular response; that is to say, the particle core was not simply a delivery vector, but a determinant factor in the final intracellular location of the toxic chemical. The latter observation held true as other particle types were studied and in addition, it was found that the nature of the actual chemical species itself plays a dual role in particle toxicity; first by retaining its toxic properties and second by altering the physical properties of the particle. It stems from these findings that the toxicity of the chemical components must be studied in concert and not as individual entities.

Haddrell, Allen E.

224

Development of a parameterization scheme for calculating dry deposition velocity of fine, coarse and giant particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parameterization scheme is developed for calculating bulk dry deposition velocity (Vd) of fine (PM2.5-particles having a diameter of ? 2.5 ?m), coarse (PM2.5-10-particles having a diameter of 2.5-10 ?m), and giant (PM10+-particles having a diameter of > 10 ?m) atmospheric particles. The parameterization scheme is developed from an empirical fit of Vd data calculated using the size-resolved Vd scheme of Zhang et~al. (2001) with assumed lognormal size distributions of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10+. In the new scheme, the surface deposition velocity (Vds) is parameterized as a simple linear function of friction velocity (u*) for PM2.5 and as a polynomial function of u* for both PM2.5-10 and PM10+ over all the 26 land use categories (LUCs). An adjustment factor as an exponential function of u* and leaf area index (LAI) is also applied to Vds of PM2.5-10 and PM10+ over nine of the 26 LUCs that have variable LAI. Constant gravitational settling velocities are provided for PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10+. Aerodynamic resistance between a reference height and the surface can be calculated using available analytical formulas from literature. The bulk Vd of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10+ at the reference height can then be calculated by combining the gravitational settling velocity, aerodynamic resistance and the parameterized Vds. The new parameterization scheme agrees reasonably well with the original size-resolved scheme and provides an alternative approach for calculating Vd of fine, coarse and giant particles. Vd of any particle species can be simply estimated using this scheme as long as the mass fraction in fine, coarse and giant particles are known or can be assumed.

Zhang, L.; He, Z.

2013-12-01

225

Advances and future needs in particle production and transport code developments  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of accelerators and ever expanding needs of existing accelerators demand new developments and additions to Monte-Carlo codes, with an emphasis on enhanced modeling of elementary particle and heavy-ion interactions and transport. Challenges arise from extremely high beam energies and beam power, increasing complexity of accelerators and experimental setups, as well as design, engineering and performance constraints. All these put unprecedented requirements on the accuracy of particle production predictions, the capability and reliability of the codes used in planning new accelerator facilities and experiments, the design of machine, target and collimation systems, detectors and radiation shielding and minimization of their impact on environment. Recent advances in widely-used general-purpose all-particle codes are described for the most critical modules such as particle production event generators, elementary particle and heavy ion transport in an energy range which spans up to 17 decades, nuclide inventory and macroscopic impact on materials, and dealing with complex geometry of accelerator and detector structures. Future requirements for developing physics models and Monte-Carlo codes are discussed.

Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

2009-12-01

226

Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects in Particle Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Sydney has offered an undergraduate course in particle technology using a contemporary problem based learning (PBL) methodology since 2005. Student learning is developed through the solution of complex, open-ended problems drawn from modern chemical engineering practice. Two examples are presented; i) zero emission electricity…

Harris, Andrew T.

2009-01-01

227

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CONTINUOUS COARSE (PM10-PM2.5) PARTICLE MONITOR  

EPA Science Inventory

In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 um) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating princ...

228

Envrionmental applications of marine biotechnology: Summary of a program development workshop. Held in La Jolla, California on August 2, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The California Sea Grant College System held a workshop on environmental applications of marine biotechnology on August 2, 1994 at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California. The goal of this workshop was to bring agency representatives, researchers and potential users together in an open dialogue on the needs, opportunities, and potential applications of biological and biochemical technologies in monitoring, remediation, and restoration of contaminated marine environments. Specifically the workshop assessed the current state of knowledge of `environmental marine biotechnology` in California, cited some examples of environmental problems, and attempted to identify some of the key scientific questions and areas for future Sea Grant research. The intent of this document is not to exhaustively review all the existing problems within the State of California, nor all the current and future applications of marine environmental technologies, but rather to touch upon some of the examples where marine biotechnology may make important contributions and to make some recommendations with regard to future program initiatives.

Tebo, B.M.

1995-12-31

229

Development of uranium reference particles for nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the oversight of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and as part of the Additional Protocol of the International Atomic Energy Agency, environmental sampling has become an important tool for the detection of non-declared nuclear activities. One extensively developed technique in environmental sampling (ES) makes use of pieces of cotton cloth called swipes to wipe surfaces in and around a nuclear facility. The dust collected on these swipes typically contains micrometer-sized uranium particles with an isotopic composition characteristic for the processes at the inspected facility. Since its implementation in the 1990s, ES has proven to be a very effective tool in the detection of clandestine activities owing to a number of highly sensitive and selective techniques, including secondary ion mass spectrometry and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. However, considering the potential consequences of the analyses, these measurements need to be subjected to a rigorous quality management system. In a continuous effort to improve the accuracy and detection efficiency of the uranium isotope ratio measurements, uranium particle reference materials are being developed by different research groups. It was concluded however, that the existing methods for the production of particulate reference materials generally do not reproduce the particles recovered from swipe samples. For this reason, we developed the aerosol deposition chamber at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements for the production of reference uranium particles that are representative of the particles collected at enrichment facilities. This method is based on the controlled hydrolysis of milligram amounts of uranium hexafluoride with a certified uranium isotopic composition. After optimization of the experimental set-up, the particles produced by the aerosol deposition chamber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The particle morphology and composition were found to be dependent on the relative humidity of the air, the exposure to ultraviolet light and the time elapsed after formation. Possible correlations between the relative amount of fluorine and the age of the particles were investigated. These results were the starting point for the first inter-laboratory measurement evaluation programme (NUSIMEP) on uranium particles.

Kips, Ruth

230

Nuclear fuel coated particle development in the reactor fuel element laboratories of the U. K. Atomic Energy Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the coated particle development program at the Reactor Fuel Element Laboratories (RFL) have been to define the essentials of a production route for the manufacture of nuclear fuel kernels and coated particles and to identify the important process parameters that determine the particle properties and hence the irradiation performance. Detailed characterization assessments of the various components of

P. L. Allen; L. H. Ford; J. V. Shennan

1977-01-01

231

Antitumor Peptides from Marine Organisms  

PubMed Central

The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides. PMID:22072999

Zheng, Lan-Hong; Wang, Yue-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Yuan; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Sun, Mi

2011-01-01

232

Integrating Conservation and Development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: Perception and Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS’s management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of Alonissos claimed benefits were scant. Tourists (domestic and foreign) believe that the NMPANS is not the main attraction to Alonissos Island but is part of a composite, including serenity, aesthetic beauty, and small-scale tourism development, which can turn Alonissos Island into an ideal eco-tourism destination; a common aspiration for both the tourists and the local community by general consensus. The aim of the NMPANS to integrate conservation and development lies in (1) the effectiveness of the NMPANS management body in formulating a strategic management plan that would accommodate stakeholders’ interests and aspirations and (2) a national policy of conservation and enhancement of natural resources with consistency and continuity. Quantitative assessment of the socioeconomic effectiveness of the Mediterranean MPAs using a common methodology would facilitate the identification of intraregional variation and better planning for the network of MPAs in the Mediterranean.

Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

2008-11-01

233

Integrating conservation and development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: perception and practice.  

PubMed

Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS's management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of Alonissos claimed benefits were scant. Tourists (domestic and foreign) believe that the NMPANS is not the main attraction to Alonissos Island but is part of a composite, including serenity, aesthetic beauty, and small-scale tourism development, which can turn Alonissos Island into an ideal eco-tourism destination; a common aspiration for both the tourists and the local community by general consensus. The aim of the NMPANS to integrate conservation and development lies in (1) the effectiveness of the NMPANS management body in formulating a strategic management plan that would accommodate stakeholders' interests and aspirations and (2) a national policy of conservation and enhancement of natural resources with consistency and continuity. Quantitative assessment of the socioeconomic effectiveness of the Mediterranean MPAs using a common methodology would facilitate the identification of intraregional variation and better planning for the network of MPAs in the Mediterranean. PMID:18626688

Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

2008-11-01

234

Exploring Larval Development and Applications in Marine Fish Aquaculture Using Pink Snapper Embryos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This biology investigation on "Pristipomoides filamentosus" larval development, survival, and aquaculture research was developed with three educational objectives: to provide high school students with (1) a scientific background on the biology and science of fisheries as well as overfishing, its consequences, and possible mitigations;…

Tamaru, Clyde; Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.; Gorospe, Kelvin D.; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

2014-01-01

235

Marine and Maritime Sector Skills Shortages in the South West of England: Developing Regional Training Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clustering theory assumes that companies gravitate towards each other on the basis of locally and regionally specific resources and supply chain characteristics, which lead in turn to innovation and high-value economic development. In line with such thinking, UK government policy has devolved certain functions to regional development agencies such…

Beer, Julian; Meethan, Kevin

2007-01-01

236

Development of spherical iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate-containing solid particles with sustained drug release.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop a simple, economic procedure for the manufacturing of coated iron(II) sulfate particles by using a crystallization technique for the development of round particles, followed by coating with a lipophilic material. Several batches of iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate were produced by a cooling crystallization, with variation of the crystallization parameters. The spherical crystals were coated with stearin. The products were characterized for particle size, roundness, bulk density and in vitro drug dissolution. Crystallization was performed from deionized water with no addition of seed crystals and by cooling by applying a linear cooling rate. The developed iron(II) sulfate crystals were round with average diameter of 729+/-165 microm. The best form for the sustained release of iron(II) sulfate was the sample HTP-2 which contained 11% of stearin relative to the iron(II) sulfate. The spherical crystallization of iron(II) sulfate is simple and fast, and does not require a dangerous, expensive solvent. The round particles can coat directly with lipophilic material which results in slow release of iron(II) sulfate and protects the iron(II) from oxidation and inhibits the loss of crystal water. The coated crystals can be filled into capsules to yield the final dosage form. PMID:17125982

Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Farkas, Béla; Gregor, Tamás; Nagy, Kálmán; Pallagi, Edina

2007-05-01

237

Development of antibiotic selection kit towards veterinary applications using glycine passivated magnetic particles.  

PubMed

Glycine functionalized (Gly/Fe3O4) and non-functionalized (Fe3O4) magnetic particles were synthesized in an autoclave and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and zeta potential. The size of the both these particles were in the range of 220-230 nm but the shape of the Gly/Fe3O4 particles was hexagonal in contrast to the spherical shape of Fe3O4 particles. The particle characterization tests confirmed that glycine was functionalized on the Gly/Fe3O4 particles, they were positively charged and possessed strong magnetic property. These particles possessed the ability to bind to bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus in the range of 72-90%. They were used to entrap bacteria from clinical mastitic milk samples from cows. The entrapped bacteria of the above species from these samples were isolated and used individually in the conventional disc-diffusion method of antibiotic susceptibility determination. The results were compared with that of the bacterial species isolated directly from the mastitic milk samples and were found to be 100% concordant (n=25). The developed portable antibiotic selection kit was tested with twenty five samples of mastitic milk. The results indicated that, antibiotic resistant bacteria turned the methylene blue in to white color while the bacteria that were killed (sensitive) retained the blue color of the dye. Thus the right choice of the antibiotic to treat cows with mastitis could be determined based on the naked eye. In conclusion, the kit gave quicker results, was easy to assay and read and can be 'farm-gate' applicable than the presently available conventional method. PMID:23932979

Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Vadivoo, V Senthil; Kumanan, Kathaperumal; Prabakaran, Rajamanickam

2014-01-15

238

Development of Bioadhesive Chitosan Superporous Hydrogel Composite Particles Based Intestinal Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 32 full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery. PMID:23984380

Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan

2013-01-01

239

Development of an integrated energetic neutral particle measurement system on experimental advanced full superconducting tokamaka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full function integrated, compact silicon photodiode based solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) have been developed for energetic particle (EP) relevant studies on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ssNPAs will be mostly operated in advanced current mode with a few channels to be operated in conventional pulse-counting mode, aiming to simultaneously achieve individually proved ultra-fast temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution capabilities. The design details together with considerations on EAST specific engineering realities and physics requirements are presented. The system, including a group of single detectors on two vertical ports and two 16-channel arrays on a horizontal port, can provide both active and passive charge exchange measurements. ssNPA detectors, with variable thickness of ultra thin tungsten dominated foils directly deposited on the front surface, are specially fabricated and utilized to achieve about 22 keV energy resolution for deuterium particle detection.

Zhu, Y. B.; Zhang, J. Z.; Qi, M. Z.; Xia, S. B.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.

2014-11-01

240

Developing Supersonic Impactor and Aerodynamic Lens for Separation and Handling of Nano-Sized Particles  

SciTech Connect

A computational model for supersonic flows of compressible gases in an aerodynamic lens with several lenses and in a supersonic/hypersonic impactor was developed. Airflow conditions in the aerodynamic lens were analyzed and contour plots for variation of Mach number, velocity magnitude and pressure field in the lens were evaluated. The nano and micro-particle trajectories in the lens and their focusing and transmission efficiencies were evaluated. The computational model was then applied to design of a aerodynamic lens that could generate focus particle beams while operating under atmospheric conditions. The computational model was also applied to airflow condition in the supersonic/hypersonic impactor. Variations of airflow condition and particle trajectories in the impactor were evaluated. The simulation results could provide understanding of the performance of the supersonic and hypersonic impactors that would be helpful for the design of such systems.

Goodarz Ahmadi

2008-06-30

241

Viruses and marine pollution.  

PubMed

This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems. PMID:12604062

Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

2003-03-01

242

Particle motion is broadly represented in the vestibular medulla of the bullfrog across larval development.  

PubMed

In their shallow-water habitats, bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles are exposed to both underwater and airborne sources of acoustic stimulation. We probed the representation of underwater particle motion throughout the tadpole's dorsal medulla to determine its spatial extent over larval life. Using neurobiotin-filled micropipettes, we recorded neural activity to z-axis particle motion (frequencies of 40-200 Hz) in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN), and along the dorsal arcuate pathway. Sensitivity was comparable in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei, with estimated thresholds between 0.016 and 12.5 ?m displacement. Neither best responding frequency nor estimated threshold varied significantly over larval stage. Transport of neurobiotin from active recording sites was also stable over development. The DMN responded poorly to z-axis particle motion, but did respond to low-frequency pressure stimulation. These data suggest that particle motion is represented widely and stably in the tadpole's vestibular medulla. This is in marked contrast to the representation of pressure stimulation in the auditory midbrain, where a transient "deaf period" of non-responsiveness and decreased connectivity occurs immediately prior to metamorphic climax. We suggest that, in bullfrogs, sensitivity to particle motion and to pressure follows different developmental trajectories. PMID:22198742

Simmons, Andrea Megela; Flores, Victoria

2012-04-01

243

Particle motion is broadly represented in the vestibular medulla of the bullfrog across larval development  

PubMed Central

In their shallow-water habitats, bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles are exposed to both underwater and airborne sources of acoustic stimulation. We probed the representation of underwater particle motion throughout the tadpole’s dorsal medulla to determine its spatial extent over larval life. Using neurobiotin-filled micropipettes, we recorded neural activity to z-axis particle motion (frequencies of 40–200 Hz) in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN), and along the dorsal arcuate pathway. Sensitivity was comparable in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei, with estimated thresholds between 0.016 and 12.5 ?m displacement. Neither best responding frequency nor estimated threshold varied significantly over larval stage. Transport of neurobiotin from active recording sites was also stable over development. The DMN responded poorly to z-axis particle motion, but did respond to low-frequency pressure stimulation. These data suggest that particle motion is represented widely and stably in the tadpole’s vestibular medulla. This is in marked contrast to the representation of pressure stimulation in the auditory midbrain, where a transient “deaf period” of non-responsiveness and decreased connectivity occurs immediately prior to metamorphic climax. We suggest that, in bullfrogs, sensitivity to particle motion and to pressure follows different developmental trajectories. PMID:22198742

Flores, Victoria

2012-01-01

244

Marine Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 34 species of marine mammals have been documented in Costa Rican waters, representing approximately 26% of all marine\\u000a mammals worldwide. The Costa Rican marine mammal fauna consist of 30 cetacean species, one manatee, and three pinnipeds, one\\u000a of which went extinct since the 1950s. At least 31 of these species most likely also occur in other Central American countries.

Laura May-Collado

245

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will perform experiments to examine if debris will float, or blow in the wind. They will discover which characteristics of trash affect the likelihood that it will become marine debris. Trash that floats or is easily blown around is more likely to become marine debris. As a result of this activity students will be able to define marine debris and categorize different types of debris.

Museum, Bishop

246

Progress and hurdles in the development of influenza virus-like particle vaccines for veterinary use  

PubMed Central

Virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble infectious virus particles in structure and morphology, have been proposed to provide a new generation of vaccine candidates against various viral infections. As effective immunogens, characterized by high immunogenicity and safety, VLPs have been employed in the development of human influenza vaccines. Recently, several influenza VLP vaccines have been developed for veterinary use and successfully evaluated in swine, canine, duck, and chicken models. These VLP vaccine candidates induced protective immune responses and enabled serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals in conjunction with a diagnostic test. Here, we review the current progress of influenza VLP development as a next-generation vaccine technology in the veterinary field and discuss the challenges and future direction of this technology. PMID:25003086

2014-01-01

247

Marine Education Society of Australasia, Inc. (MESA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Australian organization supports educators interested in coastal and marine environments, identifies best practices in marine education, provides a forum to facilitate the development of environmental education and interpretation programs, and promotes sustainable use of natural resources through education. Programs include: a national awareness campaign; member training, workshops and conferences; a marine educator online discussion board; teaching ideas and resources. Site offers information sheets on marine topics, audio files, marine-related news, online newsletter, recommended websites.

248

Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions.  

PubMed

The formation of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei--from which marine clouds originate--depends ultimately on the availability of new, nanometre-scale particles in the marine boundary layer. Because marine aerosols and clouds scatter incoming radiation and contribute a cooling effect to the Earth's radiation budget, new particle production is important in climate regulation. It has been suggested that sulphuric acid derived from the oxidation of dimethyl sulphide is responsible for the production of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei. It was accordingly proposed that algae producing dimethyl sulphide play a role in climate regulation, but this has been difficult to prove and, consequently, the processes controlling marine particle formation remains largely undetermined. Here, using smog chamber experiments under coastal atmospheric conditions, we demonstrate that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapours, which are the photolysis products of biogenic iodocarbons emitted from marine algae. Moreover, we illustrate, using aerosol formation models, that concentrations of condensable iodine-containing vapours over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. We suggest therefore that marine iodocarbon emissions have a potentially significant effect on global radiative forcing. PMID:12050661

O'Dowd, Colin D; Jimenez, Jose L; Bahreini, Roya; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H; Hämeri, Kaarle; Pirjola, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Jennings, S Gerard; Hoffmann, Thorsten

2002-06-01

249

Development of Holographic Particle Velocimetry Techniques for Three-Dimensional Vortical Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of techniques to measure instantaneous velocity vector fields in three-dimensional (3D) space is the primary obstacle to further understanding of vortex dynamics and turbulence phenomena. Holographic Particle Velocimetry (HPV), which can record a 3D flow field laden with tracer particles on holograms using pulsed laser beams and measure the particle displacements, appears to be highly promising to this end. An HPV technique based on in-line holography has been implemented, which is characterized by geometric simplicity and minimal laser requirements. To overcome limitations (such as intrinsic speckle noise and large depth-of-focus) of in-line HPV, an analytical model has been developed which elucidates the nature of the speckle noise, quantifies the signal-to-noise-ratio of particle images as a function of particle field parameters, and suggests ways for further improvements in HPV concepts. Based upon these results, an off-axis HPV system has been developed in which speckle noise is suppressed and depth-of-focus is reduced, but the system complexity increases as well. Improving upon off-axis HPV, two innovative techniques--viz. multibeam, and in-line recording/off-axis viewing (IROV)--have been proposed. Proof-of-concept has been established for the multibeam HPV which utilizes the laser energy efficiently. The IROV technique, which enjoys the geometric simplicity of in-line HPV as well as the low speckle noise and small depth-of-focus of off-axis HPV has been developed and applied to measure an unstable vortex ring (Re = 1360) in water. The instantaneous velocity vector field in a 3D space (21 mm x 40 mm x 11 mm) is obtained at a spatial resolution of 1 mm. The vorticity distribution and circulation as a function of radius from the core center are calculated.

Meng, Hui

250

Models of solar energetic particle fluxes: the mean requirements and the development prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The models of energetic solar particles (SEP) are intended for calculating the fluences and peak fluxes, which are expected to occur for a given period at any known or predicted solar activity level and to exceed their calculated sizes within a given probability. Like any other model that describes a natural phenomenon, a SEP model must reflect the objective reality, including the regular features inherent to SEP. Therefore, - as the SEP occurrence probability is proportional to solar activity, the model must predict the SEP fluxes as dependent on any solar activity level. The models that disregard the SEP fluxes during "quiet Sun" periods introduce an error of up to a few orders into their estimates of interplanetary particle flu xes; - as the SEP distribution function is accepted to be a power-law (not lognormal) function of SEP event size, the SEP model cannot disregard a great number of the minor events, which may not exceed the detection threshold of meters and can contribute much to the particle fluxes during short-term space flights and under low solar activity; - as the SEP impact is a function of the particle energy (the energy transfer to matter and the cross-sections for inelastic interactions are all energy-dependent), the particle flux must be known for any energy, i.e., the differential SEP energy spectra must be determined; - as many of the radiation effects depend on the heavy particle flux, the SEP models must include not only protons, but also all heavy ions; - as the heavy ion fluxes are relatively small (similar to the high-energy proton fluxes), any sufficiently comprehensive SEP model cannot be developed basing on the measured particle flux distribution because of the scanty statistics, but must be based on the found regular features relevant to the particle fluxes, their energy spectra included. Since the databases of SEP fluxes measured by separate instruments prove to be very different, thus indicating significant systematic errors of the measurements, any SEP m del cannot be developed without checking on the full reliability of the inputo experimental data.

Kuznetsov, N.; Nymmik, R.; Panasyuk, M.

251

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 10, PAGES 1207-1210, OCTOBEX 1982 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF NITRATE AND SULFATE IN THE MARINE ATMOSPHERE  

E-print Network

of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33149 Abstract. Cascade impactor with high volume cascade impactors during 1974 and 1981. The 1974 samples were collected a t three locations. Sampling and Analysis Cascade impactor samples were collected with a Weather Measure Corp. Model 235 High

Prospero, Joseph M.

252

DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multi-Agency effort is underway to develop whole sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk as...

253

DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

multiagency effort is underway to develop whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk asse...

254

Development of a promising fish model (Oryzias melastigma) for assessing multiple responses to stresses in the marine environment.  

PubMed

With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been "taken into labs" by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies. PMID:24724087

Dong, Sijun; Kang, Mei; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting

2014-01-01

255

Marine Electromagnetic System Development in the Shallow Water Environment for Radioactive Waste Repository Site Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center of Japan has recently conducted a program to develop an electromagnetic (EM) technology for investigating the subsurface to the depths of 1,000m below the seafloor in the near-shore environment. Potential applications include structural studies for geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The system includes both natural field by magnetotellurics and controlled source EM data

K. Yoshimura; S. Sakashita; S. Okubo; K. Yamane

2006-01-01

256

The adhesive strategies of cyprids and development of barnacle-resistant marine coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, approaches to the development of surfaces that perturb settlement and\\/or adhesion by barnacles have diversified substantially. Although, previously, coatings research focussed almost exclusively on biocidal technologies and low modulus, low surface-free-energy ‘fouling-release’ materials, novel strategies to control surface colonisation are now receiving significant attention. It is timely, therefore, to review the current ‘state of knowledge’ regarding

Nick Aldred; Anthony S. Clare

2008-01-01

257

Investigation using data from ERTS to develop and implement utilization of living marine resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of utilizing ERTS-1 data in conjunction with aerial remote sensing and sea truth information to predict the distribution of menhaden in the Mississippi Sound during a specific time frame has been demonstrated by employing a number of uniquely designed empirical regression models. The construction of these models was made possible through innovative statistical routines specifically developed to meet the stated objectives.

Stevenson, W. H. (principal investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.

1973-01-01

258

Mechanical methods for dry particle coating processes and their applications in drug delivery and development.  

PubMed

Modification of the surface properties of particles, which is usually achieved by coating, is desirable to maintain and enhance the utility of these particles. Saving of time, energy, number of additives, process steps and consequently, the cost of the coating process leads to development of dry coating processes using mechanical methods which exclude any liquid solvent or binder solution and are environmentally safe, and cost-effective. Mechanofusion, hybridization, magnetic assisted impaction coating, theta-composer, rotating fluidized bed coating, pressure swing granulation and high shear mixing have been extensively patented and reported in the scientific literature. These mechanical methods have found multidisciplinary applications in drug development and drug delivery. Various devices available for the dry coating process, their principle, method of working, benefits and limitations along with various applications relevant to the pharmaceutical field are discussed in the current article. PMID:19939220

Gera, Manoj; Saharan, Vikas A; Kataria, Mahesh; Kukkar, Vipin

2010-01-01

259

Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases  

PubMed Central

Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience. Therefore, some examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be discussed. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new therapies targeting the central nervous system will be addressed, with particular focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, the neuronal growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering, will be highlighted. PMID:24798925

Grosso, Clara; Valentao, Patricia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

2014-01-01

260

Development of micro-shock wave assisted dry particle and fluid jet delivery system.  

PubMed

Small quantity of energetic material coated on the inner wall of a polymer tube is proposed as a new method to generate micro-shock waves in the laboratory. These micro-shock waves have been harnessed to develop a novel method of delivering dry particle and liquid jet into the target. We have generated micro-shock waves with the help of reactive explosive compound [high melting explosive (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) and traces of aluminium] coated polymer tube, utilising ?9 J of energy. The detonation process is initiated electrically from one end of the tube, while the micro-shock wave followed by the products of detonation escape from the open end of the polymer tube. The energy available at the open end of the polymer tube is used to accelerate tungsten micro-particles coated on the other side of the diaphragm or force a liquid jet out of a small cavity filled with the liquid. The micro-particles deposited on a thin metal diaphragm (typically 100-?m thick) were accelerated to high velocity using micro-shock waves to penetrate the target. Tungsten particles of 0.7 ?m diameter have been successfully delivered into agarose gel targets of various strengths (0.6-1.0 %). The device has been tested by delivering micro-particles into potato tuber and Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus (ground nut) stem tissue. Along similar lines, liquid jets of diameter ?200-250 ?m (methylene blue, water and oils) have been successfully delivered into agarose gel targets of various strengths. Successful vaccination against murine salmonellosis was demonstrated as a biological application of this device. The penetration depths achieved in the experimental targets are very encouraging to develop a future device for biological and biomedical applications. PMID:22763845

Rakesh, S G; Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Allam, Uday Sankar; Nataraja, Karaba N; Barhai, P K; Jagadeesh, Gopalan; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

2012-11-01

261

Marine Biomedicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

Bang, Frederik B.

1977-01-01

262

Marine Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

1976-01-01

263

Effect of chlorination on the development of marine biofilms dominated by diatoms.  

PubMed

This study addressed the antifouling efficiency of commercially available chlorine at different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) and exposure times (0.5 min, 1 min, 5 min, and 15 min). The rapid and non-destructive FIRe (fluorescence induction and relaxation) technique was used to evaluate the effects of the biocide on diatom dominated biofilms. The efficiency of chlorine in removing diatoms from the developed biofilms increased with an increase in concentration and exposure time. The fluorescence measurements revealed low F(v)/F(m) and high ?(PSII) values for chlorine-treated Navicula and Amphora biofilms indicating that chlorination was efficient in damaging the photosystem-II reaction centers. Chlorination also caused mortality of diatom cells by damaging the cell body. In natural biofilms, the biocidal effect of chlorine was species specific; species of Amphiphrora, Navicula, Cylindrotheca, and Coscinodiscus showed an increase in the density of the population, but species of Pleurosigma, Amphora, and Thalassionema did not increase in density after chlorine treatment. It was also demonstrated that diatoms can colonize, grow and photosynthesize on chlorine-treated surfaces. Under pulse chlorination (treatment every 6 h), irrespective of chlorine concentration, the development of biofouling decreased with an increase in exposure time. Differences between exposure times of 1 to 15 min were not significant. Additionally, transmission levels of the control (non-chlorine-treated) fouled coupons reduced significantly (?20%) compared to the chlorine-treated fouled coupons (<2%). These results suggest that chlorine can be used as a biocide to control the development of diatom biofilms. PMID:21337191

Patil, Jagadish S; Jagadeesan, V

2011-03-01

264

Using ARCHON to Develop Real-World DAI Applications for Electricity Transportation and Particle Accelerator Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ARCHON,(ARchitecture for Cooperative Heterogeneous ON-line systems) was Europe’s largest ever project in the area of Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI). It devised a general-purpose architecture, software framework, and methodology,which has been used to support the development,of DAI systems in a number,of real world industrial domains. Two of these applications, electricity transportation management and particle accelerator control, have been run successfully

N. Jennings; J. M. Corera; L. Laresgoiti; E. Mamdani; F. Perriollat; P. Skarek; L. Varga

1995-01-01

265

Development of a Hypertrophic Ovarian Artery After Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the treatment of symptomatic leiomyomata has shown excellent short-term clinical efficacy and minimal complications, yet recurrences after successful treatments at mid- and long-term follow-up have been reported. Exact etiologies for such recurrences have not been fully understood. We present a case of symptom recurrence with the development of a hypertrophic ovarian artery after successful UAE with polyvinyl alcohol particles, successfully treated with ovarian and repeat UAEs.

Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: sikhkim@jhmi.edu; Paxton, Ben E. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)

2007-09-15

266

Stress development during drying of calcium carbonate suspensions containing carboxymethylcellulose and latex particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress development during drying of coatings produced from aqueous dispersions of calcium carbonate particles in the presence and absence of organic binders was studied using a controlled-environment stress apparatus that simultaneously monitored drying stress, weight loss, and relative humidity. Specifically, the influence of two organic binders on drying stress evolution was investigated: (1) carboxymethylcellulose, a water-soluble viscosifying aid, and (2) a styrene–butadiene

Pär Wedin; Carlos J Martinez; Jennifer A Lewis; John Daicic; Lennart Bergström

2004-01-01

267

3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry: Development and Applications in Small Scale Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis contains two parts of studies. In part I, a novel volumetric velocimetry technique is developed to measure the 3-D flow field of small-scale flows. The technique utilizes a color-coded pinhole plate with multiple light sources aligned to each pinhole to achieve high particle image density and large measurable depth on a single lens microscope system. A color separation algorithm and an improved particle identification algorithm are developed to identify individual particle images from each pinhole view. Furthermore, a calibration-based technique based on epi-polar line search method is developed to reconstruct the spatial coordinates of the particle, and a new two-frame tracking particle-tracking algorithm is developed to calculate the velocity field. The system was setup to achieve a magnification of 2.69, resulting in an imaging volume of 3.35 x 2.5 x 1.5 mm3 and showed satisfactory measurement accuracy. The technique was then further miniaturized to achieve a magnification of 10, resulting in a imaging volume of 600 x 600 x 600 microm3. The system was applied to a backward-facing step flow to test its ability to reconstruct the unsteady flow field with two-frame tracking. Finally, this technique was applied to a steady streaming flow field in a microfluidic device used to trap particles. The results revealed the three-dimensional flow structure that has not been observed in previous studies, and provided insights to the design of a more efficient trapping device. In part II, an in-vitro study was carried out to investigate the flow around a prosthetic venous valve. Using 2-D PIV, the dynamics of the valve motion was captured and the velocity fields were measured to investigate the effect of the sinus pocket and the coupling effect of a pair of valves. The PIV and hemodynamic results showed that the sinus pocket around the valve functioned as a flow regulator to smooth the entrained velocity profile and suppress the jet width. For current prosthetic valve design a shorter leaflets is advantageous because it prevents flow stasis and reduce the energy loss. Valve pairing tests showed that an orthogonal configuration of the valve pair result in a complicated 3-D flow around the valve, which can increase the mixing of the blood flow and prevent reversed flow in between the valves. The tests of different valve separation distance showed that the coupling effect of two valves was weakened as the separation distance increased, suggesting the existence of a separation distance between the two valves to maximize the coupling effect and keep the flow structure stable.

Tien, Wei-Hsin

268

Development of a Cartesian-grid finite-volume characteristic flux model for marine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Finite Volume method based on Characteristic Fluxes for compressible fluids is developed. An explicit cell-centered resolution is adopted, where second-order accuracy is provided by using a MUSCL scheme with Sweby or Superbee limiters for the hyperbolic part. Resolution is performed on a generic unstructured Cartesian grid, where solid boundaries are handled by a Cut-Cell method. Interfaces are explicitely advected in a non-diffusive way, ensuring local mass conservation of each fluid. An improved cell cutting has been developed to handle boundaries of arbitrary geometrical complexity. The mesh density is locally adapted to provide accuracy along these boundaries, which can be fixed or move inside the mesh. Instead of using a polygon clipping algorithm, we use the Voxel traversal algorithm coupled with a local floodfill scanline to intersect 2D or 3D boundary surface meshes with the fixed Cartesian grid. Small cells stability problem near the boundaries is solved using a fully conservative merging method. Inflow and outflow conditions are also implemented in the model. The solver is validated on 2D academic test cases, such as the flow past a cylinder. The latter test cases are performed both in the frame of the body and in a fixed frame where the body is moving across the mesh. Extension to 3D is presently being implemented and first results will be presented at the conference.

Leroy, C.; Le Touzé, D.; Alessandrini, B.

2010-06-01

269

Marine Electromagnetic System Development in the Shallow Water Environment for Radioactive Waste Repository Site Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center of Japan has recently conducted a program to develop an electromagnetic (EM) technology for investigating the subsurface to the depths of 1,000m below the seafloor in the near-shore environment. Potential applications include structural studies for geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The system includes both natural field by magnetotellurics and controlled source EM data was collected to evaluate the feasibility of the methods and instrumentation. The shallow water environment is challenging because of high water currents and wave motion effects contaminating the data. We demonstrate the performance test of the new type of instrument, and the field experiment that was carried out in the Monterey Bay of California, USA, in 2003 and 2004. In this paper we describe the instrumentation developed, shows some examples from field trial and finally provide some inversion results using collected and simulated data. The system consists of EM transmitter deployed on the beach in combination with a series of offshore based multicomponent receivers. Field data collected near Monterey California revealed some of the challenges associated with this type of system. Collected data showed the influence of wave and cultural noise as well. In site of these difficulties we were able to accumulate a sufficient quantity of good quality records to interpret results. We show 2-D inversion results which image the "Navy Fault zone" which strikes NW-SE offshore Monterey bay in water depths of 10 to 40m.

Yoshimura, K.; Sakashita, S.; Okubo, S.; Yamane, K.

2006-12-01

270

Development and application of a sublethal toxicity test to PAH using marine harpacticoid copepods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research project was designed to improve the understanding of the acute and sublethal effects of PAHs to benthic invertebrates. Sublethal bioassay protocols for benthic harpacticoid copepods were developed, and two species of harpacticoids were exposed to a range of concentrations of sediment-amended PAHs; the single compounds fluoranthene and phenanthrene as well as a complex mixture (diesel fuel). The harpacticoid copepods Schizopera knabeni and Nitocra lacustris were tested using several bioassay approaches. Reproductive assays, feeding assays and avoidance tests were conducted in addition to lethal tests for S. knabeni. Species-specific differences in sensitivity were detected. Early life history stages were much more sensitive than adults in one species but not in the other. Concentrations of PAH as low as 26 micrograms PAH decreased copepod offspring production, egg hatching success, and embryonic and early-stage development, demonstrating the high sensitivity of life history-related endpoints. In addition, grazing on microalgae was significantly impaired at concentrations as low as 20 micrograms/g PAH after short exposures (<30 h). Finally it was demonstrated that harpacticoids can actively avoid contamination.

Fleeger, J.W.; Lotufo, G.R.

1999-01-01

271

Occurrence of venlafaxine residues and its metabolites in marine mussels at trace levels: development of analytical method and a monitoring program.  

PubMed

Coastal areas are subject to growing pressures and impacts because of the increase in human activities. Lipophilic organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been monitored for decades within monitoring programs. However, until now, little information on the detection of so-called "emerging contaminants" such as hydrophilic organic compounds in the marine environment and no data on its metabolites or transformation products in marine organisms is available. In this report, a sensitive analytical methodology for identification and confirmation of venlafaxine (VEN) residues and five of its main metabolites in the marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was validated. The sample preparation procedure was based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) approach. An analytical method was developed to quantify these compounds at trace levels by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was then applied to marine mussels collected from the Mediterranean Sea in southeastern France. Residues of the antidepressant VEN were occasionally detected at ng/g dw level. In addition, the approach allowed us to identify several transformation products in the analyzed samples. N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) was the most frequently detected metabolite followed by N,O-di-desmethylvenlafaxine (NODDV). PMID:24306328

Martínez Bueno, M J; Boillot, C; Munaron, D; Fenet, H; Casellas, C; Gómez, E

2014-01-01

272

Development of Ecogenomic Sensors for Remote Detection of Marine Microbes, Their Genes and Gene Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An internet search using the phrase "ecogenomic sensor" will return numerous references that speak broadly to the idea of detecting molecular markers indicative of specific organisms, genes or other biomarkers within an environmental context. However, a strict and unified definition of "ecogenomic sensor" is lacking and the phrase may be used for laboratory-based tools and techniques as well as semi or fully autonomous systems that can be deployed outside of laboratory. We are exploring development of an ecogenomic sensor from the perspective of a field-portable device applied towards oceanographic research and water quality monitoring. The device is known as the Environmental Sample Processor, or ESP. The ESP employs wet chemistry molecular analytical techniques to autonomously assess the presence and abundance of specific organisms, their genes and/or metabolites in near real-time. Current detection chemistries rely on low- density DNA probe and protein arrays. This presentation will emphasize results from 2007-8 field trials when the ESP was moored in Monterey Bay, CA, as well as current engineering activities for improving analytical capacity of the instrument. Changes in microbial community structure at the rRNA level were observed remotely in accordance with changing chemical and physical oceanographic conditions. Current developments include incorporation of a reusable solid phase extraction column for purifying nucleic acids and a 4-channel real-time PCR module. Users can configure this system to support a variety of PCR master mixes, primer/probe combinations and control templates. An update on progress towards fielding a PCR- enabled ESP will be given along with an outline of plans for its use in coastal and oligotrophic oceanic regimes.

Scholin, C.; Preston, C.; Harris, A.; Birch, J.; Marin, R.; Jensen, S.; Roman, B.; Everlove, C.; Makarewicz, A.; Riot, V.; Hadley, D.; Benett, W.; Dzenitis, J.

2008-12-01

273

Development of a marine subtidal epibiotic community in Hong Kong: implications for deployment of artificial reefs.  

PubMed

A 2-year study was conducted in Hong Kong to examine the effects of substratum, season and length of submersion on the development of a subtidal epibiotic community using four types of settlement panels (concrete, steel, wood and tyre). The season and length of submersion had a strong influence on the total biomass and on community structure while the type of substratum had very little impact on the total biomass or the structure of the epibiotic community. The season of submersion determined the species composition of the newly submerged surfaces. In the spring and summer, tubeworms were the most abundant. In the autumn and winter, barnacles and tunicates dominated. Community succession was not obvious in the first year of submersion as it was intermingled with strong seasonal settlement, growth and death of barnacles and tunicates. In the second year of submersion, green mussels and tunicates settled and grew to occupy most of the panel surfaces, forming an assemblage that was characteristic of climax communities in the local subtidal waters. The results suggest that the type of construction material has limited impact on the development of epibiotic communities on artificial reefs deployed in Hong Kong; the season of submersion may affect community structure in the early successional stage, but not the characteristics of the climax communities. This study indicates that the type of substratum should not be of concern when deploying artificial reefs in the subtidal waters in this region. The design of artificial reefs should focus more on other physical and economical aspects such as durability, flow dynamics, stability, cost, and effects on the ambient environment. PMID:14618687

Qiu, Jian-Wen; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Leung, Albert W; Qian, Pei-Yuan

2003-02-01

274

Mariner-Venus 1967  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

1971-01-01

275

Hydrodynamics of the developing region in hydrophobic microchannels: A dissipative particle dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is becoming a popular particle-based method to study flow through microchannels due to the ease with which the presence of biological cells or DNA chains can be modeled. Many lab-on-a-chip devices require the ability to manipulate the transport of cells or DNA chains in the fluid flow. Microchannel surfaces coated with combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials have been found useful for this purpose. In this work we study numerically the hydrodynamics of a steady nonuniform developing flow between two infinite parallel plates with hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the DPD. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces are modeled using partial-slip and no-slip boundary conditions, respectively, in the simulations. We also propose a method to model the inflow and outflow boundaries for the DPD simulations. The simulation results of the developing flow are in good agreement with analytical solutions from continuum theory for no-slip and partial-slip surfaces. The entrance region constitutes a considerable fraction of the channel length in miniaturized devices. Thus it is desirable for the length of the developing region to be short as most microfluidic devices such as cell or DNA separators and mixers are designed for the developed flow field. We study the effect of a hydrophilic strip near the inlet of a hydrophobic microchannel on the developing length. We find that the presence of the hydrophilic strip significantly reduces the developing length.

Ranjith, S. Kumar; Patnaik, B. S. V.; Vedantam, Srikanth

2013-03-01

276

Linking marine biology and biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of

Rocky de Nys; Peter D Steinberg

2002-01-01

277

Development of histopathological indices in a commercial marine bivalve (Ruditapes decussatus) to determine environmental quality.  

PubMed

Bivalve histopathology is an acknowledged tool in environmental toxicology studies, however geographically restricted, limited to a few species and still lacking the degree of detail needed to develop effective (semi)quantitative approaches. A first-time detailed histopathological screening was performed on grooved carpet shell clams collected from commercial shellfish beds in distinct coastal ecosystems of the Southern Portuguese coast: two parted sites within an impacted estuary (S(1) and S(2)), an inlet channel of a fish farm at a considered pristine estuary (site M) and a site allocated in a clean coastal lagoon (A). A total of thirty histopathological lesions and alterations were analysed in the gills and digestive glands following a weighted condition indices approach, including inflammation-related responses, necrosis, neoplastic diseases and parasites. Digestive glands were consistently more damaged than gills, except for animals collected from site M, where the most severe lesions were found in both organs, immediately followed by S(2). Clams from sites S(1) and A were overall the least damaged. Neoplastic diseases were infrequent in all cases. Inflammation-related traits were some of the most common alterations progressing in animals enduring severe lesions such as digestive tubule (diverticula) and intertubular tissue necrosis. Some alterations, such as lipofuscin aggregates within digestive tubule cells, did not relate to histological lesions. Granulocytomas only occurred in heavily infected tissues. Animals from M and A presented the highest infections in the digestive gland, especially by protozoa. Gill infections were more similar between sites. Still, the level of infection does not account for all histopathological lesions in either organ. Overall, the results are in accordance with environmental parameters, such as distance to pollution sources, sediment type and hydrodynamics, and show that the combination of multiple histopathological features in these clams provides good sensitivity for inter-site distinction even when low or moderate anthropogenic impacts are at stake. PMID:23010389

Costa, Pedro M; Carreira, Sara; Costa, Maria H; Caeiro, Sandra

2013-01-15

278

Development and use of radiation detection technology for buried seabed particles.  

PubMed

From the initial 1997 diver-based gamma survey of the seabed sediments offshore of Dounreay, there has been continuous development of instrumentation and techniques. The initial contract surveyed randomly chosen areas, to ascertain if any particles were indeed present, since they had been found on the Dounreay foreshore in previous years. In total 34 particles were located and recovered. The period 1998-2002 saw further diver-based surveys using more sensitive and better designed detection systems. A towed system incorporating the same detectors was also deployed, covering extensive areas of the seabed. Throughout this period a more detailed understanding of particle dispersion emerged. The primary source of particles was identified as the old diffuser, with evidence for a dispersion plume heading north-east. In late 2002, Fathoms selected a gamma spectrometry system for trial and evaluation for possible future subsea deployment. The positive results led to a field trial being awarded by UKAEA for deployment of a stationary platform with a 7.8 cm x 7.8 cm NaI detector on the seabed at various offshore locations. This trial identified particles by their 137Cs photopeak and delivered the explanation for the gamma activity banding in the 'anomalous' zone. This successful trial led in 2004 to a joint Fathoms/UKAEA lab trial of the SAM-935 system of the larger 10 cm x 10 cm x 40 cm NaI crystal, inside a marinising unit. These proved to be fit for purpose and UKAEA tasked Fathoms to deliver in 2004 a tracked remotely operated vehicle (ROV) capable of deploying the larger detectors to allow gamma mapping of seabed sediments, up to a maximum depth of 100 m. Preliminary results of the 2005 ROV work are presented. PMID:17768315

Cassidy, Jim; Toole, Joe

2007-09-01

279

Development of Modeling and Simulation for Magnetic Particle Inspection Using Finite Elements  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a widely used nondestructive inspection method for aerospace applications essentially limited to experiment-based approaches. The analysis of MPI characteristics that affect sensitivity and reliability contributes not only reductions in inspection design cost and time but also improvement of analysis of experimental data. Magnetic particles are easily attracted toward a high magnetic field gradient. Selection of a magnetic field source, which produces a magnetic field gradient large enough to detect a defect in a test sample or component, is an important factor in magnetic particle inspection. In this work a finite element method (FEM) has been employed for numerical calculation of the MPI simulation technique. The FEM method is known to be suitable for complicated geometries such as defects in samples. This thesis describes the research that is aimed at providing a quantitative scientific basis for magnetic particle inspection. A new FEM solver for MPI simulation has been developed in this research for not only nonlinear reversible permeability materials but also irreversible hysteresis materials that are described by the Jiles-Atherton model. The material is assumed to have isotropic ferromagnetic properties in this research (i.e., the magnetic properties of the material are identical in all directions in a single crystal). In the research, with a direct current field mode, an MPI situation has been simulated to measure the estimated volume of magnetic particles around defect sites before and after removing any external current fields. Currently, this new MPI simulation package is limited to solving problems with the single current source from either a solenoid or an axial directional current rod.

Jun-Youl Lee

2003-05-31

280

Development and Demonstration of a Computational Tool for the Analysis of Particle Vitiation Effects in Hypersonic Propulsion Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve the understanding of particle vitiation effects in hypersonic propulsion test facilities, a quasi-one dimensional numerical tool was developed to efficiently model reacting particle-gas flows over a wide range of conditions. Features of this code include gas-phase finite-rate kinetics, a global porous-particle combustion model, mass, momentum and energy interactions between phases, and subsonic and supersonic particle drag and heat transfer models. The basic capabilities of this tool were validated against available data or other validated codes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the code a series of computations were performed for a model hypersonic propulsion test facility and scramjet. Parameters studied were simulated flight Mach number, particle size, particle mass fraction and particle material.

Perkins, Hugh Douglas

2010-01-01

281

Efficient strategy for enhancing aspergiolide A production by citrate feedings and its effects on sexual development and growth of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergiolide A production enhancement by citrate and its effects on growth and sexual development of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus HB1-19 were investigated. In agar plate culture, 15mM citric acid decreased colony radial growth and aspergiolide A production by 31.5% and 23.0%, respectively. It also improved sexual cleistothecium formation by 360% but depressed asexual conidiospore generation by 84.8%. In submerged culture,

Menghao Cai; Xiangshan Zhou; Jiushun Zhou; Chuanpeng Niu; Li Kang; Xueqian Sun; Yuanxing Zhang

2010-01-01

282

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine debris is an environmental problem of global importance, enlisting the concern and action of scientists, policy makers, as well as the general public. This three-lesson kit focuses primarily on plastic marine debris. Students critically examine data and samples and take part in activities that explore the causes, geographical distribution, and biological impacts of marine debris. Each lesson can be completed in about 50-60 minutes, but many of the activities are discrete and can be easily rearranged to fit various curricular objectives and time constraints.

2012-01-01

283

Connecting to the Standards through Marine Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine and related environmental science topics represent a rich resource of meaningful material for New Jersey's educators as they seek to develop standards-based instructional strategies. By adopting and integrating the marine environment science programs and curriculum materials developed by the Education Program at the New Jersey Marine

New Jersey Marine Sciences Consortium, Fort Hancock. New Jersey Sea Grant Coll. Program.

284

Theoretical development of a graphical analysis technique to optimize the particle size distribution of pigments in paints and coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new analytical expression introduced in this study shows that a plot of the accumulated volume fraction of pigment particles\\u000a vs. the square root of particle size should be a straight line for the theoretically preferred particle size distribution.\\u000a This linear theoretical model was also found to be consistent with the experimentally developed linear model proposed by Kaeuffer.\\u000a However, Kaeuffer

Richard D. Sudduth

2003-01-01

285

Status of marine biomedical research.  

PubMed Central

A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

Bessey, O

1976-01-01

286

Marine biodiversity characteristics.  

PubMed

Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. PMID:21640952

Boeuf, Gilles

2011-05-01

287

Marine structure  

SciTech Connect

A marine structure is described having a base and a foundation means projecting downwardly from the base for pressing into the sea bed. The foundation comprises a wall system with pile means on both sides of the wall(s).

Olsen, O.

1981-12-08

288

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

289

Development of a polarization optical particle counter capable of aerosol type classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a polarization optical particle counter (POPC) for measuring the concentrations of aerosol types, which were classified using polarization information from particle-scattered light. Polarization sensors that detect P and S polarization components of scattered light were placed at a scattering angle of 120°. The polarization ratio is calculated as the ratio of the S component to the sum of the S and P components, and it is used to help distinguish proposed aerosol types. The POPC field observation was conducted in Fukuoka, located in the western part of Japan, in 2012. The classification rule for three aerosol types (mineral dust, air pollution, and sea-salt particles) was determined empirically on the basis of measurements during typical conditions dominated by each aerosol type. The mass concentration of each aerosol type was estimated from the POPC measurement with some assumptions. The results indicate independent seasonal variation in each aerosol mass concentration. Using black carbon as an indicator of anthropogenic aerosols, we show a correlation of 0.770 with our estimated pollution aerosol type.

Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Shiraishi, Koichi; Nakura, Yoshinobu; Enomoto, Takayuki; Miura, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Naoe, Hiroaki; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo

2014-11-01

290

Development of large-area quadrant silicon detector for charged particles  

E-print Network

The quadrant silicon detector, a kind of passivated implanted planar silicon detector with quadrant structure on the junction side, gained its wide application in charged particle detection. In this paper, the manufacturing procedure, performance test and results of the quadrant silicon detector developed recently at the China Institute of Atomic Energy are presented. The detector is about 300 $\\mu$m thick with a 48$\\times$48 mm$^{2}$ active area. The leakage current under full depletion bias voltage of -16 V is about 2.5 nA, and the raising time is better than 160 ns. The energy resolution for 5.157 MeV $\\alpha$-particle is around the level of $1\\%$. Charge sharing effects between the neighboring quads, leading to complicated correlations between two quads, were observed when $\\alpha$ particles illuminated on the junction side. It is explained as a result of distortion of electric field of inter-quad region. Such events is only about $0.6\\%$ of all events and can be neglected in an actual application.

Pengfei Bao; Chengjian Lin; Feng Yang; Zhaoqiao Guo; Tianshu Guo; Lei Yang; Lijie Sun; Huiming Jia; Xinxing Xu; Nanru Ma; Huanqiao Zhang; Zuhua Liu

2014-01-28

291

Development of Thermal Spraying and Coating Techniques by Using Thixotropic Slurries Including Metals and Ceramics Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal nanoparticles coating and microlines patterning were newly developed as novel technologies to fabricate fine ceramics layers and geometrical intermetallics patterns for mechanical properties modulations of practical alloys substrates. Nanometer sized alumina particles were dispersed into acrylic liquid resins, and the obtained slurries were sputtered by using compressed air jet. The slurry mists could blow into the arc plasma with argon gas spraying. On stainless steels substrates, the fine surface layers with high wear resistance were formed. In cross sectional microstructures of the coated layers, micromater sized cracks or pores were not observed. Subsequently, pure aluminum particles were dispersed into photo solidified acrylic resins, and the slurry was spread on the stainless steel substrates by using a mechanical knife blade. On the substrates, microline patterns with self similar fractal structures were drawn and fixed by using scanning of an ultra violet laser beam. The patterned pure metal particles were heated by the argon arc plasma spray assisting, and the intermetallics or alloys phases with high hardness were created through reaction diffusions. Microstructures in the coated layers and the patterned lines were observed by using a scanning electron microscopy.

Kirihara, S.; Itakura, Y.; Tasaki, S.

2013-03-01

292

Design and development of the associated-particle three-dimensional imaging technique  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the development of the ``associated-particle`` imaging technique for producing low-resolution three-dimensional images of objects. Based on the t(d,n){sup 4}He reaction, the method requires access to only one side of the object being imaged and allows for the imaging of individual chemical elements in the material under observation. Studies were performed to (1) select the appropriate components of the system, including detectors, data-acquisition electronics, and neutron source, and (2) optimize experimental methods for collection and presentation of data. This report describes some of the development steps involved and provides a description of the complete final system that was developed.

Ussery, L.E.; Hollas, C.L.

1994-10-01

293

SCOPING STUDIES TO DEVELOP A METHOD TO DETERMINE PARTICLE SIZE IN SIMULANT SLUDGE SLURRIES BY SIEVING  

SciTech Connect

A physical separation method (i.e. sieving) was investigated to determine particle size distribution in non-radioactive sludge slurry simulants with the goal of implementation into the SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) shielded cells for use with radioactive sludge slurries. The investigation included obtaining the necessary experimental equipment, developing accessory equipment for use with the sieve shaker (to be able to sieve simulant slurries with aqueous solutions), sieving three different simulant slurries through a number of sieves and determining the particle size distribution gravimetrically, and developing a sufficient cleaning protocol of the sieves for re-use. The experimental protocol involved successive sieving of a NIST standard (to check the particle size retention of the sieves) and three non-radioactive slurry simulants (Batch 3 Tank 40 Test 3, Tank 40 Drum 3 and CETL Sludge Batch 2, which had been previously characterized by Microtrac analysis) through smaller and smaller sieves (150 microns x 5 microns) via use of the wet sieving system or by hand. For each of the three slurries, duplicate experiments were carried out using filtered supernate and DI water (to check the accuracy of the method versus Microtrac data) to sieve the slurry. Particle size determinations using the wet sieving system with DI water agree well with Microtrac data on a volume basis and in some cases the sieving data may be more accurate particularly if the material sieved had large particles. A correction factor had to be applied to data obtained from experiments done with supernate due to the dissolved solids which dried upon the sieves in the drying stage of the experiments. Upon subtraction of the correction factors, the experimental results were very similar to those obtained with DI water. It should be noted that approximately 250 mL of each of three simulant slurries was necessary to have enough filtered supernate available to carry out the experiments. The experimental results for the slurries are below with Microtrac data. The design of the experimental equipment was sufficient initially, but some pieces of the equipment began failing over time due to the caustic nature of the supernate and the vibrations from the sieve shaker. It is therefore recommended that upgrades to the experimental equipment be done before implementation into the SRNL shielded cells. Theses upgrades include using manipulator friendly connections, changing brass parts for stainless steel parts, using Teflon rather than polycarbonate, and possibly a change of pumps used to re-circulate the sieving fluid.

DAMON, CLICK

2005-02-07

294

DEPOMOD—modelling the deposition and biological effects of waste solids from marine cage farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enable better predictive capability of the impact from large marine cage fish farms on the benthos and improved objectivity in the regulatory decision-making process, a computer particle tracking model DEPOMOD was developed. DEPOMOD predicts the solids accumulation on the seabed arising from a fish farm and associated changes in the benthic faunal community. The grid generation module allows the

Chris J Cromey; Thomas D Nickell; Kenneth D Black

2002-01-01

295

Development of porosity in an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy containing nanoscale oxide particles  

SciTech Connect

The development of porosity at 1000 C in an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy containing ultra-fine oxide particles with diameters on the order of a few nm is investigated. A comparison with an alloy fabricated by internal oxidation demonstrates that the porosity formation is associated with mechanical alloying with Y2O3 in argon. The pores grow in spite of a sub-micron grain size suggesting that the grain boundaries are not effective paths for removing entrapped gas from the pores.

Schneibel, Joachim H [ORNL; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Hoelzer, David T [ORNL; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University; Sarosi, P. M. [Ohio State University; Hayashi, Taisuke [Ohio State University; Wendt, Ullrich [Otto-von-Guericke Universitat, Magdeburg, Germany; Heyse, Hartmut [Otto-von-Guericke Universitat, Magdeburg, Germany

2007-01-01

296

Development of a Thermal Conductivity Measurement System Using the 3 ? Method and Application to Thermoelectric Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For this study, we developed a thermal conductivity, ?, measurement system using 3 ? method. We checked the system accuracy by measuring ? for a glass substrate (1737; Corning). Conventional evaporated aluminum wire and ink-jet printed silver wire were used as sensor wires. The system realized a ? measurement of glass within 10 % error. We estimated ? of aggregated p-type (Bi1- x Sb x )2Te3 particles using a two heat flow model. The estimated thermal conductivity of the sample ? sample are 0.06-0.27 WK-1 m-1, which is smaller than the bulk value.

Nishino, Shunsuke; Koyano, Mikio; Suekuni, Koichiro; Ohdaira, Keisuke

2014-06-01

297

Development and Evaluation of Polychaete Reverse Samplers for Marine Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicitiy Identification Evaluations (TIE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine and estuarine sediments accumulate contaminants and act as a sink for a wide range of toxic chemicals. As a result, the sediments themselves can become a source of contamination. At sufficient levels, contaminated sediments can cause benthic impairments and toxicity to m...

298

Development and Evaluation of Reverse Polyethylene Samplers for Marine Phase II Whole-Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine and estuarine sediments accumulate contaminants and act as a sink for a wide range of toxic chemicals. As a result, the sediments themselves can become a source of contamination. At sufficient levels, contaminated sediments can cause benthic impairments and toxicity to mar...

299

Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development  

PubMed Central

The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies. PMID:24424355

Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.

2014-01-01

300

Envrionmental applications of marine biotechnology: Summary of a program development workshop. Held in La Jolla, California on August 2, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California Sea Grant College System held a workshop on environmental applications of marine biotechnology on August 2, 1994 at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California. The goal of this workshop was to bring agency representatives, researchers and potential users together in an open dialogue on the needs, opportunities, and potential applications of biological and biochemical technologies in monitoring,

Tebo

1995-01-01

301

Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed. Several excellent correlations between the minimum time required to produce spherical agglomerates or a final agglomerate diameter and the operating parameters were obtained by using the general linear regression method. In addition, the results provided a basis for size scale up of an agglomeration system. In Part II, the technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultrafine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was produced by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this method in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt. % ash, it was shown that the ash content could be reduced to 6--7 wt. % while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis by using a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w %, air saturation of 5 to 15 psig, and i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w % based on the coal weight. It was also shown that the process of agglomeration can be reversed by subjecting an aqueous suspension of agglomerates to a pressure sufficient to redissolve the microbubbles.

Shen, Meiyu

302

Morphological and molecular characterization of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa, including its development in a leech vector  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosomes are ubiquitous blood parasites of marine and freshwater fishes, typically transmitted by aquatic leeches. Phylogenetic studies have been dominated by examples derived from freshwater fishes, with few marine representatives. Furthermore, life cycle studies on marine fish trypanosomes have focused on those of the northern hemisphere. In this investigation, we have examined the life cycle and molecular taxonomy of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa. Methods To locate trypanosome stages, leeches were removed from fishes captured on the west and south coasts of South Africa, and fish blood films and leech squashes were Giemsa-stained and screened; leeches were also examined histologically. To determine whether trypanosome stages in fishes and leeches were of the same genotype, DNA was extracted from Giemsa-stained fish blood films and leech squashes, and from fish whole blood. Fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR using trypanosome-specific primers and sequenced. Resulting sequence data were compared with each other and with published trypanosome 18S rDNA sequences, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Results Trypanosomes were detected in blood films from fishes of the families Clinidae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. The flagellates ranged in size and staining properties within the films and across fish hosts. In squashes and histological sections of adult and juvenile leeches, identified as Zeylanicobdella arugamensis, trypanosome developmental stages were predominantly slender epimastigotes. Sequence data showed that trypanosomes derived from fishes were identical, irrespective of whether they were small or large forms; sequences derived largely from leech epimastigotes were also identical to those obtained from fish trypanosomes. Fish and leech trypanosome sequences fell into a marine fish aquatic clade, and aligned most closely with two trypanosome sequences from marine fishes off Norway. Conclusions Combined morphological and molecular methods indicate that the trypanosomes examined here represent a single pleomorphic species, rather than the three species described originally. This species is identified as Trypanosoma nudigobii Fantham, 1919 with the leech Z. arugamensis as its vector, and T. capigobii Fantham, 1919 and T. blenniclini Fantham, 1930 are regarded as junior synonyms of the species. Phylogenetic analysis establishes its affinity with marine fish trypanosomes off Norway. PMID:24460725

2014-01-01

303

Marine bacterial organisation around point-like sources of amino acids.  

PubMed

Abstract To better understand the trigger for and use of motility in marine bacterial chemotaxis, specific (amino acids) chemical stimuli were used to test the effect on bacterial speed and reorientation. An assay system was developed to analyse bacterial behavioural responses to point-like nutrient sources (beads 10-40 mum). The marine bacteria Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, Shewanella putrefaciens, Deleya marina, the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli and an enriched assemblage of marine bacteria were used in the assay. E. coli responded to the amino acids (e.g. serine, leucine) in this assay in a manner similar to the classical capillary plating method, and accumulated near the attractants using biased random walks and maximum speeds of less than 30 mum s(-1). The marine bacteria travelled more than 100 mum s(-1) and reversed direction instead of randomly tumbling to reorientate. Marine bacteria also showed different chemotactic responses. The enriched marine community and P. haloplanktis were repelled by serine while leucine was an attractant for all three marine isolates. More importantly marine bacteria formed band specific distances (>20 mum) away from individual beads. The bands were composed of free-swimming bacteria rather than bacteria attached to the beads or chamber surfaces. The bands' formation time (25-180 s) and width (5-20 mum) varied depending on the bacterial strains and attractant. This variation in chemotactic responses by the marine isolates may reflect adaptations to specific ecological niches of bacterioplankton in the ocean. However, band forming ability by marine bacteria has still only been reported in experimental studies, nutrient coupling between nutrient sources and bands of chemotactic marine bacteria have yet to be detected in the natural environment. The fragility of the bands, a clear association between free-swimming bacteria and nutrient, indicates the difficulty and potentially sets limits for finding microzones of bacteria around particles in the open ocean. PMID:19719700

Barbara, Greg M; Mitchell, James G

2003-02-01

304

Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

Kolb, James A.

305

The Carolina conference on marine biotechnology: Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes proceedings of a Carolina Conference on Marine Biotechnology held March 24-26, 1985, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This report consists of the responders' summary of each topic discussed. The topics presented were General Prospects for Marine Biotechnology, Bioactive Substances from Marine Organisms, Fundamental Processes in Marine Organisms as Guides for Biotechnology Development, Genetic Manipulation of Potential Use to Mariculture, Organisms Interactions with Marine Surfaces: Marine Glues, and Biomolecular Engineering Materials Applications.

Frankenberg, D.

1985-01-01

306

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

307

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

SciTech Connect

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

2013-05-15

308

The biogeochemistry of marine particulate trace metals  

E-print Network

Marine particles include all living and non-living solid components of seawater, representing an extremely dynamic and chemically diverse mixture of phases. The distributions of these phases are poorly constrained and ...

Ohnemus, Daniel Chester

2014-01-01

309

Development of 1D Particle-in-Cell Code and Simulation of Plasma-Wall Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis discusses the development of a 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) code and the analysis of plasma-wall interactions. The 1D code (Plasma and Wall Simulation -- PAWS) is a kinetic simulation of plasma done by treating both electrons and ions as particles. The goal of this thesis is to study near wall plasma interaction to better understand the mechanism that occurs in this region. The main focus of this investigation is the effects that secondary electrons have on the sheath profile. The 1D code is modeled using the PIC method. Treating both the electrons and ions as macroparticles the field is solved on each node and weighted to each macro particle. A pre-ionized plasma was loaded into the domain and the velocities of particles were sampled from the Maxwellian distribution. An important part of this code is the boundary conditions at the wall. If a particle hits the wall a secondary electron may be produced based on the incident energy. To study the sheath profile the simulations were run for various cases. Varying background neutral gas densities were run with the 2D code and compared to experimental values. Different wall materials were simulated to show their effects of SEE. In addition different SEE yields were run, including one study with very high SEE yields to show the presence of a space charge limited sheath. Wall roughness was also studied with the 1D code using random angles of incidence. In addition to the 1D code, an external 2D code was also used to investigate wall roughness without secondary electrons. The roughness profiles where created upon investigation of wall roughness inside Hall Thrusters based off of studies done on lifetime erosion of the inner and outer walls of these devices. The 2D code, Starfish[33], is a general 2D axisymmetric/Cartesian code for modeling a wide a range of plasma and rarefied gas problems. These results show that higher SEE yield produces a smaller sheath profile and that wall roughness produces a lower SEE yield. Modeling near wall interactions is not a simple or perfected task. Due to the lack of a second dimension and a sputtering model it is not possible with this study to show the positive effects wall roughness could have on Hall thruster performance since roughness occurs from the negative affect of sputtering.

Rose, Laura P.

310

Using Image Pro Plus Software to Develop Particle Mapping on Genesis Solar Wind Collector Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continued success of the Genesis mission science team in analyzing solar wind collector array samples is partially based on close collaboration of the JSC curation team with science team members who develop cleaning techniques and those who assess elemental cleanliness at the levels of detection. The goal of this collaboration is to develop a reservoir of solar wind collectors of known cleanliness to be available to investigators. The heart and driving force behind this effort is Genesis mission PI Don Burnett. While JSC contributes characterization, safe clean storage, and benign collector cleaning with ultrapure water (UPW) and UV ozone, Burnett has coordinated more exotic and rigorous cleaning which is contributed by science team members. He also coordinates cleanliness assessment requiring expertise and instruments not available in curation, such as XPS, TRXRF [1,2] and synchrotron TRXRF. JSC participates by optically documenting the particle distributions as cleaning steps progress. Thus, optical document supplements SEM imaging and analysis, and elemental assessment by TRXRF.

Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.

2012-01-01

311

Development and testing of quartz crystal microbalances for missions to measure particle fluxes from minor solar system bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument is being developed to measure the mass flux and size distribution of particles striking a spacecraft operating in the vicinity of airless minor solar system bodies including asteroids, small moons, and comets. We are developing and testing quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) with robust particle capture coatings coupled with advanced oscillator electronics. The instrument is an extension the QCMs that are part of the Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator (GIADA) instrument that will be carried aboard the European Space Agency (ESA) Rosetta Spacecraft. Particle capture coatings are required that will survive the interplanetary environment for long periods. The coatings should provide effective particle capture and coupling to a QCM to allow mass measurements during rendezvous encounters. We are using thin aerogel layers for particle capture since aerogel consists of a very low density (99% void volume) web of rigidly connected, sub-micron silica fibers. Sophisticated oscillator circuits are required to oscillate a QCM with a thick particle capture coating. Previously we reported on measurements of the electro-mechanical properties of thick (100 micrometer) layers of aerogel bonded to QCMs. In this work we report the results of firing small (100-500 micrometer) grains at aerogel-coated QCMs using a light gas gun at the University of Florida. The efficiency of particle capture by the aerogel layer as a function of particle size, velocity, and material composition was measured. The results will help guide the design of a second generation of aerosol capture coatings for QCMs.

Stephens, J.; Gustafson, B.; Waldemarsson, K.

2003-04-01

312

Marine Antimalarials  

PubMed Central

Malaria is an infectious disease causing at least 1 million deaths per year, and, unfortunately, the chemical entities available to treat malaria are still too limited. In this review we highlight the contribution of marine chemistry in the field of antimalarial research by reporting the most important results obtained until the beginning of 2009, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries. About 60 secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms have been grouped into three structural types and discussed in terms of their reported antimalarial activities. The major groups of metabolites include isonitrile derivatives, alkaloids and endoperoxide derivatives. The following discussion evidences that antimalarial marine molecules can efficiently integrate the panel of lead compounds isolated from terrestrial sources with new chemical backbones and, sometimes, with unique functional groups. PMID:19597577

Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

2009-01-01

313

Marine Biological Laboratory's Marine Organisms Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research, education, and training in biology, biomedicine, and ecology. Site features the latest news and research developments from MBL. Learn why studying squid and horseshoe crabs are so important to learning about human sight and how sea urchins are shedding new light on human birth defects. All this and a searchable photo database. Site also includes resources for purchasing specimens for laboratory or display purposes.

2012-03-07

314

A new insight into the particulate iodine in the marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Especially within the last few years the role of iodine in the lower troposphere has received increasing attention. In addition to the potential to affect the atmospheric oxidation capacity in a variety of ways such as catalytic destruction of ozone, the importance of iodine in the natural new particle formation (via secondary gas-to-particle conversion) in the marine boundary layer (MBL) is responsible for the increased interest and is motivated by the role of marine aerosol particles in the global radiation budget. One goal of current research activities is the identification and quantification of natural particle formation processes in the MBL. Although some progress has been made in recent years, the chemical species, reaction cycling and evolution of particulate iodine are still poorly understood, which in turn hinders our knowledge of the marine new particle formation processes. Here we will present results from recent field campaigns carried out at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland. The speciation of particulate iodine is performed by a newly developed precolumn derivatization and solid phase extraction preseparation method in combination with liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination. The diurnal and seasonal variation as well as the cycling of different iodine species in the marine aerosols will be discussed. Furthermore, the linkage between gaseous reactive iodine species and particulate iodine will be presented.

Huang, R.-J.; Thorenz, U. R.; Kundel, M.; Kampf, C.; Vogel, A.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.

2012-04-01

315

Marine cloud brightening  

PubMed Central

The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100?km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action. PMID:22869798

Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

2012-01-01

316

Marine cloud brightening.  

PubMed

The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action. PMID:22869798

Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

2012-09-13

317

Mariner 9 navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

1973-01-01

318

Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to chapters from an online book (PDF format), which reflects many of the recent developments in marine microbiology. Published by the National Institute of Oceanography in India, it is geared towards ocean scientists, environmentalists, aqua-culturists and seafood processing technologists. The book provides recent literature, newer analytical approaches, and an overall summary of the present understanding of marine microbiology in tropical waters. Chapters include subjects such as heterotrophic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and the sulfur cycle, hypersaline microorganisms, symbiosis, the role of fungi in detrital process, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, microbial diseases in shrimp, microzooplankton, biofilms, and more. Links are provided to each chapter in PDF format.

Ramaiah, Nagappa

2010-03-17

319

Alkaloids in marine algae  

E-print Network

Abstract: This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids.

Kas?m Cemal Güven; Aline Percot; Ekrem Sezik

320

Marine Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educational resources focusing on understanding of Marine Protected Areas (MPA), their functions, themes and messages. Materials include bibliographies, MPA posters, fact sheets and worksheets. Regional workshops promote MPA issues and concepts. Information exchange options to promote collaboration include: MPA newsletter archives and workshop PowerPoint presentations; announcements for conferences, grants, internships and professional development opportunities.

2011-11-09

321

Marine Biological Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research, education, and training in biology, biomedicine, and ecology. Site features the latest news and research developments from MBL. Explore all the latest research, education information, including graduate admissions and teacher workshops, and a glimpse at MBL history, facilities, and more. Current news and links to all kinds of additional MBL resources are also available.

322

Coherent structure dynamics and sediment particle motion around a cylindrical pier in developing scour holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent investigations on the dynamics of the turbulent horseshoe vortex system (THV) around cylindrical piers have shown that the rich coherent dynamics of the vortical structures is dominated by low-frequency bimodal fluctuations of the velocity field. In spite of these advances, many questions remain regarding the changes of the flow and sediment transport dynamics as scour progresses. In this investigation we carry out laboratory experiments to register the development of the scour hole around a cylindrical pier in a fine-sand bed ( d 50 = 0.36 mm). We use the bathymetry measured in the experiment to simulate the flow field employing the detached-eddy simulation approach (DES), which has shown to resolve most of the turbulent stresses around surface-mounted obstacles. From these simulations we compare the dynamics of the THV to the flat-bed case, and analyze the effects on particle transport and sediment flux using the Lagrangian particle model of Escauriaza and Sotiropoulos (2011b) to study the impact of the changes of the flow on the sediment dynamics.

Link, Oscar; González, Christian; Maldonado, María; Escauriaza, Cristián

2012-12-01

323

Marine Technology Student: Marine Farming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, learn how a degree in marine technology helped one student go from working at a marine farming company to becoming a partner in that company. Trevor Fay uses the GPS/GIS technology he studied in school to farm the red abalone, tracking their locations and monitoring their population. This technology helps marine farmers maintain healthy populations of sea creatures and understand more about the important ecosystem of the ocean.The video runs 4:18 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-05-30

324

Developing an Intuitive Understanding of Conservation and Contamination: Invisible Particles as a Plausible Mechanism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of four studies involving three to seven year olds revealed that, by age three, some children (1) appreciated conservation of matter despite visual disappearance and the existence of invisible particles; and (2) made use of the particle concept to explain how a particle can continue to exist and maintain its properties despite visual…

Au, Terry Kit-fong; And Others

1993-01-01

325

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William; Smith, David

2010-06-04

326

Marine Mammals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

Meith, Nikki

327

Some Developments of the Equilibrium Particle Simulation Method for the Direct Simulation of Compressible Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the established technique for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. In some flows of engineering interest, such as occur for aero-braking spacecraft in the upper atmosphere, DSMC can become prohibitively expensive in CPU time because some regions of the flow, particularly on the windward side of blunt bodies, become collision dominated. As an alternative to using a hybrid DSMC and continuum gas solver (Euler or Navier-Stokes solver) this work is aimed at making the particle simulation method efficient in the high density regions of the flow. A high density, infinite collision rate limit of DSMC, the Equilibrium Particle Simulation method (EPSM) was proposed some 15 years ago. EPSM is developed here for the flow of a gas consisting of many different species of molecules and is shown to be computationally efficient (compared to DSMC) for high collision rate flows. It thus offers great potential as part of a hybrid DSMC/EPSM code which could handle flows in the transition regime between rarefied gas flows and fully continuum flows. As a first step towards this goal a pure EPSM code is described. The next step of combining DSMC and EPSM is not attempted here but should be straightforward. EPSM and DSMC are applied to Taylor-Couette flow with Kn = 0.02 and 0.0133 and S(omega) = 3). Toroidal vortices develop for both methods but some differences are found, as might be expected for the given flow conditions. EPSM appears to be less sensitive to the sequence of random numbers used in the simulation than is DSMC and may also be more dissipative. The question of the origin and the magnitude of the dissipation in EPSM is addressed. It is suggested that this analysis is also relevant to DSMC when the usual accuracy requirements on the cell size and decoupling time step are relaxed in the interests of computational efficiency.

Macrossan, M. N.

1995-01-01

328

On the importance of the decay of 234Th in determining size-fractionated C\\/234Th ratio on marine particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate determination of the POC\\/234Th ratio on sinking particles is essential for the application of 234Th as a proxy for the export of particulate organic carbon (POC) from the upper ocean. Previous studies have shown that POC\\/234Th ratios may vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, but the mechanism for this variability remains poorly understood. In this study,

Pinghe Cai; Minhan Dai; Weifang Chen; Tiantian Tang; Kuanbo Zhou

2006-01-01

329

3-D turbulent particle dispersion submodel development. Quarterly progress report No. 2, 15 July--15 October 1991  

SciTech Connect

The lack of a mathematical description of the interactions of fluid turbulence with other physics-chemical processes is a major obstacle in modeling many industrial program. Turbulent two-phase flow is a phenomenon that is of significant practical importance to coal combustion as well as other disciplines. The interactions of fluid turbulence with the particulate phase has yet to be accurately and efficiently modeled for these industrial applications. On 15 May 1991 work was initiated to cover four major tasks toward the development of a computational submodel for turbulent particle dispersion that would be applicable to coal combustion simulations. Those four tasks are: 1. A critical evaluation of the 2-D Lagrangian particle dispersion submodel, 2. Development of a 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 3. Evaluation of the 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 4. Exploration of extensions of the Lagrangian dispersion theory to other applications including chemistry-turbulence interactions.

Smith, P.J.

1991-12-31

330

3-D turbulent particle dispersion submodel development. Quarterly progress report No. 1, 5 April--5 July 1991  

SciTech Connect

The lack of a mathematical description of the interactions of fluid turbulence with other physics-chemical processes is a major obstacle in modeling many industrial program. Turbulent two-phase flow is a phenomenon that is of significant practical importance to coal combustion as well as other disciplines. The interactions of fluid turbulence with the particulate phase has yet to be accurately and efficiently modeled for these industrial applications. On 15 May 1991 work was initiated to cover four major tasks toward the development of a computational submodel for turbulent particle dispersion that would be applicable to coal combustion simulations. Those four tasks are: 1. A critical evaluation of the 2-D Lagrangian particle dispersion submodel, 2. Development of a 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 3. Evaluation of the 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 4.Exploration of extensions of the Lagrangian dispersion theory to other applications including chemistry-turbulence interactions.

Smith, P.J.

1991-12-31

331

Development of a Lagrangian Meshless Flow Solver based on the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses on the development of a meshless flow solver based on the Lagrangian particle method. The differential operators are discretised by using the particle interaction models proposed in the numerical framework of the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) technique. The MPS method is attractive from the viewpoint of no mesh is required and fluid is purely represented by points (the virtue of meshless algorithm). Some flow applications attempted by the current meshless solver will be shown and results are compared with the published experimental data.

Ng, K. C.; Ng, Y. L.; Yusoff, M. Z.

2013-06-01

332

The Irish Seabed Mapping Programme: INFOMAR - Integrated Mapping Survey for the Sustainable Developments of Ireland's Marine Resources. Progress to Date.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last six years, the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute of Ireland worked together on the multimillion Irish National Seabed Survey project with the purpose of mapping the Irish marine territory using a suite of remote sensing equipment, from multibeam to seismic, achieving 87% coverage of the marine zone. Ireland was the first country in the world to carry out an extensive mapping project of their extended Exclusive Economic Zone. The Irish National Seabed Survey is now succeeded by the multiyear INFOMAR Programme. INFOMAR will concentrate initially on mapping twenty-six selected priority bays, three sea areas and the fisheries-protection "Biologically Sensitive Area", and then will complete 100% mapping of the remainder of the EEZ. Designed to incorporate all elements of an integrated mapping programme, the key data acquisition will include hydrography, oceanographic, geological and heritage data. These data sets discharge Ireland's obligations under international treaties to which she is signatory and the uses of these data are vast and multipurpose: from management plans for inshore fishing, aquaculture, coastal protection and engineering works, to environmental impact assessments related to licensing activity and support to the evolving needs of integrated coastal zone management. INFOMAR also includes a data management, exchange and integration programme for the establishment of a National Marine Data Discovery and Exchange Service; providing improved dissemination of information to researchers, policy makers, the public and private sector and the adoption of standard operating procedures in data management to facilitate inter-agency data integration. During the first year of activity, INFOMAR carried out an integrated survey from the national research vessel, the RV Celtic Explorer, acquiring hydrographic, geophysical and groundtruthing data from Bantry and Dunmanus Bays, located off the South West coast of Ireland. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and small-vessel mapping surveys have also been carried out, giving detailed bathymetric, topographic and habitat information for the shoaler waters and inshore areas. This presentation will focus both on the general framework and scope of INFOMAR and the initial results and experiences of this year's survey.

Sacchetti, F.; Benetti, S.; Fitzpatrick, F.

2006-12-01

333

Coastal and Marine Resources Centre  

E-print Network

of Ireland, Cork Institute of Technology, the Port of Cork, the Industrial Development Authority, the Marine together with researchers from UCC's Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre (HMRC) and the Sustainable

Schellekens, Michel P.

334

Fault Trace: Marin County, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This photograph shows the trace of a fault (in trench phase) as it passes beneath a barn. The trace developed during the April 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. The location is the Skinner Ranch, near Olema, Marin County, California.

335

Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

Kolb, James A.

336

The Carolina conference on marine biotechnology: Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes proceedings of a Carolina Conference on Marine Biotechnology held March 24-26, 1985, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This report consists of the responders' summary of each topic discussed. The topics presented were General Prospects for Marine Biotechnology, Bioactive Substances from Marine Organisms, Fundamental Processes in Marine Organisms as Guides for Biotechnology Development, Genetic

Frankenberg

1985-01-01

337

On the improvement of marine circular economy legislation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of marine circular economy legislation in China should be guaranteed by corresponding legal system. But with the unestablished mode of current Marine Circular Economy Legislation in China as well as the unsound laws and regulations, the existing legislation cannot adjust to the development pace of marine economy. Therefore, it's a must to improve our marine circular economy legislation

Quan Yongbo

2010-01-01

338

Development and Testing of Quartz Crystal Microbalances For Spacecraft Missions To Measure Particle Fluxes From Minor Airless Solar System Bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an instrument to measure the mass flux and size distribution of particles striking a spacecraft operating in the vicinity of airless minor solar system bodies including asteroids, small moons, and particularly, comets. The effort centers on developing and testing specialized quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) with ro- bust particle capture coatings together with associated advanced oscillator electron- ics. The instrument is to be an advanced version of the QCMs that are part of the Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator (GIADA) instrument that will be car- ried aboard the European Space Agency (ESA) Rosetta Spacecraft. Robust particle capture coatings are required that will survive the interplanetary environment for long periods and still provide effective particle capture and coupling to a QCM to allow mass measurements during rendezvous encounters. Our approach is to use aerogel for particle capture since aerogel consists of a very low density (99% void volume) web of rigidly connected, sub-micron silica fibers. In order to effectively oscillate a QCM with a thick particle capture coating, and retain its high mass sensitivity, so- phisticated oscillator circuits are required. Previously we reported on measurements of the electro-mechanical properties of thick (100 mm) layers of aerogel bonded to QCMs driven by sophisticated oscillator circuits. In this work we report the results of firing small (100-500 mm) grains at aerogel coated QCMs using a light gas gun at the University of Florida. We measured the particle capture efficiency of the aerogel lay- ers as a function of particle size, velocity, and material composition. The response of the aerogel/QCM combination to known number of captured particles was also mea- sured. The results will help guide the design of a second generation of aerosol capture coatings for QCMs.

Stephens, J.; Gustafson, B. A. S.; Waldemarsson, K. T.

339

Development of species-specific hybridization probes for marine luminous bacteria by using in vitro DNA amplification  

SciTech Connect

By using two highly conserved regions of the luxA gene as primers, polymerase chain reaction amplification methods were used to prepare species-specific probes against the luciferase gene from four major groups of marine luminous bacteria. Laboratory studies with test strains indicated that three of the four probes cross-reacted with themselves and with one or more of the other species at low stringencies but were specific for members of their own species at high stringencies. The fourth probe, generated from Vibrio harveyi DNA, a cross-reacted with DNAs from two closely related species, V. orientalis and V. vulnificus. When nonluminous cultures were tested with the species-specific probes, no false-positive results were observed, even at low stringencies. Two field isolates were correctly identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by using the species-specific hybridization probes at high stringency. A mixed probe (four different hybridization probes) used at low stringency gave positive results with all of the luminous bacteria tested, including the terrestrial species Xenorhabdus luminescens, and the taxonomically distinct marine bacterial species Shewanella hanedai; minimal cross-hybridization with these species was seen at higher stringencies.

Wimpee, C.F.; Nadeau, T.L.; Nealson, K.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

1991-05-01

340

Evaluation of soybean meal source and particle size on broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and gizzard development.  

PubMed

Although there have been several reports concerning the effects of particle size of cereal grains on productive performance of poultry, there is limited information about the effects of soybean meal (SBM) particle size on broiler performance. The objective of the present experiments was to evaluate the effects of SBM source and particle size on broiler performance, gizzard weight, and nutrient digestibility. The first experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 SBM sources: expeller-extracted (ESBM) and solvent-extracted (SSBM), and 2 particle sizes: coarse grind, 971 µm, and fine grind, 465 µm. The second experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 ESBM particle sizes: coarse grind, 1,290 µm, and fine grind, 470 µm, and 2 corn particle sizes: coarse grind, 1,330 µm, and fine grind, 520 µm. In the first experiment, there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between SBM source and particle size on BW at 49 d of age. No differences in BW were observed when birds were fed coarse SSBM or ESBM, whereas birds fed diets containing fine ESBM exhibited lower BW than birds fed diets containing fine SSBM. In the second experiment, fine-grind ESBM (P < 0.05) and corn (P < 0.01) produced greater 19-d BW than did coarse grind. A significant interaction (P < 0.01) between ingredient type and particle size revealed that chicks fed coarse particles of corn or ESBM exhibited higher protein digestibility compared with chicks fed only fine particles. Corn particle size had a greater effect on gizzard weight than ESBM particle size. Birds fed diets that contained coarse corn had larger gizzards than birds fed fine corn (P < 0.01), but differences in gizzard weight were not observed when birds were fed coarse or fine ESBM. Particles greater than 1,300 µm depressed BW but improved protein digestibility. PMID:24135595

Pacheco, W J; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Brake, J

2013-11-01

341

Applications of Beta Particle Detection for Synthesis and Usage of Radiotracers Developed for Positron Emission Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a noninvasive molecular imaging tool that requires the use of a radioactive compound or radiotracer which targets a molecular pathway of interest. We have developed and employed three beta particle radiation detection systems to advance PET. Specifically, the goals of these systems are to: 1. Automate dispensing of solutions containing a positron emitting isotope. 2. Monitor radioactivity on-chip during synthesis of a positron emitting radiotracer. 3. Assay cellular uptake on-chip of a positron emitting radiotracer. Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing an optimum environment for radiation workers, but also to ensure a quantitatively accurate workflow. For the first project, we describe the development and performance of a system for automated radioactivity distribution of beta particle emitting radioisotopes such as fluorine-18 (F-18). Key to the system is a radiation detector in-line with a peristaltic pump. The system demonstrates volume accuracy within 5 % for volumes of 20 muL or greater. When considering volumes of 20 muL or greater, delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested radioactivity as measured with the dose calibrator. The integration of the detector and pump leads to a flexible system that can accurately dispense solutions containing F-18 in radioactivity concentrations directly produced from a cyclotron (~ 0.1-1 mCi/muL), to low activity concentrations intended for preclinical mouse scans (~ 1-10 muCi/muL), and anywhere in between. Electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) is an attractive microfluidic platform for batch synthesis of PET radiotracers. Visualization of radioisotopes on-chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. For the second project, we describe the development and performance of a Cerenkov/real-time imaging system for PET radiotracer synthesis on EWOD. We also investigate fundamental physical characteristics of Cerenkov photon yield at different stages of [F-18]FDG synthesis on the EWOD platform. We are able to use this imaging system to optimize the mixing protocol as well as identify and correct for loss of radioactivity due to the migration of radioactive vapor outside of the EWOD heater, enabling an overall increase in the crude radiochemical yield from 50 +/- 3% (n = 3) to 72 +/- 13% (n = 5). Clinical use of PET has proven to be a critical tool for monitoring cancer treatment response. For the third project, we describe the redesign and performance of Betabox, a specialized device that incorporates PET radiotracers in an assay that gives clinicians and researchers the ability to assess the effectiveness of a drug therapy in-vitro by isolating small samples of patient tumor cells incubated in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip. We find that Betabox is a high sensitivity and low noise charged particle imaging system that can operate without significant impairment of its performance at both room and at elevated temperatures, such as those suitable for cell culture. The dark count rate is within range of the expected signal from cosmic rays, dictating a low detection limit that allows quantitative imaging of very small amounts of radioactivity. This system demonstrates the potential of direct cellular radioassay of small samples of cells (~100 cells per measurement).

Dooraghi, Alex Abreu

342

TOPP AS A MARINE LIFE OBSERVATORY: USING ELECTRONIC TAGS TO MONITOR THE MOVEMENTS, BEHAVIOUR AND HABITATS OF MARINE VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tagging of Pacific Pelagic (TOPP) a field program of the Census of Marine Life has proven the concept of using electronic tags to develop a Marine Life Observatory (MLO) to monitor the habitat utilization, movement patterns and behaviour of large marine predators. Given the difficulty of observing the behavior of highly pelagic marine species we know relatively little about

343

Radiation Exposure Analyses Supporting the Development of Solar Particle Event Shielding Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has plans for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Outside of LEO, large solar particle events (SPEs), which occur sporadically, can deliver a very large dose in a short amount of time. The relatively low proton energies make SPE shielding practical, and the possibility of the occurrence of a large event drives the need for SPE shielding for all deep space missions. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) RadWorks Storm Shelter Team was charged with developing minimal mass SPE storm shelter concepts for missions beyond LEO. The concepts developed included "wearable" shields, shelters that could be deployed at the onset of an event, and augmentations to the crew quarters. The radiation transport codes, human body models, and vehicle geometry tools contained in the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation In Space (OLTARIS) were used to evaluate the protection provided by each concept within a realistic space habitat and provide the concept designers with shield thickness requirements. Several different SPE models were utilized to examine the dependence of the shield requirements on the event spectrum. This paper describes the radiation analysis methods and the results of these analyses for several of the shielding concepts.

Walker, Steven A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Abston, H. Lee; Simon, Hatthew A.; Gallegos, Adam M.

2013-01-01

344

Marine bacterial sources of bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

Thousands of novel compounds have been isolated from various marine bacteria and tested for pharmacological properties, many of which are commercially available. Many more are being tested as potential bioactive compound at the preclinical and clinical stages. The growing interest in marine-derived antiviral compounds, along with the development of new technology in marine cultures and extraction, will significantly expedite the current exploration of the marine environment for compounds with significant pharmacological applications, which will continue to be a promising strategy and new trend for modern medicine. Marine actinomycetes and cyanobacteria are a prolific but underexploited source for the discovery of novel secondary metabolites. PMID:22361201

Jaiganesh, R; Sampath Kumar, N S

2012-01-01

345

Development of a stress analysis code for TRISO particles in HTRs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The PUMA project is a Specific Targeted Research Project of the European Union EURATOM 6, generation Plutonium and with a target burn-up of 700 MWd\\/kgHM shows promising results in terms of Pu-burning capabilities. The TRISO particle failure fraction is also calculated and compared,to U-based fuel particles. It is shown that the Pu-based fuel particles need a better design and

Jérôme Jonnet; Jan Leen Kloosterman; Brian Boer

2008-01-01

346

Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will learn about the national marine sanctuaries found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and off the coast of American Samoa. They include breeding and feeding grounds of whales, sea lions, sharks, and sea turtles; significant coral reefs and kelp forest habitats; and the remains of the U.S.S. Monitor, a Civil War ironclad sunk off the coast of North Carolina.

Science Netlinks;

2002-06-10

347

Marine Iguana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No iguana wants to be cooked alive on a hot rock and then served up as dinner for a Galapagos hawk. But it turns out the marine iguanas have a strategy that warns them of the presence of hawks they canât see. They learned to tune in to a kind of police scannerâ¦the alarm calls of mockingbirds.Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

348

NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY ADVISORY COUNCIL APPLICATION FORM  

E-print Network

Tourism _____ Economic Development _____ Recreational/Commercial Fishing _____ Recreational Diving Home protection and management of marine or Great Lake resources 2. Formal community and professional affiliations

349

Deposition behavior and microstructural development of TiNi powder particles in low temperature-HVOF spraying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiNi alloy particles were deposited at high velocity on Q235 steel substrate in thermally softened solid state by the modified high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying process (so called low temperature HVOF). Microstructural developments and deposition behaviors of a deposited single particle were observed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A single TiNi particle sprayed onto the substrate was severely deformed and the jetting-out phenomenon occurred in the margin of the splat. Extremely fine grains were observed along the interfacial boundary of the deposited particles where the most severe deformation had taken place. The grain refinement at the high deformed region of a splat was arisen from dynamic recrystallization of heavily deformed grain during deformation.

Lin, Q. S.; Zhou, K. S.; Deng, C. M.; Liu, M.; Xiao, X. L.; Deng, C. G.

2013-10-01

350

Marine Cloud Brightening  

SciTech Connect

The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

2012-09-07

351

New pharmaceuticals from marine organisms.  

PubMed

Definitions of 'marine biotechnology' often refer to the vast potential of the oceans to lead to new cures for human and animal disease; the exploitation of natural drugs has always been the most basic form of biotechnology. Although only initiated in the late 1970s, natural drug discovery from the world's oceans has been accelerated by the chemical uniqueness of marine organisms and by the need to develop drugs for contemporary, difficult to cure, diseases. Current research activities, while primarily within the academic laboratories, have generated convincing evidence that marine drug discovery has an exceedingly bright future. PMID:9293031

Fenical, W

1997-09-01

352

Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications. PMID:25203732

Kiuru, Paula; D?Auria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

2014-09-01

353

Virginia Institute of Marine Science- Virtual Marine Education Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Virginia Sea Grant program includes extensive resources on marine science education. Educator topics include web resources, field trips, classroom activities, professional development opportunities, and contact information for scientists, education specialists, and other marine science experts. Student resources include information on summer camps, mentorships, science fairs, and an "ask a scientist" feature. Site also includes links to information on such topics as aquaculture, seafood, and fisheries.

2011-11-07

354

Summary Report for the Initiation of Compact Development for Particles with 425-micron Kernels  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was the initiation of overcoating TRISO particles with 425 {micro}m kernels. In the AGR-1 task, the overcoating process was optimized for particles with an outer diameter (OD) of 780 {micro}m and a 350 {micro}m kernel. Therefore it needed to be determined how well the overcoating process used to fabricate AGR-1 compacts would perform on particles with an 855 {micro}m OD and a 425 {micro}m kernel. The matrix properties and overcoating procedures were altered from the AGR-1 processes in order to attempt to optimize the overcoating of TRISO particles with 425 {micro}m kernels. This report summarizes the changes that were made to the matrix and the overcoating process in order to achieve successful overcoating of the larger particles.

Pappano, Peter J [ORNL

2007-09-01

355

Development and characterization of an electrostatic particle sampling system for the selective collection of trace explosives.  

PubMed

Detection of trace explosives residues at people and cargo control points has become a key security challenge. A severe obstacle is that all commercial and military high explosives have low to extremely low vapor pressures which make them very hard to detect. With detectable vapors not being present, explosives detection needs to proceed through a series of sequential steps including particle collection, thermal vapor conversion and vapor detection. The present paper describes the design and test of an electrostatic particle precipitator which allows particle residue to be collected from the environment, the collected particle residue to be separated into high- and low-electron affinity fractions and the high-electron-affinity one to be concentrated onto a small-area collector surface for later vaporization. The selectivity of this particle collection and separation process is demonstrated and a full-chain demonstration of a DNT detection experiment is presented (DNT: di-nitro-toluene). PMID:22284515

Beer, Sebastian; Müller, Gerhard; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

2012-01-30

356

The Interaction Between an Insoluble Particle and an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface: Micro-Gravity Experiments and Theoretical Developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid/liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the past four decades. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (e.g., frost heaving in soil), researchers soon realized that the complex science associated with such an interaction is relevant to many other scientific fields encompassing metal matrix composites (MMCs), high temperature superconductors, inclusion management in steel, growth of monotectics, and preservation of biological cells. During solidification of a liquid containing an insoluble particle, three distinct interaction phenomena have been experimentally observed: instantaneous engulfment of the particle, continuous pushing, and particle pushing followed by engulfment. It was also observed that for given experimental conditions and particle size there is a critical solidification velocity, V(sub cr), above which a particle is engulfed. During solidification of MMCs pushing leads to particle agglomeration at the grain boundaries and this has detrimental effects on mechanical properties of the casting. Consequently, the process must be designed for instantaneous engulfment to occur. This implies the development of accurate theoretical models to predict V(sub cr), and perform benchmark experiments to test the validity of such models. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the pushing/engulfment phenomenon (PEP), its quantification in terms of the material and processing parameters remains a focus of research. Since natural convection currents occurring during terrestrial solidification experiments complicate the study of PEP, execution of experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has been approved and funded by NASA. Extensive terrestrial (1g) experiments and preliminary micro-gravity (mu g) experiments on two space shuttle missions have been conducted in preparation for future experiments on the ISS. The investigated systems included metal-ceramic particles (pure aluminum - zirconia particles) and transparent organic - non-reactive particles (succinonitrile - polystyrene and biphenyl - glass). This paper will discuss the experimental results obtained in both lg and pg conditions and the influence of the natural convection on V(sub cr). A summary of past mathematical models and our recent theoretical developments will also be presented to explain the experimentally observed particle/SLI interaction.

Catalina, Adrian V.; Ssen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.

2003-01-01

357

Application of the S3M and Mcnpx Codes in Particle Detector Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor detectors can be used to detect neutrons if they are covered by a conversion layer. Some neutrons transfer their kinetic energy to hydrogen via elastic nuclear scattering in the conversion layer, and protons are produced as recoils. These protons enter the sensitive volume of the detector and are detected. In the process of detector development, Monte Carlo computer codes are necessary to simulate the detection process. This paper presents the main features of the S3M code (SRIM Supporting Software Modules) and shows its application potential. Examples are given for the neutron detectors with a conversion layer and for CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond detectors for beam-condition monitors at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Special attention is paid to the S3M statistical modules that can be of interest also for other application areas like beam transport, accelerators, ion therapy, etc. The results are generated by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) simulations used to optimize the thickness of the HDPE (high density polyethylene) conversion layer.

Pavlovi?, Márius; Sedla?ková, Katarína; Šagátová, Andrea; Strašík, Ivan

2014-02-01

358

Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere: Development of an alternative polarization lidar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. These Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linear or a circular polarized incident laser beam). The conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. The expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. The theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.

Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

2014-12-01

359

[Biodistribution of nanosilica particles in pregnant mice and the potential risk on the reproductive development].  

PubMed

Nanomaterials acquire revolutionary functions such as anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects by increasing surface area per unit weight, due to the reduction to nanosize. Such nanomaterials are rapidly put to practical use without safety evaluation. This is because it is widely assumed that nanomaterials are merely of the same molecular composition as existing materials of more than submicron size, and that nanomaterials cannot be absorbed from the digestive tract or skin as is the case with existing materials of more than submicron size. On the other hand, as was the case with thalidomide, evidence shows that fetuses and infants are affected more than adults by a variety of environmental toxins, because of physiological immaturity. Thus, placental or breast milk-mediated exposure to nanomaterials may possibly induce unexpected biological effects. To our knowledge, however, no studies have examined effects of pregnant animal exposure to nanomaterials on transitivity to placenta or infants, or on maintenance of pregnancy. Therefore, using nanosilica particles (nSPs) employed as additives in cosmetics and foods, we will report on the efficiency of transitivity of nSPs of various diameters to the circulation through the placental barrier after nanomaterial exposure and the risks of nSP exposure to pregnant mice. In this review, I will discuss the development of safety in nanomaterials and the maintenance of good health. PMID:21297366

Nagano, Kazuya

2011-02-01

360

Development of a pulmonary peptide delivery system using porous nanoparticle-aggregate particles for systemic application.  

PubMed

As a non-invasive administration route, pulmonary peptide delivery for systemic application has shown great promise. However, many barriers exist that prevent effective peptide delivery. The use of porous nanoparticle-aggregate particles (PNAPs) is an excellent option because of their proper aerodynamic size and maximal deposition. However, in most cases, the spray drying heating process for PNAPs has been challenging in regard to maintaining peptide stability and activity. To overcome these issues, we developed a spray freeze-drying method for PNAP preparation. To solve the low entrapment efficiency problem of nanostructured lipid carriers, we used hydrophobic ion pair complexes to increase the lipophilicity of the peptide, thus increasing entrapment efficiency and drug loading. Here, we used a model peptide, octreotide acetate, for PNAP preparation, which has a high entrapment efficiency (>95%) and proper aerodynamic size (~3 ?m). In addition, after intrapulmonary administration, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in a rat preventive hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Our in vivo data showed significantly increased area under the curve and improved plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels for our PNAP intrapulmonary delivery system vs. the clinically used octreotide acetate delivery via subcutaneous injection. Together, PNAPs may have great potential for carrying peptide drugs for pulmonary delivery. PMID:23651645

Yang, Likai; Luo, Jing; Shi, Sanjun; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Zhirong; Gong, Tao

2013-07-15

361

Advanced laser particle accelerator development at LANL: from fast ignition to radiation oncology  

SciTech Connect

Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, SN M detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high current and high energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology in conjunction with our partners at the ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent etliciencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaillard, Sandrine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, D T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cobble, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, M J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gautier, D C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwan, T J T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montgomery, D S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kluge, Thomas [FZD-GERMANY; Bussmann, Micheal [FZD-GERMANY; Bartal, T [UCSD; Beg, F N [UCSD; Gall, B [UNIV OF MISSOURI; Geissel, M [SNL; Korgan, G [NANOLABZ; Kovaleski, S [UNIV OF MISSOURI; Lockard, T [UNIV OF NEVADA; Malekos, S [NANOLABZ; Schollmeier, M [SNL; Sentoku, Y [UNIV OF NEVADA; Cowan, T E [FZD-GERMANY

2010-01-01

362

Development of particle size test methods for sampling high temperature and high moisture source effluents. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Source sampling equipment was developed to determine the particle size distribution of effluents that are high in temperature or high in moisture. Modifications of cascade impactor particle sizing methods were developed for sampling. Large drops and/or particles are collected in adaptations of the currently used right angle precollector. For wet stream sampling, the remaining droplets are evaporated to dryness by passing through a heated inlet tube to the impactor. For high temperature sampling, the stack gases are collected by passing through an air-cooled tube, to a temperature at which standard impactor hardware can be used. Results of demonstration tests are also reported. The wet source tested was a stack downstream of a scrubber used to control emissions from a medical waste incinerator, and the high temperature source tested was the exhaust of a flare burning landfill gas.

McCain, J.D.; Fowler, C.S.

1994-06-01

363

Sub-micrometer salt aerosol production intended for marine cloud brightening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is largely concerned with research focused on, but not restricted to, aspects of Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB), one of several geo-engineering ideas for reducing the amount of sunlight arriving at the Earth's surface, thereby compensating for global warming resulting from fossil-fuel burning. Predominant attention is given to the development of techniques for generating sprays of sub-micrometer salt particles that can enter marine stratocumulus clouds and increase their albedo, thus producing a cooling. Generation of sub-micrometer salt particles by spraying salt solutions at supercritical conditions is described, along with a description of the apparatus used. Log-normal particle size distributions having median diameters of 32 to 286 nm, with GSDs (Geometric Standard Deviations) around 2, were generated by two variations on the technique.

Neukermans, Armand; Cooper, Gary; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Jain, Sudhanshu; Latham, John; Ormond, Bob

2014-06-01

364

Development of laser diagnostics for in situ measurements of entrained particles in recovery boilers.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, two different laser diagnostic techniques have been implemented in pulp mill recovery boilers to provide important information on entrained particles. One technique, based on single-particle scattering of a low-power, continuous-wave (cw) laser source, measures the velocity, concentration, and size distribution of particles within the furnace flow, over a predetermined range of particle sizes. For application to recovery boilers, this technique was designed to measure the range of particle sizes known as intermediate size particles (ISPs), roughly from 2-100 {micro}m in diameter. The other diagnostic technique, known as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), uses a pulsed, high-power laser beam to create a localized plasma spark in the flow, allowing the measurement of the elemental composition of the entrained particles. This technique is most sensitive for particles less than 10 {micro}m in diameter. Implementing these laser diagnostic techniques in recovery boilers proved to be challenging. For the particle scattering measurement, the use of a narrow aperture for measurement of the forward scattered light was postulated and later confirmed to be effective in minimizing background signals associated with the dense sodium fume in the boilers. For the LIBS measurement, a new water-jacketed optics probe was implemented to allow for measurements with an insertion depth of up to two meters in the furnace. Fume particle deposition on the exposed optics at the end of the LIBS probe was problematic but improved with a redesign of the probe geometry and purge flow. Both diagnostic techniques were employed at two representative recovery boilers. The particle scattering diagnostic demonstrated similar trends in mean ISP concentration, ISP size distribution, and temporal variation of ISP concentration at the two boilers. The LIBS measurements showed the presence of a number of major chemical components as well as trace metal elements in the entrained particles.

Holve, Donald J. (Process Metrix LLC, San Ramon, CA); Shaddix, Christopher R.

2004-03-01

365

Using ARCHON™ to develop real-world DAI applications for electricity transportation management and particle accelerator control  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARCHON™ (ARchitecture for Cooperative Heterogeneous ON-line systems) was Europe's largest ever project in the area of Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI). It devised a general-purpose architecture, software framework, and methodology which has been used to support the development of DAI systems in a number of real world industrial domains. Two of these applications, electricity transportation management and particle accelerator control, have

N. R. Jennings; J. M. Corera; I. Laresgoiti; E. H. Mamdani; F. Perriollat; P. Skarek; L. Z. Varga

1996-01-01

366

Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa (467th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Assamagan presented a talk titled “Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa,” in which he discussed the latest happenings at the LHC and ATLAS, and how African institutes’ participation in research at the LHC relates to the goals of the African School of Physics.

Assamagan, Ketevi (BNL Physics Dept) [BNL Physics Dept

2011-03-16

367

Design and development of an ultrafine particle reflection-time-of-flight mass spectrometer  

E-print Network

aerosol is passed through a differential mobility analyzer to make a monodisperse mixture, which is transmitted through the inlet. The monodisperse particle beam is intercepted by glass slides, and the spot sizes are indicative of the beam shape and width...

Das, Rishiraj

2012-06-07

368

Development of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TRISO-coated particle fuel chemistry model  

E-print Network

The first portion of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the chemical environment in a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TRISO fuel particle. Fission product inventory versus burnup is calculated. Based on those ...

Diecker, Jane T

2005-01-01

369

Development of High Energy Particle Detector for the Study of Space Radiation Storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next Generation Small Satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1) is scheduled to launch in 2017 and Instruments for the Study of Space Storm (ISSS) is planned to be onboard the NEXTSat-1. High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) is one of the equipment comprising ISSS and the main objective of HEPD is to measure the high energy particles streaming into the Earth radiation belt during the event of a space storm, especially, electrons and protons, to obtain the flux information of those particles. For the design of HEPD, the Geometrical Factor was calculated to be 0.05 to be consistent with the targets of measurement and the structure of telescope with field of view of 33.4°? was designed using this factor. In order to decide the thickness of the detector sensor and the classification of the detection channels, a simulation was performed using GEANT4. Based on the simulation results, two silicon detectors with 1 mm thickness were selected and the aluminum foil of 0.05 mm is placed right in front of the silicon detectors to shield low energy particles. The detection channels are divided into an electron channel and two proton channels based on the measured LET of the particle. If the measured LET is less than 0.8 MeV, the particle belongs to the electron channel, otherwise it belongs to proton channels. HEPD is installed in the direction of 0°?,45°?,90°? against the along-track of a satellite to enable the efficient measurement of high energy particles. HEPD detects electrons with the energy of 0.1 MeV to several MeV and protons with the energy of more than a few MeV. Thus, the study on the dynamic mechanism of these particles in the Earth radiation belt will be performed.

Jo, Gyeong-Bok; Sohn, Jongdae; Choi, Cheong Rim; Yi, Yu; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Kang, Suk-Bin; Na, Go Woon; Shin, Goo-Hwan

2014-09-01

370

Development of the meshless finite volume particle method with exact and efficient calculation of interparticle area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Finite Volume Particle Method (FVPM) is a meshless method based on a definition of interparticle area which is closely analogous to cell face area in the classical finite volume method. In previous work, the interparticle area has been computed by numerical integration, which is a source of error and is extremely expensive. We show that if the particle weight or kernel function is defined as a discontinuous top-hat function, the particle interaction vectors may be evaluated exactly and efficiently. The new formulation reduces overall computational time by a factor between 6.4 and 8.2. In numerical experiments on a viscous flow with an analytical solution, the method converges under all conditions. Significantly, in contrast with standard FVPM and SPH, error depends on particle size but not on particle overlap (as long as the computational domain is completely covered by particles). The new method is shown to be superior to standard FVPM for shock tube flow and inviscid steady transonic flow. In benchmarking on a viscous multiphase flow application, FVPM with exact interparticle area is shown to be competitive with a mesh-based volume-of-fluid solver in terms of computational time required to resolve the structure of an interface.

Quinlan, Nathan J.; Lobovský, Libor; Nestor, Ruairi M.

2014-06-01

371

Development of an ash particle deposition model considering build-up and removal mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces in power boilers fired with fossil fuels and fuel mixtures has a significant influence on boiler efficiency and availability. Mathematical modelling has long been considered a suitable method to assist boiler operators to determine optimized operating conditions for an existing furnace. The ultimate goal in ash deposition prediction is hereby the determination of the total amount of material deposited and hence the determination of the total reduction in efficiency. Depending on the fuels fired the total deposited mass is a combination of ash particle deposition and ash particle erosion due to non-sticky particles. The novel ash particle deposition model presented in this work considers deposition of sticky ash particles, cleansing of deposit by non-sticky sand particles and sticking of sand due to contact with sticky ash. The steady-state modelling results for the total amount of ash deposited on the deposition probe of an entrained flow reactor presented in this work agree well with the experimental data. Only at very high fractions of sand added as non-sticky material, a significant influence of the sand on the overall mass deposited was found. Since the model considers sticking of non-sticking sand due to contact with sticky ash, the fraction of sand deposited on the probe was especially studied. Using a correction factor to consider the influence of operating time on the steady-state simulations led to good agreement between simulations and experimental data. 12 refs., 10 figs.

Kjell Strandstroem; Christian Muellera; Mikko Hupa [Abo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Abo (Finland)

2007-12-15

372

Development of a subcritical fluid extraction and GC-MS validation method for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine samples.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new procedure for extracting polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a). The extraction procedure was optimized at temperatures varying from 20 to 70°C and pressures ranging from 3 to 15 MPa. The volume of the co-solvent was then optimized using 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) as the subcritical phase. PCBs were characterized by GC-MS using the optimized conditions of 3 MPa, 30°C, and a co-solvent volume of 6 mL. The average yields of PCBs from subcritical fluid extraction of spiked oyster samples were measured and found to be greater than 90%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 10%. Detection limits of this method were in the range of 0.045-0.108 ng/g of dry mass. The method was compared to Soxhlet extraction and then applied for monitoring PCBs in oysters from Qingdao, Shandong, China. PMID:23455072

Jia, Kai; Feng, Xiaomei; Liu, Kun; Han, Yuqian; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu

2013-04-01

373

Development of an effective methodology for marine pollution monitoring in an industrialized urban envirnoment: (A remotesensing approach)  

SciTech Connect

The study area chosen for marine pollution monitoring was Thane Creek; near Bombay city; which essentially constitutes an industrialized urban setting. The area chosen within the Thane Creek, was between Vikhroli Creek and the Vashi Bridge in the south (approx. 75, kms.). Remote sensing technique was applied for assessing water quality parameters around Thane Creek in addition to conventional chemical analysis of samples collected during the pass of the satellite. The variation in the ranges of the water quality parameters chemically analyzed were: pH (6.67 - 7.94), Salinity (5.65 - 33.05 g/Kg), Turbidity (0.2 - 15.0 NTU), TSS (2.1 - 400 mg/L), TDS (850 - 38,500 mg/L), Temperature (24{degrees} - 30{degrees}C), and Colour (colourless-, green-, red-, or black). In the remote sensing studies. Turbidity and Temperature were quantified using Landsat TM data. An empirical approach of relating TM data to ground reference data for these parameters was employed through regression analysis. Two regression models were adapted namely Multiple Regression and Linear Regression. Comparative study between the two model techniques was carried out in order to arrive at the best possible method.

Inamdar, A.B.; Venkatakrishnan, N.; Nayak, B.P. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)] [and others

1997-06-01

374

Development of improved LACV-30 propeller blade coatings for protection against sand and rain erosion and marine environment corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was conducted of candidate systems offering potential erosion and corrsion protection when applied as coatings to Aluminum 7075 alloy propeller blades used to propel air cushioned vehicles operating in severe environments such as offshore and marine beach logistics missions. Blade lifespans are significantly abbreviated by erosion from sand and water impingement. This work focused on special hard anodized and hard nickel electroplated coatings as candidate protective systems with sand/rain erosion testing to evaluate their merits. Results indicated that anodized coatings did not provide suitable erosion protection to Aluminum 7075 in sand/rain environments, even with dry film lubricant supplemental films. Electroplated hard nickel coatings, Vickers hardnesses in the range of 380 to 440, appeared better for combined sand/rain erosion resistance based on comparisons with prior work. Dilute phosphoric anodizing the aluminum substrates led to excellent bonds and improved corrosion resistance when subsequently plated with ductile nickel from a low pH bath, followed by hard nickel electroplate. Electrodeposited sacrificial corrosion coatings degraded the overall coating bond integrity.

Malone, G. A.

1983-05-01

375

Development of a Peltier-based chilled-mirror hygrometer and cloud particle counter for balloon-borne TTL observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dehydration processes in the TTL determines the amount of water vapor entering the stratosphere. 'In-situ' measurements of water vapor and cloud particles in the TTL are still a technical challenge, and the observational evidence of dehydration is still limited. Accumulation of the observational data is thus necessary to improve the understanding of the TTL dehydration and transport processes. In this study, we have developed a hygrometer and cloud particle counter for balloon-born TTL observations. A Peltier-based digitally-controlled chilled-mirror hygrometer has been developed to measure atmospheric water vapor accurately. The developed sensor is environmentally-friendly and ease-to-handle in nature because this sensor does not use a cryogenic material to cool the mirror. In January of 2012 and 2013, we have conducted some flight tests at Biak, Indonesia (1.18°S, 136.11°E) under the Soundings of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) project to evaluate the performances of this sensor. The results of simultaneous measurements with the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) showed that the frost point temperature from the developed sensor is consistent with that from CFH within ~0.5 K in the whole troposphere. In the stratosphere, however, it was found that the controller, which keeps the frost layer on the mirror constant, needs to be further improved. A cloud particle counter has also been developed to measure cloud-particle number density, size distribution, and the particle phase (i.e. liquid water or ice). It is a low-cost and light-weighted (~200 g) particle counter based on a pollen sensor to be used in an air purifier. This sensor consists of a light-emitting part (linearly-polarized light by laser diode) and two light-receiving parts (one detects scattering light directly, while the other detects scattering lights through a polarization plate to estimate the degree of polarization by particles). It is considered that the counts, magnitude of the scattered signals, and the degree of polarization correspond to the particle number density, size, and the phase, respectively. We have conducted some test flights in Japan and in Indonesia between November 2012 and April 2013. The results showed that this sensor can detect cirrus clouds (ice particles) in the TTL and lower tropospheric clouds (liquid water droplets), and discriminate the phase of the particle. However, there are still some problems concerning the measurements of particle size and number density. We need further adjustments of the optical detector part to measure the wide range of number density that the sensor encounters during a tropospheric flight, and further calibration by laboratory experiments to estimate the particle size from the magnitude of the detected signals.

Sugidachi, T.; Arai, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Shimizu, K.; Ibata, K.; Kanai, Y.; Okumura, S.; Sagara, K.; Hayashi, M.

2013-12-01

376

What to do in marine biotechnology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the symposium “Marine Biotechnology: Basics and Applications”, held 25 February–1 March, 2003 in Matalascañas, Spain, a special brainstorm session was organized. Two questions were addressed: 1, “What is the most desirable development in marine biotechnology”?; 2, “What is the most spectacular development in this field in your ‘wildest’ dreams”?The outcome of this session is reported in this paper. From

Johannes Tramper; Chris Battershill; Willem Brandenburg; Grant Burgess; Russell Hill; Esther Luiten; Werner Müller; Ronald Osinga; Gregory Rorrer; Mario Tredici; Maria Uriz; Phillip Wright; René Wijffels

2003-01-01

377

Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.  

PubMed

Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. PMID:25300547

Pallela, Ramjee

2014-01-01

378

Formulation and development of oral dry suspension using taste masked Ornidazole particles prepared using Kollicoat(®) Smartseal 30 D.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to taste mask highly bitter active, Ornidazole by means of particle coating. The aim of the work was further extended into formulating these coated particles into an acceptable oral dosage form such as dry suspension. Ornidazole drug particles were coated using Kollicoat(®) Smartseal 30 D as a taste masking polymer. Kollicoat(®) Smartseal 30 D is a methyl methacrylate - diethylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer (6:4). Successful taste masking was achieved for Ornidazole with both top spray and bottom spray techniques using fluid bed processor. Effective taste masking was achieved at a weight gain of 50% w/w and 40% w/w for bottom and top spray techniques respectively without having a significant effect on the release pattern. A taste masked dry suspension was prepared with around 80% w/w coated Ornidazole particles and pH was maintained around 7-8. The suspension prepared with these coated Ornidazole particles, which were maintained in the alkaline pH was found to be stable for 7 days without affecting the taste. The bitter taste intensity was evaluated using volunteers by comparison of test samples with standard solutions containing Ornidazole at various concentrations. Thus, Kollicoat(®) Smartseal 30 D was found to be an effective polymer for taste masking of a bitter active like Ornidazole. The formulation development of taste masked dry suspensions was only possible due to unique properties possessed by Kollicoat(®) Smartseal 30 D. PMID:22900982

Chivate, Amit; Sargar, Vishnu; Nalawade, Pravin; Tawde, Vaishali

2013-07-01

379

Dynamics of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter and Implications for Marine Aerosol Production and Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean significantly influence the physicochemical properties and evolution of marine aerosols in the troposphere. DOM in seawater (660 PgC) can be characterized based on turnover times that range from days to millennia. The largest pool (630 PgC) is long-lived, evenly distributed globally (~40 ?mol/kg), and biologically recalcitrant. Relative to this background pool, surface waters are enriched in DOM by photoautotrophic production of more biologically labile fractions (25 PgC/yr). Primary productivity is inversely correlated with DOM concentrations in the surface ocean: Oligotrophic (low chlorophyll) subtropical gyres contain relatively more DOM (~70 ?mol/kg) whereas regions of higher biological productivity (high chlorophyll) contain less (~55 ?mol/kg). Bursting bubbles inject a small fraction of DOM in the surface ocean to the atmosphere in association with inorganic sea salt. The primary DOM pool from which this particulate organic matter (POM) derives is unresolved. The production flux corresponds to a large albeit poorly constrained source of POM in air (estimated range from 8 to 50 TgC/yr globally). Aerosols generated artificially from both oligotrophic and more productive waters as well as ambient aerosols in air overlying those waters are highly enriched in OM (typically by factors of 102 to 103 integrated over size distributions) relative to surface seawater. Enrichments increase with decreasing size; organic matter dominates the dry mass and volume of most individual, freshly produced particles. Observations in some marine regions suggest weak correlations between indicators of biological productivity (e.g. chlorophyll, particulate OM, DOM) and the corresponding organic enrichment of aerosols. However, reported relationships are inconsistent suggesting that they reflect localized, transient conditions rather than larger-scale variability. The poorly constrained interplay between DOM dynamics in the surface ocean and corresponding properties of primary marine aerosols must be resolved to develop a reliably predictive capability for the physicochemical evolution of the marine troposphere and associated feedbacks on earth's climate.

Hansell, D. A.; Long, M. S.

2012-12-01

380

Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

2014-03-01

381

Developing Antimatter Containment Technology: Modeling Charged Particle Oscillations in a Penning-Malmberg Trap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA MSFC Propulsion Research Center (PRC) is conducting a research activity examining the storage of low energy antiprotons. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is an electromagnetic system (Penning-Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Tesla superconductor, a high voltage confinement electrode system, and an ultra high vacuum test section; designed with an ultimate goal of maintaining charged particles with a half-life of 18 days. Currently, this system is being experimentally evaluated using normal matter ions which are cheap to produce and relatively easy to handle and provide a good indication of overall trap behavior, with the exception of assessing annihilation losses. Computational particle-in-cell plasma modeling using the XOOPIC code is supplementing the experiments. Differing electrode voltage configurations are employed to contain charged particles, typically using flat, modified flat and harmonic potential wells. Ion cloud oscillation frequencies are obtained experimentally by amplification of signals induced on the electrodes by the particle motions. XOOPIC simulations show that for given electrode voltage configurations, the calculated charged particle oscillation frequencies are close to experimental measurements. As a two-dimensional axisymmetric code, XOOPIC cannot model azimuthal plasma variations, such as those induced by radio-frequency (RF) modulation of the central quadrupole electrode in experiments designed to enhance ion cloud containment. However, XOOPIC can model analytically varying electric potential boundary conditions and particle velocity initial conditions. Application of these conditions produces ion cloud axial and radial oscillation frequency modes of interest in achieving the goal of optimizing HiPAT for reliable containment of antiprotons.

Chakrabarti, S.; Martin, J. J.; Pearson, J. B.; Lewis, R. A.

2003-01-01

382

Development of enteric submicron particle formulation of papain for oral delivery  

PubMed Central

Background Particulate systems have received increasing attention for oral delivery of biomolecules. The objective of the present study was to prepare submicron particulate formulations of papain for pH-dependent site-specific release using pH-sensitive polymers. Methods Enteric submicron particle formulations of papain were prepared by w/o/w emulsion solvent evaporation using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP), Eudragit L100, and Eudragit S100, to avoid gastric inactivation of papain. Results Smaller internal and external aqueous phase volumes provided maximum encapsulation efficiency (75.58%–82.35%), the smallest particle size (665.6–692.4 nm), and 25%–30% loss of enzyme activity. Release studies in 0.1 N HCl confirmed the gastroresistance of the formulations. The anionic submicron particles aggregated in 0.1 N HCl (ie, gastric pH 1.2) due to protonation of carboxylic groups in the enteric polymer. Aggregates < 500 ?m size would not impede gastric emptying. However, at pH > 5.0 (duodenal pH), the submicron particles showed deaggregation due to restoration of surface charge. HPMCP submicron particles facilitated almost complete release of papain within 30 minutes at pH 6.0, while Eudragit L100 and Eudragit S100 particles released 88.82% and 53.00% of papain at pH 6.8 and pH 7.4, respectively, according to the Korsmeyer–Peppas equation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that the structural integrity of the enzyme was maintained during encapsulation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed entrapment of the enzyme, with powder x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicating an amorphous character, and scanning electron microscopy showing that the submicron particles had a spherical shape. Conclusion In simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions, the HPMCP, Eudragit L100, and Eudragit S100 submicron particles showed good digestion of paneer and milk protein, and could serve as potential carriers for oral enzyme delivery. Stability studies indicated that formulations with approximately 6% overage would ensure a two-year shelf-life at room temperature. PMID:22114474

Sharma, Manu; Sharma, Vinay; Panda, Amulya K; Majumdar, Dipak K

2011-01-01

383

Diversity and Distribution of Marine Synechococcus: Multiple Gene Phylogenies for Consensus Classification and Development of qPCR Assays for Sensitive Measurement of Clades in the Ocean.  

PubMed

Marine Synechococcus is a globally significant genus of cyanobacteria that is comprised of multiple genetic lineages or clades. These clades are thought to represent ecologically distinct units, or ecotypes. Because multiple clades often co-occur together in the oceans, Synechococcus are ideal microbes to explore how closely related bacterial taxa within the same functional guild of organisms co-exist and partition marine habitats. Here we sequenced multiple gene loci from cultured strains to confirm the congruency of clade classifications between the 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed spacer (ITS), 16S rDNA, narB, ntcA, and rpoC1 loci commonly used in Synechococcus diversity studies. We designed quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays that target the ITS for 10 Synechococcus clades, including four clades, XV, XVI, CRD1, and CRD2, not covered by previous assays employing other loci. Our new qPCR assays are very sensitive and specific, detecting down to tens of cells per ml. Application of these qPCR assays to field samples from the northwest Atlantic showed clear shifts in Synechococcus community composition across a coastal to open-ocean transect. Consistent with previous studies, clades I and IV dominated cold, coastal Synechococcus communities. Clades II and X were abundant at the two warmer, off-shore stations, and at all stations multiple Synechococcus clades co-occurred. qPCR assays developed here provide valuable tools to further explore the dynamics of microbial community structure and the mechanisms of co-existence. PMID:22723796

Ahlgren, Nathan A; Rocap, Gabrielle

2012-01-01

384

Diversity and Distribution of Marine Synechococcus: Multiple Gene Phylogenies for Consensus Classification and Development of qPCR Assays for Sensitive Measurement of Clades in the Ocean  

PubMed Central

Marine Synechococcus is a globally significant genus of cyanobacteria that is comprised of multiple genetic lineages or clades. These clades are thought to represent ecologically distinct units, or ecotypes. Because multiple clades often co-occur together in the oceans, Synechococcus are ideal microbes to explore how closely related bacterial taxa within the same functional guild of organisms co-exist and partition marine habitats. Here we sequenced multiple gene loci from cultured strains to confirm the congruency of clade classifications between the 16S–23S rDNA internally transcribed spacer (ITS), 16S rDNA, narB, ntcA, and rpoC1 loci commonly used in Synechococcus diversity studies. We designed quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays that target the ITS for 10 Synechococcus clades, including four clades, XV, XVI, CRD1, and CRD2, not covered by previous assays employing other loci. Our new qPCR assays are very sensitive and specific, detecting down to tens of cells per ml. Application of these qPCR assays to field samples from the northwest Atlantic showed clear shifts in Synechococcus community composition across a coastal to open-ocean transect. Consistent with previous studies, clades I and IV dominated cold, coastal Synechococcus communities. Clades II and X were abundant at the two warmer, off-shore stations, and at all stations multiple Synechococcus clades co-occurred. qPCR assays developed here provide valuable tools to further explore the dynamics of microbial community structure and the mechanisms of co-existence. PMID:22723796

Ahlgren, Nathan A.; Rocap, Gabrielle

2012-01-01

385

Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 7-92. Interim guidelines for the development and review of response plans for marine transportation-related facilities including deepwater ports. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this circular is to provide guidance on the development and review of response plans for marine transportation-related facilities, including deepwater ports, certain onshore facilities, marinas, tank trucks, and railroad tank cars, as required by section 311(j) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCS), as amended by section 4202 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). This circular applies to all marine transportation-related facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm or significant and substantial harm to the environment by discharging oil into or on navigable waters, adjoining shorelines, or the exclusive economic zone.

NONE

1992-09-15

386

Glossary of Marine Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary of terms used in marine biology is associated with the textbook, Marine Biology, Function, Biodiversity, Ecology, by Jeffery Levinton (Oxford University Press, New York). It is associated with Marine Biology Web, which provides links to other marine biology topics.

387

Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special

H. O Pörtner; B Berdal; R Blust; O Brix; A Colosimo; B De Wachter; A Giuliani; T Johansen; T Fischer; R Knust; G Lannig; G Naevdal; A Nedenes; G Nyhammer; F. J Sartoris; I Serendero; P Sirabella; S Thorkildsen; M Zakhartsev

2001-01-01

388

Marine Iguanas Older Than Their Islands Jeff Mitton  

E-print Network

by a variety of green and red algae. Marine iguanas rely solely on marine algae but they are not restricted algae. They have developed powerful, flattened tails for swimming. Excess salt imbibed while eating

Mitton, Jeffry B.

389

Effect of coarse marine aerosols on stratocumulus clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to fine anthropogenic aerosols (radii ~< 0.5?m), large aerosol particles are thought to enhance cloud droplet growth, promote precipitation formation and reduce cloud albedo. While shown in models, the impact of coarse aerosols on marine stratocumulus clouds lacks observational evidence. Combining satellite data from AMSR-E and MODIS, we link the amount of wind induced coarse marine aerosols (CMA), with droplet size of marine stratocumulus clouds over the southeastern Pacific. For constrained meteorological conditions, approximately 1/2 of the change in droplet effective radius (reff) is attributed to increase in CMA optical depth (?cm), as surface winds intensify. Accordingly, a twofold increase in ?cm is associated with a 1.4?m +/-0.11 increase in reff . Our results suggest that any attempt to quantify the impact of anthropogenic and biogenic marine aerosols on marine boundary layer clouds, should take into account the opposing effect of wind induced coarse marine particles.

Lehahn, Yoav; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Kostinski, Alexander

2013-04-01

390

Size and Depth Effects on Particle-Flux Development in Meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable and radioactive nuclides produced by the interaction of cosmic ray particles with matter can provide valuable information about variation of cosmic rays. The accurate modeling of the depth and size dependence of the production processes is a necessary prerequisite for the physical interpretation of measured activities. The production rates of cosmogenic nuclides depend on the type and the flux

P. Chochula; J. Masarik; P. Povinec

1992-01-01

391

New developments in JET neutron, ?-ray and particle diagnostics with relevance to ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some recent JET campaigns, with the introduction of a trace amount (nT\\/nD < 5%) of tritium into D plasmas and third harmonic ICRH acceleration of 4He, provided unique opportunities to test ‘burning plasma’ diagnostics. In particular, new approaches and techniques were investigated for the detection of neutrons, ? particles and the fuel mixture. With regard to neutron detection, the recent

A. Murari; L. Bertalot; S. Conroy; G. Ericsson; V. Kiptily; S. Popovichev; H. Schuhmacher; J. M. Adams; V. Afanasyiev; M. Angelone; G. Bonheure; B. Esposito; J. Källne; M. Mironov; M. Pillon; M. Reginatto; D. Stork; A. Zimbal; JET-EFDA Contributors

2005-01-01

392

New developments in JET neutron, gamma-ray and particle diagnostics with relevance to ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some recent JET campaigns, with the introduction of a trace amount (nT\\/nD < 5%) of tritium into D plasmas and third harmonic ICRH acceleration of 4He, provided unique opportunities to test 'burning plasma' diagnostics. In particular, new approaches and techniques were investigated for the detection of neutrons, alpha particles and the fuel mixture. With regard to neutron detection, the recent

A. Murari; L. Bertalot; S. Conroy; G. Ericsson; V. Kiptily; S. Popovichev; H. Schuhmacher; J. M. Adams; V. Afanasyiev; M. Angelone; G. Bonheure; B. Esposito; J. Källne; M. Mironov; M. Pillon; M. Reginatto; D. Stork; A. Zimbal; JET-EFDA Contributors

2005-01-01

393

Programmably structured plasma waveguide for development of table-top photon and particle sources  

E-print Network

is useful for the optimization of various laser-plasma-based photon and particle sources. VC 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4729902] I. INTRODUCTION Extending laser-plasma interaction length with an extended plasma waveguide is crucial to many applications, such as laser

394

Marine spatial planning in practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple competing uses of continental-shelf environments have led to a proliferation of marine spatial planning initiatives, together with expert guidance on marine spatial planning. This study provides an empirical review of marine spatial plans, their attributes, and the extent to which the expert guidance is actually being followed. We performed a structured review of 16 existing marine spatial plans and created an idealized marine spatial plan from the steps included in recent expert papers. A cluster analysis of the yes/no answers to 28 questions was used to ordinate the 16 marine spatial plans and to compare them with the idealized plan. All the plans that have been implemented have a high-level government mandate and the authority to implement spatial planning vested in existing institutions. Almost all the plans used data with clear criteria for data inclusion. Stakeholders were included in almost all the plans; they did not participate in all stages of the planning process but their roles were generally clearly defined. Decision-support tools were applied inconsistently across plans and were seldom used dynamically over time. Most spatial planning processes did not select specific outcomes, such as preferred use scenarios. Success is defined inconsistently across plans; in half the cases there are no metrics of success with reference benchmarks. Although monitoring is included in the majority of plans, only in some cases do monitoring results feed back into management decisions. The process of marine spatial planning had advanced in that some of the more recent plans were developed more quickly and contain more desirable attributes than earlier plans. Even so, existing marine spatial plans are heterogeneous—there are essential ingredients, but no single recipe for success.

Collie, Jeremy S.; (Vic) Adamowicz, W. L.; Beck, Michael W.; Craig, Bethany; Essington, Timothy E.; Fluharty, David; Rice, Jake; Sanchirico, James N.

2013-01-01

395

A boxmodel development to study the relationships between the photo-oxidants and the particles formation in the troposphere.  

PubMed

The model BAGS (Boxmodel for Aerosol and Gasphase Simulations) has been developed. It is composed of two major modules: the first one describes the system of the chemical reactions in the gaseous phase, the second one calculates the aerosol chemical composition and the dimensional distribution of the particles. The boxmodel has been developed with the introduction of new chemical and physical processes, not previously included, in particular the formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol. The other implemented processes are a module for the dynamic of the particle population, nucleation, coagulation and dry deposition. The last phase of the work has been a check of the BAGS capabilities by a series of tests, that have permitted to compare it with other models (MAPS and MADM). The tests in particular have concerned the aerosol water content prediction, the photochemistry, the condensation of the inorganic compounds and the formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol. PMID:12817645

Pozzoli, Luca; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Van Dingenen, Rita; Hjiorth, Jens; Dentener, Frank; Perrone, Grazia; Rindone, Bruno; Librando, Vito

2003-04-01

396

Comparisons of rational engineering correlations of thermophoretically-augmented particle mass transfer with STAN5-predictions for developing boundary layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modification of the code STAN5 to properly include thermophoretic mass transport, and examination of selected test cases developing boundary layers which include variable properties, viscous dissipation, transition to turbulence and transpiration cooling. Under conditions representative of current and projected GT operation, local application of St(M)/St(M),o correlations evidently provides accurate and economical engineering design predictions, especially for suspended particles characterized by Schmidt numbers outside of the heavy vapor range.

Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

1984-01-01

397

A model of solar energetic particles for use in calculating LET spectra developed from ONR-604 data.  

PubMed

A model of solar energetic particles (SEP) has been developed and is applied to solar flares during the 1990/1991 CRRES mission using data measured by the University of Chicago instrument, ONR-604. The model includes the time-dependent behavior, heavy-ion content, energy spectrum and fluence, and can accurately represent the observed SEP events in the energy range between 40 to 500 MeV/nucleon. Results are presented for the March and June, 1991 flare periods. PMID:11540007

Chen, J; Chenette, D; Guzik, T G; Garcia-Munoz, M; Pyle, K R; Sang, Y; Wefel, J P

1994-10-01

398

Different parameterizations of marine snow in a 1D-model and their influence on representation of marine snow, nitrogen budget and sedimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is presented that simulates the formation of marine aggregates from particles of different origin inside a model of pelagic biological processes. Experiments are carried out with parameterizations appropriate for different types of aggregates, using different kinds of physical forcing, and compared to observations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), marine snow concentration, and sedimentation. The occurrence of large, macroscopically visible aggregates (marine snow) can best be simulated with parameterizations that have been derived from in situ observations of marine snow, but not with a parameterization sufficient for dense particles. The parameterization strongly determines the amount and timing of deep export, as well as the post-bloom development of the food web in the upper layers. Detritus in aggregates plays a role mainly during times when zooplankton are abundant, as e.g. in the western Arabian Sea during Southwest Monsoon. Then the large aggregates as fast sinking vehicles may remove detritus quickly from shallow and mid-water depth, preventing the accumulation of nutrients that are produced via detritus decomposition. In this region, detritus contributes strongly to deep sedimentation. The nitrogen budget at this location with regard to the observations cannot be closed: depending on model type, either the model simulates too high sedimentation, or too high DIN. Possible causes for this mismatch include undercollection by sediment traps, inaccurate representation of physical processes in the model and the neglect of biological processes, such as production of dissolved organic matter or denitrification.

Kriest, Iris

2002-12-01

399

Effect of food deprivation in late larval development and early benthic life of temperate marine coastal and estuarine caridean shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decapod crustaceans larvae commonly rely on the ingestion of exogenous planktonic food to survive and metamorphose. During larval development, decapods are exposed to variable periods of food shortage. Unfavorable trophic scenarios affect larval decapods differently and the post-settlement effects of nutritional stress during late larval development are still largely unknown. Facultative secondary lecithotrophy (FSL) can be described as the ability

Ricardo Calado; Tânia Pimentel; Patricia Pochelon; Ainhoa O. Olaguer-Feliú; Henrique Queiroga

2010-01-01

400

Development of a Rhesus Monkey Lung Geometry Model and Application to Particle Deposition in Comparison to Humans  

SciTech Connect

The exposure-dose-response characterization of an inhalation hazard established in an animal species needs to be translated to an equivalent characterization in humans relative to comparable doses or exposure scenarios. Here, the first geometry model of the conducting airways for rhesus monkeys is developed based upon CT images of the conducting airways of a 6-month-old male, rhesus monkey. An algorithm was developed for adding the alveolar region airways using published rhesus morphometric data. The resultant lung geometry model can be used in mechanistic particle or gaseous dosimetry models. Such dosimetry models require estimates of the upper respiratory tract volume of the animal and the functional residual capacity, as well as of the tidal volume and breathing frequency of the animal. The relationship of these variables to rhesus monkeys of differing body weights was established by synthesizing and modeling published data as well as modeling pulmonary function measurements on 121 rhesus control animals. Deposition patterns of particles up to 10 ?m in size were examined for endotracheal and and up to 5 ?m for spontaneous breathing in infant and young adult monkeys and compared to those for humans. Deposition fraction of respirable size particles was found to be higher in the conducting airways of infant and young adult rhesus monkeys compared to humans. Due to the filtering effect of the conducting airways, pulmonary deposition in rhesus monkeys was lower than that in humans. Future research areas are identified that would either allow replacing assumptions or improving the newly developed lung model.

Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; McClellan, Gene; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Harkema, Jack R.; Carey, Stephen A.; Schelegle, Edward; Hyde, D.; Kimbell, Julia; Miller, Frederick J.

2012-11-01

401

Particle astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following scientific areas are reviewed: (1) cosmology and particle physics (particle