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1

Marine & hydrokinetic technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine

Al LiVecchi; Richard Alan Jepsen

2010-01-01

2

Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.  

SciTech Connect

The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power plants while mitigating nearby and distant impacts. Activities may include laboratory and computational modeling of mooring design or research on device spacing. The geographies, resources, technologies, and even nomenclature of the U.S. marine and hydrokinetic technology industry have yet to be fully understood or defined. The program characterizes and assesses marine and hydrokinetic devices, and then organizes the collected information into a comprehensive and searchable Web-based database, the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. The database, which reflects intergovernmental and international collaboration, provides industry with one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date public resources on marine and hydrokinetic devices.

LiVecchi, Al (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Jepsen, Richard Alan

2010-06-01

3

Glyoxal and methylglyoxal in Atlantic seawater and marine aerosol particles: method development and first application during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical method for the determination of the alpha dicarbonyls glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY) from seawater and marine aerosol samples is presented. The method is based on derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine (PFBHA) reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The method showed good precision (RSD <10%), sensitivity (detection limits in the low ng L-1 range), and accuracy (good agreement between external calibration and standard addition). The method was applied to determine GLY and MGLY in oceanic water sampled during the POLARSTERN cruise ANT XXVII/4 from Capetown to Bremerhaven in spring 2011. GLY and MGLY were determined in the sea surface microlayer (SML) of the ocean and corresponding bulkwater (BW) with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). The results show a significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the SML. Furthermore, marine aerosol particles (PM1) were sampled during the cruise and analyzed for GLY (average concentration 0.19 ng m-3) and MGLY (average concentration 0.15 ng m-3). On aerosol particles, both carbonyls show a very good correlation with oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. Concentrations of GLY and MGLY in seawater and on aerosol particles were correlated to environmental parameters such as global radiation, temperature, distance to the coastline and biological activity. There are slight hints for a photochemical production of GLY and MGLY in the SML (significant enrichment in the SML, higher enrichment at higher temperature). However, a clear connection of GLY and MGLY to global radiation as well as to biological activity cannot be concluded from the data. A slight correlation between GLY and MGLY in the SML and in aerosols could be a hint for interactions of especially GLY between seawater and the atmosphere.

van Pinxteren, M.; Herrmann, H.

2013-06-01

4

Energetic Particles Measured near Venus by Mariner 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of ionization and the omnidirectional flux of charged particle radiation were measured near Venus by an integrating ionization chamber and two Geiger-Miiller counters on Mariner 2. The instruments detected protons with E >_ 10 Mev and electrons with E >_ 0.5 Mev by direct penetration; lower-energy electrons were detected through the bremsstrahlung process. Mariner approached within 41,200 km

Hugh R. Anderson

1964-01-01

5

Microbial attachment to particles in marine and freshwater ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning electron microscopy observations ofin situ suspended marine and freshwater particles show diverse but similar modes of bacterial and fungal attachment. A survey of Sierra Nevada mountain lakes and pelagic and near-shore waters in the Pacific Ocean indicates that attachment is most noticeable in the near-surface waters where fresh dissolved and particulate input of carbon from phytoplankton and elevated temperatures

Hans W. Paerl

1975-01-01

6

DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE MARINE AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Sustainable Marine Aquaculture Technology project is a collaborative research program with scientists from the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the Aquaculture Division of Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, and Florida State University. Research is being conducted at two sites: at the H...

7

New particle formation in the marine boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol measurements were made in the marine boundary layer along the coast of Washington State during the Pacific Stratus Sulfur Investigation. On April 22 the particle concentration increased to levels much higher than usual for the clean marine boundary layer. The total particulate number concentration greater than 3 nm diameter increased rapidly from about 250 cm[sup [minus]3] to 3,200 cm[sup [minus]3], remained near that level for 7 hours, and then decreased over the next 2 hours to less than 400 cm[sup [minus]3]. The change could not be attributed to either local or distant contamination. Immediately before the increase particulate surface area concentration dropped from 25 [mu]m[sup 2] cm[sup [minus]3] to less than 5 [mu]m[sup 2] cm[sup [minus]3]. The SO[sub 2] concentration increased from about 20 pptv to 40-60 pptv just before the increase in particle concentration. While these measurements cannot distinguish between changes in number concentration caused by particle nucleation versus advection or vertical mixing, clearly there was recent or continuing particle production on a mesoscale in the air mass. Related aircraft measurements and model results support the hypothesis of new particle formation. These data provide evidence that at times high concentrations of new, ultrafine particles are formed at low SO[sub 2] concentrations under mareine conditions. This homogeneous nucleation, as opposed to heterogeneous condensation on existing particles, is strongly and inversely dependent on the concentration of existing particles. 19 refs., 4 figs.

Covert, D.S. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Kapustin, V.N. (Inst. of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S. (NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Lab., Seattle, WA (United States))

1992-12-20

8

In Brief: Developing marine protected areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A draft framework for the development of a national system of marine protected areas (MPA) has been released for public comment by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Under the proposed framework, an MPA is any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by U.S. federal, state, local, or other government regulations ``to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.'' About 1500 marine conservation areas initially would qualify as MPAs. The national system is intended to guide cooperative efforts among various parties and thus increase protection of these areas. The framework goals for a national system include: advancing conservation and management of marine resources through ecosystem-based approaches, and enhancing effective coordination and integration among MPAs in the national system and within the broader context of ecosystem-based management.

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-11-01

9

The influence of marine biogenic particles on ice phase initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol particles vary in composition with many being biogenic and of terrestrial or marine origin. Efficient ice forming biogenic particles are typically thought to be of terrestrial origin; however, recent data demonstrate that marine biogenic particles can act as ice nuclei (IN) in both immersion and deposition modes, with and without association of NaCl. These results are significant given that ocean derived particles including phytoplankton, microorganisms, transparent exopolymers, and colloidal gels become aerosolized from the sea surface microlayer through wave breaking and bubble bursting. Such particles typically include sea salt, but in situ observations of air masses associated with phytoplankton blooms have identified organic compounds as significant mass contributors to aerosol loading. Here we present results from experiments with Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nanochloris atomus, phytoplankton with distinctly different cell walls: silica, calcite, and cellulose fibrils, respectively, as efficient IN in immersion and deposition modes at typical tropospheric conditions. In a separate set of experiments, submicron size particles with and without organics are generated through bubble bursting in a custom built seawater tank. Subsequently collected, these particles are observed using a coupled cooling stage/optical microscope, for their ice nucleation potential as a function of particle temperature (T), water activity (aw), relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice), droplet volume, and particle surface area. In the immersion mode, fragmented and intact cells of T. pseudonana and N. atomus enhance ice nucleation in aqueous NaCl solution droplets by ~10-30 K and 10-20 K above the homogeneous freezing limit, and for a range of aw of 1.0-0.8, while E. huxleyi do not enhance freezing temperatures. In the deposition mode, all three species nucleate ice for RHice as low as ~120%, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer temperatures. T. pseudonana and N. atomus take up water as low as ~85% relative humidity and subsequently nucleate via immersion freezing. E. huxleyi can nucleate ice via deposition freezing for T as high as 245 K. Direct measurements of cell surface area are used to derive ice nucleation rate coefficients and contact angles, ?, following classical nucleation theory, a time-dependent description of ice nucleation. A time-independent deterministic description is used to derive ice active surface site densities. Values of ? range from 60° to 100° and depend on T and RHice in the immersion mode; however, for deposition freezing, ? can be reproduced as a function of RHice between 16° to 30°. These results underscore the importance of ocean derived biogenic particles for the formation and evolution of ice and mixed phase clouds in the atmosphere.

Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.

2011-12-01

10

Development of a Marine Sediment Pollution Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate translation of the state of marine sediment quality for public information, a pollution index was developed from the results of a routine monitoring program. Principal component analysis (PCA) of 24 variables at 64 monitoring stations from 1987 to 1997 was carried out to identify the most important parameters that were applied in the index formulation. Of the 24

P. K. S Shin; W. K. C Lam

2001-01-01

11

Study and Development of Marine Power Station Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discussed how to develop simulator of marine power system which is a kind of power system making up of several generators and AC&DC power supply, including general design and simulation mathematical model. According to characteristics and operational requirements of marine power system, a complete set of mathematical models of marine power system were established, which included turbine generator

Cheng Shouyu; Peng Minjun; Gong Cheng; Liu Xinkai; Lin XuanBo

2010-01-01

12

Drug development from marine natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug discovery from marine natural products has enjoyed a renaissance in the past few years. Ziconotide (Prialt; Elan Pharmaceuticals), a peptide originally discovered in a tropical cone snail, was the first marine-derived compound to be approved in the United States in December 2004 for the treatment of pain. Then, in October 2007, trabectedin (Yondelis; PharmaMar) became the first marine anticancer

Doralyn S. Dalisay; Sarah L. Lievens; Jonel P. Saludes; Tadeusz F. Molinski

2008-01-01

13

Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic Sea.  

PubMed

Fishes show great variability in hearing sensitivity, bandwidth, and the appropriate stimulus component for the inner ear (particle motion or pressure). Here, hearing sensitivities in three vocal marine species belonging to different families were described in terms of sound pressure and particle acceleration. In particular, hearing sensitivity to tone bursts of varying frequencies were measured in the red-mouthed goby Gobius cruentatus, the Mediterranean damselfish Chromis chromis, and the brown meagre Sciaena umbra using the non-invasive auditory evoked potential-recording technique. Hearing thresholds were measured in terms of sound pressure level and particle acceleration level in the three Cartesian directions using a newly developed miniature pressure-acceleration sensor. The brown meagre showed the broadest hearing range (up to 3000 Hz) and the best hearing sensitivity, both in terms of sound pressure and particle acceleration. The red-mouthed goby and the damselfish were less sensitive, with upper frequency limits of 700 and 600 Hz, respectively. The low auditory thresholds and the large hearing bandwidth of S. umbra indicate that sound pressure may play a role in S. umbra's hearing, even though pronounced connections between the swim bladder and the inner ears are lacking. PMID:19813819

Wysocki, Lidia Eva; Codarin, Antonio; Ladich, Friedrich; Picciulin, Marta

2009-10-01

14

The Development of a Virtual Marine Museum for Educational Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this article is to investigate the computer animation and virtual reality technologies for developing a virtual marine museum. The museum consists of three exhibition areas. The first area displays fishes in freshwater, including creeks, rivers, and dams in Taiwan. The second area exhibits marine ecology and creatures of…

Tarng, Wermhuar; Change, Mei-Yu; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Ya-Wen; Liou, Hsin-Hun

2009-01-01

15

Development of an industrial marine riser joint  

SciTech Connect

A marine riser pup joint was instrumented to measure riser tension, bending moment, and mud temperature and pressure. The ground rules for the design, major design decisions, significant details, and calibration and testing are discussed.

Evans, J.L.; Ganser, D.A.

1982-09-01

16

Development of marine observation satellite in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An outline of Japan's Marine Observation Satellite-1 (MOS-1), to be launched by an N-II vehicle in 1986, is presented. Satellite mission objectives are to collect ground data, and to develop remote sensing technology. MOS-1 nominal orbit is sun-synchronous at a 909 km altitude and an inclination of 99.1 deg, and the satellite will include three sensors: (1) a multispectral electronic self-scanning radiometer (2) a visible and thermal infrared radiometer, and (3) a microwave scanning radiometer. MOS-1 height is about 300 cm, length is approximately 150 cm, width is approximately 140 cm, and total weight is nearly 750 kg. In addition, ground segment systems are the tracking and control system, the operation control system (the main feature), and the data acquisition and distribution system. The data acquisition system will be installed about 50 km northwest of Tokyo, and the next MOS-1 is being considered, examining the usefulness of ocean phenomena satellite measurements.

Matsumoto, K.; Niwa, S.; Doura, T.; Yamamoto, S.

1982-09-01

17

Chemical speciation of sulfur in marine cloud droplets and particles: Analysis of individual particles from the marine boundary layer over the California current  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X rays (CCSEM\\/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge

Rebecca J. Hopkins; Yury Desyaterik; Alexei V. Tivanski; Rahul A. Zaveri; Carl M. Berkowitz; Tolek Tyliszczak; Mary K. Gilles; Alexander Laskin

2008-01-01

18

Pharmaceutical development of anticancer agents derived from marine sources.  

PubMed

The marine ecosystem is more and more acknowledged as a source of potential anticancer agents. After the identification of a potential substance several hurdles have to be overcome before a marine candidate can enter the clinic. Amongst these are the establishment of a method which ensures sufficient supply and, which is the focus of this review, the development of a clinically useful pharmaceutical formulation. General issues with respect to the pharmaceutical development of marine anticancer agents will be discussed, which will be illustrated by highlighting aspects of the pharmaceutical development and clinical use of some representative compounds. PMID:11142687

Nuijen, B; Bouma, M; Manada, C; Jimeno, J M; Schellens, J H; Bult, A; Beijnen, J H

2000-11-01

19

Utilization of marine resources in developing coastal states: A cooperative international marine affairs program  

Microsoft Academic Search

If developing coastal countries are to develop their ocean resources in a timely and efficient manner, they will require assistance from developed coastal states. The best form of assistance is probably the transfer of managerial and technical expertise\\/technology. This paper describes a program designed to provide such assistance being developed by the Marine Policy and Ocean Management Program of the

M. Silva; J. Broadus; D. Ross; R. Knecht

1982-01-01

20

Marine Fuel Cell Technology Verification Trainer Program: Operator Curriculum Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of tasks completed by Maine Maritime Academy engineering and marine transportation faculty to investigate and develop stationary and ship service fuel cell (SSFC) power plant course work for United States Navy (USN) opera...

S. R. Walk M. Libby L. V. Wade

2004-01-01

21

Research and Development of Two Marine-Degradable Biopolymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy is developing a biopolymeric film material suitable for fabrication into marine-disposable trash bags so that it can comply with impending national and international requirements which will prohibit the discharge of plastics into the sea. Two bio...

A. L. Andrady J. E. Pegram T. M. Olson

1992-01-01

22

Growth rates during coastal and marine new particle formation in western Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth rates of new particles during coastal and marine secondary aerosol particle formation events were studied in western Ireland, both at the Mace Head atmospheric research station and onboard the R/V Celtic Explorer as part of the Marine Aerosol Production project. Strong new particle formation events are frequently detected at Mace Head caused by the emission of precursor gases from exposed seaweed during low tide. Although these events were usually only detected as a mode of particles at a certain size, we were able to link the size of the mode to the growth time of these particles after the initial formation by combining data from several events measured between January 2006 and November 2007 with an air ion spectrometer. Typically, the early growth rates were extremely high, reaching values of several hundred nanometers per hour during the first seconds. The growth rates rapidly decreased and reached values below 1 nm h-1 within 1 h after nucleation. Our results were reproduced with box model calculations. All the obtained growth rates could be explained by the model either by varying the precursor formation time (typically a few seconds) or allowing multiple precursor vapor additions. From the ship-borne measurements, we report the first observations of purely open ocean new particle formation detected in this region. In total, four events were detected during this period, with three having a variable continental influence. An estimated average growth rate in marine conditions was 3 nm h-1 for these events.

Ehn, Mikael; Vuollekoski, Henri; PetäJä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Vana, Marko; Aalto, Pasi; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Ceburnis, Darius; Dupuy, Regis; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Kulmala, Markku

2010-09-01

23

Preliminary study on the development of syntactic foams for marine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the comparison of various types of matrix materials and their mechanical properties for development of syntactic foams for marine applications. Generally, syntactic foams are close pore foams fabricated by the mechanical mixing of hollow microsphere particles in a polymeric matrix resin. From the literature review, it was found that there are several polymeric resins that have been used for development of syntactic foams such as epoxy, cyanate ester, polypropylene, polysialate and vinyl ester. In this paper, a comparative discussion is presented on the mechanical properties of hollow glass particles mixing with polymeric resins for development of syntactic foams for the use of these composites in bulk applications such as marine structures.

Salleh, Z.; Islam, M. M.; Ku, H.

2013-08-01

24

Size distribution, sources, and seasonality of suspended particles in southern California marine bathing waters.  

PubMed

In this paper we define seasonal and along-shore variations in suspended particle size distributions (PSDs) at two marine bathing beaches in southern California, using a low-angle light scattering instrument (LISST). Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the LISST data set (n = 55 651) identified three particle size modes that collectively account for > 90% of the variance in the de-meaned PSD data at six sites along the shoreline at Huntington Beach and Newport Beach: a dinoflagellate mode, a large particle mode, and a small particle mode. These three modes exhibit distinct seasonal patterns, and along-shore distributions, reflecting both the sources of particles and environmental factors that trigger their occurrence. Comparison of volume-based PSDs generated from the LISST and from image analysis of optical micrographs indicates that the LISST performs well when measuring the size distribution of particles associated with dinoflagellate blooms. However, LISST measurements on stormwater-impacted samples consistently yield a rising tail at small particle sizes that may be an artifact arising from the non-spherical nature of inorganic particles in terrestrial runoff. The results presented here demonstrate that PSDs measured by light scattering instruments such as the LISST represent a new data resource for assessing water quality, and managing human health risk, at marine bathing beaches. PMID:17328172

Ahn, Jong Ho; Grant, Stanley B

2007-02-01

25

Enhancing effect of marine oligotrophy on environmental concentrations of particle-reactive trace elements  

SciTech Connect

A biogeochemical model has been previously developed that explains the inverse and nonlinear relationship between Po-210 concentration in zooplankton and their biomass, under oligotrophic conditions in French Polynesia. In this study the model structure was reviewed to determine a set of biogeochemical behaviors of Po-210, proposed to be critical to its environmental enhancement under oligotrophy: this set was then used to identify 25 other elements with comparable behaviors to Po-210. Field investigation in the Timor Sea showed that four of these a priori identified elements, viz. Cd, Co, Pb, and Mn as well as Cr and Ni, showed elevated water concentrations with reduced particle removal rates in the euphotic zone, results that are consistent with those previously obtained for Po-210 and the proposed explanatory model. These findings point to the enhanced susceptibility to contamination with particle-reactive elements of oligotrophic marine systems, whose degree and geographic extent may be enhanced by projected increases in sea surface temperatures from global warming.

Jeffree, R.A.; Szymczak, R.

2000-05-15

26

Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the California Current  

SciTech Connect

Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.

William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

2008-03-12

27

Kinetics of trace element uptake by marine particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of four radiotracers ( 46Sc, 113Sn, 65Zn and 230Th) by natural particulates in Puget Sound seawater was carefully studied under controlled laboratory conditions. In order to analyze closely the sorption kinetics of these metals, and to determine the relative importance of different rate controlling processes, time dependent particulate and dissolved concentrations were obtained from about 1 min. to 100 days. Very fast sorption for each metal was followed by much slower and extended uptake. Overall metal sorption rates for the faster uptake reactions are proportional to their final distribution coefficient, K d?. Times to reach 90% of final fraction sorbed range from <1 min for Sn to about 6 days for Zn. Sorption rate variations for the different metals indicate particle residence time as a master variable in scavenging, and the rate versusK d? relationship allows Th to be used as an analogue for other scavenged metals. Linearizing the sorption data to an overall first order reaction model suggests that for our experiments four distinct processes exist with characteristic time periods of <1 min, ~20 min, ~4 hrs and several days. The results suggest that scavenging is affected by both surface chemical properties and biological activity. In general, stronger binding metals sorb rapidly via chemical and physical processes, while metals with weaker particle associations are taken up much more slowly and may be controlled biologically. Two uptake models and the theoretical limits of rate controlling processes such as surface reactions, diffusion and mass transfer are also discussed.

Jannasch, Hans W.; Honeyman, Bruce D.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Murray, James W.

1988-02-01

28

An unaccounted fraction of marine biogenic CaCO3 particles.  

PubMed

Biogenic production and sedimentation of calcium carbonate in the ocean, referred to as the carbonate pump, has profound implications for the ocean carbon cycle, and relate both to global climate, ocean acidification and the geological past. In marine pelagic environments coccolithophores, foraminifera and pteropods have been considered the main calcifying organisms. Here, we document the presence of an abundant, previously unaccounted fraction of marine calcium carbonate particles in seawater, presumably formed by bacteria or in relation to extracellular polymeric substances. The particles occur in a variety of different morphologies, in a size range from <1 to >100 µm, and in a typical concentration of 10(4)-10(5) particles L(-1) (size range counted 1-100 µm). Quantitative estimates of annual averages suggests that the pure calcium particles we counted in the 1-100 µm size range account for 2-4 times more CaCO(3) than the dominating coccolithophoride Emiliania huxleyi and for 21% of the total concentration of particulate calcium. Due to their high density, we hypothesize that the particles sediment rapidly, and therefore contribute significantly to the export of carbon and alkalinity from surface waters. The biological and environmental factors affecting the formation of these particles and possible impact of this process on global atmospheric CO(2) remains to be investigated. PMID:23110119

Heldal, Mikal; Norland, Svein; Erichsen, Egil S; Thingstad, T Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar

2012-10-23

29

An Unaccounted Fraction of Marine Biogenic CaCO3 Particles  

PubMed Central

Biogenic production and sedimentation of calcium carbonate in the ocean, referred to as the carbonate pump, has profound implications for the ocean carbon cycle, and relate both to global climate, ocean acidification and the geological past. In marine pelagic environments coccolithophores, foraminifera and pteropods have been considered the main calcifying organisms. Here, we document the presence of an abundant, previously unaccounted fraction of marine calcium carbonate particles in seawater, presumably formed by bacteria or in relation to extracellular polymeric substances. The particles occur in a variety of different morphologies, in a size range from <1 to >100 µm, and in a typical concentration of 104–105 particles L?1 (size range counted 1–100 µm). Quantitative estimates of annual averages suggests that the pure calcium particles we counted in the 1–100 µm size range account for 2–4 times more CaCO3 than the dominating coccolithophoride Emiliania huxleyi and for 21% of the total concentration of particulate calcium. Due to their high density, we hypothesize that the particles sediment rapidly, and therefore contribute significantly to the export of carbon and alkalinity from surface waters. The biological and environmental factors affecting the formation of these particles and possible impact of this process on global atmospheric CO2 remains to be investigated.

Heldal, Mikal; Norland, Svein; Erichsen, Egil S.; Thingstad, T. Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar

2012-01-01

30

Marine Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine Development Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an executive summary report of the efforts performed within the Heavy-Duty Marine Gas Turbine Development Program, or MARAD Project. The MARAD Project was an integrated effort to develop the Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine as an alternate co...

S. M. Kaplan

1975-01-01

31

The Development of Marine Science in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the maritime history of Latin America and its development of marine science. The need for the Latin American nations to incorporate the oceans into their development process is emphasized in order for them to continue and expand exploitation of living resources. (Author/SA)|

Palacio, Francisco J.

1980-01-01

32

Optical signatures of particle size and dynamics in the marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter in the ocean is ubiquitous, ranging in size from submicron colloids to large marine snow aggregates. Particle size and dynamics play major roles in---and are reflective of---many marine processes, ranging from ocean-basin scale phytoplankton blooms to sediment transport in coastal regions. The use of optical sensing techniques such as remote sensing or in situ scattering sensors affords examination of these dynamics across comparable, relevant, process scales. How the optical properties, especially backscattering, are dependent on the size, composition, and packaging of particulate matter remains an active area of research, using both modeling and empirical approaches. This dissertation advances new methods for making measurements of particle optical properties in the environment, and uses these methods for examining how the optical properties of particles depend on their size distribution and packaging into aggregates. Advances in methodology include the adaptation of an existing instrument for measurement of near-forward scattering, providing some of the first measurements of this important property in decades. The near-forward scattering is also related to particle dynamics in the bottom boundary layer. A method for measurement of optical properties that is resistant to bio-fouling is also described, and used over several years to build a dataset of particle size distribution and multi-spectral optical properties. The spectral shape of attenuated and backscattered light is shown to be related to the particulate size distribution in the highly-scattering bottom boundary layer. Finally, since a variety of dynamic processes act to change the particle size distribution in the environment, two experiments are described to isolate the effects of particle aggregation in order to link changes in particle packaging to optical properties.

Slade, Wayne Homer

33

Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs): between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH) of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C) and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) increased with plume age: from < 0.001 to 0.2, and from 2.42 to 4.96 ?g m-3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

Wonaschütz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2013-10-01

34

Development of a Sperm Cell Toxicity Test for Marine Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary methods for conducting a quick and sensitive sperm cell toxicity test for marine waters have been developed. This paper presents a simple static test in which sea urchin or sand dollar sperm cells are exposed to test or control solutions for s...

P. A. Dinnel Q. J. Stober S. C. Crumley R. E. Nakatani

1982-01-01

35

Marine Operations in the ArcticA New Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

An icebreaker hull form developed on the basis of a novel concept presents new aspects to marine operations in the arctic. The concept makes use of a fundamentally new icebreaking technique which has proved to be efficient in various kinds of ice formations resulting in a considerable reduction in the propulsion power required. The icebreaking mode of the so called

Ayres Freitas

1983-01-01

36

DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

37

High-temperature LDV seed particle development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such particles would also be valuable to manufacturers of ceramic or abrasive products, and this technique may find its greatest commercial potential in those areas.

Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

1989-05-01

38

Asian dust particles converted into aqueous droplets under remote marine atmospheric conditions  

PubMed Central

The chemical history of dust particles in the atmosphere is crucial for assessing their impact on both the Earth’s climate and ecosystem. So far, a number of studies have shown that, in the vicinity of strong anthropogenic emission sources, Ca-rich dust particles can be converted into aqueous droplets mainly by the reaction with gaseous HNO3 to form Ca(NO3)2. Here we show that other similar processes have the potential to be activated under typical remote marine atmospheric conditions. Based on field measurements at several sites in East Asia and thermodynamic predictions, we examined the possibility for the formation of two highly soluble calcium salts, Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2, which can deliquesce at low relative humidity. According to the results, the conversion of insoluble CaCO3 to Ca(NO3)2 tends to be dominated over urban and industrialized areas of the Asian continent, where the concentrations of HNO3 exceed those of HCl ([HNO3/HCl] >  ? 1). In this regime, CaCl2 is hardly detected from dust particles. However, the generation of CaCl2 becomes detectable around the Japan Islands, where the concentrations of HCl are much higher than those of HNO3 ([HNO3/HCl] <  ? 0.3). We suggest that elevated concentrations of HCl in the remote marine boundary layer are sufficient to modify Ca-rich particles in dust storms and can play a more important role in forming a deliquescent layer on the particle surfaces as they are transported toward remote ocean regions.

Tobo, Yutaka; Zhang, Daizhou; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

2010-01-01

39

The expanding role of marine microbes in pharmaceutical development.  

PubMed

Marine microbes have received growing attention as sources of bioactive metabolites and offer a unique opportunity to both increase the number of marine natural products in clinical trials as well as expedite their development. This review focuses specifically on those molecules currently in the clinical pipeline that are established or highly likely to be produced by bacteria based on expanding circumstantial evidence. We also include an example of how compounds from harmful algal blooms may yield both tools for measuring environmental change as well as leads for pharmaceutical development. An example of the karlotoxin class of compounds isolated from the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum reveals a significant environmental impact in the form of massive fish kills, but also provides opportunities to construct new molecules for the control of cancer and serum cholesterol assisted by tools associated with rational drug design. PMID:20956080

Waters, Amanda L; Hill, Russell T; Place, Allen R; Hamann, Mark T

2010-10-16

40

Development of Marine Toxicity Data for Ordnance Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toxicity database for ordnance compounds was generated using eight compounds of concern and marine toxicity tests with five\\u000a species from different phyla. Toxicity tests and endpoints included fertilization success and embryological development with\\u000a the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata; zoospore germination, germling length, and cell number with the green macroalga Ulva fasciata; survival and reproductive success of the polychaete Dinophilus

M. Nipper; R. S. Carr; J. M. Biedenbach; R. L. Hooten; K. Miller; S. Saepoff

2001-01-01

41

Developing Operational Oceanography for Marine Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanography for assessments necessarily depends on the purposes of the assessments and on the ocean characteristics or variables required for the various purposes. Objectives and variables all have their own inherent time- and space-scales. For variables, these may be determined by sources, transport and/or dynamics, and evolution. Socio-economic interests determine the scales inherent in objectives; these scales are liable to range from a coastal locality to global, and from hours or days to decades. Measurements are limited by available technology and funding, and cannot be expected to resolve the smaller inherent scales as well as giving the coverage sought. Hence an emphasis is placed on (i) making the most of opportunities for concurrent measurements of variables with compatible intrinsic scales, (ii) data management to exploit measurements fully, (iii) development, testing and use of models with data assimilation, to interpolate measurements, to optimise measurements' effectiveness (measurement array design) and perhaps to infer earlier conditions when measurements were scarcer, (iv) models as a means of synthesising varied information to provide assessment "products", (v) feedback from users of these products to raise the quality of (i-iv). Whilst objectives determine the variables of interest, the inherent scales of variables are emphasised as the appropriate control on the density of measurements. This may foster efficiency in operational measurements and their application through models, after further research.

Huthnance, John M.

2013-04-01

42

Physicochemical Characterization of Cloud Drop Residual Particles in Eastern Pacific Marine Stratocumulus: Airborne Measurements Downstream of a Newly-Developed Counterflow Virtual Impactor Inlet during the 2011 E-PEACE Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerosol nuclei that are the seeds of cloud drops are a critically important component of the atmosphere as they influence radiative transfer, visibility, and cloud microphysics. Aircraft must employ special inlets to exclusively sample cloud drops, which involves rejecting the smaller interstitial aerosol in clouds, and then subsequently drying the drops to leave only the residual particles. A new counterflow virtual impactor inlet (CVI) was recently deployed on the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE). Several state-of-the-art instruments sampling downstream of the CVI characterized the physical and chemical properties of the droplet residual particles including measurements of composition, size distribution, optical properties, and water-uptake properties. This work will summarize CVI measurements from over 25 flights during the E-PEACE campaign off the central coast of California between July and August. The flights specifically targeted aerosol-cloud interactions in a region where stratocumulus clouds are perturbed by emissions from ship traffic. New findings related to the physicochemical properties of drop residual particles will be highlighted in addition to a characterization of CVI performance.

Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Jonsson, H.; Metcalf, A. R.; Craven, J. S.; Coggon, M.; Lin, J. J.; Nenes, A.; Seinfeld, J.

2011-12-01

43

Some recent developments in particle detectors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amongst the recent developments in particle detectors, the emphasis is on those based on the detection of ultraviolet or vacuum ultraviolet photons. The combination of wire chambers and photoionizable vapours, or photocathodes obtained by the condensation of such vapours, permits the building of a new class of Ring-Imaging Cherenkov detectors and BaF2 calorimeters.

Charpak, G.

1983-08-01

44

Mixing state of aerosols and direct observation of carbonaceous and marine coatings on African dust by individual particle analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mixing state of aerosols collected at M'Bour, Senegal, during the Special Observing Period conducted in January-February 2006 (SOP-0) of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project (AMMA), was studied by individual particle analysis. The sampling location on the Atlantic coast is particularly adapted for studying the mixing state of tropospheric aerosols since it is (1) located on the path of Saharan dust plumes transported westward over the northern tropical Atlantic, (2) influenced by biomass burning events particularly frequent from December to March, and (3) strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from polluted African cities. Particle size, morphology, and chemical composition were determined for 12,672 particles using scanning electron microscopy (automated SEM-EDX). Complementary analyses were performed using transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectrometry (TEM-EELS) and Raman microspectrometry. Mineral dust and carbonaceous and marine compounds were predominantly found externally mixed, i.e., not present together in the same particles. Binary internally mixed particles, i.e., dust/carbonaceous, carbonaceous/marine, and dust/marine mixtures, accounted for a significant fraction of analyzed particles (from 10.5% to 46.5%). Western Sahara was identified as the main source of mineral dust. Two major types of carbonaceous particles were identified: "tar balls" probably coming from biomass burning emissions and soot from anthropogenic emissions. Regarding binary internally mixed particles, marine and carbonaceous compounds generally formed a coating on mineral dust particles. The carbonaceous coating observed at the particle scale on African dust was evidenced by the combined use of elemental and molecular microanalysis techniques, with the identification of an amorphous rather than crystallized carbon structure.

Deboudt, Karine; Flament, Pascal; ChoëL, Marie; Gloter, Alexandre; Sobanska, Sophie; Colliex, Christian

2010-12-01

45

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. (Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States))

1992-04-01

46

Effects of Inorganic Particles on Metabolism by a Periphytic Marine Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Measurements were made of adsorption of a periphytic marine bacterium, glucose, and glutamic acid to inorganic particles in seawater and defined bacterial growth medium. Measurements of the metabolism of bacteria were made in the presence and absence of particles by microcalorimetry and radiorespirometry. It was found that hydroxyapatite adsorbs glutamic acid, but not glucose, from the experimental medium. It was also found that hydroxyapatite adsorbs essentially all of the bacteria from the medium when the bacterial concentration is approximately 6 × 105 bacteria per ml. If the bacterial concentration is approximately 6 × 107, then only a small fraction of cells become attached. It was therefore possible to select bacterial concentrations and organic nutrients so that bacterial attachment, organic nutrient adsorption, or both would occur in different experiments. In this experimental system the metabolism by attached and nonattached bacteria of adsorbing and nonadsorbing organic nutrients was measured. The results show that bacterial activity in this model system was not enhanced by the particles, regardless of whether the bacteria, the organic nutrient, or both were associated with the surface. In fact, the respiratory activity of the attached bacteria was diminished in comparison with that of free bacteria.

Gordon, Andrew S.; Gerchakov, Sol M.; Millero, Frank J.

1983-01-01

47

Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the Arctic?  

PubMed

Plastic litter accounts for 50-80% of waste items stranded on beaches, floating on the ocean surface and lodged in the seabed. Organic pollutants can be absorbed onto plastic particles from sea water, attached to their surfaces or included in the plastic matrix as additives. Such chemicals may be transported to remote regions by buoyant plastics and ocean currents. We have estimated mass fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Arctic via the main ocean currents and compared them to those in the dissolved state and in air. Substance fluxes with atmospheric or sea water currents account for several tons per year, whereas those mediated by plastics are four to six orders of magnitude smaller. However, the significance of various pollutant transport routes does not depend only on absolute mass fluxes but also on bioaccumulation in marine food chains. PMID:20579675

Zarfl, Christiane; Matthies, Michael

2010-06-25

48

Ozone oxidation of sulfur in sea-salt aerosol particles during the Azores Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-salt aerosol particles in the lowest tens of meters above the ocean are, typically, more than three-fourths water on a volume basis. Calculations herein indicate that aqueous-phase conversion of sulfur dioxide dissolved in the water associated with sea-salt particles (sea-salt aerosol water) supported the production of 2-8 nmolm-3 of non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO=4) during the Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (MAGE)

H. Sievering; E. Gorman; T. Ley; A. Pszenny; M. Springer-Young; J. Boatman; Y. Kim; C. Nagamoto; D. Wellman

1995-01-01

49

Impending Shortfall in Marine Corps Aviation Leadership Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The currently Marine Corps system of selecting and preparing aviators to command Aviation Combat Element (ACE) that support a Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) has become inadequate. The current practice of relying on a accumulated operational experience ac...

I. T. Mains

2000-01-01

50

Impact of lugworms (Arenicola marina) on mobilization and transport of fine particles and organic matter in marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the impact of sediment reworking fauna and hydrodynamics on mobilization and transport of organic matter and fine particles in marine sediments. Experiments were conducted in an annular flume using lugworms (Arenicola marina) as model organisms. The impact of lugworms on sediment characteristics and particle transport was followed through time in sediments experimentally enriched with fine particles (< 63 ?m) and organic matter. Parallel experiments were run at low and high water current velocity (11 and 25 cm s? 1) to evaluate the importance of sediment erosion at the sediment–water interface. There was no impact of fauna on sediment composition and particle transport at current velocity below the sediment erosion threshold. At current velocity above the erosion threshold, sediment reworking by lugworms resulted in dramatic particle transport (12 kg dry matter m? 2) to an adjacent particle trap within 56 days. The transported matter was enriched 6–8 times in fine particles and organic matter when compared to the initial sediment. This study suggests that sediment reworking fauna is an important controlling factor for the particle composition of marine sediments. A. marina mediated sediment reworking greatly increases the sediment volume exposed to hydrodynamic forcing at the sediment–water interface, and through sediment resuspension control the content of fine particles and organic matter in the entire reworked sediment layer (> 20 cm depth).

Wendelboe, Kim; Egelund, Jonas T.; Flindt, Mogens R.; Valdemarsen, Thomas

2013-02-01

51

Further evidence for particle nucleation in clear air adjacent to marine cumulus clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational evidence is presented for the nucleation of condensation nuclei (CN) in the clear air adjacent to an isolated, marine, cumulus cloud. Two separate regions of particle nucleation are identified: one located above the cloud top, and the second located downwind of the cloud near the level of the anvil outflow. The regions of high CN concentrations were located in extremely clean marine air, with unactivated aerosol surface area (excluding the nucleation mode) less than 2 sq micrometers/cu cm, air temperature -31 C, and higher relative humidities than the undisturbed environment. Vertical profile measurements downwind of the cloud showed that CN concentrations at the level of the anvil outflow (4.9 km) were 8 times greater than at any other level between the surface and 5.3 km. A conceptual model is formulated in which aerosol particles, sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid vapor (H2SO4), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and ozone (O3) from the boundary layer are entrained into the cumulus cloud. Total aerosol number concentrations and unactivated aerosol surface area decrease with height in the cloud due to Brownian diffusion and diffusiophoresis of cloud interstitial aerosol to hydrometeors, coalescence scavenging by cloud droplets, collisional scavenging by ice particles, and subsequent removal by precipitation. The air that is detrained from the cloud raises the relative humidity and vents the clean air, SO2, H2SO4, DMS, and O3 to the near-cloud environment. Hydroxyl radicals then oxidize the SO2 and DMS to H2SO4. Under the conditions of high relative humidity, low total aerosol surface area, low temperatures, and high SO2 concentrations near cloud top, significant concentrations of new particles can be produced by homogeneous-bimolecular nucleation of sulfuric acid solution droplets from H2SO4 and H2O vapor molecules. The concentration of CN as a function of time is calculated for the case described in this paper using a bimodal integral nucleation model. The model results show that significant numbers of CN could have been produced within a few hours by the homogeneous-bimolecular nucleation of sulfuric acid solution droplets under the observed conditions provided the concentration of SO2 near cloud top was enhanced by vertical transport.

Perry, Kevin D.; Hobbs, Peter V.

1994-11-01

52

DRAFT REGIONAL NRM STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT MARINE AND ESTUARINE HABITAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Overview of the marine and estuarine environmental assets within the Region The Tasmanian marine and estuarine environments are a significant asset of the State. Tasmania has more coastline per unit land area than any other State in Australia - about 4900km (excluding Macquarie Island) (Australian Surveying and Land Information Group 1993). Tasmania's marine and estuarine environments include rocky reefs,

53

Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ≤ 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific ocean during the VOCALS-REx experiment between 16~October and 15 November 2008 using the US DOE G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and how they interacted with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42-, followed by Na+, Cl-, Org, NH4+, and NO3-, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3-1 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection of ~0.05 and ~0.15 ?g m-3 for anions and cations, respectively. The aerosols were strongly acidic as the NH4+ to SO42- equivalence ratio was typically < 0.3; this inferred acidity is corroborated by the conductivity of aqueous samples collected by the PILS. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, showed Cl- deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, and were externally mixed with SO42- particles as the AMS detected no NO3- whilst uptake of HNO3 occurred only on SSA particles. The SSA loading as a function of wind speed agreed with that calculated from published relationships, and contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number. Vertical distribution of MBL SSA particles (Dp ≤ ~1.5 ?m) was uniform, suggesting a very limited dilution from entrainment of free tropospheric (FT) air. It was inferred that because all of the aerosol species (except SSA) exhibited a strong land-to-sea gradient, they were of continental origin. Comparison of relative changes in median values using LOWESS fits as proxies suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, and (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) FT contributions to MBL gas and aerosols were negligible. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra obtained with the AMS showed an HOA on 28 October 2008 but not on 6 November 2008 that we attribute to a more extensive cloud processing on the later date. A highly oxidized OOA factor resembling fulvic acid was found associated with anthropogenic and biogenic sources as well as long range transported biomass burn plumes in the FT air. A sulfur-containing OOA factor identified as MSA was strongly correlated with SO42-, hence anthropogenic. The very low levels of CH3SO3- observed suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO42- aerosols production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

2013-10-01

54

Marine Resources and Legal-Political Arrangements for Their Development; Volume 3, Panel Reports of the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Marine Resources Panel addressed itself to three tasks: describing the current rate of exploration and exploitation of marine resources and the physical, economic, and legal conditions under which they are produced; identifying deterrents to development and efficient utilization of marine resources; and recommending programs that will remove…

Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources, Washington, DC.

55

Trends in the development of environmentally friendly fouling-resistant marine coatings.  

PubMed

'Marine biofouling', the undesired growth of marine organisms such as microorganisms, barnacles and seaweeds on submerged surfaces, is a global problem for maritime industries, with both economic and environmental penalties. The primary strategy for combating marine fouling is to use biocide-containing paints, but environmental concerns and legislation are driving science and technology towards non-biocidal solutions based solely on physico-chemical and materials properties of coatings. Advances in nanotechnology and polymer science, and the development of novel surface designs 'bioinspired' by nature, are expected to have a significant impact on the development of a new generation of environmentally friendly marine coatings. PMID:21427715

Callow, James A; Callow, Maureen E

2011-01-01

56

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser

L. W. Avery; S. T. Hunt; S. F. Savage; P. D. McLaughlin; A. P. Shepdard; J. C. Worl

1992-01-01

57

Aquaculture of three phyla of marine invertebrates to yield bioactive metabolites: process developments and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale, renewable supplies of chemical constituents derived from marine invertebrates have limited development of potential new natural product drugs. This paper describes the development of two in-sea aquaculture systems designed and engineered for production of large quantities of biomass for two species of marine invertebrates desired for their natural product chemical constituents. The two invertebrates and their products were: (1)

Dominick Mendola

2003-01-01

58

Influence of melting icebergs on distribution, characteristics and transport of marine particles in an East Greenland fjord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of distribution of suspended sediments in an East Greenland fjord with a high iceberg production rate reveals the existence of intermediate nepheloid layers (INLs). Observed INLs extended from the head to the mouth of the fjord at water depths between 100 and 400 m. Particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, chlorophyll a, and nutrient measurements and observation by microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analyses were used to characterize marine particles. Particles in the INLs are composed of glacial flour including >50 ?m quartz and feldspar grains with angular and sharp edges, considered to be released from melting icebergs. In situ photographs show large aggregates (>1 mm) at high concentration (>300 particles per liter) in and below INLs. These aggregates, in comparison with the dispersed particle size distribution, demonstrate that smaller size particles (e.g., clay) settle effectively along with larger single size grains. In Kangerlugssuaq Fjord, the mass transport of marine particles was governed by the subsurface iceberg melting, producing observed INLs, rather than the surface meltwater plume. This suggests that the subsurface water temperature controls release of iceberg debris and the existence of warm subsurface water, as well as the spread of cold and fresh water in the surface layer, needs to be considered to evaluate the occurrence of ice-rafted debris layers, including Heinrich layers. This study provides the field evidence of a modern analogue on ocean conditions that could form iceberg-rafted layers.

Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Syvitski, James P. M.

1999-03-01

59

Method development for metaproteomic analyses of marine biofilms.  

PubMed

The large-scale identification and quantitation of proteins via nanoliquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) offers a unique opportunity to gain unprecedented insight into the microbial composition and biomolecular activity of true environmental samples. However, in order to realize this potential for marine biofilms, new methods of protein extraction must be developed as many compounds naturally present in biofilms are known to interfere with common proteomic manipulations and LC-MS/MS techniques. In this study, we used amino acid analyses (AAA) and LC-MS/MS to compare the efficacy of three sample preparation methods [6 M guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) protein extraction + in-solution digestion + 2D LC; sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) protein extraction + 1D gel LC; phenol protein extraction + 1D gel LC] for the metaproteomic analyses of an environmental marine biofilm. The AAA demonstrated that proteins constitute 1.24% of the biofilm wet weight and that the compared methods varied in their protein extraction efficiencies (0.85-15.15%). Subsequent LC-MS/MS analyses revealed that the GuHCl method resulted in the greatest number of proteins identified by one or more peptides whereas the phenol method provided the greatest sequence coverage of identified proteins. As expected, metagenomic sequencing of the same biofilm sample enabled the creation of a searchable database that increased the number of protein identifications by 48.7% (?1 peptide) or 54.7% (?2 peptides) when compared to SwissProt database identifications. Taken together, our results provide methods and evidence-based recommendations to consider for qualitative or quantitative biofilm metaproteome experimental design. PMID:22468925

Leary, Dagmar Hajkova; Hervey, W Judson; Li, Robert W; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W; Vora, Gary J

2012-04-11

60

The impact of port emissions and marine biogenics on the single-particle chemistry of marine aerosol measured on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNEX 2010 field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine environments are characterized by low particle concentrations and, as such, are sensitive to changes in particle number concentration and chemistry induced by biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Measurements of both gas phase and particle phase emissions on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNEX 2010 field campaign provided an opportunity to examine the impact of anthropogenic and marine biogenic emissions on particle chemistry along the California coast. Real-time, single-particle measurements made using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) revealed the single-particle mixing state of the sampled marine aerosols. Submicron particles (0.2-1.0 um) containing organic carbon, elemental carbon mixed with organic carbon, and unique V-containing particles previously detected in port regions were prevalent throughout the Southern California coast; most of these particles were also associated with sulfate. Measurements made in the deep water channel near Sacramento, CA revealed dramatically different particle chemistry that was characterized by organic carbon and amines. Particles measured further away from the continent toward the open ocean were influenced by marine biological activity due to a phytoplankton bloom that was occurring off the California coast. During this sampling period, unique ocean-derived particles containing internal mixtures of Mg and organic carbon were detected in addition to unique particles containing elemental S ions, which were only detected at night. An aerosol generator used to bubble seawater in order to characterize primary emissions from the ocean confirmed that the Mg-organic carbon and S-containing particles were indeed emitted from the ocean. These measurements reveal the strong impact of both port emissions as well as marine biogenic emissions on aerosol chemistry along the California coast.

Gaston, C. J.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Prather, K. A.

2010-12-01

61

Future Particle Accelerator Developments for Radiation Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade particle beam cancer therapy has seen a rapid increase in interest, and several new centers have been built, are currently under construction, or are in an advanced stage of planning. Typical treatment centers today consist of an accelerator capable of producing proton or ion beams in an energy range of interest for medical treatment, i.e. providing a penetration depth in water of about 30 cm, a beam delivery system to transport the produced beam to the patient treatment rooms, and several patient stations, allowing for an optimal usage of the continuously produced beam. This makes these centers rather large and consequently expensive. Only major hospital centers situated in an area where they can draw on a population of several million can afford such an installation. In order to spread the use of particle beam cancer therapy to a broader population base it will be necessary to scale down the facility size and cost. This can in principle be done by reducing the number of treatment rooms to one, eliminating the need of an elaborate beam delivery system, and thereby reducing the building size and cost. Such a change should be going in parallel with a reduction of the accelerator itself, and a number of approaches to this are currently being pursued. If successful, such developments could eventually lead to a compact system where all components would fit into a single shielded room, not much different in size from a typical radiation vault for radiotherapy with X-rays.

Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels

62

Evaluation of the atmospheric transport of marine-derived particles using long-chain unsaturated ketones  

SciTech Connect

Biomarker source information provided by long-chain alkenone (LCA) distribution patterns was used to assess the transport pathways of marine aerosols. The C{sub 37}-C{sub 39}LCA were found in significant amounts in aerosols collected in New Zealand. Their occurrence in the atmosphere stems from their introduction by bubble-bursting processes during wave breaking. The surface water temperatures calculated from the U{sub 37}{sup k} ratios suggested a local origin and short atmospheric residence times of the LCA. They were not detected in aerosol samples collected on American Samoa due to the absence of the source organisms in surface waters. The distribution of LCA was also investigated in size-fractionated aerosols over a range of < 0.5 to > 7.2 {mu}m equivalent diameter. Their distribution over the size spectrum demonstrated that they were only associated with large particles (d{sub eq} > 3.0 {mu}m), suggesting a direct injection of algal cells and/or their fragments into the atmosphere.

Sicre, M.A.; Gagosian, R.B.; Peltzer, E.T. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States))

1990-02-20

63

Identification of polymer types and additives in marine microplastic particles using pyrolysis-GC/MS and scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Any assessment of plastic contamination in the marine environment requires knowledge of the polymer type and the additive content of microplastics. Sequential pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (Pyr-GC/MS) was applied to simultaneously identify polymer types of microplastic particles and associated organic plastic additives (OPAs). In addition, a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyser was used to identify the inorganic plastic additives (IPAs) contained in these particles. A total of ten particles, which were optically identified as potentially being plastics, were extracted from two sediment samples collected from Norderney, a North Sea island, by density separation in sodium chloride. The weights of these blue, white and transparent fragments varied between 10 and 350 ?g. Polymer types were identified by comparing the resulting pyrograms with those obtained from the pyrolysis of selected standard polymers. The particles consisted of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamide, chlorinated PE and chlorosulfonated PE. The polymers contained diethylhexyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, benzaldehyde and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Sequential Py-GC/MS was found to be an appropriate tool for identifying marine microplastics for polymer types and OPAs. The IPAs identified were titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), barium, sulphur and zinc. When polymer-TiO2 composites are degraded in the marine environment, TiO2-NPs are probably released. Thus, marine microplastics may act as a TiO2-NP source, which has not yet been considered. PMID:24056666

Fries, Elke; Dekiff, Jens H; Willmeyer, Jana; Nuelle, Marie-Theres; Ebert, Martin; Remy, Dominique

2013-09-25

64

A model for partitioning the light absorption coefficient of suspended marine particles into phytoplankton and nonalgal components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a model for partitioning the spectral absorption coefficient of suspended marine particles, ap(?), into phytoplankton, aph(?), and nonalgal, ad(?), components based on the stacked-constraints approach. The key aspect of our model is the use of a set of inequality constraints that account for large variability in the aph(?) and ad(?) coefficients within the world's oceans. The bounds of inequality constraints were determined from the analysis of a comprehensive set of 505 field determinations of absorption coefficients in various oceanic environments. The feasible solutions of the model are found by simultaneously satisfying all inequality constraints. The optimal solutions represented by the median values of feasible solutions for aph(?) and ad(?) generally agree well with field measurements and are superior in terms of error statistics compared with previous partitioning models. For example, on the basis of comparisons of optimal model solutions with field determinations of absorption coefficients, the systematic error calculated as the median ratio of model-derived to measured values for both aph(443) and ad(443) is within ±1% for our model. The random error represented by the mean absolute percent difference for aph(443) and ad(443) is <5% and <20%, respectively. This study suggests that our model has the potential for successful applications with input data of ap(?) which can be collected from various oceanographic platforms.

Zheng, Guangming; Stramski, Dariusz

2013-06-01

65

Developing a Combined Lethal and Non-Lethal Capability for the Individual Marine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Marine Corps should research, develop, and field a new weapon that provides both a lethal and non-lethal capability for the individual Marine. Discussion: The future of military conflict will include a cluttered battlefield mixed with bo...

G. T. Polland

2010-01-01

66

78 FR 34047 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division (NSWC PCD). Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal......

2013-06-06

67

77 FR 49412 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) as amended, notification is hereby given that an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) has been issued to the U.S. Navy (Navy) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division (NSWC...

2012-08-16

68

Realistic Job Previews for a Sample of Navy and Marine Corps Occupations: Development of Prototypes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research developed prototypic realistic job previews (RJPs) for a sample of entry-level Navy and Marine Corps occupations. The research reported here is expected to benefit the recruiting branches of the Navy and Marine Corps as well as the research ...

H. G. Baker J. M. Julius J. P. Wanous

1989-01-01

69

Advocating the Development of Universal Onboard Marine Emission Measurement Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the need for a set of widely accepted protocols, delineates the challenges presented by on-site testing in a marine environment, discusses testing approaches, and instrumentation and defines areas requiring further research. The paper...

D. Gore G. Thompson J. Corbett J. DeHart J. J. McMullen M. Gautam N. Clark R. Behr W. Remley

2008-01-01

70

Developing a Measure of Marine Corps Recruiting Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study analyzed the Fiscal Year 1975 Marine Corps enlistment productivity and recruiting effort in the State of California. Twelve variables describing the public high schools in California were used to predict enlistment productivity and recruiting e...

R. J. Sullivan

1976-01-01

71

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing an international collaboration in marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine data is collected by thousands of organisations around the world using a variety of different instruments and platforms. The high cost of its acquisition and the fact that the data itself is often unique and irreplaceable makes its re-use a priority for marine data managers. A significant barrier to the re-use of marine data is often the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc. which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of this data at a regional, national and international scale. This lack of a common approach to how the data is managed is also hindering the development of interoperability with other disciplines at a time when there is a need to adopt a more ecosystem based approach to marine research. Initiatives in a number of regions including Europe, USA and Australia are making significant progress in addressing these issues through the development of marine data management infrastructures. However the need for a more holistic approach to marine research necessitates a move towards a common marine data management infrastructure through the development of interoperability between these regional initiatives. To bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the EU, the National Science Foundation in the USA and the Australian government have recently funded the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project. ODIP is a collaborative project between 14 organisations in Europe, USA and Australia engaged in the acquisition and management of marine data. ODIP aims to develop interoperability between the regional marine data management infrastructures and to demonstrate this co-ordination through the development of several joint prototypes that illustrate effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and national boundaries. This will ultimately lead to the development of a common infrastructure for marine data management that can be extended to other organisations and global regions.

Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Miller, Stephen; Proctor, Roger

2013-04-01

72

The sign of the radiative forcing from marine cloud brightening depends on both particle size and injection amount  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine cloud brightening (MCB) is a proposed technique to limit global warming through injections of sea spray into the marine boundary layer. Using the Norwegian Earth System Model, the sensitivity of MCB to sea salt amount and particle size was studied by running a set of simulations in which Aitken (re = 0.04 µm), accumulation (re = 0.22 µm), or coarse (re = 2.46 µm) mode sea salt emissions were increased uniformly by 10-11 to 10-8 kg m-2 s-1. As desired, accumulation mode particles had a negative radiative effect of down to -3.3 W m-2. Conversely, for Aitken mode particles, injections of 10-10 kg m-2 s-1 or greater led to a positive forcing of up to 8.4 W m-2, caused by a strong competition effect combined with the high critical supersaturation of Aitken mode sea salt. The coarse mode particles gave a positive forcing of up to 1.2 W m-2 because of a decrease in activation of background aerosols. Sensitivity experiments show that the competition effect dominated our results. MCB may have a cooling effect, but if the wrong size or injection amount is used, our simulations show a warming effect on the climate system.

AlterskjæR, K.; KristjáNsson, J. E.

2013-01-01

73

Evaluation of Marine Bacterial Lysogens for Development of a Marine Prophage Induction Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The demonstrated relationship between carcinogenicity of a chemical compound in mammals and its tendency to cause prophage\\u000a induction in bacteria provides a method for biologically based carcinogen screening. Because of the need for this type of\\u000a screening and the abundance of lysogens in the marine environment, 14 isolates were evaluated for the degree of prophage induction\\u000a in exponentially growing

L. McDaniel; D. W. Griffin; J. Crespo-Gomez; M. R. McLaughlin; J. H. Paul

2001-01-01

74

Development and Performance of Charged Nano Particle Collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleation events have been observed at many sites worldwide, but the mechanism of the nucleation process is not clear - several hypotheses have been posed to explain these events. To obtain further insight into the chemical composition of these nano particles, a Nano Particle Collector (Nano PC) has been developed based the size dependence of particle mobility. We constructed a

Y. Zhao; A. S. Wexler

2005-01-01

75

A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

2012-09-01

76

Effect of Type and Concentration of Ballasting Particles on Sinking Rate of Marine Snow Produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.  

PubMed

Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d(-1) increase in sinking speed for a 5×10(5) µm(3) ml(-1) increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds. PMID:24086610

Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, Lionel; Kiørboe, Thomas

2013-09-25

77

Effect of Type and Concentration of Ballasting Particles on Sinking Rate of Marine Snow Produced by the Appendicularian Oikopleura dioica  

PubMed Central

Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33 m d-1 increase in sinking speed for a 5×105 µm3 ml-1 increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds.

Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, Lionel; Ki?rboe, Thomas

2013-01-01

78

Development of Improved Magnetic Particle Inspection Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current magnetic particle inspections for surface and near-surface flaws in ferromagnetic parts are dependent on human observations, decisions and errors. An improvement on this would be a semi-automatic device for detection and decision making that could...

E. F. Bauer

1971-01-01

79

National Marine Pollution Program: Federal Plan for Ocean Pollution Research, Development, and Monitoring, Fiscal Years 1985-1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Marine Pollution Program is the composite of all programs funded by the Federal Government which conduct research, development, or monitoring activities related to marine pollution. In FY 1985, the Program consisted of about 650 projects with...

1985-01-01

80

National Marine Pollution Program: Federal Plan for Ocean Pollution Research, Development, and Monitoring, Fiscal Years 1988-1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Marine Pollution Program is the composite of all programs funded by the Federal Government that conduct marine pollution research, development, or monitoring activities. In FY 1988, the Federal Government expended an estimated $107.2 million ...

1988-01-01

81

Developing a Markov Model for Forecasting End Strength of Selected Marine Corps Reserve (SMCR) Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis develops Markov models for prior service (PS) and non- prior service (NPS) Selected Marine Corps Reserve (SMCR) officers. Data were collected from the Total Force Data Warehouse (TFDW) for all SMCR officers who served between September 30, 199...

A. D. Licari

2013-01-01

82

DEVELOPMENT OF A TIE METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING ANIONIC METALS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several methods have been developed for characterizing and identifying toxicants in whole marine sediments including organic pollutants, cationic metals and ammonia. To date, a method for characterizing sediment toxicity caused by metals which form anionic complexes such as ar...

83

Development of a Chronic Sediment Toxicity Test for Marine Benthic Amphipods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the ef...

J. E. Sewall M. S. Redmond R. C. Swartz T. H. DeWitt

1992-01-01

84

Offshore Petroleum Resource Development and Marine Mammals: A Review and Research Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of offshore oil and gas reserves presents a number of potential threats to marine mammals. Seismic surveys employing various high explosives can be lethal at close range. Noise is associated with all phases of petroleum exploration and pro...

J. R. Geraci D. J. St. Aubin

1980-01-01

85

Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: 1. Analysis of Individual Particles Using Complementary Microprobe Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical speciation of dry residues of individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected from sea-fog during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) in July 2005 was facilitated using a complementary combination of computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of x-rays (CCSEM\\/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge x-ray absorption fine

Y. Desyaterik; R. J. Hopkins; A. V. Tivanski; C. M. Berkowitz; M. K. Gilles; A. Laskin

2006-01-01

86

Developing a new resource for drug discovery: marine actinomycete bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural products are both a fundamental source of new chemical diversity and an integral component of today's pharmaceutical compendium. Yet interest in natural-product drug discovery has waned, in part owing to diminishing returns from traditional resources such as soil bacteria. The oceans cover 70% of the Earth's surface and harbor most of the planet's biodiversity. Although marine plants and invertebrates

William Fenical; Paul R Jensen

2006-01-01

87

Development of particle swarm optimization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a new stochastic optimization technique based on swarm intelligence. In this paper, we introduce the basic principles of PSO firstly. Then, the research progress on PSO algorithm is summarized in several fields, such as parameter selection and design, population topology, hybrid PSO algorithm etc. Finally, some vital applications and aspects that may be conducted in

Yu Chen; Fan Yang; Quan Zou; Chen Lin

2011-01-01

88

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

1992-04-01

89

Quantification of the carbonaceous matter origin in submicron marine aerosol particles by dual carbon isotope analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual carbon isotope analysis has been performed for the first time demonstrating a potential in organic matter apportionment between three principal sources: marine, terrestrial (non-fossil) and fossil fuel due to unique isotopic signatures. The results presented here, utilising combinations of dual carbon isotope analysis, provides a conclusive evidence of a dominant biogenic organic fraction to organic aerosol over biologically active oceans. In particular, the NE Atlantic, which is also subjected to notable anthropogenic influences via pollution transport processes, was found to contain 80% organic aerosol matter of biogenic origin directly linked to plankton emissions. The remaining carbonaceous aerosol was of fossil-fuel origin. By contrast, for polluted air advecting out from Europe into the NE Atlantic, the source apportionment is 30% marine biogenic, 40% fossil fuel, and 30% continental non-fossil fuel. The dominant marine organic aerosol source in the atmosphere has significant implications for climate change feedback processes.

Ceburnis, D.; Garbaras, A.; Szidat, S.; Rinaldi, M.; Fahrni, S.; Perron, N.; Wacker, L.; Leinert, S.; Remeikis, V.; Facchini, M. C.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.

2011-01-01

90

Developing geochemical methods for marine exploration of oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

Experimental-methodological oil exploration geochemical investigations have been carried out in the Caspian and Black seas. The bottom deposits were selected according to a differential grid, the type of which depended on geologic structure and morphology of the bottom, Lithology, and other factors. Bottom sediments were collected by scientific-research vessels using coring devices. This paper reviews the results of this testing for hydrocarbon distribution, bituminous and organic matter composition; and methane content in marine sediments.

Bagirov, V.I.; Zor'kin, L.M.; Zubayrayev, S.L.; Lopatin, N.V.

1983-01-01

91

Size Matters Most - The Role of Particle Size vs. Chemical Composition in Controlling CCN Activity of Marine, Continental, and Smoke Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have separated the effects of size and chemical composition on the ability of aerosol particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) by using a differential mobility analyzer to select a narrow size fraction of the aerosol particles before introducing them into a CCN counter. A condensation particle counter simultaneously determined the total particle concentration (CN). This information was used to derive the CCN activation efficiency, defined as the number of CCN divided by the number of CN, at each particle diameter and supersaturation. Over the past years we measured size resolved CCN spectra during four field and one laboratory experiment, focusing on different aerosol types: Fresh biomass burning aerosol (EFEU), aged continental aerosol (FACE-2004, FACE-2005, MOHp), and marine aerosol (RICO-PRACS). Marine aerosols are activated at similar diameters as pure ammonium sulfate, but have a slightly less steep activation curve, indicating heterogeneities in particle chemical composition and/or shape. Rural and near- urban continental aerosols and pyrogenic particles require increasingly larger particle diameters for activation at a given supersaturation, indicating the presence of insoluble or poorly soluble material in the particles. Their activation curves are considerably less steep than in the marine case, suggesting some degree of external mixing. Overall, however, we find that for ambient aerosols, size is the most important determinant of CCN activity. This greatly facilitates parameterization of CCN activity in models, and opens possibilities for the estimation of CCN concentrations by remote sensing.

Andreae, M. O.; Dusek, U.; Frank, G.

2006-05-01

92

Development and application of a particle-particle particle-mesh Ewald method for dispersion interactions.  

PubMed

For inhomogeneous systems with interfaces, the inclusion of long-range dispersion interactions is necessary to achieve consistency between molecular simulation calculations and experimental results. For accurate and efficient incorporation of these contributions, we have implemented a particle-particle particle-mesh Ewald solver for dispersion (r(-6)) interactions into the LAMMPS molecular dynamics package. We demonstrate that the solver's O(N log N) scaling behavior allows its application to large-scale simulations. We carefully determine a set of parameters for the solver that provides accurate results and efficient computation. We perform a series of simulations with Lennard-Jones particles, SPC/E water, and hexane to show that with our choice of parameters the dependence of physical results on the chosen cutoff radius is removed. Physical results and computation time of these simulations are compared to results obtained using either a plain cutoff or a traditional Ewald sum for dispersion. PMID:23145717

Isele-Holder, Rolf E; Mitchell, Wayne; Ismail, Ahmed E

2012-11-01

93

Development of an improved positron emission particle tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) system has been developed for the non-intrusive investigation of solids flow in a gas-solids Interconnected Fluidised Bed (IFB) reactor. This system tracks continuously the 3D location of a single positron emitting particle. This particle has the same size and density as the solids and can be made as small as 500 ?m. The

C. S. Stellema; J. Vlek; R. F. Mudde; J. J. M. de Goeij; C. M. van den Bleek

1998-01-01

94

Adding pharmacogenomics to the development of new marine-derived anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

Nature has always been a highly productive tool in the development of anticancer therapies. Renewed interest in the potential of this tool has recently been sparked by the realization that the marine ecosystem can be used for the discovery and development of new compounds with clinical potential in advanced resistant tumors. These compounds can be incorporated into combination approaches in a chronic therapy scenario. Our marine anticancer program is using the sea to develop new agents with activity in resistant solid tumors and to identify new cellular targets for therapeutic intervention. This review describes the integration of different pharmacogenomic tools in the development of Yondelis™, Aplidin® and Kahalalide F, three marine-derived compounds currently in Phase II or III development. Our results are reinforcing the targeted selectivity of these agents and opening the gates for customized therapies in cancer patients in the near future.

Jimeno, Jose; Aracil, Miguel; Tercero, Juan Carlos

2006-01-01

95

Mind the Gap: furthering the development of EU-US collaboration in marine geoscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a large and ever increasing amount of marine geological and geophysical data available throughout Europe, the USA and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collecting it is very high and there is therefore a need to maximise the potential re-use of this data wherever possible. Facilitating this is becoming an increasingly important aspect of marine geosciences data management as the need for marine data increases at a time when the financial resources for data acquisition are being dramatically reduced. A significant barrier to this re-use of marine geosciences data is the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of marine geosciences data at a regional, national and international scale. This is also proving to be a barrier to the development of interoperability with other data types at a time when there is a need to develop a more holistic approach to marine research. These challenges are currently being addressed within Europe by a number of EU funded initiatives, the objectives of which are an improvement in the discovery and access to marine data. The Geo-Seas project is just one of these initiatives, the focus of which is the development of an e-infrastructure for the delivery of standardised marine geological and geophysical data across Europe. The project is developing this e-infrastructure by adopting and adapting the methodologies of the related SeaDataNet project which currently provides an e-infrastructure for the management of oceanographic data. This re-use of the existing technologies has lead to the development a joint multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the delivery or both geoscientific and oceanographic data. In order to develop this initiative further and bridge the gap between these European projects and those being undertaken by colleagues in both the US and elsewhere a number of collaborative relationships including with the US based Rolling Deck Repository (R2R) project have been developed. To facilitate these growing collaborative relationships further a new EU initiative has recently been established in parallel with the relevant funding agencies in the USA and Australia. Through the development of these collaborative initiatives and the provision of the necessary financial support there is now an opportunity to develop common standards and methodologies which will allow the development of a common multidisciplinary approach to marine science on both sides of the Atlantic.

Glaves, H. M.; Miller, S. P.; Schaap, D.; Geo-Seas Consortium Partners

2011-12-01

96

Aircraft observations of aerosols in the free marine troposphere over the North Pacific Ocean: Particle chemistry in relation to air mass origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft measurements of atmospheric aerosol particles were performed in the free troposphere up to 5.0 km altitude over the North Pacific Ocean in August 1983 and 1984. Particles were analyzed for a single-particle base with the regent thin-film technique in conjunction with a transmission electron microscope. The calcium thin-film method was used for the specific determination of the molecular form of sulfate particles. Nitrate and sulfate in particles was identified by the nitron and barium chloride thin-film method, respectively. Ammonium was examined by the thin-film method of sodium tetraphenyl boron. Collected aerosols were related to the origin of air parcels. Sulfuric acid particles in submicron size range formed by the photochemical oxidation of sulfur-bearing gases and subsequent gas-to-particle conversion are the basic aerosols in the unpolluted free marine troposphere. They contain a small amount of NH4+ and more acidic than NH4HSO4. The chemical composition of the predominant aerosol changed drastically according to the origin of air parcels. Sulfuric acid aerosols were predominant in the air parcels originating from the midlatitude maritime atmosphere. On the other hand, for air parcels that have passed over the continent within several days, sulfate aerosols neutralized fully by ammonia are predominant. The extension of the continental air mass supplies ammoniated sulfate aerosols to remote marine atmosphere about 1200 km from land. Mineral dust particles are transported from Asian continent over the northwestern Pacific Ocean via the free troposphere. Nitrate was heterogeneously formed on the mineral dust particles and they were present in the air parcels passed over mainland of Japan, whereas few nitrate particles were found in the midlatitude marine atmosphere. Ammoniated sulfate particles, nitrate-containing particles, and mineral dust particles are the tracers of the continental air mass.

Yamato, Masahiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi

1994-03-01

97

Mind the Gap: furthering the development of EU-US collaboration in marine geoscience.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a large and ever increasing amount of marine geological and geophysical data available throughout Europe, the USA and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collecting it is very high and there is therefore a need to maximise the potential re-use of this data wherever possible. Facilitating this is becoming an increasingly important aspect of marine geosciences data management as the need for marine data increases at a time when the financial resources for data acquisition are being dramatically reduced. A significant barrier to the re-use of marine geoscience data is the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of marine geosciences data at a regional, national and international scale. This is also proving to be a barrier to the development of interoperability with other data types at a time when there is a need to develop a more holistic approach to marine research. These challenges are currently being addressed within Europe by a number of EU funded initiatives, the objectives of which are an improvement in the discovery and access to marine data. The Geo-Seas project is just one of these initiatives, the focus of which is the development of an e-infrastructure for the delivery of standardised marine geological and geophysical data across Europe. The project is developing this e-infrastructure by adopting and adapting the methodologies of the SeaDataNet project which currently provides an e-infrastructure for the management of oceanographic data. This re-use of the existing technologies has lead to the development a joint multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the delivery or both geoscientific and oceanographic data. In order to expand these initiatives further and bridge the gap between these European projects and those being undertaken by colleagues in both the US and elsewhere a number of collaborative relationships have been developed. To further these growing collaborative relationships a new EU initiative has recently been proposed in parallel with the relevant funding agencies in the USA and Australia with the objective of developing common standards and methodologies which will allow the development of a common multidisciplinary approach to marine science on an international scale.

Glaves, H.; Miller, S.; Schaap, D.

2012-04-01

98

Hygroscopic mineral dust particles as influenced by chlorine chemistry in the marine atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphology and elemental compositions of individual dust particles were investigated with the use of Asian dust samples collected at a site along the Sea of Japan side of the archipelago. Our results indicate the preferential formation of chloride in Ca-containing dust particles (0.1 < Cl\\/Ca < 0.65) in cases when the particles contain little or no sulfate. Most of them

Yutaka Tobo; Daizhou Zhang; Naonobu Nakata; Maromu Yamada; Hiroko Ogata; Kazutaka Hara; Yasunobu Iwasaka

2009-01-01

99

Distribution of virus-like Particles in an OligotrophicMarine Environment (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Viruses are abundant in a variety of aquatic environments, often exceeding bacterial abundance by one order of magnitude.\\u000a In the present study, the spatial distribution of viruses in offshore waters of the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) have\\u000a been studied to determine the relationships between viruses and host communities in this oligotrophic marine environment.\\u000a Viral abundance was determined using two methods:

M. C. Alonso; F. Jimenez-Gomez; J. Rodriguez; J. J. Borrego

2001-01-01

100

Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California  

Microsoft Academic Search

During March 1979 spectral absorptance for the suspended particles of the coastal waters of Baja California was determined by measuring the diffuse transmittance of filters containing the particles with a simply designed spectrophotometer. The absorptancc for the upper water of 20 stations varied by over an order of magnitude, but the spectra were generally similar in shape and indicated that

DALE A. KIEFER; JANICE BEELER SOOHOO

1982-01-01

101

Single Particle Characterisation of the Aerosol in the Marine Boundary Layer and Free Troposphere over Tenerife, NE Atlantic, during ACE2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), in June and July 1997, size segregated samples were collected for single particle analysis on the island of Tenerife, in both the marine boundary layer (MBL) and the free troposphere (FT), to study the characteristics of the North Atlantic aerosol. A systematic assessment was made of the aerosol under background

Stefaan Hoornaert; Ricardo Henrique Moreton Godoi; René Van Grieken

2003-01-01

102

Development and testing of hierarchically wrinkled coatings for marine antifouling.  

PubMed

We report on the formation and testing of novel marine coatings comprising hierarchically wrinkled surface topographies (HWTS) having wrinkles of different length scales (generations) ranging from tens of nanometers to a fraction of a millimeter. The individual wrinkle generations are arranged in nested patterns, where each larger wrinkle resides underneath and represents a scaled-up version of the smaller wrinkle. We present and discuss results from field tests in seawater and laboratory experiments. The results of our field tests reveal that while coatings with flat topographies foul after relatively short time periods (4-15 weeks), the HWST coatings with the same chemistries as flat coatings remain relatively free of biofouling even after prolonged exposure to seawater (18 months). In contrast to flat coatings, the HWST substrates are not colonized by barnacles. These observations suggest that surface topography plays a dominant role in governing the coating defense against barnacle fouling even without fine-tuning the chemical composition of the overcoat. Laboratory experiments indicate that settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva and the strength of attachment of sporelings (young plants) depend on the chemical composition of the coating as well as surface topography. PMID:20355888

Efimenko, Kirill; Finlay, John; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Genzer, Jan

2009-05-01

103

Global Simulations of Radiative Forcing from Sea Salt Injections into Marine Clouds: The Effect of Injection Rate and Particle Size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea salt seeding of low level marine clouds is a suggested technique to counteract or slow global warming. The injected sea salt is to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and through the aerosol indirect effect increase the cloud albedo and therefore the reflection of solar radiation from the earth-atmosphere system. Using the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) we investigate the global radiative forcing achieved through sea salt seeding as a function of both (i) emission rate and (ii) sea salt particle size. The injection rates are uniform and confined over ocean between 30°S and 30°N, and range from 10-9 to 10-11 kg m-2 s-1. The size of the particles ranges from a dry modal radius of 0.022 ?m to 0.13 ?m, with geometric standard deviations of 1.59. The study includes aerosol indirect effects both in the shortwave and the longwave and investigates the direct radiative effect of the added sea salt particles. Preliminary results show that increasing emissions of the 0.13 ?m sea salt mode leads to an aerosol indirect effect of between -3.4 Wm-2 and -0.04 Wm-2, depending on emission rate. The maximum achieved forcing is close to cancelling the positive forcing resulting from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (-3.8 Wm-2). Results also show that the direct effect of the sea salt parties is much larger than previously assumed, and the total radiative effect and the cooling potential of this geo-engineering technique may therefore be much greater than what has been assumed earlier. We find that ignoring the direct effect of sea salt may lead to serious errors in determining both the effectiveness of sea salt seeding and possible side effects. The longwave forcing resulting from a change in cloud emissivity with added sea salt is found to be negligible. Results also show that the size of the added sea salt is of crucial importance for the achieved radiative forcing. While adding large sea salt particles leads to a significant negative forcing at the top of the atmosphere, the opposite is true for particles below a certain size. This happens because the injected sea salt provide a large surface area for water vapor and gaseous sulfuric acid to condense on, thereby lowering the maximum cloud supersaturation and suppressing the nucleation of sulfate particles. Adding particles that are too small to become activated to cloud droplets merely leads to a reduced supersaturation and sulfate concentration and therefore to a decrease in the overall CCN concentration. This results in a reduced cloud droplet number concentration and a positive globally averaged forcing.

Alterskjaer, K.; Kristjánsson, J.

2011-12-01

104

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

2010-12-01

105

Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-?m cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

2009-12-01

106

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report. Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser

L. W. Avery; S. T. Hunt; S. F. Savage; P. D. McLaughlin; A. P. Shepdard; J. C. Worl

1992-01-01

107

Development of the pituitary, thyroid and interrenal glands and applications of endocrinology to the improved rearing of marine fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key to success in the culture of marine fish is the mass production of high quality fry, a process largely dependent on successful first feeding and normal development and growth of fish larvae. In this regard it is important to examine the structural and functional development of the endocrine system during early ontogeny of marine fish. To characterize early

M. Tanaka; J. B. Tanangonan; M. Tagawa; E. G. de Jesus; H. Nishida; M. Isaka; R. Kimura; T. Hirano

1995-01-01

108

Recent advances in the discovery and development of marine microbial natural products.  

PubMed

Marine microbial natural products (MMNPs) have attracted increasing attention from microbiologists, taxonomists, ecologists, agronomists, chemists and evolutionary biologists during the last few decades. Numerous studies have indicated that diverse marine microbes appear to have the capacity to produce an impressive array of MMNPs exhibiting a wide variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular agents. Marine microorganisms represent an underexplored reservoir for the discovery of MMNPs with unique scaffolds and for exploitation in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. This review focuses on MMNPs discovery and development over the past decades, including innovative isolation and culture methods, strategies for discovering novel MMNPs via routine screenings, metagenomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology. The potential problems and future directions for exploring MMNPs are also discussed. PMID:23528949

Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Feng; Hao, Yu-You; Wang, Yong

2013-03-08

109

Development of In-vessel Type Control Rod Drive Mechanism for Marine Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly reliable control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) installed inside the reactor vessel has developed for use of an advanced marine reactor. This CRDM contributes to compactness and simplicity of the reactor system, and it can eliminate the possibility of a rod ejection accident. The CRDM works in the high temperature and high pressure water—310°C and 12 MPa, the same

Toshihisa ISHIDA; Shou IMAYOSHI; Tsutomu YORITSUNE; Hiroshi NUNOKAWA; Masa-aki OCHIAI; Yuichi ISHIZAKA

2001-01-01

110

Developing a Marine Information System by Integrating Existing Ocean Models Using Object-Oriented Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information systems developed for different applications within the environmental domain have common characteristics, which can potentially be abstracted for sharing and reuse of design and software modules. This article presents an approach to designing for reuse by abstracting commonalities in the design of a Marine Information System (MIS), facilitating data management in a prototype operational monitoring, forecasting, and management system

A. Jacob; T. Hamre; G. Evensen; K. A. Mughal

2003-01-01

111

Development of the Marine Science and Technology industry cluster in New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confluence of recent initiatives in ocean observation, offshore energy and port and harbor security, has reenergized the many stakeholders in marine technology industry in Southern New England to ensure they are well positioned to capitalize on the opportunities. As traditional sources of research and development funding have decreased there has been a resultant shift which is forcing a new

Thomas J. Curry; Margaret L. Merrill; Stephen P. Andrade; Susan B. Peterson

2008-01-01

112

Marine Fisheries Development: An Outlook at Turn of the Century and Key Policy Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine fisheries will have to play a crucial role in augmenting supplies both in the domestic as well as export markets. Thrust of the development will be deep sea and brackish water resources. The exploitation of these resources, particularly deep sea, will require a rapid transition from chartering of vessels to joint ventures and owned fleet with modern and sophisticated

Srivastava Uma Kant

113

COULOMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF OXYGEN CONSUMPTION DURING DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE INVERTEBRATE EMBRYOS AND LARVAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the metabolic rate of larval invertebrates from aquatic habitats is complicated by the problems of small size and the scarcity of suitable measurement techniques. In this study, coulometric respirometry (a new technique for the study of marine embryos and larvae) was used to explore several issues associated with the rate of energy use during embryonic and larval development of

OVE HOEGH-GULDBERG; DONAL T. MANAHAN

1995-01-01

114

Development of rearing techniques using large enclosed ecosystems in the mass production of marine fish fry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of large marine enclosures for early life history studies has revealed important information for cultivation methods of fish larvae. During the 1970s and 1980s extensive and semiintensive methods were developed for cultivation of Atlantic cod, turbot, Atlantic halibut, seabass, and sea bream. In Norway, the lagoon enclosure technique was the predominant method in the late 1980s. The extensive

Terje van der Meeren; Kjell Emil Naas

1997-01-01

115

Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance

T. H. DeWitt; M. S. Redmond; J. E. Sewall; R. C. Swartz

1992-01-01

116

Environmental policies and marine engines—effects on the development and adoption of innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study indicates that environmental policy interventions significantly influence the innovation processes for reducing the emissions of marine engine technology. Several different types of interventions have been important and the effect is not directly proportional to the strength or spatial coverage of the intervention. Despite its relative weakness, the MARPOL rule on NOx emissions has contributed to technology development. We

Heli Hyvättinen; Mikael Hildén

2004-01-01

117

Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the Arctic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic litter accounts for 50–80% of waste items stranded on beaches, floating on the ocean surface and lodged in the seabed. Organic pollutants can be absorbed onto plastic particles from sea water, attached to their surfaces or included in the plastic matrix as additives. Such chemicals may be transported to remote regions by buoyant plastics and ocean currents. We have

Christiane Zarfl; Michael Matthies

2010-01-01

118

Determination of Chemical Composition of Marine Aerosol Particles and its Effects on Aerosol and Cloud Properties During the 2005 MASE Field Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine stratus clouds play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Cloud microphysical properties such as size distribution and liquid water concentration which govern the aerosol indirect radiative effects are influenced in part by chemical composition of the pre-cloud aerosol particles. To investigate the role aerosol particles play in the properties of marine stratus clouds, we measured aerosol and cloud properties on board the DOE G1 aircraft in the marine atmosphere between Point Reyes and Monterey Peninsula, California in the month of July as part of the 2005 Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE, http://www.asp.bnl.gov/MASE/, supported by the DOE Atmospheric Science and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs). Aerosol chemical composition was measured using a PILS-IC and an Aerodyne AMS. The PILS-IC measured sodium, chloride, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, methanesulfonic acid, and format/acetate with a time resolution of 4 minutes and a limit of detection of ca. 0.2 microgram per cubic meter. The AMS measured size-resolved total organic compounds as well as ammonium, nitrate and sulfate at a one-minute time resolution. Other aerosol properties measured included size distribution, light scattering, light absorption and cloud condensation nuclei concentration. Measured cloud properties were cloud droplet size spectrum and liquid water concentration. We will report the chemical composition of aerosol particles and discuss the mechanisms governing their distributions and the relationships between aerosol chemical composition and aerosol and cloud properties.

Lee, Y.; Jayne, J.; Alexander, M.; Springston, S.; Wang, J.; Senum, G.; Hubbe, J.; Daum, P.

2005-12-01

119

Light regulation on growth, development, and secondary metabolism of marine-derived filamentous fungi.  

PubMed

Effects of different light conditions on development, growth, and secondary metabolism of three marine-derived filamentous fungi were investigated. Darkness irritated sexual development of Aspergillus glaucus HB1-19, while white, red, and blue lights improved its asexual behavior. The red and blue lights improved asexual stroma formation of Xylaria sp. (no. 2508), but the darkness and white light inhibited it. Differently, development of Halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403) turned out to be insensitive to any tested light irradiation. Upon the experimental data, no regularity was observed linking development with secondary metabolism. However, fungal growth showed inversely correlation with productions of major bioactive compounds (aspergiolide A, 1403C, and xyloketal B) from various strains. The results indicated that aspergiolide A biosynthesis favored blue light illumination, while 1403C and xyloketal B preferred red light irradiation. With the favorite light sensing conditions, productions of aspergiolide A, 1403C, and xyloketal B were enhanced by 32.9, 21.9, and 30.8 % compared with those in the dark, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis comparing the light-responding proteins of A. glaucus HB 1-19 with those in other systems indicated that A. glaucus HB 1-19 was closely related to Aspergillus spp. especially A. nidulans in spite of its role of marine-derived fungus. It indicated that marine fungi might conserve its light response system when adapting the marine environment. This work also offers useful information for process optimization involving light regulation on growth and metabolism for drug candidate production from light-sensitive marine fungi. PMID:23546832

Cai, Menghao; Fang, Zhe; Niu, Chuanpeng; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

2013-04-02

120

Soils developed from marine and moraine deposits on the Billefjord coast, West Spitsbergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphogenetic features of soils developed from noncalcareous and calcareous deposits of the marine and glacial origins on the coasts of Billefjord and Petunia Bay in West Spitsbergen are studied. Grayhumus (soddy) soils develop from noncalcareous deposits; they consist of the AO-AY-C horizons and differ from analogous soils in other locations in a higher bulk content of calcium, a close to neutral reaction, and a relatively high degree of base saturation. Gray-humus residually calcareous soils (AO-AYca-Cca) developed from calcareous deposits have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction; their exchange complex is almost completely saturated with bases. The soils that developed from both marine and moraine deposits are generally similar in their major genetic features. The profiles of all the soils are not differentiated with respect to the contents of major elements, including oxalate-soluble forms of aluminum and iron. Gley features are also absent in the profiles of these soils.

Pereverzev, V. N.

2012-11-01

121

Stable chlorine isotopic composition of marine aerosol particles in the western Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic composition of chlorine sampled from the atmosphere has been measured for the first time. Eight aerosol samples collected on bulk filters at Bermuda are enriched in 37Cl relative to sea water. Stable chlorine isotopic compositions are reported in units of per mil as ?37Cl which is defined as 1000 × [(Rsample/Rsea water) - 1] where R is the ratio of 37Cl to 35Cl. The ?37Cl of the aerosols range from +0.42 to +2.53 per mil and strongly correlate with chlorine deficit (based upon sea salt sodium) and non-sea salt sulfate. The data trend is consistent with the fractional distillation (loss) of HCl from an acidified aerosol governed by a fractionation factor of 0.9972. Subsequent experiments support the hypothesis that HCl evaporation was most likely the primary mechanism of chlorine volatilization in the sampled aerosols. Furthermore, the data indicate that marine aerosols perturbed by anthropogenic NOx and SO2 are an important source of isotopically light chlorine in the free troposphere.

Volpe, Christopher; Spivack, Arthur J.

1994-06-01

122

Stable chlorine isotopic composition of marine aerosol particles in the western Atlantic Ocean  

SciTech Connect

The isotopic composition of chlorine sampled from the atmosphere has been measured for the first time. Eight aerosol samples collected on bulk filters at Bermuda are enriched in Cl-37 relative to sea winter. Stable chlorine isotopic compositions are reported in units of per mil as delta Cl-37 which is defined as 1000 x (R(sub sample)/R(sub sea water) -1) where R is the ratio of Cl-37 to Cl-35. The delta Cl-37 of the aerosols range from +0.42 to +2.53 per mil and strongly correlate with chlorine deficit (based upon sea salt sodium) and non-sea salt sulfate. The data trend is consistent with the fractional distillation (loss) of HCl from an acidified aerosol governed by a fractionation factor of 0.9972. Subsequent experiments support the hypothesis that HCl evaporation was most likely the primary mechanism of chlorine volatilization in the sampled aerosols. Furthermore, the data indicate that marine aerosols perturbed by anthropogenic NO(x) and SO2 are an important source of isotopically light chlorine in the free troposphere.

Volpe, C.; Spivack, A.J. [Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of North Carolina, Wilminton, NC (United States)

1994-06-01

123

Development of a Testing Platform for Scaled-Laboratory Studies of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale platform for testing model hydrokinetic devices in riverine environments has been developed for the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, 1.5 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&H) at Bucknell University. This platform is being used to advance development of marine hydrokinetic technologies by providing scaled-laboratory testing in a controlled environment.

M. L. Beninati; M. A. Volpe; D. R. Riley; M. H. Krane

2010-01-01

124

Development of a particle monitor for the CFFF  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate and improve the performance of particulate control devices (dry electrostatic precipitator or DESP, wet electrostatic precipitator or WESP, Baghouse or BH), the entering particle loading, and size distribution if measurable, is needed. Standard extraction methods provide this data but we labor intensive and thus can not provide this data on-line in near-real-time as needed to determine best particulate device settings for changing operating conditions. Furthermore, the extreme particle number density of the solids in the process stream (10{sup 7} particles/cm{sup 3}) and the small particle sizes (mass mean diameter 0.5--1.0 {mu}m) are outside the capability of existing near-real-time particle loading and sizing devices. Thus, a particulate sample extraction and dilution system (SEDS) was constructed to allow on-line, near continuous determination of solid particulate size distribution with loading in the flue gas entering the particulate cleanup systems. The US Department of Energy Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) SEDS was modeled on a Southern Research Institute developed system which dilutes the sampled flue gas to reduce moisture content, acid mist content, temperature and particulate loading as needed to allow direct, near continuous measurement using commercially available instrumentation. Because the 0.25--1.5 {mu}m particles which present the greatest difficulty for successful cleaning by an electrostatic precipitator are difficult to charge and are produced in large numbers by the high temperature MHD combustion, the CFFF SEDS was designed to measure primarily this size particles. In addition to the measurement uncertainties of the commercially obtained and calibrated particle counting instrument in the SEDS, the dilution process introduces other uncertainties. These uncertainties are being evaluated as the SEDS construction is being completed and as best operating parameters are being determined.

Parker, J.L.; Giel, T.V.; Winkleman, B.C.; Hodges, M.E.; Holt, J.K.; Douglas, J.R.

1993-06-01

125

Lessons Learned from the 14-Year Systems Development of the Marine Corps Standard Accounting, Budgeting and Reporting System (SABRS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In August of 1978 the Marine Corps initiated the development of a consolidated financial management system. On October 1, 1992, after 14-years of systems development effort, the Standard Accounting, Budgeting and Reporting System (SABRS) was finally imple...

J. L. Tavares

1994-01-01

126

Research and development of two marine-degradable biopolymers. Rept. for 1 Oct 89-30 Sep 90  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navy is developing a biopolymeric film material suitable for fabrication into marine-disposable trash bags so that it can comply with impending national and international requirements which will prohibit the discharge of plastics into the sea. Two biopolymers, chitosan and regenerated cellulose, were selected and tested to meet this need. After 6 weeks of marine exposure, regenerated cellulose samples disappeared;

A. L. Andrady; J. E. Pegram; T. M. Olson

1992-01-01

127

FACILITIES AND PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AT THE USDA, ARS NATIONAL COLD WATER MARINE AQUACULTURE CENTER IN FRANKLIN, MAINE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is developing facilities in Maine to conduct research on problems limiting coldwater marine aquaculture. The Northeastern U.S has the ideal location and unique opportunity to be a leader in cold-water marine finfish aquaculture. However, problems and r...

128

Cryogenic detection of particles: Development effort in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The development of cryogenic detectors of particles, with emphasis on large mass devices, has been reviewed. Most groups are still tooling up and exploring basic properties of sensors. The main discussion themes are summarized and some of the early experimental results are described.

Sadoulet, B.

1987-05-01

129

Blade-Strength Assessment of a Marine Turbocharger under Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the requirement for higher output of diesel engines in recent years, IHI has recognized that a turbocharger with higher pressure-ratio and volume-flow rate will be required, and has commenced the development of such a turbocharger. An important consideration in the design is the relatively high failure rate of blades presently used in the market. The new turbocharger

Fuminori IWAKI; Ken MITSUBORI; Hidetoshi TAGUCHI; Masakazu OBATA; Andrew R. MECH

130

Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 ..mu..mol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria.

Matsunaga, T.; Matsunaga, N.; Tsubaki, K.; Tanaka, T.

1986-10-01

131

Development of surfaces repelling negatively buoyant solid particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a hybrid computational method that integrates the lattice Boltzmann model for fluid dynamics and the lattice spring model for solids, we examine the motion of negatively buoyant solid microparticles in shear flow near a solid wall decorated with regularly distributed rigid posts. The posts are arranged in a square pattern and tilted relative to the flow direction. We show that when rigid posts are tilted against flow, secondary flows emerge that prevent the deposition of suspended particles on the solid surface. We probe the effect of post geometry on the development of secondary flows and identify the optimal post architecture in terms of the mass of levitated solid particles. Our results are useful for designing anti-fouling surfaces that repel colloidal particles carried by fluid.

Semmler, Carina; Alexeev, Alexander

2011-03-01

132

The Effect of Organic Material on Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation - Insights from Microscopic Analysis of Field-Collected, Laboratory Generated, and Marine Biogenic Particles (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous ice nucleation has been shown to play an important role in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Although their importance is widely acknowledged, the actual effects of aerosol particles on heterogeneous ice formation are insufficiently understood. Here, we present laboratory studies investigating the ice nucleation efficiency of organic dominated anthropogenic particles impacted by different degrees of photochemical aging collected in and around Mexico City, particles sampled in Los Angeles, laboratory generated organic particles composed of humic and fulvic acids exposed to O3, and biogenic marine particles. Using the optical microscope (OM) method, heterogeneous ice nucleation by particles deposited on hydrophobically coated substrates via immersion and deposition mode has been determined. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures and corresponding nucleation rates are derived, the latter being discussed in terms of atmospherically relevant ice particle production rates. The physical and chemical characteristics of the field collected particles were determined by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), CCSEM/EDX analysis (computer controlled SEM with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays and STXM/NEXAFS (scanning transmission X-ray microscopy combined with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy). The anthropogenic particles examined nucleate ice heterogeneously at temperatures and relative humidity relevant to cirrus onset conditions observed in the northern hemisphere. Increases in organic content due to photochemical aging did not affect the particles’ IN efficiencies. Solid humic and fulvic acid particles nucleate ice via immersion and deposition modes at atmospherically relevant conditions and a corresponding ice nucleation parameterization is derived. Oxidation by O3, has various effects on the particles’ IN efficiency but no clear relationship between increased particle hydrophilicity due to oxidation and IN efficiency was found. Planktonic diatoms are the first unambiguously identified marine organism which acts as efficient IN in the immersion and deposition modes. These findings can resolve elevated atmospheric IN concentrations observed over surface waters containing phytoplankton. Heterogeneous freezing of micrometer-sized aqueous NaCl droplets containing intact diatoms as well as fragments occurs up to 30 K higher than expected by homogeneous ice nucleation. Nucleation is found to behave stochastically and is independent of diatom surface area and droplet volume. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rates are about one order of magnitude higher than homogeneous ice nucleation making diatoms and/or their fragments competitive IN even at atmospheric updrafts typically dominated by homogeneous ice nucleation. In summary, single particle resolved analytical techniques and the particles-on-substrate approach coupled to OM can provide a very useful tool to improve our understanding of the phase transition of aerosol particles.

Knopf, D. A.

2010-12-01

133

Development of the marine planktonic copepod Temora longicornis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an empirical model describing the coefficient of daily exponential growth and weight increment for different developmental periods of Temora longicornis. The quantitative expressions describing the effects of food concentration and temperature on the above parameters were developed. The calculations were made on the basis of experimental data. In the work also obtained the stage duration of specific size-classes of Temora longicornis as a function of food concentration and temperature. Expressions computed here may be used with good precision in mathematical models of pelagic communities.

Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Lemieszek, A.; Zmijewska, I. M.

2009-04-01

134

International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

2011-10-29

135

Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae.  

PubMed

Understanding the impact of noise on marine fauna at the population level requires knowledge about the vulnerability of different life-stages. Here we provide the first evidence that noise exposure during larval development produces body malformations in marine invertebrates. Scallop larvae exposed to playbacks of seismic pulses showed significant developmental delays and 46% developed body abnormalities. Similar effects were observed in all independent samples exposed to noise while no malformations were found in the control groups (4881 larvae examined). Malformations appeared in the D-veliger larval phase, perhaps due to the cumulative exposure attained by this stage or to a greater vulnerability of D-veliger to sound-mediated physiological or mechanical stress. Such strong impacts suggest that abnormalities and growth delays may also result from lower sound levels or discrete exposures during the D-stage, increasing the potential for routinely-occurring anthropogenic noise sources to affect recruitment of wild scallop larvae in natural stocks. PMID:24088868

de Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Delorme, Natali; Atkins, John; Howard, Sunkita; Williams, James; Johnson, Mark

2013-10-03

136

Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae  

PubMed Central

Understanding the impact of noise on marine fauna at the population level requires knowledge about the vulnerability of different life-stages. Here we provide the first evidence that noise exposure during larval development produces body malformations in marine invertebrates. Scallop larvae exposed to playbacks of seismic pulses showed significant developmental delays and 46% developed body abnormalities. Similar effects were observed in all independent samples exposed to noise while no malformations were found in the control groups (4881 larvae examined). Malformations appeared in the D-veliger larval phase, perhaps due to the cumulative exposure attained by this stage or to a greater vulnerability of D-veliger to sound-mediated physiological or mechanical stress. Such strong impacts suggest that abnormalities and growth delays may also result from lower sound levels or discrete exposures during the D-stage, increasing the potential for routinely-occurring anthropogenic noise sources to affect recruitment of wild scallop larvae in natural stocks.

de Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Delorme, Natali; Atkins, John; Howard, Sunkita; Williams, James; Johnson, Mark

2013-01-01

137

Development of a marine fish model for studying in vivo molecular responses in ecotoxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for fixation and processing of whole adult marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was developed in parallel with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for molecular analysis of in vivo gene and protein responses in fish. Over 200 serial sagittal sections (5?m) can be produced from a single adult medaka to facilitate simultaneous localization and quantification of gene-specific mRNAs

R. Y. C. Kong; J. P. Giesy; R. S. S. Wu; E. X. H. Chen; M. W. L. Chiang; P. L. Lim; B. B. H. Yuen; B. W. P. Yip; H. O. L. Mok; D. W. T. Au

2008-01-01

138

Development of a Computational Model for Heavy Fuel Oil for Marine Diesel Engine Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, a model with the thermophysical properties of Heavy Fuel Oil, typically used in marine diesel en- gines, has been developed, and implemented into the KIVA CFD code. The effect of fuel properties on spray atomization is investigated by performing simulations in a constant-volume high-pressure chamber, using the E-TAB and the USB breakup models. Two different nozzle

Nikolaos Kyriakides; Christos Chryssakis; Lambros Kaiktsis

139

Recent developments in superhydrophobic surfaces and their relevance to marine fouling: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, a brief synopsis of superhydrophobicity (i.e. extreme non-wettability) and its implications on marine fouling are presented. A short overview of wettability and recent experimental developments aimed at fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces by tailoring their chemical nature and physical appearance (i.e. substratum texture) are reviewed. The formation of responsive\\/“smart” surfaces, which adjust their physico-chemical properties to variations in some

Jan Genzer; Kirill Efimenko

2006-01-01

140

The control of the development of a marine benthic community by predation on recruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment is an important process in regulating many marine benthic communities and many studies have examined factors controlling the dispersal and distribution of larval immigrants. However, benthic species also have early post-settlement life-stages that are dramatically different from adult and larval stages. Predation on these stages potentially impacts measured recruitment and the benthic populations and communities that ultimately develop.We examined

Richard W. Osman; Robert B. Whitlatch

2004-01-01

141

Solid particle erosion–corrosion behaviour of a novel HVOF nickel aluminium bronze coating for marine applications—correlation between mass loss and electrochemical measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the solid particle erosion–corrosion performance of an experimental high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed nickel–aluminium bronze (NAB) coating using conventional gravimetric techniques as well as in situ electrochemical analysis. The coating consists of HVOF powders from three alloys: stainless steel alloy, nickel-based alloy and aluminium bronze alloy. It is a candidate coating for marine applications as a cost

K. S. Tan; J. A. Wharton; R. J. K. Wood

2005-01-01

142

Iodine-mediated coastal particle formation: an overview of the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) Roscoff coastal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of the measurements that were made during the heavily-instrumented Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) coastal study in Roscoff on the North West coast of France. It was clearly demonstrated that iodine-mediated coastal particle formation occurs, driven by daytime low tide emission of molecular iodine, I2, by macroalgal species fully or partially exposed

G. McFiggans; C. S. E. Bale; S. M. Ball; J. M. Beames; W. J. Bloss; L. J. Carpenter; J. Dorsey; R. Dunk; M. J. Flynn; K. L. Furneaux; M. W. Gallagher; D. E. Heard; A. M. Hollingsworth; K. Hornsby; T. Ingham; C. E. Jones; R. L. Jones; L. J. Kramer; J. M. Langridge; C. Leblanc; J.-P. Lecrane; J. D. Lee; R. J. Leigh; I. Longley; A. S. Mahajan; P. S. Monks; H. Oetjen; A. J. Orr-Ewing; J. M. C. Plane; P. Potin; A. J. L. Shillings; F. Thomas; R. von Glasow; R. Wada; L. K. Whalley; J. D. Whitehead

2009-01-01

143

Iodine-mediated coastal particle formation: an overview of the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) Roscoff coastal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of the measurements made during the heavily-instrumented Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) coastal study in Roscoff on the North West coast of France throughout September 2006. It was clearly demonstrated that iodine-mediated coastal particle formation occurs, driven by daytime low tide emission of molecular iodine, I2, by macroalgal species fully or partially

G. McFiggans; C. S. E. Bale; S. M. Ball; J. M. Beames; W. J. Bloss; L. J. Carpenter; J. Dorsey; R. Dunk; M. J. Flynn; K. L. Furneaux; M. W. Gallagher; D. E. Heard; A. M. Hollingsworth; K. Hornsby; T. Ingham; C. E. Jones; R. L. Jones; L. J. Kramer; J. M. Langridge; C. Leblanc; J.-P. Lecrane; J. D. Lee; R. J. Leigh; I. Longley; A. S. Mahajan; P. S. Monks; H. Oetjen; A. J. Orr-Ewing; J. M. C. Plane; P. Potin; A. J. L. Shillings; F. Thomas; R. von Glasow; R. Wada; L. K. Whalley; J. D. Whitehead

2010-01-01

144

Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil.  

PubMed

Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate its characteristics during 1 mo of storage. Unpurified salmon oil (USO) was purified (PSO) and both USO and PSO were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total oxidation, free fatty acids (FFA), and moisture content. A stable emulsion was prepared with 7% PSO, 22% gum arabic, 11% maltodextrin, and 60% water. The emulsion was spray-dried to produce MSO. The MSO was added to strawberry-flavored yogurt (SYMSO) before pasteurization and homogenization, and a control (SY) without MSO was produced. Both yogurts were stored for 1 mo at 4°C and we determined the quality characteristics including acidity (pH), syneresis, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), fatty acid methyl ester composition, color, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Total oxidation (unitless) of USO, PSO, and MSO was calculated to be 20.7±1.26, 10.9±0.1, and 13.4±0.25, respectively. Free fatty acid contents were 1.61±0.19%, 0.59±0.02%, and 0.77±0.02% for USO, PSO, and MSO, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids in MSO and in SYMSO, but neither was detected in SY. Fortification of SY with MSO had no significant effect on yogurt pH or syneresis. A decrease in concentration of lactic acid bacteria was observed during the storage of all yogurts. Thiobarbituric acid values significantly increased as storage time increased and SY had a significantly lighter (higher L*) and less yellow (lower b*) color than SYMSO. Although some slight differences were observed in the color and oxidation of SYMSO compared with SY, the study demonstrated that SY could be fortified with salmon oil. PMID:22118066

Estrada, J D; Boeneke, C; Bechtel, P; Sathivel, S

2011-12-01

145

Development of 2D Ionization Chamber for Particle Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently rapid growth in particle therapy has imposed new detector developments for quality assurance (QA) purposes. Relatively high dose deposition from proton or carbon ion beam requires stringent performance from detectors. Cyclotron, synchrotron, or future laser driven accelerators represent DC and pulse sources which need different timing designs in electronics. Dose and position measurements of particle beams can serve clinical, beam diagnosis and QA purposes. We categorize the parameters of detectors - electronics, DAQ, and simulation--to serve for later optimizations. Gaseous detector is preferred because of its radiation hardness, and operation at ionization mode provides stable condition. We present our progresses in 2D ionization chamber development. Basic studies are carried out on 1D ionization chamber, which consists of 16 6-mm-wide strips. Results of measuring electron and proton beams are compared with MC simulations. 2D array ionization chamber design is optimized and based on 1D prototype measurements.

Ho, Chi-Li

2010-11-01

146

Papillomavirus-like particles and HPV vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus-like particles (VLPs), self-assembled after high level expression of the papillomavirus L1 virion capsid protein in non-mammalian cells, are attractive candidates for a subunit vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection and the subsequent development of cervical cancer. In animal studies, purified VLPs induce high titers of antibodies against conformational type specific L1 epitopes. These antibodies neutralize homologous virions in

John T. Schiller; Douglas R. Lowy

1996-01-01

147

The Pandora Software Development Kit for Particle Flow Calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pandora is a robust and efficient framework for developing and running pattern-recognition algorithms. It was designed to perform particle flow calorimetry, which requires many complex pattern-recognition techniques to reconstruct the paths of individual particles through fine granularity detectors. The Pandora C++ software development kit (SDK) consists of a single library and a number of carefully designed application programming interfaces (APIs). A client application can use the Pandora APIs to pass details of tracks and hits/cells to the Pandora framework, which then creates and manages named lists of self-describing objects. These objects can be accessed by Pandora algorithms, which perform the pattern-recognition reconstruction. Development with the Pandora SDK promotes the creation of small, re-usable algorithms containing just the kernel of a specific operation. The algorithms are configured via XML and can be nested to perform complex reconstruction tasks. As the algorithms only access the Pandora objects in a controlled manner, via the APIs, the framework can perform most book-keeping and memory-management operations. The Pandora SDK has been fully exploited in the implementation of PandoraPFA, which uses over 60 algorithms to provide the state of the art in particle flow calorimetry for ILC and CLIC.

Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.

2012-12-01

148

Impact ionization mass spectrometer instrument development for cosmic dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new instrument is under development to analyze the chemical composition of dust particles in-situ. The CRIA (Cosmic dust Reflectron for Isotopic Analysis) instrument is a mass spectrometer that analyzes the ions generated upon the hypervelocity impact of cosmic dust particles on a solid surface. The large sensitive area of the instrument (40 cm in diameter) makes the instrument capable of measuring the composition of interstellar dust particles that have a low flux. The laboratory prototype of the instrument has been previously tested in laboratory conditions using laser ablation and the Heidelberg dust acceleration facility. The mass resolution of the instrument is approximately m/dm ~ 200. Here we report on the progress of the technical readiness level (TRL) of the instrument. The development is done as part of a graduate level course offered at the Aerospace Engineering department at the University of Colorado. In the class the students design and fabricate the instrument to specified requirement and perform the environmental tests for the applicable TRL level. The details of the class setup are discussed. This project is funded by the Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and the Aerospace Engineering Department at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The instrument concept development was funded by NASA.

Sternovsky, Z.; Palo, S.; Li, X.; Brower, L.; Chang, L.; Lee, D.; Pilinski, M.; Salehi, M.; Tu, W.; Turner, D.; Amyx, K.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Knappmiller, S.; Robertson, S.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.

2007-12-01

149

The development of diving in marine endotherms: preparing the skeletal muscles of dolphins, penguins, and seals for activity during submergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myoglobin is an important oxygen store for supporting aerobic diving in endotherms, yet little is known about its role during postnatal development. Therefore, we compared the postnatal development of myoglobin in marine endotherms that develop at sea (cetaceans) to those that develop on land (penguins and pinnipeds). We measured myoglobin concentrations in the major locomotor muscles of mature and immature

S. R. Noren; T. M. Williams; D. A. Pabst; W. A. McLellan; J. L. Dearolf

2001-01-01

150

Single-particle detection efficiencies of aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry during the North Atlantic marine boundary layer experiment.  

PubMed

During the North Atlantic marine boundary layer experiment (NAMBLEX) sampling campaign at Mace Head, Ireland, both continental and maritime air masses were sampled. Aerosol was characterized both with a TSI 3800 time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) and a MOUDI microorifice impactor, and particle number counts were measured independently with an aerodynamic particle sizer. The data have been analyzed in order to elucidate factors determining the particle detection efficiencies of the ATOFMS. These are broken down according to the efficiency of the inlet system, the hit efficiency on particles which enter the sensing zone of the instrument and the sensitivity of the measured ion signal to the chemical species. A substantial matrix effect depending on the chemical composition of the aerosol sampled at the time was found, which is reflected in variations in the hit efficiency of particles entering the sensing zone of the instrument with the main desorption-ionization laser. This is in addition to the strong inverse power-law dependence of inlet transmission efficiency on particle diameter. The variation in hit efficiency with particle type is likely attributable to differences in the energetics of laser energy absorption, ablation, and ion formation. However, once variations in both inlet transmission and hit efficiencies are taken into account, no additional matrix dependence of ATOFMS response is required to obtain a linear relationship between the ion signal and the concentration of a particular chemical species. The observations show that a constant mass of material is ionized from each particle, irrespective of size. Consequently the integrated ion signal for a given chemical component and particle size class needs to be increased by a factor related to the cube of particle diameter in order to correlate with the airborne mass of that component. PMID:16955903

Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M; Beddows, David C S; Freney, Evelyn J; Heal, Mathew R; Donovan, Robert J

2006-08-15

151

Determining Risk - How to Evaluate the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development projects progress towards early deployments in the U.S., the process of determining the risks to aquatic animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes from these engineered systems continues to be a significant barrier to efficient siting and permitting. Understanding the risk of MHK installations requires that the two elements of risk - consequence and probability - be evaluated. However, standard risk assessment methodologies are not easily applied to MHK interactions with marine and riverine environment as there are few data that describe the interaction of stressors (MHK devices, anchors, foundations, mooring lines and power cables) and receptors (aquatic animals, habitats and ecosystem processes). The number of possible combinations and permutations of stressors and receptors in MHK systems is large: there are many different technologies designed to harvest energy from the tides, waves and flowing rivers; each device is planned for a specific waterbody that supports an endemic ecosystem of animals and habitats, tied together by specific physical and chemical processes. With few appropriate analogue industries in the oceans and rivers, little information on the effects of these technologies on the living world is available. Similarly, without robust data sets of interactions, mathematical probability models are difficult to apply. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists are working with MHK developers, researchers, engineers, and regulators to rank the consequences of planned MHK projects on living systems, and exploring alternative methodologies to estimate probabilities of these encounters. This paper will present the results of ERES, the Environmental Risk Evaluation System, which has been used to rank consequences for major animal groups and habitats for five MHK projects that are in advanced stages of development and/or early commercial deployment. Probability analyses have been performed for high priority stressor/receptor interactions where data are adaptable from other industries. In addition, a methodology for evaluating the probability of encounter, and therefore risk, to an endangered marine mammal from tidal turbine blades will be presented.

Copping, A. E.; Blake, K.; Zdanski, L.

2011-12-01

152

Marine Derived Hamacanthins as Lead for the Development of Novel PDGFR? Protein Kinase Inhibitors.  

PubMed

In this study, we report on pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as lead for the development of potent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive protein kinase inhibitors with implications as anti-cancer drugs. Initially, we identified the pyrazin-2(1H)-one scaffold from hamacanthins (deep sea marine sponge alkaloids) by Molecular Modeling studies as core binding motif in the ATP pocket of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), which are validated drug targets for the treatment of various neoplastic diseases. Structure-based design studies on a human RTK member PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) suggested a straight forward lead optimization strategy. Accordingly, we focused on a Medicinal Chemistry project to develop pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as optimized PDGFR binders. In order to reveal Structure-Activity-Relationships (SAR), we established a flexible synthetic route via microwave mediated ring closure to asymmetric 3,5-substituted pyrazin-2(1H)-ones and produced a set of novel compounds. Herein, we identified highly potent PDGFR binders with IC50 values in an enzymatic assay below µM range, and possessing significant activity against PDGFR dependent cancer cells. Thus, marine hamacanthin-derived pyrazin-2(1H)-ones showing interesting properties as lead for their further development towards potent PDGFR-inhibitors. PMID:24065162

Pinchuk, Boris; Johannes, Eugen; Gul, Sheraz; Schlosser, Joachim; Schaechtele, Christoph; Totzke, Frank; Peifer, Christian

2013-08-26

153

Marine Derived Hamacanthins as Lead for the Development of Novel PDGFR? Protein Kinase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report on pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as lead for the development of potent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive protein kinase inhibitors with implications as anti-cancer drugs. Initially, we identified the pyrazin-2(1H)-one scaffold from hamacanthins (deep sea marine sponge alkaloids) by Molecular Modeling studies as core binding motif in the ATP pocket of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), which are validated drug targets for the treatment of various neoplastic diseases. Structure-based design studies on a human RTK member PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) suggested a straight forward lead optimization strategy. Accordingly, we focused on a Medicinal Chemistry project to develop pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as optimized PDGFR binders. In order to reveal Structure-Activity-Relationships (SAR), we established a flexible synthetic route via microwave mediated ring closure to asymmetric 3,5-substituted pyrazin-2(1H)-ones and produced a set of novel compounds. Herein, we identified highly potent PDGFR binders with IC50 values in an enzymatic assay below µM range, and possessing significant activity against PDGFR dependent cancer cells. Thus, marine hamacanthin-derived pyrazin-2(1H)-ones showing interesting properties as lead for their further development towards potent PDGFR-inhibitors.

Pinchuk, Boris; Johannes, Eugen; Gul, Sheraz; Schlosser, Joachim; Schaechtele, Christoph; Totzke, Frank; Peifer, Christian

2013-01-01

154

Aquaculture of three phyla of marine invertebrates to yield bioactive metabolites: process developments and economics.  

PubMed

Large-scale, renewable supplies of chemical constituents derived from marine invertebrates have limited development of potential new natural product drugs. This paper describes the development of two in-sea aquaculture systems designed and engineered for production of large quantities of biomass for two species of marine invertebrates desired for their natural product chemical constituents. The two invertebrates and their products were: (1) the cosmopolitan, arborescent bryozoan Bugula neritina (Phylum Bryozoa) for its anticancer chemical constituent bryostatin 1; and (2) Ecteinascidia turbinate (Phylum Tunicata) the source of anticancer ecteinascidin 743. For the third invertebrate Phylum Porifera, and its representative sponge Acanthella cavernosa (desired for its anti-parasitic and anti-infective kalihinols) in-sea systems were not developed in favor of controlled environment tank aquaculture systems. For the bryozoan and tunicate, projected economics for commercial-scale in-sea production proved cost effective. This was in contrast to the controlled environment sponge culture tank system, which did not prove to be economical due to inherent slow growth and low natural product yields of the sponge in culture. A non-destructive method for "milking" natural product chemicals from sponges was tested and is described. PMID:12919831

Mendola, Dominick

2003-07-01

155

Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of the reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of the directional variations and the polarization of the marine reflectance on the retrieval of the inherent optical properties (IOP) (i.e., absorption, scattering, and backscattering coefficients) of water constituents in coastal waters are examined. First, an inversion algorithm based on artificial neural network (NN) methodology is developed using a synthetic data set. The simulations were carried out using

Malik Chami; Michael Defoin Platel

2007-01-01

156

Development of Pressure sensing Particles through SERS and Upconversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing distance of space travel, there is a critical need for non-invasive point-of-care diagnostic techniques. According to the NASA Human Research Roadmap, the ``lack of non-invasive diagnostic imaging capability and techniques to diagnose identified Exploration Medical Conditions involving internal body parts,'' is a critical capability gap for long distance space travel. To address this gap, we developed a novel technique for non-invasive monitoring of strain on implanted devices. We constructed a prototype tension-indicating washer with an upconversion spectrum that depended upon strain. The washer was made of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixture with upconversion particles embedded in it. This mixture was cured onto a lenticular lens. Methylene blue dye solution was sealed between the lenticular lens and PDMS so that pressure on the washer displaced the dye and uncovered the upconversion particles. We also began work on a tension-indicating screw based upon surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Future work for this project is to quantitatively correlate the spectral intensity with pressure, further develop SERS washers, and construct SERS and/or upconversion screws or bolts. Non-invasive tension-indicating devices and techniques such as these can be applied to orthopedics, used as a general technique for measuring micro-strain, verifying proper assembly of equipment, and observing/studying bolt loosening.

Widejko, Ryan; Wang, Fenglin; Anker, Jeff

2012-03-01

157

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

1992-04-01

158

Multiscale Statistical Model of Fully-Developed Turbulence Particle Accelerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the experimental measurement results of fluid particle transverse accelerations in fully developed pipe turbulence published in Nature (2001) by La Porta et al, the present authors recently develop a multiscale statistical model which considers both normal diffusion in molecular scale and anomalous diffusion in vortex scale. This model gives rise to a new probability density function, called Power-Stretched Gaussian Distribution model (PSGD). In this study, we make a further comparison of this statistical distribution model with the well-known Lévy distribution, Tsallis distribution and stretched-exponential distribution. Our model is found to have the following merits: 1) fewer parameters, 2) better fitting with experimental data, 3) more explicit physical interpretation.

Chen, Wen; Sun, Hongguang

159

Education and Conservation Benefits of Marine Wildlife Tours: Developing Free-Choice Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Marine wildlife tours can provide a range of education and conservation benefits for visitors, including emotional (i.e., affective) responses and learning (i.e., cognition). Interpretive programs cover the biology, ecology, and behavior of marine species; best practice guidelines; and human threats to marine areas. The author reviews the…

Zeppel, Heather

2008-01-01

160

Unshelled abalone and corrupted urchins: development of marine calcifiers in a changing ocean.  

PubMed

The most fragile skeletons produced by benthic marine calcifiers are those that larvae and juveniles make to support their bodies. Ocean warming, acidification, decreased carbonate saturation and their interactive effects are likely to impair skeletogenesis. Failure to produce skeleton in a changing ocean has negative implications for a diversity of marine species. We examined the interactive effects of warming and acidification on an abalone (Haliotis coccoradiata) and a sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) reared from fertilization in temperature and pH/pCO(2) treatments in a climatically and regionally relevant setting. Exposure of ectodermal (abalone) and mesodermal (echinoid) calcifying systems to warming (+2°C to 4°C) and acidification (pH 7.6-7.8) resulted in unshelled larvae and abnormal juveniles. Haliotis development was most sensitive with no interaction between stressors. For Heliocidaris, the percentage of normal juveniles decreased in response to both stressors, although a +2°C warming diminished the negative effect of low pH. The number of spines produced decreased with increasing acidification/pCO(2), and the interactive effect between stressors indicated that a +2°C warming reduced the negative effects of low pH. At +4°C, the developmental thermal tolerance was breached. Our results show that projected near-future climate change will have deleterious effects on development with differences in vulnerability in the two species. PMID:21177689

Byrne, Maria; Ho, Melanie; Wong, Eunice; Soars, Natalie A; Selvakumaraswamy, Paulina; Shepard-Brennand, Hannah; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Davis, Andrew R

2010-12-22

161

Unshelled abalone and corrupted urchins: development of marine calcifiers in a changing ocean  

PubMed Central

The most fragile skeletons produced by benthic marine calcifiers are those that larvae and juveniles make to support their bodies. Ocean warming, acidification, decreased carbonate saturation and their interactive effects are likely to impair skeletogenesis. Failure to produce skeleton in a changing ocean has negative implications for a diversity of marine species. We examined the interactive effects of warming and acidification on an abalone (Haliotis coccoradiata) and a sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) reared from fertilization in temperature and pH/pCO2 treatments in a climatically and regionally relevant setting. Exposure of ectodermal (abalone) and mesodermal (echinoid) calcifying systems to warming (+2°C to 4°C) and acidification (pH 7.6–7.8) resulted in unshelled larvae and abnormal juveniles. Haliotis development was most sensitive with no interaction between stressors. For Heliocidaris, the percentage of normal juveniles decreased in response to both stressors, although a +2°C warming diminished the negative effect of low pH. The number of spines produced decreased with increasing acidification/pCO2, and the interactive effect between stressors indicated that a +2°C warming reduced the negative effects of low pH. At +4°C, the developmental thermal tolerance was breached. Our results show that projected near-future climate change will have deleterious effects on development with differences in vulnerability in the two species.

Byrne, Maria; Ho, Melanie; Wong, Eunice; Soars, Natalie A.; Selvakumaraswamy, Paulina; Shepard-Brennand, Hannah; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Davis, Andrew R.

2011-01-01

162

The adhesive strategies of cyprids and development of barnacle-resistant marine coatings.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, approaches to the development of surfaces that perturb settlement and/or adhesion by barnacles have diversified substantially. Although, previously, coatings research focussed almost exclusively on biocidal technologies and low modulus, low surface-free-energy 'fouling-release' materials, novel strategies to control surface colonisation are now receiving significant attention. It is timely, therefore, to review the current 'state of knowledge' regarding fouling-resistant surface characteristics and their mechanisms of action against settling larvae of barnacles. The role of the barnacle in marine fouling is discussed here in the context of its life cycle and the behavioural ecology of its cypris larva. The temporary and permanent adhesion mechanisms of cyprids are covered in detail and an overview of adult barnacle adhesion is presented. Recent legislation has directed academic research firmly towards environmentally inert marine coatings, so the actions of traditional biocides on barnacles are not described here. Instead, the discussion is restricted to those surface modifications that interfere with settlement-site selection and adhesion of barnacle cypris larvae; specifically, textural engineering of surfaces, development of inert 'non-fouling' surfaces and the use of enzymes in antifouling. PMID:18597201

Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

2008-01-01

163

Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods  

SciTech Connect

The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance of these amphipods within Chesapeake Bay and methodologies for establishing cultures of amphipods which could be readily adopted by other laboratories. The second chapter reports the development of acute and chronic sediment toxicity test methods for L. plumulosus, its sensitivity to non-contaminant environmental variables, cadmium, two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The third chapter reports the authors attempts to develop a chronic sediment toxicity test with Ampelisca abdita.

DeWitt, T.H.; Redmond, M.S.; Sewall, J.E.; Swartz, R.C.

1992-12-01

164

Effects of particle shape and mobility on stable armor development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative size and roughness of a stable armor varies with particle shape. For a given imposed shear stress the order of increasing nominal particle diameter is flat, angular, and rounded gravel. The order of increasing surface roughness is flat, rounded, and angular gravel. The mobility of fine flat gravel particles is enhanced by the lower surface roughness of armors

Basil Gomez

1994-01-01

165

The Influence of Bioactive Oxylipins from Marine Diatoms on Invertebrate Reproduction and Development  

PubMed Central

Diatoms are one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and occupy a vital link in the transfer of photosynthetically-fixed carbon through aquatic food webs. Diatoms produce an array of biologically-active metabolites, many of which have been attributed as a form of chemical defence and may offer potential as candidate marine drugs. Of considerable interest are molecules belonging to the oxylipin family which are broadly disruptive to reproductive and developmental processes. The range of reproductive impacts includes; oocyte maturation; sperm motility; fertilization; embryogenesis and larval competence. Much of the observed bioactivity may be ascribed to disruption of intracellular calcium signalling, induction of cytoskeletal instability and promotion of apoptotic pathways. From an ecological perspective, the primary interest in diatom-oxylipins is in relation to the potential impact on energy flow in planktonic systems whereby the reproductive success of copepods (the main grazers of diatoms) is compromised. Much data exists providing evidence for and against diatom reproductive effects; however detailed knowledge of the physiological and molecular processes involved remains poor. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge of the mechanistic impacts of diatom-oxylipins on marine invertebrate reproduction and development.

Caldwell, Gary S.

2009-01-01

166

The influence of bioactive oxylipins from marine diatoms on invertebrate reproduction and development.  

PubMed

Diatoms are one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and occupy a vital link in the transfer of photosynthetically-fixed carbon through aquatic food webs. Diatoms produce an array of biologically-active metabolites, many of which have been attributed as a form of chemical defence and may offer potential as candidate marine drugs. Of considerable interest are molecules belonging to the oxylipin family which are broadly disruptive to reproductive and developmental processes. The range of reproductive impacts includes; oocyte maturation; sperm motility; fertilization; embryogenesis and larval competence. Much of the observed bioactivity may be ascribed to disruption of intracellular calcium signalling, induction of cytoskeletal instability and promotion of apoptotic pathways. From an ecological perspective, the primary interest in diatom-oxylipins is in relation to the potential impact on energy flow in planktonic systems whereby the reproductive success of copepods (the main grazers of diatoms) is compromised. Much data exists providing evidence for and against diatom reproductive effects; however detailed knowledge of the physiological and molecular processes involved remains poor. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge of the mechanistic impacts of diatom-oxylipins on marine invertebrate reproduction and development. PMID:19841721

Caldwell, Gary S

2009-08-21

167

The development of marine Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures using the unicellular alga Nitzschia closterium.  

PubMed

Unicellular algae are highly sensitive to a wide range of toxicants and have been used extensively in ecotoxicological testing. This, along with their ability to grow in very small test volumes over short test durations, make them ideal test organisms for use in Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs). Despite this, microalgae have not previously been used in marine TIE studies. In this study, the marine diatom Nitzschia closterium was shown to be a highly suitable test organism after modification of the standard test protocol to reduce test volumes to 6 mL and test duration to 48 h. The alga was tolerant to the chemicals used in phase I of the standard USEPA TIE protocol, and physical TIE manipulations had no effect on algal growth. The cation exchange procedure, however, inhibited algal growth, while the anion exchange procedure stimulated growth, making these two procedures unsuitable for use with this species. Of the buffers trialed for the graduated pH procedure, 0.01 M PIPES buffer was found to be suitable for buffering at pH 7 because it maintained the required pH over the duration of the test and did not affect the growth or sensitivity of the algae to one reference toxicant (copper). A trial TIE on a secondary-treated sewage effluent for discharge into coastal waters showed that the developed protocols could successfully be used to identify ammonia as the major toxicant in the effluent. PMID:15883677

Hogan, A C; Stauber, J L; Pablo, F; Adams, M S; Lim, R P

2005-03-11

168

Developing particle detection test bench for vacuum components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the leading contender for adoption as the next generation lithography technique. One of the critical challenges in this technology is producing defect-free masks. Particles generated in the fabrication process often deposit on the mask blank and result in phase and amplitude defects. Hence, it is important to study the transport, behavior and generation of particles in the ion deposition tool used for mask blank deposition. We show results on detecting particles from ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) valves by using optical counters and condensation particle counters. The particles were also trapped using impactor plates and analyzed with Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for elemental composition.

Khopkar, Yashdeep; Herbol, Henry; Upadhyaya, Mihir; Denbeaux, Gregory; Jindal, Vibhu; Kearney, Patrick

2012-03-01

169

Managing Marine Ecosystems and Development: Experiences from the Chesapeake Bay and Other Coastal Ecosystems in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to maintain the biotic integrity and performance of coastal marine ecosystems affected by human population growth and economic development an ecosystem approach to management is required. This is par- ticularly challenging when, as is the case for many coastal ecosystems, development activities on land, often far removed from the coast, have a major impact on the coastal environment.

Donald F. Boesch

170

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED PERFORMANCE MODEL FOR TRISO-COATED GAS REACTOR PARTICLE FUEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of gas reactors depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. The understanding and evaluation of this fuel requires development of an integrated mechanistic fuel performance model that fully describes the mechanical and physico- chemical behavior of the fuel particle under irradiation. Such a model, called PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl), is being developed at the

G. K. MILLER; D. A. PETTI; J. T. MAKI

171

On microalgal settlements and the sluggish development of marine biofouling in Port Blair waters, Andamans.  

PubMed

Settlement of microalgae was investigated on Perspex, aluminium and zinc coupons immersed in Port Blair Bay waters for over 3 months. Commencement of fouling was exceptionally slow, and few microalgae were found until 14 days. Settlement occurred thereafter, and 47 microalgal species contributed to the fouling. The dominant forms belonged to the genera Navicula and Nitzschia, whereas Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Gyrosigma balticum and Trichodesmium erythraeum also accounted for high proportions of the settlements. The dominance of Nitzschia sigma was particularly marked on zinc coupons, suggesting an ability by the organism to resist toxicity. Settlement of both centric and pennate diatoms was observed in the early and mid periods, and absolute dominance of the pennate diatoms subsequently. The fouling mass was low even after 103 days, and it is speculated that strong ultraviolet radiation might be the prime reason for the sluggish development of marine biofouling in these oceanic island waters. PMID:18097790

Eashwar, M; Nallathambi, T; Kuberaraj, K

2008-01-01

172

Trends in the development of environmentally friendly fouling-resistant marine coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Marine biofouling', the undesired growth of marine organisms such as microorganisms, barnacles and seaweeds on submerged surfaces, is a global problem for maritime industries, with both economic and environmental penalties. The primary strategy for combating marine fouling is to use biocide-containing paints, but environmental concerns and legislation are driving science and technology towards non-biocidal solutions based solely on physico-chemical and

James A. Callow; Maureen E. Callow

2011-01-01

173

An algal probe for copper speciation in marine waters: laboratory method development.  

PubMed

Laboratory-based algal assays were developed to explore the bioavailability of copper to the marine alga Thalassiosira weissflogii. A calibration strategy was developed that avoided use of the synthetic ligand ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the Aquil growth medium, thereby allowing ambient metal speciation. In a comparison of T. weissflogii cells grown in Aquil medium with EDTA to medium containing no added copper, zinc, and less than 0.003 nM of EDTA, no significant growth differences were observed after 8 d, indicating adequate stored nutrients. A 30-h assay was selected as the optimal time frame after examination of data from concentration-response experiments. Using 65Cu stable isotope additions, parameters examined included growth, chlorophyll a, copper uptake, phytochelatin production, and dissolved organic carbon excretion. The T. weissflogii specific growth rates decreased from 1.36 d(-1)( at pCu (i.e., the negative logarithmic concentration of free Cu) = 8.8 to 0.56 d(-1) at pCu = 7.8, whereas intercellular copper concentrations increased from 13.6 to 70.1 fg/cell, respectively. Calculated values of the copper concentration that caused a 50% reduction in algal growth of pCu = 7.7 and copper per algal mass of 625 microg/g were established. Using an algal assay based on EDTA-free culture medium, along with trace-metal clean techniques, the effect of copper on T. weissflogii and the speciation of copper in marine waters can be studied. PMID:16629150

Karner, Dawn A; Shafer, Martin M; Overdier, Joel T; Hemming, Jocelyn D C; Sonzogni, William C

2006-04-01

174

Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine mediated particle formation in the marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. These ultra-fine particles may then grow through the condensation of other materials to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of the initially nucleated particles. In laboratory simulations, hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5·H2O). In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH). On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass. Water retention in amorphous material at low RH is important for understanding the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles and uptake of other condensable material. Subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only 6%, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the small growth factor of aqueous iodic acid solution droplets is consistent with the small aerosol growth factors observed in previous experiments.

Murray, B. J.; Haddrell, A. E.; Peppe, S.; Davies, J. F.; Reid, J. P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Price, H. C.; Kumar, R.; Saunders, R. W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Umo, N. S.; Wilson, T. W.

2012-09-01

175

Physical properties of marine boundary layer aerosol particles of the mid-Pacific in relation to sources and meteorological transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol measurements were made on three cruises in the mid-Pacific along longitude 140øW from 55øN to 70øS for a total of about 90 days in 1992 and 1993. The three data sets document the aerosol concentration and general features of its number-size distribution in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and their variation with latitude and meteorological conditions. Mean concentration varied

V. N. Kapustin; T. S. Bates; P. K. Quinn

1996-01-01

176

Types of larval development in marine bottom invertebrates, their distribution and ecological significance: a re-evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various types of larval development among marine bottom invertebrates has been discussed on the basis of ecological evidence by Thorson (1936, 1946, 1950, 1952) and Mileikovsky (1961b, 1965). The information at hand is reviewed anew in this paper and is re-evaluated in the light of modern pertinent literature. The interrelationships between certain larval types and their distribution

S. A. Mileikovsky

1971-01-01

177

A Sourcebook of Marine Activities Developed in the Milwaukee Great Lakes Summer Education Program, 1977 and 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-seven activities dealing with the marine environment of the Great Lakes are presented. Designed for junior and senior high school students, these activities develop awareness of the biological, physical, social, economical, and aesthetic dimensions of the Great Lakes. Field trips, films, discussion, and hands-on activities are used to teach…

Haney, Richard E., Ed.

178

Fluvial and marine controls on combined subaerial and subaqueous delta progradation: Morphodynamic modeling of compound-clinoform development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluviodeltaic systems commonly display a compound-clinoform geometry that consists of a subaerial\\/subaqueous delta couplet. The extent of subaqueous delta development varies significantly and, in modern systems, is a function of fluvial input and basin hydrodynamics. We present a model of fluviodeltaic progradation in which the repeated occurrence of characteristic terrestrial floods and large coastal storms drives fluvial and shallow marine

John B. Swenson; Chris Paola; Lincoln Pratson; Vaughan R. Voller; A. Brad Murray

2005-01-01

179

Development of a growth inhibition test with the marine and brackish water red alga Ceramium tenuicorne  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne is cosmopolitan and naturally found in both brackish and marine waters. A growth inhibition test with this species can be carried out in salinities from 4‰ to 32‰. The species is easily held in culture in the laboratory and the test can be performed in a completely defined medium. The robustness of the method

B. Eklund

2005-01-01

180

A numerical simulation of the effects of snow particle shapes on blowing snow development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow particle shape is an important factor affecting the development of blowing snow. In this paper, we established a numerical model of blowing snow development and compared the changes in numbers of endurance spherical, ellipsoidal, star, hexagonal prism, and cylindrical snow particles in the air with time and their transport rates with time and height during the development. The following are the major conclusions. (1) The effects of snow particle shapes on the numbers of endurance snow particles in the air and the transport rates of snow vary so dramatically, even in a few orders of magnitude, that snow particles should not be simplified as spheres or ellipsoids in simulation. (2) In the logarithmic wind field, the potential energy of spherical snow particles obtained from wind at higher heights is much greater than that of star snow particles at lower heights. Thus, the snow particles with greater energy can eject more snow particles when precipitating to the snow bed. (3) The five snow particles differ in their duration to reach dynamic equilibrium but not in the variation of the numbers of endurance snow particles in the air and the snow transport rates with time. (4) At dynamic equilibrium, the number of endurance snow particles in spherical, ellipsoidal, and star shapes and their heights and transport rates with time are at least one order of magnitude larger than those of the endurance snow particles in hexagonal prism and cylindrical shapes.

Huang, Ning; Sang, Jiabin; Han, Kai

2011-11-01

181

[Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles: current state and future development].  

PubMed

A wide range of applications for superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as contrast media for MRI has emerged over the last 15 years. SPIO particles can be manufactured with different particle sizes and surface coatings. Large SPIO particles (50-150 nm) predominantly produce a signal decrease or T2 -shortening and are used as contrast media for MRI of the liver and spleen. They have a high accuracy, especially in detecting liver metastases (approved for clinical use: AMI-25 (Endorem or Ferridex), SHU-555A (Resovist)). Smaller particles (about 20 nm in diameter) show a different organ distribution and have a potential for improving noninvasive lymph node assessment or characterizing vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (in clinical trials: AMI-227 [Sinerem or Combidex]). Particles with an optimized T1-relaxivity and prolonged intravascular circulation time can be used as blood pool contrast media for MR angiography. The currently investigated indications are MR angiography of the trunk, peripheral vessels, and coronary arteries (e.g., SHU-555 C (Supravist), VSOP-C 184). Other applications of small SPIO particles include MRI of the bone marrow and the determination of perfusion parameters in tumors or other tissues like the myocardium. SPIO particles with a modified coat can be used in so-called molecular imaging, such as receptor-directed imaging, cell labeling for in-vivo monitoring of cell migration, e.g., stem cell labeling, and labeling of gene constructs for localization in genetic therapy. In tumor therapy SPIO particles can serve as mediators for hyperthermia. SPIO is a powerful MR contrast medium with manifold applications ranging from diagnostic imaging to molecular medicine. PMID:12811686

Taupitz, M; Schmitz, S; Hamm, B

2003-06-01

182

Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores  

SciTech Connect

An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Geological Survey

1998-01-01

183

Pinched inlet split flow thin fractionation for continuous particle fractionation: application to marine sediments for size-dependent analysis of PCDD/Fs and metals.  

PubMed

It is demonstrated that split-flow thin (SPLITT) fractionation, a continuous separation technique for sorting particles or macromolecules, can be utilized for the fractionation of environmental particles to study a size-dependent analysis of pollutants. In this study, focuses are made on the use of a pinched inlet gravitational SPLITT fractionation, a modified form of SPLITT channel formed by reducing the sample inlet thickness of the channel to improve separation efficiency, to separate marine sediments into five different sizes (<1.0, approximately 1.0 to 2.5, approximately 2.5 to 5.0, approximately 5.0 to 10, and approximately 10 to 53 microm). The resulting size fractions are examined with high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry to determine the size-dependent distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans along with a statistical data treatment and are analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to ascertain its major and trace metals. It is shown that the combined analytical methods detailed in this study can be powerfully utilized in such a way as to analyze pollutant distribution and its concentration with regard to particle sizes for an environmental assessment. PMID:15167807

Moon, Myeong Hee; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kwon, So-Yeon; Lee, Se-Jin; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lim, Heungbin

2004-06-01

184

Marine Education for Inlanders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Under a U.S. Department of Commerce Sea Grant, Texas teachers have developed a three-book series designed to expose elementary and secondary students to the marine world. Book titles include "Marine Organisms in Science Teaching,""Children's Literature--Passage to the Sea," and "Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources." (LRA)|

Broussard, Amy

1981-01-01

185

Marine Fouling and Borers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Marine fouling in the Caspian Sea; Mass development of the Polychaete Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel in Krasnovodskiy zaliv; Data on the Flora of Diatom Algae in marine fouling along the East Coast of the Caspian Sea; Marine fouling in the Southe...

I. V. Starostin

1965-01-01

186

Capsomer dynamics and stabilization in particles with T=12 quasi-symmetry; the cryoEM reconstructions of the marine bacteriophage SIO-2 and its procapsid  

PubMed Central

We report the sub nanometer cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) reconstruction of a novel marine siphovirus, the Vibrio phage SIO-2. This phage is lytic for related Vibrio species with significant ecological importance including the broadly antagonistic bacterium Vibrio sp. SWAT3. The three dimensional structure of the 800Å SIO-2, icosahedrally averaged, head of the tailed particle revealed a novel T=12 quasi-symmetry not previously described in a bacteriophage. Two, morphologically distinct, types of auxiliary proteins were also identified; one species bound to the surface of hexamers and the other bound to pentamers. The secondary structure, evident in the electron density, shows that the major capsid protein has the HK97-like fold. The three-dimensional structure of the procapsid form, also presented here, has no “decoration” proteins and reveals a novel capsomer organization due to the constraints of the T=12 symmetry.

Lander, Gabriel C.; Baudoux, Anne-Claire; Azam, Farooq; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Johnson, John E.

2012-01-01

187

Development of a focused charged particle microbeam for the irradiation of individual cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irradiation facility, able to expose cellular and subcellular targets to a precise number of particles, has been developed at CENBG for applications in radiobiology. The development of this facility was based on an existing horizontal focused microbeam developed in the early 90's for material analysis. The focusing properties of the line allow the delivering of proton or alpha particle

Ph. Barberet; A. Balana; S. Incerti; C. Michelet-Habchi; Ph. Moretto; Th. Pouthier

2005-01-01

188

Multivariate statistical methods used in sensor development and on-line analyzing of data from marine observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multivariate statistical methods are commonly used in a wide range of industries to optimize production, to design experiments, to plan research and development projects and to calibrate instrumentation. In the development of aquatic sensors these tools are not well recognized. This presentation will discuss the benefits of using such methods when developing and testing new sensor technology. In recent years several types of marine observatories have been developed. These are typically advanced sensor platforms with the ability to provide information in real time from a large number of sensors. In some cases multivariate statistical methods have been successfully used in real time to interpret and better understand complex data-series from marine observatories. Examples of this will be given.

Tengberg, A.

2012-04-01

189

Embrionary and larval development of the marine clam Tivela mactroides (Bivalvia: Veneridae) in Zulia State, Venezuela.  

PubMed

The marine clam, Tivela mactroides, from Caño Sagua beach, Venezuela, was spawned and reared under laboratory conditions to monitor its early development. Spawning was spontaneous but in some cases it had to be induced by the additon of eggs and sperm. After fertilization, the embryonic development occurred at 5 hr approximately. Trochophore larvae were observed between eight and ten hours later. Straight-hinged veliger stage appeared 15 hr after fertilization. Transition from veliger stage to the umbo stage occurred about eight days after fertilization. Pediveliger stage was observed 22 days after fertilization. Metamorphosis of T. mactroides was not successful under our laboratory conditions; probably the bacterial contamination and subsequent mortalities were important factors constraining the final phase of the larval cycle. However, in a few cases young individuals were observed. We suspect that this was due to unfavorable conditions (e.g.: bacterial contamination, unsuitable food availability, etc.) and the broad variation in developmental times, suggesting that these stages might be particularly sensitive to environmental changes. These results may not necessarily reflect what happens under natural conditions. PMID:17354399

Reverol, Yinett M; Delgado, José G; de Severeyn, Yajaira G; Severeyn, Héctor J

2004-12-01

190

Effects of barium and cadmium on the population development of the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina.  

PubMed

Offshore oil and gas drilling often involves the use of fluids containing barium and traces of other heavy metals. These may affect the environment, but information on their toxicity to benthic biota remains scant. Here, we present results of a 10-day bioassay with the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina at different loads of barium (0-10 ,000 ppm nominal concentrations) and cadmium (0-12 ppm) in the range of concentrations reported from drilling-impacted sediments. Barium did not affect the fitness and population development of R. (P.) marina at concentrations up to 300 ppm, but did cause a decrease in population abundance and an increase in development time from concentrations of 400-2000 ppm onwards. Increased mortality occurred at 4800 ppm Ba. For cadmium, LOEC and EC?? values for total population abundance were 2.95 and 8.82 ppm, respectively. Cd concentrations as low as 2.40 to 2.68 caused a decrease in the abundance of adult nematodes, indicating that assays covering more generations would likely demonstrate yet more pronounced population-level effects. Our results indicate that oil and gas drilling activities may potentially have important implications for the meiobenthos through the toxicity of barium and associated metals like cadmium. PMID:21855994

Lira, V F; Santos, G A P; Derycke, S; Larrazabal, M E L; Fonsêca-Genevois, V G; Moens, T

2011-07-28

191

The role of marine aggregates in the ingestion of picoplankton-size particles by suspension-feeding molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension-feeding molluscs are important members of coastal communities and a large body of literature focuses on their feeding\\u000a processes, including the efficiency of particle capture. Some molluscs, such as bivalves, capture individual picoplankton\\u000a cells (0.2–2.0 ?m) with a retention efficiency of less than 50%, leading to the assumption that such particles are not an\\u000a important food resource. Picoplankton, however, are often

Dustin J. Kach; J. Evan Ward

2008-01-01

192

Marine Aquaculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Marine aquaculture and the promotion of coastal fisheries; The present state of marine aquaculture; Techniques in shallow sea cultivation; Environmental factors in marine aquaculture; Ecological factors in the propagation of marine organisms; Ar...

T. Tamura

1970-01-01

193

Microphysical Analysis of the Development of Ice Particles in Cirrus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DOE ARM Small Particle in Cirrus (SPartICus) field project took place from 4 January through 24 June 2010. The SPEC Learjet was instrumented with state-of-the-art microphysical sensors that have been designed to minimize the effects of large ice particles shattering on probe inlets, which has contaminated results from most previous projects. The instrument complement includes fast FSSP, CDP, CPI, 2D-S, HVPS, CSI and Nevzorov IWC probes, along with air motion sensing. Data were collected in cirrus clouds over the ARM ACRF site near Lamont, Oklahoma, and in cirrus under various locations coincident with CloudSat/Calipso satellite overpasses. One of the scientific goals of SPartICus was to collect a large dataset with statistical relevance that documented the nature and variability of the particle size distribution in cirrus. The SPEC Learjet flew 190 hours in the SpartICus project, Approximately 60 hours of in-cloud data were collected in synoptically-generated cirrus, orographically-generated cirrus and cirrus anvils in Colorado, Kansas, Wyoming, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, South Dakota and North Dakota. A preliminary analysis of this dataset shows that in the mean, concentrations of ice particles were in the tens to hundreds per liter, but that concentrations as high as 10 per cc and as low as 0.1 per liter were occasionally encountered. Both the very low and very high particle concentrations cannot be explained from theories of primary nucleation, which presents a considerable challenge for numerical models. The outlier cases are examined to assess physical reasons for the anomalous measurements. The size distribution and the shape of the size distribution are also important for radiative studies. Large cirrus particles fall out and do not contribute to overall radiative heating that is attributed to cirrus clouds. The shape of the distribution has recently been shown to have a significant effect on effective particle diameter, which is a fundamental parameter in radiative packages used on climate models. SPartICus data are compared with previous measurements in cirrus to demonstrate how the shape of the particle size distribution affects calculation of effective particle diameter.

Lawson, P.; Jensen, E. J.; Mace, G. G.; Mitchell, D. L.; Baker, B. A.; Mo, Q.

2010-12-01

194

Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine oxide particles in the coastal marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of these particles. Hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5 · H2O). In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH). On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass, but subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only ~6 %, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the small growth factor of aqueous iodic acid solution droplets is consistent with the small aerosol growth factors observed in field experiments.

Murray, B. J.; Haddrell, A. E.; Peppe, S.; Davies, J. F.; Reid, J. P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Price, H. C.; Kumar, R.; Saunders, R. W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Umo, N. S.; Wilson, T. W.

2012-03-01

195

Mariner Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

196

Biofilm Development and Cell Death in the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newly described green-pigmented bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata (D2) produces target-specific inhibitory compounds against bacteria, algae, fungi, and invertebrate larvae and is frequently found in association with living surfaces in the marine environment. As part of our studies on the ecology of P. tunicata and its interaction with marine surfaces, we examined the ability of P. tunicata to form biofilms under

Anne Mai-Prochnow; Flavia Evans; Doralyn Dalisay-Saludes; Sacha Stelzer; Suhelen Egan; Sally James; Jeremy S. Webb; Staffan Kjelleberg

2004-01-01

197

Model-driven Development of Particle System Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient-intelligence systems are characterized by a shift away from desktop computers to a variety of devices, which are unobtrusively embedded in the user environment. The usage of small computing nodes (particles) is one of the most efficient ways of their implementation. Such nodes are often installed in different appliances within an Ambient-intelligence system. In each case there is a joint

Michalis Anastasopoulos; András Balogh

2007-01-01

198

Can Aerosol Particles Develop Organic Surface Layers Under UT/LS Conditions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric aerosol particles contain oligomers and macromolecular humic-like substances that may be created by reactions in or on the surface of particles. Marine aerosols have been observed to possess surface films of fatty acids which can survive the evaporation of water from the interior of the particle. This phenomenon of surface films is of current interest with regard to their potential influence on the rate of water uptake by atmospheric particles, particularly in the tropical tropopause region. Understanding the composition, morphology, and behavior of mixed aqueous/organic particles is important for evaluating effects on cloud growth and the resulting climate implications. We have observed very reproducible formation of self-assembled films on the surface of acidic solutions containing aldehydes such as propanal. These resilient films were highly colored, and their formation has definite temperature and acidity dependences. Thus, formation of such a surface film may depend critically on the temperature history of UT aerosols, and aerosols exposed to different temperature and relative humidity conditions may demonstrate differing behavior. We will present an exploration of the conditions necessary for film formation from acidic aqueous solutions of oxygenated compounds and describe several film stability and identification studies.

Iraci, L. T.; Deng, P. H.

2007-05-01

199

Nutrition and bioprocess development for efficient biosynthesis of an antitumor compound from marine-derived fungus.  

PubMed

An integrated nutrition and bioprocess strategy was developed for improving the biosynthesis of an antitumor compound, 1403C, by a marine-derived fungus, Halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403). First, statistical design strategies were synthetically applied to optimize the nutritional composition. The resulting 1403C production reached 2.07 g/l, which was 143.5 % higher than the original production. However, it only produced 0.44 g/l of 1403C in 5-l bioreactor fermentation. Thus, the operating parameters including culture pH, dissolved oxygen, agitation speed, impeller type and inoculum level were considered to improve the fermentation process, and an effective control strategy for 1403C production by Halorosellinia sp. submerged in a 5-l bioreactor was established. When inoculating 0.22 g/l dry biomass, controlling dissolved oxygen not lower than 30 % during the growth phase but ranging between 30 and 40 % during the stationary phase, using a double-layer six-flat-blade Rushton disc turbine agitated at 400 rpm, keeping short-term low pH and rapid-rising pH with glucose starvation, the highest 1403C production was finally obtained at 1.32 g/l, which was promoted by 200 % compared to before optimization. Fermentation scale-up was finally performed in a 500-l bioreactor, and 1403C production of 1.09 g/l was obtained. PMID:23887857

Zhou, Weiqiang; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Jiushun; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Jiao; Wang, Meixia; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

2013-07-26

200

Development of spherical iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate-containing solid particles with sustained drug release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to develop a simple, economic procedure for the manufacturing of coated iron(II) sulfate particles by using a crystallization technique for the development of round particles, followed by coating with a lipophilic material. Several batches of iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate were produced by a cooling crystallization, with variation of the crystallization parameters. The spherical crystals were

Piroska Szabó-Révész; Béla Farkas; Tamás Gregor; Kálmán Nagy; Edina Pallagi

2007-01-01

201

Developing Alternatives for Optimal Representation of Seafloor Habitats and Associated Communities in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implementation of various types of marine protected areas is one of several management tools available for conserving representative examples of the biological diversity within marine ecosystems in general and National Marine Sanctuaries in particular...

P. J. Auster R. R. Cook

2006-01-01

202

An operational model to simulate post-accidental radionuclide transfers in Toulon marine area: preliminary development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of its development of post-accident management tools, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety is setting up a model to simulate radionuclide dispersion in the Toulon marine area (one of France's main military ports). The model is based on the MARS 3D code developed by IFREMER. It reproduces hydro-sedimentation phenomena in the Bay of Toulon with a horizontal spatial resolution of 100 m and 30 vertical sigma levels and also factors in radioactive decay and dissolved/particulate distribution of the radionuclides studied. With no tide, the major currents in this area are generated by the wind. The model effectively reproduces the resulting hydrodynamic phenomena, which were measured throughout the summer of 2009 in the channel that links the Little Bay to the Large Bay of Toulon. When the Mistral (wind from the West/Northwest) blows, a surface current quickly appears, which pushes water southwards from the Little Bay, and which is offset by a bottom current (upwellings). When the wind blows from the East, the currents move in the opposite direction, and southeasterly waves, dependent on wind strength and fetch, occur in the Large Bay. Here, we give an example of the simulated dispersion of radionuclides released directly into the surface waters near the Arsenal, demonstrating the constraint relative to dispersion generated by the half-closed configuration of the Little Bay. Sediment in the Little Bay also forms an area where the most highly reactive radionuclides would accumulate, and where the lack of waves has the effect of considerably limiting the phenomena of resuspension.

Duffa, Celine; Dufois, Francois; Coudray, Sylvain

2011-11-01

203

Dispersal and population expansion in a direct developing marine snail ( Littorina saxatilis ) following a severe population bottleneck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most marine benthic invertebrate species have planktonic larvae, and in species in which juveniles and adults have low vagility\\u000a a larva is obviously an efficient way of active dispersal. A minority of benthic invertebrate species develop without any\\u000a pelagic phase at all. A largely unsolved question is how and at what rate do these species disperse. We have addressed this

Kerstin Johannesson; Bo Johannesson

1995-01-01

204

Development of air mass climatology analysis for the determination of characteristic marine atmospheres. Part I: North Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of determining characteristic marine atmospheres was developed based on analysis of air mass types and occurrences. A 10-year set of radiosonde and surface observations collected over the North Atlantic Ocean from a combination of land-based stations, oceanographic buoys, and weather ships, was obtained from the archives of meteorological agencies from 6 different countries. Through a mixture of man-machine

T. B. Low; D. R. Hudak

1997-01-01

205

Speciation of water-soluble inorganic, organic, and total nitrogen in a background marine environment: Cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles were collected in Puerto Rico from December 2004 to March 2007 in order to investigate their chemical composition, relation to sources, and removal processes. The species analyzed were inorganic ions, metals, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC, DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and organic acids. For all samples, the dominant species were marine (Na+, Cl-), representing about 50%-65% of total content. Non-sea-salt fraction was dominated by SO42- (17%-25%), followed by water-soluble organic (2%-8%) and total nitrogen (2% -6%) compounds. Organic acids represented contributions to the organic fraction in cloud water of 20% and 6% for aerosol particles. Inorganic species were predominant in total nitrogen portion. The chemical composition of cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles were observed to be sensitive to transport patterns. Air masses from northwest Africa showed the highest concentrations of nss-Ca2+, Fe, and Al, suggesting a crustal origin. The pH values for cloud water and rainwater observed under this transport pattern were higher than background conditions, probably due to the alkalinity associated with nss-Ca2+. The highest concentrations of Cl- and SO42-, with lower pH, were measured during periods of influence from Soufriere Hills volcano eruptions, most likely due to emitted SO2 and HCl. Air masses from North America had an anthropogenic influence, where levels of nss-SO42-, TOC, and TN were higher (˜4 times) than in clean air masses. These results suggest that long-range transport could be an extra source of metals and organic/nitrogen species to the Caribbean region ecosystems.

Gioda, Adriana; Reyes-RodríGuez, Gabriel J.; Santos-Figueroa, Gilmarie; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Decesari, Stefano; Ramos, Maria Da ConceiçÃ.£O. K. V.; Bezerra Netto, Heleno J. C.; de Aquino Neto, Francisco R.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

2011-03-01

206

Mixing state of aerosols and direct observation of carbonaceous and marine coatings on African dust by individual particle analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixing state of aerosols collected at M'Bour, Senegal, during the Special Observing Period conducted in January–February 2006 (SOP-0) of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project (AMMA), was studied by individual particle analysis. The sampling location on the Atlantic coast is particularly adapted for studying the mixing state of tropospheric aerosols since it is (1) located on the path of

Karine Deboudt; Pascal Flament; Marie Choël; Alexandre Gloter; Sophie Sobanska; Christian Colliex

2010-01-01

207

Evolving science of marine reserves: New developments and emerging research frontiers  

PubMed Central

The field of marine reserve science has matured greatly over the last decade, moving beyond studies of single reserves and beyond perspectives from single disciplines. This Special Feature exemplifies recent advances in marine reserve research, showing insights gained from synthetic studies of reserve networks, long-term changes within reserves, integration of social and ecological science research, and balance between reserve design for conservation as well as fishery and other commercial objectives. This rich body of research helps to inform conservation planning for marine ecosystems but also poses new challenges for further study, including how to best design integrated fisheries management and conservation systems, how to effectively evaluate the performance of entire reserve networks, and how to examine the complex coupling between ecological and socioeconomic responses to reserve networks.

Gaines, Steven D.; Lester, Sarah E.; Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Costello, Christopher; Pollnac, Richard

2010-01-01

208

Development of ZrC-coated UC--ZrC particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium carbide coatings were deposited on Uâ.âZr$sub ; 0$.âC cores from zirconium tetrachloride-methane-hydrogen-helium mixtures ; at 1400°C in an attempt to develop improved coated particles for use in ; Rover graphite-matrix fuel elements. The coated particles were tested at ; 2500°C. Those with coatings thin enough to satisfy the requirements of ; small particle size and high uranium content survived

A. W. Jr. Savage; R. C. Feber; J. P. Bertino; H. R. Baxman; J. A. ORourke; R. J. Bard

1976-01-01

209

Development of NanoCAP (nano composite advanced particles) technology for high density recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, nanosized spherical magnetite particles, with the coercivity force of about 3000 Oe was developed. This material was named NanoCAP (nano composite advanced particles). This study described both magnetic and structural properties of NanoCAP. The crystal structure and the microstructure of the particles were examined using an X-ray diffractometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope, respectively. The obtained

Y. Sasaki; N. Usuki; K. Matsuo; M. Kishimoto

2005-01-01

210

Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms.  

PubMed

The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. PMID:20886559

Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C; Kane, Ravi S

2010-09-30

211

Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

Tomanek, Lars

2011-01-01

212

Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei-from which marine clouds originate-depends ultimately on the availability of new, nanometre-scale particles in the marine boundary layer. Because marine aerosols and clouds scatter incoming radiation and contribute a cooling effect to the Earth's radiation budget, new particle production is important in climate regulation. It has been suggested that sulphuric acid-derived from

Colin D. O'Dowd; Jose L. Jimenez; Roya Bahreini; Richard C. Flagan; John H. Seinfeld; Kaarle Hämeri; Liisa Pirjola; Markku Kulmala; S. Gerard Jennings; Thorsten Hoffmann

2002-01-01

213

Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings: VIII: Overview of the high-throughput measurement systems developed for a marine coating workflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combinatorial workflow has been produced for the development of novel, environmental-friendly marine coatings. A particularly challenging aspect of the workflow development was the selection and development of high-throughput screening methods that allow for some degree of prediction of coating performance in the aquatic environment of interest. The high-throughput screening methods currently in place include measurements of surface energy, viscoelastic properties, pseudobarnacle adhesion, and a suite of biological assays based on various marine organisms. An experiment involving a series of fouling-release coatings was used to correlate high-throughput screening data to data obtained from ocean site immersion testing. The results of the experiment showed that both bacterial biofilm surface coverage and storage modulus at 30 °C showed a good correlation with barnacle adhesion strength and a fair correlation with fouling rating, but surface energy and pseudobarnacle adhesion did not correlate with the results from ocean site testing.

Chisholm, Bret J.; Stafslien, Shane J.; Christianson, David A.; Gallagher-Lein, Christy; Daniels, Justin W.; Rafferty, Crystal; Wal, Lyndsi Vander; Webster, Dean C.

2007-11-01

214

Development and characterization of a single particle laser ablation mass spectrometer (SPLAM) for organic aerosol studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single particle instrument has been developed for real-time analysis of organic aerosols. This instrument, named Single Particle Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry (SPLAM), samples particles using an aerodynamic lens system for which the theoretical performances were calculated. At the outlet of this system, particle detection and sizing are realized using two continuous diode lasers operating at ? = 403 nm. Polystyrene Latex (PSL), sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctylphtalate (DOP) particles were used to characterize and calibrate optical detection of SPLAM. The optical detection limit (DL) and detection efficiency (DE) were determined using size-selected DOP particles. The DE is ranging from 0.1 to 90 % for 100 and 350 nm DOP particles respectively and the SPLAM instrument is able to detect and size-resolve particles as small as 110-120 nm. Scattered light is detected by two photomultipliers and the detected signals are used to trigger a UV excimer laser (? = 248 nm) used for laser desorption ionization (LDI) of individual aerosol particles. The formed ions are analyzed by a 1 m linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer in order to access to the chemical composition of individual particles. The TOF-MS detection limit for gaseous aromatic compounds was determined to be 0.85 attograms. DOP particles were also used to test the overall functioning of the instrument. The analysis of a secondary organic aerosol, formed in a smog chamber by the ozonolysis of indene, is presented as a first scientific application of the instrument. Single particle mass spectra are obtained with a global hit rate of 10 %. They are found to be very different from one particle to another, reflecting chemical differences of the analyzed particles, and most of the detected mass peaks are attributed to oxidized products of indene.

Gaie-Levrel, F.; Perrier, S.; Perraudin, E.; Stoll, C.; Grand, N.; Schwell, M.

2011-07-01

215

Development of particles coated with pyrolytic carbon. VIII. Improved core-coat combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declassified 28 Aug 1973. Pyrolytic-carbon-coated UOâ particles ; with improved stability at 2500 deg C or higher temperatures were developed for ; fuel elements for Rover reactors. Single-layer and two-layer coatings of various ; types were studied on a variety of General Atomic UCâ cores with a complete ; graphite shell. Particles with nominal 40- mu -thick coatings on 104-

R. J. Bard; H. R. Baxman; J. P. Bertino; S. W. Hayter; J. A. ORourke; W. J. McCreary

1969-01-01

216

New developments in particle characterization by laser diffraction: size and shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser diffraction has become a popular technique in many fields for measuring particle size distributions (PSDs). It is not only one of the standard techniques for laboratory measurements but is also gaining importance for on-line process monitoring and process control. This article reports some developments of this technique while recognizing the potential that still exists. In this report both particle

Zhenhua Ma; Henk G Merkus; Jan G. A. E de Smet; Camiel Heffels; Brian Scarlett

2000-01-01

217

Development of a hydraulic control mechanism for cyclic pitch marine current turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal power generation by means of marine current farms is potentially a large renewable energy resource which could be harnessed in many coastal waters. Its availability is highly predictable in time, and the technology promises high energy conversion efficiency along with a relatively low impact on sea life due to its relatively small disturbance of natural tidal flows.A series of

Alessandro Schönborn; Matthew Chantzidakis

2007-01-01

218

76 FR 25362 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Butanol Fuel Blend Usage With Marine Outboard...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...overarching goal of reducing the engines' Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions...USCG-2011-0157'' and click ``Search.'' Click the ``Open Docket...Facility. Privacy Act Anyone can search the electronic form of comments...blends with marine outboard engines, with the overarching...

2011-05-04

219

A review of feed development for early life stages of marine finfish in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the nutritional requirements of fingerlings and juvenile fish (a few grams to 50 g of body weight) were initiated in the 1960s. The main nutritional requirements of certain freshwater fish were clarified during the first half of the 1980s. Since the early 1990s, the focus has been on marine fish larvae. It has been thought that the definite

Toshio Takeuchi

2001-01-01

220

Progress in the development and acquisition of anticancer agents from marine sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

represent landmarks in the history of medicine. Almost 60% of drugs approved for cancer treatment are of natural origin. Vincristine, irinotecan, etoposide, taxanes and camptothecines are all examples of plant-derived compounds. Dactinomicine, anthracyclines, mitomycin and bleomycin are anticancer agents derived from microbial sources (1). Although marine compounds are under-represented in current pharmacopoeia, it is anticipated that the aquatic environment will

M. L. Amador; J. Jimeno; L. Paz-Ares; H. Cortes-Funes; M. Hidalgo

2003-01-01

221

Directory of Facilities. Development Activities in the Marine Environment of the Coastal Plains Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described in this directory are marine activities on the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and the adjacent offshore area, known administratively as the Coastal Plains Region. The facilities for each state are described within these categories: educational institutions, state agencies, federal agencies, and industrial…

Hill, Philip G.

222

Development and application of a fully automatic troubleshooting method for large marine diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diesel engine is the main propulsion system for marine vessels except for a small category using gas or steam turbines. This is the result of its high efficiency, power concentration and reliability that have been improved considerably during the current decade. Despite these advantages, the engineer usually has to overcome great difficulties and mainly operational problems arising during the

D. T. Hountalas; A. D. Kouremenos

1999-01-01

223

APPLICATION OF ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA IN SELECTING MARINE RESERVES AND DEVELOPING RESERVE NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are being established worldwide in response to a growing recognition of the conservation crisis that is building in the oceans. However, designation of reserves has been largely opportunistic, or protective measures have been implemented (often overlapping and sometimes in conflict) by different entities seeking to achieve dif- ferent ends. This has created confusion among both users and enforcers,

Callum M. Roberts; George Branch; Rodrigo H. Bustamante; Juan Carlos Castilla; Jenifer Dugan; Benjamin S. Halpern; Kevin D. Lafferty; Heather Leslie; Jane Lubchenco; Deborah McArdle; Mary Ruckelshaus; Robert R. Warner

2003-01-01

224

Development of a single-axis ultrasonic levitator and the study of the radial particle oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the development and analysis of a new single-axis acoustic levitator, which consists of a 38 kHz Langevin-type piezoelectric transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector. The new levitator design allows to significantly reducing the electric power necessary to levitate particles and to stabilize the levitated sample in both radial and axial directions. In this investigation the lateral oscillations of a levitated particle were measured with a single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and an image evaluation technique. The lateral oscillations were measured for different values of particle diameter, particle density and applied electrical power.

Baer, Sebastian; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Esen, Cemal; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Ostendorf, Andreas

2012-05-01

225

Development of multiple-layer polymeric particles for targeted and controlled drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to develop multilayered particles consisting of a magnetic core and two encompassing shells made up of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) for targeted and controlled drug delivery. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that multilayered particles were obtained with PNIPAAm magnetic nanoparticles embedded within the PLGA shell. Factorial analysis studies also showed that the particle size was inversely proportional to the surfactant concentration and sonication power and directly proportional to the PLGA concentration. Drug-release results demonstrated that these multilayer particles produced an initial burst release and a subsequent sustained release of both bovine serum albumin (BSA) and curcumin loaded into the core and shell of the particle, respectively. BSA release was also affected by changes in temperature. In conclusion, our results indicate that the multilayered magnetic particles could be synthesized and used for targeted and controlled delivery of multiple drugs with different release mechanisms.

Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Rahimi, Maham; Nattama, Sivaniarvindpriya; Wadajkar, Aniket; Nguyen, Kytai Truong

2010-01-01

226

Development of a genetic system for Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 involved in marine aggregate formation by interacting with diatom cells.  

PubMed

Diatom aggregation is substantial for organic carbon flux from the photic zone to deeper waters. Many heterotrophic bacteria ubiquitously found in diverse marine environments interact with marine algae and thus impact organic matter and energy cycling in the ocean. In particular, Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 induces aggregate formation while interacting with the diatom, Thalassiosira weissflogii. To study this effect at the molecular level, a genetic tool system was developed for strain HP15. The antibiotic susceptibility spectrum of this organism was determined and electroporation and conjugation protocols were established. Among various plasmids of different incompatibility groups, only two were shown to replicate in M. adhaerens. 1.4×10(-3) transconjugants per recipient were obtained for a broad-host-range vector. Electroporation efficiency corresponded to 1.1×10(5)CFU per ?g of DNA. Transposon and gene-specific mutageneses were conducted for flagellum biosynthetic genes. Mutant phenotypes were confirmed by swimming assay and microscopy. Successful expression of two reporter genes in strain HP15 revealed useful tools for gene expression analyses, which will allow studying diverse bacteria-algae interactions at the molecular level and hence to gain a mechanistic understanding of micro-scale processes underlying ocean basin-scale processes. This study is the first report for the genetic manipulation of a Marinobacter species which specifically interacts with marine diatoms and serves as model to additionally analyze various previously reported Marinobacter-algae interactions in depth. PMID:21880271

Sonnenschein, Eva C; Gärdes, Astrid; Seebah, Shalin; Torres-Monroy, Ingrid; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Ullrich, Matthias S

2011-08-22

227

75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...future development of the America's Marine Highway Program...support throughout DOT's leadership and inquired about the process...impediments to increased use of America's Marine Highway. Many of...and clarifying changes, the America's Marine Highway...

2010-04-09

228

Insight on watershed development along the actively uplifting Mount Lebanon range (Lebanon) from marine and fluvial terraces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active uplift in the Mt. Lebanon range results from regional transpression along a ~200-km-long restraining bend within the Dead Sea fault system. Thus, the resultant landscape is characterized by the combined influences of tectonic, eustatic, and climatic controls. Marine terraces in northern Mt. Lebanon range provide significant constraints on regional uplift and, consequently, base level control on watershed development. Detailed geologic mapping reveals at least six coastal terrace levels between the cities of Tripoli and Batroun in northern Lebanon, ranging in elevation from 5 m to 113 m above sea level. The marine terraces are primarily abrasional platforms with little to no sediment cover. However, at certain locations, the terraces comprise of a thick (up to 20 m towards the coast) sedimentary cover that are the result of episodic periods of cut and fill into older Pliocene deposits. The majority of these sediments are well-rounded, cobble-size clasts of limestone cemented by a calcite matrix with occasional clasts of basalt and marine fossils. Travertine formations, fossil remnants, and limestone clasts are available to constrain ages on terrace formations and, in turn, coastal uplift rates. Correlation of terrace heights with Pleistocene sea level variations suggests an average, regional uplift rate of 0.3 m/ka. Fluvial terraces in the northern Mt. Lebanon allow reconstruction of longitudinal profiles that grade into base levels represented by the corresponding marine terraces. Hence, this correlation constrains the ages of fluvial terraces and consequently permits estimates of fluvial erosion. Temporal variations in fluvial transport capacity are suggested by episodic aggradation of massive boulder-size clasts of basalt and dolomite that originate over 20 km upstream. Furthermore, knickpoints in the present-day drainage also appear to correlate with the former base levels. Hence, the retreat of these knickpoints permits assessing the lag time in the response of the fluvial system to base level changes.

Lepley, S.; Gomez, F.; Nader, F.

2005-12-01

229

Norovirus P particle: a subviral nanoparticle for vaccine development against norovirus, rotavirus and influenza virus.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoVs) are important pathogens causing epidemic acute gastroenteritis that affects millions of people worldwide. The protruding (P) domain of the NoV capsid protein, the surface antigen of NoV, forms a 24-mer subviral particle called the P particle that is an excellent candidate vaccine against NoVs. The P particles are easily produced in Escherichia coli, highly stable and highly immunogenic. Each P domain has three surface loops that can be used for foreign antigen presentation, making the P particles a useful platform for vaccine development against other infectious diseases. This article summarizes the discovery, structure, development and applications of the P particles as a vaccine against NoVs, as well as a vaccine platform against rotavirus, influenza virus and possibly other pathogens in the future. PMID:22734641

Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

2012-06-01

230

Development of a Particle Counting Method for Assessing the Biological Protection Factor of Respirators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation developed and validated a highly sensitive method based on particle counting technology for assessing the protection afforded by chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear respirators against biological threat agents. Inert monodis...

C. R. Ching J. P. Eshbaugh K. M. Coyne P. D. Gardner

2006-01-01

231

Development of novel electromagnetic antenna for deep target marine CSEM survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine controlled source electromagnetic method (MCSEM) is a new and versatile method for hydrocarbon detection. Deep sea hydrocarbon reservoir exploration is still challenging and expensive. Due to unreliability for the detection of DHIs using seismic data, new methods have been investigated. Sea bed logging (SBL) is a new technique for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon and has potential to reduce the risks of DHIs (direct hydrocarbon indicators) in deep sea environment. The magnitude of EM waves is very important for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon reservoir below 4000m from the sea floor. Nanotechnology has been introduced very effective and shows promising results in many research fields. Ferrite magnetic materials play an important role in many applications due to its versatile magnetic properties. The aluminum based EM antenna is developed and NiZn, YIG ferrite as magnetic feeders are used to increase the field strength from EM antenna. FESEM images show that grain size increases with the increase of sintering temperature and ranges from 30 to 60nm for Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 where as grain size increases from 45 to 110nm for Y3Fe5O12 samples. Due to better magnetic properties, samples (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4-PVDF) sintered at 950°C and (Y3Fe5O12-PVDF) sintered at 1350°C were used as magnetic feeders for the EM antenna. It was investigated that magnitude of EM waves from the novel EM antenna with (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4-PVDF) sintered at 950°C and Y3Fe5O12-PVDF) sintered at 1150°C increases up to 143% and 220% respectively in the lab scale environment. Modeling results by using CST software shows that new EM antenna with magnetic feeders has an ability to increase the D, E, B and H field components. This novel EM antenna with magnetic feeders may be used for the deep target hydrocarbon detection due to enhanced field strength. This new EM transmitter based on nanotechnology may open new horizons for oil and gas industry for deep target hydrocarbon reservoir.

Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Yahya, Noorhana; Shafie, Afza; Nasir, Nadeem; Kashif, Muhammad; Zaid, Hasnah Mohd

2012-09-01

232

Towards the prediction of cohesive sediments dynamics: developing acoustic and optical measurements via in situ particle visualization.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cohesive particles in marine and costal waters remain a significant challenge to sediment transport predictions. Given the relevance to water quality, pollution, benthic ecology and coastal engineering our ability to develop process-response models of cohesive sediments is poor. Suspended cohesive particles rarely exist in their primary state but form flocs which are aggregated, heterogeneous assemblages of mineral grains, biogenic debris, bacteria and organic material. Floc formation is thus a function of numerous variables whose inter-related processes are yet to be fully elucidated. This complexity is exacerbated by a lack of suitable data, notably in characterizing floc populations. A floc may constitute over 1 million individual particles and size can range over 4 orders of magnitude within one population. The effective densities are also highly variable, and the settling velocity can therefore span several orders of magnitude (Fennessey et al., 1994; Gibbs, 1985). The challenge is to develop data acquisition techniques that will allow accurate quantification of floc characteristics for the determination of SPM concentration and settling velocities for mass settling flux calculations. Particle size ranges and concentrations are not adequately measurable by physical sampling which break up fragile flocs. Remote methods offer the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of floc particle dynamics. However, the responses of light and sound to floc particles remain uncertain. Differences in derived mass concentrations of flocculated and non-cohesive suspensions occur because OBS measures projected area concentration not mass concentration. Laser interferometry (e.g. LISST) is only applicable in relatively low concentrations, can disturb fragile flocs and requires a smooth size distribution and near-spherical particles (e.g. Wren et al., 2000). Acoustic backscatter methods are limited by a lack of data from floc-dominated environments which has restricted the development of suitable acoustic inversion algorithms. Recent innovations of in situ visualization of floc size and settling velocity using INSSEV (e.g. Fennessey et al. 1994) & LabSFLOC (e.g. Manning and Dyer, 1999) have meant a step-change in our understanding of floc dynamics. Consequently, we are now in a position to make simultaneous measurements of cohesive SPM populations using in situ, remote and physical sampling to aid development of methods that account for the flaws in remote measurements. We present selected data collected in the meso-tidal Tamar Estuary, Devon, UK over several tidal cycles. INSSEV and LabSFLOC data were acquired at multiple heights and complimented by physically sampled SPM later analysed for mass and organic content. A suite of ABS and OBS sensors were used to provide multi-frequency vertical response profiles, and a LISST-XT was positioned at INSSEV height. These measurements were augmented by vertical ADV and ADCP profiles of velocity and regular CTD profiles. Examples are shown that reveal different responses of acoustic and optical methods across the tidal cycle. These differences are compared to changes in floc characteristics, SPM concentration, organic content, floc properties, flow hydrodynamics and water density over the tidal cycle in an attempt to determine the key parameters affecting the way in which sound and light interact with flocs. Ultimately, this information will be used to develop inversion algorithms that will allow the recovery of cohesive sediment mass concentrations using combinations of acoustical and optical instruments without the need for extensive field calibrations. Fennessy, M.J., Dyer, K.R., Huntley, D.A. 1994. INSSEV: an instrument to measure the size and settling velocity of flocs in-situ. Mar. Geol., 117, 107-117. Gibbs, R.J. 1985. Estuarine flocs: their size, settling velocity and density. J. Geophys. Res., 90(C2), 3249-3251. Manning, A.J., Dyer, K.R. 1999. A laboratory examination of floc characteristics with regard to turbulent shearing. Mar. Geol, 160, 147-170. Wren, D.G., Barkall, B.D.

Schindler, Rob; Bass, Sarah; Manning, Andrew

2010-05-01

233

Development and characterization of a single particle laser ablation mass spectrometer (SPLAM) for organic aerosol studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single particle instrument was developed for real-time analysis of organic aerosol. This instrument, named Single Particle Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry (SPLAM), samples particles using an aerodynamic lens system for which the theoretical performances were calculated. At the outlet of this system, particle detection and sizing are realized by using two continuous diode lasers operating at ? = 403 nm. Polystyrene Latex (PSL), sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctylphtalate (DOP) particles were used to characterize and calibrate optical detection of SPLAM. The optical detection limit (DL) and detection efficiency (DE) were determined using size-selected DOP particles. The DE ranges from 0.1 to 90% for 100 and 350 nm DOP particles respectively and the SPLAM instrument is able to detect and size-resolve particles as small as 110-120 nm. During optical detection, particle scattered light from the two diode lasers, is detected by two photomultipliers and the detected signals are used to trigger UV excimer laser (? = 248 nm) used for one-step laser desorption ionization (LDI) of individual aerosol particles. The formed ions are analyzed by a 1 m linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer in order to access to the chemical composition of individual particles. The TOF-MS detection limit for gaseous aromatic compounds was determined to be 0.85 × 10-15 kg (∼4 × 103 molecules). DOP particles were also used to test the overall operation of the instrument. The analysis of a secondary organic aerosol, formed in a smog chamber by the ozonolysis of indene, is presented as a first application of the instrument. Single particle mass spectra were obtained with an effective hit rate of 8%. Some of these mass spectra were found to be very different from one particle to another possibly reflecting chemical differences within the investigated indene SOA particles. Our study shows that an exhaustive statistical analysis, over hundreds of particles, and adapted reference mass spectra are further needed to understand the chemical meaning of single particle mass spectra of chemically complex submicrometer-sized organic aerosols.

Gaie-Levrel, F.; Perrier, S.; Perraudin, E.; Stoll, C.; Grand, N.; Schwell, M.

2012-01-01

234

Norovirus P particle, a novel platform for vaccine development and antibody production.  

PubMed

The norovirus P particle is an octahedral nanoparticle formed by 24 copies of the protrusion (P) domain of the norovirus capsid protein. This P particle is easily produced in Escherichia coli, extremely stable, and highly immunogenic. There are three surface loops per P domain, making a total of 72 loops per particle, and these are potential sites for foreign antigen presentation for immune enhancement. To prove this concept, a small peptide (His tag, 7 amino acids [aa]) and a large antigen (rotavirus VP8, 159 aa) were inserted into one of the loops. Neither insertion affects P particle formation, while both antigens were presented well on the P particle surface. The immune-enhancement effect of the P particle was demonstrated by significantly increased antibody titers induced by the P particle-presented antigens compared to the titers induced by free antigens. In addition, the measured neutralization antibody titers and levels of protection against rotavirus shedding in mice immunized with the VP8 chimeric P particles were significantly higher than those of mice immunized with the free VP8 antigen. Sera from P particle-VP8 chimera-vaccinated animals also blocked norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) binding to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptors. From these data, the P particle appears to be an excellent vaccine platform for antigen presentation. The readily available three surface loops and the great capacity for foreign antigen insertion make this platform attractive for wide application in vaccine development and antibody production. The P particle-VP8 chimeras may serve as a dual vaccine against both rotavirus and norovirus. PMID:21068235

Tan, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Xia, Ming; Fang, Ping-An; Zhong, Weiming; McNeal, Monica; Wei, Chao; Jiang, Wen; Jiang, Xi

2010-11-10

235

Central Heating Plant site characterization report, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the methodology and results of a characterization of the operation and maintenance (O M) environment at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This characterization is part of a program intended to provide the O M staff with a computerized artificial intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist the plant staff in more efficient operation of their plant. 3 refs., 12 figs.

Not Available

1990-08-01

236

Development of phoH as a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity?  

PubMed Central

Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment.

Goldsmith, Dawn B.; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D.; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

2011-01-01

237

Lipid nutrition of marine fish during early development: current status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the dietary requirements of marine fish larvae has evolved from considerations of optimal dietary levels of n?3 HUFA to considerations of optimal dietary ratios of the two principal HUFAs, 22:6n?3 and 20:5n?3, and more recently to considerations of optimal dietary levels and ratios of all three dietary essential fatty acids, 22:6n?3, 20:5n?3 and 20:4n?6. Our present understanding of

John Sargent; Lesley McEvoy; Alicia Estevez; Gordon Bell; Michael Bell; James Henderson; Douglas Tocher

1999-01-01

238

Effect of selected marine and freshwater microalgae on development and survival of the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and identified strains of marine and freshwater planktonic and benthic microalgae from the vicinity of Indian\\u000a River County, Florida (?27.5°N, 80.34°W), cultivated them in batch culture, and examined their allelopathic activity against\\u000a mosquito larvae. Additional algal material was obtained from Syracuse University and the University of Texas—Austin Algal\\u000a Culture Collection. Mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.)) from colonies maintained

Jorge R. Rey; Paul E. Hargraves; Sheila M. O’Connell

2009-01-01

239

Bottlenose Dolphins as Marine Ecosystem Sentinels: Developing a Health Monitoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), as long-lived, long-term residents of bays, sounds, and estuaries, can serve as important sentinels of the health of coastal marine ecosystems. As top-level predators on a wide variety of fishes and squids, they concentrate contaminants through bioaccumulation and integrate broadly across the ecosystem in terms of exposure to environmental impacts. A series of recent large-scale bottlenose

Randall S. Wells; Howard L. Rhinehart; Larry J. Hansen; Jay C. Sweeney; Forrest I. Townsend; Rae Stone; David R. Casper; Michael D. Scott; Aleta A. Hohn; Teri K. Rowles

2004-01-01

240

Marine biosecurity post?border management: Developing incursion response systems for New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand's approach to marine biosecurity has been to integrate the pre?border, border, and post?border management actions so as to appropriately and effectively utilise resources. Prevention is clearly better than cure, consequently pre?border and border management is paramount. There is, however, recognition that quarantine style controls result in leaky borders. Early detection of new invaders, coupled with appropriate incursion response

Debra M. Wotton; Chad L. Hewitt

2004-01-01

241

Vertical distribution and in situ feeding of marine particle-grazers in relation to their food, the microplankton  

SciTech Connect

A cruise was completed to measure the vertical distributions of plant biomass, growth, size and species composition, nutritional content and the zooplankton biomass and species composition. There were no consistent differences in the size spectra of particles between the regions of highest plant biomass and highest growth rates. Species known to be noxious or distasteful to the zooplankton were not members of either assemblage. The nutritional content of the particulate matter was greatest at the plant biomass maximum. Thus there was no evidence that the region of higher plant growth rates was a better place for zooplankton to feed. The diurnal distribution of zooplankton biomass was not consistently related to the vertical distributions of plant biomass, primary productivity, or productivity/chlorophyll. At night, the vertical distribution of zooplankton biomass was consistently related to the vertical distribution of plant biomass. There were species whose vertical distributions were consistently related to either the vertical distribution of plant biomass or productivity/chlorophyll a but not primary productivity, contrary to the observations of others. The total grazing pressure, measured in situ with a new design of grazing chamber and an isotopic carrier which labels the particulate matter day and night, indicated that the daily production of plant carbon was much greater than its rate of removal by the grazers. Thus, it is not necessary for the grazer biomass maximum to be located above the chlorophyll a maximum in order for that feature to persist.

Napp, J.M.

1986-01-01

242

Development of marine magnetic vector measurement system using AUV and deep-towed vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine magnetic survey is one of useful methods in order to investigate the nature of the oceanic crust. Most of the data are, however, intensity of the geomagnetic field without its direction. Therefore we cannot properly apply a physical formula describing the relation between magnetic field and magnetization to analyses of the data. With this problem, Isezaki (1986) developed a shipboard three-component magnetometer which measures the geomagnetic vector at the sea. On the other hand, geophysical surveys near the seafloor have been more and more necessary in order to show the details of the oceanic crust. For instance, development of seabed resources like hydrothermal deposits needs higher resolution surveys compared with conventional surveys at the sea for accurate estimation of abundance of the resources. From these viewpoints, we have been developing a measurement system of the deep-sea geomagnetic vector using AUV and deep-towed vehicle. The measurement system consists of two 3-axis flux-gate magnetometers, an Overhauser magnetometer, an optical fiber gyro, a main unit (control, communication, recording), and an onboard unit. These devices except for the onboard unit are installed in pressure cases (depth limit: 6000m). Thus this measurement system can measure three components and intensity of the geomagnetic field in the deep-sea. In 2009, the first test of the measurement system was carried out in the Kumano Basin using AUV Urashima and towing vehicle Yokosuka Deep-Tow during the R/V Yokosuka YK09-09 cruise. In this test, we sank a small magnetic target to the seafloor, and examined how the system worked. As a result, we successfully detected magnetic anomaly of the target to confirm the expected performance of that in the sea. In 2010, the measurement system was tested in the Bayonnaise Knoll area both using a titanium towing frame during the R/V Bosei-maru cruise and using AUV Urashima during the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the performance of the system in an actual hydrothermal deposit area for practical applications of that. The Bayonnaise Knoll is a submarine caldera with an outer rim of 2.5-3 km and a floor of 840-920 m, which is located in the Izu-Ogasawara arc. A large hydrothermal deposit, Hakurei deposit lies in the southeast part of the caldera. In the R/V Bosei-maru cruise, we observed three components of magnetic anomalies at depths of 400-570 m along SE-NW and WE tracks across the caldera. In the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise, we observed three components and intensity of magnetic anomalies at altitudes of 60-100 m around the Hakurei deposit and at depth of 500 m above the caldera. From these tests, we have succeeded in measuring the geomagnetic vector and intensity using the AUV and the deep-towed vehicle, and also have obtained detailed magnetic anomaly in the Hakurei deposit area. We will here present the outlines of the measurement system and the tests in the sea. Note that this study has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT).

Sayanagi, K.; Isezaki, N.; Matsuo, J.; Harada, M.; Kasaya, T.; Nishimura, K.; Baba, H.

2012-04-01

243

Role of ceramic particles for developing wear resistant materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work emphasises on the study of two different ceramic particulates embedded in the soft alloy. The material is developed by spray atomization. The two ceramic particulates used for the study are SiC and ZrSiO4. The effect of particulate on hardness has been analyzed. Moreover, wear characteristics of the both developed material has been compared with the monolithic as cast alloy. The results of the ZrSiO4 reinforced composite shows lesser wear rate at 50°C and 150°C at low as well as high loads as compared to SiC reinforced Al-alloy.

Kaur, Kamalpreet; Pandey, O. P.

2013-06-01

244

Development of a non-intrusive particle tracing technique for granular chute flows  

SciTech Connect

The development of a non-intrusive particle tracking system to follow the trajectory of an individual particle in three dimensions within a mass of particles is necessary to experimentally validate developing theories of inclined chute granular flows in conjunction with particle dynamics models. An understanding of the exact nature of such flows is of critical importance to a variety of industries concerned with solids handling, as well as in natural geological events. The tracking system, based on the principle of radiosonde'' transmitters coupled to receiving antennae by magnetic induction, is being developed. The radiosonde consists of one or more, orthogonally placed miniature circuits with integral loop antennas, mounted into a sphere of approximately 3/4 in. in diameter. The radiosonde sphere position can be traced during the flow down a chute by analyzing the induced voltage signals in the three or more external orthogonal receiving loop antennas due to the transmitter chips. 22 refs., 15 figs.

Rosato, A.D.; Dave, R.N.; Fischer, I.S.; Carr, W.N.

1992-01-01

245

The development of particle-coated stents and balloons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis results from an accumulation of fatty plaque in blood vessels which causes a blockage of blood circulation. Balloon angioplasty and bare metal stents are used to restore the diameter of an occluded artery, but the restenosis rate is still high owing to neointimal hyperplasia. A drug-eluting stent (DES) carrying anti-proliferative agent has been developed to overcome restenosis in an

Jutarat Kitsongsermthon

2011-01-01

246

Molecular Marine Biology Research Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This grant provided training in developmental biology of embryos of marine organisms, particularly their defense mechanisms. Students were exposed to the patterns of development of a variety of marine organisms, and then trained in the use of cellular, im...

D. Epel

1997-01-01

247

Development of a novel method for operating magnetic particles, Magtration Technology, and its use for automating nucleic acid purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic particles are useful for simple and efficient nucleic acid extraction. To achieve fully automated nucleic acid extraction and purification using magnetic particles, a new method for operating magnetic particles, Magtration Technology, was developed. In this method, magnetic separation is performed in a specially designed disposable tip. This enables high recovery of magnetic particles with high reproducibility. The features of

Kimimichi Obata; Osamu Segawa; Mitsuru Yakabe; Yoshikazu Ishida; Toshihiro Kuroita; Katsunori Ikeda; Bunsei Kawakami; Yoshihisa Kawamura; Masafumi Yohda; Tadashi Matsunaga; Hideji Tajima

2001-01-01

248

Molecular analysis of magnetotactic bacteria and development of functional bacterial magnetic particles for nano-biotechnology.  

PubMed

Biomineralization is an elaborate process that produces complex nano-structures consisting of organic and inorganic components of uniform size and highly ordered morphology that self-assemble into structures in a hierarchical manner. Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize nano-sized magnetite crystals that are highly consistent in size and morphology within bacterial species; each particle is surrounded by a thin organic membrane, which facilitates their use for various biotechnological applications. Recent molecular studies, including mutagenesis, whole genome, transcriptome and comprehensive proteome analyses, have elucidated the processes important to bacterial magnetite formation. Some of the genes and proteins identified from these studies have enabled us, through genetic engineering, to express proteins efficiently, with their activity preserved, onto bacterial magnetic particles, leading to the simple preparation of functional protein-magnetic particle complexes. This review describes the recent advances in the fundamental analysis of bacterial magnetic particles and the development of surface-protein-modified magnetic particles for biotechnological applications. PMID:17306901

Matsunaga, Tadashi; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Arakaki, Atsushi

2007-02-15

249

Development of improved TRISO-P fuel particle P-PyC coating  

SciTech Connect

Low defect fuels are required for the MHTGR to meet tighter fuel performance for this reactor design (Ref. 1). Exposed heavy metal (HM) contamination levels must be reduced to {le} 1E-5 fraction. Particle coating breakage during the fuel compact fabrication process has been shown to be a major source of HM contamination in the final fuel compacts. Excessive forces are experienced by the coated fuel particles during matrix injection, which leads to coating failure. Adding a sacrificial, low Young`s modulus, overcoating of low density PyC in a fluidized particle bed, was shown to greatly increase the crush strength of TRISO coated fuel particles in 1986 studies (Ref. 2). The new TRISO coated fuel particle design was designated the TRISO-P coated fuel particle type. In 1987, the TRISO-P particle type was used to produce low defect fuel compacts for irradiation in the HRB-21 Capsule (Ref. 3). However, the exposed HM contamination levels for that fuel barely met the product specification limit of {le} 1.0E-5. The small margin of safety between product quality and the specification limit dictated that additional process development of the TRISO-P particle design must be conducted. This document discusses the program scope, requirements, documentation and schedule.

Adams, C.C.

1988-04-29

250

Dounreay hot particles: the story so far.  

PubMed

The first Dounreay hot particle (hereafter 'Particle') to be formally identified was recovered from the Dounreay foreshore in 1983. A further single Particle was recovered from Sandside beach the following year. Particles have been detected and removed from the Dounreay foreshore regularly since 1984 and from the offshore sediments since 1997. Since 1997, an extensive research and development programme has been undertaken to identify the source of Particles, their movement and lifetimes in the marine environment, and their potential effects on human and environmental health. It is now known that Particles were released to the North Atlantic Ocean in the mid to late 1960s and early 1970s. There is no evidence of an on-going source of Particles from the Dounreay site today. The source of Particles recovered from the Dounreay foreshore and from local beaches is the cache currently residing in marine sediments adjacent to Dounreay. Monitoring and sediment modelling studies indicate that the Dounreay Particles are transported approximately parallel to the coast in a north-easterly direction. Studies to define contact frequencies and risks to human health suggest that the health risks associated with Particles are very low There is, however, a significant perception of risk. UKAEA will define a long-term Particle management programme via the development of a best practical environmental option (BPEO) facilitated through consultation with all stakeholders. PMID:17768316

Dennis, Frank; Morgan, Graeme; Henderson, Fiona

2007-08-24

251

Particle Transport, Deposition and Removal-From Research to Curriculum Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding particle transport, deposition and removal are of crucial importance to many technologies such as microelectronic, imaging and pharmaceutical industries. In addition, solving a number of environmental problems requires a detail understanding of particle transport processes. In the last decade, significant research progress in the areas of particle transport, deposition and removal has been made. In this combined research and curriculum development project a sequence of two new courses on particle transport, deposition and removal and re-entrainment was developed and an existing course was fully revised to bring these new important research findings to seniors and first year graduate students in engineering. The course materials were made available on the web and the course was taught at two campuses simultaneously. A series of short courses were also offered to industries and at universities and research centers in the US and abroad.

2011-03-30

252

Is Dark Matter made out of particles. Current searches and detector developments  

SciTech Connect

The hypothesis that Dark Matter is made out of exotic particles is definite enough to be testable in a variety of ways. We review the first generation experiments looking for dark matter particles, using conventional techniques. They may find those particles and in any case will provide powerful constraints. We argue that in the long run, cryogenic detectors will have to be used for that type of physics, and since the European effort is covered by other speakers, we review the present developments in this area in the USA. 18 refs., 1 fig.

Sadoulet, B.

1987-05-01

253

Development, validation, and utilization of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against Brucella species in marine mammals.  

PubMed

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed by using a whole-cell antigen from a marine Brucella sp. isolated from a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The assay was designed to screen sera from multiple marine mammal species for the presence of antibodies against marine-origin Brucella. Based on comparisons with culture-confirmed cases, specificity and sensitivity for cetacean samples tested were 73% and 100%, respectively. For pinniped samples, specificity and sensitivity values were 77% and 67%, respectively. Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi; n ?=? 28) and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus; n ?=? 48) serum samples were tested, and the results were compared with several other assays designed to detect Brucella abortus antibodies. The comparison testing revealed the marine-origin cELISA to be more sensitive than the B. abortus tests by the detection of additional positive serum samples. The newly developed cELISA is an effective serologic method for detection of the presence of antibodies against marine-origin Brucella sp. in marine mammals. PMID:21088168

Meegan, Jenny; Field, Cara; Sidor, Inga; Romano, Tracy; Casinghino, Sandra; Smith, Cynthia R; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory; Wells, Randall; Dunn, J Lawrence

2010-11-01

254

Temporal changes of diatoms in marine biofilm developed on acrylic panels submerged in a tropical coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The colonization of diatom groups on the acrylic panels submerged in Kudankulam coastal waters, east coast of India, was studied for one year from October 2004 to August 2005. Results showed temporal variability in the abundance of dominant diatom groups. Diatoms belonging to 19 genera colonized the panels. Navicula and Nitzschia were the dominant diatoms observed throughout the present study. The abundance of diatoms on test panels increased with the length of exposure. Significant variations in the abundance of Navicula and Nitzschia were observed between the sampling months. Temporal changes in biofilm diatom community composition in this study attain significance from the view point of macrofouling community recruitment on marine structures.

Satheesh, Sathianeson; Wesley, Samuel Godwin

2012-12-01

255

Development of ultrahigh vacuum technology for particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of ultrahigh vacuum technology for high-energy particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices provided essential contributions to the progress in these two scientific endeavors over the last four decades. Storage rings were first proposed as an efficient means of producing intense high-energy particle beams by G. K. O'Neill in 1956. The milestone demonstrations of the importance of this invention

H. F. Dylla

1994-01-01

256

Lineage divergence of a freshwater snail clade associated with post-Tethys marine basin development.  

PubMed

The complex evolutionary history of the Eurasian gastropod lineage Theodoxus reflects the evolution of marine basins following the breakup of the Tethys Sea. Today, this clade inhabits the lakes, rivers, streams, and estuaries of Europe, southwestern Asia, and North Africa. Here we present the first phylogenetic hypothesis for this clade. Based upon extensive geographic and taxonomic sampling, portions of the mitochondrial genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA were sequenced and analysed using maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods. Results from bootstrap analyses, Bayesian analysis, and sensitivity analyses lend support to six deep phylogenetic subdivisions within Theodoxus. These major clades are geographically associated with the major post-Tethyan marine basins. Estimates of divergence times using a penalized likelihood approach indicate that divergence of these major lineages occurred during the Miocene, simultaneous with the breakup of the Mediterranean and Paratethys Seas. The resulting major subclades later diversified during the Pliocene, primarily within geographic regions associated with the eastern and western Mediterranean Sea, the Pannonian Basin, and the Black Sea, thus producing the extant species assemblages. Finally, these phylogenetic results imply that much of the current taxonomy is flawed, therefore we offer recommendations for revising the classification of Theodoxus species based on phylogenetic systematics. PMID:16949309

Bunje, Paul M E; Lindberg, David R

2006-07-18

257

Measurement of the time development of particle showers in a uranium scintillator calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the time evolution of particle showers, as measured in modules of the uranium-scintillator barrel calorimeter of the ZEUS detector. The time development of hadronic showers differs significantly from that of electromagnetic showers, with about 40% of the response to hadronic showers arising from energy depositions which occur late in the shower development. The degree of compensation and

A. Caldwell; L. Hervás; J. A. Parsons; F. Sciulli; W. Sippach; L. Wai

1993-01-01

258

Development and application of a laser velocimeter to measure very high speed particle velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser velocimeter was developed for the measurement of the velocity of particles in the size range from 10 to 100 micrometers diameter and velocities up to 5000 meters per second. The instrument was successfully employed in accelerator tests which were conducted during the development of a reentry nose tip erosion and ablation facility.

J. D. Trolinger

1979-01-01

259

Development of Gas-Particle Euler-Euler LES Approach: A Priori Analysis of Particle Sub-Grid Models in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new large eddy simulation (LES) approach for particle-laden turbulent flows in the framework of the Eulerian formalism for\\u000a inertial particle statistical modelling is developed. Local instantaneous Eulerian equations for the particle cloud are first\\u000a written using the mesoscopic Eulerian formalism (MEF) proposed by Février et al. (J Fluid Mech 533:1–46, 2005), which accounts for the contribution of an uncorrelated

Mathieu Moreau; Olivier Simonin; Benoît Bédat

2010-01-01

260

Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

Kolb, James A.

261

Development of an improved method to perform single particle analysis by TIMS for nuclear safeguards.  

PubMed

A method is described that allows measuring the isotopic composition of small uranium oxide particles (less than 1?m in diameter) for nuclear safeguards purposes. In support to the development of reliable tools for the identification of uranium and plutonium signatures in trace amounts of nuclear materials, improvements in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) in combination with filament carburization and multiple ion counting (MIC) detection were investigated. The method that has been set up enables the analysis of single particles by a combination of analytical tools, thus yielding morphological, elemental and isotopic information. Hereby individual particles of certified reference materials (CRMs) containing uranium at femtogram levels were analysed. The results showed that the combination of techniques proposed in this work is suitable for the accurate determination of uranium isotope ratios in single particles with improved capabilities for the minor abundant isotopes. PMID:21296200

Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Kühn, H; Aregbe, Y

2010-12-11

262

Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2003-08-01

263

Microstructural Development and Deposition Behavior of Titanium Powder Particles in Warm Spraying Process: From Single Splat to Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warm spraying has been developed by NIMS, in which powder particles are accelerated and simultaneously heated, and deposited onto a suitable substrate in thermally softened solid state. In this study, commercially available titanium powder was sprayed onto steel substrate by the spraying process. Microstructural developments and deposition behaviors from a deposited single particle to a thick coating layer were observed by high resolution electron microscopes. A single titanium particle sprayed onto the substrate was severely deformed and grain-refined mainly along the interfacial boundary of particle/substrate by the impact of the sprayed particle. A successive impact by another particle further deformed the previously deposited particle and induced additional grain refinement of the remaining part. In a thick coating layer, the severe deformation and grain refinement were also observed. The results have demonstrated the complex deposition behavior of sprayed particles in the warm spraying using thermally softened metallic powder particles.

Kim, Keehyun; Kuroda, Seiji; Watanabe, Makoto

2010-12-01

264

The development of diving in marine endotherms: preparing the skeletal muscles of dolphins, penguins, and seals for activity during submergence.  

PubMed

Myoglobin is an important oxygen store for supporting aerobic diving in endotherms, yet little is known about its role during postnatal development. Therefore, we compared the postnatal development of myoglobin in marine endotherms that develop at sea (cetaceans) to those that develop on land (penguins and pinnipeds). We measured myoglobin concentrations in the major locomotor muscles of mature and immature bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and compared the data to previously reported values for northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Neonatal dolphins, penguins, and seals lack the myoglobin concentrations required for prolonged dive durations, having 10%, 9%, and 31% of adult values, respectively. Myoglobin contents increased significantly during subsequent development. The increases in myoglobin content with age may correspond to increases in activity levels, thermal demands, and time spent in apnea during swimming and diving. Across these phylogenetically diverse taxa (cetaceans, penguins, and pinnipeds), the final stage of postnatal development of myoglobin occurs during the initiation of independent foraging, regardless of whether development takes place at sea or on land. PMID:11302529

Noren, S R; Williams, T M; Pabst, D A; McLellan, W A; Dearolf, J L

2001-03-01

265

SP-100 coated-particle fuel development. Phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report of Phase I of the SP-100 Coated-Particle Fuel Development Program conducted by GA Technologies Inc. for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AT03-82SF11690. The general objective of the study conducted between September and December 1982 was to evaluate coated-particle type fuel as an alternate or backup fuel to the UO/sub 2/ tile-and-fin arrangement currently incorporated into the reference design of the SP-100 reactor core. This report presents and discusses the following topics in the order listed: the need for an alternative fuel for the SP-100 nuclear reactor; an abbreviated description of the reference and coated-particle fuel module concepts; the bases and results of the study and analysis leading to the preliminary design of a coated particle suitable for the SP-100 space power reactor; incorporation of the fuel particles into compacts and heat-pipe-cooled modules; initial efforts and plans to fabricate coated-particle fuel and fuel compacts; the design and performance of the proposed alternative core relative that of the reference fuel; and a summary of critical issues and conclusions consistent with the level of effort and duration of the study.

Not Available

1983-03-01

266

Marine Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biotechnology based upon genes from the marine environment (sometimes referred to as “blue-biotechnology”) has a considerable,\\u000a if hitherto relatively unused, potential because of the enormous phylogenetic diversity of marine organisms and the potential\\u000a for novel undiscovered biological mechanisms, including biochemical pathways. The increasing knowledge of marine genomics\\u000a has started to have a major impact on the field of marine biotechnology.

Joel Querellou; Jean-Paul Cadoret; Michael J. Allen; Jonas Collén

267

Developing an in vitro technology to study the inflammation potential of ambient particle types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated levels of suspended particles in the troposphere, termed particulate matter, elicit a myriad of adverse health effects in humans, ranging from shortness of breath and wheezing to myocardial infarction and death. It is currently believed that the adverse health effects associated with particulate matter are mediated by the inflammatory response initiated by the lung following particulate matter inhalation. What remains an area of much interest is elucidating the specific properties of particulate matter, physical or chemical, that cause the upregulation of proinflammatory mediators. The basic premise of this thesis was to identify the specific chemical components of particulate matter responsible for its adverse health effects. To address this issue, instrumentation and methodology were developed wherein one could design, create, levitate and deposit particles of both known chemical composition and size onto lung cells, in vitro, followed by the monitoring of the downstream biological response. An initial study focused on the role of the endotoxin component in particulate matter toxicity. Through a series of blocking studies we found that endotoxin acted synergistically with the particle core to elicit upregulation of proinflammatory mediators, including IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and ICAM-1; all of which are associated with the NF-kappaB pathway. Through characterizing this relatively simple system, one observation became apparent: the presence of the insoluble particle core had a profound effect on the cellular response; that is to say, the particle core was not simply a delivery vector, but a determinant factor in the final intracellular location of the toxic chemical. The latter observation held true as other particle types were studied and in addition, it was found that the nature of the actual chemical species itself plays a dual role in particle toxicity; first by retaining its toxic properties and second by altering the physical properties of the particle. It stems from these findings that the toxicity of the chemical components must be studied in concert and not as individual entities.

Haddrell, Allen E.

268

Development of a focused charged particle microbeam for the irradiation of individual cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An irradiation facility, able to expose cellular and subcellular targets to a precise number of particles, has been developed at CENBG for applications in radiobiology. The development of this facility was based on an existing horizontal focused microbeam developed in the early 90's for material analysis. The focusing properties of the line allow the delivering of proton or alpha particle beams in the 1-3.5 MeV energy range with a spatial resolution down to about 1 ?m under vacuum. For irradiation of living cells, a removable stage has been developed to extract the beam into air while preserving the analytical capabilities of the microbeam line under vacuum. This stage includes a high resolution epifluorescence microscope for online visualization of the cells and a motorized stage for cell positioning. Single particle control is ensured by a fast electrostatic deflector triggered by the signal induced by the particles through a transmission detector just before reaching the target. A dedicated software, based on an object-oriented architecture, has been designed to control the entire experiment. This includes semiautomatic calibration procedures (necessary to achieve the micron precision) and semiautomatic irradiation procedures used for targeting a large number of individual cells. In air irradiation of solid track detectors has permitted us to estimate that 99.5% of the particles are delivered on the target at a distance lower than 5 ?m from the beam center when an alpha particles beam is used. The targeting precision of the overall irradiation procedure, which reflects the alignment precision of the beam center with the target center, has been estimated to be within +/-2 ?m. First experiments involving cells in culture have permitted to estimate an irradiation rate of 2000 cells per hour. This article presents the overall experimental facility and the tests performed for its validation for the irradiation of individual cells in their culture medium.

Barberet, Ph.; Balana, A.; Incerti, S.; Michelet-Habchi, C.; Moretto, Ph.; Pouthier, Th.

2005-01-01

269

Marine pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

1989-01-01

270

Advances and future needs in particle production and transport code developments  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of accelerators and ever expanding needs of existing accelerators demand new developments and additions to Monte-Carlo codes, with an emphasis on enhanced modeling of elementary particle and heavy-ion interactions and transport. Challenges arise from extremely high beam energies and beam power, increasing complexity of accelerators and experimental setups, as well as design, engineering and performance constraints. All these put unprecedented requirements on the accuracy of particle production predictions, the capability and reliability of the codes used in planning new accelerator facilities and experiments, the design of machine, target and collimation systems, detectors and radiation shielding and minimization of their impact on environment. Recent advances in widely-used general-purpose all-particle codes are described for the most critical modules such as particle production event generators, elementary particle and heavy ion transport in an energy range which spans up to 17 decades, nuclide inventory and macroscopic impact on materials, and dealing with complex geometry of accelerator and detector structures. Future requirements for developing physics models and Monte-Carlo codes are discussed.

Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

2009-12-01

271

Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects in Particle Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Sydney has offered an undergraduate course in particle technology using a contemporary problem based learning (PBL) methodology since 2005. Student learning is developed through the solution of complex, open-ended problems drawn from modern chemical engineering practice. Two examples are presented; i) zero emission electricity…

Harris, Andrew T.

2009-01-01

272

Development and sensitivity analysis of a Lagrangian particle model for long range dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new long range dispersion model of Lagrangian particle type (MILORD) has been recently developed at the “Istituto di Cosmogeofisica”. Its capabilities have been tested by comparing its predictions with the Cs-137 air concentrations recorded over Europe by many laboratories during the Chernobyl accident. MILORD sensitivity to variations in its parametrizations has been studied and, in order to ascertain the

Domenico Anfossi; Davide Sacchetti; Silvia Trini Castelli

1995-01-01

273

Assemblies of particles in the cell membranes of developing, mature and reactive astrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Orthogonal arrays of small intramembranous particles characterize freeze-fractured astrocytic plasma membranes. The normal variation of assemblies in plasma membranes of subpial astrocytic processes in mature and developing rats was established and compared with assemblies in plasma membranes of reactive astrocytes. In mature rats, subpial astrocytic processes had the greatest number of assemblies. As the parenchyma was approached, this number

J. J. Anders; M. W. Brightman

1979-01-01

274

Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects in Particle Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The University of Sydney has offered an undergraduate course in particle technology using a contemporary problem based learning (PBL) methodology since 2005. Student learning is developed through the solution of complex, open-ended problems drawn from modern chemical engineering practice. Two examples are presented; i) zero emission electricity…

Harris, Andrew T.

2009-01-01

275

Development of an efficient transformation system for Catharanthus roseus cell cultures using particle bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an efficient direct DNA transfer procedure for the facile engineering of Catharanthus roseus cell cultures. Particle bombardment of callus derived from leaf material permitted rapid selection and establishment of transgenic cell lines. Transgenic callus were recovered at a frequency of between 60–80% of total callus bombarded with a single plasmid. Bombardment using two separate plasmids resulted in

Frédérique Hilliou; Paul Christou; Mark J. Leech

1999-01-01

276

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CONTINUOUS COARSE (PM10-PM2.5) PARTICLE MONITOR  

EPA Science Inventory

In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 um) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating princ...

277

Cellular localization of debromohymenialdisine and hymenialdisine in the marine sponge Axinella sp. using a newly developed cell purification protocol.  

PubMed

Sponges (Porifera), as the best known source of bioactive marine natural products in metazoans, play a significant role in marine drug discovery and development. As sessile filter-feeding animals, a considerable portion of the sponge biomass can be made of endosymbiotic and associated microorganisms. Understanding the cellular origin of targeted bioactive compounds from sponges is therefore important not only for providing chemotaxonomic information but also for defining the bioactive production strategy in terms of sponge aquaculture, cell culture, or fermentation of associated bacteria. The two alkaloids debromohymenialdisine (DBH) and hymenialdisine (HD), which are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors with pharmacological activities for treating osteoarthritis and Alzheimer's disease, have been isolated from the sponge Axinella sp. In this study, the cellular localization of these two alkaloids was determined through the quantification of these alkaloids in different cell fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). First, using a differential centrifugation method, the dissociated cells were separated into different groups according to their sizes. The two bioactive alkaloids were mainly found in sponge cells obtained from low-speed centrifugation. Further cell purifications were accomplished by a newly developed multi-step protocol. Four enriched cell fractions (C1, C2, C3, and C4) were obtained and subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy, cytochemical staining, and HPLC quantification. Compared to the low concentrations in other cell fractions, DBH and HD accounted for 10.9% and 6.1%, respectively, of dry weight in the C1 fraction. Using the morphological characteristics and cytochemical staining results, cells in the C1 fraction were speculated to be spherulous cells. This result shows that DBH and HD in Axinella sp. are located in sponge cells and mostly stored in spherulous cells. PMID:21246234

Song, Yue-Fan; Qu, Yi; Cao, Xu-Peng; Zhang, Wei

2011-01-19

278

Marine Animal Sound Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Software was developed to measure characteristics of marine animal sounds (AcouStat). These measurements proved effective for classifying sounds in several contexts: identifying species, quantifying the repertoire of a single species, and identifying indi...

K. M. Fristrup W. A. Watkins

1993-01-01

279

Marine Propulsion Load Emulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improved propulsion plant control schemes for gas turbine ships can provide both economic and tactical benefits to the fleet. One way to develop improved propulsion controllers is to use a marine propulsion emulator as an implementation test bed for propo...

P. N. Johnson

1985-01-01

280

Development of spherical iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate-containing solid particles with sustained drug release.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop a simple, economic procedure for the manufacturing of coated iron(II) sulfate particles by using a crystallization technique for the development of round particles, followed by coating with a lipophilic material. Several batches of iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate were produced by a cooling crystallization, with variation of the crystallization parameters. The spherical crystals were coated with stearin. The products were characterized for particle size, roundness, bulk density and in vitro drug dissolution. Crystallization was performed from deionized water with no addition of seed crystals and by cooling by applying a linear cooling rate. The developed iron(II) sulfate crystals were round with average diameter of 729+/-165 microm. The best form for the sustained release of iron(II) sulfate was the sample HTP-2 which contained 11% of stearin relative to the iron(II) sulfate. The spherical crystallization of iron(II) sulfate is simple and fast, and does not require a dangerous, expensive solvent. The round particles can coat directly with lipophilic material which results in slow release of iron(II) sulfate and protects the iron(II) from oxidation and inhibits the loss of crystal water. The coated crystals can be filled into capsules to yield the final dosage form. PMID:17125982

Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Farkas, Béla; Gregor, Tamás; Nagy, Kálmán; Pallagi, Edina

2006-10-21

281

Development of antibiotic selection kit towards veterinary applications using glycine passivated magnetic particles.  

PubMed

Glycine functionalized (Gly/Fe3O4) and non-functionalized (Fe3O4) magnetic particles were synthesized in an autoclave and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and zeta potential. The size of the both these particles were in the range of 220-230nm but the shape of the Gly/Fe3O4 particles was hexagonal in contrast to the spherical shape of Fe3O4 particles. The particle characterization tests confirmed that glycine was functionalized on the Gly/Fe3O4 particles, they were positively charged and possessed strong magnetic property. These particles possessed the ability to bind to bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus in the range of 72-90%. They were used to entrap bacteria from clinical mastitic milk samples from cows. The entrapped bacteria of the above species from these samples were isolated and used individually in the conventional disc-diffusion method of antibiotic susceptibility determination. The results were compared with that of the bacterial species isolated directly from the mastitic milk samples and were found to be 100% concordant (n=25). The developed portable antibiotic selection kit was tested with twenty five samples of mastitic milk. The results indicated that, antibiotic resistant bacteria turned the methylene blue in to white color while the bacteria that were killed (sensitive) retained the blue color of the dye. Thus the right choice of the antibiotic to treat cows with mastitis could be determined based on the naked eye. In conclusion, the kit gave quicker results, was easy to assay and read and can be 'farm-gate' applicable than the presently available conventional method. PMID:23932979

Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Vadivoo, V Senthil; Kumanan, Kathaperumal; Prabakaran, Rajamanickam

2013-07-24

282

Development of Bioadhesive Chitosan Superporous Hydrogel Composite Particles Based Intestinal Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 32 full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery.

Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan

2013-01-01

283

Development of bioadhesive chitosan superporous hydrogel composite particles based intestinal drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery. PMID:23984380

Chavda, Hitesh; Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan

2013-08-04

284

Particle motion is broadly represented in the vestibular medulla of the bullfrog across larval development  

PubMed Central

In their shallow-water habitats, bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles are exposed to both underwater and airborne sources of acoustic stimulation. We probed the representation of underwater particle motion throughout the tadpole’s dorsal medulla to determine its spatial extent over larval life. Using neurobiotin-filled micropipettes, we recorded neural activity to z-axis particle motion (frequencies of 40–200 Hz) in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN), and along the dorsal arcuate pathway. Sensitivity was comparable in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei, with estimated thresholds between 0.016 and 12.5 ?m displacement. Neither best responding frequency nor estimated threshold varied significantly over larval stage. Transport of neurobiotin from active recording sites was also stable over development. The DMN responded poorly to z-axis particle motion, but did respond to low-frequency pressure stimulation. These data suggest that particle motion is represented widely and stably in the tadpole’s vestibular medulla. This is in marked contrast to the representation of pressure stimulation in the auditory midbrain, where a transient “deaf period” of non-responsiveness and decreased connectivity occurs immediately prior to metamorphic climax. We suggest that, in bullfrogs, sensitivity to particle motion and to pressure follows different developmental trajectories.

Flores, Victoria

2012-01-01

285

Antitumor Peptides from Marine Organisms  

PubMed Central

The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides.

Zheng, Lan-Hong; Wang, Yue-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Yuan; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Sun, Mi

2011-01-01

286

The Research and Development of a Cavitating Water Jet Cleaning System for Removing Marine Growth and Fouling from Offshore Platform Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to develop the technology to demonstrate the use of controlled cavitation erosion to remove marine growth from off-shore structures. The major advantage of a cavitation system would be the smaller energy input requirement...

A. P. Thiruvengadam J. T. Parker W. H. Bohli

1979-01-01

287

Optimal Egg Size in Marine Invertebrates: Theory and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Critical Relationship between Egg Size and Development Time in Echinoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history models for marine invertebrate larvae gen- erally predict a dichotomy in egg size in different species: eggs should be either minimal in size or large enough to support development fully without larval feeding. This prediction is contradicted, however, by the empirical observation of wide, continuous variation in egg size between these extremes. The prediction of dichotomy rests on the

2000-01-01

288

Development of microbial fuel cell prototypes for examination of the temporal and spatial response of anodic bacterial communities in marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bacteria can convert chemical energy to electrical energy: they oxidize diverse organic substrates, transfer electrons to anodic electrodes and thus generate electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In the marine environment, microbial fuel cells termed either sediment or benthic microbial fuel cells, have been developed to generate power via anodic bacteria in the ocean sediment. Power is dependent upon

Y. Meriah Arias-Thode; Ken Richter; Adriane Wotawa-Bergen; D. Bart Chadwick; Jinjun Kan; Kenneth Nealson

2011-01-01

289

Moored optical particle flux instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype instrument has been developed to measure the settling velocity of marine particulates using optical techniques in an in-situ settling chamber. Particles from 100 micrometers to several mm are imaged by a shadowgraph system, which has a 30 cm depth of field. Particles in the 10 to 100 micrometers range are monitored by a laser diffraction system. Flow management considerations have been incorporated into the instrument to ensure minimal disruption of the aggregates and their settling rates. We present the results of laboratory tests in which the settling rates of polystyrene spheres and natural marine particulates have been measured using the component systems. Design considerations for the self-contained moored version are also specified.

Chang, Enson; Patton, Randall J.; Gran, Robert L.

1994-10-01

290

Development of a genetic system for Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 involved in marine aggregate formation by interacting with diatom cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatom aggregation is substantial for organic carbon flux from the photic zone to deeper waters. Many heterotrophic bacteria ubiquitously found in diverse marine environments interact with marine algae and thus impact organic matter and energy cycling in the ocean. In particular, Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 induces aggregate formation while interacting with the diatom, Thalassiosira weissflogii. To study this effect at the

Eva C. Sonnenschein; Astrid Gärdes; Shalin Seebah; Ingrid Torres-Monroy; Hans-Peter Grossart; Matthias S. Ullrich

2011-01-01

291

A Summary of the Development of Procedures for Laboratory Marine-Fouling Studies, Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of procedures for the rearing of barnacles in the laboratory and for the study of the settlement of these barnacles upon test surfaces under completely controlled conditions is discussed. Categories include: development of procedures for m...

1964-01-01

292

Development of a multistrain bacterial bioreporter platform for the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine environments.  

PubMed

Petroleum hydrocarbons are common contaminants in marine and freshwater aquatic habitats, often occurring as a result of oil spillage. Rapid and reliable on-site tools for measuring the bioavailable hydrocarbon fractions, i.e., those that are most likely to cause toxic effects or are available for biodegradation, would assist in assessing potential ecological damage and following the progress of cleanup operations. Here we examined the suitability of a set of different rapid bioassays (2-3 h) using bacteria expressing the LuxAB luciferase to measure the presence of short-chain linear alkanes, monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds, biphenyls, and DNA-damaging agents in seawater after a laboratory-scale oil spill. Five independent spills of 20 mL of NSO-1 crude oil with 2 L of seawater (North Sea or Mediterranean Sea) were carried out in 5 L glass flasks for periods of up to 10 days. Bioassays readily detected ephemeral concentrations of short-chain alkanes and BTEX (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) in the seawater within minutes to hours after the spill, increasing to a maximum of up to 80 muM within 6-24 h, after which they decreased to low or undetectable levels. The strong decrease in short-chain alkanes and BTEX may have been due to their volatilization or biodegradation, which was supported by changes in the microbial community composition. Two- and three-ring PAHs appeared in the seawater phase after 24 h with a concentration up to 1 muM naphthalene equivalents and remained above 0.5 muM for the duration of the experiment. DNA-damage-sensitive bioreporters did not produce any signal with the oil-spilled aqueous-phase samples, whereas bioassays for (hydroxy)biphenyls showed occasional responses. Chemical analysis for alkanes and PAHs in contaminated seawater samples supported the bioassay data, but did not show the typical ephemeral peaks observed with the bioassays. We conclude that bacterium-based bioassays can be a suitable alternative for rapid on-site quantitative measurement of hydrocarbons in seawater. PMID:20000678

Tecon, Robin; Beggah, Siham; Czechowska, Kamila; Sentchilo, Vladimir; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; McGenity, Terry J; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

2010-02-01

293

Processes controlling the distribution of aerosol particles in the lower marine boundary layer during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program's First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) are to determine and understand the properties and controlling factors of the aerosol in the remote marine atmosphere that are relevant to radiative forcing and climate. A key question in terms of this goal and the overall biogeochemical sulfur cycle is what factors control

Timothy S. Bates; Vladimir N. Kapustin; Patricia K. Quinn; Derek J. Coffman; Celine Mari; Philip A. Durkee; Warren J. De Bruyn; Eric S. Saltzman

1998-01-01

294

Integrating Conservation and Development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: Perception and Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS’s management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of Alonissos claimed benefits were scant. Tourists (domestic and foreign) believe that the NMPANS is not the main attraction to Alonissos Island but is part of a composite, including serenity, aesthetic beauty, and small-scale tourism development, which can turn Alonissos Island into an ideal eco-tourism destination; a common aspiration for both the tourists and the local community by general consensus. The aim of the NMPANS to integrate conservation and development lies in (1) the effectiveness of the NMPANS management body in formulating a strategic management plan that would accommodate stakeholders’ interests and aspirations and (2) a national policy of conservation and enhancement of natural resources with consistency and continuity. Quantitative assessment of the socioeconomic effectiveness of the Mediterranean MPAs using a common methodology would facilitate the identification of intraregional variation and better planning for the network of MPAs in the Mediterranean.

Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

2008-11-01

295

Integrating conservation and development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: perception and practice.  

PubMed

Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS's management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of Alonissos claimed benefits were scant. Tourists (domestic and foreign) believe that the NMPANS is not the main attraction to Alonissos Island but is part of a composite, including serenity, aesthetic beauty, and small-scale tourism development, which can turn Alonissos Island into an ideal eco-tourism destination; a common aspiration for both the tourists and the local community by general consensus. The aim of the NMPANS to integrate conservation and development lies in (1) the effectiveness of the NMPANS management body in formulating a strategic management plan that would accommodate stakeholders' interests and aspirations and (2) a national policy of conservation and enhancement of natural resources with consistency and continuity. Quantitative assessment of the socioeconomic effectiveness of the Mediterranean MPAs using a common methodology would facilitate the identification of intraregional variation and better planning for the network of MPAs in the Mediterranean. PMID:18626688

Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

2008-07-15

296

Progressive Development of New Marine Environments – Imta (Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture) Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The impact of the accelerating global warming on natural and human environments of arid and semi-arid zones is forecasted\\u000a to be catastrophic. It is therefore doubtful whether adherence to the principles of Sustainable Development can avert the\\u000a forthcoming catastrophes, especially in developing societies. The unavoidable conclusion is that a different policy of development\\u000a has to be drawn up, which will

Arie S. Issar; Amir Neori

297

Mechanical methods for dry particle coating processes and their applications in drug delivery and development.  

PubMed

Modification of the surface properties of particles, which is usually achieved by coating, is desirable to maintain and enhance the utility of these particles. Saving of time, energy, number of additives, process steps and consequently, the cost of the coating process leads to development of dry coating processes using mechanical methods which exclude any liquid solvent or binder solution and are environmentally safe, and cost-effective. Mechanofusion, hybridization, magnetic assisted impaction coating, theta-composer, rotating fluidized bed coating, pressure swing granulation and high shear mixing have been extensively patented and reported in the scientific literature. These mechanical methods have found multidisciplinary applications in drug development and drug delivery. Various devices available for the dry coating process, their principle, method of working, benefits and limitations along with various applications relevant to the pharmaceutical field are discussed in the current article. PMID:19939220

Gera, Manoj; Saharan, Vikas A; Kataria, Mahesh; Kukkar, Vipin

2010-01-01

298

Development and testing of quartz crystal microbalances for missions to measure particle fluxes from minor solar system bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrument is being developed to measure the mass flux and size distribution of particles striking a spacecraft operating in the vicinity of airless minor solar system bodies including asteroids, small moons, and comets. We are developing and testing quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) with robust particle capture coatings coupled with advanced oscillator electronics. The instrument is an extension the QCMs

J. Stephens; B. Gustafson; K. Waldemarsson

2003-01-01

299

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will perform experiments to examine if debris will float, or blow in the wind. They will discover which characteristics of trash affect the likelihood that it will become marine debris. Trash that floats or is easily blown around is more likely to become marine debris. As a result of this activity students will be able to define marine debris and categorize different types of debris.

Museum, Bishop

300

Marine Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 34 species of marine mammals have been documented in Costa Rican waters, representing approximately 26% of all marine\\u000a mammals worldwide. The Costa Rican marine mammal fauna consist of 30 cetacean species, one manatee, and three pinnipeds, one\\u000a of which went extinct since the 1950s. At least 31 of these species most likely also occur in other Central American countries.

Laura May-Collado

301

Plastic particles in coastal pelagic ecosystems of the Northeast Pacific ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution, abundance and characteristics of plastic particles in plankton samples collected routinely in Northeast Pacific ecosystems, and to contribute to the development of ideas for future research into the occurrence and impact of small plastic debris in marine pelagic ecosystems. Plastic debris particles were assessed from zooplankton samples collected as part

Miriam J. Doyle; William Watson; Noelle M. Bowlin; Seba B. Sheavly

2011-01-01

302

Development, test and large production of soft switching high current power converters for particle accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large hadron collider (LHC) is the next particle accelerator being constructed on the CERN site. The 27 km long accelerator requires many high current (multi-kA) power converters to supply the superconducting magnets. This paper describes the development of a modular high current power converter, capable of supplying up to [8 kA, 8 V] using several current sources of [2

F. Bordry; V. Montabonnet; D. Nisbet; P. Korhonen; R. Turunen; H. Volotinen

2005-01-01

303

Development of a Hypertrophic Ovarian Artery After Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles  

SciTech Connect

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the treatment of symptomatic leiomyomata has shown excellent short-term clinical efficacy and minimal complications, yet recurrences after successful treatments at mid- and long-term follow-up have been reported. Exact etiologies for such recurrences have not been fully understood. We present a case of symptom recurrence with the development of a hypertrophic ovarian artery after successful UAE with polyvinyl alcohol particles, successfully treated with ovarian and repeat UAEs.

Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: sikhkim@jhmi.edu; Paxton, Ben E. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)

2007-09-15

304

Performance Evaluation of a Recently Developed Water-Based Condensation Particle Counter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an intercomparison of the performance of a newly developed water-based condensation particle counter (W-CPC) and a more widely used butanol-based CPC (TSI 3022A). Four test aerosols (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, adipic acid, and glutaric acid) were generated and tested in the laboratory before the instruments were deployed at four field locations (USC\\/downtown LA, I-710 Freeway, Pacific coast,

Subhasis Biswas; Philip M. Fine; Michael D. Geller; Susanne V. Hering; Constantinos Sioutas

2005-01-01

305

Development of production system of cryogenic micro-slush particles using a two-fluid nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A production system for cryogenic fine micro-slush nitrogen particles is developed using a two-fluid atomization nozzle to apply micro-slush as a refrigerant for long-distance high temperature superconducting cables (HTS); a process that is expected to result in an extensive improvement in effective cooling performance for super-conducting systems. The principle of the micro-slush production nozzle and the performance of the nozzle

Jun Ishimoto

2008-01-01

306

Marine and maritime sector skills shortages in the South West of England: developing regional training provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering theory assumes that companies gravitate towards each other on the basis of locally and regionally specific resources and supply chain characteristics, which lead in turn to innovation and high?value economic development. In line with such thinking, UK government policy has devolved certain functions to regional development agencies such as the encouragement of linkages and systems to facilitate knowledge transfer

Julian Beer; Kevin Meethan

2007-01-01

307

Effects of oil dispersants on the developing embryos of marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of oil dispersants BP10021, Finasol ESK and Corexit 7664 on the development of herring, Clupea harengus L., plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L. and sole, Solea solea (L.) have been studied. Treatment of developing embryos for 100 h with BP1002 and Finasol ESK gave rise to abnormalities in cell division and differentiation, to reductions in heart-rate, eye pigmentation, growth rate

K. W. Wilson

1976-01-01

308

Primary and secondary porosity development in valley fill, marine sandstone reservoirs - Misener Formation, north-central Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian Misener formation in north-central Oklahoma consists of a series of discontinuous sand and shale bodies deposited in erosional topographic lows on the post-Hunton unconformity surface. Paleontological, mineralogical, and sedimentological evidence supports a marine depositional setting. Rapid changes in sandstone thickness and reservoir properties are characteristic of Misener sands. These sands were episodically deposited, fine upward, and commonly interfinger with an equivalent shale facies. The basal contact of the Misener sandstone bodies is erosional with the inclusion of shale, phosphate, and sandstone clasts in a medium-grained, dolomitic quartzarenite sandstone. Reservoir porosity is best developed in the poorer sorted, medium-grained, dolomitic quartzarenites of the channel facies. A mixed mineralogy sandstone is critical to the preservation of primary porosity and the development of secondary porosity. Well-sorted, fine-grained quartzarenite sandstones (nonchannel) have been extensively quartz cemented. Early dolomitization in the mixed mineralogy sandstones prevented quartz cementation and preserved primary porosity. Sandstones containing preserved primary porosity served as pathways for the movement of subsurface fluids. These fluids generated secondary porosity by the selective dissolution of glauconite, phosphate, and lithic grains. Significant post-hydrocarbon diagenesis in the form of bitumen precipitation, dedolomitization, and calcite cementation has occurred in the water zone of several Misener sandstone reservoirs. The occurrence of these diagenetic products in the oil column suggests post entrapment tilting of some reservoirs.

Prezbindowski, D.R.; Francis, B.M.; Fritz, R.D. (International Petrology Research, Tulsa, OK (USA))

1989-08-01

309

Development of Modeling and Simulation for Magnetic Particle Inspection Using Finite Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a widely used inspection method for aerospace applications with inspection development essentially limited to empirical knowledge and experience-based approaches. Better quantitative understanding of the MPI technique and factors that affect its sensitivity and reliability would contribute not only to reductions in inspection design cost and time but also improvement of analysis of experimental data. We employed a finite element method (FEM) for numerical calculation because this is known to be suitable for complicated geometric objects such as the part shapes encountered in aviation components and defects of concern. Magnetic particles are usually soft magnetic materials and sensitive to the magnetic field distribution around them. They are easily attracted toward a high magnetic field gradient. Selection of magnetic field source, which produces a magnetic field gradient large enough to detect a small defect in the sample, is an important factor in magnetic particle inspection. The magnetic field gradient and magnetic force at the sites of defects having different widths and depths have been calculated. The simulated results can be used to assist in understanding the behavior of magnetic particles around a defect.

Lee, J. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Jiles, D. C.; Garton, M.; Lopez, R.; Brasche, L.

2003-03-01

310

75 FR 50748 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...research on disease afflicting marine mammals including viral pathogens and brevetoxin studies; development of a marine mammal histology database and atlas and marine mammal cell lines; and comparative morphology studies. The permit is issued for a...

2010-08-17

311

Development of a He{sup 0} Source for Confined Alpha Particle Measurement  

SciTech Connect

A probing He{sup 0} beam for confined alpha particle measurement using a double charge exchange process is now under development. A proof of principle experiment for ground-state He{sup 0} beam production will be performed on a test stand. Several methods are developed to measure the metastable fraction of a He{sup 0} beam. A full-size strong-focusing He{sup +} source has been constructed and sufficient beam current was achieved with a beam size tolerable to be used on ITER.

Tanaka, N.; Kisaki, M.; Iwazaki, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Okamoto, A.; Kobuchi, T.; Shinto, K.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Wada, M. [Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

2008-03-12

312

Inventory of Non-Federally Funded Marine Pollution Research, Development and Monitoring Activities: Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Northeast and Mid-Atlantic inventory includes marine pollution projects which were conducted in or are related to the states of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. Pro...

D. M. Opresko G. M. Caton R. S. Weaver

1985-01-01

313

Development and use of radiation detection technology for buried seabed particles.  

PubMed

From the initial 1997 diver-based gamma survey of the seabed sediments offshore of Dounreay, there has been continuous development of instrumentation and techniques. The initial contract surveyed randomly chosen areas, to ascertain if any particles were indeed present, since they had been found on the Dounreay foreshore in previous years. In total 34 particles were located and recovered. The period 1998-2002 saw further diver-based surveys using more sensitive and better designed detection systems. A towed system incorporating the same detectors was also deployed, covering extensive areas of the seabed. Throughout this period a more detailed understanding of particle dispersion emerged. The primary source of particles was identified as the old diffuser, with evidence for a dispersion plume heading north-east. In late 2002, Fathoms selected a gamma spectrometry system for trial and evaluation for possible future subsea deployment. The positive results led to a field trial being awarded by UKAEA for deployment of a stationary platform with a 7.8 cm x 7.8 cm NaI detector on the seabed at various offshore locations. This trial identified particles by their 137Cs photopeak and delivered the explanation for the gamma activity banding in the 'anomalous' zone. This successful trial led in 2004 to a joint Fathoms/UKAEA lab trial of the SAM-935 system of the larger 10 cm x 10 cm x 40 cm NaI crystal, inside a marinising unit. These proved to be fit for purpose and UKAEA tasked Fathoms to deliver in 2004 a tracked remotely operated vehicle (ROV) capable of deploying the larger detectors to allow gamma mapping of seabed sediments, up to a maximum depth of 100 m. Preliminary results of the 2005 ROV work are presented. PMID:17768315

Cassidy, Jim; Toole, Joe

2007-08-24

314

Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The ocean-energy industry is still in its infancy and device developers have provided their own equipment and procedures for testing. Currently, no testing standards exist for ocean energy devices in the United States. Furthermore, as prototype devices move from the test tank to in-water testing, the logistical challenges and costs grow exponentially. Development of a common instrumentation package that can be moved from device to device is one means of reducing testing costs and providing normalized data to the industry as a whole. As a first step, the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has initiated an effort to develop an instrumentation package to provide a tool to allow common measurements across various ocean energy devices. The effort is summarized in this paper. First, we present the current status of ocean energy devices. We then review the experiences of the wind industry in its development of the instrumentation package and discuss how they can be applied in the ocean environment. Next, the challenges that will be addressed in the development of the ocean instrumentation package are discussed. For example, the instrument package must be highly adaptable to fit a large array of devices but still conduct common measurements. Finally, some possible system configurations are outlined followed by input from the industry regarding its measurement needs, lessons learned from prior testing, and other ideas.

Nelson, E.

2010-08-01

315

Aircraft observations of aerosols in the free marine troposphere over the North Pacific Ocean: Particle chemistry in relation to air mass origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft measurements of atmospheric aerosol particles were performed in the free troposphere up to 5.0 km altitude over the North Pacific Ocean in August 1983 and 1984. Particles were analyzed for a single-particle base with the regent thin-film technique in conjunction with a transmission electron microscope. The calcium thin-film method was used for the specific determination of the molecular form

Masahiko Yamato; Hiroshi Tanaka

1994-01-01

316

Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.  

SciTech Connect

Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting PSD data. Finally, the SSA of the three powders was measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods, enabling the PSD to be linked to the SSA for these PETN powders. Consistent characterization of other PETN powders can be performed using the appropriate sample-specific preparation method, so that future studies can accurately identify the effect of changes in the PSD on the SSA and ultimately model EBW performance.

Young, Sharissa Gay

2005-09-01

317

Integrating Conservation and Development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: Perception and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean\\u000a region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation\\u000a for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS

Zoi-Sylvia Oikonomou; Angela Dikou

2008-01-01

318

Development of protocols for chronic toxicity testing of Pacific marine species  

SciTech Connect

The development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic-effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of the project. In order to achieve acceptable sensitivity as a surrogate for chronic toxicity tests, targeting the reproductive portion of the mysid life cycle and all or part of the embryonic, larval, or early post-larval portion of the fish life cycle was deemed necessary. This targeting is consistent with conclusions based upon earlier work in developing similar tests with Atlantic coast, Gulf coast, and freshwater fish and invertebrates.

Langdon, C.J.; Seim, W.K.; Hoffman, R.L.; Weber, L.

1990-03-01

319

Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part II: Marine Stratocumulus Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multispectral scanning radiometer has been used to obtain measurements of the reflection function of marine stratocumulus clouds at 0.75, 1.65 and 2.16 pm. These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE), conducted off the coast of southern California during July 1987. Multispectral images of

Teruyuki Nakajima; Michael D. King; James D. Spinhirne; Lawrence F. Radke

1991-01-01

320

A model for particle microphysics, turbulent mixing, and radiative transfer in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer and comparisons with measurements  

SciTech Connect

A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an {approx} 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gale conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The collection efficiencies for droplets <30-{mu}m radius, and the value of the accommodation coefficient for condensational droplet growth, have noticeable effects on cloud properties. The divergence of the horizontal wind also has a significant effect on a 12-h model simulation of cloud structure. Conclusions drawn from the model are tentative because of the limitations of the 1D model framework. A principal simplification is that the model assumes horizontal homogeneity, and, therefore, does not resolve updrafts and downdrafts. Likely consequences of this simplification include overprediction of the growth of droplets by condensation in the upper region of the cloud, underprediction of droplet condensational growth in the lower region of the cloud, and underprediction of peak supersaturations. 64 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Ackerman, A.S.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Toon, O.B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1995-04-15

321

Development of a numerical atlas of the easily flooded zones by marine immersions of the sandy littoral of Languedoc Roussillon (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regional Direction of the Infrastructure (France) entrusted to the Technical Studies Center of the Infrastructure (CETE Mediterranee) the study of a numerical atlas of the easily flooded area by marine immersions of the sandy littoral of Languedoc Roussillon. The objective of this paper is to present the methodological results. To do the map making of the easily flooded area by marine immersions (storm), we used several numerical data base. We can list, for example, the "BD Topo Pays" and the aerial photography of the National Geographical Institute (IGN), the geological mapping of the Geological and Mining Researsh Department (BRGM). To complete this data, we have realised a geomorphological interpretation of the littoral with the aerial photography. This naturalist approach can give the geomorphological object (beach, sand dune, ...) of the sandy littoral. Our objective was to determinate the limit about coastal plain (flooded by storm) and the alluvial plain (flooded by overfloowing) and not liable to flooding form. In the first phase of the study, a progressive methodology was used to develop a version of the numerical atlas based on the available geographical data of geomorphological, historical and topographic nature. During the second phase, we have developed this approach on the four french's department (Pyrénées-Orientales, Aude, Hérault and Gard). The result is the map making of the easily flooded area by marine immersions for 230 km of the sandy littoral. This mapping define the geomorphological factor of the littoral. Like this, we can found a qualitative hazard about marine immersions. Keywords : Storm, Marine immersions, Atlas of the easily flooded zones, Languedoc-Roussillon, France

Christophe, Esposito

2010-05-01

322

Marine Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

1976-01-01

323

Marine Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains the concept of marine reserves, protected areas where fish and other species are allowed to live longer and grow larger. Other topics include sustainable fishing practices, and a case study about a marine reserve established by fishermen off the Canary Islands.

324

Economic effects of oil and gas development on marine aquaculture leases. Study 17. Final report  

SciTech Connect

There are three primary mariculture products grown in California waters: oysters, mussels, and abalone. In total, the California mariculture industry earns revenues of about $6.5 million. Water quality degradation was the primary concern of most growers. Coliform bacteria and pesticide residues are currently threatening several shallow-water sites. Lease holders (and potential lease holders) for deep-water sites state that coliform bacteria from municipal sewer outfalls and offshore oil and gas drilling effluents are the greatest dangers to their profitability. The Southern California Educational Initiative is an attempt to determine whether such concerns are warranted. A simple model of economic externalities was described to highlight the scientific data one must gather so as to choose the optimal production levels for both energy and mariculture resources. That information is necessary to assess the economic consequences to the California mariculture industry of chronic exposure to oil and gas development. The co-development model shows that the marginal (incremental) effects of oil production on mariculture costs needs to be assessed. The model also shows that if the effects are moderated by distance from the point of discharge, such changes must be estimated in order to determine optimal lease boundaries. The report concludes that interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for designing a co-development plan that maximizes the social welfare to be gained from developing multiple coastal resources.

Caswell, M.F.

1991-03-01

325

Escape speeds of marine fish larvae during early development and starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response rates to tactile stimulation and subsequent escape speeds were measured using a video-recording system during early development and starvation of fish larvae. The species studied included the yolk-sac larvae of Clyde and Baltic herring (Clupea harengus L.), cod (Gadus morhua L.), flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) and older larvae of Clyde herring. The proportion of larvae responding (response rate) was

M. C. Yin; J. H. S. Blaxter

1987-01-01

326

A Review of Marine Systems Use in Developing Alaskan Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful development of the major supplies of natural gas in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska was expected to follow the President's selection in 1977 of the Alaskan Highway proposal to construct a pipeline across Canada and deliver Arctic natural gas to the lower 48 states. Five years later, the proposed Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System (ANGTS) continues to encounter serious obstacles

Hederman W. F

1983-01-01

327

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS FOR CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTING OF PACIFIC MARINE SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of this project. n order to achieve acceptable sensitivity...

328

DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multi-Agency effort is underway to develop whole sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk as...

329

DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

multiagency effort is underway to develop whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk asse...

330

Comprehensive Plan for Waterfront Development: Final Report. Maine Department of Marine Resources, October 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By adopting this Comprehensive Plan for Waterfront Development, the City of Calais is making a commitment to retain and build on its identity as a river community. The riverfront, wisely used, is of central importance to the Calais economy and quality of ...

1987-01-01

331

Development of a sequential extraction method for different forms of phosphorus in marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential extraction method (SEDEX) has been developed to separately quantify five sedi- mentary P reservoirs: loosely sorbed P; ferric iron-bound P, authigenic carbonate fluorapatite + biogenic apatite + CaCO,-associated P; detrital apatite P; and organic P. The SEDEX method successfully separates two of the main categories of authigenic phosphate phases called upon most often as sedimentary sinks for diagenetically

Kathleen C. Ruttenberg

1992-01-01

332

MarineBio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The tagline of the MarineBio site is "sharing the wonders of the ocean to inspire conservation, education, education, research, and a sea ethic." It's a well-thought out statement of purpose and direction, and they have a cornucopia of material on various marine species, ocean conservation, research projects, and habitat conservation. First-time visitors to the site will note that there are fifteen sections along the left-hand side of the site that include "A Sea Ethic", "Marine Biodiversity", and "Alien Species". The "Ocean Life News" area of the site is a fine way to stay abreast with current developments dealing with the world's oceans. Moving along, visitors can use two drop-down menus on the homepage to learn about key marine species. The site is rounded out by the "Deep Resources" area, which is a clearinghouse of information and academic resources that include relevant journals and online databases.

333

The adhesive strategies of cyprids and development of barnacle-resistant marine coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, approaches to the development of surfaces that perturb settlement and\\/or adhesion by barnacles have diversified substantially. Although, previously, coatings research focussed almost exclusively on biocidal technologies and low modulus, low surface-free-energy ‘fouling-release’ materials, novel strategies to control surface colonisation are now receiving significant attention. It is timely, therefore, to review the current ‘state of knowledge’ regarding

Nick Aldred; Anthony S. Clare

2008-01-01

334

Development of marine periphyton under mercury stress in a controlled ecosystem experiment  

SciTech Connect

Our laboratory is engaged in studies on the ecotoxicology of chemicals and tries to bridge the gap between laboratory and field conditions by conducting experiments with natural Dutch coastal plankton communities enclosed in large plastic bags, in which the influence of pollutants is investigated. In the experiment reported here, in which mercury was added to the bags, substrates of glass and polyethylene were exposed in the water and the development of the biomass and the species composition of the periphyton was measured.

Grolle, T.; Juiper, J.

1980-06-01

335

Development and application of a sublethal toxicity test to PAH using marine harpacticoid copepods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research project was designed to improve the understanding of the acute and sublethal effects of PAHs to benthic invertebrates. Sublethal bioassay protocols for benthic harpacticoid copepods were developed, and two species of harpacticoids were exposed to a range of concentrations of sediment-amended PAHs; the single compounds fluoranthene and phenanthrene as well as a complex mixture (diesel fuel). The harpacticoid copepods Schizopera knabeni and Nitocra lacustris were tested using several bioassay approaches. Reproductive assays, feeding assays and avoidance tests were conducted in addition to lethal tests for S. knabeni. Species-specific differences in sensitivity were detected. Early life history stages were much more sensitive than adults in one species but not in the other. Concentrations of PAH as low as 26 micrograms PAH decreased copepod offspring production, egg hatching success, and embryonic and early-stage development, demonstrating the high sensitivity of life history-related endpoints. In addition, grazing on microalgae was significantly impaired at concentrations as low as 20 micrograms/g PAH after short exposures (<30 h). Finally it was demonstrated that harpacticoids can actively avoid contamination.

Fleeger, J.W.; Lotufo, G.R.

1999-01-01

336

Status and developments in EOSTAR, a model to predict IR sensor performance in the marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of long-range infrared observation systems is challenging, especially with the currently available high spatial resolution infrared camera systems with resolutions comparable with their visual counterparts. As a result of these developments, the obtained infrared images are no longer limited by the quality of system but by atmospheric effects instead. For instance, atmospheric transmission losses and path radiance reduce the contrast of objects in the background and optical turbulence limits the spatial resolution in the images. Furthermore, severe image distortion can occur due to atmospheric refraction, which limits the detection and identification of objects at larger range. EOSTAR is a computer program under development to estimate these atmospheric effects using standard meteorological parameters and the properties of the sensor. Tools are provided to design targets and to calculate their infrared signature as a function of range, aspect angle, and weather condition. Possible applications of EOSTAR include mission planning, sensor evaluation and selection, and education. The user interface of EOSTAR is fully mouse-controlled, and the code runs on a standard Windows-based PC. Many features of EOSTAR execute almost instantaneous, which results in a user friendly code. Its modular setup allows its configuration to specific user needs and provides a flexible output structure.

Kunz, Gerard J.; Degache, Marianne A. C.; Moerman, Marcel M.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Neele, Filip P.; Doss-Hammel, Stephen M.; Tsintikidis, Dimitri

2004-11-01

337

Offshore development and the marine environment - emerging environmental issues in the outer continental shelf  

SciTech Connect

Energy exploration and production in the outer continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico are conducted under a comprehensive, environmental legislative and regulatory regime. There are indications that this regime may be evolving in the direction of more restrictive requirements. Anticipating future requirements is important to ensure informed decisions are made by the lawmakers and regulators, and also by the exploration and production industry. Anticipating legislative and regulatory trends could help the industry understand what information would be helpful to lawmakers and regulators, contribute to the industry having an effective voice in the development of requirements, and stimulate the industry to develop alternatives that may be more responsive and cost effective. Emerging and evolving Gulf of Mexico environmental issues include the discharge of drilling fluids and produced waters, naturally occurring radioactive material, natural resource damage assessment, the Gulf of Mexico program, air emissions, toxic release inventory reporting expansion, and exploration and production associated waste management. Charting a successful course through these issues may require new ways of working-both within the industry and external to the industry.

Beaubien, D. [BP Exploration, Houston, TX (United States); Moran, R.J. [National Ocean Industries, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-09-01

338

Marine Electromagnetic System Development in the Shallow Water Environment for Radioactive Waste Repository Site Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center of Japan has recently conducted a program to develop an electromagnetic (EM) technology for investigating the subsurface to the depths of 1,000m below the seafloor in the near-shore environment. Potential applications include structural studies for geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The system includes both natural field by magnetotellurics and controlled source EM data was collected to evaluate the feasibility of the methods and instrumentation. The shallow water environment is challenging because of high water currents and wave motion effects contaminating the data. We demonstrate the performance test of the new type of instrument, and the field experiment that was carried out in the Monterey Bay of California, USA, in 2003 and 2004. In this paper we describe the instrumentation developed, shows some examples from field trial and finally provide some inversion results using collected and simulated data. The system consists of EM transmitter deployed on the beach in combination with a series of offshore based multicomponent receivers. Field data collected near Monterey California revealed some of the challenges associated with this type of system. Collected data showed the influence of wave and cultural noise as well. In site of these difficulties we were able to accumulate a sufficient quantity of good quality records to interpret results. We show 2-D inversion results which image the "Navy Fault zone" which strikes NW-SE offshore Monterey bay in water depths of 10 to 40m.

Yoshimura, K.; Sakashita, S.; Okubo, S.; Yamane, K.

2006-12-01

339

Connecting to the Standards through Marine Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Marine and related environmental science topics represent a rich resource of meaningful material for New Jersey's educators as they seek to develop standards-based instructional strategies. By adopting and integrating the marine environment science programs and curriculum materials developed by the Education Program at the New Jersey Marine

New Jersey Marine Sciences Consortium, Fort Hancock. New Jersey Sea Grant Coll. Program.

340

Effects of Sound on the Marine Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To develop novel techniques to predict the impact of sound on the marine environment and use natural sound sources (such as whale calls) to observe non-invasively both animal behavior and the marine environment.

M. B. Porter

2009-01-01

341

Development and validation of an ultrasensitive fluorescence planar waveguide biosensor for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in marine algae.  

PubMed

Marine dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium are well known producers of the potent neurotoxic paralytic shellfish toxins that can enter the food web and ultimately present a serious risk to public health in addition to causing huge economic losses. Direct coastal monitoring of Alexandrium spp. can provide early warning of potential shellfish contamination and risks to consumers and so a rapid, sensitive, portable and easy-to-use assay has been developed for this purpose using an innovative planar waveguide device. The disposable planar waveguide is comprised of a transparent substrate onto which an array of toxin-protein conjugates is deposited, assembled in a cartridge allowing the introduction of sample, and detection reagents. The competitive assay format uses a high affinity antibody to paralytic shellfish toxins with a detection signal generated via a fluorescently labelled secondary antibody. The waveguide cartridge is analysed by a simple reader device and results are displayed on a laptop computer. Assay speed has been optimised to enable measurement within 15 min. A rapid, portable sample preparation technique was developed for Alexandrium spp. in seawater to ensure analysis was completed within a short period of time. The assay was validated and the LOD and CC? were determined as 12 pg/mL and 20 pg/mL respectively with an intra-assay CV of 11.3% at the CC? and an average recovery of 106%. The highly innovative assay was proven to accurately detect toxin presence in algae sampled from the US and European waters at an unprecedented cell density of 10 cells/L. PMID:23102433

Meneely, Julie P; Campbell, Katrina; Greef, Charles; Lochhead, Michael J; Elliott, Christopher T

2012-10-09

342

Program to develop the techniques of generation and control of cryogenic material particles for use on fusion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for producing macroscopic deuterium particles to be injected into plasma machines such as TOKOMAKS. The purpose of the injection is for refueling and for diagnostics. In the particle generator, deuterium or hydrogen gas is liquified by cooling the gas by cold helium gas or liquid helium. The liquid hydrogen is formed into a liquid jet and

C. D. Hendricks

1973-01-01

343

Development of Novel Method to Create Three-Dimensional Arrangements of Particles Using Dielectrophoresis in Artificially Nonuniform Electric Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a novel method to arrange particles three-dimensionally using dielectrophoresis in suspension under an artificially nonuniform electric field. Particles can be attracted to electric field intensity maxima and are aligned parallel to an electric field. This alignment is called a \\

Masashi Hase; Mitsuru Egashira; Norio Shinya

1999-01-01

344

Effect of particle impact on residual stress development in HVOF sprayed coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of thick high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) coatings on metallic parts has been widely accepted as a solution to improve their wear properties. The adherence of these coatings to the substrate is strongly influenced by the residual stresses generated during the coating deposition process. In an HVOF spraying process, due to the relatively low processing temperature, significant peening stresses are generated during impact of molten and semimolten particles on the substrate. At present, finite-element (FE) models of residual stress generation for the HVOF process are not available due to the increased complexities in modeling the stresses generated due to the particle impact. In this work, an explicit FE analysis is carried out to study the effect of molten particle impingement using deposition of an HVOF sprayed copper coating on a copper substrate as an example system. The results from the analysis are subsequently used in a thermomechanical FE model to allow the development of the residual stresses in these coatings to be modeled.

Bansal, P.; Shipway, P. H.; Leen, S. B.

2006-12-01

345

Development of Thermal Spraying and Coating Techniques by Using Thixotropic Slurries Including Metals and Ceramics Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal nanoparticles coating and microlines patterning were newly developed as novel technologies to fabricate fine ceramics layers and geometrical intermetallics patterns for mechanical properties modulations of practical alloys substrates. Nanometer sized alumina particles were dispersed into acrylic liquid resins, and the obtained slurries were sputtered by using compressed air jet. The slurry mists could blow into the arc plasma with argon gas spraying. On stainless steels substrates, the fine surface layers with high wear resistance were formed. In cross sectional microstructures of the coated layers, micromater sized cracks or pores were not observed. Subsequently, pure aluminum particles were dispersed into photo solidified acrylic resins, and the slurry was spread on the stainless steel substrates by using a mechanical knife blade. On the substrates, microline patterns with self similar fractal structures were drawn and fixed by using scanning of an ultra violet laser beam. The patterned pure metal particles were heated by the argon arc plasma spray assisting, and the intermetallics or alloys phases with high hardness were created through reaction diffusions. Microstructures in the coated layers and the patterned lines were observed by using a scanning electron microscopy.

Kirihara, S.; Itakura, Y.; Tasaki, S.

2013-03-01

346

A Terrain-Aided Tracking Algorithm for Marine Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method for incorporating unstructured, natural terrain information into the process of tracking\\u000a of underwater vehicles. Terrain-aided navigation promises to revolutionise the ability of marine systems to track underwater\\u000a bodies in deepwater applications. This work represents a crucial step in the development of underwater technologies capable\\u000a of long-term, reliable deployment. A particle based estimator is used

Stefan B. Williams; Ian Mahon

2003-01-01

347

DEPOMOD—modelling the deposition and biological effects of waste solids from marine cage farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enable better predictive capability of the impact from large marine cage fish farms on the benthos and improved objectivity in the regulatory decision-making process, a computer particle tracking model DEPOMOD was developed. DEPOMOD predicts the solids accumulation on the seabed arising from a fish farm and associated changes in the benthic faunal community. The grid generation module allows the

Chris J Cromey; Thomas D Nickell; Kenneth D Black

2002-01-01

348

Efficient strategy for enhancing aspergiolide A production by citrate feedings and its effects on sexual development and growth of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergiolide A production enhancement by citrate and its effects on growth and sexual development of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus HB1-19 were investigated. In agar plate culture, 15mM citric acid decreased colony radial growth and aspergiolide A production by 31.5% and 23.0%, respectively. It also improved sexual cleistothecium formation by 360% but depressed asexual conidiospore generation by 84.8%. In submerged culture,

Menghao Cai; Xiangshan Zhou; Jiushun Zhou; Chuanpeng Niu; Li Kang; Xueqian Sun; Yuanxing Zhang

2010-01-01

349

Bacterial diversity, community structure and function associated with biofilm development in a biological aerated filter in a recirculating marine aquaculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological aerated filter (100 l), filled with bamboo ball media, was set up for treatment of low ammonia-containing recirculating\\u000a water in a marine aquaculture system. Chemical analysis showed that it took 70 days to establish a stable efficiency, at which\\u000a more than 30% of the ammonia was removed. During the biofilm development, bacterial diversity and community structure were\\u000a determined by construction

Xi-Yan Gao; Yang Xu; Ying Liu; Zhi-Pei Liu

350

Development and evaluation of a continuous coarse (PM10-PM2.5) particle monitor.  

PubMed

In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 microm) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating principle of the monitor is based on enriching CM concentrations by a factor of approximately 25 by means of a 2.5-microm cut point round nozzle virtual impactor while maintaining fine mass (FM)--that is, the mass of PM2.5 at ambient concentrations. The aerosol mixture is subsequently drawn through a standard tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), the response of which is dominated by the contributions of the CM, due to concentration enrichment. Findings from the field study ascertain that a TEOM coupled with a PM10 inlet followed by a 2.5-microm cut point round nozzle virtual impactor can be used successfully for continuous CM concentration measurements. The average concentration-enriched CM concentrations measured by the TEOM were 26-27 times higher than those measured by the time-integrated PM10 samplers [the micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) and the Partisol] and were highly correlated. CM concentrations measured by the concentration-enriched TEOM were independent of the ambient FM-to-CM concentration ratio, due to the decrease in ambient coarse particle mass median diameter with an increasing FM-to-CM concentration ratio. Finally, our results illustrate one of the main problems associated with the use of real impactors to sample particles at relative humidity (RH) values less than 40%. While PM10 concentrations obtained by means of the MOUDI and Partisol were in excellent agreement, CM concentrations measured by the MOUDI were low by 20%, and FM concentrations were high by a factor of 5, together suggesting particle bounce at low RH. PMID:11575884

Misra, C; Geller, M D; Shah, P; Sioutas, C; Solomon, P A

2001-09-01

351

Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We have examined this process following exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing charged particles in human lymphoid cells and in human epithelial cells. A comparison of the results in these systems can reveal similari-ties and differences as a function of cell type and LET. Last, we will approach the question of the relevance of genomic instability in the context of charged particle mutagenesis. In many models, it has been difficult to link these two processes. We will present data regarding the mechanistic associations between these processes. Taken together, these studies will allow the definition of conserved pathways that are likely to contribute strongly to the cancer risks for astronauts exposed to charged particle radiations. Supported by NASA grant NNJ07HC721 to A. Kronenberg and NASA grant NNX10AC12G to M. Turker.

Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

352

Development of an angular-resolved momentum analyzer system to study particle reflections from solid surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental system designed to study systematically interactions of beams with solid surface is being developed. A small magnetic multicusp-type ion source is used to produce both positive and negative ions with a pair of removable filter magnets. The mass-separated extracted ions are then directed onto a solid target, and the angular distributions and energy spectra of the reflected ions are measured with a magnetic momentum analyzer. The performance of the system is tested by investigating the particle reflections from a polycrystalline W surface bombarded by low-energy (1-2 keV) H and O ions.

Yamaoka, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Sugawara, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Shinto, K.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.

2006-03-01

353

Alpha particles are extremely damaging to developing hemopoiesis compared to gamma irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of risk of stochastic effects from contamination with [alpha]-particle-emitting radionuclides are based on equivalent doses which take into account the RBE of the high-LET radiation. It is assumed that the RBEs for deterministic effects are considerably less than those for stochastic effects. However, the offspring of mice injected with 30 Bq g[sup [minus]1] [sup 239]Pu at 13 days gestation develop a persistent deficit in hemopoietic stem cells which is primarily the result of damage to their regulatory microenvironment. Their spatial distribution in the marrow is also perturbed, and recent observations on those mice suggested a considerably higher factor than 20. To define a more realistic RBE for hemopoiesis, the effects of external [gamma] irradiation during the fetal development period have been compared directly with those of [sup 239]Pu incorporated via placental transfer on the development of hemopoietic tissue. Pregnant mice were irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays (a) continuously from day 13 of gestation to birth at 0.15 or 0.6 Gy/day; (b) six repeated acute doses (0.6 Gy/min) at 0.1 or 0.3 Gy from day 13 of gestation; (c) one acute dose of 0.6 or 1.8 Gy on day 15 of gestation. The spatial distribution of hemopoietic stem cells in 8-week-old offspring was then determined and compared to that resulting from [alpha]-particle irradiation. In each case, the higher dose was required to match the results for [alpha] particles, suggesting an RBE for developing hemopoiesis of 250-360 compared to a continuous [gamma]-ray dose and a rather lower value of 130-180 compared to a single acute dose of [gamma] rays. This contrasts greatly to values for direct irradiation of the stem cells but argues that the effective RBE, measured for long-term effects in vivo, is the more realistic. It is concluded that an all-embracing factor can be grossly misleading and can greatly underestimate the risks of exposure to [alpha] particles. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tie-Nan Jiang (Institute of Radiation Medicine, Tianjin (China)); Lord, B.I.; Hendry, J.H. (Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (United Kingdom))

1994-03-01

354

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine debris is an environmental problem of global importance, enlisting the concern and action of scientists, policy makers, as well as the general public. This three-lesson kit focuses primarily on plastic marine debris. Students critically examine data and samples and take part in activities that explore the causes, geographical distribution, and biological impacts of marine debris. Each lesson can be completed in about 50-60 minutes, but many of the activities are discrete and can be easily rearranged to fit various curricular objectives and time constraints.

2012-01-01

355

Development of histopathological indices in a commercial marine bivalve (Ruditapes decussatus) to determine environmental quality.  

PubMed

Bivalve histopathology is an acknowledged tool in environmental toxicology studies, however geographically restricted, limited to a few species and still lacking the degree of detail needed to develop effective (semi)quantitative approaches. A first-time detailed histopathological screening was performed on grooved carpet shell clams collected from commercial shellfish beds in distinct coastal ecosystems of the Southern Portuguese coast: two parted sites within an impacted estuary (S(1) and S(2)), an inlet channel of a fish farm at a considered pristine estuary (site M) and a site allocated in a clean coastal lagoon (A). A total of thirty histopathological lesions and alterations were analysed in the gills and digestive glands following a weighted condition indices approach, including inflammation-related responses, necrosis, neoplastic diseases and parasites. Digestive glands were consistently more damaged than gills, except for animals collected from site M, where the most severe lesions were found in both organs, immediately followed by S(2). Clams from sites S(1) and A were overall the least damaged. Neoplastic diseases were infrequent in all cases. Inflammation-related traits were some of the most common alterations progressing in animals enduring severe lesions such as digestive tubule (diverticula) and intertubular tissue necrosis. Some alterations, such as lipofuscin aggregates within digestive tubule cells, did not relate to histological lesions. Granulocytomas only occurred in heavily infected tissues. Animals from M and A presented the highest infections in the digestive gland, especially by protozoa. Gill infections were more similar between sites. Still, the level of infection does not account for all histopathological lesions in either organ. Overall, the results are in accordance with environmental parameters, such as distance to pollution sources, sediment type and hydrodynamics, and show that the combination of multiple histopathological features in these clams provides good sensitivity for inter-site distinction even when low or moderate anthropogenic impacts are at stake. PMID:23010389

Costa, Pedro M; Carreira, Sara; Costa, Maria H; Caeiro, Sandra

2012-08-27

356

Development of the particle inflow gun for DNA delivery to plant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple and inexpensive particle bombardment device was constructed for delivery of DNA to plant cells. The Particle Inflow Gun (PIG) is based on acceleration of DNA-coated tungsten particles using pressurized helium in combination with a partial vacuum. The particles are accelerated directly in a helium stream rather than being supported by a macrocarrier. Bombardment parameters were partially optimized

John J. Finer; Philippe Vain; Mark W. Jones; Michael D. McMullen

1992-01-01

357

On the importance of the decay of 234Th in determining size-fractionated C/234Th ratio on marine particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate determination of the POC/234Th ratio on sinking particles is essential for the application of 234Th as a proxy for the export of particulate organic carbon (POC) from the upper ocean. Previous studies have shown that POC/234Th ratios may vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, but the mechanism for this variability remains poorly understood. In this study, POC/234Th and POC/228Th ratios in three particle size classes were examined for samples collected from the upper 500 m at a station in the South China Sea. Our results indicate that changes in the POC/234Th ratio with particle size at a given depth are mostly driven by simple decay of 234Th. In fact, various trends in the POC/234Th ratio versus particle size are explained by a combination of 234Th decay and the preferential remineralization of POC relative to Th during particle aggregation. We also observed a trend of decreasing 234Th/228Th ratios with particle size. This trend is consistent with results expected from a Brownian-pumping model.

Cai, Pinghe; Dai, Minhan; Chen, Weifang; Tang, Tiantian; Zhou, Kuanbo

2006-12-01

358

The Carolina conference on marine biotechnology: Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes proceedings of a Carolina Conference on Marine Biotechnology held March 24-26, 1985, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This report consists of the responders' summary of each topic discussed. The topics presented were General Prospects for Marine Biotechnology, Bioactive Substances from Marine Organisms, Fundamental Processes in Marine Organisms as Guides for Biotechnology Development, Genetic Manipulation of Potential Use to Mariculture, Organisms Interactions with Marine Surfaces: Marine Glues, and Biomolecular Engineering Materials Applications.

Frankenberg, D.

1985-01-01

359

Marine Toxins  

MedlinePLUS

... by marine toxins? General guidelines for safe seafood consumption: Although any person eating fish or shellfish containing ... same food safety regulations as seafood for human consumption. Back to Top What is the government doing ...

360

Marine Polution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this module is to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study.

Barker, William; Smith, David

2005-10-22

361

Marine Polution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

his module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study.

Barker, William; Smith, David

2000-09-22

362

Microstructural Development and Deposition Behavior of Titanium Powder Particles in Warm Spraying Process: From Single Splat to Coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm spraying has been developed by NIMS, in which powder particles are accelerated and simultaneously heated, and deposited\\u000a onto a suitable substrate in thermally softened solid state. In this study, commercially available titanium powder was sprayed\\u000a onto steel substrate by the spraying process. Microstructural developments and deposition behaviors from a deposited single\\u000a particle to a thick coating layer were observed

Keehyun Kim; Seiji Kuroda; Makoto Watanabe

2010-01-01

363

Legal Measures Concerning Marine Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this UNC Sea Grant paper is to chronicle new concepts and developments in marine pollution control and progress in marine resources law. Topics discussed include the following: Pollution of the high seas--the oceans as international rivers;...

S. W. Wurfel

1975-01-01

364

Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

Kolb, James A.

365

Marine environment protection and biodiversity conservation: the application and future development of the IMO's particularly sensitive sea area concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of marine environment protection and biodiversity conservation, a number of measures adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) can be viewed as implementing obligations and recommendations of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity respectively. Pre-eminent among these measures is the

Julian Peter Roberts

2006-01-01

366

Primary and secondary porosity development in valley fill, marine sandstone reservoirs - Misener Formation, north-central Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Devonian Misener formation in north-central Oklahoma consists of a series of discontinuous sand and shale bodies deposited in erosional topographic lows on the post-Hunton unconformity surface. Paleontological, mineralogical, and sedimentological evidence supports a marine depositional setting. Rapid changes in sandstone thickness and reservoir properties are characteristic of Misener sands. These sands were episodically deposited, fine upward, and commonly interfinger

D. R. Prezbindowski; B. M. Francis; R. D. Fritz

1989-01-01

367

Development of a Late Quaternary Marine Terraced Landscape during On-Going Tectonic Contraction, Crescent City Coastal Plain, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Crescent City coastal plain is a low-lying surface of negligible relief that lies on the upper plate of the Cascadia subduction zone in northernmost California. Whereas coastal reaches to the north in southern Oregon and to the south near Cape Mendocino contain flights of deformed marine terraces from which a neotectonic history can be deduced, equivalent terraces on the

Michael Polenz; Harvey M. Kelsey

1999-01-01

368

The impact of lactation strategy on physiological development of juvenile marine mammals: implications for the transition to independent foraging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactating marine mammals provision their offspring either by providing large amounts of lipid-rich milk over a short period during which females fast (capital provisioning), or smaller amounts of less energetically dense milk over an extended period during which females forage (income provisioning). While it has long been recognized that these two strategies carry different costs for the female, the effect

Jennifer M. Burns; Cheryl A. Clark; Julie P. Richmond

2004-01-01

369

Development of an LC–MS–MS method for the quantification of taurine derivatives in marine invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur amino acids, such as taurine, hypotaurine, and thiotaurine, were found in high quantities in tissues of marine symbiotic organisms (e.g., bivalves, tubeworms) living close to hydrothermal vent sites. Therefore, they are assumed to play a key role in the S-oxidizing base metabolism or sulfide detoxification. We propose here a specific, rapid, and original analytical procedure for the direct determination

P. Chaimbault; P. Alberic; C. Elfakir; M. Lafosse

2004-01-01

370

MICROSATELLITE MARKER DEVELOPMENT AND GENETIC VARIATION IN THE TOXIC MARINE DIATOM PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA MULTISERIES (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of phytoplankton popula- tions is largely unknown. In this study we devel- oped nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for the domoic acid-producing marine diatom Pseudo- nitzschia multiseries (Hasle) Hasle. We then used them in the genotyping of 25 physiologically di- verse field isolates and six of their descendants: 22 field isolates originated from eastern Canadian waters, two from

Katharine M. Evans; Stephen S. Bates; Linda K. Medlin; Paul K. Hayes

2004-01-01

371

Marine Science Career Awareness, Grade Four. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for fourth grade students. The unit, focusing on the various types of careers and occupations connected directly and indirectly with marine science, is divided into sections dealing with: commerce and intertidal…

Kolb, James A.

372

Standardized Curriculum for Outboard Marine Engine Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for outboard marine engine mechanics was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all outboard marine engine mechanics programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for outboard marine engine…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

373

Standardized Curriculum for Outboard Marine Engine Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide for outboard marine engine mechanics was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all outboard marine engine mechanics programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for outboard marine engine…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

374

Optical assessment of large marine particles: Development of an imaging and analysis system for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Final report, June 1992--May 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The central goal of DOE's Ocean Margin Program (OMP) has been to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean...

I. D. Walsh W. D. Gardner

1997-01-01

375

Development of delta-f particle code for 3D neoclassical transport calculations in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new delta-f particle code has been developed in order to calculate neoclassical transport precisely and efficiently in 3D tokamak configurations. Neoclassical transport becomes not only highly complex in 3D tokamaks, but also important in establishing a self-consistent 3D equilibrium. The new code calculates guiding-center orbits on flux coordinates, to efficiently provide viable information to a 3D equilibrium solver, as well as to obtain fundamental properties of 3D neoclassical transport such as Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV). Also in the new code, collisions are modeled with modified Lorentz operator to study the essence of pitch-angle scattering while preserving momentum conservation, which is critical to separate 3D effects from 2D effects in transport. The code will be able to test complex parametric dependency that is predicted by analytic NTV theories, and also will be able to improve the predictability by including more precise orbits for both passing and trapped particles. Detailed progress will be presented, and preliminary simulation and benchmark results will be discussed. This work was supported by the US DOE Contract #DE-AC02-09CH11466.

Kim, Kimin; Park, Jong-Kyu; Kramer, Gerrit J.; Boozer, Allen H.

2011-11-01

376

Development of a particle agglutination method with soluble virus receptor for identification of poliovirus.  

PubMed

In the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, laboratory diagnosis plays a critical role by isolating and identifying poliovirus (PV) from the stool samples of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). In this study, we developed a particle agglutination (PA) method with a soluble human PV receptor (hPVR) in the form of an immunoadhesin (PVR-IgG2a) for the simple and rapid identification of PV. Sensitized gelatin particles with PVR-IgG2a showed specific agglutination with the culture fluid of PV-infected cells within 2 h of reaction in a one-step procedure. Detection limits for type 1, 2, and 3 PV(Sabin) strains were 1.5 x 10(6) 50% cell culture infectious doses (CCID(50)), 5.3 x 10(5) CCID(50), and 9.1 x 10(5) CCID(50), respectively. Wild-type PVs and PV isolates from acute flaccid paralysis cases examined were identified correctly with this PA method, except for some samples with a mixture of different serotypes of PVs, where a minor population of PV failed to be detected. These results suggest that this PA method is useful for the simple and rapid identification of PV, although the sensitivity was not high enough to detect a minor population of PV (<1/10 of the major population) among mixed PVs. PMID:20519462

Arita, Minetaro; Masujima, Souji; Wakita, Takaji; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

2010-06-02

377

Effects of dose and particle size on activated carbon treatment to sequester polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments.  

PubMed

Recent laboratory studies show that mixing activated carbon with contaminated sediment reduces the chemical and biological availability of hydrophobic organic contaminants. In this study, we test the effects of varying the activated carbon dose and particle size in reducing the aqueous availability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the uptake of PCBs by two benthic organisms. We mixed PCB- and PAH-contaminated sediment from Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay (CA, USA), for one month with activated carbon, at doses of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4% dry mass basis. We found that increasing the carbon dose increased the effectiveness in reducing PCB bioaccumulation. In 56-d uptake tests with the benthic organisms Neanthes arenaceodentata and Leptocheirus plumulosus, PCB bioaccumulation was reduced by 93 and 90%, respectively, with 3.4% carbon. Increasing the dose also increased the effectiveness in reducing PCB and PAH aqueous concentrations and uptake by semipermeable membrane devices and quiescent flux of PCBs to overlying water. Decreasing activated carbon particle size increased treatment effectiveness in reducing PCB aqueous concentration, and larger-sized activated carbon (400-1,700 microm) was ineffective with a contact period of one month. We invoke a numerical model based on intraparticle diffusion in sediment and activated carbon particles to help interpret our experimental results. This model was useful in explaining the trends for the effect of activated carbon dose and particle size on PCB aqueous concentrations in well-mixed systems. PMID:16050574

Zimmerman, John R; Werner, David; Ghosh, Upal; Millward, Rod N; Bridges, Todd S; Luthy, Richard G

2005-07-01

378

Development of a 3D Digital Particle Image Thermometry and Velocimetry (3DDPITV) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel 3D Digital Particle Image Thermometry and Velocimetry (3DDPITV) system has been designed and fabricated. By combining 3D Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (3DDPIV) and Digital Particle Image Thermometry (DPIT) into one system, this technique provides simultaneous temperature and velocity data in a volume of ˜1x1x0.5 in^3 using temperature sensitive liquid crystal particles as flow sensors. Two high-intensity xenon flashlamps

David Schmitt; Greg Rixon; Dana Dabiri

2006-01-01

379

Marine cloud brightening  

PubMed Central

The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100?km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

2012-01-01

380

Marine cloud brightening.  

PubMed

The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action. PMID:22869798

Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

2012-09-13

381

Development of Au-coated THGEM for single photon, charged particle, and neutron detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the successful development of Au-coated Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEMs) based totally on homemade industrial PCB technology in China. THGEMs with various dimensions and substrates have been produced and tested. Production achievements include sensitive areas up to 500×1000 mm2, hole diameters down to 200?m, thicknesses down to 150?m, rims from 20 to 120?m, and feasibility of mass production. In addition, effective techniques have been applied to improve the quality and performance of THGEMs. The effective gain, gain stability, gain uniformity, and energy resolution in Ar-based and Ne-based gas mixtures were studied. Test results of X-rays, VUV&UV lights, cosmic ray muons, and alpha particles show that these kinds of THGEMs are promising.

Xie, Yuguang; Lü, Junguang; Zhang, Aiwu; Yu, Boxiang; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Fang, Jian; Wang, Zhigang; Sun, Xilei; Liu, Yingbiao; Gao, Long; Niu, Shunli; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Wanjin; Sun, Lijun

2013-11-01

382

Development of a Lagrangian Meshless Flow Solver based on the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses on the development of a meshless flow solver based on the Lagrangian particle method. The differential operators are discretised by using the particle interaction models proposed in the numerical framework of the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) technique. The MPS method is attractive from the viewpoint of no mesh is required and fluid is purely represented by points (the virtue of meshless algorithm). Some flow applications attempted by the current meshless solver will be shown and results are compared with the published experimental data.

Ng, K. C.; Ng, Y. L.; Yusoff, M. Z.

2013-06-01

383

Alkaloids in Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids.

Guven, Kas?m Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

2010-01-01

384

Marine biosurfaces research program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

385

Multipurpose marine Buoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving the meteorological and oceanographic monitoring problems in frame of the actual ldquoJadran Projectrdquo the multipurpose marine buoy was developed to meat specific requirements in Adriatic Sea. The aluminum plastic coated buoy was designed to ensure stabile behavior at any waves high and wind speed that can occur in Adriatic aquatory. The 3 m high upper platform is provided for

Tomislav Tomiša; Slavko Krajcar; D. Pinezic

2008-01-01

386

Marine Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educational resources focusing on understanding of Marine Protected Areas (MPA), their functions, themes and messages. Materials include bibliographies, MPA posters, fact sheets and worksheets. Regional workshops promote MPA issues and concepts. Information exchange options to promote collaboration include: MPA newsletter archives and workshop PowerPoint presentations; announcements for conferences, grants, internships and professional development opportunities.

2011-11-09

387

Aspects of Marine Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

Awkerman, Gary L.

388

Marine Mammal Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' guides developed by Sea World featuring marine mammal educational materials for K-12. 14 different topics covered including sharks, wetlands, whales, birds, and much more. Several feature activities for all grade levels. Each guide includes goals and objectives, information, vocabulary, a bibliography, and classroom activities. Activities strive to integrate science, mathematics, geography, art, and language. Orca guide is in Spanish.

389

Aspects of Marine Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability…

Awkerman, Gary L.

390

Marine Fouling Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with shock wave experiments regarding marine fouling removal suck as chalk substances and forge scales etc. The device used in the experiments, is equipped with acoustic lenses. There is a need for further development in this field. In ad...

B. Bugten A. Martinsen

1986-01-01

391

Genetic variation for shell traits in a direct-developing marine snail involved in a putative sympatric ecological speciation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis from exposed rocky shores of NW Spain provide one of the few putative cases of sympatric ecological speciation. Two ecotypes\\u000a with large differences in shell morphology and strong assortative mating are living at different vertical levels of the shore\\u000a separated by a few meters. It has been hypothesized that shell size is the

Paula Conde-Padín; Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez; Mónica Carballo; Armando Caballero; Emilio Rolán-Alvarez

2007-01-01

392

Development of a detailed model of petroleum formation, destruction, and expulsion from lacustrine and marine source rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of laboratory experiments, including programmed micropyrolysis, isothermal fluidized-bed pyrolysis, oil evolution from a self-purging reactor, pyrolysis-mass spectrometry, and hydrous pyrolysis are analyzed to derive chemical kinetic expressions for pyrolysis of lacustrine and marine kerogens. These kinetic parameters are incorporated into an improved, detailed chemical-kinetic model which includes oil and gas generation from kerogen, oil degradation by coking and

A. K. Burnham; R. L. Braun

1990-01-01

393

Development in a Primary Cell Culture of the Marine Sponge Ircinia muscarum and Analysis of the Polar Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We have established a primary cell culture of the marine demosponge Ircinia muscarum. The culture was started from a cell suspension obtained by a combination of mechanical chemical means. Microbial contamination\\u000a was controlled by the use of a pool of antibiotics. Optical density, rather than hemocytometer count, is suggested to monitor\\u000a the cellular growth. Analysis of the chemical composition

Salvatore De Rosa; Salvatore De Caro; Giuseppina Tommonaro; Krasimir Slantchev; Kamen Stefanov; Simeon Popov

2001-01-01

394

Technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses the technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE). The developed technology enables the fabrication of both planar and epiplanar p+-?-n+ detector structures with an active area of up to 50 cm2. The starting material for epiplanar structures are silicon wafers with a high-resistivity n-type epitaxial layer ( ? layer - ? < 3 k?cm) deposited on a highly doped n+-type substrate (?< 0,02?cm) developed and fabricated at the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology. Active layer thickness of the epiplanar detectors (?layer) may range from 10 ?m to 150 ?m. Imported silicon with min. 5 k?cm resistivity is used to fabricate planar detectors. Active layer thickness of the planar detectors (?) layer) may range from 200 ?m to 1 mm. This technology enables the fabrication of both discrete and multi-junction detectors (monolithic detector arrays), such as single-sided strip detectors (epiplanar and planar) and double-sided strip detectors (planar). Examples of process diagrams for fabrication of the epiplanar and planar detectors are presented in the paper, and selected technological processes are discussed.

Wegrzecka, Iwona; Panas, Andrzej; Bar, Jan; Budzy?ski, Tadeusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Koz?owski, Roman; Sarnecki, Jerzy; S?ysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Zaborowski, Micha?

2013-07-01

395

Can Microscale Chemical Patches Persist in the Sea? Microelectrode Study of Marine Snow, Fecal Pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectrode studies demonstrate the existence of persistent oxygen and pH gradients around flocculent, macroscopic marine particles known as marine snow. Oxygen is partially, but continuously, depleted within and around marine snow in the dark and can be completely depleted within large fecal pellets. Boundary layers hundreds of micrometers thick are maintained despite advection of fluid past the particles. The existence

Alice L. Alldredge; Yehuda Cohen

1987-01-01

396

Update to “Reconciliation of coarse mode sea-salt aerosol particle size measurements and parameterizations at a subtropical ocean receptor site” regarding the use of aerodynamic particle sizers in marine environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the January 2006 issue of Journal of Geophysical Research, Reid et al. presented their findings regarding the sometimes large biases found in the measurement of the size and inferred mass concentration of coarse mode sea-salt particles. This was done on the R\\/P Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) off of the coast of Oahu, Hawaii, where long fetches of the clean

Jeffrey S. Reid; Thomas M. Peters

2007-01-01

397

Optical development and application of a two colour LDA system for the simultaneous measurement of particle size and particle velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-invasive optical technique has been developed which can simultaneously measure drop size and velocity. The instrument is suitable for application to enclosed two phase flows with limited optical access. The dynamic size range is extended over that obtainable using visibility alone, without reducing the spatial resolution, and the method is capable of self calibration. The technique employs a pair

M. L. Yeoman; B. J. Azzopardi; H. J. White; C. J. Bates; P. J. Roberts

1982-01-01

398

Evaluation of soybean meal source and particle size on broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and gizzard development.  

PubMed

Although there have been several reports concerning the effects of particle size of cereal grains on productive performance of poultry, there is limited information about the effects of soybean meal (SBM) particle size on broiler performance. The objective of the present experiments was to evaluate the effects of SBM source and particle size on broiler performance, gizzard weight, and nutrient digestibility. The first experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 SBM sources: expeller-extracted (ESBM) and solvent-extracted (SSBM), and 2 particle sizes: coarse grind, 971 µm, and fine grind, 465 µm. The second experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 ESBM particle sizes: coarse grind, 1,290 µm, and fine grind, 470 µm, and 2 corn particle sizes: coarse grind, 1,330 µm, and fine grind, 520 µm. In the first experiment, there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between SBM source and particle size on BW at 49 d of age. No differences in BW were observed when birds were fed coarse SSBM or ESBM, whereas birds fed diets containing fine ESBM exhibited lower BW than birds fed diets containing fine SSBM. In the second experiment, fine-grind ESBM (P < 0.05) and corn (P < 0.01) produced greater 19-d BW than did coarse grind. A significant interaction (P < 0.01) between ingredient type and particle size revealed that chicks fed coarse particles of corn or ESBM exhibited higher protein digestibility compared with chicks fed only fine particles. Corn particle size had a greater effect on gizzard weight than ESBM particle size. Birds fed diets that contained coarse corn had larger gizzards than birds fed fine corn (P < 0.01), but differences in gizzard weight were not observed when birds were fed coarse or fine ESBM. Particles greater than 1,300 µm depressed BW but improved protein digestibility. PMID:24135595

Pacheco, W J; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Brake, J

2013-11-01

399

Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

Kolb, James A.

400

Marine Mammals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

Meith, Nikki

401

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Smith, David; Barker, William

2010-06-04

402

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

403

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

404

Competitive Marine Propulsion Systems Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The systems analysis project reported herein is a part of the Maritime Administration's overall program to bring about the development of marine propulsion systems offering superior economic advantage relative to state-of-the-art systems. This Supplementa...

1973-01-01

405

Fault Trace: Marin County, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This photograph shows the trace of a fault (in trench phase) as it passes beneath a barn. The trace developed during the April 18, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. The location is the Skinner Ranch, near Olema, Marin County, California.

406

Measurement of the time development of particle showers in a uranium scintillator calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the time evolution of particle showers, as measured in modules of the uranium-scintillator barrel calorimeter of the ZEUS detector. The time development of hadronic showers differs significantly from that of electromagnetic showers, with about 40% of the response to hadronic showers arising from energy depositions which occur late in the shower development. The degree of compensation and the hadronic energy resolution were measured as a function of integration time, giving a value of e/? = 1.02 +/- 0.01 for a gate width of 100 ns. The possibilities for electron-hadron separation based on the time structure of the shower were studied, with pion rejection factors in excess of 100 being achieved for electron efficiencies greater than 60%. The custom electronics used to perform these measurements samples the calorimeter signal at close to 60 MHz, stores all samples for a period of over 4 ?s using analog switched capacitor pipelines, and digitizes the samples for triggered events with 12-bit ADCs.

Caldwell, A.; Hervás, L.; Parsons, J. A.; Sciulli, F.; Sippach, W.; Wai, L.

1993-06-01

407

Development of a neutralization assay for Nipah virus using pseudotype particles.  

PubMed

Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are zoonotic paramyxoviruses capable of causing severe disease in humans and animals. These viruses require biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment. Like other paramyxoviruses, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) can be used to detect antibodies to the surface glycoproteins, fusion (F) and attachment (G), and PRNT titers give an indication of protective immunity. Unfortunately, for NiV and HeV, the PRNT must be performed in BSL-4 containment and takes several days to complete. Thus, we have developed a neutralization assay using VSV pseudotype particles expressing the F and G proteins of NiV (pVSV-NiV-F/G) as target antigens. This rapid assay, which can be performed at BSL-2, was evaluated using serum samples from outbreak investigations and more than 300 serum samples from an experimental NiV vaccination study in swine. The results of the neutralization assays with pVSV-NiV-F/G as antigen showed a good correlation with those of standard PRNT. Therefore, this new method has the potential to be a rapid and cost-effective diagnostic method, especially in locations that lack high containment facilities, and will provide a valuable tool for basic research and vaccine development. PMID:19559943

Tamin, Azaibi; Harcourt, Brian H; Lo, Michael K; Roth, James A; Wolf, Mike C; Lee, Benhur; Weingartl, Hana; Audonnet, Jean-Christophe; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

2009-03-09

408

TOPP AS A MARINE LIFE OBSERVATORY: USING ELECTRONIC TAGS TO MONITOR THE MOVEMENTS, BEHAVIOUR AND HABITATS OF MARINE VERTEBRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tagging of Pacific Pelagic (TOPP) a field program of the Census of Marine Life has proven the concept of using electronic tags to develop a Marine Life Observatory (MLO) to monitor the habitat utilization, movement patterns and behaviour of large marine predators. Given the difficulty of observing the behavior of highly pelagic marine species we know relatively little about

409

Deposition behavior and microstructural development of TiNi powder particles in low temperature-HVOF spraying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiNi alloy particles were deposited at high velocity on Q235 steel substrate in thermally softened solid state by the modified high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying process (so called low temperature HVOF). Microstructural developments and deposition behaviors of a deposited single particle were observed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A single TiNi particle sprayed onto the substrate was severely deformed and the jetting-out phenomenon occurred in the margin of the splat. Extremely fine grains were observed along the interfacial boundary of the deposited particles where the most severe deformation had taken place. The grain refinement at the high deformed region of a splat was arisen from dynamic recrystallization of heavily deformed grain during deformation.

Lin, Q. S.; Zhou, K. S.; Deng, C. M.; Liu, M.; Xiao, X. L.; Deng, C. G.

2013-10-01

410

The Irish Seabed Mapping Programme: INFOMAR - Integrated Mapping Survey for the Sustainable Developments of Ireland's Marine Resources. Progress to Date.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last six years, the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute of Ireland worked together on the multimillion Irish National Seabed Survey project with the purpose of mapping the Irish marine territory using a suite of remote sensing equipment, from multibeam to seismic, achieving 87% coverage of the marine zone. Ireland was the first country in the world to carry out an extensive mapping project of their extended Exclusive Economic Zone. The Irish National Seabed Survey is now succeeded by the multiyear INFOMAR Programme. INFOMAR will concentrate initially on mapping twenty-six selected priority bays, three sea areas and the fisheries-protection "Biologically Sensitive Area", and then will complete 100% mapping of the remainder of the EEZ. Designed to incorporate all elements of an integrated mapping programme, the key data acquisition will include hydrography, oceanographic, geological and heritage data. These data sets discharge Ireland's obligations under international treaties to which she is signatory and the uses of these data are vast and multipurpose: from management plans for inshore fishing, aquaculture, coastal protection and engineering works, to environmental impact assessments related to licensing activity and support to the evolving needs of integrated coastal zone management. INFOMAR also includes a data management, exchange and integration programme for the establishment of a National Marine Data Discovery and Exchange Service; providing improved dissemination of information to researchers, policy makers, the public and private sector and the adoption of standard operating procedures in data management to facilitate inter-agency data integration. During the first year of activity, INFOMAR carried out an integrated survey from the national research vessel, the RV Celtic Explorer, acquiring hydrographic, geophysical and groundtruthing data from Bantry and Dunmanus Bays, located off the South West coast of Ireland. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and small-vessel mapping surveys have also been carried out, giving detailed bathymetric, topographic and habitat information for the shoaler waters and inshore areas. This presentation will focus both on the general framework and scope of INFOMAR and the initial results and experiences of this year's survey.

Sacchetti, F.; Benetti, S.; Fitzpatrick, F.

2006-12-01

411

Inventory of non-federally funded marine-pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: South Atlantic and Gulf coastal region  

SciTech Connect

In 1980, NMPPO published a summary of non-Federally funded projects. This inventory report includes projects in or related to the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, as well as the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In addition to oceanic, coastal, and estuarine studies, projects specific to freshwater areas have been included if these areas are being studied for the purpose of determining sources of pollutants to estuarine and coastal areas or the effects of changes in freshwater areas on the marine environment.

Not Available

1984-11-01

412

Measuring ambient acidic ultrafine particles using iron nanofilm detectors: Method development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number concentration and size-resolved properties of acidic ultrafine particles have been observed to more closely associate with adverse health effects than do indices of total particulate mass. However, no reliable measurement techniques are currently available to quantify the number concentration and the size distribution of ambient acidic ultrafine particles. In this study, a method with the use of iron

Da-Wei Wang; Hai Guo; Chak K. Chan

2012-01-01

413

Development of a general relativistic particle-in-cell (GRPIC) code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this talk is to investigate the basic plasma dynamics of black hole systems using a particle-in-cell algorithm. The approach will be to extend the PIC code to incorporate the Kerr metric into the equations of motion. A three-dimensional, general relativistic particle-in-cell code will be used to investigate the behavior of accretion disk instabilities.

Watson, Michael

2004-11-01

414

Development of a Massively Parallel Particle-Mesh Algorithm for Simulations of Galaxy Dynamics and Plasmas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Particle-mesh calculations treat forces and potentials as field quantities which are represented approximately on a mesh. A system of particles is mapped on to this mesh as a density distribution of mass or charge. The Fourier transform is used to convolv...

J. Wallin

1996-01-01

415

The development of the high energy particle detector onboard the SELENE spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PS (particle spectroscopy) sensor, that will be onboard the SELENE spacecraft for the first Japanese lunar mission to be launched in 2005, will measure the high energy cosmic ray particles to measure a radiation environment around the moon for human activities in the future and to study their acceleration and propagation in the solar system. The PS sensor consists

Takeshi Takashima; Toshisuke Kashiwagi; Shoji Okuno; Kunishiro Mori; Hideaki Onabe

2004-01-01

416

Summary Report for the Initiation of Compact Development for Particles with 425-micron Kernels  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was the initiation of overcoating TRISO particles with 425 {micro}m kernels. In the AGR-1 task, the overcoating process was optimized for particles with an outer diameter (OD) of 780 {micro}m and a 350 {micro}m kernel. Therefore it needed to be determined how well the overcoating process used to fabricate AGR-1 compacts would perform on particles with an 855 {micro}m OD and a 425 {micro}m kernel. The matrix properties and overcoating procedures were altered from the AGR-1 processes in order to attempt to optimize the overcoating of TRISO particles with 425 {micro}m kernels. This report summarizes the changes that were made to the matrix and the overcoating process in order to achieve successful overcoating of the larger particles.

Pappano, Peter J [ORNL

2007-09-01

417

Receptor modeling of globally circulating airborne particles collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

Weekly airborne particle samples were collected at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO), Hawaii from February 1979 through May 1985. Receptor models were used to identify sources of airborne particles at MLO, determine compositions of particles from these sources, and assess the relative impacts of them. Major sources of ambient particles at MLO include Asian continental material, oceanic biological production of Se and SO{sub 4} species, marine particles, Asian anthropogenic material, local volcanic emissions, and basalt. Source composition profiles were developed for each component. The Asian continental component represents particles transported from Eastern Asia to the North Pacific, and the component consists of crustal material contaminated by anthropogenic emissions. To account for variations in the relative strengths of anthropogenic and crustal sources, a separate Asian anthropogenic component was also developed. During the dust season, Asian continental material accounts for 80% of total suspended particulate material (TSP) at MLO, oceanic productions of Se and SO{sub 4} 11%, marine particles 2.8%, basalt 1.9%, volcanic emissions 1.7%, and Asian anthropogenic material in excess of Asian continental material 3.2%. During the clean season, the oceanic biological production of Se and SO{sub 4} contributes 62% of TSP at MLO. Continental material contributes 22%, marine particles 6.4%, basalt 2.7%, volcanic emissions 2.4%, and anthropogenic materials in excess of continental material 4.3%.

Hermann, D.M.

1988-01-01

418

Characterisation and differentiation of oligotrophic waters by culturable particle-attached and free-living bacterial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the development of a tool to characterise and differentiate northern Adriatic waters, particularly oligotrophic, high-salinity waters, based on the cellular fatty acids of culturable heterotrophic bacterioplankton. The growth abilities and population dominance were observed for particle-attached and free-living bacteria cultured in three types of media: Marine Broth, diluted Marine Broth (1:10) and R2 broth. Three groups of

Maria Blažina; Mirjana Najdek; Dragica Fuks; Ana Ruso; Mauro Štifani?; Dinko Pavlini?

2009-01-01

419

Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology  

SciTech Connect

Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

Flippo, K. A.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Gautier, D. C.; Kwan, T. J.; Montgomery, D. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO BOX 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T. E. [ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N. [University of California, San Diego, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., La Jolla, CA 92038 (United States); Gall, B.; Kovaleski, S. [University of Missouri, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Columbia MO 65211 (United States); Geissel, M.; Schollmeier, M. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Korgan, G.; Malekos, S. [Nanolabz, 661 Sierra Rose Dr., Reno, NV 89511 (United States); Lockard, T. [University of Nevada, Physics, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

2010-11-04

420

Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity [1] and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser [2]. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Cowan, T. E.; Gall, B.; Gautier, D. C.; Geissel, M.; Kwan, T. J.; Korgan, G.; Kovaleski, S.; Lockard, T.; Malekos, S.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schollmeier, M.; Sentoku, Y.

2010-11-01

421

One-dimensional Langevin models of fluid particle acceleration in developed turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We make a comparative analysis of some recent one-dimensional Langevin models of the acceleration of a Lagrangian fluid particle in developed turbulent flow. The class of models characterized by random intensities of noises (RIN models) provides a fit to the recent experimental data on the acceleration statistics. We review the model by Laval, Dubrulle, and Nazarenko (LDN) formulated in terms of temporal velocity derivative in the rapid distortion theory approach, and propose its extension due to the RIN framework. The fit of the contribution to fourth-order moment of the acceleration is found to be better than in the other stochastic models. We study the acceleration probability density function conditional on velocity fluctuations implied by the RIN approach to the LDN-type model. The shapes of the conditional distributions and the conditional acceleration variance have been found in a good agreement with the recent experimental data by Mordant, Crawford, and Bodenschatz [Physica D (to be published), e-print physics/0303003].

Aringazin, A. K.; Mazhitov, M. I.

2004-02-01

422

Development of management policy for the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate fishery in puerto rico: a case study.  

PubMed

In recent years the collection of tropical marine organisms for the aquarium trade has become perceived as an activity with an unsustainable history as well as obvious potential for rehabilitation through resource-based fisheries management and consumer-oriented product certification. In the case of Puerto Rico, collection of ornamentals has existed for decades, though unregulated due to a weak fisheries law dating from the 1930's. The new Fisheries Law 278 of 1998 enabled new regulatory approaches for marine ornamentals, which were met with serious challenges rooted in (1) an information gap concerning the fishery regarding participant numbers, collection methods and export volumes, and (2) the absence of consultation of fishers by agency regulators. The information gap led to worst-case assumptions of impact by regulators, and a closure of the fishery, which set the stage for threatening personal confrontations and lawsuits, the latter leading to de facto resource management by judicial order. To redress these issues and move management back into the arena of science and public policy, regulators have initiated a three-phase program: (1) characterize fisher numbers, methods and exports, (2) describe populations and biology of commercial species, and (3) propose appropriate fisheries management approaches. This paper describes only the first phase of this program. PMID:17465153

Hardin, M P; Legore, R S

2005-05-01

423

Heavy metal effects on cellular shape changes, cleavage, and larval development of the marine gastropod mollusk, (Ilyanassa obsoleta Say)  

SciTech Connect

The spawning areas for many marine invertebrates are in intertidal zones which can be exposed to surface water run-off containing heavy metals. The cellular shape changes and cleavage patterns of Ilyanassa embryos greatly resemble those of bivalve mollusks, such as Mytilus edulis, that occur in the same intertidal areas. Determining the concentrations of heavy metals tolerated by the molluscan embryos inhabiting such clam and mussel beds therefore is of some economic significance. Moreover, such research may providedata on the heavy metal effects on the cytoskeleton. There is increasing evidence that components of the cytoskeleton, directly or indirectly, are targets for toxic agents. Polar lobe formation is a cellular shape change that resembles cytokinesis. It is seen in the fertilized eggs of many marine mollusks. Recent data with inorganic and organic Ca/sup 2 +/ antagonists suggest that both polar lobe formation and cytokinesis utilize Ca/sup 2 +/ released from sequestered, intracellular sites. Both of these cellular constrictions are associated with microfilaments and are preceded by activation steps requiring microtubules. The data presented below suggest that several heavy metals affect the microfilament-dependent steps.

Conrad, G.W.

1988-07-01

424

Service Level of Optimization for the Marine Corps Institute.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Marine Corps Institute (MCI) is the distance learning center for the United States Marine Corps. MCI's mission is to develop, publish, distribute, and administer distance training and education materials to enhance, support, or develop required skills...

G. F. Chapman

2000-01-01

425

Mariners' Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariner's Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

426

Marine Plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria are a taxonomically diverse, productive and biogeochemically important component of oceanic, coastaland estuarine\\u000a phytoplankton communities. Recent molecular and analytical characterization of these communities, together with a growing\\u000a number of cruise-based and remote-sensing surveys of the world’s ocean surface waters, indicate that cyanobacteria play a\\u000a highly significant role in marine carbon and nitrogen cycling. Vast segments of the world?s ocean

Hans Paerl

427

Marine Iguana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No iguana wants to be cooked alive on a hot rock and then served up as dinner for a Galapagos hawk. But it turns out the marine iguanas have a strategy that warns them of the presence of hawks they canât see. They learned to tune in to a kind of police scannerâ¦the alarm calls of mockingbirds.Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

428

Marine riser  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a marine riser adapted to be suspended from a vessel and releasable connected at its lower end to a subsea terminal. It comprises: a body thereabout having passageway means therethrough opening to each end of the body for disrupting smooth flow along the length of the riser and thereby damping the vertical oscillation of the riser when released from the subsea terminal.

Roche, J.R.

1990-03-20

429

Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will learn about the national marine sanctuaries found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and off the coast of American Samoa. They include breeding and feeding grounds of whales, sea lions, sharks, and sea turtles; significant coral reefs and kelp forest habitats; and the remains of the U.S.S. Monitor, a Civil War ironclad sunk off the coast of North Carolina.

Science Netlinks;

2002-06-10

430

Marine Science Funding Guide ready  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new publication, International Marine Science Funding Guide, by J. Fenwick, D. A. Ross, and C. Schramm, is available free of charge to institutions or programs requesting the publication on their letterhead. This publication is published by the International Marine Science Cooperation Program, a Sea Grant initiative at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. It is intended to assist new researchers in the marine sciences, and to help more established scientists who wish to pursue or develop international aspects of their work.

431

Effect of the particle to fluid density ratio on bedform development: An application of PTV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The particle to fluid density ratio plays a key role in sediment transport and strongly governs the relative importance of the transport mode. In aeolian systems, this ratio is three orders of magnitude larger than for the transport of sedimentary particles in water, such that saltation is the dominant mode for diameters (250 microns) commonly found in ripples and dunes. The partitioning of fluid momentum to saltators, and therefore to the surface upon impact, is extremely important to the entrainment of sediment, the maintenance of transport, and the scaling of aeolian bedforms. This paper demonstrates the use of Particle Tracking Velocimetry in measuring the partitioning of momentum associated with particle collisions on beds of quartz sand (2630 kg m-3) typical of aeolian dunes, and acrylic particles (1210 kg m-3) similar to blowing snow (920 kg m-3). The experiments were carried out in the boundary layer wind tunnel at Trent University on full beds that were 13.8 m in length and 0.71 m in width. In the majority of experiments, the wind speeds were either at or just above the threshold for saltation so that we could distinguish discrete particle trajectories. Surface ripples formed in the majority of experiments and passed through the camera's field of view so that the height, length and rate of migration could be measured in relation to the distributions of particle impact speed and angle, as well as those for the number, speed and angle of the particles ejected. Although similar in height, the ripples comprised of acrylic particles were 2 to 4 times longer, much more asymmetric, and migrated significantly faster than those in sand. The particle impact and ejection speeds were very similar, although the sand particles approached and left the bed at substantially larger angles than observed for the lighter acrylic particles of similar diameter. In a separate experiment, glass beads were flung onto each bed material at 4 ms-1 in still air. It was discovered that 90 per cent of the impact energy was lost to the acrylic bed, as compared to 78 per cent for the sand bed. This evidence suggests that at smaller density ratios than investigated here, ballistic ripples likely cannot be maintained in air.

McKenna Neuman, C. L.; Gordon, M. D.

2009-05-01

432

Emitted High Energy Light Particle Data Base Development Using a Thermodynamic Coalescence Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications, double-differential (energy and angle) secondary light particle production cross sections must be known for ion energies from tens of MeV/nucleon to tens of GeV/nucleon. Incorporating high energy light particle spectral and angular distribution cross section databases in the transport codes enable them to transport nearly any radiation field, in three dimensions, that humans and instruments might be exposed to in space, near accelerators or during charged particle radiotherapy. In this work a thermodynamics coalescence model is used to estimate the coalescence and emitting source radii for both symmetric and asymmetric heavy ion collision systems.

Arsalan, M. P.; Townsend, L. W.

2013-03-01

433

The role of docosahexaenoic and the marine food web as determinants of evolution and hominid brain development: the challenge for human sustainability.  

PubMed

Life originated on this planet about 3 billion years ago. For the first 2.5 billion years of life there was ample opportunity for DNA modification. Yet there is no evidence of significant change in life forms during that time. It was not until about 600 million years ago, when the oxygen tension rose to a point where air-breathing life forms became thermodynamically possible, that a major change can be abruptly seen in the fossil record. The sudden appearance of the 32 phyla in the Cambrian fossil record was also associated with the appearance of intracellular detail not seen in previous life forms. That detail was provided by cell membranes made with lipids (membrane fats) as structural essentials. Lipids thus played a major, as yet unrecognised, role as determinants in evolution. The compartmentalisation of intracellular, specialist functions as in the nucleus, mitochondria, reticulo-endothelial system and plasma membrane led to cellular specialisation and then speciation. Thus, not only oxygen but also the marine lipids were drivers in the Cambrian explosion. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (all-cis-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid, C22:6?3 or C22:6, n-3, DHA) is a major feature of marine lipids. It requires six oxygen atoms to insert its six double bonds, so it would not have been abundant before oxidative metabolism became plentiful. DHA provided the membrane backbone for the emergence of new photoreceptors that converted photons into electricity, laying the foundation for the evolution of other signalling systems, the nervous system and the brain. Hence, the ?3 DHA from the marine food web must have played a critical role in human evolution. There is also clear evidence from molecular biology that DHA is a determinant of neuronal migration, neurogenesis and the expression of several genes involved in brain growth and function. That same process was essential to the ultimate cerebral expansion in human evolution. There is now incontrovertible support of this hypothesis from fossil evidence of human evolution taking advantage of the marine food web. Lipids are still modifying the present evolutionary phase of our species; their signature is evident in the changing panorama of non-communicable diseases. The most worrying change in disease pattern is the sharp rise in brain disorders, which, in the European Union, has overtaken the cost of all other burdens of ill health at €386 billion for the 25 member states at 2004 prices. In 2007, the UK cost was estimated at £77 billion and confirmed in 2010 at £105 billion - greater than heart disease and cancer combined. The rise in mental ill health is now being globalised. The solution to the rising vascular disorders in the last century and now brain disorders in this century lies in a radical reappraisal of the food system, which last century was focussed on protein and calories, with little attention paid to the requirements of the brain - the very organ that was the determinant of human evolution. With the marine fish catch having plateaued 20 years ago and its sustainability now under threat, a critical aspect of this revision is the development of marine agriculture from estuarine, coastal and oceanic resources. Such action is likely to play a key role in future health and intelligence. PMID:22544773

Crawford, Michael A; Broadhurst, C Leigh

2012-01-01

434

Comparative genomics of methylated amine utilization by marine Roseobacter clade bacteria and development of functional gene markers (tmm, gmaS).  

PubMed

The marine Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise up to 20% of the microbial community in coastal surface seawater. Marine Roseobacter clade bacteria are known to catalyse some important biogeochemical transformations in marine carbon and sulfur cycles. Using a comparative genomic approach, this study revealed that many marine Roseobacter clade bacteria have the genetic potential to utilize methylated amines (MAs) as alternative nitrogen sources. These MAs represent a significant pool of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in the marine environment. The marine Roseobacter clade bacterial genomes also encode full sets of genes providing them with the potential to generate energy from complete oxidation of the methyl groups of MAs. Representative species of the marine Roseobacter clade were tested and their abilities to use MAs are directly linked to the presence in their genomes of genes encoding key enzymes involved in MA metabolism, including trimethylamine monooxygenase (tmm) and gamma-glutamylmethylamide synthetase (gmaS). These two genes were chosen as functional markers for detecting MA-utilizing marine Roseobacter clade bacteria in the environment. PCR primers targeting these two genes were designed and used successfully to retrieve corresponding gene sequences from MA-utilizing isolates of the marine Roseobacter clade, as well as directly from DNA extracted from surface seawater obtained from Station L4 off the coast of Plymouth, UK. Taken together, the results suggest that MAs may serve as important nitrogen and possibly energy sources for marine Roseobacter clade bacteria, which helps to explain their global success in the marine environment. PMID:22540311

Chen, Yin

2012-04-28

435

Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity and inflammation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiological studies indicate that particulate air pollution constitutes a hazard for human health. Recent studies suggest that diesel exhaust possesses endocrine activity and therefore may affect reproductive outcome. This study in mice aimed to investigate whether exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST 2975) would affect gestation, postnatal development, activity, learning and memory, and biomarkers of transplacental

Karin S Hougaard; Keld A Jensen; Pernille Nordly; Camilla Taxvig; Ulla Vogel; Anne T Saber; Håkan Wallin

2008-01-01

436

Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa (467th Brookhaven Lecture)  

ScienceCinema

Assamagan presented a talk titled “Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa,” in which he discussed the latest happenings at the LHC and ATLAS, and how African institutes’ participation in research at the LHC relates to the goals of the African School of Physics.

437

Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa (467th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Assamagan presented a talk titled “Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa,” in which he discussed the latest happenings at the LHC and ATLAS, and how African institutes’ participation in research at the LHC relates to the goals of the African School of Physics.

Assamagan, Ketevi (BNL Physics Dept)

2011-03-16

438

The development of dense scintillating hafnium fluoride glasses for the construction of homogeneous calorimeters in particle physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the properties of fluoride glasses for use in particle calorimeters and a testing regime has been developed. Glasses in a range of compositions have been made and tested in the form of small samples and some, in the form of larger blocks, measuring up to 2×3×14 cm3. Results of measurements on these materials, using

P. R Hobson; D. C Imrie; T. Price; S. Sheikh; K. W Bell; R. M Brown; D. J. A Cockerill; P. S Flower; G. H Grayer; B. W Kennedy; A. L Lintern; P. W Jeffreys; M Sproston; K. J McKinlay; J. M Parker; D. L Bowen; T Cliff; R Stewart-Hannay; R Hammond-Smith

1997-01-01

439

The Evaluative Function of the Particle "ebe" in Swiss-German Children's Narratives. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, Number 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narratives about personal experiences were elicited from 33 kindergarten children in a suburb of Zurich. The narratives were analyzed for the development of the use of the particle "ebe" from a conversational context (where the use of the particle was already mastered) to an appropriate narrative context (in which the particle, as appropriately…

Stern, Otto

440

Development of Modeling and Simulation for Magnetic Particle Inspection using Finite Elements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a widely used nondestructive inspection method for aerospace applications essentially limited to experiment-based approaches. The analysis of MPI characteristics that affect sensitivity and reliability contributes not...

J. Y. Lee

2003-01-01