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1

Marine & hydrokinetic technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine

Al LiVecchi; Richard Alan Jepsen

2010-01-01

2

Optical assessment of large marine particles: Development of an imaging and analysis system for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Final report, June 1992--May 1996  

SciTech Connect

The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) has been to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean. The overall objective of this work within OMP was to develop an instrument package to measure the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment at a rate sufficient to integrate the observed particle distributions into the coupled physical and biogeochemical models necessary to understand the shelf and slope as a system. Pursuant to this the authors have developed a video and optical instrument package (LAPS: Large Aggregate Profiling System) and assembled the computer and software methods to routinely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the `marine snow` size particles (dia. > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean. The instrument package collects aggregate abundance and size spectrum data using two video camera/strobe subsystems with a third subsystem collecting CTD, beam attenuation and fluorescence data. Additionally, measurements of particle flux were made with sediment traps deployed on the continental slope in conjunction with the physical oceanography mooring program. The authors envisioned a three stages development of the instrument package: (1) design, assembly, and laboratory testing of all components and the package as a whole, (2) a short period of laboratory and field testing of the instrument package to determine the best operational parameters, and (3) operations within a framework of complementary analytical sampling such as an appropriate process study funded under the OMP. The first two stages were covered by this proposal and completed. The third stage was limited to scoping work with the LAPS and deployment of sediment traps.

Walsh, I.D.; Gardner, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Oceanography

1997-04-01

3

Optical assessment of large marine particles: development of an imaging and analysis system for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Annual report, 1993-1994  

SciTech Connect

The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) is to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean (Program Announcement, 1991). A major component of the OMP will be to measure carbon flux on the shelf and across the shelf to the slope and open ocean. In the first round of OMP funding we proposed to develop an optical instrument package and the analytical techniques to measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the ``marine snow`` size particles (diameters > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean (McCave, 1975; Asper, 1987; Walsh and Gardner, 1992). The overall objective of this proposal was to develop an instrument package and the analytical techniques to precisely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment at a rate sufficient to integrate the observed particle distributions into the coupled physical and biogeochemical models necessary to understand the shelf and slope as a system. We envisioned three stages of development of the instrument package: (1) design, assembly, and laboratory testing of all components and the package as a whole, (2) a short period of laboratory and field testing of the instrument package to determine the best operational parameters, and (3) operations within a framework of complementary analytical sampling such as an appropriate process study funded under the OMP. The first two stages were covered by this proposal. A renewal proposal follows to cover the third stage. 6 figs.

Walsh, I.D.; Gardner, W.D.

1994-12-31

4

Yaquina Bay Marine Development Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines fishing, recreational and commercial, from catch to market; also retail facilities including marine repair and supply, marine oriented industrial development, and transportation related to marine oriented facilities. Phases I and II are...

1972-01-01

5

Optical assessment of large marine particles: development of an imaging and analysis sytem for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Annual report, 1992-1993  

SciTech Connect

The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) is to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean (Program Announcement, 1991). A major component of the OMP will be to measure carbon flux on the shelf and across the shelf to the slope and open ocean. We are developing a video and optical instrument package (LAPS: Large Aggregate Profiling System) and the analytical techniques to precisely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the ``marine snow`` size particles (diameters > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean (McCave, 1975; Asper, 1987; Walsh and Gardner, 1992). Our goal is to use aggregate abundance and size spectrum data along with the CTD, beam attenuation and fluorescence data collected with our instrument package to collect data rapidly, repeatedly and accurately such that it is both linkable to carbon flux and usable in biophysical models. Additionally, measurements of particle flux will be made with sediment traps deployed on the continental slope in conjunction with the physical oceanography program. The combination of profiles and sections of aggregate data along with the measured mass flux and chemistry from the sediment traps will allow for a robust estimate of the mass transport and flux of organic carbon via the aggregate pathway. The LAPS will be tested in the field area during a cruise in June/July 1994. Sediment traps will also be deployed on that cruise to make the first comparisons between measured flux and aggregate abundance in the field area. Efforts to streamline the image processing have resulted in a suite of programs to handle data from capture to binned data. 5 refs.

Walsh, I.D.; Gardner, W.D.

1994-05-01

6

Expression and self-assembly of virus-like particles from two genotypes of marine vesiviruses and development of an ELISA for the detection of antibodies  

PubMed Central

Sequences encoding the major and minor capsid proteins (VP1 and VP2) from two marine vesivirus isolates (Steller sea lion viruses V810 and V1415) were engineered for expression of virus-like particles (VLPs) in the baculovirus system. The resulting VLPs were morphologically similar to native vesivirus virions. Purified VLPs were probed in immunoblots with pooled antisera specific for nine San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) types, and a predominant protein of approximately 60 kDa was detected. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies was developed in which the VLPs served as antigen. The VLPs were adsorbed to the wells of a microplate, and the specificity of the ELISA was established with hyperimmune sera raised against 24 serotypes of the genus Vesivirus. The ELISA was used to screen for the presence of vesivirus specific antibodies in the sera of free-ranging Steller sea lions. The ELISA results demonstrated that Steller sea lions that inhabit the Pacific Ocean waters of southeast Alaska are widely exposed to antigenically-related marine vesiviruses, while no previous exposure could be demonstrated using VLP antigens in 17 Steller sea lions from the Aleutian Islands. The broad reactivity of these VLPs and their non-infectious nature will facilitate global sero-epidemiological studies aimed at determining the incidence and prevalence of marine vesiviruses in mammals that inhabit the Pacific and Atlantic oceans as well as susceptible terrestrial animals.

McClenahan, Shasta D.; Bok, Karin; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Neill, John D.; Burek, Kathy A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Smith, Alvin W.; Green, Kim Y.; Romero, Carlos H.

2009-01-01

7

Expression and self-assembly of virus-like particles from two genotypes of marine vesiviruses and development of an ELISA for the detection of antibodies.  

PubMed

Sequences encoding the major and minor capsid proteins (VP1 and VP2) from two marine vesivirus isolates (Steller sea lion viruses V810 and V1415) were engineered for expression of virus-like particles (VLPs) in the baculovirus system. The resulting VLPs were morphologically similar to native vesivirus virions. Purified VLPs were probed in immunoblots with pooled antisera specific for nine San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) types, and a predominant protein of approximately 60kDa was detected. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies was developed in which the VLPs served as antigen. The VLPs were adsorbed to the wells of a microplate, and the specificity of the ELISA was established with hyperimmune sera raised against 24 serotypes of the genus Vesivirus. The ELISA was used to screen for the presence of vesivirus specific antibodies in the sera of free-ranging Steller sea lions. The ELISA results demonstrated that Steller sea lions that inhabit the Pacific Ocean waters of southeast Alaska are widely exposed to antigenically related marine vesiviruses, while no previous exposure could be demonstrated using VLP antigens in 17 Steller sea lions from the Aleutian Islands. The broad reactivity of these VLPs and their non-infectious nature will facilitate global sero-epidemiological studies aimed at determining the incidence and prevalence of marine vesiviruses in mammals that inhabit the Pacific and Atlantic oceans as well as susceptible terrestrial animals. PMID:19913368

McClenahan, Shasta D; Bok, Karin; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Neill, John D; Burek, Kathy A; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Smith, Alvin W; Green, Kim Y; Romero, Carlos H

2010-05-19

8

Marine Biotechnology and Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an analysis of the potential of industrial applications of marine biotechnology and is focused on developing countries of the world. It makes clear that biotechnology's potential for remediating economic and social problems of develop...

R. A. Zilinskas C. G. Lundin

1993-01-01

9

Carbonaceous particles reduce marine microgel formation.  

PubMed

An increase in ambient carbonaceous particle (CNP) levels has been found, potentially leading to significant environmental/health hazards. These particles will ultimately enter the oceanic environment and interact with dissolved organic carbon. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of their behavior, transport, and fate in marine systems is still much needed. This study, using carbon black (CB, 14?nm) nanoparticles as a model, aimed to investigate the impact of CNPs on marine microgel formation, a critical shunt between DOC and particulate organic carbon that potentially represents a ~70-Gt organic carbon flux. We found that CB can enhance the stability of DOC polymers and reduce microgel equilibrium sizes in concentration as low as 1??gL(-1) CB, possibly due to negative surface charges on CB that decrease cross-linking bridges through Ca(2+) bonds. The reduction of marine microgel formation induced by CB could lead to a decrease in the downward transportation of microbial substrates and nutrients, and therefore, could have a significant impact on the carbon cycle and the marine ecosystem. PMID:25068549

Shiu, Ruei-Feng; Chin, Wei-Chun; Lee, Chon-Lin

2014-01-01

10

Glyoxal and methylglyoxal in Atlantic seawater and marine aerosol particles: method development and first application during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical method for the determination of the alpha dicarbonyls glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY) from seawater and marine aerosol particles is presented. The method is based on derivatization with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine (PFBHA) reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The method showed good precision (RSD < 10%), sensitivity (detection limits in the low ng L-1 range), and accuracy (good agreement between external calibration and standard addition). The method was applied to determine GLY and MGLY in oceanic water sampled during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4 from Capetown to Bremerhaven in spring 2011. GLY and MGLY were determined in the sea surface microlayer (SML) of the ocean and corresponding bulk water (BW) with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). The results show a significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the SML. Furthermore, marine aerosol particles (PM1) were sampled during the cruise and analyzed for GLY (average concentration 0.19 ng m-3) and MGLY (average concentration 0.15 ng m-3). On aerosol particles, both carbonyls show a very good correlation with oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. Concentrations of GLY and MGLY in seawater and on aerosol particles were correlated to environmental parameters such as global radiation, temperature, distance to the coastline and biological activity. There are slight hints for a photochemical production of GLY and MGLY in the SML (significant enrichment in the SML, higher enrichment at higher temperature). However, a clear connection of GLY and MGLY to global radiation as well as to biological activity cannot be concluded from the data. A slight correlation between GLY and MGLY in the SML and in aerosol particles could be a hint for interactions, in particular of GLY, between seawater and the atmosphere.

van Pinxteren, M.; Herrmann, H.

2013-12-01

11

Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two ?-dicarbonyls glyoxal (CHOCHO; GLY) and methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO; MGLY) have attracted increasing attention over the past years because of their potential role in secondary organic aerosol formation. Recently Sinreich et al. (2010) suggested the open ocean as an important (so far unknown) source for GLY in the atmosphere. To date, there are few available field data of these compounds in the marine area. In this study we present measurements of GLY and MGLY in seawater and marine aerosol particles sampled during a transatlantic Polarstern cruise in spring 2011. In seawater we especially investigated the sea surface microlayer (sampled with the glass plate technique) as it is the direct interface between ocean and atmosphere. Analytical measurements were based on derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The results show that GLY and MGLY are present in the sea surface microlayer of the ocean and corresponding bulkwater with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). Significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the sea surface microlayer was found implying photochemical production of the two carbonyls though a clear connection to global radiation was not observed. On aerosol particles, both carbonyls were detected (average concentration 0.2 ng m-3) and are strongly connected to each other, suggesting similar formation mechanisms. Both carbonyls show a very good correlation with particulate oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. A slight correlation of the two carbonyls in the sea surface microlayer and in the aerosol particles was found at co-located sampling areas. In summary, the results of GLY and MGLY in marine aerosol particles and in the oceanic water give first insights towards interaction processes of these alpha dicarbonyls between ocean and atmosphere (van Pinxteren and Herrmann (2013)). References: Sinreich et al., Ship-based detection of glyoxal over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(23), 11359-11371 (2010). van Pinxteren and Herrmann, Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles: Method development and first application during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 11791-11802 (2013).

van Pinxteren, Manuela; Herrmann, Hartmut

2014-05-01

12

Glyoxal and methylglyoxal in Atlantic seawater and marine aerosol particles: method development and first application during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical method for the determination of the alpha dicarbonyls glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY) from seawater and marine aerosol samples is presented. The method is based on derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine (PFBHA) reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The method showed good precision (RSD <10%), sensitivity (detection limits in the low ng L-1 range), and accuracy (good agreement between external calibration and standard addition). The method was applied to determine GLY and MGLY in oceanic water sampled during the POLARSTERN cruise ANT XXVII/4 from Capetown to Bremerhaven in spring 2011. GLY and MGLY were determined in the sea surface microlayer (SML) of the ocean and corresponding bulkwater (BW) with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). The results show a significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the SML. Furthermore, marine aerosol particles (PM1) were sampled during the cruise and analyzed for GLY (average concentration 0.19 ng m-3) and MGLY (average concentration 0.15 ng m-3). On aerosol particles, both carbonyls show a very good correlation with oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. Concentrations of GLY and MGLY in seawater and on aerosol particles were correlated to environmental parameters such as global radiation, temperature, distance to the coastline and biological activity. There are slight hints for a photochemical production of GLY and MGLY in the SML (significant enrichment in the SML, higher enrichment at higher temperature). However, a clear connection of GLY and MGLY to global radiation as well as to biological activity cannot be concluded from the data. A slight correlation between GLY and MGLY in the SML and in aerosols could be a hint for interactions of especially GLY between seawater and the atmosphere.

van Pinxteren, M.; Herrmann, H.

2013-06-01

13

Sustainable development of marine economy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a large marine country. Developing marine economy is an effective way to solve a series of problems with which man\\u000a is faced, such as the want of natural resource, space limitation, the environmental deterioration, etc. This article analyzes\\u000a the rich resources of marine biology, harbor, offshore oil and natural gas and coastal tourism resources in China and describes

Yao-guang Zhang; Li-jing Dong; Jun Yang; Sheng-yun Wang; Xin-ru Song

2004-01-01

14

Light Scattering by Marine Particles: Modeling with Non-Spherical Shapes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inherent optical properties (IOPs) of marine particles are most often modeled as homogeneous spheres using Mie Theory. Although this approach has been fruitful, the next logical step in modeling marine particles is to abandon the normally-employed sph...

H. R. Gordon

2007-01-01

15

Development of a Global Marine Environmental Library.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ocean Projects Department of the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) is developing a Global Marine Environmental Library (GMEL) of academic ocean environmental studies. The purpose of GMEL is to provide an easy to use, accessible set of unclassifie...

B. S. Hall M. Bourgeois M. E. Schexnayder

2010-01-01

16

Australian developments in marine science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

Coffin, Millard F.

2012-07-01

17

Ice Formation Potential of Field-Collected Marine Biogenic Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine biogenic particles composed mainly of sea salt and organic material aerosolized from a mesocosm in laboratory experiments have recently been found to act as ice nuclei. How these particles relate to those collected from sea spray under ambient conditions in the field is unknown. This study reports on the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of particles collected during the marine aerosol characterization experiment (MACE) on the south shore of Long Island, New York. Ambient aerosol size distributions were measured and particles were collected on hydrophobically coated substrates and subsequently used for ice nucleation experiments using an ice nucleation cell coupled to an optical microscope. This technique allows detection of ice formation for temperatures between 200 and 273 K and for relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) from 100% up to water saturation. Individual ice nucleating particles were identified for subsequent chemical and physical characterization using both X-ray and electron micro-spectroscopic techniques. Concentrations of bacteria, viruses, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the bulk seawater, sea-surface microlayer (SML), and in sea spray were determined using established methods and related to airborne sea spray particles and their ice nucleation potential. Onshore aerosol size distribution measurements taken at 5 m height and 10 m away from the breaking waves, revealed a peak maximum at 100 nm and Ntot = 6.8 x 10^2 cm^-3. Bacterial, viral, and TEP were found to be enriched in the SML. Ambient particles collected during MACE were found to nucleate ice efficiently, e. g. at 215 K, ice nucleation occurred on average at 125% RHice. Results of aerosol size distributions and ice nucleation efficiencies are compared to laboratory bubble bursting experiments in which natural seawater was used. The goal of this study is to understand the connection between sea spray aerosolization and atmospheric ice cloud formation and to provide physically and chemically based descriptions of ice nucleation for implementation in aerosol-cloud interaction models.

Carrion-Matta, A.; Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

2013-12-01

18

Development of a Global Marine Environmental Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ocean Projects Department of the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) is developing a Global Marine Environmental Library (GMEL) of academic ocean environmental studies. The purpose of GMEL is to provide an easy to use, accessible set of unclassified, academically-validated publications or references to NAVOCEANO users. These published studies have been approved and released for inclusion into GMEL and will include

M. E. Schexnayder; B. S. Hall; M. Bourgeois

2009-01-01

19

The influence of marine biogenic particles on ice phase initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol particles vary in composition with many being biogenic and of terrestrial or marine origin. Efficient ice forming biogenic particles are typically thought to be of terrestrial origin; however, recent data demonstrate that marine biogenic particles can act as ice nuclei (IN) in both immersion and deposition modes, with and without association of NaCl. These results are significant given that ocean derived particles including phytoplankton, microorganisms, transparent exopolymers, and colloidal gels become aerosolized from the sea surface microlayer through wave breaking and bubble bursting. Such particles typically include sea salt, but in situ observations of air masses associated with phytoplankton blooms have identified organic compounds as significant mass contributors to aerosol loading. Here we present results from experiments with Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nanochloris atomus, phytoplankton with distinctly different cell walls: silica, calcite, and cellulose fibrils, respectively, as efficient IN in immersion and deposition modes at typical tropospheric conditions. In a separate set of experiments, submicron size particles with and without organics are generated through bubble bursting in a custom built seawater tank. Subsequently collected, these particles are observed using a coupled cooling stage/optical microscope, for their ice nucleation potential as a function of particle temperature (T), water activity (aw), relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice), droplet volume, and particle surface area. In the immersion mode, fragmented and intact cells of T. pseudonana and N. atomus enhance ice nucleation in aqueous NaCl solution droplets by ~10-30 K and 10-20 K above the homogeneous freezing limit, and for a range of aw of 1.0-0.8, while E. huxleyi do not enhance freezing temperatures. In the deposition mode, all three species nucleate ice for RHice as low as ~120%, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer temperatures. T. pseudonana and N. atomus take up water as low as ~85% relative humidity and subsequently nucleate via immersion freezing. E. huxleyi can nucleate ice via deposition freezing for T as high as 245 K. Direct measurements of cell surface area are used to derive ice nucleation rate coefficients and contact angles, ?, following classical nucleation theory, a time-dependent description of ice nucleation. A time-independent deterministic description is used to derive ice active surface site densities. Values of ? range from 60° to 100° and depend on T and RHice in the immersion mode; however, for deposition freezing, ? can be reproduced as a function of RHice between 16° to 30°. These results underscore the importance of ocean derived biogenic particles for the formation and evolution of ice and mixed phase clouds in the atmosphere.

Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.

2011-12-01

20

Techniques employed for detection of hot particles in the marine environment.  

PubMed

During the decommissioning of the Maine Yankee nuclear plant, several methods were developed and employed to survey for hot particles in the marine environment surrounding the site. The methods used and the sensitivities achieved in the search for environmentally dispersed particles during the various decommissioning activities performed are described in detail. Surveys were performed on dry soil, exposed marine sediment and submerged marine sediment. Survey techniques ranged from the use of the basic NaI detector coupled to a count rate meter to an intrinsic germanium detector deployed in a submarine housing coupled to a multi-channel analyser. The initial surveys consisted of collecting samples of marine sediment, spreading them out over a 1 m2 surface in a thin layer, and scanning the deposited sediment by hand using a 5 cm by 5 cm NaI detector coupled to a standard count rate meter. This technique was later replaced by walkover scans with the 5 cm by 5 cm NaI detector moved in a serpentine pattern over the sediment surface. By coupling the detector to a 'smart meter', an alarm set point could be used to alert the surveyor to the presence of a particle within the instrument's field of view. A similar technique, with the detector mounted in a watertight housing secured to the end of a pole, was also employed to scan underwater locations. The most sensitive method developed for performing underwater surveys was the use of the intrinsic germanium detector placed in a submarine housing. Detailed descriptions of the methods employed and the results obtained are presented. This work demonstrates that there are several approaches to surveying for discrete particles in the marine environment and the relative merits of each are considered. PMID:17768317

Pillsbury, G D

2007-09-01

21

Growth rates during coastal and marine new particle formation in western Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rates of new particles during coastal and marine secondary aerosol particle formation events were studied in western Ireland, both at the Mace Head atmospheric research station and onboard the R\\/V Celtic Explorer as part of the Marine Aerosol Production project. Strong new particle formation events are frequently detected at Mace Head caused by the emission of precursor gases from

Mikael Ehn; Henri Vuollekoski; Tuukka Petäjä; Veli-Matti Kerminen; Marko Vana; Pasi Aalto; Gerrit de Leeuw; Darius Ceburnis; Regis Dupuy; Colin D. O'Dowd; Markku Kulmala

2010-01-01

22

Characterization of iodine species in the marine aerosol: To understand their roles in particle formation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, iodine chemistry in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) is introduced. A series of methodologies for the\\u000a measurements of iodine species in the gas and particle phases of the coastal atmosphere has been developed. Iodine species\\u000a in the gas phase in real air samples has been determined in two field campaigns at the west coast of Ireland, indicating

Hongwei Chen; Rolf Brandt; Rolf Bandur; Thorsten Hoffmann

2006-01-01

23

Can new particle formation occur in the clean marine boundary layer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of new particle formation probability in the marine boundary layer (MBL) is conducted using a detailed aerosol dynamics and gas-phase chemistry model, thermodynamically correct classical binary (H2O-H2SO4) nucleation theory, and recently developed ternary (H2O-H2SO4-NH3) nucleation theory. Additionally, the effect of boundary-layer meteorology (i.e., adiabatic cooling, small scale fluctuations, and entrainment) in enhancing nucleation is also examined. The results

Liisa Pirjola; Colin D. O'Dowd; Ian M. Brooks; Markku Kulmala

2000-01-01

24

Particle production in the remote marine atmosphere: Cloud outflow and subsidence during ACE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During November and December 1995 the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) was undertaken as part of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. A key objective of the aircraft component of this experiment included the identification of source regions for new particles in the remote marine atmosphere. No evidence was found for particle production in the marine boundary layer

A. D. Clarke; J. L. Varner; F. Eisele; R. L. Mauldin; D. Tanner; M. Litchy

1998-01-01

25

FINE PARTICLE CHARGING DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the changing of fine particles by unipolar ions in an electric field, and evaluation of a specially designed small pilot-scale (600-1000 acfm) precharging device. Following an extensive review of the lit...

26

Object-Oriented Methodology for Marine Corps Software Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis answers three questions: What is object-oriented development methodology and why is it good for the Marine Corps. How is object-oriented methodology different from what the Marine Corps is doing now. What should the Marine Corps do and when sh...

R. F. Padilla

1994-01-01

27

Stokes settling and dissolution rate model for marine particles as a function of size distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical analysis of a Stokes settling model for marine particles which takes into account dissolution rate, density, size distribution of the particles, and velocity of vertical advection is proposed. The dissolution rate is considered proportional to the diameter, surface area, or volume of the particles. Coefficients of the model are exclusively calculated from particle size measurements made in 1971-1972

Jean-Claude Brun-Cottan

1976-01-01

28

Self-assembly of marine exudate particles and their impact on the CCN properties of nascent marine aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous self-assembly of marine exudate particles has previously been observed in filtered seawater samples. The chemicophysical properties of these particles may alter the chemical composition and CCN properties of nascent marine aerosol, yet to date simultaneous measurement of seawater exudate particle formation rates and number distributions, with aerosol particle formation rates and CCN activity are lacking. Here, we use a novel Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART) system to experimentally mimic a phytoplankton bloom via sequential addition of biological surrogates, including sterol, galactose, lipopolysaccharide, BSA protein, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Nascent sea-spray aerosol are generated in the MART system via a continuous plunging waterfall. Exudate particle assembly in the water is monitored via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain both the assembly kinetics of the particles as well as particle number distributions Simultaneous characterization of both particle production rates and super-saturated particle hygroscopicity are also discussed. This study permits analysis of the controlling role of the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon in setting the production rates of colloidal material in the surface oceans.

Schill, S.; Zimmermann, K.; Ryder, O. S.; Campbell, N.; Collins, D. B.; Gianneschi, N.; Bertram, T. H.

2013-12-01

29

Drug development from marine natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug discovery from marine natural products has enjoyed a renaissance in the past few years. Ziconotide (Prialt; Elan Pharmaceuticals), a peptide originally discovered in a tropical cone snail, was the first marine-derived compound to be approved in the United States in December 2004 for the treatment of pain. Then, in October 2007, trabectedin (Yondelis; PharmaMar) became the first marine anticancer

Doralyn S. Dalisay; Sarah L. Lievens; Jonel P. Saludes; Tadeusz F. Molinski

2008-01-01

30

The Retrieval of Effective Particle Radius and Liquid Water Path of Low-Level Marine Clouds from NOAA AVHRR Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm was developed to retrieve both the optical thickness and the effective particle radius of low-level marine clouds simultaneously from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The algorithm uses the combination of the visible (channel 1) and the middle-infrared (channel 3) reflected radiation. The thermal component in the middle infrared was corrected with

Makoto Kuji; Tadahiro Hayasaka; Nobuyuki Kikuchi; Teruyuki Nakajima; Masayuki Tanaka

2000-01-01

31

Mineralogy and chemistry of marine particles by synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and plasma-mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine particles have been the subject of intensive geochemical investigations for more than two decades. There is, however, a paucity of mineralogical and speciation information on individual particle phases in comparison to bulk chemical analyses. Hence there is a need to develop and apply new and existing technology to the characterization of marine particulate matter. This is especially important in studies of authigenic hydrothermal plume precipitates, where the exceedingly small grain sizes and amorphous nature of the particles limits the applicability of more standard bulk analysis methods. The focus of the work presented here is the development of an array of materials characterization techniques suitable for determining the mineralogical and trace element composition of cryptocrystalline and amorphous particles in hydrothermal plumes. The long term goal is to apply these tools to particles from a variety of environments including marine, lacustrine and atmospheric particles. One area of special interest is determining the oxidation state and coordination chemistry of adsorbed and coprecipitated metals in Fe and Mn oxide phases, which act as scavenging agents for a host of elements. Several novel analytical techniques are being employed in this endeavor: synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS), Mössbauer spectroscopy (for Fe phases), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, sampling and preservation protocols are required in order to obtain representative particle samples from dynamic plumes and to prevent oxidation of reduced chemical species.

Campbell, Andrew C.

32

Drug development from marine natural products.  

PubMed

Drug discovery from marine natural products has enjoyed a renaissance in the past few years. Ziconotide (Prialt; Elan Pharmaceuticals), a peptide originally discovered in a tropical cone snail, was the first marine-derived compound to be approved in the United States in December 2004 for the treatment of pain. Then, in October 2007, trabectedin (Yondelis; PharmaMar) became the first marine anticancer drug to be approved in the European Union. Here, we review the history of drug discovery from marine natural products, and by describing selected examples, we examine the factors that contribute to new discoveries and the difficulties associated with translating marine-derived compounds into clinical trials. Providing an outlook into the future, we also examine the advances that may further expand the promise of drugs from the sea. PMID:19096380

Molinski, Tadeusz F; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Lievens, Sarah L; Saludes, Jonel P

2009-01-01

33

The Development of a Virtual Marine Museum for Educational Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article is to investigate the computer animation and virtual reality technologies for developing a virtual marine museum. The museum consists of three exhibition areas. The first area displays fishes in freshwater, including creeks, rivers, and dams in Taiwan. The second area exhibits marine ecology and creatures of different…

Tarng, Wermhuar; Change, Mei-Yu; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Ya-Wen; Liou, Hsin-Hun

2009-01-01

34

Identification of an organic coating on marine aerosol particles by TOF-SIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine aerosol particles play an important role in atmospheric processes. It has been suggested that as marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants. This theory has been supported only by indirect evidence. Recently, we gave new morphological indication of such organic coating without however providing molecular speciation. Here we have studied the surface of marine aerosol particles by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), which is very suitable for surface research due to its unique combination of surface sensitivity and the detailed molecular information obtained. Spectra from the outermost surface gave high intensity for palmitic acid and lower peaks for other fatty acids. According to TOF-SIMS images, palmitic acid was distributed on small particles, similar with the marine particles. Sputtering stripped palmitic acid and revealed the inner core of the sea-salt particles. Our results show that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the studied aerosol particles.

Tervahattu, Heikki; Juhanoja, Jyrki; Kupiainen, Kaarle

2002-08-01

35

Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the spectral scattering coefficient of marine particles (bp(l)) were measured at 241 locations in oceanic (case 1) and coastal (case 2) waters around Europe. The scattering coefficient at 555 nm normalized to the dry mass of particles (b (555)) was, on average, 1.0 and 0.5 m 2 g 21 in case 1 and case 2 waters, respectively. m

Marcel Babin; André Morel; Vincent Fournier-Sicre; Frank Fell; Dariusz Stramski

2003-01-01

36

The elemental composition of virus particles: implications for marine biogeochemical cycles.  

PubMed

In marine environments, virus-mediated lysis of host cells leads to the release of cellular carbon and nutrients and is hypothesized to be a major driver of carbon recycling on a global scale. However, efforts to characterize the effects of viruses on nutrient cycles have overlooked the geochemical potential of the virus particles themselves, particularly with respect to their phosphorus content. In this Analysis article, we use a biophysical scaling model of intact virus particles that has been validated using sequence and structural information to quantify differences in the elemental stoichiometry of marine viruses compared with their microbial hosts. By extrapolating particle-scale estimates to the ecosystem scale, we propose that, under certain circumstances, marine virus populations could make an important contribution to the reservoir and cycling of oceanic phosphorus. PMID:24931044

Jover, Luis F; Effler, T Chad; Buchan, Alison; Wilhelm, Steven W; Weitz, Joshua S

2014-06-16

37

Chemical speciation of sulfur in marine cloud droplets and particles: Analysis of individual particles from the marine boundary layer over the California current  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X rays (CCSEM\\/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge

Rebecca J. Hopkins; Yury Desyaterik; Alexei V. Tivanski; Rahul A. Zaveri; Carl M. Berkowitz; Tolek Tyliszczak; Mary K. Gilles; Alexander Laskin

2008-01-01

38

[Analysis on sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province based on marine ecological footprint correction model].  

PubMed

Based on the theories and methods of ecological footprint, the concept of marine ecological footprint was proposed. According to the characteristics of marine environment in Jiangsu Province, five sub-models of marine ecological footprints, including fishery, transporation, marine engineering construction, marine energy, and tidal flat, were constructed. The equilibrium factors of the five marine types were determined by using improved entropy method, and the marine footprints and capacities in Jiangsu Province from 2000 to 2008 were calculated and analyzed. In 2000-2008, the marine ecology footprint per capita in Jiangsu Province increased nearly seven times, from 36.90 hm2 to 252.94 hm2, and the ecological capacity per capita grew steadily, from 105.01 hm2 to 185.49 hm2. In 2000, the marine environment in the Province was in a state of ecological surplus, and the marine economy was in a weak sustainable development state. Since 2004, the marine ecological environment deteriorated sharply, with ecological deficit up to 109660.5 hm2, and the sustainability of marine economy declined. The high ecological footprint of fishery was the main reason for the ecological deficit. Tidal flat was the important reserve resource for the sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province. PMID:21657034

Yang, Shan; Wang, Yu-ting

2011-03-01

39

Composition of 15-80 nm particles in marine air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of 15-80 nm diameter particles was measured at Mace Head, Ireland, during May 2011 using the TDCIMS (Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer). Measurable levels of chloride, sodium, and sulfate were present in essentially all collected samples of these particles at this coastal Atlantic site. Organic compounds were rarely detectable, but this was likely an instrumental limitation. Concomitant particle hygroscopicity observations usually showed two main modes, one which contained a large sea salt component and another which was likely dominated by sulfate. There were several occasions lasting from hours to about two days during which 10-60 nm particle number increased dramatically in polar oceanic air. During these events, the sulfate mode increased substantially in number. This observation, along with the presence of very small (<10 nm) particles during the events, suggests that the particles were formed by homogeneous nucleation, followed by subsequent growth by sulfuric acid and potentially other vapors. The frequency of the events and similarity of event particles to background particles suggest that these events are important contributors of nanoparticles in this environment.

Lawler, M. J.; Whitehead, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Monahan, C.; McFiggans, G.; Smith, J. N.

2014-01-01

40

Preliminary study on the development of syntactic foams for marine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the comparison of various types of matrix materials and their mechanical properties for development of syntactic foams for marine applications. Generally, syntactic foams are close pore foams fabricated by the mechanical mixing of hollow microsphere particles in a polymeric matrix resin. From the literature review, it was found that there are several polymeric resins that have been used for development of syntactic foams such as epoxy, cyanate ester, polypropylene, polysialate and vinyl ester. In this paper, a comparative discussion is presented on the mechanical properties of hollow glass particles mixing with polymeric resins for development of syntactic foams for the use of these composites in bulk applications such as marine structures.

Salleh, Z.; Islam, M. M.; Ku, H.

2013-08-01

41

The behavior of Al, Mn, Ba, Sr, REE and Th isotopes during in vitro degradation of large marine particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent and the time constant of dissolution of a set of inorganic tracers during the decomposition of large marine particles are estimated through in vitro experiments. Large marine particles were collected with in situ pumps at 30 m and 200 m in the Ligurian Sea at the end of summer. They were subsequently incubated under laboratory conditions with their

R. Arraes-Mescoff; M. Roy-Barman; L. Coppola; M. Souhaut; K. Tachikawa; C. Jeandel; R. Sempere; C. Yoro

2001-01-01

42

Growth rates during coastal and marine new particle formation in western Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth rates of new particles during coastal and marine secondary aerosol particle formation events were studied in western Ireland, both at the Mace Head atmospheric research station and onboard the R/V Celtic Explorer as part of the Marine Aerosol Production project. Strong new particle formation events are frequently detected at Mace Head caused by the emission of precursor gases from exposed seaweed during low tide. Although these events were usually only detected as a mode of particles at a certain size, we were able to link the size of the mode to the growth time of these particles after the initial formation by combining data from several events measured between January 2006 and November 2007 with an air ion spectrometer. Typically, the early growth rates were extremely high, reaching values of several hundred nanometers per hour during the first seconds. The growth rates rapidly decreased and reached values below 1 nm h-1 within 1 h after nucleation. Our results were reproduced with box model calculations. All the obtained growth rates could be explained by the model either by varying the precursor formation time (typically a few seconds) or allowing multiple precursor vapor additions. From the ship-borne measurements, we report the first observations of purely open ocean new particle formation detected in this region. In total, four events were detected during this period, with three having a variable continental influence. An estimated average growth rate in marine conditions was 3 nm h-1 for these events.

Ehn, Mikael; Vuollekoski, Henri; PetäJä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Vana, Marko; Aalto, Pasi; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Ceburnis, Darius; Dupuy, Regis; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Kulmala, Markku

2010-09-01

43

Aged black carbon in marine sediments and sinking particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

report measurements of oceanic black carbon (BC) to determine the sources of BC to abyssal marine sediments in the northeast Pacific Ocean. We find that the average 14C age of BC is older (by 6200 ± 2200 14C years) than that of the concurrently deposited non-BC sedimentary organic carbon. We investigate sources of aged BC to sediments by measuring a sample of sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) and find that POC may provide the main transport mechanism of BC to sediments. We suggest that aged BC is incorporated into POC from a combination of resuspended sediments and sorption of ancient dissolved organic carbon BC onto POC. Our BC flux estimate represents ~8-16% of the global burial flux of organic carbon to abyssal sediments and constitutes a minimum long-term removal estimate of 6-32% of biomass-derived BC using the present day emission flux.

Coppola, Alysha I.; Ziolkowski, Lori A.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.

2014-04-01

44

Development of Novel Drugs from Marine Surface Associated Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

While the oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, marine derived microbial natural products have been largely unexplored. The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds (“bioactives”) to adapt to particular environmental conditions. For example, marine surface associated microorganisms have proven to be a rich source for novel bioactives because of the necessity to evolve allelochemicals capable of protecting the producer from the fierce competition that exists between microorganisms on the surfaces of marine eukaryotes. Chemically driven interactions are also important for the establishment of cross-relationships between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, in which organisms producing antimicrobial compounds (“antimicrobials”), may protect the host surface against over colonisation in return for a nutrient rich environment. As is the case for bioactive discovery in general, progress in the detection and characterization of marine microbial bioactives has been limited by a number of obstacles, such as unsuitable culture conditions, laborious purification processes, and a lack of de-replication. However many of these limitations are now being overcome due to improved microbial cultivation techniques, microbial (meta-) genomic analysis and novel sensitive analytical tools for structural elucidation. Here we discuss how these technical advances, together with a better understanding of microbial and chemical ecology, will inevitably translate into an increase in the discovery and development of novel drugs from marine microbial sources in the future.

Penesyan, Anahit; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

2010-01-01

45

Coated particle waste form development  

SciTech Connect

Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

1981-12-01

46

Fine-Mode Marine Aerosol Composition over the Southern Ocean Exampled by Individual Particle Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a cruise in the Southern Ocean in the austral summer of 2010-2011, the fine-mode aerosol particles (0.1 - 1.0 microns in diameter) were collected on a transect from 55S, 94E to 69S, 76E to characterize marine aerosols, as aerosol particles in that size fraction may effectively serve as cloud condensation nuclei and scatter solar radiation in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Analyses of individual aerosol particles were performed by automated scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results indicate that the main components of the aerosol particles examined so far include sodium chloride, calcium sulfate and aluminum oxide (alumina), and the great majority of the particles consist of these components or mixtures of these components. A small percentage of fine particles were detected to have minor Fe. The aerosol samples collected appeared to be impacted by air masses from the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia. The presence of fine Al-rich particles suggests transport from a source or sources in Patagonia, such as the complex at Puerto Madryn, Argentina. The presence of Al of industrial origin (and the lack of Al-rich silicates from soil dust) in these fine particles is of interest, since its presence in aerosols is sometimes used as a marker for dust. The possible impact of anthropogenic pollutant aerosols on this remote oceanic region is also striking.

Gao, Y.; Anderson, J. R.

2012-12-01

47

The viscosity effect on marine particle flux: A climate relevant feedback mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

uptake and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are strongly driven by the marine "biological pump," i.e., sinking of biotically fixed inorganic carbon and nutrients from the surface into the deep ocean (Sarmiento and Bender, ; Volk and Hoffert, ). Sinking velocity of marine particles depends on seawater viscosity, which is strongly controlled by temperature (Sharqawy et al., ). Consequently, marine particle flux is accelerated as ocean temperatures increase under global warming (Bach et al., ). Here we show that this previously overlooked "viscosity effect" could have profound impacts on marine biogeochemical cycling and carbon uptake over the next centuries to millennia. In our global warming simulation, the viscosity effect accelerates particle sinking by up to 25%, thereby effectively reducing the portion of organic matter that is respired in the surface ocean. Accordingly, the biological carbon pump's efficiency increases, enhancing the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 into the ocean. This effect becomes particularly important on longer time scales when warming reaches the ocean interior. At the end of our simulation (4000 A.D.), oceanic carbon uptake is 17% higher, atmospheric CO2 concentration is 180 ppm lower, and the increase in global average surface temperature is 8% weaker when considering the viscosity effect. Consequently, the viscosity effect could act as a long-term negative feedback mechanism in the global climate system.

Taucher, J.; Bach, L. T.; Riebesell, U.; Oschlies, A.

2014-04-01

48

Chemical speciation of sulfur in marine cloud droplets and particles: Analysis of individual particles from the marine boundary layer over the California current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. On the basis of composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na > 0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42- > 0.6.

Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

2008-02-01

49

Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the California Current  

SciTech Connect

Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.

William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

2008-03-12

50

Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: 1. Analysis of Individual Particles Using Complementary Microprobe Methods.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical speciation of dry residues of individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected from sea-fog during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) in July 2005 was facilitated using a complementary combination of computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of x-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle samples were collected at the ground site located in Pt. Reyes National Seashore, about 0.5 miles from the ocean coast over the period of time when the air plume, that originated over the open ocean, passed the area of the cold stream along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and microstructure, two externally mixed, distinct types of sea-fog particles were identified in the samples: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate excessive formation of methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) rather then non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in the sea salt particles. This observation is consistent with the recent modeling studies of dimethylsulfide (DMS) oxidation chemistry in the marine boundary layer (MDL). Modeling studies predict enhanced formation of CH3SO3- in activated sea salt particles under cloudy MBL conditions over the areas with low ocean surface temperatures. We discuss the climate related effects of this chemistry which likely results in: a) increasing size and hygroscopicity of the pre-existing CCN (sea salt particles), and b) reducing the production of gaseous H2SO4 and subsequent new sulfate particle formation.

Desyaterik, Y.; Hopkins, R. J.; Tivanski, A. V.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Gilles, M. K.; Laskin, A.

2006-12-01

51

Technique Development for Particle Bounce Monitoring of Unknown Aerosol Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A particle bounce monitor has been developed to determine the bounce properties of unknown aerosols. In this new device aerosol is sampled through a conical inlet into a nozzle of constant cross section. The aerosol flow leaves the inlet section as a free jet and is separated into a center flow, which is drawn into a constant-flow particle counter, and

Mindi Xu; Klaus Willeke

1993-01-01

52

Assessment Tool Development for Marine Mammal Critical Habitats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective is to develop a mapping system to visualize the distribution and movement of marine mammals by time of year and location so that animal movement and distribution can be easily compared to bathymetry and a variety of oceanographic features. T...

D. E. Crocker D. P. Costa B. J. LeBoeuf

2002-01-01

53

Marine Operations in the ArcticA New Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

An icebreaker hull form developed on the basis of a novel concept presents new aspects to marine operations in the arctic. The concept makes use of a fundamentally new icebreaking technique which has proved to be efficient in various kinds of ice formations resulting in a considerable reduction in the propulsion power required. The icebreaking mode of the so called

Ayres Freitas

1983-01-01

54

Composition of California coastal marine aerosol particles measured during CalNex 2010 and E-PEACE 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine aerosol particles play an important role in the earth's radiative balance, yet the sources and composition of the organic fraction remain largely unconstrained. Recent measurements have been made in order to characterize the sources, composition, and concentration of particles in the California coastal marine boundary layer. Ambient and generated marine aerosol particles were measured on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNex 2010 campaign in May and June 2010. Particles were collected on filters and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the functional group composition and total organic mass. Particles from two primary marine aerosol generators showed similar organic compositions, both with larger fractions of hydroxyl functional groups. Similar ambient measurements were made on board the R/V Point Sur during July 2011. Ambient marine aerosol particles were collected on filters and analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy. Samples were collected 100 miles off the coast of Monterey, CA when winds were mainly from the west and had little anthropogenic influence. Marine aerosol particles were also analyzed using a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Particles were sampled under different ambient conditions including a range of seawater chlorophyll concentrations and a range of wind speeds and directions. Changes in the ambient conditions may influence changes in the organic functional group composition of the marine particles. Simultaneously, seawater was collected and atomized onto filters to determine the functional group composition of the total organic matter in the seawater. This organic composition will be compared to the organic composition of the ambient marine particles to determine the changes upon emission and aging in the atmosphere.

Frossard, A. A.; Modini, R.; Russell, L. M.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Kieber, D. J.; Maben, J. R.; Keene, W. C.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.

2011-12-01

55

Accumulation of Cu and Zn in discarded antifouling paint particles by the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-term (5 day) accumulation of Cu and Zn in different tissues of the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea, has been studied in the presence of ˜10 mg l -1 of antifouling paint particles and pre- or simultaneously contaminated algal food ( Ulva lactuca). Accumulation of Cu was observed in the head-foot, digestive gland-gonad complex and gills to extents dependent on how and when food was contaminated and administered. However, retention of Zn was only observed in the gills and only when L. littorea and U. lactuca were simultaneously exposed to paint particles. Relative to the alga, faecal material was highly enriched in Zn, suggesting that the animal is able to rapidly eliminate this metal, most likely through the formation and egestion of insoluble phosphate granules. Thus, L. littorea is a useful biomonitor of marine contamination by antifouling applications in respect of Cu but not Zn.

Gammon, Melanie; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

2009-10-01

56

Aerosolization, Chemical Characterization, Hygroscopicity and Ice Formation of Marine Biogenic Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans cover the majority of the earth's surface, host nearly half the total global primary productivity and are a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. However, effects of biological activity on sea spray generation and composition, and subsequent cloud formation are not well understood. Our goal is to elucidate these effects which will be particularly important over nutrient rich seas, where microorganisms can reach concentrations of 10^9 per mL and along with transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) can become aerosolized. Here we report the results of mesocosm experiments in which bubbles were generated by two methods, either recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits, in natural or artificial seawater containing bacteria and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus. Over time we followed the size distribution of aerosolized particles as well as their hygroscopicity, heterogeneous ice nucleation potential, and individual physical-chemical characteristics. Numbers of cells and the mass of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), TEP (which includes polysaccharide-containing microgels and nanogels >0.4 ?m in diameter) were determined in the bulk water, the surface microlayer, and aerosolized material. Aerosolized particles were also impacted onto substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, elemental analysis using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), and determination of carbon bonding with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Regardless of bubble generation method, the overall concentration of aerosol particles, TEP, POC and DOC increased as concentrations of bacterial and phytoplankton cells increased, stabilized, and subsequently declined. Particles <100 nm generated by means of jets were enhanced with time compared with larger sizes. In contrast, all particle sizes were equally enhanced when frits were used. Aerosolized particles were hygroscopic, a finding with significance for warm cloud formation and potential liquid-to-ice phase transformations. Aqueous and dry aerosolized particles from biologically active mesocosm water were found to efficiently nucleate ice exposed to supersaturated water vapor. The majority of particles, including those nucleating ice, consisted of a sea salt core coated with organic material dominated by the carboxyl functional group, and corresponded to a particle type commonly found in marine air. Our results provide improved estimates of marine aerosol production, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity, as well as an accurate physical and chemical representation of ice nucleation by marine biogenic aerosol particles for use in cloud and climate models.

Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

2013-12-01

57

Particle swarm optimization: developments, applications and resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the engineering and computer science aspects of developments, applications, and resources related to particle swarm optimization. Developments in the particle swarm algorithm since its origin in 1995 are reviewed. Included are brief discussions of constriction factors, inertia weights, and tracking dynamic systems. Applications, both those already developed, and promising future application areas, are reviewed. Finally, resources

Russell C. Eberhart; Yuhui Shi

2001-01-01

58

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE FOULING COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper constitutes an examination of the sedentary communities found on float bottoms and other submerged objects in Newport Harbor, California. Par ticular attention has been paid to the changes in composition of such communities with time. The basic problem in the development of a sequence of communities in a limited environment is that of distinguishing between seasonal progression and

BRADLEY T. SCHEER

59

Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs): between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH) of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C) and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) increased with plume age: from < 0.001 to 0.2, and from 2.42 to 4.96 ?g m-3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

Wonaschütz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2013-10-01

60

Supporting Marine Protected Area Development through Partnerships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2004 NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) has partnered with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to discover, explore and characterize unknown and poorly-known ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic Seaboard. These joint-efforts have led to the discovery of many sensitive deep-sea coral habitats in both the Gulf and the Atlantic. Data and information gathered during these projects will assist in protecting important ecosystems and historical sites in advance of potential future off-shore energy development. OER, BOEM and USGS have separate, yet aligned project goals enabling successful projects, which have societal, economic and environmental benefits for the nation.

McDonough, J.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; McDonald, E.

2012-12-01

61

Fucoidan as a Marine Anticancer Agent in Preclinical Development  

PubMed Central

Fucoidan is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds, crude extracts of which are commercially available as nutritional supplements. Recent studies have demonstrated antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties of fucoidan in vitro. Accordingly, the anticancer effects of fucoidan have been shown to vary depending on its structure, while it can target multiple receptors or signaling molecules in various cell types, including tumor cells and immune cells. Low toxicity and the in vitro effects of fucoidan mentioned above make it a suitable agent for cancer prevention or treatment. However, preclinical development of natural marine products requires in vivo examination of purified compounds in animal tumor models. This review discusses the effects of systemic and local administration of fucoidan on tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immune reaction and whether in vivo and in vitro results are likely applicable to the development of fucoidan as a marine anticancer drug.

Kwak, Jong-Young

2014-01-01

62

Developing Operational Oceanography for Marine Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanography for assessments necessarily depends on the purposes of the assessments and on the ocean characteristics or variables required for the various purposes. Objectives and variables all have their own inherent time- and space-scales. For variables, these may be determined by sources, transport and/or dynamics, and evolution. Socio-economic interests determine the scales inherent in objectives; these scales are liable to range from a coastal locality to global, and from hours or days to decades. Measurements are limited by available technology and funding, and cannot be expected to resolve the smaller inherent scales as well as giving the coverage sought. Hence an emphasis is placed on (i) making the most of opportunities for concurrent measurements of variables with compatible intrinsic scales, (ii) data management to exploit measurements fully, (iii) development, testing and use of models with data assimilation, to interpolate measurements, to optimise measurements' effectiveness (measurement array design) and perhaps to infer earlier conditions when measurements were scarcer, (iv) models as a means of synthesising varied information to provide assessment "products", (v) feedback from users of these products to raise the quality of (i-iv). Whilst objectives determine the variables of interest, the inherent scales of variables are emphasised as the appropriate control on the density of measurements. This may foster efficiency in operational measurements and their application through models, after further research.

Huthnance, John M.

2013-04-01

63

Hygroscopic properties of organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the research vessel R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) at a relative humidity (RH) of 92% were low, but increased at higher plume ages: from 1.05 to 1.09 for 30 nm and from 1.05 to 1.1 for 150 nm dry size (contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6). Simultaneously, ratios of oxygen to carbon (O:C) increased from < 0.001 to 0.2, water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) concentrations increased from 2.42 to 4.96 ?g m-3, and organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07-0.88%. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions. An average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

Wonaschütz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2013-05-01

64

Asian dust particles converted into aqueous droplets under remote marine atmospheric conditions  

PubMed Central

The chemical history of dust particles in the atmosphere is crucial for assessing their impact on both the Earth’s climate and ecosystem. So far, a number of studies have shown that, in the vicinity of strong anthropogenic emission sources, Ca-rich dust particles can be converted into aqueous droplets mainly by the reaction with gaseous HNO3 to form Ca(NO3)2. Here we show that other similar processes have the potential to be activated under typical remote marine atmospheric conditions. Based on field measurements at several sites in East Asia and thermodynamic predictions, we examined the possibility for the formation of two highly soluble calcium salts, Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2, which can deliquesce at low relative humidity. According to the results, the conversion of insoluble CaCO3 to Ca(NO3)2 tends to be dominated over urban and industrialized areas of the Asian continent, where the concentrations of HNO3 exceed those of HCl ([HNO3/HCl] >  ? 1). In this regime, CaCl2 is hardly detected from dust particles. However, the generation of CaCl2 becomes detectable around the Japan Islands, where the concentrations of HCl are much higher than those of HNO3 ([HNO3/HCl] <  ? 0.3). We suggest that elevated concentrations of HCl in the remote marine boundary layer are sufficient to modify Ca-rich particles in dust storms and can play a more important role in forming a deliquescent layer on the particle surfaces as they are transported toward remote ocean regions.

Tobo, Yutaka; Zhang, Daizhou; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

2010-01-01

65

Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological activity can contain sea salts associated with organic material, with smaller particles containing a larger mass fraction of organics than larger particles. This likely indicates a link between phytoplankton productivity in oceans and particulate organic material in marine air. Once aerosolized, particles with significant amount of organic material can affect cloud activation and formation of ice crystals, among other atmospheric processes, thus influencing climate. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, in which concentrations of biological organisms can reach up to 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms. Here we present results of bubble bursting aerosol production from a seawater mesocosm containing artificial seawater, natural seawater and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species. These phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emilianaia huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus), possessed siliceous frustules, calcareous frustules and no frustules, respectively. Bubbles were generated employing recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions and bulk aerosol organic composition were measured as a function of phytoplankton growth, and chlorophyll composition and particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the water were determined. Finally, particles were collected on substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, their elemental compositions were determined using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEMEDAX), and their carbon speciation was determined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle size distributions exposed to dry and humidified air employing artificial seawater show agreement with previous studies. As the phytoplankton population grows, particle production increases, with particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter primarily contributing to this increase. CCSEM/EDAX and STXM/NEXAFS analysis shows that phytoplankton presence can result in purely organic airborne particles, NaCl particles coated with organic material and organic particles containing phytoplankton frustule fragments. We also have observed that submicrometer particles can efficiently nucleate ice and that the same ice nucleating particles examined with CCSEM/EDAX and STXM/NEXAFS contain significant organic material by mass. These results will aid in understanding the effects of biological activity on the composition and mixing state of ocean derived aerosol particles and their potential impact on cold cloud formation.

Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

2012-12-01

66

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. (Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States))

1992-04-01

67

Observations of organic material in individual marine particles at Cape Grim during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) field campaign in November and December 1995, the particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry instrument was used to measure the composition of ambient particles in situ at Cape Grim, Tasmania, under various conditions ranging from clean marine air to moderately polluted air. Internal mixtures of sea-salt compounds and organic species were detected in over half of the negative spectra during clean marine conditions and in about 62% of the negative spectra during polluted conditions. In clean marine air masses, aerosol organics appeared to have two distinct source mechanisms depending on the extent of aerosol aging. Organic peaks had a positive trend with sodium sulfate peaks, indicating that organics and excess sulfate may accumulate in aged marine aerosol particles by similar mechanisms. When the sodium sulfate content was low, iodine had a positive trend with organics, which is consistent with organics and iodine originating from the surface-active layer of the ocean and becoming incorporated into fresh marine particles by bursting bubbles. Based on limited laboratory calibrations, the average organic mass is estimated to be of the order of 10% of the sea-salt content and is consistent with some of the missing mass fraction for Cape Grim particles (S. Howell et al., manuscript in preparation, 1997), which is the measured difference between gravimetric and ionic mass.

Middlebrook, Ann M.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Thomson, David S.

1998-01-01

68

Marine Fisheries Case Studies. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Case Study No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed to aid Peace Corps volunteers interested in programming marine fisheries projects. Although these projects are not new to the Peace Corps, new staff members may not be aware of the history of marine fisheries efforts in their country. Chapter 1 discusses all past marine fisheries projects initiated by the Peace Corps in…

Chakroff, Marilyn; DuBois, Random

69

Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load

A. Petzold; J. Hasselbach; P. Lauer; R. Baumann; K. Franke; C. Gurk; H. Schlager; E. Weingartner

2007-01-01

70

Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load

A. Petzold; J. Hasselbach; P. Lauer; R. Baumann; K. Franke; C. Gurk; H. Schlager; E. Weingartner

2008-01-01

71

The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments worldwide. Interestingly, organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events to potential CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and high biological activity (HBA, i.e. a high mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in spring 2002. Additionally, a PHA-UCPC (pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter) technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity (LBA, i.e. a lower mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in October 2002. The overall results of the UFO-TDMA and the PHA-UCPC measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine/coastal biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation by iodine, hydroxyl radical, and ozone. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the UFO-TDMA results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to CCN and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the coastal/marine particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to coastal/marine particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

2006-04-01

72

Mixing state of aerosols and direct observation of carbonaceous and marine coatings on African dust by individual particle analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mixing state of aerosols collected at M'Bour, Senegal, during the Special Observing Period conducted in January-February 2006 (SOP-0) of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project (AMMA), was studied by individual particle analysis. The sampling location on the Atlantic coast is particularly adapted for studying the mixing state of tropospheric aerosols since it is (1) located on the path of Saharan dust plumes transported westward over the northern tropical Atlantic, (2) influenced by biomass burning events particularly frequent from December to March, and (3) strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from polluted African cities. Particle size, morphology, and chemical composition were determined for 12,672 particles using scanning electron microscopy (automated SEM-EDX). Complementary analyses were performed using transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectrometry (TEM-EELS) and Raman microspectrometry. Mineral dust and carbonaceous and marine compounds were predominantly found externally mixed, i.e., not present together in the same particles. Binary internally mixed particles, i.e., dust/carbonaceous, carbonaceous/marine, and dust/marine mixtures, accounted for a significant fraction of analyzed particles (from 10.5% to 46.5%). Western Sahara was identified as the main source of mineral dust. Two major types of carbonaceous particles were identified: "tar balls" probably coming from biomass burning emissions and soot from anthropogenic emissions. Regarding binary internally mixed particles, marine and carbonaceous compounds generally formed a coating on mineral dust particles. The carbonaceous coating observed at the particle scale on African dust was evidenced by the combined use of elemental and molecular microanalysis techniques, with the identification of an amorphous rather than crystallized carbon structure.

Deboudt, Karine; Flament, Pascal; ChoëL, Marie; Gloter, Alexandre; Sobanska, Sophie; Colliex, Christian

2010-12-01

73

Aging of Soot Particles: Remote Marine Free-tropospheric Aerosol at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Azores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soot particles, often referred to as black carbon, are aggregates of carbonaceous monomers that strongly absorb light, significantly impacting the environment, Earth's radiation balance, atmospheric chemistry and properties of clouds. Soot can be transported over long distances, thus affecting global climate. During transport, soot aggregates undergo chemical and morphological changes such as oxidation, mixing, coating and restructuring. These changes have a significant impact on soot's light absorption and scattering efficiencies, and therefore on soot's effects on climate. Free tropospheric aerosols are being studied at the Pico Mountain Observatory, located near the top of the Pico Volcano in the Azores, Portugal (38.47°N, 28.40°W, 2225m asl). Typically above the marine boundary layer, this is an ideal site to study aerosol transported over long distances across the ocean, often from North America and sometimes from Africa and Europe. We studied the morphology and mixing state of individual soot particles using electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We also measured the optical properties of aerosols using light scattering data from a 3-wavelength nephelometer, and black carbon mass equivalent concentrations using a 7-wavelength aethalometer. In this presentation, we focus on samples collected during two events in July 2012. Back trajectory analysis shows that in both periods the air masses reaching Pico were traveling from west to east, apparently originating in North America. Soot particles were classified into four categories based on their coating and mixing state. We investigated the morphology of soot particles in the four categories, using various descriptors (e.g. aspect ratio, roundness and convexity), monomer size and fractal dimension. Most of the soot particles were coated. Bare or very thinly coated soot, exhibited very compacted structures and high convexity. The results of this study have implications on how soot particles can be represented in numerical models in remote regions of the free troposphere.

China, S.; Mazzoleni, C.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; kumar, S.; Dziobak, M.; Fialho, P. J.; Dzepina, K.; Hueber, J.; Helmig, D.; Kramer, L. J.; Sharma, N.; Olsen, S. C.; Owen, R. C.

2013-12-01

74

Diel variations of marine snow concentration in surface waters and implications for particle flux in the sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successive measurements of the size distribution and abundance of marine snow in the upper 100 m of the Santa Barbara Channel, California, with an in situ still camera system following 11 tagged water masses revealed a consistent pattern of nighttime decreases in the abundance of large particles. A net nocturnal reduction in particulate flux from the upper 100 m as calculated from camera profiles occurred in 75% of the day-night comparisons, and nighttime aggregate carbon losses resulted in a 38% average reduction in camera-derived aggregate flux. Intensive investigation of three stations for 24-48 h each indicated that nighttime decreases in aggregate concentrations and derived aggregate flux could be registered throughout the observed water column. Nocturnal decreases in marine snow concentration are unlikely to result from diel variations in the production of marine snow either as feeding webs of zooplankton or through variations in aggregation rates of smaller particles. Moreover, measured diel variations in the intensity of surface mixing and convective overturn during one of the 24 h deployments were not intense enough to produce aggregate fragmentation and reduced aggregate flux. Nighttime increases in large crustacean zooplankton (i.e., euphausiids and the large copepod Calanus pacificus) could explain some or all of the reduction in aggregate abundance at most stations. Fragmentation and consumption of marine snow by migrating macrozooplankton could produce our observed synchronous diel cycles in marine snow concentration. This is the first empirical evidence of a diel pattern in the concentration and calculated particulate flux of large sinking particles in near-surface waters. The data presented here are consistent with the only other existing diel study, which also reported decreases in marine snow abundance at night at 270 m depths in the oceanic north Atlantic. Diel variations in the sizes and concentrations of marine snow may impact water column processes dependent upon particle availability and size, such as grazing and remineralization, and may generate a diel cycle of food availability to the benthos.

Graham, William M.; MacIntyre, Sally; Alldredge, Alice L.

2000-03-01

75

Effects of Inorganic Particles on Metabolism by a Periphytic Marine Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Measurements were made of adsorption of a periphytic marine bacterium, glucose, and glutamic acid to inorganic particles in seawater and defined bacterial growth medium. Measurements of the metabolism of bacteria were made in the presence and absence of particles by microcalorimetry and radiorespirometry. It was found that hydroxyapatite adsorbs glutamic acid, but not glucose, from the experimental medium. It was also found that hydroxyapatite adsorbs essentially all of the bacteria from the medium when the bacterial concentration is approximately 6 × 105 bacteria per ml. If the bacterial concentration is approximately 6 × 107, then only a small fraction of cells become attached. It was therefore possible to select bacterial concentrations and organic nutrients so that bacterial attachment, organic nutrient adsorption, or both would occur in different experiments. In this experimental system the metabolism by attached and nonattached bacteria of adsorbing and nonadsorbing organic nutrients was measured. The results show that bacterial activity in this model system was not enhanced by the particles, regardless of whether the bacteria, the organic nutrient, or both were associated with the surface. In fact, the respiratory activity of the attached bacteria was diminished in comparison with that of free bacteria.

Gordon, Andrew S.; Gerchakov, Sol M.; Millero, Frank J.

1983-01-01

76

Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel.  

PubMed

Emissions from harbor-craft significantly affect air quality in populated regions near ports and inland waterways. This research measured regulated and unregulated emissions from an in-use EPA Tier 2 marine propulsion engine on a ferry operating in a bay following standard methods. A special effort was made to monitor continuously both the total Particulate Mass (PM) mass emissions and the real-time Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The engine was operated following the loads in ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle for comparison with the certification standards and across biodiesel blends. Real-time measurements were also made during a typical cruise in the bay. Results showed the in-use nitrogen oxide (NOx) and PM(2.5) emission factors were within the not to exceed standard for Tier 2 marine engines. Comparing across fuels we observed the following: a) no statistically significant change in NO(x) emissions with biodiesel blends (B20, B50); b) ? 16% and ? 25% reduction of PM(2.5) mass emissions with B20 and B50 respectively; c) a larger organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratio and organic mass (OM) to OC ratio with B50 compared to B20 and B0; d) a significant number of ultrafine nuclei and a smaller mass mean diameter with increasing blend-levels of biodiesel. The real-time monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions during a typical cruise in the San Francisco Bay (in-use cycle) revealed important effects of ocean/bay currents on emissions: NO(x) and CO(2) increased 3-fold; PM(2.5) mass increased 6-fold; and ultrafine particles disappeared due to the effect of bay currents. This finding has implications on the use of certification values instead of actual in-use emission values when developing inventories. Emission factors for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported as supplemental data. PMID:21344849

Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

2011-03-15

77

Dual fuel development for an LNG marine engine  

SciTech Connect

A dual-fuel conversion for the 3406-B Caterpillar marine diesel engine has been developed. The purpose of this conversion is to use lower priced natural gas as a fuel, thus providing substantial cost savings for large fuel consumers. Details of the conversion system are given. Data is presented showing fuel consumption, conditions leading to engine knock, conditions promoting methane flame propagation, and air-fuel ratios required for efficient combustion. The system resulting from this study will use Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to power a dual-fuel conversion of a shrimp boat's main engine and generator set. The cold temperatures of the LNG will also be used as a heat sink to refrigerate the fish-hold area of the boat.

Acker, G.H.

1988-01-01

78

Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ? 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42-, followed by Na+, Cl-, Org (total organics), NH4+, and NO3-, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3- (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH4+ to SO42- equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl- deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO42-. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol concentrations were negligible. The very low levels of CH3SO3- observed as well as the correlation between SO42- and NO3- (which is thought primarily anthropogenic) suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO42- aerosol production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

2014-05-01

79

The discovery and development of marine compounds with pharmaceutical potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the current status of marine anticancer compounds is presented along with a case study on the aquaculture of Lissodendoryx n. sp. 1, a sponge that produces the antimitotic agents halichondrin B and isohomohalichondrin B. The use of polymer therapeutics to enhance the properties of marine natural products is considered.

Murray H. G. Munro; John W. Blunt; Eric J. Dumdei; Sarah J. H. Hickford; Rachel E. Lill; Shangxiao Li; Christopher N. Battershill; Alan R. Duckworth

1999-01-01

80

Key elements and steps in the process of developing ecosystem-based marine spatial planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an essential tool for delivering an Ecosystem Approach and should add value to existing management measures for the marine environment. It should be based on a clear set of principles with a sustainable development purpose. Developing MSP can draw selectively on extensive experiences in terrestrial land use planning. A nested approach with appropriate planning activity

Paul M. Gilliland; Dan Laffoley

2008-01-01

81

Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: 2. Partitioning of Methanesulfonate and non-Sea Salt Sulfate in Individual Sea Salt Particles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas phase precursor for sulfate aerosol over the oceans is dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS is emitted to the atmosphere by phytoplankton and oxidized, yielding both intermediate methane sulfonate (CH3SO3-) and final non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) products. Knowledge about the CH3SO3- to nss-SO42- partitioning in the sea salt particles over specific geographic locations is important for understanding DMS oxidation chemistry and its possible effects on clouds, i.e. the potential for new particle formation versus growth of existing droplets and particles. Unambiguous, quantitative assessment of CH3SO3- /nss-SO42- ratios in individual sea salt particles has been made possible using combined data sets from two analytical techniques: computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). In this presentation, we report the particle size specific data on the nss-S/Na and the CH3SO3- /nss-SO4^{2- } ratios measured in dry residues of marine cloud droplets and particles collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) in July 2005. Characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na > 0.10 are reported for sea salt particles, with higher values for small particles indicating extensive formation of sulfur containing salts in small particles. Characteristic ratios of CH3SO3- /nss-SO42- > 0.70 are reported with higher values for large particles, indicating the higher capacity for CH3SO3- (lower conversion to SO42- ) for large particles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that CH3SO3- /nss-SO42- have been quantitatively reported based on the individual particle measurements.

Hopkins, R. J.; Tivanski, A. V.; Desyaterik, Y.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

2006-12-01

82

Diazocyte development in the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium.  

PubMed

The establishment of non-diazotrophic cultures of the filamentous marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 enabled the first detailed investigation of the process leading to the development of its unique nitrogen-fixing cell type, the diazocyte. Trichome heterogeneity was apparent already within 3-8 h, while the differentiation of mature diazocytes, containing the nitrogenase enzyme, required 27 h after the removal of combined nitrogen. The distribution of 'pro-diazocytes' within the trichomes correlates with the localization of mature diazocytes, which suggests that pattern regulation is an early event during diazocyte development. The development was initially identified as changes in the subcellular ultrastructure, most notably the degradation of glycogen granules and gas vacuoles. These changes were preceded by the induced expression of the global nitrogen regulator ntcA at an early stage of combined nitrogen deprivation, followed by elevated expression of genes related to nitrogen metabolism and their corresponding proteins. The strongest induction (10-fold) was related to the transcription of the respiratory gene coxB2, apparent already at an early stage, which suggests an important role for respiration and the subsequent energy generation in the subcellular changes found, and in the creation of the reducing environment required for nitrogen fixation in diazocytes. PMID:22053003

Sandh, Gustaf; Xu, Linghua; Bergman, Birgitta

2012-02-01

83

Microbial Ecology of Marine Snow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term goal of this project has been to develop methodology for examining the rates of protozoan grazing on marine snow particles (macroscopic detrital aggregates) in plankton communities. These detrital aggregates typically contain bacterial commu...

D. A. Caron

1991-01-01

84

Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ≤ 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific ocean during the VOCALS-REx experiment between 16~October and 15 November 2008 using the US DOE G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and how they interacted with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42-, followed by Na+, Cl-, Org, NH4+, and NO3-, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3-1 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection of ~0.05 and ~0.15 ?g m-3 for anions and cations, respectively. The aerosols were strongly acidic as the NH4+ to SO42- equivalence ratio was typically < 0.3; this inferred acidity is corroborated by the conductivity of aqueous samples collected by the PILS. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, showed Cl- deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, and were externally mixed with SO42- particles as the AMS detected no NO3- whilst uptake of HNO3 occurred only on SSA particles. The SSA loading as a function of wind speed agreed with that calculated from published relationships, and contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number. Vertical distribution of MBL SSA particles (Dp ≤ ~1.5 ?m) was uniform, suggesting a very limited dilution from entrainment of free tropospheric (FT) air. It was inferred that because all of the aerosol species (except SSA) exhibited a strong land-to-sea gradient, they were of continental origin. Comparison of relative changes in median values using LOWESS fits as proxies suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, and (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) FT contributions to MBL gas and aerosols were negligible. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra obtained with the AMS showed an HOA on 28 October 2008 but not on 6 November 2008 that we attribute to a more extensive cloud processing on the later date. A highly oxidized OOA factor resembling fulvic acid was found associated with anthropogenic and biogenic sources as well as long range transported biomass burn plumes in the FT air. A sulfur-containing OOA factor identified as MSA was strongly correlated with SO42-, hence anthropogenic. The very low levels of CH3SO3- observed suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO42- aerosols production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

2013-10-01

85

Small particle reagents: development of fluorescent variants.  

PubMed

Small particle reagent (SPR) is a widely used method to develop latent fingerprints on non-porous and wet surfaces. Conventionally, molybdenum disulfide based SPR has been used for the development of latent fingerprints while some SPR based on other materials such as charcoal powder, zinc carbonate and titanium dioxide have been reported. Fluorescent preparations of molybdenum disulfide based SPR have also been reported. In the present work, a number of SPR based on zinc carbonate have been developed in combination with various fluorescent dyes to develop latent fingerprints on a number of non-porous surfaces. The quality of the developed fingerprints have been evaluated and found to be reproducible. The shelf life of the reagents developed is found to be acceptable for case work purposes. The relationship between the immersion period of the substrate bearing the latent fingerprints and reagent has also been examined. PMID:18953802

Jasuja, O P; Singh, Gagan Deep; Sodhi, G S

2008-09-01

86

Assessing the effects of marine and hydrokinetic energy development on marine and estuarine resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's oceans and estuaries offer enormous potential to meet the nation's growing demand for energy. The use of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to harness the power of wave and tidal energy could contribute significantly toward meeting federaland state-mandated renewable energy goals while supplying a substantial amount of clean energy to coastal communities. Locations along the eastern and western

Jeffrey A. Ward; Irvin R. Schultz; Dana L. Woodruff; Guritno Roesijadi; Andrea E. Copping

2010-01-01

87

Particle Detectors: Research and Development at CERN  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 15 years a worldwide Detector R and D Programme has made the LHC experiments possible. These experiments operate at a new level of event rate and detection capabilities. Based on these advances, Detector R and D is continuing at CERN in close collaboration with University and Research Institutes. Several main directions are being pursued for solid-state and gaseous tracking devices, advanced crystal and noble liquid calorimetry, particle identification methods, and advanced signal-processing techniques. This effort is directed towards experiments at even higher collision rates at the LHC, the requirements for the next generation of linear electron-positron colliders and for applications outside particle physics, such as medical diagnostics instrumentation. We shall illustrate this challenging, stimulating and creative programme with examples and show how these developments are taking place in close collaboration between CERN and institutions around the globe.

Fabjan, C. W. [CERN (Switzerland)

2008-04-21

88

Realistic Job Previews for a Sample of Navy and Marine Corps Occupations: Development of Prototypes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research developed prototypic realistic job previews (RJPs) for a sample of entry-level Navy and Marine Corps occupations. The research reported here is expected to benefit the recruiting branches of the Navy and Marine Corps as well as the research ...

H. G. Baker J. M. Julius J. P. Wanous

1989-01-01

89

Development of an in vivo genotoxicity assay using the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii (Polychaeta: Nereidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vivo genotoxicity test system has been developed using the embryo-larval stages of the marine annelid, Playnereis dumerilii (Polychaeta: Nereidae). This species is representative of an ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, it is amenable to laboratory culture and has a well defined and stable karyotype (2n = 28) which is suitable for the analysis of a range of

Awadhesh N. Jha; Thomas H. Hutchinson; James M. Mackay; Barry M. Elliot; David R. Dixon

1996-01-01

90

Evaluation of the atmospheric transport of marine-derived particles using long-chain unsaturated ketones  

SciTech Connect

Biomarker source information provided by long-chain alkenone (LCA) distribution patterns was used to assess the transport pathways of marine aerosols. The C{sub 37}-C{sub 39}LCA were found in significant amounts in aerosols collected in New Zealand. Their occurrence in the atmosphere stems from their introduction by bubble-bursting processes during wave breaking. The surface water temperatures calculated from the U{sub 37}{sup k} ratios suggested a local origin and short atmospheric residence times of the LCA. They were not detected in aerosol samples collected on American Samoa due to the absence of the source organisms in surface waters. The distribution of LCA was also investigated in size-fractionated aerosols over a range of < 0.5 to > 7.2 {mu}m equivalent diameter. Their distribution over the size spectrum demonstrated that they were only associated with large particles (d{sub eq} > 3.0 {mu}m), suggesting a direct injection of algal cells and/or their fragments into the atmosphere.

Sicre, M.A.; Gagosian, R.B.; Peltzer, E.T. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States))

1990-02-20

91

Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test and validate, on the basis of observations, innovative integrative modelling tools in order to further strengthen our understanding of ecosystem and biodiversity changes in space and time. The resultant models are being developed for implementation as operational tools for managers, decision takers and policy makers. The project is contributing (i) to enable the adaptive development of management (ecosystem-based management approach) strategies and management measures as a result of their implementation taking into account the role of industry and relevant stakeholders, (ii) to provide economic assessment of the consequences of management practices, (iii) to identify the barriers (socio-economic and legislative) that prevent the GES to be achieved (e.g. eutrophication), (iv) to provide a set of policy options for the relevant authorities. In addition the project should propose and demonstrate the utility of innovative monitoring systems capable of providing data on a range of parameters, efficiently and effectively, that may be used as indicators of good environmental status. This contribution presents a summary of most of these aspects.

Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

2014-05-01

92

Identification of polymer types and additives in marine microplastic particles using pyrolysis-GC/MS and scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Any assessment of plastic contamination in the marine environment requires knowledge of the polymer type and the additive content of microplastics. Sequential pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (Pyr-GC/MS) was applied to simultaneously identify polymer types of microplastic particles and associated organic plastic additives (OPAs). In addition, a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyser was used to identify the inorganic plastic additives (IPAs) contained in these particles. A total of ten particles, which were optically identified as potentially being plastics, were extracted from two sediment samples collected from Norderney, a North Sea island, by density separation in sodium chloride. The weights of these blue, white and transparent fragments varied between 10 and 350 ?g. Polymer types were identified by comparing the resulting pyrograms with those obtained from the pyrolysis of selected standard polymers. The particles consisted of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamide, chlorinated PE and chlorosulfonated PE. The polymers contained diethylhexyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, benzaldehyde and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Sequential Py-GC/MS was found to be an appropriate tool for identifying marine microplastics for polymer types and OPAs. The IPAs identified were titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), barium, sulphur and zinc. When polymer-TiO2 composites are degraded in the marine environment, TiO2-NPs are probably released. Thus, marine microplastics may act as a TiO2-NP source, which has not yet been considered. PMID:24056666

Fries, Elke; Dekiff, Jens H; Willmeyer, Jana; Nuelle, Marie-Theres; Ebert, Martin; Remy, Dominique

2013-10-01

93

Marine Animal Alert System-Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies-FY 2011 Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal tu...

A. E. Copping S. A. Matzner

2011-01-01

94

The development of artificial media for marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culturing of marine algae has proceeded slowly since MIQV~L (1890 93) succeeded in growing a few diatoms in the laboratory. Until recently most media were composed of sea water or sea water-like artificial solutions which are prone to precipitate because of the presence of several salts in concentration near saturation. In order to avoid precipitates such media must be

L. Provasoli; J. J. A. McLaughlin; M. R. Droop

1957-01-01

95

Workshop on the Development, Management, and Utilization of Indonesian Marine Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workshop summarized in the report was held in Jakarta, June 23-26, 1987. It was designed to facilitate the exchange of information and experience pertinent to developing, managing, and utilizing Indonesian marine resources; to identify short- and long...

1987-01-01

96

Future Particle Accelerator Developments for Radiation Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade particle beam cancer therapy has seen a rapid increase in interest, and several new centers have been built, are currently under construction, or are in an advanced stage of planning. Typical treatment centers today consist of an accelerator capable of producing proton or ion beams in an energy range of interest for medical treatment, i.e. providing a penetration depth in water of about 30 cm, a beam delivery system to transport the produced beam to the patient treatment rooms, and several patient stations, allowing for an optimal usage of the continuously produced beam. This makes these centers rather large and consequently expensive. Only major hospital centers situated in an area where they can draw on a population of several million can afford such an installation. In order to spread the use of particle beam cancer therapy to a broader population base it will be necessary to scale down the facility size and cost. This can in principle be done by reducing the number of treatment rooms to one, eliminating the need of an elaborate beam delivery system, and thereby reducing the building size and cost. Such a change should be going in parallel with a reduction of the accelerator itself, and a number of approaches to this are currently being pursued. If successful, such developments could eventually lead to a compact system where all components would fit into a single shielded room, not much different in size from a typical radiation vault for radiotherapy with X-rays.

Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels

97

Assessing the Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development on Marine and Estuarine Resources  

SciTech Connect

The world’s oceans and estuaries offer an enormous potential to meet the nation’s growing demand for energy. The use of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to harness the power of wave and tidal energy could contribute significantly toward meeting federal- and state-mandated renewable energy goals while supplying a substantial amount of clean energy to coastal communities. Locations along the eastern and western coasts of the United States between 40° and 70° north latitude are ideal for MHK deployment, and recent estimates of energy potential for the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California suggest that up to 25 gigawatts could be generated from wave and tidal devices in these areas. Because energy derived from wave and tidal devices is highly predictable, their inclusion in our energy portfolio could help balance available sources of energy production, including hydroelectric, coal, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal, and others.

Ward, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Copping, Andrea E.

2010-07-30

98

Developing geochemical methods for marine exploration of oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

Experimental-methodological oil exploration geochemical investigations have been carried out in the Caspian and Black seas. The bottom deposits were selected according to a differential grid, the type of which depended on geologic structure and morphology of the bottom, Lithology, and other factors. Bottom sediments were collected by scientific-research vessels using coring devices. This paper reviews the results of this testing for hydrocarbon distribution, bituminous and organic matter composition; and methane content in marine sediments.

Bagirov, V.I.; Zor'kin, L.M.; Zubayrayev, S.L.; Lopatin, N.V.

1983-01-01

99

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

1992-04-01

100

Mind the Gap: furthering the development of an international collaboration in marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large and ever increasing amount of marine data is available throughout Europe, USA, Australia and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collection is high and the data itself often irreplaceable. At a time when the demand for marine data is growing while financial resources for its collection are being dramatically reduced the need to maximise its re-use is becoming a priority for marine data managers. A number of barriers to the re-use of marine data currently exist due to the various formats, standards, vocabularies etc. used by the organisations engaged in collecting and managing this data. These challenges are already being addressed at a regional level by projects in Europe (Geo-Seas, SeaDataNet etc.), USA (R2R) and Australia (IMOS). To expand these projects further and bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) will establish a collaborative platform which will facilitate the development of a common approach to marine data management. Proactive dissemination of the outcomes and products of this project will promote adoption of the common standards and practices developed by the ODIP project to other organisations and regions beyond the 20 original consortium partners. To demonstrate this coordinated approach several joint prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential solutions for solving the marine data management issues identified within the different marine disciplines. These prototypes will also be used to illustrate the effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and international boundaries through the development of common practices and standards in marine data management.

Glaves, H. M.; Miller, S. P.; Proctor, R.; Schaap, D.

2012-12-01

101

Virus-like particles in vaccine development.  

PubMed

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are multiprotein structures that mimic the organization and conformation of authentic native viruses but lack the viral genome, potentially yielding safer and cheaper vaccine candidates. A handful of prophylactic VLP-based vaccines is currently commercialized worldwide: GlaxoSmithKline's Engerix (hepatitis B virus) and Cervarix (human papillomavirus), and Merck and Co., Inc.'s Recombivax HB (hepatitis B virus) and Gardasil (human papillomavirus) are some examples. Other VLP-based vaccine candidates are in clinical trials or undergoing preclinical evaluation, such as, influenza virus, parvovirus, Norwalk and various chimeric VLPs. Many others are still restricted to small-scale fundamental research, despite their success in preclinical tests. This article focuses on the essential role of VLP technology in new-generation vaccines against prevalent and emergent diseases. The implications of large-scale VLP production are discussed in the context of process control, monitorization and optimization. The main up- and down-stream technical challenges are identified and discussed accordingly. Successful VLP-based vaccine blockbusters are briefly presented concomitantly with the latest results from clinical trials and the recent developments in chimeric VLP-based technology for either therapeutic or prophylactic vaccination. PMID:20923267

Roldão, António; Mellado, Maria Candida M; Castilho, Leda R; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

2010-10-01

102

Adding pharmacogenomics to the development of new marine-derived anticancer agents.  

PubMed

Nature has always been a highly productive tool in the development of anticancer therapies. Renewed interest in the potential of this tool has recently been sparked by the realization that the marine ecosystem can be used for the discovery and development of new compounds with clinical potential in advanced resistant tumors. These compounds can be incorporated into combination approaches in a chronic therapy scenario. Our marine anticancer program is using the sea to develop new agents with activity in resistant solid tumors and to identify new cellular targets for therapeutic intervention. This review describes the integration of different pharmacogenomic tools in the development of Yondelis, Aplidin and Kahalalide F, three marine-derived compounds currently in Phase II or III development. Our results are reinforcing the targeted selectivity of these agents and opening the gates for customized therapies in cancer patients in the near future. PMID:16401350

Jimeno, José; Aracil, Miguel; Tercero, Juan Carlos

2006-01-01

103

Adding pharmacogenomics to the development of new marine-derived anticancer agents  

PubMed Central

Nature has always been a highly productive tool in the development of anticancer therapies. Renewed interest in the potential of this tool has recently been sparked by the realization that the marine ecosystem can be used for the discovery and development of new compounds with clinical potential in advanced resistant tumors. These compounds can be incorporated into combination approaches in a chronic therapy scenario. Our marine anticancer program is using the sea to develop new agents with activity in resistant solid tumors and to identify new cellular targets for therapeutic intervention. This review describes the integration of different pharmacogenomic tools in the development of Yondelis™, Aplidin® and Kahalalide F, three marine-derived compounds currently in Phase II or III development. Our results are reinforcing the targeted selectivity of these agents and opening the gates for customized therapies in cancer patients in the near future.

Jimeno, Jose; Aracil, Miguel; Tercero, Juan Carlos

2006-01-01

104

Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

Barbara Louise Endemaño Walker; Michael A. Robinson

2009-01-01

105

Planar Particle Imaging Doppler Velocimetry Developed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two current techniques exist for the measurement of planar, three-component velocity fields. Both techniques require multiple views of the illumination plane in order to extract all three velocity components. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a high-res...

M. P. Wernet

2000-01-01

106

Development of Improved Magnetic Particle Inspection Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current magnetic particle inspections for surface and near-surface flaws in ferromagnetic parts are dependent on human observations, decisions and errors. An improvement on this would be a semi-automatic device for detection and decision making that could...

E. F. Bauer

1971-01-01

107

Fluid particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motion of fluid particles as they are pushed along erratic trajectories\\u000aby fluctuating pressure gradients is fundamental to transport and mixing in\\u000aturbulence. It is essential in cloud formation and atmospheric transport,\\u000aprocesses in stirred chemical reactors and combustion systems, and in the\\u000aindustrial production of nanoparticles. The perspective of particle\\u000atrajectories has been used successfully to describe mixing

Greg A. Voth; Alice M. Crawford; Jim Alexander; Eberhard Bodenschatz; A. La Porta

2001-01-01

108

Effects of food particle concentration on feeding current velocity in sex species of marine Bryozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out using established methods to measure feeding current velocity in six species of marine Bryozoa collected in 1982 and 1983 around low-tide mark at Port St. Mary, Isle of Man (Flustrellidra hispida, Alcyonidium gelatinosum, A. hirsutum, Electra pilosa, Membranipora membranacea and Bowerbankia gracilis feeding on Tetraselmis suecica). It was found that there was a positive correlation between

M. A. Best; J. P. Thorpe

1986-01-01

109

Variability of CCN Activation Behaviour of Aerosol Particles in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activation behaviour and total CCN number concentrations was investigated during three ship cruises. Measurements were performed in a mobile laboratory on the German research vessel FS Polarstern cruising between Cape Town and Bremerhaven (April / May and October / November 2011) as well as between Punta Arenas and Bremerhaven (April / May 2012). CCN size distributions were measured for supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.4% using a Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (DMT, USA). Aerosol particle and CCN total number concentrations as well as the hygroscopicity parameter ? (Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007) were determined. Furthermore, size distribution data were collected. The hygroscopicity parameter ? featured a high variability during the cruises, with a median ?-value of 0.52 ± 0.26. The ?-values are depended on air mass origin; and are as expected mainly dominated by marine influences, but also long range transport of aerosol particles was detected. In the Celtic Sea, ? was found to be lower than that of clean marine aerosol particles (0.72 ± 0.24; Pringle et al., 2010) with ?-values ~0.2, possibly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Europe. Close to the West African coast particle hygroscopicity was found to be influenced by the Saharan dust plume, resulting in low ?-values ~0.25. Petters, M.D. and S.M. Kreidenweis (2007), A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity, Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 7, 1961-1971. Pringle, K.J., H. Tost, A. Pozzer, U. Pöschl, and J. Lelieveld (2010), Global distribution of the effective aerosol hygroscopicity parameter for CCN activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5241-5255.

Henning, Silvia; Dieckmann, Katrin; Hartmann, Susan; Schäfer, Michael; Wu, Zhijun; Merkel, Maik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

2013-04-01

110

Developing and testing an assessment framework to guide the sustainability of the marine wildlife tourism industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in the marine wildlife tourism industry has been accompanied by concerns regarding its sustainability. This paper develops and tests a generic framework for assessing the sustainability of such ventures. The framework aims to guide the collection and collation of existing information and then use this information to identify current sustainability issues and information gaps. Development relied on a literature

Kate Rodger; Amanda Smith; David Newsome; Susan A. Moore

2011-01-01

111

Development and Testing of Temperature Sensitive Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature sensitive particles can be used to seed a fluid flow, allowing for non-intrusive velocity and temperature field measurements. Using an avalanche photodiode (APD) with fiber optic setup, the emission intensity of luminescing samples is measured. Changes in the luminescence when subjected to a step temperature input within a shock tube lead to the determination of the time response. Furthermore, temperature and pressure sensitivity analysis is performed using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) survey apparatus. Results for various temperature sensitive particles are presented along with suggestions for application to experimental flows.

West, Trenton; Zhu, Cun; Xia, Younan; Khalil, Gamal; Dabiri, Dana

2011-11-01

112

Development of the marine incineration bioassay sampling system (MIBAS) for at-sea incineration testing  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the development of the Marine Incineration Bioassay Sampling System (MIBAS) for at-sea incineration testing, as part of EPA's overall evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with the incineration of hazardous wastes at sea. The related strategy focuses on the acquisition of scientific information and on the development of new techniques designed to expand the knowledge of: (1) the chemical nature of incinerator emissions; (2) the behavior and fate of incinerator emission plumes; (3) the possible extent of exposure of marine organisms to these emissions; and (4) the possible environmental consequences of such an exposure.

Piispanen, W.H.; Jackson, M.D.; Redford, D.P.

1986-07-01

113

Can Aerosol Particles Develop Organic Surface Layers Under UT\\/LS Conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropospheric aerosol particles contain oligomers and macromolecular humic-like substances that may be created by reactions in or on the surface of particles. Marine aerosols have been observed to possess surface films of fatty acids which can survive the evaporation of water from the interior of the particle. This phenomenon of surface films is of current interest with regard to their

L. T. Iraci; P. H. Deng

2007-01-01

114

THE DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO OF PARTICLES FROM CYTOPLASM  

PubMed Central

A system is described in which microscopically visible particles develop from cytoplasmic proteins incubated in vitro. The conditions required for the development of particles are those usually associated with enzymic reactions. The particles are believed to develop as a result of enzyme action on cytoplasmic proteins in the presence of compounds having certain specific chemical configurations. The relation of the particles to various "microorganisms," described in the literature as etiologic agents of disease, and to the problem of seemingly positive blood cultures is discussed.

Nelson, Eric L.

1958-01-01

115

Development of a particle nanoimprinting technique by core-shell particles.  

PubMed

We developed a particle nanoimprinting technique assisted by the array of core-shell particles. Core-shell particles composed of a solid core of polystyrene and a soft shell were prepared by soap-free emulsion polymerization and subsequently seeded polymerization. By the Langmuir-Blodgett method, particles were arranged into a closely packed 2D array over the water surface and transferred onto a polystyrene (PS) substrate at a regular interval. The PS substrate was heated up above its glass transition temperature (Tg) by either UV irradiation using a high-pressure Hg lamp or heat treatment in a temperature-controlled incubator. It could be observed that a nanopatterned indented surface was formed through the denting of particles into the PS substrate (particle nanoindenting). By the detachment of particles from the substrate by ultrasonication in ethanol, nanoholes were produced over the surface (particle nanoimprinting). The depth and the wall of nanoholes and their interval were tunable by the shell thickness and the 2D packing ratio of core-shell particle monolayers. The contact angle decreased from 70 degrees of the pristine particle monolayer to 13 degrees by the particle nanoindenting, and again increased to 50 degrees by detaching the particles from the substrate to create the nanoholes. The use of nanoholes as zepto-litter volume vessels enabled us to produce and arrange nanocrystals, such as NaCl and CaCO3 (zepto-reactor). PMID:24446687

Watanabe, H; Nishimura, M; Fukui, Y; Fujimoto, K

2014-02-18

116

Developing the Molybdenum Isotopic Proxy in Marine Barite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molybdenum isotope ratios in seawater fluctuate in response to changing redox conditions and can provide clues into the degree of global ocean anoxia. The isotopic ratio of molybdenum has been shown to be sensitive to the relative proportion of oxic, suboxic, and euxinic environments. Deposition in oxic environments is isotopically light (~ -1.6‰ for ?^{97/95}Mo) relative to an average crustal source (0‰). Conversely, euxinic environments have been shown to be consistently heavier (~1.3‰) than the oxic sink through time, with suboxic sediments falling between these two signals. Shifts in the relative proportion of each sink, relative to a constant source, would alter the isotopic ratio of seawater over long time scales. Previously, this seawater value, and hence the degree of global anoxia, could only be inferred through mass balance calculations. We seek to quantify the isotopic signature of seawater though time using a phase that directly records this ratio. Marine barite precipitates inorganically in the water column directly from seawater, potentially providing a direct record of seawater characteristics. Molybdenum is a trace constituent of barite, with the molybdate ion substituting for sulfate at concentrations of about 1 ppm. To accurately determine the molybdenum isotopic ratio at these low concentrations (<15 ng per sample), modifications to existing measurement techniques are required. We will present the variations made to existing separation and mass-spectrometry techniques and the calibration of these new methods. The modifications were undertaken to reduce molybdenum blank to below 1 ng per analysis, to quantitatively remove interfering zirconium and to measure precise and reproducible isotope values. Preliminary data will be presented to illustrate potential applications for this new paleoredox proxy. This technique will allow for the measurement of molybdenum isotopic ratios at low concentrations, expanding the breath of compounds and signals that potentially record changes in planetary materials.

Erhardt, A. M.; Paytan, A.; Aggarwal, J.

2006-12-01

117

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

2010-12-01

118

DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARINE INCINERATION BIOASSAY SAMPLING SYSTEM (MIBAS) FOR AT-SEA INCINERATION TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of the Marine Incineration Bioassay Sampling System (MIBAS) for at-sea incineration testing, as part of EPA's overall evaluation of the potential benefits and risks associated with the incineration of hazardous wastes at sea. The related strate...

119

Marine Information Centre Development: An Introductory Manual. Manuals and Guides 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this introductory manual is briefly to explain and put into context the elements involved in marine information center development and operation. Its goal is to provide an overview and create an awareness of the range of the inter-connected procedures, activities, and products that make up an information service. The introductory…

Varley, Allan

120

Development of Marine Diesel Particulate Filter Using High frequency Induction Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel marine diesel particulate filter (DPF) using high frequency induction heating is developed. Particulate matter exhausted from diesel engine is trapped by the DPF and is successfully burned by induction heating. The effectiveness of the DPF system is verified by experiments.

Hatanaka, Yoshihiro; Takashima, Kohei; Kifune, Hiroyasu

121

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code  

Microsoft Academic Search

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine

Matthew Franklin Barone; Jonathan Murray

2010-01-01

122

Observed Chemical Characteristics of Long-Range Transported Particles at a Marine Background Site in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deokjeok Island is located off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and is a suitable place to monitor the long-range transport of air pollutants from the Asian continent. In addition to pollutants, Asian dust particles are also transported to the island during long-range transport events. Episodic transport of dust and secondary particles was observed during intensive measurements in the

Mylene G. Cayetano; Young J. Kim; Jin Sang Jung; Tsatsral Batmunkh; Kwang Yul Lee; Sung Yong Kim; Kwan Chul Kim; Dong Gyu Kim; Suk Jo Lee; Jeong Soo Kim; Lim Seok Chang

2011-01-01

123

Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the relative proportion between small-sized and larger particles in the surface ocean is essential to understand the ocean ecology and biogeochemistry, including particle dynamics and carbon cycling. We show that this information may be assessed qualitatively from satellite observations of ocean color. Such capability is based on the estimation of spectral dependence, gamma, of particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp,

Hubert Loisel; Jean-Marc Nicolas; Antoine Sciandra; Dariusz Stramski; Antoine Poteau

2006-01-01

124

Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the relative proportion between small-sized and larger particles in the surface ocean is essential to understand the ocean ecology and biogeochemistry, including particle dynamics and carbon cycling. We show that this information may be assessed qualitatively from satellite observations of ocean color. Such capability is based on the estimation of spectral dependence, ?, of particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp,

Hubert Loisel; Jean-Marc Nicolas; Antoine Sciandra; Dariusz Stramski; Antoine Poteau

2006-01-01

125

Modeling the Production and Regional Impacts of Freshwater ``Marine'' Particles in the Great Lakes Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the well-studied links between sea salt aerosol and ocean waves, there has been little work on the emissions of particles from freshwater sources since freshwater emissions were thought to be insignificant. Nonetheless, a field campaign in the summer of 2009 discovered elevated ultrafine particle concentrations over the Great Lakes (Slade et al., GRL, in press). While the

S. H. Chung; B. Basarab; T. M. Vanreken

2010-01-01

126

Novel hardware developments in magnetic particle imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) has been introduced as a modality that allows for the acquisition of three-dimensional functional images with high sensitivity in real time. Here, alternative coil topologies are presented that differ significantly from the original set-up. Two novel coil topologies will be presented. Beside an asymmetric coil topology, where all field generating coils are arranged on a single side, an effective coil assembly has been accomplished that creates a field-free line for spatial coding. The alternative coil topologies may overcome the problem of a confined measurement field or lead to an increase of the sensitivity of MPI.

Buzug, T. M.; Sattel, T. F.; Erbe, M.; Biederer, S.; Finas, D.; Diedrich, K.; Vogt, F. M.; Barkhausen, J.; Lüdtke-Buzug, K.; Knopp, T.

2011-03-01

127

Development of condensation particle counter for nucleation and growth study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clarification of aerosol formation and growth mechanisms largely depends upon the development of measuring instruments for sub 10 nm particles (especially smaller than 3 nm). In the present work, by investigating the effect of nucleation temperature on minimum detectable size of a particle size magnifier (PSM), we developed a PSM-CPC system. Through the course of development, we found that a lower nucleation temperature is preferable in hindering homogeneous nucleation in PSM and detecting smaller particles. Newly developed PSM was capable of detecting 1 nm particles with the counting efficiency of 0.5 % at the nucleation temperature of 16.7 degC and the supersaturation of 14.3. The PSM-CPC system was applied to the study of nucleation of sulfuric acid aerosol via SO2 photochemical reaction, and it was shown to measure the size distribution of particles down to 2 nm.

Kim, Seyoung; seto, Takafumi; Kuromiya, Yusuke; Otani, Yoshio; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki

2013-05-01

128

Development and application of a particle-particle particle-mesh Ewald method for dispersion interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For inhomogeneous systems with interfaces, the inclusion of long-range dispersion interactions is necessary to achieve consistency between molecular simulation calculations and experimental results. For accurate and efficient incorporation of these contributions, we have implemented a particle-particle particle-mesh Ewald solver for dispersion (r-6) interactions into the LAMMPSmolecular dynamics package. We demonstrate that the solver's (NlogN) scaling behavior allows its application to large-scale simulations. We carefully determine a set of parameters for the solver that provides accurate results and efficient computation. We perform a series of simulations with Lennard-Jones particles, SPC/E water, and hexane to show that with our choice of parameters the dependence of physical results on the chosen cutoff radius is removed. Physical results and computation time of these simulations are compared to results obtained using either a plain cutoff or a traditional Ewald sum for dispersion.

Isele-Holder, Rolf E.; Mitchell, Wayne; Ismail, Ahmed E.

2012-11-01

129

Measurement of particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use silicon strip detectors (originally developed for the CLEO III high\\u000aenergy particle physics experiment) to measure fluid particle trajectories in\\u000aturbulence with temporal resolution of up to 70,000 frames per second. This\\u000ahigh frame rate allows the Kolmogorov time scale of a turbulent water flow to\\u000abe fully resolved for 140 <= R_lambda <= 970. Particle trajectories exhibiting

GREG A. VOTH; A. LA PORTA; ALICE M. CRAWFORD; JIM ALEXANDER; EBERHARD BODENSCHATZ

2002-01-01

130

Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Targeted and Single Particle Subcellular Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube.

Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

2004-03-12

131

Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines; 2) the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals; and 3) the effects of energy removal on physical systems. Each case study contains a description of environmental monitoring efforts and research studies, lessons learned, and analysis of remaining information gaps. The information collected through the Annex IV effort and referenced in this report, can be accessed on the Tethys database at http://mhk.pnnl.gov/wiki/index.php/Tethys_ Home.

Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt (US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

2013-01-15

132

Light regulation on growth, development, and secondary metabolism of marine-derived filamentous fungi.  

PubMed

Effects of different light conditions on development, growth, and secondary metabolism of three marine-derived filamentous fungi were investigated. Darkness irritated sexual development of Aspergillus glaucus HB1-19, while white, red, and blue lights improved its asexual behavior. The red and blue lights improved asexual stroma formation of Xylaria sp. (no. 2508), but the darkness and white light inhibited it. Differently, development of Halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403) turned out to be insensitive to any tested light irradiation. Upon the experimental data, no regularity was observed linking development with secondary metabolism. However, fungal growth showed inversely correlation with productions of major bioactive compounds (aspergiolide A, 1403C, and xyloketal B) from various strains. The results indicated that aspergiolide A biosynthesis favored blue light illumination, while 1403C and xyloketal B preferred red light irradiation. With the favorite light sensing conditions, productions of aspergiolide A, 1403C, and xyloketal B were enhanced by 32.9, 21.9, and 30.8 % compared with those in the dark, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis comparing the light-responding proteins of A. glaucus HB 1-19 with those in other systems indicated that A. glaucus HB 1-19 was closely related to Aspergillus spp. especially A. nidulans in spite of its role of marine-derived fungus. It indicated that marine fungi might conserve its light response system when adapting the marine environment. This work also offers useful information for process optimization involving light regulation on growth and metabolism for drug candidate production from light-sensitive marine fungi. PMID:23546832

Cai, Menghao; Fang, Zhe; Niu, Chuanpeng; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

2013-11-01

133

The influence of particle size of the dispersed mineral fraction on the settlement of marine and estuarine muds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the sedimentation behaviour of suspensions, four states of different sediment-water mixtures are usually distinguished, these being (in increasing concentration) dilute suspensions, concentrated suspensions, fluid muds and mud deposits. As the concentration values delimiting these states vary considerably from one cohesive sediment to another, a procedure for their quantitative determination is proposed here. This paper deals mainly with the effects of hindered settling in interacting concentrated suspensions and of sedimentation in fluid muds. In contrast to the settling velocity of individual particles in a dilute suspension, which must be studied statistically as a stochastic variable denoted W, hindered settling and sedimentation velocities can be described by a scalar denoted V, as solids at any particular level of concentrated suspensions and fluid muds settle at the same velocity. On the basis of settlement tests carried out in this study and published data on organic-rich cohesive sediments, a concentration-dependent empirical law for a permeability coefficient ( k) has been generated for cohesive sediments, using data from ten estuarine and nine marine environments, based on the one-dimensional Kynch theory of sedimentation. Based on the median diameters of the dispersed mineral fraction, the main provenances of the sediments are: fine to very fine clay from tropical marine/estuarine environments, medium clay to very fine silt from estuaries in western France, and fine to coarse silt from marine (harbour) environments in the Normandy region of France. A general trend for the influence of the grain size of the mineral fraction on the permeability coefficient has been established. It is demonstrated that the concentrations delimiting the different states of sediment-water mixtures can also be related to the grain size of the mineral fraction. Thus, hindered settling and sedimentation processes of muds, similar to the marine and estuarine cohesive sediments considered in this paper, can be studied as generic problems parameterized through a defined median diameter of the dispersed mineral fraction. Results for Loire estuary sediments are presented separately, based on specific tests to analyse the influence of experimental conditions on settlement. Moreover, the concentration values delimiting the different sediment-water mixture states have been largely established for this estuary.

Sanchez, Martin; Levacher, Daniel

2007-10-01

134

Size-resolved observations of refractory black carbon particles in cloud droplets at a marine boundary layer site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size resolved observations of aerosol particles (including black carbon particles) and cloud residuals were studied at a marine boundary layer site (251 m a.m.s.l.) in La Jolla, CA during 2012. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to sample cloud residuals while a total inlet was used to sample both cloud residuals and interstitial particles. Two cloud events totaling ten hours of in-cloud sampling were analyzed. Since the CVI only sampled cloud droplets larger than ?11 ?m, less than 100% of the cloud droplets were sampled during the two cloud events (?38% of the cloud droplets for the first cloud event and ?24% of the cloud droplets for the second cloud were sampled). Back trajectories showed that air masses for both cloud events spent at least 96 h over the Pacific Ocean and traveled near, or over populated regions just before sampling. Based on bulk aerosol particle concentrations measured from the total inlet the two air masses sampled were classified as polluted marine air, a classification that was consistent with back trajectory analysis and the mass concentrations of refractory black carbon (rBC) measured from the total inlet. The activated fraction of rBC, estimated from the measurements, ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 for core diameters ranging from 70 to 220 nm. Since the fraction of cloud droplets sampled by the CVI was less than 100%, the measured activated fractions of rBC should be considered as lower limits to the total fraction of rBC activated during the two cloud events. Size distributions of rBC sampled from the residual inlet show that sub-100 nm rBC cores were incorporated into the droplets in both clouds. The coating analysis shows that the rBC cores had average coating thicknesses of 75 nm for core diameters of 70 nm and 29 nm for core diameters of 220 nm. The presence of sub-100 nm rBC cores in the cloud residuals is consistent with kappa-Köhler theory and the measured coating thicknesses of the rBC cores.

Schroder, J. C.; Hanna, S. J.; Modini, R. L.; Corrigan, A. L.; Macdonald, A. M.; Noone, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Bertram, A. K.

2014-05-01

135

Speciation of water-soluble inorganic, organic, and total nitrogen in a background marine environment: Cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles were collected in Puerto Rico from December 2004 to March 2007 in order to investigate their chemical composition, relation to sources, and removal processes. The species analyzed were inorganic ions, metals, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC, DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and organic acids. For all samples, the dominant species were marine (Na+, Cl?),

Adriana Gioda; Gabriel J. Reyes-Rodríguez; Gilmarie Santos-Figueroa; Jeffrey L. Collett; Stefano Decesari; Maria da Conceição K. V. Ramos; Heleno J. C. Bezerra Netto; Francisco R. de Aquino Neto; Olga L. Mayol-Bracero

2011-01-01

136

Soils developed from marine and moraine deposits on the Billefjord coast, West Spitsbergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphogenetic features of soils developed from noncalcareous and calcareous deposits of the marine and glacial origins on the coasts of Billefjord and Petunia Bay in West Spitsbergen are studied. Grayhumus (soddy) soils develop from noncalcareous deposits; they consist of the AO-AY-C horizons and differ from analogous soils in other locations in a higher bulk content of calcium, a close to neutral reaction, and a relatively high degree of base saturation. Gray-humus residually calcareous soils (AO-AYca-Cca) developed from calcareous deposits have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction; their exchange complex is almost completely saturated with bases. The soils that developed from both marine and moraine deposits are generally similar in their major genetic features. The profiles of all the soils are not differentiated with respect to the contents of major elements, including oxalate-soluble forms of aluminum and iron. Gley features are also absent in the profiles of these soils.

Pereverzev, V. N.

2012-11-01

137

Development of a Testing Platform for Scaled-Laboratory Studies of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale platform for testing model hydrokinetic devices in riverine environments has been developed for the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, 1.5 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&H) at Bucknell University. This platform is being used to advance development of marine hydrokinetic technologies by providing scaled-laboratory testing in a controlled environment.

M. L. Beninati; M. A. Volpe; D. R. Riley; M. H. Krane

2010-01-01

138

Global Simulations of Radiative Forcing from Sea Salt Injections into Marine Clouds: The Effect of Injection Rate and Particle Size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea salt seeding of low level marine clouds is a suggested technique to counteract or slow global warming. The injected sea salt is to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and through the aerosol indirect effect increase the cloud albedo and therefore the reflection of solar radiation from the earth-atmosphere system. Using the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) we investigate the global radiative forcing achieved through sea salt seeding as a function of both (i) emission rate and (ii) sea salt particle size. The injection rates are uniform and confined over ocean between 30°S and 30°N, and range from 10-9 to 10-11 kg m-2 s-1. The size of the particles ranges from a dry modal radius of 0.022 ?m to 0.13 ?m, with geometric standard deviations of 1.59. The study includes aerosol indirect effects both in the shortwave and the longwave and investigates the direct radiative effect of the added sea salt particles. Preliminary results show that increasing emissions of the 0.13 ?m sea salt mode leads to an aerosol indirect effect of between -3.4 Wm-2 and -0.04 Wm-2, depending on emission rate. The maximum achieved forcing is close to cancelling the positive forcing resulting from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (-3.8 Wm-2). Results also show that the direct effect of the sea salt parties is much larger than previously assumed, and the total radiative effect and the cooling potential of this geo-engineering technique may therefore be much greater than what has been assumed earlier. We find that ignoring the direct effect of sea salt may lead to serious errors in determining both the effectiveness of sea salt seeding and possible side effects. The longwave forcing resulting from a change in cloud emissivity with added sea salt is found to be negligible. Results also show that the size of the added sea salt is of crucial importance for the achieved radiative forcing. While adding large sea salt particles leads to a significant negative forcing at the top of the atmosphere, the opposite is true for particles below a certain size. This happens because the injected sea salt provide a large surface area for water vapor and gaseous sulfuric acid to condense on, thereby lowering the maximum cloud supersaturation and suppressing the nucleation of sulfate particles. Adding particles that are too small to become activated to cloud droplets merely leads to a reduced supersaturation and sulfate concentration and therefore to a decrease in the overall CCN concentration. This results in a reduced cloud droplet number concentration and a positive globally averaged forcing.

Alterskjaer, K.; Kristjánsson, J.

2011-12-01

139

Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the relative proportion between small-sized and larger particles in the surface ocean is essential to understand the ocean ecology and biogeochemistry, including particle dynamics and carbon cycling. We show that this information may be assessed qualitatively from satellite observations of ocean color. Such capability is based on the estimation of spectral dependence, ?, of particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, which is sensitive to particle size distribution. Our results obtained from satellite observations of the global ocean are supported by in situ measurements, and they demonstrate a general decrease of the spectral slope ? from oligotrophic to eutrophic regimes, although significant regional differences are observed in the relationship between ? and the chlorophyll a concentration, Chl. To first approximation, such a decrease in ? is expected to be accompanied by an increased role of larger particles. This is consistent with our field data that show relatively high concentrations of submicron particles in very clear oceanic waters. Different seasonal patterns are also observed depending on the oceanic regions. The seasonal amplitude of ? is generally higher than that of Chl and bbp in equatorial and tropical regions, and it is much lower at temperate latitudes. These spatio-temporal patterns are interpreted in terms of processes that modify the composition of particulate assemblages and physiology of phytoplankton in response to environmental forcing. The changes in ? are clearly related to variations in the mixed layer depth and photosynthetic available radiation.

Loisel, Hubert; Nicolas, Jean-Marc; Sciandra, Antoine; Stramski, Dariusz; Poteau, Antoine

2006-09-01

140

TEM study of aerosol particles from clean and polluted marine boundary layers over the North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol samples were collected from Punta del Hidalgo in the Canary Islands and Sagres in Portugal during June-July 1997 as part of the Aerosol Characterization Experiment-2 (ACE-2) over the North Atlantic Ocean. We studied individual aerosol particles using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The major aerosol types include fresh and partly or completely reacted sea salt that consist of NaCl, mixed-cation (Na, Mg, K, and Ca) sulfate, Na2SO4, and NaNO3; particles of industrial origin that include (NH4)2SO4, soot, flyash, silica, Fe oxide, and CaSO4; and minor terrestrial mineral dust. Because of their different geographic locations, samples from these two sites showed different degrees of impact from anthropogenic emissions from Europe. At Sagres, depending on the samples, between 0 and 30% of sea salt particles remain unreacted, while 0 to 50% were partly reacted, and 20 to 100% were completely converted to sulfate and nitrate through reactions with pollutants from the European continent. In contrast, at Punta del Hidalgo, the sea salt particles were much less affected by industrial pollution. Even during polluted periods, only less than 5% were completely reacted. The dramatic difference between the sea salt particles from Punta del Hidalgo and Sagres indicates dilution of pollution, rapid reaction, and exhaustion of reactive pollutants as they were transported to the open ocean.

Li, Jia; Anderson, James R.; Buseck, Peter R.

2003-03-01

141

Blade-Strength Assessment of a Marine Turbocharger under Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the requirement for higher output of diesel engines in recent years, IHI has recognized that a turbocharger with higher pressure-ratio and volume-flow rate will be required, and has commenced the development of such a turbocharger. An important consideration in the design is the relatively high failure rate of blades presently used in the market. The new turbocharger

Fuminori IWAKI; Ken MITSUBORI; Hidetoshi TAGUCHI; Masakazu OBATA; Andrew R. MECH

142

Organic carbon and aliphatic amines in marine particles: exchange processes between ocean and atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within exchange processes between air and sea, the export of organic compounds from the oceans to the atmosphere play an essential role as the oceans cover a substantial area of the planet. In order to investigate such interactions, in two intensive campaigns in 2011 at the Cape Verde islands, seawater and marine aerosol was sampled and analyzed regarding the organic content. The Cape Verdes islands generally represent a region of low nutrient supply and biological activity, but at certain times of the year biological activity increases due to local upwelling and nutrient input from the desert via dust deposition. Chlorophyll A data showed low biological activity at the first campaign (May 2011) but higher biological activity in the second campaign (November 2011). Regarding seawater analysis, higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were found in November 2011. Furthermore, enrichment of organic carbon in the sea surface microlayer - the direct interface between air and sea - was found up to an enrichment factor of 2. General aerosol composition in terms of inorganic ions (sodium, chloride, ammonium, and sulfate) was similar in May and November, but the OC content was strongly increased in November at high biological activity. Also OC enrichment in aerosols compared to seawater increased in times of high biological activity by 30%. Backward trajectories showed that the collected aerosols were all of marine origin. Besides organic sum parameters, aliphatic amines were investigated on aerosols as they are important organic compounds in the atmosphere and expected to contribute in secondary organic aerosol formation. Aliphatic amines were found on the aerosols in concentrations between 11 and 17 ng m-3. Although concentrations of the amines were similar at the two campaigns, their contribution to the dissolved organic carbon was higher at times of high biological activity (November). The aliphatic amines also show a correlation to chlorophyll A and amine specific pigments determined in seawater. The results support the assumption that organic carbon on aerosols is connected to the biological activity within the ocean being an important source.

van Pinxteren, Manuela; Fomba, Wadinga; Müller, Konrad; Herrmann, Hartmut

2013-04-01

143

Lessons Learned from the 14-Year Systems Development of the Marine Corps Standard Accounting, Budgeting and Reporting System (SABRS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In August of 1978 the Marine Corps initiated the development of a consolidated financial management system. On October 1, 1992, after 14-years of systems development effort, the Standard Accounting, Budgeting and Reporting System (SABRS) was finally imple...

J. L. Tavares

1994-01-01

144

Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea salt particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater in a closed stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. The two-component artificial seawater consisted of salt, either NaCl or sea salt, and one organic compound in deionized water. Several organic molecules representative of oceanic organic matter were investigated. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a porous diffuser or by water jet impingement on the surface of the artificial seawater. The effect of bubble lifetime, which was controlled by varying the depth of the diffuser in the water column, on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. The CCN activities of particles produced from diffuser-generated bubbles were generally governed by the high hygroscopicity of salt, such that activation was indistinguishable from that of salt, except in the case of very low mass ratio of salt to organic matter in the seawater solution. There was, however, a considerable decrease in CCN activity for particles produced from jet impingement on seawater that had a salinity of 10‰ and contained 0.45 mM of sodium laurate, an organic surfactant. The production of a thick foam layer from impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not similar. Accurate conclusions from observed CCN activities of particles from artificial seawater containing organic matter require knowledge of the CCN activity of the inorganic component, especially as a small amount of the inorganic can heavily influence activation. Therefore, the CCN activity of both artificial sea salt and NaCl were measured and compared. Part of the discrepancy observed between the CCN activities of the two salts may be due to morphological differences, which were investigated using electron microscopy.

King, S. M.; Butcher, A. C.; Rosenoern, T.; Coz, E.; Lieke, K. I.; de Leeuw, G.; Nilsson, E. D.; Bilde, M.

2012-04-01

145

Nature and Role of Marine Exudates in Particle Aggregation in the Sea (SIGMA ARI).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of the project was to determine the importance of dissolved and colloidal exudates in flocculation of algae in the sea. Thus, during the course of algal blooms, we (1) studied bubble-generated, non-living background particles formed from ...

K. Mopper

1996-01-01

146

Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the Arctic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic litter accounts for 50–80% of waste items stranded on beaches, floating on the ocean surface and lodged in the seabed. Organic pollutants can be absorbed onto plastic particles from sea water, attached to their surfaces or included in the plastic matrix as additives. Such chemicals may be transported to remote regions by buoyant plastics and ocean currents. We have

Christiane Zarfl; Michael Matthies

2010-01-01

147

Particle size distribution of nitrate and sulfate in the marine atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cascade impactor samples were collected at coastal sites on Sal Island, Barbados, and Virginia Key, Miami during 1974 and at two Miami coastal sites on Virginia Key and Key Biscayne during 1981. In all of the samples, the majority of the nitrate mass was found on intermediate size particles and exhibited a mass median diameter (MMD) of about 4 pm.

D. L. Savoie; J. M. Prospero

1982-01-01

148

The control of the development of a marine benthic community by predation on recruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment is an important process in regulating many marine benthic communities and many studies have examined factors controlling the dispersal and distribution of larval immigrants. However, benthic species also have early post-settlement life-stages that are dramatically different from adult and larval stages. Predation on these stages potentially impacts measured recruitment and the benthic populations and communities that ultimately develop.We examined

Richard W. Osman; Robert B. Whitlatch

2004-01-01

149

Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil.  

PubMed

Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate its characteristics during 1 mo of storage. Unpurified salmon oil (USO) was purified (PSO) and both USO and PSO were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total oxidation, free fatty acids (FFA), and moisture content. A stable emulsion was prepared with 7% PSO, 22% gum arabic, 11% maltodextrin, and 60% water. The emulsion was spray-dried to produce MSO. The MSO was added to strawberry-flavored yogurt (SYMSO) before pasteurization and homogenization, and a control (SY) without MSO was produced. Both yogurts were stored for 1 mo at 4°C and we determined the quality characteristics including acidity (pH), syneresis, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), fatty acid methyl ester composition, color, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Total oxidation (unitless) of USO, PSO, and MSO was calculated to be 20.7±1.26, 10.9±0.1, and 13.4±0.25, respectively. Free fatty acid contents were 1.61±0.19%, 0.59±0.02%, and 0.77±0.02% for USO, PSO, and MSO, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids in MSO and in SYMSO, but neither was detected in SY. Fortification of SY with MSO had no significant effect on yogurt pH or syneresis. A decrease in concentration of lactic acid bacteria was observed during the storage of all yogurts. Thiobarbituric acid values significantly increased as storage time increased and SY had a significantly lighter (higher L*) and less yellow (lower b*) color than SYMSO. Although some slight differences were observed in the color and oxidation of SYMSO compared with SY, the study demonstrated that SY could be fortified with salmon oil. PMID:22118066

Estrada, J D; Boeneke, C; Bechtel, P; Sathivel, S

2011-12-01

150

Recent advances in the research and development of marine antimicrobial peptides.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial peptides are a group of natural or semi-synthetic molecules possessing antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, etc. They are considered as promising candidates for treatment of microbial infections and suppression of microbial resistance. The increasing emergence of bacterial resistance has required development of new efficient antibiotics that can be added to the antibacterial armamentarium. The marine world provides a rich source of antimicrobial peptides. That world has not been highly explored yet, and much more effort is required in order to discover new efficient antimicrobial peptides. In the present article, we have reviewed the recent progress in the field of marine antimicrobial peptides from 2009 until the mid of 2012. PMID:23895098

El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Abdel-Maksoud, Mohammed S; Oh, Chang-Hyun

2013-08-01

151

Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334-newton (300-lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. The development and in-flight performance are described and summarized of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicated upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling of the Mariner 9 subsystem are discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data. The flight performance of the subsystem was excellent, as were the performance prediction correlations. These correlations are presented.

Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

1972-01-01

152

Elevated nitrogen-containing particles observed in Asian dust aerosol samples collected at the marine boundary layer of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) shows powerful advantages for the characterization of ambient particulate matter in environmental and geological applications. By the application of the low-Z particle EPMA single particle analysis, an overall examination of 1800 coarse and fine particles (aerodynamic diameters: 2.5-10 ?m and 1.0-2.5 ?m, respectively) in six samples collected on 28 April-1 May 2006 in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea was conducted. Three samples (D1, D2, and D3) were collected along the Bohai Bay, Bohai Straits, and Yellow Sea near Korea during an Asian dust storm event while the other three samples (N3, N2, and N1) were collected on non-Asian dust (NAD) days. Based on X-ray spectral and secondary electron image data, 15 different types of particles were identified, in which soil-derived particles were encountered with the largest frequency, followed by (C, N, O)-rich droplets (likely the mixture of organic matter and NH4NO3), particles of marine origin, and carbonaceous, Fe-rich, fly ash, and (C, N, O, S)-rich droplet particles. Results show that during the Asian dust storm event relative abundances of the (C, N, O)-rich droplets and the nitrate-containing secondary soil-derived particles were markedly increased (on average by a factor of 4.5 and 2, respectively in PM2.5-10 fraction and by a factor of 1.9 and 1.5, respectively in PM1.0-2.5 fraction) in the MBL of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, implying that Asian dust aerosols in springtime are an important carrier of gaseous inorganic nitrogen species, especially NOx (or HNO3) and NH3.

Geng, H.; Park, Y.; Hwang, H.; Kang, S.; Ro, C.-U.

2009-09-01

153

Elevated nitrogen-containing particles observed in Asian dust aerosol samples collected at the marine boundary layer of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) shows powerful advantages for the characterization of ambient particulate matter in environmental and geological applications. By the application of the low-Z particle EPMA single particle analysis, an overall examination of 1800 coarse and fine particles (aerodynamic diameters: 2.5-10 ?m and 1.0-2.5 ?m, respectively) in six samples collected on 28 April-1 May 2006 in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea was conducted. Three samples (D1, D2, and D3) were collected along the Bohai Bay, Bohai Straits, and Yellow Sea near Korea during an Asian dust storm event while the other three samples (N3, N2, and N1) were collected on normal days. Based on X-ray spectral and secondary electron image data, 15 different types of particles were identified, in which soil-derived particles were encountered with the largest frequency, followed by (C, N, O)-rich droplets (likely the mixture of organic matter and NH4NO3), particles of marine origin, and carbonaceous, Fe-rich, fly ash, and (C, N, O, S)-rich droplet particles. Results show that during the Asian dust storm event relative abundances of the (C, N, O)-rich droplets and the nitrate-containing secondary soil-derived particles were markedly increased (on average by a factor of 4.5 and 2, respectively in coarse fraction and by a factor of 1.9 and 1.5, respectively in fine fraction) in the MBL of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, implying that Asian dust aerosols in springtime are an important carrier of gaseous inorganic nitrogen species, especially NOx (or HNO3) and NH3.

Geng, H.; Park, Y.-M.; Hwang, H.-J.; Kang, S.; Ro, C.-U.

2009-06-01

154

Variations in the methanesulfonate to sulfate molar ratio in submicrometer marine aerosol particles over the south Pacific Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seawater concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and atmospheric concentrations of DMS, sulfur dioxide, methanesulfonate (MSA), and non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate were measured over the eastern Pacific Ocean between 105 deg and 110 deg W from 20 deg N to 60 deg S during February and March 1989. Although the samples collected in the Southern Hemisphere appear to be of marine origin, no significant correlation was found between the latitudinal distributions of DMS, SO2, MSA, and nss SO4(2-). However, an inverse correlation was found between atmospheric temperature and the MSA to nss SO4(2-) molar ratio in submicrometer aerosol particles with a decrease in temperature corresponding to an increase in the molar ratio. Although this trend is consistent with laboratory results indicating the favored production of MSA at lower temperatures, it is contrary to Southern Hemisphere baseline station data. This suggests either a decrease in the supply of DMS relative to nonmarine sources of nss SO4(2-) at the baseline stations in winter or additional mechanisms that affect the relative production of MSA and nss SO4(2-).

Bates, Timothy S.; Calhoun, Julie A.; Quinn, Patricia K.

1992-01-01

155

Development of particle standards for testing explosive detection systems: characterization of the adhesion forces between composition 4 particles and polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to study the adhesion of particles on a surface and the gas velocity needed to overcome the adhesion and dislodge the particle from the surface. Experiments have been performed to determine the minimum detachment velocity for particles deposited on a surface by gravitational settling and by finger print transfer. Particles of Arizona road dust and

Benjamin Y. Liu; S. H. Yoo; John P. Davies; Garold L. Gresham; Susan F. Hallowell

1994-01-01

156

The Effect of Organic Material on Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation - Insights from Microscopic Analysis of Field-Collected, Laboratory Generated, and Marine Biogenic Particles (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous ice nucleation has been shown to play an important role in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Although their importance is widely acknowledged, the actual effects of aerosol particles on heterogeneous ice formation are insufficiently understood. Here, we present laboratory studies investigating the ice nucleation efficiency of organic dominated anthropogenic particles impacted by different degrees of photochemical aging collected in and around Mexico City, particles sampled in Los Angeles, laboratory generated organic particles composed of humic and fulvic acids exposed to O3, and biogenic marine particles. Using the optical microscope (OM) method, heterogeneous ice nucleation by particles deposited on hydrophobically coated substrates via immersion and deposition mode has been determined. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures and corresponding nucleation rates are derived, the latter being discussed in terms of atmospherically relevant ice particle production rates. The physical and chemical characteristics of the field collected particles were determined by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), CCSEM/EDX analysis (computer controlled SEM with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays and STXM/NEXAFS (scanning transmission X-ray microscopy combined with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy). The anthropogenic particles examined nucleate ice heterogeneously at temperatures and relative humidity relevant to cirrus onset conditions observed in the northern hemisphere. Increases in organic content due to photochemical aging did not affect the particles’ IN efficiencies. Solid humic and fulvic acid particles nucleate ice via immersion and deposition modes at atmospherically relevant conditions and a corresponding ice nucleation parameterization is derived. Oxidation by O3, has various effects on the particles’ IN efficiency but no clear relationship between increased particle hydrophilicity due to oxidation and IN efficiency was found. Planktonic diatoms are the first unambiguously identified marine organism which acts as efficient IN in the immersion and deposition modes. These findings can resolve elevated atmospheric IN concentrations observed over surface waters containing phytoplankton. Heterogeneous freezing of micrometer-sized aqueous NaCl droplets containing intact diatoms as well as fragments occurs up to 30 K higher than expected by homogeneous ice nucleation. Nucleation is found to behave stochastically and is independent of diatom surface area and droplet volume. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rates are about one order of magnitude higher than homogeneous ice nucleation making diatoms and/or their fragments competitive IN even at atmospheric updrafts typically dominated by homogeneous ice nucleation. In summary, single particle resolved analytical techniques and the particles-on-substrate approach coupled to OM can provide a very useful tool to improve our understanding of the phase transition of aerosol particles.

Knopf, D. A.

2010-12-01

157

Coupling between autocatalytic cell death and transparent exopolymeric particle production in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium.  

PubMed

Extracellular polysaccharide aggregates, operationally defined as transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP), are recognized as an important conduit for carbon recycling and export in aquatic systems. Yet, the factors controlling the build-up of the TEP pool are not well characterized. Here we show that increased TEP production by Trichodesmium, an oceanic bloom-forming nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) cyanobacterium, is coupled with autocatalytic programmed cell death (PCD) process. We demonstrate that PCD induction, in both laboratory cultures and natural populations, is characterized by high caspase-like activity, correlates with enhanced TEP production, and occurs under iron and phosphorus starvation, as well as under high irradiance and oxidative stress. Enhanced TEP production was not observed in actively growing populations. We provide further evidence that iron is a key trigger for the induction of PCD. We demonstrate, for the first time, the concomitant enhanced build-up of the TEP pool when Trichodesmium is Fe-stressed. These results suggest a functional linkage between activation of caspases and PCD in Trichodesmium and regulation of vertical carbon and nitrogen fluxes. We hypothesize that modulation of TEP formation and its qualities by different mortality pathways could regulate the fate of phytoplankton blooms and particulate organic matter in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:17504479

Berman-Frank, Ilana; Rosenberg, Gad; Levitan, Orly; Haramaty, Liti; Mari, Xavier

2007-06-01

158

Seabed characterization for the development of marine renewable energy on the Pacific margin of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inventory of Canada's marine renewable energy resources based on numerical modeling of the potential tidal, wave and wind energy has been published that identifies areas with maximum resource potential. However, the inventory does not consider the seabed geological conditions that will control the safe development of seabed installations and cable corridors. The Geological Survey of Canada (Natural Resources Canada) has therefore undertaken an assessment of seafloor geological characteristics and physical environmental parameters that will be encountered during any extensive deployment of marine renewable energy systems for the Pacific offshore of Canada. Here we present an overview of seabed characterization for key sites for each of the three energy types. Narrow passages exiting the Salish Sea near the Canadian boundary with the United States and northwards out of the Strait of Georgia provide very promising sites for tidal generation. Here, elliptical fields of very large subaqueous dunes, from 12 to 28 m in height, present a significant challenge to site development. Along the exposed continental shelf of Vancouver Island focused wave-energy close to shore (40-60 m water depth) offers significant energy potential, but any engineering systems would have to be founded on a seafloor made up of a mobile gravel lag and an extensive boulder pavement. A large wind farm proposed for the Pacific North Coast would be built on an extensive shallow bank that has active sediment transport and a large field of sand ridges that have developed within a macrotidal environment. A significant challenge is providing for a safe seafloor cable corridor of over 100 km that crosses a large subaqueous dune field to connect to the electrical grid on the mainland. These examples show how geoscience has and will provide critical information to project proponents and regulators for the safe development of marine renewable energy.

Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.

2014-07-01

159

HEASD PM RESEARCH METHODS: PARTICLE METHODS EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The FRM developed by NERL forms the backbone of the EPA's national monitoring strategy. It is the measurement that defines attainment of the new standard. However, the agency has numerous other needs in assessing the physical and chemical characteristics of ambient fine particl...

160

The phase of particle acceleration in the flare development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is given that the particle acceleration in flares is confined to the initial phase of the flare development preceding the Ha flare maximum and lasting for less than 10 min. The impulsive acceleration process is confined to a relatively small limited volume of about 5 × 1027 cm3 in the region of highest magnetic gradient in the flare, and

Z. Švestka

1970-01-01

161

Development of a three-dimensional particle motion tracking system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of a non-intrusive particle tracking technique is considered. Evaluation of the existing methods show that they are not suitable for three-dimensional motion tracking. A novel system based on the principle of magnetic induction coupling is pre...

R. N. Dave A. S. Ashok B. G. Bukiet

1992-01-01

162

Cellular Localization of Debromohymenialdisine and Hymenialdisine in the Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Using a Newly Developed Cell Purification Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponges (Porifera), as the best known source of bioactive marine natural products in metazoans, play a significant role in\\u000a marine drug discovery and development. As sessile filter-feeding animals, a considerable portion of the sponge biomass can\\u000a be made of endosymbiotic and associated microorganisms. Understanding the cellular origin of targeted bioactive compounds\\u000a from sponges is therefore important not only for providing

Yue-Fan Song; Yi Qu; Xu-Peng Cao; Wei Zhang

163

Approach for determining the contributions of phytoplankton, colored organic material, and nonalgal particles to the total spectral absorption in marine waters.  

PubMed

Using a data set of 1333 samples, we assess the spectral absorption relationships of different wave bands for phytoplankton (ph) and particles. We find that a nonlinear model (second-order quadratic equations) delivers good performance in describing their spectral characteristics. Based on these spectral relationships, we develop a method for partitioning the total absorption coefficient into the contributions attributable to phytoplankton [a(ph)(?)], colored dissolved organic material [CDOM; a(CDOM)(?)], and nonalgal particles [NAP; a(NAP)(?)]. This method is validated using a data set that contains 550 simultaneous measurements of phytoplankton, CDOM, and NAP from the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Dataset. We find that our method is highly efficient and robust, with significant accuracy: the relative root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 25.96%, 38.30%, and 19.96% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. The performance is still satisfactory when the method is applied to water samples from the northern South China Sea as a regional case. The computed and measured absorption coefficients (167 samples) agree well with the RMSEs, i.e., 18.50%, 32.82%, and 10.21% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. Finally, the partitioning method is applied directly to an independent data set (1160 samples) derived from the Bermuda Bio-Optics Project that contains relatively low absorption values, and we also obtain good inversion accuracy [RMSEs of 32.37%, 32.57%, and 11.52% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively]. Our results indicate that this partitioning method delivers satisfactory performance for the retrieval of a(ph), a(CDOM), and a(NAP). Therefore, this may be a useful tool for extracting absorption coefficients from in situ measurements or remotely sensed ocean-color data. PMID:23842167

Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Wang, Guifeng; Hu, Shuibo

2013-06-20

164

Some developments in neutron and charged particle dosimetry.  

PubMed

There is an increasing need for dosimetry of neutrons and charged particles. Increasing exposure levels are reported in the nuclear industry, deriving from more frequent in-service entries at commercial nuclear power plants, and from increased plant decommissioning and refurbishment activities. Another need stems from the compliance with requirements of the regulations and standards. The European Council directive 96/29 requires dosimetric precautions if the effective dose exceeds 1 mSv a(-1). On average, aircrew members exceed this value. Further, there is a trend of increasing use of charged particles in radiotherapy. The present situation is that we have reasonably good photon dosemeters, but neutron and charged particle dosemeters are still in need of improvements. This work highlights some of the developments in this field. It is mainly concentrated on some developments in passive dosimetry, in particular thermally and optically stimulated luminescent detectors, indicating the direction of ongoing research. It shows that passive dosemeters are still a very active field. Active dosemeters will not be discussed with the exception of new developments in microdosimetric measurements [new types of tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs)]. The TEPC is unique in its ability to provide a simultaneous determination of neutron / charged particle / gamma ray doses, or dose equivalents using a single detector. PMID:16987918

Bos, Adrie J J; d'Errico, Francesco

2006-01-01

165

Strategies for weighting exposure in the development of acoustic criteria for marine mammals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Noise Exposure Criteria Group has been developing noise exposure criteria for marine mammals. Although the primary focus of the effort is development of criteria to prevent injury, the Group has also emphasized the development of exposure metrics that can be used to predict injury with accuracy and precision. Noise exposure metrics for humans have proven to be more effective when they account for psychophysical properties of the auditory system, particularly loudness perception. Usually noise is filtered using the A-weighting function, an idealized curve based on the human 40-phon equal loudness function. However, there are no empirical studies to show whether a comparable procedure for animals will improve predictions. The Noise Exposure Criteria Group panel has proposed to weight noise data by functions that admit sound throughout the frequency range of hearing in five marine mammal groupings-low frequency cetaceans (mysticetes), midfrequency cetaceans, high-frequency cetaceans, pinnipeds in air, and pinnipeds in water. The algorithm for the functions depends only on the upper and lower frequency limits of hearing and does not differentially weight frequencies based on sensitivity within the range. This procedure is considered conservative. However, if the human case may be taken as a model, it is not likely to produce precise predictions. Empirical data are essential to finding better estimators of exposure.

Miller, James H.; Bowles, Anne E.; Gentry, Roger L.; Ellison, William T.; Finneran, James J.; Greene, Charles R., Jr.; Kastak, David; Ketten, Darlene R.; Tyack, Peter L.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Richardson, W. John; Thomas, Jeanette A.

2005-09-01

166

Marine Derived Hamacanthins as Lead for the Development of Novel PDGFR? Protein Kinase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report on pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as lead for the development of potent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive protein kinase inhibitors with implications as anti-cancer drugs. Initially, we identified the pyrazin-2(1H)-one scaffold from hamacanthins (deep sea marine sponge alkaloids) by Molecular Modeling studies as core binding motif in the ATP pocket of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), which are validated drug targets for the treatment of various neoplastic diseases. Structure-based design studies on a human RTK member PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) suggested a straight forward lead optimization strategy. Accordingly, we focused on a Medicinal Chemistry project to develop pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as optimized PDGFR binders. In order to reveal Structure-Activity-Relationships (SAR), we established a flexible synthetic route via microwave mediated ring closure to asymmetric 3,5-substituted pyrazin-2(1H)-ones and produced a set of novel compounds. Herein, we identified highly potent PDGFR binders with IC50 values in an enzymatic assay below µM range, and possessing significant activity against PDGFR dependent cancer cells. Thus, marine hamacanthin-derived pyrazin-2(1H)-ones showing interesting properties as lead for their further development towards potent PDGFR-inhibitors.

Pinchuk, Boris; Johannes, Eugen; Gul, Sheraz; Schlosser, Joachim; Schaechtele, Christoph; Totzke, Frank; Peifer, Christian

2013-01-01

167

Marine derived hamacanthins as lead for the development of novel PDGFR? protein kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

In this study, we report on pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as lead for the development of potent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive protein kinase inhibitors with implications as anti-cancer drugs. Initially, we identified the pyrazin-2(1H)-one scaffold from hamacanthins (deep sea marine sponge alkaloids) by Molecular Modeling studies as core binding motif in the ATP pocket of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), which are validated drug targets for the treatment of various neoplastic diseases. Structure-based design studies on a human RTK member PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) suggested a straight forward lead optimization strategy. Accordingly, we focused on a Medicinal Chemistry project to develop pyrazin-2(1H)-ones as optimized PDGFR binders. In order to reveal Structure-Activity-Relationships (SAR), we established a flexible synthetic route via microwave mediated ring closure to asymmetric 3,5-substituted pyrazin-2(1H)-ones and produced a set of novel compounds. Herein, we identified highly potent PDGFR binders with IC?? values in an enzymatic assay below µM range, and possessing significant activity against PDGFR dependent cancer cells. Thus, marine hamacanthin-derived pyrazin-2(1H)-ones showing interesting properties as lead for their further development towards potent PDGFR-inhibitors. PMID:24065162

Pinchuk, Boris; Johannes, Eugen; Gul, Sheraz; Schlosser, Joachim; Schaechtele, Christoph; Totzke, Frank; Peifer, Christian

2013-01-01

168

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

1992-04-01

169

Development and testing of the pyrotechnic subsystem to the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design, fabrication, and testing of the Mariner Mars 1971 pyrotechnic subsystem are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on those changes from the Mariner Mars 1969 configuration. Major problems occurring in the developmental and testing phases are discussed.

Alexander, P. (comps.); Earnest, J.; Murphy, A.; Quinn, J.

1971-01-01

170

Education and Conservation Benefits of Marine Wildlife Tours: Developing Free-Choice Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine wildlife tours can provide a range of education and conservation benefits for visitors, including emotional (i.e., affective) responses and learning (i.e., cognition). Interpretive programs cover the biology, ecology, and behavior of marine species; best practice guidelines; and human threats to marine areas. The author reviews the…

Zeppel, Heather

2008-01-01

171

The lessons learned from the development of the wind energy industry that might be applied to marine industry renewables.  

PubMed

This paper considers the early experiences of the development of wind turbines and the wind energy industry in order to try and identify lessons learned that could now be applied to the developing marine renewables technology and industry. It considers both political and commercial incentives and engineering development. PMID:22184671

Garrad, Andrew

2012-01-28

172

Effects of marine toxins on the reproduction and early stages development of aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

2010-01-01

173

Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms  

PubMed Central

Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms.

Vasconcelos, Vitor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vitor

2010-01-01

174

Progress in the clinical development of new marine-derived anticancer compounds.  

PubMed

Naturally derived anticancer agents continue to be instrumental in the systemic therapeutic intervention against solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Such compounds now have a relevant role in contemporary models of combination with targeted agents, thus providing a rationale to consider nature as a valid tool to discover new innovative anticancer agents. The marine ecosystem has increasingly been the focus of interest for new discoveries in the field that are expected to be of significant therapeutic impact in cancer patients. A critical review of the integrated data generated in our marine-derived anticancer program seems to confirm such expentancies. ET-743 (Yondelis) represents the first new agent developed against advanced pretreated soft tissue sarcoma in the past 25 years, and also harbors activity in women bearing pretreated ovarian cancer and a solid potential in combination therapy. The lack of cumulative toxicities makes this compound suitable for long-lasting therapies, reversible transaminitis being the most prevalent toxicity. Aplidin has shown a positive therapeutic index in phase I trials and phase II studies are ongoing. In contrast to the lack of bone marrow toxicity, a set of translational results anticipates a potential in leukemia. Kahalalide F has also successfully completed the phase I program in solid tumors with evidence of activity in resistant tumors and phase II studies are under way. Finally, the mechanistic data generated in parallel with the clinical program confirms the potential of the marine ecosystem in the discovery of new agents acting against new cellular targets of relevance in cancer cell biology. PMID:15057135

Jimeno, Jose; López-Martín, J A; Ruiz-Casado, A; Izquierdo, M A; Scheuer, P J; Rinehart, K

2004-04-01

175

Virus-like particles in picornavirus vaccine development.  

PubMed

Virus-like particles (VLP), which are similar to natural virus particles but do not contain viral genes, have brought about significant breakthroughs in many research fields because of their unique advantages. The ordered repeating epitopes of VLP can induce immunity responses similar to those prompted by natural viral infection; thus, VLP vaccines are regarded as candidate alternatives to whole-virus vaccines. As picornavirus has serious impacts on human and animal health, the development of efficient and safe vaccines is a key endeavor in preventing virus infections. The characteristics of picornavirus capsid proteins allow the development of VLP vaccines. This paper investigates research scenarios and progress on picornavirus VLP vaccines with the aim of providing a reference for researchers focusing on virology and vaccinology. PMID:24647496

Dong, Hu; Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi

2014-05-01

176

Is formation of NH4NO3 a critical factor for the growth of > 10 nm new particles to cloud condensation nuclei size in marine boundary layer?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last three decades, huge efforts have been taken to improve understanding of the relationship between ambient nucleation of new particles and its impact on the climate in marine boundary layer (MBL), e.g., CLAW hypothesis and studies related. However, only >40-50 nm new particles could be activated as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) under typical range of water supersatuations occurring in MBL. The knowledge gap still existed, i.e., which chemicals are critical factors in growing nucleated particles to CCN size in MBL. In this study, we found that nucleated particles in MBL cannot grow over 40 nm in absence of strong formation of NH4NO3. However, the strong formation of NH4NO3 together with organics can grow nucleated particles close to or over 50 nm in MBL. These indicate that the strong formation of NH4NO3 is a critical factor to grow nucleated particles to CCN size in MBL. However, the strong formation of NH4NO3 occurred only in polluted air mass in MBL. Thus, ambient nucleation of new particles in clear and remote MBL is probably not a source of CCN due to lack of a strong formation of NH4NO3 and the nucleation may have no impact on the climate.

Liu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Gao, H.; Zhang, T.; Yao, X.

2013-12-01

177

Insights and Ideas Garnered from Marine Metabolites for Development of Dual-Function Acetylcholinesterase and Amyloid-? Aggregation Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Due to the diversity of biological activities that can be found in aquatic ecosystems, marine metabolites have been an active area of drug discovery for the last 30 years. Marine metabolites have been found to inhibit a number of enzymes important in the treatment of human disease. Here, we focus on marine metabolites that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is the cellular target for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. Currently, development of anticholinesterase drugs with improved potency, and drugs that act as dual acetylcholinesterase and amyloid-? aggregation inhibitors, are being sought to treat Alzheimer’s disease. Seven classes of marine metabolites are reported to possess anti-cholinesterase activity. We compared these metabolites to clinically-used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors having known mechanisms of inhibition. We performed a docking simulation and compared them to published experimental data for each metabolite to determine the most likely mechanism of inhibition for each class of marine inhibitor. Our results indicate that several marine metabolites bind to regions of the acetylcholinesterase active site that are not bound by the clinically-used drugs rivastigmine, galanthamine, donepezil, or tacrine. We use the novel poses adopted for computational drug design of tighter binding anticholinesterase drugs likely to act as inhibitors of both acetylcholinesterase activity and amyloid-? aggregation inhibition.

Stoddard, Shana V.; Hamann, Mark T.; Wadkins, Randy M.

2014-01-01

178

Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish  

PubMed Central

As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 ?atm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 ?atm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment.

Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

2013-01-01

179

Submicron Sea Salt Aerosol Inside and Outside of the Surf Plume: Size Segregated and Total Sea salt Aerosol Distributions by Single Particle Analysis at a Coastal Marine Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainties in the shape of the source function for sea salt aerosols as well as in the of the shape of the size distribution of sea salt aerosol in the marine boundary layer (MBL) are considered, after even greater uncertainties for dust aerosol, the biggest open question to assess the impact of aerosols on climate change [1]. In a recent intercomparison of global models, satellite retrievals and ground-based measurements, Kinne et al [2] found large discrepancies between simulated and measured aerosol extinction in the Southern Ocean, and suggested that this might be indicative of an underestimation of the contribution of submicron sea salt aerosol in current models. Although since at least Murphy et al's [3] the importance of submicron sea salt aerosol in the clean MBL for radiative forcing is recognized, high quality data on the size distribution and on the source function of sea salt in this size range is sparse. Field measurements from O'Dowd et al and Clarke et al [4,5], based on the aerosol volatility technique, yielded contrasting results in the two size regions crucial for direct and indirect forcing. We have developed a sea salt specific aerosol particle sizer [6,7], the Aerosol Sodium Detector (ASD), that in its current, improved version is able to quantitatively measure the amount of sea salt in single aerosol particles using sodium as a proxy in the range between 1 fg NaCl equivalent (95 nm NaCl dry diameter) and 7000 fg NaCl equivalent (1800 nm diameter) with a sizing accuracy better than 5% and no losses within the valid detection range. This instrument was deployed at a coastal site at Bellows AFB in Oahu, Hawaii to study the contribution of sea salt to the total aerosol load in both remote marine air and the surf zone at wind speeds up to 10 m/s. Full sea salt number size distributions were acquired continuously in 2 s samples and matched the results of a commercial aerodynamic particle sizer down to 400 nm better than 20% in all cases. The distributions showed a main submicron mode at 520 nm dry diameter as well as a second mode below 300 nm that was strongly enhanced in breaking waves, in agreement with Clarke et al's recent findings [5]. Total sea salt particle count down to the detection limit was about 12-14 part/cc at 9.5 m/s u10. In size-segregated mode, the extent of internal mixing of surf zone aerosol was monitored. The results were consistent with pure sea salt with little processing down to the detection limit of 100 nm. Average size dependent sea salt mixing ratios were calculated, with sea salt being the primary aerosol component down to 200 nm, in good agreement with Murphy et al's reported ratios [3]. The results of this study suggest a much larger contribution to total aerosol scattering by sea salt aerosols in remote marine air than current parameterizations of the sea salt size distribution imply [4,8]. They also hint at a very effective removal process of very small sea salt particles (<200 nm) formed in breaking waves in the MBL. References: 1.Penner, J. et al.,in: 3rd IPCC Report, 2001, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. p.289-348. 2.Kinne, S. et al., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 2003. 108(D20). 3.Murphy, D.M. et al., Nature, 1998, 392(6671): p.62-65. 4.O'Dowd, C.D. et al., Atmos. Environ., 1997, 31(1): p.73-80. 5.Clarke, A.D. et al., J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 2003, 20(10): p.1362-1374. 6.Clark, C.D. et al., J. Aerosol Sci., 2001, 32(6):p.765-778. 7.Campuzano-Jost, P. et al., J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 2003, 20(10):p.1421-1430. 8.Gong, S.L., Global Biogeochem. Cy., 2003, 17(4).

Campuzano-Jost, P.; Donohoue, D.; Maring, H. B.; Hynes, A. J.

2004-12-01

180

Pulsed Nanosecond Discharge Development and Production of Active Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed nanosecond discharges are being actively used for different engineering applications such as plasma-assisted ignition, plasma flow control, and gas dynamics lasers. The main advantages of using of this type of discharge are (i) efficient production of active particles, and (ii) sustaining uniform, volume filling plasmas at high pressures and power loadings. In the present work, development of a nanosecond pulse discharge (pulse amplitude up to 40 kV, pulse repetition rate up to 100 kHz, pulse duration of 4 ns) was studied at different pressures. Discharge parameters, such as fast ionization wave amplitude and velocity have been measured. Energy input into the flow was also determined. Active particle production in high-speed combustible flows (up to 100 m/s) was estimated by comparing heating of air-fuel flow and air flow in the discharge. The results suggest that additional heat release in air-fuel flows is due to plasma chemical fuel oxidation reactions, which at certain conditions leads to ignition. Kinetic model describing production of active particles in the discharge, subsequent plasma chemical reactions, and ignition process is developed.

Mintoussov, Evgeny; Bao, Ainan; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

2007-10-01

181

Doped hydrophobic silica nano- and micro-particles as novel agents for developing latent fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel hydrophobic silica based particles have been developed to visualise latent fingerprints. The composition of the particles has been designed to maximise both hydrophobic and ionic interactions between a variety of coloured and fluorescent reporter molecules and the silicate backbone within the particles. The resulting doped particles retain the incorporated dyes with high affinity. In addition, a variety of sub-particles

Brenden J. Theaker; Katherine E. Hudson; Frederick J. Rowell

2008-01-01

182

Development and testing of the infrared interferometer spectrometer for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development and testing of the infrared interferometer spectrometer is reported with emphasis on the unique features of the Mariner instrument as compared to previous IRIS instruments flown on the Nimbus meteorological research satellites. The interferometer functions in the spectral range from 50 microns to 6.3 microns. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 X 10 to the -7th power W/sq cm/ster/cm has been achieved. Major improvements that were implemented included the cesium iodide beamsplitter and electronic features to suppress the effect of vibration on the Michelson mirror motion and digital filtering through the summation of increased sampling of the infrared signal. A bit error detection and correction scheme was also implemented in order to recover the science data with a higher level of confidence over the telecommunication link.

Hanel, R. H.; Schlachman, B.; Vanous, D.; Rogers, D.; Taylor, J. H.

1971-01-01

183

On microalgal settlements and the sluggish development of marine biofouling in Port Blair waters, Andamans.  

PubMed

Settlement of microalgae was investigated on Perspex, aluminium and zinc coupons immersed in Port Blair Bay waters for over 3 months. Commencement of fouling was exceptionally slow, and few microalgae were found until 14 days. Settlement occurred thereafter, and 47 microalgal species contributed to the fouling. The dominant forms belonged to the genera Navicula and Nitzschia, whereas Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Gyrosigma balticum and Trichodesmium erythraeum also accounted for high proportions of the settlements. The dominance of Nitzschia sigma was particularly marked on zinc coupons, suggesting an ability by the organism to resist toxicity. Settlement of both centric and pennate diatoms was observed in the early and mid periods, and absolute dominance of the pennate diatoms subsequently. The fouling mass was low even after 103 days, and it is speculated that strong ultraviolet radiation might be the prime reason for the sluggish development of marine biofouling in these oceanic island waters. PMID:18097790

Eashwar, M; Nallathambi, T; Kuberaraj, K

2008-01-01

184

Development of a multifunctional particle spectrometer for space radiation imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For future exploration of the solar system, the European Space Agency (ESA) is planning missions to Mercury (BepiColombo), the Sun (SolarOrbiter) and to the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The expected intensity of radiation during such missions is hazardous for the scientific instruments and the satellite. To extend the lifetime of the satellite and its payload a multifunctional particle spectrometer (MPS) is being developed. The basic function of the MPS is to send an alarm signal to the satellite control system during periods of high radiation. In addition the MPS is a scientific instrument that will unfold the composition of the different contributing particles on-line by the dE/dx versus E method. The energy spectrum and angular distribution of the particles will be recorded as well. This article describes the main requirements and the base line design for the MPS. A readout scheme consisting of a 32 channel ASIC from IDEAS is proposed and the signal filtering algorithm will run on a digital signal processor based on FPGA technology. Results are shown from prototype calibration studies with a proton beam.

Maddox, Erik; Palacios, Alex; Lampridis, Dimitris; Kraft, Stefan; Owens, Alan; Tomuta, Dana; Ostendorf, Reint

2008-06-01

185

Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors  

SciTech Connect

The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown.

Stelzer, H.

1980-08-01

186

Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine reserves are being established worldwide in response to a growing recognition of the conservation crisis that is building in the oceans. However, designation of reserves has been largely opportunistic, or protective measures have been implemented (often overlapping and sometimes in conflict) by different entities seeking to achieve different ends. This has created confusion among both users and enforcers, and the proliferation of different measures provides a false sense of protection where little is offered. This paper sets out a procedure grounded in current understanding of ecological processes, that allows the evaluation and selection of reserve sites in order to develop functional, interconnected networks of fully protected reserves that will fulfill multiple objectives. By fully protected we mean permanently closed to fishing and other resource extraction. We provide a framework that unifies the central aims of conservation and fishery management, while also meeting other human needs such as the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., maintenance of coastal water quality, shoreline protection, and recreational opportunities). In our scheme, candidate sites for reserves are evaluated against 12 criteria focused toward sustaining the biological integrity and productivity of marine systems at both local and regional scales. While a limited number of sites will be indispensable in a network, many will be of similar value as reserves, allowing the design of numerous alternative, biologically adequate networks. Devising multiple network designs will help ensure that ecological functionality is preserved throughout the socioeconomic evaluation process. Too often, socioeconomic criteria have dominated the process of reserve selection, potentially undermining their efficacy. We argue that application of biological criteria must precede and inform socioeconomic evaluation, since maintenance of ecosystem functioning is essential for meeting all of the goals for reserves. It is critical that stakeholders are fully involved throughout this process. Application of the proposed criteria will lead to networks whose multifunctionality will help unite the objectives of different management entities, so accelerating progress toward improved stewardship of the oceans.

Roberts, C. M.; Branch, G.; Bustamante, R. H.; Castilla, J. C.; Dugan, J.; Halpern, B. S.; Lafferty, K. D.; Leslie, H.; Lubchenco, J.; McArdle, D.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Warner, R. R.

2003-01-01

187

Insight on watershed development along the actively uplifting Mount Lebanon range (Lebanon) from marine and fluvial terraces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active uplift in the Mt. Lebanon range results from regional transpression along a ~200-km-long restraining bend within the Dead Sea fault system. Thus, the resultant landscape is characterized by the combined influences of tectonic, eustatic, and climatic controls. Marine terraces in northern Mt. Lebanon range provide significant constraints on regional uplift and, consequently, base level control on watershed development. Detailed

S. Lepley; F. Gomez; F. Nader

2005-01-01

188

DEVELOPING CASE-SPECIFIC APPROACHES IN MARINE CONSERVATION THROUGH OBSTACLE ANALYSES: A CASE STUDY AT THE PULAI RIVER ESTUARY, MALAYSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful conservation requires development of case-specific approaches appropriate to address existing conservation threats. We discuss a local marine conservation initiative in the Pulai River Estuary in southern Malay Peninsula. The estuarine ecosystem, characterized by mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs, is highly productive and contains a number of endangered species. Existing conservation efforts are undermined by shipping and other port-related

E. F. Granek

189

Development of Pressure sensing Particles through SERS and Upconversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing distance of space travel, there is a critical need for non-invasive point-of-care diagnostic techniques. According to the NASA Human Research Roadmap, the ``lack of non-invasive diagnostic imaging capability and techniques to diagnose identified Exploration Medical Conditions involving internal body parts,'' is a critical capability gap for long distance space travel. To address this gap, we developed a novel technique for non-invasive monitoring of strain on implanted devices. We constructed a prototype tension-indicating washer with an upconversion spectrum that depended upon strain. The washer was made of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixture with upconversion particles embedded in it. This mixture was cured onto a lenticular lens. Methylene blue dye solution was sealed between the lenticular lens and PDMS so that pressure on the washer displaced the dye and uncovered the upconversion particles. We also began work on a tension-indicating screw based upon surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Future work for this project is to quantitatively correlate the spectral intensity with pressure, further develop SERS washers, and construct SERS and/or upconversion screws or bolts. Non-invasive tension-indicating devices and techniques such as these can be applied to orthopedics, used as a general technique for measuring micro-strain, verifying proper assembly of equipment, and observing/studying bolt loosening.

Widejko, Ryan; Wang, Fenglin; Anker, Jeff

2012-03-01

190

Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH3) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH3 than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH3 concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH3 concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH3 and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH3.

Hooten, R. L.; Carr, R. S.

1998-01-01

191

Hierarchical population genetic structure in a direct developing antarctic marine invertebrate.  

PubMed

Understanding the relationship between life-history variation and population structure in marine invertebrates is not straightforward. This is particularly true of polar species due to the difficulty of obtaining samples and a paucity of genomic resources from which to develop nuclear genetic markers. Such knowledge, however, is essential for understanding how different taxa may respond to climate change in the most rapidly warming regions of the planet. We therefore used over two hundred polymorphic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) to explore population connectivity at three hierachical spatial scales in the direct developing Antarctic topshell Margarella antarctica. To previously published data from five populations spanning a 1500 km transect along the length of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, we added new AFLP data for four populations separated by up to 6 km within Ryder Bay, Adelaide Island. Overall, we found a nonlinear isolation-by-distance pattern, suggestive of weaker population structure within Ryder Bay than is present over larger spatial scales. Nevertheless, significantly positive F st values were obtained in all but two of ten pairwise population comparisons within the bay following Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. This is in contrast to a previous study of the broadcast spawner Nacella concinna that found no significant genetic differences among several of the same sites. By implication, the topshell's direct-developing lifestyle may constrain its ability to disperse even over relatively small geographic scales. PMID:23691125

Hoffman, Joseph I; Clarke, Andrew; Clark, Melody S; Peck, Lloyd S

2013-01-01

192

Structure and measurement of Marine recruit attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzed the responses of 481 US Marine Corps recruits to items in a Marine Corps Opinion Questionnaire. 5 orthogonal factors were identified and labeled as attitudes toward the toughness of Marines, the spirit among Marines, affiliation with the Marine Corps, and authority and consideration in the Marine Corps. Scales developed to provide scores on these factors are considered reliable, and

Richard F. Booth; Anne Hoiberg

1974-01-01

193

Marine Science in Support for Sustainable Development of the Indian Ocean Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Ocean rim is home to a significant part of the global population. Its large heat capacity and ocean circulation responds to and regulates seasonal to multi-decadal and long term climate change. In particular the monsoon type circulation regulates rain and drought patterns over India, Africa and Southern Asia. Fishing and more recently resource extraction of energy and materials make the ocean economically important. Global trade and ocean related hazards (such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, ocean de-oxygenation, loss of biodiversity, sea level rise and earth quakes and tsunamis) have important other economic impacts on all societies. On the other hand our current scientific understanding, ability to continually observe changes in the marine environment, model all aspects of the connected ocean system and develop plausible scenarios for the Indian Ocean of the future are still in its infancy. The possibility for a decade long comprehensive Indian Ocean Study in support of providing the information needed for sustainable development of the region is explored.

Visbeck, Martin

2014-05-01

194

Effects of barium and cadmium on the population development of the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina.  

PubMed

Offshore oil and gas drilling often involves the use of fluids containing barium and traces of other heavy metals. These may affect the environment, but information on their toxicity to benthic biota remains scant. Here, we present results of a 10-day bioassay with the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina at different loads of barium (0-10 ,000 ppm nominal concentrations) and cadmium (0-12 ppm) in the range of concentrations reported from drilling-impacted sediments. Barium did not affect the fitness and population development of R. (P.) marina at concentrations up to 300 ppm, but did cause a decrease in population abundance and an increase in development time from concentrations of 400-2000 ppm onwards. Increased mortality occurred at 4800 ppm Ba. For cadmium, LOEC and EC?? values for total population abundance were 2.95 and 8.82 ppm, respectively. Cd concentrations as low as 2.40 to 2.68 caused a decrease in the abundance of adult nematodes, indicating that assays covering more generations would likely demonstrate yet more pronounced population-level effects. Our results indicate that oil and gas drilling activities may potentially have important implications for the meiobenthos through the toxicity of barium and associated metals like cadmium. PMID:21855994

Lira, V F; Santos, G A P; Derycke, S; Larrazabal, M E L; Fonsêca-Genevois, V G; Moens, T

2011-10-01

195

Engaging Scientists in K-12 Professional Development and Curriculum Development in the Context of Alaska's Large Marine Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska marine ecosystem-based professional development workshops have proven to be a robust context for engaging scientists from a variety of disciplines in overcoming barriers to communication and collaboration among scientists and educators. Scientists came away from scientist-teacher workshops with effective K-12 outreach strategies as well as a deeper understanding about how to contribute meaningfully to K-12 education. The establishment of the Alaskan Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE-AK) in 2009 was the catalyst for a series of professional development workshops related to the North Pacific Research Board's (NPRB) marine focus areas (Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, and Arctic Ocean) for Integrated Ecosystem Research Programs (IERPs). During 2010-2012, COSEE-AK and NPRB partnered with the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS), and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) to support a five-day professional development workshop focused on each ecosystem. The workshops brought together three types of participants: 1) Alaska-focused marine ecosystem scientists; 2) rural Alaskan teachers living within each ecosystem; and 3) teachers from outside Alaska who had research experiences with scientists in the ecosystem. Over the course of the workshops, we developed a workshop model with four objectives: 1) to increase the science content knowledge of educators and their ability to teach ecosystem science; 2) to provide the scientists an opportunity to have broader impacts from their research on educators and Alaska Native and rural students; 3) to increase the knowledge and skills of educator and scientist participants to provide effective learning experiences for K-12 students; and 4) to facilitate the collaborative development of lesson plans. A total of 28 scientists and 41 educators participated in the three workshops. The success of the workshop for the educators was evaluated by pre- and post-workshop surveys of their perceived increase in content knowledge in specific topics and increased confidence in teaching those topics. The experiences of the scientists were evaluated based on recorded one-on-one interviews. Preliminary results indicate that the Arctic Ocean workshop was the most successful of the three in meeting the workshop objectives for both teacher and scientist participants. The gain in teachers' level of knowledge and confidence was significant for five scientific topics. Scientists reported gains in their understanding of K-12 education, working with teachers, lesson plan design, and how to make their science relevant to Alaska Native students and communities. A comparison of scientists responses from all three workshops indicate that the factors unique to the Arctic Ocean Workshop which contributed to meeting the workshop objectives in terms of scientist engagement were: 1) the sustained involvement of the scientists throughout the workshop, 2) an effective ratio of scientists to teachers (1:1), with flexibility for smaller group work), and 3) the involvement of Alaska Native scientists, educators, and community members in the collaborative work. The lesson plans have been posted to the ARCUS (http://www.polartrec.com) and MBARI (http://www.mbari/earth) websites.

Sigman, M.; Anderson, A.; Deans, N. L.; Dublin, R.; Dugan, D.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Warburton, J.

2012-12-01

196

Development of a Testing Platform for Scaled-Laboratory Studies of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small-scale platform for testing model hydrokinetic devices in riverine environments has been developed for the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, 1.5 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&H) at Bucknell University. This platform is being used to advance development of marine hydrokinetic technologies by providing scaled-laboratory testing in a controlled environment. The results will provide validation of numerical predictions for device effects on the local substrate. Specifically, the flume is being used to model the effect of an underwater turbine on the sediment transport through its wake flow as it converts hydrokinetic energy to power. A test bed has been designed and assembled to hold sediment of varying size and material, where a single model turbine or an array formation, can be rooted within an erodible bed to conduct scour and erosion studies. Additionally, the facility is equipped with contraction inserts to increase the range of flow speeds available for turbine testing. For accurate flow field measurements the testing platform is instrumented with a Sontek Horizon 16 MHz Micro Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) which is used to characterize the mean velocity field of the wake generated by the turbine to correlate the strength of the wake with changes in the sediment bed. Finally, the testing platform includes an HR Wallingford 2D Sediment Bed Profiler with a low-powered laser distance sensor mounted inside a waterproof housing to enable characterization of changes in bed form topology for various turbine performance regimes. The flume is equipped with a track that allows a precision 3D traversing system to position measurement probes along the length, width and depth of the flume. Model turbine performance in terms of torque and power are characterized. This testing platform for laboratory-scaled studies are instrumental in yielding physical measurements of the alteration of sediment caused by variations in flow and wake structures due to the presence of marine hydrokinetic devices. These results will facilitate siting assessment for green energy technologies.

Beninati, M. L.; Volpe, M. A.; Riley, D. R.; Krane, M. H.

2010-12-01

197

Development of Electromagnetic Particle Simulation Code in an Open System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an electromagnetic particle simulation for magnetic reconnection in an open system, which has a free boundary condition,\\u000a particles go out and come into the system through the boundary and the number of particles depends on time. Besides, particles\\u000a are locally attracted due to physical condition. Accordingly, it is hard to realize an adequate load balance with domain decomposition.\\u000a Furthermore,

Hiroaki Ohtani; Seiji Ishiguro; Ritoku Horiuchi; Yasuharu Hayashi; Nobutoshi Horiuchi

198

Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine mediated particle formation in the marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. These ultra-fine particles may then grow through the condensation of other materials to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of the initially nucleated particles. In laboratory simulations, hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5·H2O). In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH). On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass. Water retention in amorphous material at low RH is important for understanding the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles and uptake of other condensable material. Subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only 6%, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the small growth factor of aqueous iodic acid solution droplets is consistent with the small aerosol growth factors observed in previous experiments.

Murray, B. J.; Haddrell, A. E.; Peppe, S.; Davies, J. F.; Reid, J. P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Price, H. C.; Kumar, R.; Saunders, R. W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Umo, N. S.; Wilson, T. W.

2012-09-01

199

Potential delivery of water-soluble protein hydrolysates to marine suspension feeders by three different microbound particle types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray-dried zein particles (SDZP), spray-water zein particles (SWZP) and gelatin-alginate beads (GAB) were prepared containing a defined dietary mixture and their performances were compared for delivering the soluble fraction of protein hydrolysates. Measures of performances of these three different microbound particle (MBP) types included inclusion, encapsulation, retention and delivery efficiencies in addition to T50 (time to 50% retention) values.SDZP had

Umur Önal; Chris Langdon

2009-01-01

200

Mariner Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center

C. Snyder

2000-01-01

201

Inventory of Non-Federally Funded Marine Pollution Research, Development and Monitoring Activities: West Coast Region,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge of current marine pollution research and monitoring programs is an important factor in planning and guiding future national efforts to control such pollution. To supplement these reports on Federal activities, NMPPO published a series of reports...

G. M. Canton D. M. Opresko R. S. Weaver

1987-01-01

202

Nutrition and bioprocess development for efficient biosynthesis of an antitumor compound from marine-derived fungus.  

PubMed

An integrated nutrition and bioprocess strategy was developed for improving the biosynthesis of an antitumor compound, 1403C, by a marine-derived fungus, Halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403). First, statistical design strategies were synthetically applied to optimize the nutritional composition. The resulting 1403C production reached 2.07 g/l, which was 143.5 % higher than the original production. However, it only produced 0.44 g/l of 1403C in 5-l bioreactor fermentation. Thus, the operating parameters including culture pH, dissolved oxygen, agitation speed, impeller type and inoculum level were considered to improve the fermentation process, and an effective control strategy for 1403C production by Halorosellinia sp. submerged in a 5-l bioreactor was established. When inoculating 0.22 g/l dry biomass, controlling dissolved oxygen not lower than 30 % during the growth phase but ranging between 30 and 40 % during the stationary phase, using a double-layer six-flat-blade Rushton disc turbine agitated at 400 rpm, keeping short-term low pH and rapid-rising pH with glucose starvation, the highest 1403C production was finally obtained at 1.32 g/l, which was promoted by 200 % compared to before optimization. Fermentation scale-up was finally performed in a 500-l bioreactor, and 1403C production of 1.09 g/l was obtained. PMID:23887857

Zhou, Weiqiang; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Jiushun; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Jiao; Wang, Meixia; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

2013-10-01

203

Wind Tunnel Experiments of Large Particle Reentrainment-Deposition and Development of Large Particle Scaling Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reentrainment-deposition characteristics of lycopodium spores, timothy pollen, glass microballoons, glass spheres, and nickel spheres were examined in a series of wind tunnel experiments. Particle diameter varied from 18 to 34 (?m, and particle density varied from 1.0 to 8.9 g cm. Adhesion force distribution of each particle type was determined using the centrifuge method, and the force required to remove

David A. Braaten

1994-01-01

204

Occurrence of particle-bound polysulfides and significance of their reaction with organic matters in marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic polysulfides (Sn2-, where n > 1) contribute to the incorporation of sulfur into organic matter in reducing sediments, especially when conditions exist for partial oxidation of sulfide. Inorganic polysulfides have been assumed previously to exist only in the aqueous phase. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of inorganic polysulfides is bound to the particulate-phase of sediments and can react with carbon-carbon unsaturated bonds in organic matter, thereby attaching it to the particulate phase through polysulfide linkages. This mechanism may affect the bioavailability of the reactive organic matter in sediments and hence may play an important role in the preservation of organic matter in anoxic marine sediments.

Vairavamurthy, Appathurai; Mopper, Kenneth; Taylor, Barrie F.

1992-10-01

205

Marine Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

1978-01-01

206

A Model for Particle Microphysics,Turbulent Mixing, and Radiative Transfer in the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer and Comparisons with Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an approx. 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gate conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The vertical profile of cloud droplet concentration is sensitive to the lower size cutoff of the droplet size distribution due to the presence of unactivated haze particles in the lower region of the modeled cloud. Increases in total droplet concentrations do not always produce less drizzle and more cloud water in the model. The radius of the mean droplet volume does not correlate consistently with drizzle, but the effective droplet radius does. The greatest impacts on cloud properties predicted by the model are produced by halving the width of the size distribution of input condensation nuclei and by omitting the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling on the condensational growth of cloud droplets. The omission of infrared scattering produces noticeable changes in cloud properties. The collection efficiencies for droplets less than 30-micron radius, and the value of the accommodation coefficient for condensational droplet growth, have noticeable effects on cloud properties. The divergence of the horizontal wind also has a significant effect on a 12-h model simulation of cloud structure. Conclusions drawn from the model are tentative because of the limitations of the 1D model framework. A principal simplification is that the model assumes horizontal homogeneity, and, therefore, does not resolve updrafts and downdrafts. Likely consequences of this simplification include overprediction of the growth of droplets by condensation in the upper region of the cloud, underprediction of droplet condensational growth in the lower region of the cloud, and under-prediction of peak supersaturations.

Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, Owen B.; Hobbs, Peter V.

1995-01-01

207

A Model for Particle Microphysics, Turbulent Mixing, and Radiative Transfer in the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer and Comparisons with Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an approx. 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gale conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The vertical profile of cloud droplet concentration is sensitive to the lower size cutoff of the droplet size distribution due to the presence of unactivated haze particles in the lower region of the modeled cloud. Increases in total droplet concentrations do not always produce less drizzle and more cloud water in the model. The radius of the mean droplet volume does not correlate consistently with drizzle, but the effective droplet radius does. The greatest impacts on cloud properties predicted by the model are produced by halving the width of the size distribution of input condensation nuclei and by omitting the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling on the condensational growth of cloud droplets. The omission of infrared scattering produces noticeable changes in cloud properties. The collection efficiencies for droplets less than 30-micrometers radius, and the value of the accommodation coefficient for condensational droplet growth, have noticeable effects on cloud properties. The divergence of the horizontal wind also has a significant effect on a 12-h model simulation of cloud structure. Conclusions drawn from the model are tentative because of the limitations of the 1D model framework. A principal simplification is that the model assumes horizontal homogeneity, and, therefore, does not resolve updrafts and downdrafts. Likely consequences of this simplification include overprediction of the growth of droplets by condensation in the upper region of the cloud, underprediction of droplet condensational growth in the lower region of the cloud, and underprediction of peak supersaturations.

Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, Owen B.; Hobbs, Peter V.

1995-01-01

208

Further development of the electrodynamic chamber for studying single-particle oxidation and nonuniform shrinkage of char particles  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study are (1) to present the further development of some of the characterization methods used with the electrodynamic chamber (EDC) for high-temperature studies of single particles, and (2) to present in a qualitative manner new results on char oxidation under kinetically controlled conditions. The following methods were either developed or improved for higher accuracy: (1) shadowgraphy for size and shape measurements; (2) two-dimensional Mie scattering for sizing and determining optical properties; (3) drag force measurements (by forced convection) for the determination of the density; (4) optical pyrometry using wide-band detectors in the visible and infrared regions for temperature determination. In this study, synthetic char particles, spherically shaped (Spherocarb), as well as spherical polystyrene particles were oxidized in atmospheric air. The particles were suspended in the center of the EDC and heated by a CO[sub 2] laser beam. Mass and size changes as well as the particle temperature were measured as a function of time during the oxidation process. First they were consumed uniformly, following previous shrinkage observations. At about 60% conversion nonuniform shrinkage was observed, mostly preferential shrinkage from the top of the particle. At 70% conversion a clear cut on the top of the particle was monitored. At 80% conversion preferential consumption from the other side of the particle was established, showing a clear disk configuration. At 95% conversion a hole in the center of the disk was developed. It is due to the capability of the EDC that the authors wee able to observed this unique phenomenon using its ability to suspend a particle at the center of the chamber motionless.

Yony Weiss; Bar-Ziv, E. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel))

1993-12-01

209

Evolving science of marine reserves: New developments and emerging research frontiers  

PubMed Central

The field of marine reserve science has matured greatly over the last decade, moving beyond studies of single reserves and beyond perspectives from single disciplines. This Special Feature exemplifies recent advances in marine reserve research, showing insights gained from synthetic studies of reserve networks, long-term changes within reserves, integration of social and ecological science research, and balance between reserve design for conservation as well as fishery and other commercial objectives. This rich body of research helps to inform conservation planning for marine ecosystems but also poses new challenges for further study, including how to best design integrated fisheries management and conservation systems, how to effectively evaluate the performance of entire reserve networks, and how to examine the complex coupling between ecological and socioeconomic responses to reserve networks.

Gaines, Steven D.; Lester, Sarah E.; Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Costello, Christopher; Pollnac, Richard

2010-01-01

210

Development of a decision support system to manage contamination in marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

In recent years, contamination and its interaction with climate-change variables have been recognized as critical stressors in coastal areas, emphasizing the need for a standardized framework encompassing chemical and biological data into risk indices to support decision-making. We therefore developed an innovative, expert decision support system (Exp-DSS) for the management of contamination in marine coastal ecosystems. The Exp-DSS has two main applications: (i) to determine environmental risk and biological vulnerability in contaminated sites; and (ii) to support the management of waters and sediments by assessing the risk due to the exposure of biota to these matrices. The Exp-DSS evaluates chemical data, both as single compounds and as total toxic pressure of the mixture, to compare concentrations to effect-based thresholds (TELs and PELs). Sites are then placed into three categories of contamination: uncontaminated, mildly contaminated, and highly contaminated. In highly contaminated sites, effects on high-level ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e. survival and reproduction) are used to determine risk at the organism-population level, while ecological parameters (i.e. alterations in community structure and ecosystem functions) are considered for assessing effects on biodiversity. Changes in sublethal biomarkers are utilized to assess the stress level of the organisms in mildly contaminated sites. In Triad studies, chemical concentrations, ecotoxicological high-level effects, and ecological data are combined to determine the level of environmental risk in highly contaminated sites; chemical concentration and ecotoxicological sublethal effects are evaluated to determine biological vulnerability in mildly contaminated sites. The Exp-DSS was applied to data from the literature about sediment quality in estuarine areas of Spain, and ranked risks related to exposure to contaminated sediments from high risk (Huelva estuary) to mild risk (Guadalquivir estuary and Bay of Cadiz). A spreadsheet-based version of the Exp-DSS is available at the MEECE and DiSIT web sites (www.meece.eu and www.disit.unipmn.it). PMID:23892026

Dagnino, A; Viarengo, A

2014-01-01

211

Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine oxide particles in the coastal marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of these particles. Hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5 · H2O). In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH). On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass, but subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only ~6 %, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the small growth factor of aqueous iodic acid solution droplets is consistent with the small aerosol growth factors observed in field experiments.

Murray, B. J.; Haddrell, A. E.; Peppe, S.; Davies, J. F.; Reid, J. P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Price, H. C.; Kumar, R.; Saunders, R. W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Umo, N. S.; Wilson, T. W.

2012-03-01

212

Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition: testing a new approach to managing marine aggregate dredging.  

PubMed

A baseline dataset from 2005 was used to identify the spatial distribution of macrofaunal assemblages across the eastern English Channel. The range of sediment composition found in association with each assemblage was used to define limits for acceptable change at ten licensed marine aggregate extraction areas. Sediment data acquired in 2010, 4 years after the onset of dredging, were used to assess whether conditions remained within the acceptable limits. Despite the observed changes in sediment composition, the composition of sediments in and around nine extraction areas remained within pre-defined acceptable limits. At the tenth site, some of the observed changes within the licence area were judged to have gone beyond the acceptable limits. Implications of the changes are discussed, and appropriate management measures identified. The approach taken in this study offers a simple, objective and cost-effective method for assessing the significance of change, and could simplify the existing monitoring regime. PMID:23806669

Cooper, Keith M

2013-08-15

213

Implications of dredging induced changes in sediment particle size composition for the structure and function of marine benthic macrofaunal communities.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis approach was used to assess the effect of dredging induced changes in sediment composition, under different conditions of natural physical disturbance, for the structure and function of marine benthic macrofaunal communities. Results showed the sensitivity of macrofaunal communities increased as both the proportion of gravel increased and the level of natural physical disturbance decreased. These findings may be explained by the close association of certain taxa with the gravel fraction, and the influence of natural physical disturbance which, as it increases, tends to restrict the colonisation by these species. We conclude that maintaining the gravel content of surface sediments after dredging and, where practicable, locating extraction sites in areas of higher natural disturbance will minimise the potential for long-term negative impacts on the macrofauna. PMID:21872890

Cooper, K M; Curtis, M; Wan Hussin, W M R; Barrio Froján, C R S; Defew, E C; Nye, V; Paterson, D M

2011-10-01

214

Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon currently growing along the Andean fluvial system on altitudes between c. 2000 up to c. 4800 m. Alnus is an important Andean forest taxa since Pliocene. In summary, the Neogene palynological record of the Amazon Fan strongly reflects and confirms the influence of the uplift of the Andes and its transcontinental character from late Miocene onwards.

Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

2014-05-01

215

Coordinated Parameterization Development and Large-Eddy Simulation for Marine and Arctic Cloud-Topped Boundary Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to compare observations of marine and arctic boundary layers with: (1) parameterization systems used in climate and weather forecast models; and (2) two and three dimensional eddy resolving (LES) models for turbulent fluid flow. Based on this comparison, we hoped to better understand, predict, and parameterize the boundary layer structure and cloud amount, type, and thickness as functions of large scale conditions that are predicted by global climate models. The principal achievements of the project were as follows: (1) Development of a novel boundary layer parameterization for large-scale models that better represents the physical processes in marine boundary layer clouds; and (2) Comparison of column output from the ECMWF global forecast model with observations from the SHEBA experiment. Overall the forecast model did predict most of the major precipitation events and synoptic variability observed over the year of observation of the SHEBA ice camp.

Bretherton, Christopher S.

2002-01-01

216

Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

Tomanek, Lars

2011-01-01

217

APPLICATION OF ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA IN SELECTING MARINE RESERVES AND DEVELOPING RESERVE NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are being established worldwide in response to a growing recognition of the conservation crisis that is building in the oceans. However, designation of reserves has been largely opportunistic, or protective measures have been implemented (often overlapping and sometimes in conflict) by different entities seeking to achieve dif- ferent ends. This has created confusion among both users and enforcers,

Callum M. Roberts; George Branch; Rodrigo H. Bustamante; Juan Carlos Castilla; Jenifer Dugan; Benjamin S. Halpern; Kevin D. Lafferty; Heather Leslie; Jane Lubchenco; Deborah McArdle; Mary Ruckelshaus; Robert R. Warner

2003-01-01

218

Development of a Decision Taxonomy for the Marine Command and Control Environment. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A decision aid selection methodology for the Marine Amphibious Brigade (MAB) decision making environment is presented. Built around a three-way taxonomy, the methodology allows the user to define a degree of merit for each decision aid with respect to a g...

A. Crolotte J. Saleh

1979-01-01

219

Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements

Anette Jægerfeldt Baisner; Jonas Lembcke Andersen; Anders Findsen; Simon Wilhelm Yde Granath; Karin Ølgaard Madsen; Mark Desholm

2010-01-01

220

Development of Image Processing Technique for Detection of the Rescue Target in the Marine Casualty  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a marine casualty occurs, the detection of the rescue target such as life rafts depends on the visual search of human's eye. It is predicted, however, that human eye sometimes loses its sight and ability of detection falls down owing to the long flight and the nasty weather. For a practical purpose of the prompt rescue of human life,

Tetsuhiro Sumimoto; Kazuoki Kuramoto; Saburo Okada; Hidekazu Miyauchi; Masaaki Imade; Hideki Yamamoto; T. Kunishi

1997-01-01

221

Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular No. 7-92. Interim Guidelines for the Development and Review of Response Plans for Marine Transportation-Related Facilities Including Deepwater Ports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this circular is to provide guidance on the development and review of response plans for marine transportation-related facilities, including deepwater ports, certain onshore facilities, marinas, tank trucks, and railroad tank cars, as requi...

1992-01-01

222

Sulfur isotope analysis of individual aerosol particles - a new tool for studying heterogeneous oxidation processes in the marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the importance of the different oxidation pathways of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to sulfate is crucial for an interpretation of the climate effects of sulfate aerosols. Sulfur isotope analysis of atmospheric aerosol is a well established tool for identifying sources of sulfur in the atmosphere and assessment of anthropogenic influence. The power of this tool is enhanced by a new ion microprobe technique that permits isotope analysis of individual aerosol particles as small as 0.5 ?m diameter. With this new single particle technique, different types of primary and secondary sulfates are first identified based on their chemical composition, and then their individual isotopic signature is measured. Our samples were collected at Mace Head, Ireland, a remote coastal station on the North Atlantic Ocean. Sea-salt-sulfate (10-60%), ammonium sulfate/sulfuric acid particles (15-65%), and non-sea-salt-sulfate (nss-sulfate) on aged salt particles all contributed significantly to sulfate loadings in our samples. The isotopic composition of secondary sulfates depends on the isotopic composition of precursor SO2 and the oxidation process. The fractionation with respect to the source SO2 is poorly characterized. In the absence of conclusive laboratory experiments, we consider the kinetic fractionation of -9‰ during the gas phase oxidation of SO2 by OH as suggested by Saltzman et al. (1983) and Tanaka et al. (1994) to be the most reasonable estimate for the isotope fractionation during gas phase oxidation of SO2 (?hom=0.991) and the equilibrium fractionation for the uptake of SO2(g) into the aqueous phase and the dissociation to HSO3- of +16.5‰ measured by Eriksen (1972a) to be the best approximation for the fractionation during oxidation in the aqueous phase (?het=1.0165). The sulfur isotope ratio of secondary sulfate particles can therefore be used to identify the oxidation pathway by which this sulfate was formed. However, the fraction of heterogeneous and homogeneous oxidation pathway calculated is very sensitive to the isotope fractionation assumed for both pathways. Particles with known oxidation pathway (fine mode ammonium sulfate) are used to estimate the isotopic composition of the source SO2. It ranged from ?34SVCDT=0±3‰ to ?34SVCDT=(14±3)‰ under clean conditions and ?34SVCDT=(3±1)‰ under polluted condition. Condensation of H2SO4(g) onto sea salt aerosol produces an isotopic ratio that, when plotted against the sea-salt-sulfate content of the sample, lies on a mixing line between sea salt and ammonium sulfate. The contribution of heterogeneous oxidation is estimated based on the deviation of non-sea-salt-sulfate from this isotopic mixing line. The contribution of heterogeneous oxidation to nss-sulfate formation on aged sea salt sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate gypsum and mixed sulfate particles under clean conditions is on average 10% for coarse and 25% for fine mode particles. Under polluted conditions, the contribution of heterogeneous oxidation to nss-sulfate formation increased to 60% on coarse mode and 75% on fine mode particles. However, large day-to-day variations in the contribution of heterogeneous oxidation to nss-sulfate formation occurred. Our results suggest that a~significant portion of SO2 in coastal regions is converted to fine mode ammonium sulfate/sulfuric acid particles (40-80% of nss-sulfate) and that condensation of H2SO4(g) contributes significantly even to the nss-sulfate in aged sea salt particles (20-85%).

Sinha, B. W.; Hoppe, P.; Huth, J.; Foley, S.; Andreae, M. O.

2009-02-01

223

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): supporting the development of a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports an ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. The Ocean Data Interoperability (ODIP) project is creating a co-ordination platform to support collaboration between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and also the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts are coming together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first two ODIP workshops. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential interoperability solutions have been identified and work has now begun to implement these solutions within three prototype development tasks which will be outlined as part of this presentation. ODIP is a community led project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies in each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from six European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 (FP7) programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Arko, Robert; Proctor, Roger

2014-05-01

224

Marine biogeochemistry from space: recent developments in measuring the carbon cycle in the ocean using visible spectral reflectance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical sensors on-board satellite have given over the last two decades another dimension to marine biology and ecosystem studies providing key information on the timing and spatial distribution of phytoplankton blooms and the magnitude of primary production The radiance backscattered from the upper layer of the ocean or the water leaving radiances at various spectral bands relates to the so-called ocean colour and varies with the concentration and composition of optically-active components OACs in suspension In reality these constituents cover a broad size range from water molecules to large zooplankton particles and include a large number of different organisms such as bacteria virus phytoplankton organic detritus minerals and more A quantitative description of the water-leaving radiances results theoretically from the additive contribution of all these constituents and their capacity to absorb and scatter the surrounding photons Remote observations of ocean colour from space represent therefore a major tool directly related to these biogeochemical distributions and associated processes and complement traditional ship measurements in the global assessment of the flux of material through the water column Present satellite instruments such SeaWiFS MODIS and MERIS are providing unprecedented and accurate views of the marine systems owing to some advanced characteristics of the sensors themselves but also to a substantial progress in the performance of bio-optical models to support the signal processing and the calibration of

Hoepffner, N.

225

Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei-from which marine clouds originate-depends ultimately on the availability of new, nanometre-scale particles in the marine boundary layer. Because marine aerosols and clouds scatter incoming radiation and contribute a cooling effect to the Earth's radiation budget, new particle production is important in climate regulation. It has been suggested that sulphuric acid-derived from

Colin D. O'Dowd; Jose L. Jimenez; Roya Bahreini; Richard C. Flagan; John H. Seinfeld; Kaarle Hämeri; Liisa Pirjola; Markku Kulmala; S. Gerard Jennings; Thorsten Hoffmann

2002-01-01

226

Development of novel electromagnetic antenna for deep target marine CSEM survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine controlled source electromagnetic method (MCSEM) is a new and versatile method for hydrocarbon detection. Deep sea hydrocarbon reservoir exploration is still challenging and expensive. Due to unreliability for the detection of DHIs using seismic data, new methods have been investigated. Sea bed logging (SBL) is a new technique for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon and has potential to reduce the risks of DHIs (direct hydrocarbon indicators) in deep sea environment. The magnitude of EM waves is very important for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon reservoir below 4000m from the sea floor. Nanotechnology has been introduced very effective and shows promising results in many research fields. Ferrite magnetic materials play an important role in many applications due to its versatile magnetic properties. The aluminum based EM antenna is developed and NiZn, YIG ferrite as magnetic feeders are used to increase the field strength from EM antenna. FESEM images show that grain size increases with the increase of sintering temperature and ranges from 30 to 60nm for Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 where as grain size increases from 45 to 110nm for Y3Fe5O12 samples. Due to better magnetic properties, samples (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4-PVDF) sintered at 950°C and (Y3Fe5O12-PVDF) sintered at 1350°C were used as magnetic feeders for the EM antenna. It was investigated that magnitude of EM waves from the novel EM antenna with (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4-PVDF) sintered at 950°C and Y3Fe5O12-PVDF) sintered at 1150°C increases up to 143% and 220% respectively in the lab scale environment. Modeling results by using CST software shows that new EM antenna with magnetic feeders has an ability to increase the D, E, B and H field components. This novel EM antenna with magnetic feeders may be used for the deep target hydrocarbon detection due to enhanced field strength. This new EM transmitter based on nanotechnology may open new horizons for oil and gas industry for deep target hydrocarbon reservoir.

Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Yahya, Noorhana; Shafie, Afza; Nasir, Nadeem; Kashif, Muhammad; Zaid, Hasnah Mohd

2012-09-01

227

Speciation of water-soluble inorganic, organic, and total nitrogen in a background marine environment: Cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles were collected in Puerto Rico from December 2004 to March 2007 in order to investigate their chemical composition, relation to sources, and removal processes. The species analyzed were inorganic ions, metals, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC, DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and organic acids. For all samples, the dominant species were marine (Na+, Cl-), representing about 50%-65% of total content. Non-sea-salt fraction was dominated by SO42- (17%-25%), followed by water-soluble organic (2%-8%) and total nitrogen (2% -6%) compounds. Organic acids represented contributions to the organic fraction in cloud water of 20% and 6% for aerosol particles. Inorganic species were predominant in total nitrogen portion. The chemical composition of cloud water, rainwater, and aerosol particles were observed to be sensitive to transport patterns. Air masses from northwest Africa showed the highest concentrations of nss-Ca2+, Fe, and Al, suggesting a crustal origin. The pH values for cloud water and rainwater observed under this transport pattern were higher than background conditions, probably due to the alkalinity associated with nss-Ca2+. The highest concentrations of Cl- and SO42-, with lower pH, were measured during periods of influence from Soufriere Hills volcano eruptions, most likely due to emitted SO2 and HCl. Air masses from North America had an anthropogenic influence, where levels of nss-SO42-, TOC, and TN were higher (˜4 times) than in clean air masses. These results suggest that long-range transport could be an extra source of metals and organic/nitrogen species to the Caribbean region ecosystems.

Gioda, Adriana; Reyes-RodríGuez, Gabriel J.; Santos-Figueroa, Gilmarie; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Decesari, Stefano; Ramos, Maria Da ConceiçÃ.£O. K. V.; Bezerra Netto, Heleno J. C.; de Aquino Neto, Francisco R.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

2011-03-01

228

Marine Modeling and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch (MMAB) of the Environmental Modeling Center is responsible for the development of improved numerical weather and marine prediction modeling systems. These models provide analysis and real-time forecast guidance on marine meteorological, oceanographic, and cryospheric parameters over the global oceans and coastal areas of the US. This site provides access to MMAB modeling tools for ocean waves (including an interactive presentation,) sea ice, marine meteorology, sea surface temperature and more. The site also features a mailing list, bibliography of publications, and information about modeling products still in the experimental and development phases.

National Centers For Environmental Prediction, National O.

229

Central Heating Plant site characterization report, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the methodology and results of a characterization of the operation and maintenance (O M) environment at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This characterization is part of a program intended to provide the O M staff with a computerized artificial intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist the plant staff in more efficient operation of their plant. 3 refs., 12 figs.

Not Available

1990-08-01

230

Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several\\u000a terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning\\u000a Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements

Anette Jægerfeldt BaisnerJonas; Jonas Lembcke Andersen; Anders Findsen; Simon Wilhelm Yde Granath; Karin Ølgaard Madsen; Mark Desholm

2010-01-01

231

Development of phoH as a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity?  

PubMed Central

Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment.

Goldsmith, Dawn B.; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D.; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

2011-01-01

232

75 FR 23241 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...various aspects of disease afflicting marine mammals including viral pathogens and brevetoxin studies; develop a marine mammal histology database and atlas, marine mammal cell lines; and conduct comparative morphology. Marine mammal parts would be...

2010-05-03

233

Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

Colwell, R.

1985-01-01

234

Can Aerosol Particles Develop Organic Surface Layers Under UT/LS Conditions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric aerosol particles contain oligomers and macromolecular humic-like substances that may be created by reactions in or on the surface of particles. Marine aerosols have been observed to possess surface films of fatty acids which can survive the evaporation of water from the interior of the particle. This phenomenon of surface films is of current interest with regard to their potential influence on the rate of water uptake by atmospheric particles, particularly in the tropical tropopause region. Understanding the composition, morphology, and behavior of mixed aqueous/organic particles is important for evaluating effects on cloud growth and the resulting climate implications. We have observed very reproducible formation of self-assembled films on the surface of acidic solutions containing aldehydes such as propanal. These resilient films were highly colored, and their formation has definite temperature and acidity dependences. Thus, formation of such a surface film may depend critically on the temperature history of UT aerosols, and aerosols exposed to different temperature and relative humidity conditions may demonstrate differing behavior. We will present an exploration of the conditions necessary for film formation from acidic aqueous solutions of oxygenated compounds and describe several film stability and identification studies.

Iraci, L. T.; Deng, P. H.

2007-05-01

235

Model-driven Development of Particle System Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient-intelligence systems are characterized by a shift away from desktop computers to a variety of devices, which are unobtrusively embedded in the user environment. The usage of small computing nodes (particles) is one of the most efficient ways of their implementation. Such nodes are often installed in different appliances within an Ambient-intelligence system. In each case there is a joint

Michalis Anastasopoulos; András Balogh

2007-01-01

236

Development of miniaturized submersible fluorometers for the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in marine waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most widespread organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Due to their physico-chemical properties, PAHs are persistent and mobile, can strongly bioaccumulate in food chains and are harmful to living organisms. They are thus recognized by various international organizations as priority contaminants and are included in the list of 45 priority regulated substances by the European Union. Because of their aromatic structure, PAHs are "optically active" and have inherent fluorescence properties in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral domain (200-400 nm). Therefore, UV fluorescence spectroscopy has been successfully used to develop PAH sensors (i.e. UV fluorometers). Currently, five UV submersible fluorometers are commercially available for in situ measurements of PAHs: EnviroFlu-HC (TriOS Optical Sensors, Germany), Hydrocarbon Fluorometer (Sea & Sun Technology, Germany), HydroC ™ / PAH (CONTROS, Germany), UviLux AquaTracka (Chelsea Technology Group, UK) and Cyclops-7 (Turner Designs, US). These UV fluorometers are all dedicated to the measurement of phenanthrene (?Ex /?Em: 255/360 nm), one of the most abundant and fluorescent PAHs found in the aquatic environment. In this study, we developed original, miniaturized submersible fluorometers based on deep UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for simultaneous measurements of two PAHs of interest: the MiniFluo-UV 1 for the detection of phenanthrene (PHE, at ?Ex /?Em: 255/360 nm) and naphthalene (NAP, at ?Ex /?Em: 270/340 nm), and the MiniFluo-UV 2 for the detection of fluorene (FLU, at ?Ex /?Em: 255/315 nm) and pyrene (PYR, at ?Ex /?Em: 270/380 nm). The MiniFluo-UV sensors have several features: measurements of two PAHs at the same time, small size (puck format, 80 x 60 mm), very low energy consumption (500 mW at 12V), LED monitoring, analog and numerical communication modes. The two MiniFluo-UV sensors were first tested in the laboratory: 1) on standard solutions of PHE, NAP, FLU and PYR in the range 0.1-100 µg l-1 and 2) on a water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil diluted in 0.2 µm filtered seawater (0 to 50% of WSF in seawater). Then, the MiniFluo-UV sensors were mounted onto a conductivity temperature depth (CTD) vertical profiler and tested at sea. Several profiles were performed in the Bay of Marseilles, in different harbours and hydrocarbon-impacted sites. The MiniFluo-UV measurements performed in the laboratory and in the field were associated with spectrofluorometric (EEM/PARAFAC) and/or chromatographic (GC-MS) analyses. The result obtained show that the MiniFluo-UV are pertinent and efficient tool for monitoring hydrocarbon pollutions in the marine environment. This work is a contribution of three projects labelled by the Competitivity Cluster Mer PACA: FUI SEA EXPLORER, DGCIS - Eco industries VASQUE (PI: ACSA-ALCEN, Meyreuil, France) and ANR - ECOTECH IBISCUS (PI: M. Goutx, MIO, Marseille, France).

Tedetti, Marc; Bachet, Caroline; Joffre, Pascal; Ferretto, Nicolas; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

2014-05-01

237

Molecular Marine Biology Research Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This grant provided training in developmental biology of embryos of marine organisms, particularly their defense mechanisms. Students were exposed to the patterns of development of a variety of marine organisms, and then trained in the use of cellular, im...

D. Epel

1997-01-01

238

Development of magnetic luminescent core/shell nanocomplex particles with fluorescence using Rhodamine 6G  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? A simple method was developed to synthesize Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite particles. ? The magnetic particle shows that highly luminescent and core/shell particles are formed. ? Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. ? The magnetic particles could detect fluorescence for the application of biosensor. -- Abstract: A simple and reproducible method was developed to synthesize a novel class of Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite core/shell particles. Using a single cobalt core, Rhodamine 6G of organic dye molecules was entrapped in a silica shell, resulting in core/shell particles of ?200 nm diameter. Analyses using a variety of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibration sample magnetometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and fluorescence intensity demonstrated that dye molecules were trapped inside the core/shell particles. A photoluminescence investigation showed that highly luminescent and photostable core/shell particles were formed. Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. The synthesized magnetic particles could be used to detect fluorescence on glass substrate arrays for bioassay and biosensor applications.

Lee, Hee Uk; Song, Yoon Seok [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chulhwan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Wook, E-mail: kimsw@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-15

239

Seawater and Detrital Marine Pb Isotopes as Monitors of Antarctic Weathering Following Ice Sheet Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparisons of seawater and detrital Pb isotopes from sites proximal to Antarctica at the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT) are being used to understand variations in continental weathering associated with the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Previous work has shown that seawater and detrital archives yield similar isotopic values during Eocene warmth, which is interpreted to record congruent chemical weathering of the continent. In contrast, distinct isotopic values for the two phases at the EOT represents increased incongruent mechanical weathering during growth of the ice sheet. For this study we expanded beyond the initial glaciation at the EOT to determine whether less dramatic changes in ice volume and climate also produce variations in weathering and intensity that are recorded by seawater and detrital Pb isotopes. We collected Nd and Pb isotope data from extractions of Fe-Mn oxide coatings of bulk decarbonated marine sediments, which preserve seawater isotopic values, and from complete dissolutions of the remaining silicate fraction for Ocean Drilling Program Site 748 on Kerguelen Plateau (1300 m modern water depth). The data spans an interval of deglaciation from ~23.5-27 Ma documented by ?18O that has been equated to a ~30% decrease in ice volume on Antarctica (Pekar and Christie-Blick, 2008, Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol.). Initial results from Site 748 include the first ?Nd values for intermediate waters in the Oligocene Southern Ocean and reveal a value of ~-8 over the entire 3.5 my interval, which is consistent with values reported for deep Indian Ocean sites at this time and similar to deeper Southern Ocean sites. Corresponding detrital ?Nd values are less radiogenic and decrease from -9 to -13 during the study interval. Detrital 206Pb/204Pb values also decrease during the warming interval, while seawater 206Pb/204Pb values increase. The decrease in detrital values indicates the composition of source materials entering the ocean changed as the ice sheet waned. Increasing seawater 206Pb/204Pb may record enhanced chemical weathering under conditions of greater water availability and warmer temperatures combined with abundant rock flour created during the preceding glacial advance. As previous studies have documented initial weathering leachates tend to be more radiogenic than the parent rock composition. Alternatively, seawater values during warming in the late Oligocene approach values recorded during initial ice sheet expansion at the EOT in Site 738, which may suggest Pb isotope variations in seawater and detrital residues are not sensitive to less dramatic intervals of climate change and ice sheet dynamics. We plan to continue this study into the Pliocene to see if we can identify the timing of the transition from a wet-based to dry-based EAIS, an event that is likely to have profound consequences for weathering on Antarctica and the offset between the two Pb isotope archives.

Fenn, C.; Martin, E. E.; Basak, C.

2011-12-01

240

Temporal changes of diatoms in marine biofilm developed on acrylic panels submerged in a tropical coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The colonization of diatom groups on the acrylic panels submerged in Kudankulam coastal waters, east coast of India, was studied for one year from October 2004 to August 2005. Results showed temporal variability in the abundance of dominant diatom groups. Diatoms belonging to 19 genera colonized the panels. Navicula and Nitzschia were the dominant diatoms observed throughout the present study. The abundance of diatoms on test panels increased with the length of exposure. Significant variations in the abundance of Navicula and Nitzschia were observed between the sampling months. Temporal changes in biofilm diatom community composition in this study attain significance from the view point of macrofouling community recruitment on marine structures.

Satheesh, Sathianeson; Wesley, Samuel Godwin

2012-12-01

241

Perspectives on the use of marine and freshwater hydrobiont oils for development of drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Marine foods represent a unique source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 (n-3) family. Today it is generally accepted that fish oil is important in a healthy and balanced omnivorous human diet. This favorable health perception of fish oil is however troubled by the high level of PUFA oxidation and low absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract. In this work we present and described various types of delivery systems which are used to improve PUFA and fish oil availability and oxidative stability. PMID:21315143

Averina, E S; Kutyrev, I A

2011-01-01

242

Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems` Engineer.

Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

1992-04-01

243

Doped hydrophobic silica nano- and micro-particles as novel agents for developing latent fingerprints.  

PubMed

Novel hydrophobic silica based particles have been developed to visualise latent fingerprints. The composition of the particles has been designed to maximise both hydrophobic and ionic interactions between a variety of coloured and fluorescent reporter molecules and the silicate backbone within the particles. The resulting doped particles retain the incorporated dyes with high affinity. In addition, a variety of sub-particles have also been embedded to again produce coloured or magnetisable hydrophobic particles. The particles can be harvested as nanoparticles or microparticles. The former are applied to latent fingerprints as an aqueous suspension and the latter as a dusting agent using brushes or a magnetic wand. Examples of the prints produced using these agents are given. The resulting prints have good definition. PMID:17418514

Theaker, Brenden J; Hudson, Katherine E; Rowell, Frederick J

2008-01-15

244

Comparative analysis of European wide marine ecosystem shifts: a large-scale approach for developing the basis for ecosystem-based management.  

PubMed

Abrupt and rapid ecosystem shifts (where major reorganizations of food-web and community structures occur), commonly termed regime shifts, are changes between contrasting and persisting states of ecosystem structure and function. These shifts have been increasingly reported for exploited marine ecosystems around the world from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic. Understanding the drivers and mechanisms leading to marine ecosystem shifts is crucial in developing adaptive management strategies to achieve sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystems. An international workshop on a comparative approach to analysing these marine ecosystem shifts was held at Hamburg University, Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany on 1-3 November 2010. Twenty-seven scientists from 14 countries attended the meeting, representing specialists from seven marine regions, including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Barents Sea, the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Bay of Biscay and the Scotian Shelf off the Canadian East coast. The goal of the workshop was to conduct the first large-scale comparison of marine ecosystem regime shifts across multiple regional areas, in order to support the development of ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:21270025

Möllmann, Christian; Conversi, Alessandra; Edwards, Martin

2011-08-23

245

Minimizing collision risk between migrating raptors and marine wind farms: development of a spatial planning tool.  

PubMed

An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements of body mass, wingspan and wing area of eight European raptor species, to calculate their Best Glide Ratio (BGR). The BGR was used to construct a linear equation, which, by the use of initial take-off altitude, could be used to calculate a Theoretical Maximum Distance (TMD) from the coast, attained by these soaring-gliding raptor species. If the nearest turbine, of future marine wind farms, is placed farther away from the coast than the estimated TMD, the collision risk between the turbine blades and these gliding raptors will be minimized. The tool was demonstrated in a case study at the Rødsand II wind farm in Denmark. Data on raptor migration altitude were gathered by radar. From the TMD attained by registered soaring-gliding raptors in the area, we concluded that the Rødsand II wind farm is not sited ideally, from an ornithological point of view, as potentially all three registered species are at risk of gliding through the area swept by the turbine rotor blades, and thereby at risk of colliding with the wind turbines. PMID:20711780

Baisner, Anette Jaegerfeldt; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Yde Granath, Simon Wilhelm; Madsen, Karin Olgaard; Desholm, Mark

2010-11-01

246

Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements of body mass, wingspan and wing area of eight European raptor species, to calculate their Best Glide Ratio (BGR). The BGR was used to construct a linear equation, which, by the use of initial take-off altitude, could be used to calculate a Theoretical Maximum Distance (TMD) from the coast, attained by these soaring-gliding raptor species. If the nearest turbine, of future marine wind farms, is placed farther away from the coast than the estimated TMD, the collision risk between the turbine blades and these gliding raptors will be minimized. The tool was demonstrated in a case study at the Rødsand II wind farm in Denmark. Data on raptor migration altitude were gathered by radar. From the TMD attained by registered soaring-gliding raptors in the area, we concluded that the Rødsand II wind farm is not sited ideally, from an ornithological point of view, as potentially all three registered species are at risk of gliding through the area swept by the turbine rotor blades, and thereby at risk of colliding with the wind turbines.

Baisner, Anette Jægerfeldt; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Yde Granath, Simon Wilhelm; Madsen, Karin Ølgaard; Desholm, Mark

2010-11-01

247

Marine Attitude Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

248

Genetics and marine pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of cytogenetic methods applied to cells and tissues of marine invertebrates has been hampered by (1) a lack of in vitro cell lines, (2) inadequate karyotypic information (partly as a result of too few workers chasing too many organisms), and (3) the failure of their chromosomes to band satisfactorily. Compared to mammalian cytogenetics, our knowledge of marine invertebrates

D. R. Dixon; J. T. Wilson

2000-01-01

249

particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore a facile and nontoxic hydrothermal route for synthesis of a Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material by using l-cysteine as the sulfur source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the complexing agent. The effects of the amount of EDTA, the mole ratio of the three metal ions, and the hydrothermal temperature and time on the phase composition of the obtained product have been systematically investigated. The addition of EDTA and an excessive dose of ZnCl2 in the hydrothermal reaction system favor the generation of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4. Pure kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 has been synthesized at 180°C for 12 h from the reaction system containing 2 mmol of EDTA at 2:2:1 of Cu/Zn/Sn. It is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy that those binary and ternary phases are absent in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 product. The kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 material synthesized by the hydrothermal process consists of flower-like particles with 250 to 400 nm in size. It is revealed that the flower-like particles are assembled from single-crystal Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoflakes with ca. 20 nm in size. The band gap of the Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material is estimated to be 1.55 eV. The films fabricated from the hierarchical Cu2ZnSnS4 particles exhibit fast photocurrent responses under intermittent visible-light irradiation, implying that they show potentials for use in solar cells and photocatalysis.

Xia, Yu; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengguo; Fang, Xiaoming; Liang, Guozheng

2014-05-01

250

Development and characterization of a single particle laser ablation mass spectrometer (SPLAM) for organic aerosol studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single particle instrument has been developed for real-time analysis of organic aerosols. This instrument, named Single Particle Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry (SPLAM), samples particles using an aerodynamic lens system for which the theoretical performances were calculated. At the outlet of this system, particle detection and sizing are realized using two continuous diode lasers operating at ? = 403 nm. Polystyrene Latex (PSL), sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctylphtalate (DOP) particles were used to characterize and calibrate optical detection of SPLAM. The optical detection limit (DL) and detection efficiency (DE) were determined using size-selected DOP particles. The DE is ranging from 0.1 to 90 % for 100 and 350 nm DOP particles respectively and the SPLAM instrument is able to detect and size-resolve particles as small as 110-120 nm. Scattered light is detected by two photomultipliers and the detected signals are used to trigger a UV excimer laser (? = 248 nm) used for laser desorption ionization (LDI) of individual aerosol particles. The formed ions are analyzed by a 1 m linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer in order to access to the chemical composition of individual particles. The TOF-MS detection limit for gaseous aromatic compounds was determined to be 0.85 attograms. DOP particles were also used to test the overall functioning of the instrument. The analysis of a secondary organic aerosol, formed in a smog chamber by the ozonolysis of indene, is presented as a first scientific application of the instrument. Single particle mass spectra are obtained with a global hit rate of 10 %. They are found to be very different from one particle to another, reflecting chemical differences of the analyzed particles, and most of the detected mass peaks are attributed to oxidized products of indene.

Gaie-Levrel, F.; Perrier, S.; Perraudin, E.; Stoll, C.; Grand, N.; Schwell, M.

2011-07-01

251

Development of a restructured alginate food particle suitable for high temperature-short time process validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cylindrical particles of alginate and alginate\\/starch food purée were developed for use as carriers in a microbiological time temperature integrator (TTI). The mechanical properties of the restructured food particle, stress (?f) and strain at failure (?f), were studied as a function of different composition parameters (alginate and food concentration, pH, type offood added, and addition of starch). Addition of food

M. J. Ocio; S. M. Fiszman; F. Gasque; M. Rodrigo; A. Martinez

1997-01-01

252

Computer simulation of developing abrasive jet machined profiles including particle interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and generally applicable computer simulation was developed to predict the time evolution of the eroded profiles of air abrasive jet machined surfaces, as a function of process parameters such as: abrasive nozzle size, inclination and distance to target surface, abrasive jet particle velocity, size and flux distribution. The effect of collisions between incoming and rebounding particles was included

N. Shafiei; H. Getu; A. Sadeghian; M. Papini

2009-01-01

253

Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing coun- tries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many peo- ple believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor

Kwang-Tsao Shao

2009-01-01

254

Development of an adhesively bonded beryllium propulsion structure for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, testing, and fabrication of the support truss structure for the propulsion system of the Mariner 9 spacecraft are described. Support is provided by an 8.9-kg (19.5-lbm) truss assembly consisting of beryllium tubes adhesively bonded to magnesium end fittings. Beryllium was selected for the tubular struts in the truss because of its exceptionally high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Adhesive bonding, rather than riveting, was utilized to join the struts to the end fittings because of the low toughness (high notch sensitivity) of beryllium. Magnesium, used in the end fittings, resulted in a 50% weight saving over aluminum since geometric factors in the fitting design resulted in low stress areas where magnesium's lower density is a benefit.

Stevens, J. H.; Layman, W. E.

1972-01-01

255

An Assessment of Differences Between Cloud Effective Particle Radius Retrievals for Marine Water Clouds from Three MODIS Spectral Bands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud product provides three separate 1 km resolution retrievals of cloud particle effective radii (r (sub e)), derived from 1.6, 2.1 and 3.7 micron band observations. In this study, differences among the three size retrievals for maritime water clouds (designated as r (sub e), 1.6 r (sub e), 2.1 and r (sub e),3.7) were systematically investigated through a series of case studies and global analyses. Substantial differences are found between r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.1 retrievals (delta r (sub e),3.7-2.l), with a strong dependence on cloud regime. The differences are typically small, within +/- 2 micron, over relatively spatially homogeneous coastal stratocumulus cloud regions. However, for trade wind cumulus regimes, r (sub e),3.7 was found to be substantially smaller than r (sub e),2.1, sometimes by more than 10 micron. The correlation of delta r(sub e),3.7-2.1 with key cloud parameters, including the cloud optical thickness (tau), r (sub e) and a cloud horizontal heterogeneity index (H-sigma) derived from 250 m resolution MODIS 0.86 micron band observations, were investigated using one month of MODIS Terra data. It was found that differences among the three r (sub e) retrievals for optically thin clouds (tau <5) are highly variable, ranging from - 15 micron to 10 micron, likely due to the large MODIS retrieval uncertainties when the cloud is thin. The delta r (sub e),3.7-2.1 exhibited a threshold-like dependence on both r (sub e),2.l and H-sigma. The re,3.7 is found to agree reasonably well with re,2.! when re,2.l is smaller than about 15J-Lm, but becomes increasingly smaller than re,2.1 once re,2.! exceeds this size. All three re retrievals showed little dependence when H-sigma < 0.3 (defined as standard deviation divided by the mean for the 250 m pixels within a 1 km pixel retrieval). However, for H-=sigma >0.3, both r (sub e),1.6 and r (sub e),2.1 were seen to increase quickly with H-sigma. On the other hand, r (sub e),3.7 statistics showed little dependence on H-sigma and remained relatively stable over the whole range of H-sigma values. Potential contributing causes to the substantial r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.1 differences are discussed. In particular, based on both 1-D and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, we have elucidated mechanisms by which cloud heterogeneity and 3-D radiative effects can cause large differences between r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.l retrievals for highly inhomogeneous clouds. Our results suggest that the contrast in observed delta r (sub e)3.7-2.1 between cloud regimes is correlated with increases in both cloud r (sub e) and H-sigma. We also speculate that in some highly inhomogeneous drizzling clouds, vertical structure induced by drizzle and 3-D radiative effects might operate together to cause dramatic differences between r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.1 retrievals.

Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo

2011-01-01

256

Electrochemical Development of Particle Tracks in CR-39 Polymer Dosimeter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrochemical etching of CR-39 polymeric track etch neutron detectors results in proton-recoil tracks can be distinguished from background tracks much better than tracks developed solely by chemical etching. A newly designed and constructed electrochemi...

D. E. Hadlock M. A. Parkhurst C. S. Yang J. Groeger J. R. Johnson

1985-01-01

257

Marine pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

1989-01-01

258

DEVELOPMENT AND LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION OF A PROTOTYPE COARSE PARTICLE CONCENTRATOR FOR INHALATION TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES. (R825270)  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the development and laboratory characterization of a prototype slit nozzle virtual impactor that can be used to concentrate coarse particles. A variety of physical design and flow parameters were evaluated including different acceleration and collection sli...

259

Towards the prediction of cohesive sediments dynamics: developing acoustic and optical measurements via in situ particle visualization.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cohesive particles in marine and costal waters remain a significant challenge to sediment transport predictions. Given the relevance to water quality, pollution, benthic ecology and coastal engineering our ability to develop process-response models of cohesive sediments is poor. Suspended cohesive particles rarely exist in their primary state but form flocs which are aggregated, heterogeneous assemblages of mineral grains, biogenic debris, bacteria and organic material. Floc formation is thus a function of numerous variables whose inter-related processes are yet to be fully elucidated. This complexity is exacerbated by a lack of suitable data, notably in characterizing floc populations. A floc may constitute over 1 million individual particles and size can range over 4 orders of magnitude within one population. The effective densities are also highly variable, and the settling velocity can therefore span several orders of magnitude (Fennessey et al., 1994; Gibbs, 1985). The challenge is to develop data acquisition techniques that will allow accurate quantification of floc characteristics for the determination of SPM concentration and settling velocities for mass settling flux calculations. Particle size ranges and concentrations are not adequately measurable by physical sampling which break up fragile flocs. Remote methods offer the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of floc particle dynamics. However, the responses of light and sound to floc particles remain uncertain. Differences in derived mass concentrations of flocculated and non-cohesive suspensions occur because OBS measures projected area concentration not mass concentration. Laser interferometry (e.g. LISST) is only applicable in relatively low concentrations, can disturb fragile flocs and requires a smooth size distribution and near-spherical particles (e.g. Wren et al., 2000). Acoustic backscatter methods are limited by a lack of data from floc-dominated environments which has restricted the development of suitable acoustic inversion algorithms. Recent innovations of in situ visualization of floc size and settling velocity using INSSEV (e.g. Fennessey et al. 1994) & LabSFLOC (e.g. Manning and Dyer, 1999) have meant a step-change in our understanding of floc dynamics. Consequently, we are now in a position to make simultaneous measurements of cohesive SPM populations using in situ, remote and physical sampling to aid development of methods that account for the flaws in remote measurements. We present selected data collected in the meso-tidal Tamar Estuary, Devon, UK over several tidal cycles. INSSEV and LabSFLOC data were acquired at multiple heights and complimented by physically sampled SPM later analysed for mass and organic content. A suite of ABS and OBS sensors were used to provide multi-frequency vertical response profiles, and a LISST-XT was positioned at INSSEV height. These measurements were augmented by vertical ADV and ADCP profiles of velocity and regular CTD profiles. Examples are shown that reveal different responses of acoustic and optical methods across the tidal cycle. These differences are compared to changes in floc characteristics, SPM concentration, organic content, floc properties, flow hydrodynamics and water density over the tidal cycle in an attempt to determine the key parameters affecting the way in which sound and light interact with flocs. Ultimately, this information will be used to develop inversion algorithms that will allow the recovery of cohesive sediment mass concentrations using combinations of acoustical and optical instruments without the need for extensive field calibrations. Fennessy, M.J., Dyer, K.R., Huntley, D.A. 1994. INSSEV: an instrument to measure the size and settling velocity of flocs in-situ. Mar. Geol., 117, 107-117. Gibbs, R.J. 1985. Estuarine flocs: their size, settling velocity and density. J. Geophys. Res., 90(C2), 3249-3251. Manning, A.J., Dyer, K.R. 1999. A laboratory examination of floc characteristics with regard to turbulent shearing. Mar. Geol, 160, 147-170. Wren, D.G., Barkall, B.D.

Schindler, Rob; Bass, Sarah; Manning, Andrew

2010-05-01

260

Role of ceramic particles for developing wear resistant materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work emphasises on the study of two different ceramic particulates embedded in the soft alloy. The material is developed by spray atomization. The two ceramic particulates used for the study are SiC and ZrSiO4. The effect of particulate on hardness has been analyzed. Moreover, wear characteristics of the both developed material has been compared with the monolithic as cast alloy. The results of the ZrSiO4 reinforced composite shows lesser wear rate at 50°C and 150°C at low as well as high loads as compared to SiC reinforced Al-alloy.

Kaur, Kamalpreet; Pandey, O. P.

2013-06-01

261

Developments in virus-like particle-based vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer.  

PubMed

Virus-like particles hold great promise for the development of effective and affordable vaccines. Indeed, virus-like particles are suitable for presentation and efficient delivery of linear as well as conformational antigens to antigen-presenting cells. This will ultimately result in optimal B-cell activation and cross-presentation with both MHC class I and II molecules to prime CD4(+) T-helper as well as CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. This article provides an update on the development and use of virus-like particles as vaccine approaches for infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:22043956

Buonaguro, Luigi; Tagliamonte, Maria; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Buonaguro, Franco M

2011-11-01

262

Development of a portable ? -particle counter for public acceptance activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand nuclear energy, the radiation counter for public acceptance (PA) activities are now widely used. The radiation counter which detects -rays and -rays, respectively, has been developed and supplied commercially, but there is no counter for PA use which detects -rays. Plutonium has been becoming the center of public interest in regard to transportation by the

H. Tanabe; Y. Takizawa; N. Takeuchi

1995-01-01

263

Development and characterization of a single particle laser ablation mass spectrometer (SPLAM) for organic aerosol studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single particle instrument was developed for real-time analysis of organic aerosol. This instrument, named Single Particle Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry (SPLAM), samples particles using an aerodynamic lens system for which the theoretical performances were calculated. At the outlet of this system, particle detection and sizing are realized by using two continuous diode lasers operating at ? = 403 nm. Polystyrene Latex (PSL), sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctylphtalate (DOP) particles were used to characterize and calibrate optical detection of SPLAM. The optical detection limit (DL) and detection efficiency (DE) were determined using size-selected DOP particles. The DE ranges from 0.1 to 90% for 100 and 350 nm DOP particles respectively and the SPLAM instrument is able to detect and size-resolve particles as small as 110-120 nm. During optical detection, particle scattered light from the two diode lasers, is detected by two photomultipliers and the detected signals are used to trigger UV excimer laser (? = 248 nm) used for one-step laser desorption ionization (LDI) of individual aerosol particles. The formed ions are analyzed by a 1 m linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer in order to access to the chemical composition of individual particles. The TOF-MS detection limit for gaseous aromatic compounds was determined to be 0.85 × 10-15 kg (∼4 × 103 molecules). DOP particles were also used to test the overall operation of the instrument. The analysis of a secondary organic aerosol, formed in a smog chamber by the ozonolysis of indene, is presented as a first application of the instrument. Single particle mass spectra were obtained with an effective hit rate of 8%. Some of these mass spectra were found to be very different from one particle to another possibly reflecting chemical differences within the investigated indene SOA particles. Our study shows that an exhaustive statistical analysis, over hundreds of particles, and adapted reference mass spectra are further needed to understand the chemical meaning of single particle mass spectra of chemically complex submicrometer-sized organic aerosols.

Gaie-Levrel, F.; Perrier, S.; Perraudin, E.; Stoll, C.; Grand, N.; Schwell, M.

2012-01-01

264

Rheology of hemipelagic marine sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobility and capacity of sediment-laden mass flows are influenced by the rheology of the mixture of water and particles. In order to develop a better understanding of the mechanics that drive these flows we measured the rheology of hemipelagic marine sediment. Using a cone-and-plate rheometer we applied a range of shear strain-rates and measured the shear stress at increasing water contents. We fit the measured shear stresses and shear strain-rates with a Herschel-Bulkley model to determine yield stress and consistency, from which we can find viscosity. By measuring the rheology at incremental increases in water we were are able to determine viscosity and yield stress as a function of particle concentration.

Knappe, E.; Manga, M.

2013-12-01

265

Toxicity of leather tanning wastewater effluents in sea urchin early development and in marine microalgae.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the composition and the toxicity of leather tanning wastewater and conditioned sludge collected at the leather tanning wastewater treatment plant (CODISO) located in Solofra, Avellino (Southern Italy). Samples were analyzed for their conventional parameters (COD, TSS, chromium and ammonia) and for metal content. Effluent samples included raw wastewater, and samples collected following coagulation/flocculation process and biological treatment. A set of toxicity endpoints were tested using sea urchin and marine microalgal bioassays by evaluating acute embryotoxicity, developmental defects, changes in sperm fertilization success and transmissible damage from sperm to the offspring, and changes in algal growth rate. Dose-related toxicity to sea urchin embryogenesis and sperm fertilization success was exerted by effluent or sludge samples according to the following rank: conditioned sludge > coagulated effluent > or = raw influent > effluent from biological treatment. Offspring quality was not affected by sperm exposure to any wastewater or to sludge samples. Algal growth was inhibited by raw or coagulated effluent to a similar extent and, again, the effluent from the biological treatment resulted in a decreased toxicity. The results suggest that coagulated effluent and conditioned sludge result in higher toxicity than raw influent in sea urchin embryos and sperm, whereas the biological wastewater treatment of coagulated effluent, in both sea urchins and algae, cause a substantial improvement of wastewater quality. Hence a final biological wastewater treatment should be operated to minimize any environmental damage from tannery wastewater. PMID:16168744

Meriç, Süreyya; De Nicola, Elena; Iaccarino, Mario; Gallo, Marialuisa; Di Gennaro, Annamaria; Morrone, Gaetano; Warnau, Michel; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; Pagano, Giovanni

2005-10-01

266

Advanced Marine Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a progress report for the period 1 August 1971 - 31 January 1972 on the following projects in advanced marine technology: submerged navigation and submersible instrumentation (development of precise navigation for a small submersible), handl...

A. E. Maxwell T. C. Aldrich B. P. Luyendyk R. D. Ballard C. O. Bowin

1972-01-01

267

Advanced Marine Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes progress on the following projects in Advanced Marine Technology: submerged navigation and submersible instrumentation (development of precise navigation for a small submersible), handling and transfer at sea (use of energy absorbers ...

W. B. Bryan C. O. Bowin R. D. Ballard J. D. Phillips A. C. Vine

1972-01-01

268

Particle Transport, Deposition and Removal-From Research to Curriculum Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding particle transport, deposition and removal are of crucial importance to many technologies such as microelectronic, imaging and pharmaceutical industries. In addition, solving a number of environmental problems requires a detail understanding of particle transport processes. In the last decade, significant research progress in the areas of particle transport, deposition and removal has been made. In this combined research and curriculum development project a sequence of two new courses on particle transport, deposition and removal and re-entrainment was developed and an existing course was fully revised to bring these new important research findings to seniors and first year graduate students in engineering. The course materials were made available on the web and the course was taught at two campuses simultaneously. A series of short courses were also offered to industries and at universities and research centers in the US and abroad.

2011-03-30

269

Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples.

Smith, J. L.

1983-01-01

270

Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

Pendse, H.P.

1992-10-01

271

Is Capacity Building Important in Policy Development for Sustainability? A Case Study Using Action Plans for Sustainable Marine Protected Areas in Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a capacity-building exercise around marine protected areas (MPAs) that involved both local nongovernmental organization (NGO) community workers and a government fisheries officer, so that community engagement could be directly interfaced with fisheries operations and policy. Targeting a government worker is a relatively new approach. Our methodology used a modified nominal group technique and Delphi technique to develop personal

M. James C. Crabbe; Edwin Martinez; Christina Garcia; Juan Chub; Leonardo Castro; Jason Guy

2009-01-01

272

76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hansen, United States Coast Guard Research and Development Center; 1 Chelsea...USCG-2011-1089'' in the ``Keyword'' box. If you submit your comments...Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements...

2011-12-16

273

Marine Corps En Route Care System (ERCS): Development of Patient Treatment and Supply Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is organized into six sections. Section 1, introduction; Section 2, an overview of the medical evacuation system; Section 3 references relevant doctrinal guidance used to focus the development of En Route Care System. The development of the me...

M. R. Galarneau P. Konoske A. Tropeano G. Pang

2002-01-01

274

Developments in Marine Current Turbine Research at the United States Naval Academy (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of tests have been performed on a 1/25th scale model of a two bladed horizontal axis marine current turbine. The tests were conducted in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine model has a 0.8 m diameter (D) rotor with a NACA 63-618 cross section, which is Reynolds number independent with respect to the lift coefficient in the operating range of Rec ? 4 x 105. Baseline test were conducted to obtain torque, thrust and rotational speed at a range of tip speed ratios (TSR) from 5 < TSR < 11. The power and thrust coefficients for the model turbine match expected results from blade-element-momentum theory. The lift and drag curves for the numerical model were obtained by testing a 2D NACA 63-618 airfoil in a wind tunnel. Additional tests were performed at two rotor depths (1.3D and 2.25D) in the presence of intermediate and deep water waves. The average values for power and thrust coefficient are weakly dependent on turbine depth. The waves yield a small increase in turbine performance which can be explained by Stokes drift velocity. Phase averaged results indicate that the oscillatory wave velocity results in significant variations in measured turbine torque and rotational speed as a function of wave phase. The turbine rotation speed, power, and thrust reach a maximum with the passing of the wave crest and a minimum with the passing of the wave trough. The torque appears dependent on vertical velocity, which lags the horizontal velocity by 90° of wave phase. Variations of the performance parameters are of the same order of magnitude as the average value, especially when the turbine is near the mean free surface and in the presence of high energy waves. These results demonstrate the impact of surface gravity waves on power production and structural loading. Future tests will focus on measuring and modeling the wake of the turbine for unsteady flow conditions. Model Turbine Power Coefficient vs, Tip Speed Ratio

Flack, K. A.; Luznik, L.

2013-12-01

275

Dounreay hot particles: the story so far.  

PubMed

The first Dounreay hot particle (hereafter 'Particle') to be formally identified was recovered from the Dounreay foreshore in 1983. A further single Particle was recovered from Sandside beach the following year. Particles have been detected and removed from the Dounreay foreshore regularly since 1984 and from the offshore sediments since 1997. Since 1997, an extensive research and development programme has been undertaken to identify the source of Particles, their movement and lifetimes in the marine environment, and their potential effects on human and environmental health. It is now known that Particles were released to the North Atlantic Ocean in the mid to late 1960s and early 1970s. There is no evidence of an on-going source of Particles from the Dounreay site today. The source of Particles recovered from the Dounreay foreshore and from local beaches is the cache currently residing in marine sediments adjacent to Dounreay. Monitoring and sediment modelling studies indicate that the Dounreay Particles are transported approximately parallel to the coast in a north-easterly direction. Studies to define contact frequencies and risks to human health suggest that the health risks associated with Particles are very low There is, however, a significant perception of risk. UKAEA will define a long-term Particle management programme via the development of a best practical environmental option (BPEO) facilitated through consultation with all stakeholders. PMID:17768316

Dennis, Frank; Morgan, Graeme; Henderson, Fiona

2007-09-01

276

Development and application of a laser velocimeter to measure very high speed particle velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser velocimeter was developed for the measurement of the velocity of particles in the size range from 10 to 100 micrometers diameter and velocities up to 5000 meters per second. The instrument was successfully employed in accelerator tests which were conducted during the development of a reentry nose tip erosion and ablation facility.

J. D. Trolinger

1979-01-01

277

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will perform experiments to examine if debris will float, or blow in the wind. They will discover which characteristics of trash affect the likelihood that it will become marine debris. Trash that floats or is easily blown around is more likely to become marine debris. As a result of this activity students will be able to define marine debris and categorize different types of debris.

Museum, Bishop

278

Marine biology  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

1984-01-01

279

Research in particles and fields in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and experimental work in charged particle and magnetic field research is reported. Activities center on plasma generation and acceleration, ATS 1 data processing for evaluation of magnetospheric substorms and micropulsations during magnetic disturbances, and the development of solar wind model using Mariner observations.

Coleman, P. J., Jr.

1973-01-01

280

Marine Renewable Energy and Cetaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an ongoing development of offshore renewable energy projects worldwide. Marine wind power technology is the most advanced and tidal and wave power projects are creating increasing interest. Marine renewable energy projects to date have been focused in northern Europe, yet developments are also planned and underway in other parts of the world. Whilst these offshore renewable energy developments

Sarah J. Dolman; Mick Green; Mark P. Simmonds

281

Marine and Maritime Sector Skills Shortages in the South West of England: Developing Regional Training Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clustering theory assumes that companies gravitate towards each other on the basis of locally and regionally specific resources and supply chain characteristics, which lead in turn to innovation and high-value economic development. In line with such thinking, UK government policy has devolved certain functions to regional development agencies such…

Beer, Julian; Meethan, Kevin

2007-01-01

282

Development and Implementation of an Interactive Uniform Regulations Manual for the United States Marine Corps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are two main purposes to this thesis study. First, we will deploy the principles of software development that we have learned through the Software Engineering track here at NPS and test its validity through the development of a real world system. Th...

M. H. Villar C. Krause

2006-01-01

283

Development of virus-like particle technology from small highly symmetric to large complex virus-like particle structures.  

PubMed

Virus-like particle (VLP) technology is a promising approach for the construction of novel vaccines, diagnostic tools, and gene therapy vectors. Initially, VLPs were primarily derived from non-enveloped icosahedral or helical viruses and proved to be viable vaccine candidates due to their effective presentation of epitopes in a native conformation. VLP technology has also been used to prepare chimeric VLPs decorated with genetically fused or chemically coupled epitope stretches selected from immunologically defined target proteins. However, structural constraints associated with the rigid geometrical architecture of icosahedral or helical VLPs pose challenges for the expression and presentation of large epitopes. Complex VLPs derived from non-symmetric enveloped viruses are increasingly being used to incorporate large epitopes and even full-length foreign proteins. Pleomorphic VLPs derived from influenza or other enveloped viruses can accommodate multiple full-length and/or chimeric proteins that can be rationally designed for multifunctional purposes, including multivalent vaccines. Therefore, a second generation of VLP carriers is represented by complex particles reconstructed from natural or chimeric structural proteins derived from complex enveloped viruses. Further development of safe and efficient VLP nanotechnology may require a rational combination of both approaches. PMID:23594863

Pushko, Peter; Pumpens, Paul; Grens, Elmars

2013-01-01

284

An Optimized Method for Delivering Flow Tracer Particles to Intravital Fluid Environments in the Developing Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Abstract Growing evidence suggests that intravital flow–structure interactions are critical morphogens for normal embryonic development and disease progression, but fluid mechanical studies aimed at investigating these interactions have been limited in their ability to visualize and quantify fluid flow. In this study, we describe a protocol for injecting small (?1.0??m) tracer particles into fluid beds of the larval zebrafish to facilitate microscale fluid mechanical analyses. The microinjection apparatus and associated borosilicate pipette design, typically blunt-tipped with a 2–4 micron tip O.D., yielded highly linear (r2=0.99) in vitro bolus ejection volumes. The physical characteristics of the tracer particles were optimized for efficient particle delivery. Seeding densities suitable for quantitative blood flow mapping (?50 thousand tracers per fish) were routinely achieved and had no adverse effects on zebrafish physiology or long-term survivorship. The data and methods reported here will prove valuable for a broad range of in vivo imaging technologies [e.g., particle-tracking velocimetry, ?-Doppler, digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), and 4-dimensional-DPIV] which rely on tracer particles to visualize and quantify fluid flow in the developing zebrafish.

Gilday, Steven D.; Dabiri, Dana; Hove, Jay R.

2012-01-01

285

An optimized method for delivering flow tracer particles to intravital fluid environments in the developing zebrafish.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that intravital flow-structure interactions are critical morphogens for normal embryonic development and disease progression, but fluid mechanical studies aimed at investigating these interactions have been limited in their ability to visualize and quantify fluid flow. In this study, we describe a protocol for injecting small (?1.0 ?m) tracer particles into fluid beds of the larval zebrafish to facilitate microscale fluid mechanical analyses. The microinjection apparatus and associated borosilicate pipette design, typically blunt-tipped with a 2-4 micron tip O.D., yielded highly linear (r(2)=0.99) in vitro bolus ejection volumes. The physical characteristics of the tracer particles were optimized for efficient particle delivery. Seeding densities suitable for quantitative blood flow mapping (?50 thousand tracers per fish) were routinely achieved and had no adverse effects on zebrafish physiology or long-term survivorship. The data and methods reported here will prove valuable for a broad range of in vivo imaging technologies [e.g., particle-tracking velocimetry, ?-Doppler, digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), and 4-dimensional-DPIV] which rely on tracer particles to visualize and quantify fluid flow in the developing zebrafish. PMID:22985309

Craig, Michael P; Gilday, Steven D; Dabiri, Dana; Hove, Jay R

2012-09-01

286

The effects of kaolin particle film on Plutella xylostella behaviour and development.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of a kaolin-based particle film against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The effect of the particle film on development, survival and host plant selection was tested on calabrese seedlings, Brassica oleracea italica Plenck cv. Fiesta F(1), under controlled environmental conditions in the laboratory. Survival to adulthood was significantly reduced and development time increased on kaolin-treated compared with water-treated host plants. The hatch rate of neonate P. xylostella larvae from eggs laid on an artificial substrate was unaffected by the particle film applied after oviposition. Experiments showed that, when given the choice, significantly fewer larvae first made contact with the kaolin-treated compared with the water-treated plant material and that after 24 h there were still significantly fewer larvae present on kaolin-treated leaves. Adult females, however, deposited more eggs on host plants coated with the kaolin particle film. As part of this series of experiments the water control treatment was compared with plant material which had been sprayed with kaolin on the upper surface only and on both leaf surfaces. In general, any observed treatment effect was enhanced with an increase in the particle film coverage. The results warrant the extension of investigations of kaolin-based particle films to field-based P. xylostella management strategies. PMID:16602083

Barker, Jenny E; Fulton, Alison; Evans, K Andrew; Powell, Glen

2006-06-01

287

Elevated nitrogen-containing particles observed in Asian dust aerosol samples collected at the marine boundary layer of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) shows powerful advantages for the characterization of ambient particulate matter in environmental and geological applications. By the application of the low-Z particle EPMA single particle analysis, an overall examination of 1800 coarse and fine particles (aerodynamic diameters: 2.5-10 mum and 1.0-2.5 mum, respectively) in six samples collected on 28 April-1 May

H. Geng; Y.-M. Park; H.-J. Hwang; S. Kang; C.-U. Ro

2009-01-01

288

Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2003-08-01

289

Marine Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains the concept of marine reserves, protected areas where fish and other species are allowed to live longer and grow larger. Other topics include sustainable fishing practices, and a case study about a marine reserve established by fishermen off the Canary Islands.

290

Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The ocean-energy industry is still in its infancy and device developers have provided their own equipment and procedures for testing. Currently, no testing standards exist for ocean energy devices in the United States. Furthermore, as prototype devices move from the test tank to in-water testing, the logistical challenges and costs grow exponentially. Development of a common instrumentation package that can be moved from device to device is one means of reducing testing costs and providing normalized data to the industry as a whole. As a first step, the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has initiated an effort to develop an instrumentation package to provide a tool to allow common measurements across various ocean energy devices. The effort is summarized in this paper. First, we present the current status of ocean energy devices. We then review the experiences of the wind industry in its development of the instrumentation package and discuss how they can be applied in the ocean environment. Next, the challenges that will be addressed in the development of the ocean instrumentation package are discussed. For example, the instrument package must be highly adaptable to fit a large array of devices but still conduct common measurements. Finally, some possible system configurations are outlined followed by input from the industry regarding its measurement needs, lessons learned from prior testing, and other ideas.

Nelson, E.

2010-08-01

291

Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases  

PubMed Central

Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience. Therefore, some examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be discussed. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new therapies targeting the central nervous system will be addressed, with particular focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, the neuronal growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering, will be highlighted.

Grosso, Clara; Valentao, Patricia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

2014-01-01

292

Development of a Promising Fish Model (Oryzias melastigma) for Assessing Multiple Responses to Stresses in the Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been “taken into labs” by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies.

Dong, Sijun; Kang, Mei; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting

2014-01-01

293

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Project - Construct a Child Development Center, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our overall objective was to evaluate DOD's implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, February 17, 2009. Specifically, we determined whether Navy and Marine Corps personnel adequately planned, funded, executed, tracked, and rep...

2010-01-01

294

76 FR 20257 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1991; Trites and Bain, 2000; Williams et al., 2002; Constantine et al., 2003), reduced blow interval (Ritcher et al...behavioral activities which may increase energetic costs (Constantine et al., 2003; 2004)). A detailed review of marine...

2011-04-12

295

he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study  

SciTech Connect

This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

2013-05-20

296

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS FOR CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTING OF PACIFIC MARINE SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of this project. n order to achieve acceptable sensitivity...

297

Development of a sequential extraction method for different forms of phosphorus in marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential extraction method (SEDEX) has been developed to separately quantify five sedi- mentary P reservoirs: loosely sorbed P; ferric iron-bound P, authigenic carbonate fluorapatite + biogenic apatite + CaCO,-associated P; detrital apatite P; and organic P. The SEDEX method successfully separates two of the main categories of authigenic phosphate phases called upon most often as sedimentary sinks for diagenetically

Kathleen C. Ruttenberg

1992-01-01

298

Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces - Recent Theoretical and Experimental Developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the work on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) include: 1) to obtain fundamental understanding of the physics of particle pushing and engulfment, 2) to develop mathematical models to describe the phenomenon, and 3) to perform critical experiments in the microgravity environment of space to provide benchmark data for model validation. Successful completion of this project will yield vital information relevant to a diverse area of terrestrial applications. With PEP being a long term research effort, this report will focus on advances in the theoretical treatment of the solid/liquid interface interaction with an approaching particle, experimental validation of some aspects of the developed models, and the experimental design aspects of future experiments to be performed on board the International Space Station.

Stefanescu, D. M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, P. A.

2003-01-01

299

Development of high timing resolution Cherenkov beam counter for minimum ionizing particle beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the high energy nuclear collisions, there are many particles emitted in the final state. Particle identification is essential to measure particle ratios and identified spectra, which provides valuable information on collision dynamics. The time-of-flight (TOF) method provides one of the powerful tools for identifying high energy particles. The quality of identification depends mainly on timing-resolution of TOF, which is determined by resolution of both start and stop counters for a given flight distance and particle momentum. Since the emission time of Cherenkov light is much faster than that of scintillaton light, the timing resolution is expected to be better using Cherenkov radiator. However the number of Cherenkov photons is much smaller compared to the scintillation light for z=1 charged particles. Thus, in order to obtain good timing resolusion with Cherenkov, it is important to have optical system which collects photons efficiently. We have developed a radiator/mirror using modified parabola function. We have constructed and tested this Cherenkov beam counter with 2GeV/c pion beam at KEK-PS and the timing-resolution has been measured to be less than 20 ps. In this presentation, the basic idea of this counter will be shown and the experimental test result will be discussed with simulations.

Sakai, Shingo; Kiyomichi, Akio; Danmura, Ayako; Masui, Hiroshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Ono, Masaya; Shindo, Miki; Esumi, Shinichi; Miake, Yasuo; Kuroki, Yoshiaki

2001-10-01

300

Development and comparison of intramuscularly long-acting paliperidone palmitate nanosuspensions with different particle size.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to develop and compare the pharmacokinetic behavior of two paliperidone palmitate (PP) nanosuspensions with different particle size after intramuscular (i.m.) administration. PP nanosuspensions were prepared by wet media milling method and the mean particle size of nanosuspension was controlled as 1041±6nm (A) and 505±9nm (B), respectively. The morphology of nanosuspensions was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirmed the crystallinity of PP in nanosuspensions. The physical and chemical stabilities of nanosuspensions A and B were investigated by particle analyzer and HPLC after storage for 2 months at 25°C, 4°C and mechanical shaking condition. No obvious change in particle size and chemical degradation of drug were observed. Following single-dose i.m. administration to beagle dogs, the release of paliperidone lasted for nearly 1 month. The Tmax of nanosuspensions A and B was 6 (d) and 10 (d). The AUC0-t and Cmax of nanosuspensions A was 2.0-fold and 1.8-fold higher than nanosuspensions B (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that PP nanosuspensions formulation had long-acting effect. Nanosuspension A with a larger particle size performed better than nanosuspension B. As a result, it is important to design appropriate particle size of nanosuspensions for i.m. administration in order to produce larger therapeutic effect. PMID:24882037

Leng, Donglei; Chen, Hongming; Li, Guangjing; Guo, Mengran; Zhu, Zhaolu; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yongjun

2014-09-10

301

75 FR 50748 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...research on disease afflicting marine mammals including viral pathogens and brevetoxin studies; development of a marine mammal histology database and atlas and marine mammal cell lines; and comparative morphology studies. The permit is issued for a...

2010-08-17

302

Mariner-Venus 1967  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

1971-01-01

303

Testing the junk-food hypothesis on marine birds: Effects of prey type on growth and development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The junk-food hypothesis attributes declines in productivity of marine birds and mammals to changes in the species of prey they consume and corresponding differences in nutritional quality of those prey. To test this hypothesis nestling Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) were raised in captivity under controlled conditions to determine whether the type and quality of fish consumed by young seabirds constrains their growth and development. Some nestlings were fed rations of Capelin (Mallotus villosus), Herring (Clupea pallasi) or Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) and their growth was compared with nestlings raised on equal biomass rations of Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcograma). Nestlings fed rations of herring, sand lance, or capelin experienced higher growth increments than nestlings fed pollock. The energy density of forage fish fed to nestlings had a marked effect on growth increments and could be expected to have an effect on pre- and post-fledging survival of nestlings in the wild. These results provide empirical support for the junk-food hypothesis.

Romano, M. D.; Piatt, J. F.; Roby, D. D.

2006-01-01

304

Developing an in vitro technology to study the inflammation potential of ambient particle types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated levels of suspended particles in the troposphere, termed particulate matter, elicit a myriad of adverse health effects in humans, ranging from shortness of breath and wheezing to myocardial infarction and death. It is currently believed that the adverse health effects associated with particulate matter are mediated by the inflammatory response initiated by the lung following particulate matter inhalation. What remains an area of much interest is elucidating the specific properties of particulate matter, physical or chemical, that cause the upregulation of proinflammatory mediators. The basic premise of this thesis was to identify the specific chemical components of particulate matter responsible for its adverse health effects. To address this issue, instrumentation and methodology were developed wherein one could design, create, levitate and deposit particles of both known chemical composition and size onto lung cells, in vitro, followed by the monitoring of the downstream biological response. An initial study focused on the role of the endotoxin component in particulate matter toxicity. Through a series of blocking studies we found that endotoxin acted synergistically with the particle core to elicit upregulation of proinflammatory mediators, including IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and ICAM-1; all of which are associated with the NF-kappaB pathway. Through characterizing this relatively simple system, one observation became apparent: the presence of the insoluble particle core had a profound effect on the cellular response; that is to say, the particle core was not simply a delivery vector, but a determinant factor in the final intracellular location of the toxic chemical. The latter observation held true as other particle types were studied and in addition, it was found that the nature of the actual chemical species itself plays a dual role in particle toxicity; first by retaining its toxic properties and second by altering the physical properties of the particle. It stems from these findings that the toxicity of the chemical components must be studied in concert and not as individual entities.

Haddrell, Allen E.

305

Investigation using data from ERTS to develop and implement utilization of living marine resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of utilizing ERTS-1 data in conjunction with aerial remote sensing and sea truth information to predict the distribution of menhaden in the Mississippi Sound during a specific time frame has been demonstrated by employing a number of uniquely designed empirical regression models. The construction of these models was made possible through innovative statistical routines specifically developed to meet the stated objectives.

Stevenson, W. H. (principal investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.

1973-01-01

306

Marine Electromagnetic System Development in the Shallow Water Environment for Radioactive Waste Repository Site Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center of Japan has recently conducted a program to develop an electromagnetic (EM) technology for investigating the subsurface to the depths of 1,000m below the seafloor in the near-shore environment. Potential applications include structural studies for geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The system includes both natural field by magnetotellurics and controlled source EM data

K. Yoshimura; S. Sakashita; S. Okubo; K. Yamane

2006-01-01

307

The mariner spacecraft star sensors.  

PubMed

The development history of the star sensors used on the Mariner spacecraft is traced, and design and performance details are described. The electrooptically controlled sensor, which was developed for the 1964 Mariner IV Mars mission, was modified for the 1967 Mariner V Venus mission to withstand the intense planetary illumination. The sensor has been further modified for the 1969 Mariner mission to Mars to survive the more severe launch environment and to provide greater capability for automatic search, identification, and tracking. Special star simulation and stray-light test techniques are discussed. PMID:20076329

Goss, W C

1970-05-01

308

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CONTINUOUS COARSE (PM10-PM2.5) PARTICLE MONITOR  

EPA Science Inventory

In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 um) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating princ...

309

Development of a two-colour infrared pyrometer for coal particle temperature measurements during devolatilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal characterisation data obtained in entrained flow experiments are often corrupted by poor measurement of the coal particle temperature. This paper describes the development of a two-colour pyrometer operating in the infrared and capable of measurement in the range 700 to 1400 K. The instrument is particularly suited to the devolatilisation phase of coal combustion.

Sandra M. Godoy; Frederick C. Lockwood

1998-01-01

310

Development of Modeling and Simulation for Magnetic Particle Inspection Using Finite Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a widely used inspection method for aerospace applications with inspection development essentially limited to empirical knowledge and experience-based approaches. Better quantitative understanding of the MPI technique and factors that affect its sensitivity and reliability would contribute not only to reductions in inspection design cost and time but also improvement of analysis of experimental data. We

Jun-Youl Lee; S. J. Lee; D. C. Jiles; M. Garton; R. Lopez; L. Brasche

2003-01-01

311

Development of ITSASGIS-5D: seeking interoperability between Marine GIS layers and scientific multidimensional data using open source tools and OGC services for multidisciplinary research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2000, an intense effort was conducted in AZTI's Marine Research Division to set up a data management system which could gather all the marine datasets that were being produced by different in-house research projects. For that, a corporative GIS was designed that included a data and metadata repository, a database, a layer catalog & search application and an internet map viewer. Several layers, mostly dealing with physical, chemical and biological in-situ sampling, and basic and thematic cartography including bathymetry, geomorphology, different species habitat maps, and human pressure and activities maps, were successfully gathered in this system. Very soon, it was realised that new marine technologies yielding continuous multidimensional data, sometimes called FES (Fluid Earth System) data, were difficult to handle in this structure. The data affected, mainly included numerical oceanographic and meteorological models, remote sensing data, coastal RADAR data, and some in-situ observational systems such as CTD's casts, moored or lagrangian buoys, etc. A management system for gridded multidimensional data was developed using standardized formats (netcdf using CF conventions) and tools such as THREDDS catalog (UNIDATA/UCAR) providing web services such as OPENDAP, NCSS, and WCS, as well as ncWMS service developed by the Reading e-science Center. At present, a system (ITSASGIS-5D) is being developed, based on OGC standards and open-source tools to allow interoperability between all the data types mentioned before. This system includes, in the server side, postgresql/postgis databases and geoserver for GIS layers, and THREDDS/Opendap and ncWMS services for FES gridded data. Moreover, an on-line client is being developed to allow joint access, user configuration, data visualisation & query and data distribution. This client is using mapfish, ExtJS - GeoEXT, and openlayers libraries. Through this presentation the elements of the first released version of this system will be described and showed, together with the new topics to be developed in new versions that include among others, the integration of geoNetwork libraries and tools for both FES and GIS metadata management, and the use of new OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) to integrate non gridded multidimensional data such as time series, depth profiles or trajectories provided by different observational systems. The final aim of this approach is to contribute to the multidisciplinary access and use of marine data for management and research activities, and facilitate the implementation of integrated ecosystem based approaches in the fields of fisheries advice and management, marine spatial planning, or the implementation of the European policies such as the Water Framework Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive or the Habitat Framework Directive.

Sagarminaga, Y.; Galparsoro, I.; Reig, R.; Sánchez, J. A.

2012-04-01

312

Development of a Cartesian-grid finite-volume characteristic flux model for marine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Finite Volume method based on Characteristic Fluxes for compressible fluids is developed. An explicit cell-centered resolution is adopted, where second-order accuracy is provided by using a MUSCL scheme with Sweby or Superbee limiters for the hyperbolic part. Resolution is performed on a generic unstructured Cartesian grid, where solid boundaries are handled by a Cut-Cell method. Interfaces are explicitely advected in a non-diffusive way, ensuring local mass conservation of each fluid. An improved cell cutting has been developed to handle boundaries of arbitrary geometrical complexity. The mesh density is locally adapted to provide accuracy along these boundaries, which can be fixed or move inside the mesh. Instead of using a polygon clipping algorithm, we use the Voxel traversal algorithm coupled with a local floodfill scanline to intersect 2D or 3D boundary surface meshes with the fixed Cartesian grid. Small cells stability problem near the boundaries is solved using a fully conservative merging method. Inflow and outflow conditions are also implemented in the model. The solver is validated on 2D academic test cases, such as the flow past a cylinder. The latter test cases are performed both in the frame of the body and in a fixed frame where the body is moving across the mesh. Extension to 3D is presently being implemented and first results will be presented at the conference.

Leroy, C.; Le Touzé, D.; Alessandrini, B.

2010-06-01

313

The Current Status and Planned Developments for Deep Underground Astro-particle Physics Science Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rigorous radiation background constraints imposed by several studies in particle and astro-particle physics, such as Galactic dark matter searches, man-made, terrestrial, solar and supernova neutrino studies and 0???-decay studies, require deep underground science facilities to afford shielding from penetrating cosmic rays and their secondary by-products. New threads of research focused on deep sub-surface biology, chemistry, geology and engineering have also been developing rapidly at several sites, benefitting from the significant investment in underground access and infrastructure developed. In addition to planned, or completed, expansion at several of these deep underground facilities, additional new facilities are in early stages of construction or well advanced planning. These developments provide significant additional capability to these fields of study. This paper summarises the developments at these facilities, focused on those extremely deep uderground laboratories where expansion is underway or planned.

Smith, N. J. T.

2012-07-01

314

Australian Institute of Marine Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located near Townsville, North Queensland, AIMS researchers collect and analyze data to improve our understanding of the marine world, and to find science-based management practices that ensure long-term sustainable use and development of marine resources. Site features information on facilities, faculty, current projects, open house and other events, and employment opportunities. Also features the Mariner's Journal, a log from several AIMS research cruises.

315

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine debris is an environmental problem of global importance, enlisting the concern and action of scientists, policy makers, as well as the general public. This three-lesson kit focuses primarily on plastic marine debris. Students critically examine data and samples and take part in activities that explore the causes, geographical distribution, and biological impacts of marine debris. Each lesson can be completed in about 50-60 minutes, but many of the activities are discrete and can be easily rearranged to fit various curricular objectives and time constraints.

2012-01-01

316

Particle transport in plasma systems for development of EUVL mask blanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defect transport in development of EUVL mask blanks is an important issue for the near-term of the industry. One main issue affecting transport is how the defect may charge in the presence of plasma. In some cases, plasma may act to contain defects away from the mask surface. We show simulation results of the effect of plasma on defect transport demonstrating how the formation of plasma sheathes and a plasma potential act to confine highly negatively charged particles, such as defect particles would be.

Stoltz, Peter; Likhanskii, Alex; Zhou, Chuandong; Jindal, Vibhu; Kearney, Patrick

2012-11-01

317

Development and validation of an ultrasensitive fluorescence planar waveguide biosensor for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in marine algae.  

PubMed

Marine dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium are well known producers of the potent neurotoxic paralytic shellfish toxins that can enter the food web and ultimately present a serious risk to public health in addition to causing huge economic losses. Direct coastal monitoring of Alexandrium spp. can provide early warning of potential shellfish contamination and risks to consumers and so a rapid, sensitive, portable and easy-to-use assay has been developed for this purpose using an innovative planar waveguide device. The disposable planar waveguide is comprised of a transparent substrate onto which an array of toxin-protein conjugates is deposited, assembled in a cartridge allowing the introduction of sample, and detection reagents. The competitive assay format uses a high affinity antibody to paralytic shellfish toxins with a detection signal generated via a fluorescently labelled secondary antibody. The waveguide cartridge is analysed by a simple reader device and results are displayed on a laptop computer. Assay speed has been optimised to enable measurement within 15 min. A rapid, portable sample preparation technique was developed for Alexandrium spp. in seawater to ensure analysis was completed within a short period of time. The assay was validated and the LOD and CC? were determined as 12 pg/mL and 20 pg/mL respectively with an intra-assay CV of 11.3% at the CC? and an average recovery of 106%. The highly innovative assay was proven to accurately detect toxin presence in algae sampled from the US and European waters at an unprecedented cell density of 10 cells/L. PMID:23102433

Meneely, Julie P; Campbell, Katrina; Greef, Charles; Lochhead, Michael J; Elliott, Christopher T

2013-03-15

318

Pedogenesis and early diagenesis of a marine carbonate platform preceding development of a Chesterian transgressive systems tract  

SciTech Connect

A regionally correlative, early Chesterian paleoweathering surface occurs in outcrops of the Monteagle Limestone (ML) and the overlying Hartselle Sandstone (HS) in the Cumberland Plateau region of TN, AL and GA. This surface constitutes a major sequence boundary that developed during a sea-level lowstand when the ML carbonate platform was subaerially exposed and subjected to pedogenesis and meteoric diagenesis. Evidence for pedogenesis of the ML includes reddening and micritization of skeletal allochems, presence of sesquioxidic glaebules and root traces, development of micro-karst pinnacles and fissures, and introduction of abundant vadose silt. The HS rests sharply on the ML with a distinctive scoured to fluted contact, lacking direct evidence for pedogenesis but showing features characteristic of early meteoric diagenesis. Petrographic evidence for subaerial exposure and meteoric diagenesis consists of extensive dissolution and calcitization. Partially dissolved grains are filled with micrite, iron oxides, and clear blocky calcite spar. Intergranular pores are filled with micrite, iron oxides, and clear blocky calcite spar. Intergranular pores are filled with micrite, iron oxides, clay, quartz silt, syntaxial overgrowths (dolomitized) and clear blocky (ferroan) calcite spar. Intergranular micrite, iron oxides, clay and quartz silt are attributed to vadose processes. Clear blocky (ferroan) spar is interpreted as freshwater phreatic. Other features include inclusions of dolomite rhombs in clear blocky calcite spar and zoned dolomite rhombs in the matrix. Under CL, echinoderm grains appear bright orange. Intergranular micrite and clear blocky calcite spar display dull orange luminescence. The dolomitized overgrowths are non-luminescent. Zoning in dolomite rhombs consists of a non-luminescent core with a bright rim. Stable C and O isotope compositions of calcitized grains and intergranular blocky calcite spar are depleted compared to Mississippian marine values.

Srinivasan, K.; Driese, S.G.; Mora, C.I. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Stapor, F.W. (Tennessee Tech. Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

319

Development of bioadhesive chitosan superporous hydrogel composite particles based intestinal drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery. PMID:23984380

Chavda, Hitesh; Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan

2013-01-01

320

Development of Bioadhesive Chitosan Superporous Hydrogel Composite Particles Based Intestinal Drug Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 32 full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery.

Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan

2013-01-01

321

Development of histopathological indices in a commercial marine bivalve (Ruditapes decussatus) to determine environmental quality.  

PubMed

Bivalve histopathology is an acknowledged tool in environmental toxicology studies, however geographically restricted, limited to a few species and still lacking the degree of detail needed to develop effective (semi)quantitative approaches. A first-time detailed histopathological screening was performed on grooved carpet shell clams collected from commercial shellfish beds in distinct coastal ecosystems of the Southern Portuguese coast: two parted sites within an impacted estuary (S(1) and S(2)), an inlet channel of a fish farm at a considered pristine estuary (site M) and a site allocated in a clean coastal lagoon (A). A total of thirty histopathological lesions and alterations were analysed in the gills and digestive glands following a weighted condition indices approach, including inflammation-related responses, necrosis, neoplastic diseases and parasites. Digestive glands were consistently more damaged than gills, except for animals collected from site M, where the most severe lesions were found in both organs, immediately followed by S(2). Clams from sites S(1) and A were overall the least damaged. Neoplastic diseases were infrequent in all cases. Inflammation-related traits were some of the most common alterations progressing in animals enduring severe lesions such as digestive tubule (diverticula) and intertubular tissue necrosis. Some alterations, such as lipofuscin aggregates within digestive tubule cells, did not relate to histological lesions. Granulocytomas only occurred in heavily infected tissues. Animals from M and A presented the highest infections in the digestive gland, especially by protozoa. Gill infections were more similar between sites. Still, the level of infection does not account for all histopathological lesions in either organ. Overall, the results are in accordance with environmental parameters, such as distance to pollution sources, sediment type and hydrodynamics, and show that the combination of multiple histopathological features in these clams provides good sensitivity for inter-site distinction even when low or moderate anthropogenic impacts are at stake. PMID:23010389

Costa, Pedro M; Carreira, Sara; Costa, Maria H; Caeiro, Sandra

2013-01-15

322

Marine biodiversity characteristics.  

PubMed

Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. PMID:21640952

Boeuf, Gilles

2011-05-01

323

Particle motion is broadly represented in the vestibular medulla of the bullfrog across larval development.  

PubMed

In their shallow-water habitats, bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles are exposed to both underwater and airborne sources of acoustic stimulation. We probed the representation of underwater particle motion throughout the tadpole's dorsal medulla to determine its spatial extent over larval life. Using neurobiotin-filled micropipettes, we recorded neural activity to z-axis particle motion (frequencies of 40-200 Hz) in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN), and along the dorsal arcuate pathway. Sensitivity was comparable in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei, with estimated thresholds between 0.016 and 12.5 ?m displacement. Neither best responding frequency nor estimated threshold varied significantly over larval stage. Transport of neurobiotin from active recording sites was also stable over development. The DMN responded poorly to z-axis particle motion, but did respond to low-frequency pressure stimulation. These data suggest that particle motion is represented widely and stably in the tadpole's vestibular medulla. This is in marked contrast to the representation of pressure stimulation in the auditory midbrain, where a transient "deaf period" of non-responsiveness and decreased connectivity occurs immediately prior to metamorphic climax. We suggest that, in bullfrogs, sensitivity to particle motion and to pressure follows different developmental trajectories. PMID:22198742

Simmons, Andrea Megela; Flores, Victoria

2012-04-01

324

Development of multicolor pyrometers to monitor the transient response of burning carbonaceous particles  

SciTech Connect

A three-color ratio pyrometer has been developed to obtain surface temperatures and high-temperature combustion rates of burning carbonaceous particles. The features and performance of this instrument are contrasted to those of a two-color ratio pyrometer, constructed earlier for similar studies. The three-color pyrometer employs a visible (0.65 {mu}m) and two near-infrared (0.80 and 0.975 {mu}m) wavelengths. The instrument uses a single optical fiber to capture radiation emitted from a particle burning in a high-temperature laminar flow furnace. Monitoring of the combustion events takes place coaxially with the particle flow, from observation windows located at the top of the furnace injectors. Thus, the temperature-time history of burning particles can be recorded. The radiation flux is split into three beams using dichroic edge filters. Narrow (or medium) bandwidth interference filters guide monochromatic radiation to solid-state silicon photodetectors. The associated amplification is linear and/or logarithmic. In contrast, the two-color pyrometer used a bifurcated optical fiber bundle to split radiation to two medium bandwidth interference filters centered at 0.80 and 1.0 {mu}m. Silicon detectors were employed, associated with linear amplification. Both instruments were used to monitor the combustion temperature-time behavior of burning highly homogeneous, spherical, and monodisperse carbonaceous particles, and their performance is discussed herein.

Levendis, Y.A.; Estrada, K.R. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)); Hottel, H.C. (Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States))

1992-07-01

325

Development of a novel evaluation method for air particles using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a novel evaluation method for air particles using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) analysis. An L1 sensor chip modified with immobilized liposome was used as a model of the membrane of epithelial cells in organs of respiration. A test suspension of dispersed air particles was flowed onto the sensor chip. The interaction between the surface of the sensor chip and particulates in the sample solution was detected by SPR. It is deduced that the SPR measurement provides information about the adsorption/desorption behavior of the particles on the membrane. Environmentally certified reference materials, diesel particulate matter, vehicle exhaust particulates, urban particulate matter, coal fly ash, and rocks, were used as air particulate samples. Filtrates of suspensions of these samples were analyzed by SPR. Each sample revealed characteristic SPR sensor-gram patterns. For example, diesel particulate matter strongly interacted with the lipid bilayer, and was hardly dissociated. On the other hand, coal fly ash and rock particles interacted poorly with the membrane. The presented method could be used to evaluate or characterize air particles. PMID:23885351

Tanaka, Ryoya; Gomi, Ryusaku; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Nakanishi, Hiromitsu; Moriwaki, Hiroshi

2013-09-21

326

Marine Climatology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The marine climatology of New York Bight is presented both as summaries of available data on those meteorological variables that make up the climate and as interactive processes among land, sea, and air that influence the meteorological variables and prod...

B. Lettau W. A. Brower R. G. Quayle

1976-01-01

327

Marine structure  

SciTech Connect

A marine structure is described having a base and a foundation means projecting downwardly from the base for pressing into the sea bed. The foundation comprises a wall system with pile means on both sides of the wall(s).

Olsen, O.

1981-12-08

328

Progress and hurdles in the development of influenza virus-like particle vaccines for veterinary use  

PubMed Central

Virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble infectious virus particles in structure and morphology, have been proposed to provide a new generation of vaccine candidates against various viral infections. As effective immunogens, characterized by high immunogenicity and safety, VLPs have been employed in the development of human influenza vaccines. Recently, several influenza VLP vaccines have been developed for veterinary use and successfully evaluated in swine, canine, duck, and chicken models. These VLP vaccine candidates induced protective immune responses and enabled serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals in conjunction with a diagnostic test. Here, we review the current progress of influenza VLP development as a next-generation vaccine technology in the veterinary field and discuss the challenges and future direction of this technology.

2014-01-01

329

Marine Collagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As a family of proteins with unique structural features, marine invertebrate collagens have been a focus of structure–function\\u000a correlation studies as well as studies interrelating successive levels of structural organization, from the amino acid sequence\\u000a to the anatomically defined fibril. Structural and biochemical peculiarities of marine invertebrates collagens isolated from\\u000a sponges, jellyfishes, molluscs, and echinoderms as well as perspectives of

Hermann Ehrlich

330

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

331

Development of a one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction and cleanup method for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments.  

PubMed

A rapid and accurate one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and cleanup method was developed and validated for 34 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments, giving an extract that could be analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without further cleanup. Marine sediment (5g) was loaded into the stainless-steel extraction cell above activated copper (5g) and activated silica gel (5g). An extraction temperature of 100°C and two 5min extraction cycles using a 4:1 (v/v) hexane-dichloromethane mixture gave a good extraction efficiency. The integrated method gave extracts that were as clean as those obtained using PLE, followed by separate activated copper and silica gel cleanups. The method was validated, in terms of its accuracy, precision, and application using a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1944), marine sediments spiked at low and high concentrations, and contaminated harbor sediments. The mean recoveries were 92% and 94% for the low and high spike concentrations, respectively, and the accuracy was good (giving a mean of 86% of the certified reference material concentrations). The method developed gave a precision and accuracy equal to or better than the precision and accuracy found using PLE with separate cleanups. The method developed gives a shorter sample preparation time and uses much less solvent than PLE and separate cleanups. PMID:24671040

Choi, Minkyu; Kim, Ye-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Hee-Gu

2014-05-01

332

Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part II: Marine Stratocumulus Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multispectral scanning radiometer has been used to obtain measurements of the reflection function of marine stratocumulus clouds at 0.75, 1.65 and 2.16 m. These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the First ISCCP [International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project] Regional Experiment (FIRE), conducted off the coast of southern California during July 1987. Multispectral images of

Teruyuki Nakajima; Michael D. King; James D. Spinhirne; Lawrence F. Radke

1991-01-01

333

Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part II: Marine Stratocumulus Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multispectral scanning radiometer has been used to obtain measurements of the reflection function of marine stratocumulus clouds at 0.75, 1.65 and 2.16 pm. These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE), conducted off the coast of southern California during July 1987. Multispectral images of

Teruyuki Nakajima; Michael D. King; James D. Spinhirne; Lawrence F. Radke

1991-01-01

334

Aircraft observations of aerosols in the free marine troposphere over the North Pacific Ocean: Particle chemistry in relation to air mass origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft measurements of atmospheric aerosol particles were performed in the free troposphere up to 5.0 km altitude over the North Pacific Ocean in August 1983 and 1984. Particles were analyzed for a single-particle base with the regent thin-film technique in conjunction with a transmission electron microscope. The calcium thin-film method was used for the specific determination of the molecular form

Masahiko Yamato; Hiroshi Tanaka

1994-01-01

335

Models of solar energetic particle fluxes: the mean requirements and the development prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The models of energetic solar particles (SEP) are intended for calculating the fluences and peak fluxes, which are expected to occur for a given period at any known or predicted solar activity level and to exceed their calculated sizes within a given probability. Like any other model that describes a natural phenomenon, a SEP model must reflect the objective reality, including the regular features inherent to SEP. Therefore, - as the SEP occurrence probability is proportional to solar activity, the model must predict the SEP fluxes as dependent on any solar activity level. The models that disregard the SEP fluxes during "quiet Sun" periods introduce an error of up to a few orders into their estimates of interplanetary particle flu xes; - as the SEP distribution function is accepted to be a power-law (not lognormal) function of SEP event size, the SEP model cannot disregard a great number of the minor events, which may not exceed the detection threshold of meters and can contribute much to the particle fluxes during short-term space flights and under low solar activity; - as the SEP impact is a function of the particle energy (the energy transfer to matter and the cross-sections for inelastic interactions are all energy-dependent), the particle flux must be known for any energy, i.e., the differential SEP energy spectra must be determined; - as many of the radiation effects depend on the heavy particle flux, the SEP models must include not only protons, but also all heavy ions; - as the heavy ion fluxes are relatively small (similar to the high-energy proton fluxes), any sufficiently comprehensive SEP model cannot be developed basing on the measured particle flux distribution because of the scanty statistics, but must be based on the found regular features relevant to the particle fluxes, their energy spectra included. Since the databases of SEP fluxes measured by separate instruments prove to be very different, thus indicating significant systematic errors of the measurements, any SEP m del cannot be developed without checking on the full reliability of the inputo experimental data.

Kuznetsov, N.; Nymmik, R.; Panasyuk, M.

336

Development of Calculation Model for Metallic Particle Motion Considering Discharge Phenomenon under High Voltage Electric Field in SF6 Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clarification of metallic particle motion is important to attain high reliability of gas insulated switchgear (GIS). Existing calculation methods have been developed only for AC voltage, and have been not applicable for DC voltage. Because partial discharges at particles in gas gap have a great influence on particle motion under DC voltage and these existing calculation methods have not considered the partial discharges. Partial discharges of particle were investigated in order to adopt them into the calculation model. The calculation model considers the following phenomena: (1) moment of the particle around the center of gravity, (2) electric charge and discharge at both pointed tips of the particle, (3) mirror image of the particle near the wall. The model has been applied to DC electric field conditions, and was able to correctly calculate the crossing motion or firefly phenomenon of the metallic particle.

Rokunohe, Toshiaki; Moriyama, Tomohiro; Yagihashi, Yoshitaka; Koizumi, Makoto; Endo, Fumihiro

337

Aerosol particles in the developing world; a comparison between New Delhi in India and Beijing in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries, aerosol particles damage the health of hundreds of millions of people. Migration from the country\\u000a side to megacities increases emissions and exposure to particles. Some countries have started to limit emissions based on\\u000a particulate mass, but this may increase particle number concentrations. In this study we discuss some earlier measurements\\u000a carried out in the developing world and

Lauri Laakso; Ismo K. Koponen; Petteri Mönkkönen; Markku Kulmala; Veli-Matti Kerminen; Birgit Wehner; Alfred Wiedensohler; Zhijun Wu; Min Hu

2006-01-01

338

Legal Measures Concerning Marine Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this UNC Sea Grant paper is to chronicle new concepts and developments in marine pollution control and progress in marine resources law. Topics discussed include the following: Pollution of the high seas--the oceans as international rivers;...

S. W. Wurfel

1975-01-01

339

Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

Kolb, James A.

340

'Hot particles' in the cold light of day: principles for a stakeholder and public engagement architecture relating to historic liabilities in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses issues in stakeholder relations, focusing on the challenges of liabilities management associated with small fragments of irradiated nuclear fuel hereafter termed particles (and sometimes termed 'hot particles' in the public domain, from which this paper gets its title), produced over a number of decades from now ceased operations at Dounreay. It describes key problems confronting the nuclear

Rick Wylie

2007-01-01

341

Marine biogeochemistry from space: recent developments in measuring the carbon cycle in the ocean using visible spectral reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical sensors on-board satellite have given over the last two decades another dimension to marine biology and ecosystem studies providing key information on the timing and spatial distribution of phytoplankton blooms and the magnitude of primary production The radiance backscattered from the upper layer of the ocean or the water leaving radiances at various spectral bands relates to the so-called

N. Hoepffner

2006-01-01

342

Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development  

PubMed Central

The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies.

Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.

2014-01-01

343

Accommodation\\/sedimentation development and massive early marine cementation: Latemar vs. Concarena (Middle\\/Upper Triassic, Southern Alps)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive early marine cementation (MEC) is a major diagenetic feature of some carbonate platforms. The comparison of two Triassic buildups of similar size and preservation but contrasting degree of MEC (Latemar, Dolomites, and Concarena, Lombardic Alps) allows for the investigation of differential cementation on carbonate platforms. The assessment of the response of platform cementation to changes in accommodation\\/sedimentation led to

Michael Seeling; Axel Emmerich; Thilo Bechstädt; Rainer Zühlke

2005-01-01

344

Development and Evaluation of Polychaete Reverse Samplers for Marine Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicitiy Identification Evaluations (TIE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine and estuarine sediments accumulate contaminants and act as a sink for a wide range of toxic chemicals. As a result, the sediments themselves can become a source of contamination. At sufficient levels, contaminated sediments can cause benthic impairments and toxicity to m...

345

Development and Evaluation of Reverse Polyethylene Samplers for Marine Phase II Whole-Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine and estuarine sediments accumulate contaminants and act as a sink for a wide range of toxic chemicals. As a result, the sediments themselves can become a source of contamination. At sufficient levels, contaminated sediments can cause benthic impairments and toxicity to mar...

346

Development of micro-shock wave assisted dry particle and fluid jet delivery system.  

PubMed

Small quantity of energetic material coated on the inner wall of a polymer tube is proposed as a new method to generate micro-shock waves in the laboratory. These micro-shock waves have been harnessed to develop a novel method of delivering dry particle and liquid jet into the target. We have generated micro-shock waves with the help of reactive explosive compound [high melting explosive (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) and traces of aluminium] coated polymer tube, utilising ?9 J of energy. The detonation process is initiated electrically from one end of the tube, while the micro-shock wave followed by the products of detonation escape from the open end of the polymer tube. The energy available at the open end of the polymer tube is used to accelerate tungsten micro-particles coated on the other side of the diaphragm or force a liquid jet out of a small cavity filled with the liquid. The micro-particles deposited on a thin metal diaphragm (typically 100-?m thick) were accelerated to high velocity using micro-shock waves to penetrate the target. Tungsten particles of 0.7 ?m diameter have been successfully delivered into agarose gel targets of various strengths (0.6-1.0 %). The device has been tested by delivering micro-particles into potato tuber and Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus (ground nut) stem tissue. Along similar lines, liquid jets of diameter ?200-250 ?m (methylene blue, water and oils) have been successfully delivered into agarose gel targets of various strengths. Successful vaccination against murine salmonellosis was demonstrated as a biological application of this device. The penetration depths achieved in the experimental targets are very encouraging to develop a future device for biological and biomedical applications. PMID:22763845

Rakesh, S G; Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Allam, Uday Sankar; Nataraja, Karaba N; Barhai, P K; Jagadeesh, Gopalan; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

2012-11-01

347

Plastic particles in coastal pelagic ecosystems of the Northeast Pacific ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution, abundance and characteristics of plastic particles in plankton samples collected routinely in Northeast Pacific ecosystems, and to contribute to the development of ideas for future research into the occurrence and impact of small plastic debris in marine pelagic ecosystems. Plastic debris particles were assessed from zooplankton samples collected as part

Miriam J. Doyle; William Watson; Noelle M. Bowlin; Seba B. Sheavly

2011-01-01

348

Development of high-current RF-plasma sources for neutral particle injectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of high-current RF-plasma sources for neutral particle injection systems is described. Consideration is given to the requirements for an ion source of an injector and to the characteristics of the RIG 10, RIM 20, and RIG-HEX plasma sources. A diagram of the RIG 20 is included, and results on the developmental tests carried out with RIG 20 and RIG HEX are presented.

Freisinger, J.; Hellmann, H.; Kaufmann, M.; Loeb, H. W.; Scharmann, A.

349

Development of multicolor pyrometers to monitor the transient response of burning carbonaceous particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-color ratio pyrometer has been developed to obtain surface temperatures and high-temperature combustion rates of burning carbonaceous particles. The features and performance of this instrument are contrasted to those of a two-color ratio pyrometer, constructed earlier for similar studies. The three-color pyrometer employs a visible (0.65 μm) and two near-infrared (0.80 and 0.975 μm) wavelengths. The instrument uses a

Yiannis A. Levendis; Kelvin Rafael Estrada; Hoyt C. Hottel

1992-01-01

350

Research and development of superconducting linear accelerators for neutral particle beam applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments with superconducting cavities designed for applications in continuous-wave, high-current ion linear accelerators have resulted in very high CW accelerating gradients, up to 18 MV\\/m, with only a few watts of power dissipation in the cavity walls. These results make the prospects for compact, lightweight Neutral Particle Beam accelerators very attractive, and they compel further work to develop RF superconductivity

J. R. Delayen; C. L. Bohn; W. L. Kennedy; G. L. Nicholls; C. T. Roche; L. Sagalovsky

1992-01-01

351

Using ARCHON to Develop Real-World DAI Applications for Electricity Transportation and Particle Accelerator Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ARCHON,(ARchitecture for Cooperative Heterogeneous ON-line systems) was Europe’s largest ever project in the area of Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI). It devised a general-purpose architecture, software framework, and methodology,which has been used to support the development,of DAI systems in a number,of real world industrial domains. Two of these applications, electricity transportation management and particle accelerator control, have been run successfully

N. Jennings; J. M. Corera; L. Laresgoiti; E. Mamdani; F. Perriollat; P. Skarek; L. Varga

1995-01-01

352

Development of phoswich detectors for simultaneous counting of alpha particles and other radiations (emitted from Actinides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop actinide monitors, simultaneous counting of ? particles and other radiations has been investigated by means of phoswich detectors. Typical phoswiches devised up to the present consist of the following: ZnS(Ag)\\/NE102A for ? and ?(?) counting, ZnS(Ag)\\/NaI (Tl) or YAP for ? and ?(?) counting, ZnS(Ag)\\/anthracene\\/6Li glass for ?, ?(?), thermal- and fast-neutron counting, etc. Optical filters

Shigekazu Usuda; Kenichiro Yasuda; Satoshi Sakurai

1998-01-01

353

Spectral imaging detection and counting of microbial cells in marine sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiautomated detection and counting techniques for microbial cells in soil and marine sediment using microscopic-spectral-imaging analysis were developed. Microbial cells in microscopic fields were selectively detected from other fluorescent particles by their fluorescent spectrum, based on the spectral shift between the conjunction and nonconjunction of DNA fluorochrome (SYBR Green II) with nucleic acids. Using this technique, microbial cells could be

Michinari Sunamura; Akihiko Maruyama; Takashi Tsuji; Ryuichiro Kurane

2003-01-01

354

3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry: Development and Applications in Small Scale Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis contains two parts of studies. In part I, a novel volumetric velocimetry technique is developed to measure the 3-D flow field of small-scale flows. The technique utilizes a color-coded pinhole plate with multiple light sources aligned to each pinhole to achieve high particle image density and large measurable depth on a single lens microscope system. A color separation algorithm and an improved particle identification algorithm are developed to identify individual particle images from each pinhole view. Furthermore, a calibration-based technique based on epi-polar line search method is developed to reconstruct the spatial coordinates of the particle, and a new two-frame tracking particle-tracking algorithm is developed to calculate the velocity field. The system was setup to achieve a magnification of 2.69, resulting in an imaging volume of 3.35 x 2.5 x 1.5 mm3 and showed satisfactory measurement accuracy. The technique was then further miniaturized to achieve a magnification of 10, resulting in a imaging volume of 600 x 600 x 600 microm3. The system was applied to a backward-facing step flow to test its ability to reconstruct the unsteady flow field with two-frame tracking. Finally, this technique was applied to a steady streaming flow field in a microfluidic device used to trap particles. The results revealed the three-dimensional flow structure that has not been observed in previous studies, and provided insights to the design of a more efficient trapping device. In part II, an in-vitro study was carried out to investigate the flow around a prosthetic venous valve. Using 2-D PIV, the dynamics of the valve motion was captured and the velocity fields were measured to investigate the effect of the sinus pocket and the coupling effect of a pair of valves. The PIV and hemodynamic results showed that the sinus pocket around the valve functioned as a flow regulator to smooth the entrained velocity profile and suppress the jet width. For current prosthetic valve design a shorter leaflets is advantageous because it prevents flow stasis and reduce the energy loss. Valve pairing tests showed that an orthogonal configuration of the valve pair result in a complicated 3-D flow around the valve, which can increase the mixing of the blood flow and prevent reversed flow in between the valves. The tests of different valve separation distance showed that the coupling effect of two valves was weakened as the separation distance increased, suggesting the existence of a separation distance between the two valves to maximize the coupling effect and keep the flow structure stable.

Tien, Wei-Hsin

355

Development and testing of cut-cell boundaries for electromagnetic particle-in-cell codes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finite difference time domain (FDTD) approach for electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) is a proven method for many problems involving interactions of charged particles with electromagnetic fields. However accurately modeling fields and particle process at complex boundaries with such methods is still an active research topic. A variety of methods have been developed for this purpose but the testing and application of these methods to real world problems in fairly limited. We have recently implemented the Dey-Mittra boundary algorithm into our EM-PIC code VORPAL. Convergence tests comparing how the frequency of cavity oscillations converge to the physical values for simulations run with stair-step and Dey-Mittra algorithms will be presented. These tests demonstrate how the Dey-Mittra algorithm provides considerable improvements over stair step boundaries. A method to correct for the image charge accumulation from removing particles at complex surfaces will also be presented. Applications to superconducting RF cavities and high-powered microwave devices will be presented.

Nieter, Chet; Smithe, David N.; Stoltz, Peter H.; Cary, John R.

2007-03-01

356

Development of Modeling and Simulation for Magnetic Particle Inspection Using Finite Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a widely used inspection method for aerospace applications with inspection development essentially limited to empirical knowledge and experience-based approaches. Better quantitative understanding of the MPI technique and factors that affect its sensitivity and reliability would contribute not only to reductions in inspection design cost and time but also improvement of analysis of experimental data. We employed a finite element method (FEM) for numerical calculation because this is known to be suitable for complicated geometric objects such as the part shapes encountered in aviation components and defects of concern. Magnetic particles are usually soft magnetic materials and sensitive to the magnetic field distribution around them. They are easily attracted toward a high magnetic field gradient. Selection of magnetic field source, which produces a magnetic field gradient large enough to detect a small defect in the sample, is an important factor in magnetic particle inspection. The magnetic field gradient and magnetic force at the sites of defects having different widths and depths have been calculated. The simulated results can be used to assist in understanding the behavior of magnetic particles around a defect.

Lee, J. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Jiles, D. C.; Garton, M.; Lopez, R.; Brasche, L.

2003-03-01

357

Hydrodynamics of the developing region in hydrophobic microchannels: A dissipative particle dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is becoming a popular particle-based method to study flow through microchannels due to the ease with which the presence of biological cells or DNA chains can be modeled. Many lab-on-a-chip devices require the ability to manipulate the transport of cells or DNA chains in the fluid flow. Microchannel surfaces coated with combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials have been found useful for this purpose. In this work we study numerically the hydrodynamics of a steady nonuniform developing flow between two infinite parallel plates with hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the DPD. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces are modeled using partial-slip and no-slip boundary conditions, respectively, in the simulations. We also propose a method to model the inflow and outflow boundaries for the DPD simulations. The simulation results of the developing flow are in good agreement with analytical solutions from continuum theory for no-slip and partial-slip surfaces. The entrance region constitutes a considerable fraction of the channel length in miniaturized devices. Thus it is desirable for the length of the developing region to be short as most microfluidic devices such as cell or DNA separators and mixers are designed for the developed flow field. We study the effect of a hydrophilic strip near the inlet of a hydrophobic microchannel on the developing length. We find that the presence of the hydrophilic strip significantly reduces the developing length.

Ranjith, S. Kumar; Patnaik, B. S. V.; Vedantam, Srikanth

2013-03-01

358

Designing Marine Reserves for Fishery Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports have raised serious concerns about the rapid declines of historically productive marine fishery resources and the degradation of essential fish habitats. This global crisis has spurred development of innovative management strategies to rebuild depleted fisheries and marine ecosystems. One highly touted strategy involves the design and creation of marine reserves (areas off limits to extractive uses) to rebuild

Geoffrey A. Meester; Anuj Mehrotra; Jerald S. Ault; Edward K. Baker

2004-01-01

359

Marine Science Career Awareness, Grade Four. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for fourth grade students. The unit, focusing on the various types of careers and occupations connected directly and indirectly with marine science, is divided into sections dealing with: commerce and intertidal…

Kolb, James A.

360

A Plan for Marine Education in Hawaii  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The plan for marine education in the elementary and secondary schools of Hawaii as devised by the Hawaii Marine Education Council in 1974 is described. The plan outlines guidelines for the development and dissemination of marine curricular programs (K-12) over the next eight years. (BT)

Klemm, E. Barbara

1976-01-01

361

Marine Antimalarials  

PubMed Central

Malaria is an infectious disease causing at least 1 million deaths per year, and, unfortunately, the chemical entities available to treat malaria are still too limited. In this review we highlight the contribution of marine chemistry in the field of antimalarial research by reporting the most important results obtained until the beginning of 2009, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries. About 60 secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms have been grouped into three structural types and discussed in terms of their reported antimalarial activities. The major groups of metabolites include isonitrile derivatives, alkaloids and endoperoxide derivatives. The following discussion evidences that antimalarial marine molecules can efficiently integrate the panel of lead compounds isolated from terrestrial sources with new chemical backbones and, sometimes, with unique functional groups.

Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

2009-01-01

362

Development and use of radiation detection technology for buried seabed particles.  

PubMed

From the initial 1997 diver-based gamma survey of the seabed sediments offshore of Dounreay, there has been continuous development of instrumentation and techniques. The initial contract surveyed randomly chosen areas, to ascertain if any particles were indeed present, since they had been found on the Dounreay foreshore in previous years. In total 34 particles were located and recovered. The period 1998-2002 saw further diver-based surveys using more sensitive and better designed detection systems. A towed system incorporating the same detectors was also deployed, covering extensive areas of the seabed. Throughout this period a more detailed understanding of particle dispersion emerged. The primary source of particles was identified as the old diffuser, with evidence for a dispersion plume heading north-east. In late 2002, Fathoms selected a gamma spectrometry system for trial and evaluation for possible future subsea deployment. The positive results led to a field trial being awarded by UKAEA for deployment of a stationary platform with a 7.8 cm x 7.8 cm NaI detector on the seabed at various offshore locations. This trial identified particles by their 137Cs photopeak and delivered the explanation for the gamma activity banding in the 'anomalous' zone. This successful trial led in 2004 to a joint Fathoms/UKAEA lab trial of the SAM-935 system of the larger 10 cm x 10 cm x 40 cm NaI crystal, inside a marinising unit. These proved to be fit for purpose and UKAEA tasked Fathoms to deliver in 2004 a tracked remotely operated vehicle (ROV) capable of deploying the larger detectors to allow gamma mapping of seabed sediments, up to a maximum depth of 100 m. Preliminary results of the 2005 ROV work are presented. PMID:17768315

Cassidy, Jim; Toole, Joe

2007-09-01

363

Development of Modeling and Simulation for Magnetic Particle Inspection Using Finite Elements  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a widely used nondestructive inspection method for aerospace applications essentially limited to experiment-based approaches. The analysis of MPI characteristics that affect sensitivity and reliability contributes not only reductions in inspection design cost and time but also improvement of analysis of experimental data. Magnetic particles are easily attracted toward a high magnetic field gradient. Selection of a magnetic field source, which produces a magnetic field gradient large enough to detect a defect in a test sample or component, is an important factor in magnetic particle inspection. In this work a finite element method (FEM) has been employed for numerical calculation of the MPI simulation technique. The FEM method is known to be suitable for complicated geometries such as defects in samples. This thesis describes the research that is aimed at providing a quantitative scientific basis for magnetic particle inspection. A new FEM solver for MPI simulation has been developed in this research for not only nonlinear reversible permeability materials but also irreversible hysteresis materials that are described by the Jiles-Atherton model. The material is assumed to have isotropic ferromagnetic properties in this research (i.e., the magnetic properties of the material are identical in all directions in a single crystal). In the research, with a direct current field mode, an MPI situation has been simulated to measure the estimated volume of magnetic particles around defect sites before and after removing any external current fields. Currently, this new MPI simulation package is limited to solving problems with the single current source from either a solenoid or an axial directional current rod.

Jun-Youl Lee

2003-05-31

364

Development and Demonstration of a Computational Tool for the Analysis of Particle Vitiation Effects in Hypersonic Propulsion Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to improve the understanding of particle vitiation effects in hypersonic propulsion test facilities, a quasi-one dimensional numerical tool was developed to efficiently model reacting particle-gas flows over a wide range of conditions. Features of this code include gas-phase finite-rate kinetics, a global porous-particle combustion model, mass, momentum and energy interactions between phases, and subsonic and supersonic particle drag and heat transfer models. The basic capabilities of this tool were validated against available data or other validated codes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the code a series of computations were performed for a model hypersonic propulsion test facility and scramjet. Parameters studied were simulated flight Mach number, particle size, particle mass fraction and particle material.

Perkins, Hugh Douglas

2010-01-01

365

Alkaloids in Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids.

Guven, Kas?m Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

2010-01-01

366

Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to chapters from an online book (PDF format), which reflects many of the recent developments in marine microbiology. Published by the National Institute of Oceanography in India, it is geared towards ocean scientists, environmentalists, aqua-culturists and seafood processing technologists. The book provides recent literature, newer analytical approaches, and an overall summary of the present understanding of marine microbiology in tropical waters. Chapters include subjects such as heterotrophic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and the sulfur cycle, hypersaline microorganisms, symbiosis, the role of fungi in detrital process, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, microbial diseases in shrimp, microzooplankton, biofilms, and more. Links are provided to each chapter in PDF format.

Ramaiah, Nagappa

2010-03-17

367

Preparation of large-particle-size monodisperse latexes in space - Polymerization kinetics and process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monodisperse polystyrene latexes are prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization; however, sizes larger than 2 microns are difficult to prepare because of the creaming and settling of the particles and their sensitivity to mechanical shear. Preparation in space would obviate the creaming and settling, and allow agitation just sufficient for good heat transfer and mixing. Three polymerizations yielding 3-5 micron size particles were carried out successfully on the third flight of the 'Columbia' launched Mar. 22, 1982; however, four polymerizations yielding sizes up to 10 microns on the fourth flight launched June 27, 1982 were incomplete owing to apparatus malfunction. The results of these polymerizations and the prospects of developing a preparative space process are reviewed.

Vanderhoff, J. W.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Micale, F. J.; Sudol, E. D.; Tseng, C. M.; Silwanowicz, A.; Kornfeld, D. M.

1984-01-01

368

Development of scintillator plates with high energy resolution for alpha particles made of GPS scintillator grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scintillator plate with high energy resolution was developed to produce an alpha particle monitor used in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel plants. Grains of a Gd2Si2O7 (GPS) scintillator of several 10 to 550 ?m were fixed on a glass substrate and were then mechanically polished. By increasing the size of scintillator grains and removing fine powders, the collected light yield and energy resolution for alpha particles were drastically improved. Energy resolution of 9.3% was achieved using average grain size of 91 ?m. Furthermore, the ratios between counts in a peak and total counts were improved by more than 60% by the further increase of grain size and adoption of mechanically polished surfaces on both sides. Beta and gamma ray influences were suppressed sufficiently by the thin 100 ?m scintillator plates.

Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Izaki, Kenji; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio; Nishiyama, Shusuke

2014-01-01

369

Marine Mammal Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' guides developed by Sea World featuring marine mammal educational materials for K-12. 14 different topics covered including sharks, wetlands, whales, birds, and much more. Several feature activities for all grade levels. Each guide includes goals and objectives, information, vocabulary, a bibliography, and classroom activities. Activities strive to integrate science, mathematics, geography, art, and language. Orca guide is in Spanish.

370

SeaDataNet II - Second phase of developments for the pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second phase of the project SeaDataNet started on October 2011 for another 4 years with the aim to upgrade the SeaDataNet infrastructure built during previous years. The numbers of the project are quite impressive: 59 institutions from 35 different countries are involved. In particular, 45 data centers are sharing human and financial resources in a common efforts to sustain an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products. The main objective of SeaDataNet II is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via the Pan-European oceanographic fleet and the new observation systems, both in real-time and delayed mode. The infrastructure is based on a semi-distributed system that incorporates and enhance the existing NODCs network. SeaDataNet aims at serving users from science, environmental management, policy making, and economical sectors. Better integrated data systems are vital for these users to achieve improved scientific research and results, to support marine environmental and integrated coastal zone management, to establish indicators of Good Environmental Status for sea basins, and to support offshore industry developments, shipping, fisheries, and other economic activities. The recent EU communication "MARINE KNOWLEDGE 2020 - marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth" states that the creation of marine knowledge begins with observation of the seas and oceans. In addition, directives, policies, science programmes require reporting of the state of the seas and oceans in an integrated pan-European manner: of particular note are INSPIRE, MSFD, WISE-Marine and GMES Marine Core Service. These underpin the importance of a well functioning marine and ocean data management infrastructure. SeaDataNet is now one of the major players in informatics in oceanography and collaborative relationships have been created with other EU and non EU projects. In particular SeaDataNet has recognised roles in the continuous serving of common vocabularies, the provision of tools for data management, as well as giving access to metadata, data sets and data products of importance for society. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users not only background information about SeaDataNet and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools, but also a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, and highlight a number of key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

2013-04-01

371

Recent developments Is catch-and-release recreational angling compatible with no-take marine protected areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have become a common conservation and management tool for reducing exploitation from the commercial and recreational fisheries sectors. However, the recreational fisheries sector has the potential to be compatible with no-take MPAs when catch- and-release angling is practiced because, in theory, no fish are actually harvested. This presumes that the effects of catch-and-release angling and related

Steven J. Cooke; Andy J. Danylchuk; Sascha E. Danylchuk; Cory D. Suski; Tony L. Goldberg

2006-01-01

372

Recent developments Is catch-and-release recreational angling compatible with no-take marine protected areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) have become a common conservation and management tool for reducing exploitation from the commercial and recreational fisheries sectors. However, the recreational fisheries sector has the potential to be compatible with no-take MPAs when catch- and-release angling is practiced because, in theory, no fish are actually harvested. This presumes that the effects of catch-and-release angling and related

Steven J. Cooke; Andy J. Danylchuk; Sascha E. Danylchuk; Cory D. Suskie; Tony L. Goldberg

373

Development and Application of Protocols for the Determination of Response of Real-Time Particle Monitors to Common Indoor Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocols have been developed and applied for the generation of aerosols that are likely to be comparable to those encountered in field settings for the calibration of easily transportable\\/portable real-time particle monitors. Aerosols generated were simulated environmental tobacco smoke, cedar wood smoke, cooking oil fumes, and propane stove particles. The time-integrated responses of three nephelometers and a monitor for particle-bound

Roger A. Jenkins; Ralph H. Ilgner; Bruce A. Tomkins; Douglas W. Peters

2004-01-01

374

A new insight into the particulate iodine in the marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Especially within the last few years the role of iodine in the lower troposphere has received increasing attention. In addition to the potential to affect the atmospheric oxidation capacity in a variety of ways such as catalytic destruction of ozone, the importance of iodine in the natural new particle formation (via secondary gas-to-particle conversion) in the marine boundary layer (MBL) is responsible for the increased interest and is motivated by the role of marine aerosol particles in the global radiation budget. One goal of current research activities is the identification and quantification of natural particle formation processes in the MBL. Although some progress has been made in recent years, the chemical species, reaction cycling and evolution of particulate iodine are still poorly understood, which in turn hinders our knowledge of the marine new particle formation processes. Here we will present results from recent field campaigns carried out at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland. The speciation of particulate iodine is performed by a newly developed precolumn derivatization and solid phase extraction preseparation method in combination with liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination. The diurnal and seasonal variation as well as the cycling of different iodine species in the marine aerosols will be discussed. Furthermore, the linkage between gaseous reactive iodine species and particulate iodine will be presented.

Huang, R.-J.; Thorenz, U. R.; Kundel, M.; Kampf, C.; Vogel, A.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.

2012-04-01

375

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With some knowledge of MatLab, Mathcad, Maple, or Mathmatica, one should be able to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels and practice writing about the results of a mathematical study.

Smith, David

2001-01-22

376

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William; Smith, David

2010-06-04

377

Marine epibiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysyncraton lacazei is a colonial tunicate (family didemnidae) living in the NW-mediterranean rocky sublitoral. A thorough scanning of numerous colonies revealed that in spite of an apparently heavy local fouling pressure only one fouling species — a kamptozoan — is encountered with some regularity on Polysyncraton. We try to define the epibiotic situation of sessile marine organisms as composed of

Martin Wahl; Francoise Lafargue

1990-01-01

378

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

379

Development of Thermal Spraying and Coating Techniques by Using Thixotropic Slurries Including Metals and Ceramics Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal nanoparticles coating and microlines patterning were newly developed as novel technologies to fabricate fine ceramics layers and geometrical intermetallics patterns for mechanical properties modulations of practical alloys substrates. Nanometer sized alumina particles were dispersed into acrylic liquid resins, and the obtained slurries were sputtered by using compressed air jet. The slurry mists could blow into the arc plasma with argon gas spraying. On stainless steels substrates, the fine surface layers with high wear resistance were formed. In cross sectional microstructures of the coated layers, micromater sized cracks or pores were not observed. Subsequently, pure aluminum particles were dispersed into photo solidified acrylic resins, and the slurry was spread on the stainless steel substrates by using a mechanical knife blade. On the substrates, microline patterns with self similar fractal structures were drawn and fixed by using scanning of an ultra violet laser beam. The patterned pure metal particles were heated by the argon arc plasma spray assisting, and the intermetallics or alloys phases with high hardness were created through reaction diffusions. Microstructures in the coated layers and the patterned lines were observed by using a scanning electron microscopy.

Kirihara, S.; Itakura, Y.; Tasaki, S.

2013-03-01

380

Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We have examined this process following exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing charged particles in human lymphoid cells and in human epithelial cells. A comparison of the results in these systems can reveal similari-ties and differences as a function of cell type and LET. Last, we will approach the question of the relevance of genomic instability in the context of charged particle mutagenesis. In many models, it has been difficult to link these two processes. We will present data regarding the mechanistic associations between these processes. Taken together, these studies will allow the definition of conserved pathways that are likely to contribute strongly to the cancer risks for astronauts exposed to charged particle radiations. Supported by NASA grant NNJ07HC721 to A. Kronenberg and NASA grant NNX10AC12G to M. Turker.

Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

381

Enabling tablet product development of 5-fluorocytosine through integrated crystal and particle engineering.  

PubMed

The antifungal drug, 5-fluorocytosine (FC), is marketed as a capsule (250 or 500 mg strength) instead of the preferred tablet dosage form. Through systematic characterization of solid-state properties, including mechanical properties, we identify tabletability and poor physical stability of FC as the problems that likely have prevented the successful development of a FC tablet product. We then design an FC oxalate 2:1 salt (FCOXA21), based on established relationship between crystal structure and properties, to address these deficient properties. FCOXA21 is subsequently used to develop a direct compression tablet product using predictive and material-sparing powder characterization tools, that is, ring shear cell for powder flowability and compaction simulator for powder tabletability. The initial tablet formulation, which contains 84.5% (wt %) FCOXA21, exhibits excellent tabletability but inadequate flowability. We solve the powder flowability problem through controlling the particle size of FCOXA21. A batch of FCOXA21 tablets (500 mg FC equivalent dose) is then prepared. Finally, systematic evaluation on tablet weight variation, content uniformity, friability, and dissolution using standard methods confirms the commercial manufacturability of FC tablets. Through this work, we have demonstrated the potential of integrated crystal and particle engineering in expediting the development of tablet products of challenging drugs using the economical direct compression process. PMID:24515970

Perumalla, Sathyanarayana Reddy; Sun, Changquan Calvin

2014-04-01

382

Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows  

SciTech Connect

A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

Lee, Sang Joon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Biofluid and Biomimic Research, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyojadong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); National Core Research Center for Systems Biodynamics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyojadong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guk Bae [National Core Research Center for Systems Biodynamics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyojadong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Dae Hyun [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., 555 Gwigok-dong, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-792 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sung Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Biofluid and Biomimic Research, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyojadong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-03-15

383

Alpha particles are extremely damaging to developing hemopoiesis compared to gamma irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of risk of stochastic effects from contamination with [alpha]-particle-emitting radionuclides are based on equivalent doses which take into account the RBE of the high-LET radiation. It is assumed that the RBEs for deterministic effects are considerably less than those for stochastic effects. However, the offspring of mice injected with 30 Bq g[sup [minus]1] [sup 239]Pu at 13 days gestation develop a persistent deficit in hemopoietic stem cells which is primarily the result of damage to their regulatory microenvironment. Their spatial distribution in the marrow is also perturbed, and recent observations on those mice suggested a considerably higher factor than 20. To define a more realistic RBE for hemopoiesis, the effects of external [gamma] irradiation during the fetal development period have been compared directly with those of [sup 239]Pu incorporated via placental transfer on the development of hemopoietic tissue. Pregnant mice were irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays (a) continuously from day 13 of gestation to birth at 0.15 or 0.6 Gy/day; (b) six repeated acute doses (0.6 Gy/min) at 0.1 or 0.3 Gy from day 13 of gestation; (c) one acute dose of 0.6 or 1.8 Gy on day 15 of gestation. The spatial distribution of hemopoietic stem cells in 8-week-old offspring was then determined and compared to that resulting from [alpha]-particle irradiation. In each case, the higher dose was required to match the results for [alpha] particles, suggesting an RBE for developing hemopoiesis of 250-360 compared to a continuous [gamma]-ray dose and a rather lower value of 130-180 compared to a single acute dose of [gamma] rays. This contrasts greatly to values for direct irradiation of the stem cells but argues that the effective RBE, measured for long-term effects in vivo, is the more realistic. It is concluded that an all-embracing factor can be grossly misleading and can greatly underestimate the risks of exposure to [alpha] particles. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tie-Nan Jiang (Institute of Radiation Medicine, Tianjin (China)); Lord, B.I.; Hendry, J.H. (Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (United Kingdom))

1994-03-01

384

Development of a Thermal Conductivity Measurement System Using the 3 ? Method and Application to Thermoelectric Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For this study, we developed a thermal conductivity, ?, measurement system using 3 ? method. We checked the system accuracy by measuring ? for a glass substrate (1737; Corning). Conventional evaporated aluminum wire and ink-jet printed silver wire were used as sensor wires. The system realized a ? measurement of glass within 10 % error. We estimated ? of aggregated p-type (Bi1- x Sb x )2Te3 particles using a two heat flow model. The estimated thermal conductivity of the sample ? sample are 0.06-0.27 WK-1 m-1, which is smaller than the bulk value.

Nishino, Shunsuke; Koyano, Mikio; Suekuni, Koichiro; Ohdaira, Keisuke

2014-06-01

385

Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed. Several excellent correlations between the minimum time required to produce spherical agglomerates or a final agglomerate diameter and the operating parameters were obtained by using the general linear regression method. In addition, the results provided a basis for size scale up of an agglomeration system. In Part II, the technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultrafine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was produced by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this method in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt. % ash, it was shown that the ash content could be reduced to 6--7 wt. % while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis by using a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w %, air saturation of 5 to 15 psig, and i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w % based on the coal weight. It was also shown that the process of agglomeration can be reversed by subjecting an aqueous suspension of agglomerates to a pressure sufficient to redissolve the microbubbles.

Shen, Meiyu

386

Marine resources. [coastal processes, ice, oceanography, and living marine resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques have been developed for defining coastal circulation patterns using sediment as a natural tracer, allowing the formulation of new circulation concepts in some geographical areas and, in general, a better capability for defining the seasonal characteristics of coastal circulation. An analytical technique for measurement of absolute water depth based upon the ratios of two MSS channels has been developed. Suspended sediment has found wide use as a tracer, but a few investigators have reported limited success in measuring the type and amount of sediment quantitatively from ERTS-1 digital data. Significant progress has been made in developing techniques for using ERTS-1 data to locate, identify, and monitor sea and lake ice. Ice features greater than 70 meters in width can be detected, and both arctic and antarctic icebergs have been identified. In the application area of living marine resources, the use of ERTS-1 image-density patterns as a potential indicator of fish school location has been demonstrated for one coastal commercial resource, menhaden. ERTS-1 data have been used to locate ocean current boundaries using ERTS-1 image-density enhancement, and some techniques are under development for measurement of suspended particle concentration and chlorophyll concentration. The interrelationship of water color and surface characteristics (sea state) are also being studied to improve spectral and spatial interpretive techniques.

Tilton, E. L., III

1974-01-01

387

Marine Terminal Control System (TCS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the design and development of a prototype computer-based marine terminal control system with automatic container identification, documents the mini-computer system configuration with input/output devices positioned at Key control poi...

D. Collins

1976-01-01

388

Extending the Marine Microcosm Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional range of marine microcosm laboratory experiments is presented as an ideal environment to teach the entire analysis process. The microcosm lab provides student-centered approach with opportunities for collaborative learning and to develop critical communication skills.

Ryswyk, Hal Van; Hall, Eric W.; Petesch, Steven J.; Wiedeman, Alice E.

2007-01-01

389

Bacterial Colonization of Particles: Growth and Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine particles in the ocean are exposed to diverse bacterial communities, and colonization and growth of attached bacteria are important processes in the degradation and transformation of the particles. In an earlier study, we showed that the initial colonization of model particles by individual bacterial strains isolated from marine aggregates was a function of attachment and detachment. In the present

Hans-Peter Grossart; T. Kiorboe; Kam Tang; Helle Ploug

2003-01-01

390

Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

Kolb, James A.

391

Modeling Green Barrier of International Marine Services Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to protect the home ocean marine market, marine country governments all over the world, especially in the developed marine countries, have taken more indirect and hidden form of protection barriers. This paper analyzes both the characteristics of the green barriers and their mechanism in international marine services trade at first. Then it puts forward a green barrier model

Fan Houming; Zhao Tong; Zhang Bin

2007-01-01

392

Development of gene expression system in a marine diatom using viral promoters of a wide variety of origin.  

PubMed

Promoter sequences of the cytomegalovirus (PCMV), the rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat (PRSV-LTR) and the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s (PCaMV35s) were ligated with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene, uidA, and were introduced into cells of the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Transformants were selected on a 100 mg l(-1) Zeocin plate, and Zeocin-resistant clones were further selected by the occurrence of GUS activity. Two to 10 GUS-positive clones were obtained, and GUS activities in these transformants did not change in response to changes in ambient CO(2) concentration except that the PRSV-LTR was weakly activated in air. These results indicate that a wide spectrum of viral promoters originating from mammalian, avian and plant hosts can operate as constitutive promoters in a marine diatom. The CO(2) responsive promoter sequence of the chloroplastic carbonic anhydrase gene in P. tricornutum (Pptca1) with a deleted initiator region was ligated with the minimal region of the PCMV followed by uidA and was introduced into P. tricornutum. GUS expression in the resulting transformants was clearly regulated by CO(2), that is, GUS expression was stimulated in air to about 10-fold than that in cells grown in 5% CO(2). However, the CO(2) response disappeared when the core regulatory region of Pptca1 (-76 to -11 bp) was removed. The regulative function of the endogenous diatom promoter was thus maintained after fusion with an extrinsic viral promoter. These results indicate that diatom cells accommodate a wide range of transcriptional system from beyond the plant kingdom and that an efficient transcriptional system could potentially be constructed in marine diatoms by selecting an appropriate set of viral promoter and functional cis elements. PMID:18346072

Sakaue, Kunihiro; Harada, Hisashi; Matsuda, Yusuke

2008-05-01

393

Development of the particle inflow gun for DNA delivery to plant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple and inexpensive particle bombardment device was constructed for delivery of DNA to plant cells. The Particle Inflow Gun (PIG) is based on acceleration of DNA-coated tungsten particles using pressurized helium in combination with a partial vacuum. The particles are accelerated directly in a helium stream rather than being supported by a macrocarrier. Bombardment parameters were partially optimized

John J. Finer; Philippe Vain; Mark W. Jones; Michael D. McMullen

1992-01-01

394

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

395

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

SciTech Connect

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

2013-05-15

396

Mariners' Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariner's Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

397

Using Image Pro Plus Software to Develop Particle Mapping on Genesis Solar Wind Collector Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continued success of the Genesis mission science team in analyzing solar wind collector array samples is partially based on close collaboration of the JSC curation team with science team members who develop cleaning techniques and those who assess elemental cleanliness at the levels of detection. The goal of this collaboration is to develop a reservoir of solar wind collectors of known cleanliness to be available to investigators. The heart and driving force behind this effort is Genesis mission PI Don Burnett. While JSC contributes characterization, safe clean storage, and benign collector cleaning with ultrapure water (UPW) and UV ozone, Burnett has coordinated more exotic and rigorous cleaning which is contributed by science team members. He also coordinates cleanliness assessment requiring expertise and instruments not available in curation, such as XPS, TRXRF [1,2] and synchrotron TRXRF. JSC participates by optically documenting the particle distributions as cleaning steps progress. Thus, optical document supplements SEM imaging and analysis, and elemental assessment by TRXRF.

Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.

2012-01-01

398

Can Microscale Chemical Patches Persist in the Sea? Microelectrode Study of Marine Snow, Fecal Pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectrode studies demonstrate the existence of persistent oxygen and pH gradients around flocculent, macroscopic marine particles known as marine snow. Oxygen is partially, but continuously, depleted within and around marine snow in the dark and can be completely depleted within large fecal pellets. Boundary layers hundreds of micrometers thick are maintained despite advection of fluid past the particles. The existence

Alice L. Alldredge; Yehuda Cohen

1987-01-01

399

Development of species-specific hybridization probes for marine luminous bacteria by using in vitro DNA amplification  

SciTech Connect

By using two highly conserved regions of the luxA gene as primers, polymerase chain reaction amplification methods were used to prepare species-specific probes against the luciferase gene from four major groups of marine luminous bacteria. Laboratory studies with test strains indicated that three of the four probes cross-reacted with themselves and with one or more of the other species at low stringencies but were specific for members of their own species at high stringencies. The fourth probe, generated from Vibrio harveyi DNA, a cross-reacted with DNAs from two closely related species, V. orientalis and V. vulnificus. When nonluminous cultures were tested with the species-specific probes, no false-positive results were observed, even at low stringencies. Two field isolates were correctly identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by using the species-specific hybridization probes at high stringency. A mixed probe (four different hybridization probes) used at low stringency gave positive results with all of the luminous bacteria tested, including the terrestrial species Xenorhabdus luminescens, and the taxonomically distinct marine bacterial species Shewanella hanedai; minimal cross-hybridization with these species was seen at higher stringencies.

Wimpee, C.F.; Nadeau, T.L.; Nealson, K.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

1991-05-01

400

Development of species-specific hybridization probes for marine luminous bacteria by using in vitro DNA amplification.  

PubMed Central

By using two highly conserved region of the luxA gene as primers, polymerase chain reaction amplification methods were used to prepare species-specific probes against the luciferase gene from four major groups of marine luminous bacteria. Laboratory studies with test strains indicated that three of the four probes cross-reacted with themselves and with one or more of the other species at low stringencies but were specific for members of their own species at high stringencies. The fourth probe, generated from Vibrio harveyi DNA, cross-reacted with DNAs from two closely related species, V. orientalis and V. vulnificus. When nonluminous cultures were tested with the species-specific probes, no false-positive results were observed, even at low stringencies. Two field isolates were correctly identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by using the species-specific hybridization probes at high stringency. A mixed probe (four different hybridization probes) used at low stringency gave positive results with all of the luminous bacteria tested, including the terrestrial species, Xenorhabdus luminescens, and the taxonomically distinct marine bacterial species Shewanella hanedai; minimal cross-hybridization with these species was seen at higher stringencies. Images

Wimpee, C F; Nadeau, T L; Nealson, K H

1991-01-01

401

Heavy metal effects on cellular shape changes, cleavage, and larval development of the marine gastropod mollusk, (Ilyanassa obsoleta Say)  

SciTech Connect

The spawning areas for many marine invertebrates are in intertidal zones which can be exposed to surface water run-off containing heavy metals. The cellular shape changes and cleavage patterns of Ilyanassa embryos greatly resemble those of bivalve mollusks, such as Mytilus edulis, that occur in the same intertidal areas. Determining the concentrations of heavy metals tolerated by the molluscan embryos inhabiting such clam and mussel beds therefore is of some economic significance. Moreover, such research may providedata on the heavy metal effects on the cytoskeleton. There is increasing evidence that components of the cytoskeleton, directly or indirectly, are targets for toxic agents. Polar lobe formation is a cellular shape change that resembles cytokinesis. It is seen in the fertilized eggs of many marine mollusks. Recent data with inorganic and organic Ca/sup 2 +/ antagonists suggest that both polar lobe formation and cytokinesis utilize Ca/sup 2 +/ released from sequestered, intracellular sites. Both of these cellular constrictions are associated with microfilaments and are preceded by activation steps requiring microtubules. The data presented below suggest that several heavy metals affect the microfilament-dependent steps.

Conrad, G.W.

1988-07-01

402

Development of a new on-line aerosol composition analyzer: a particle trap laser desorption mass spectrometer (PT-LDMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new analyzer for in-situ measurements of aerosol composition: a particle trap laser desorption mass spectrometer (PT-LDMS). The main components of the instrument include an aerodynamic lens, a particle trap embedded in a thermal processing cell, two quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs), a vacuum chamber incorporating the above components, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (wavelength 10.6 um). The aerodynamic lens generates a well-focused particle beam, which efficiently introduces submicron particles into a small area on the particle trap through the entrance hole of the cell. The particle trap consists of custom-made metal mesh, the structure of which was newly designed based on a theoretical calculation to reduce particle loss due to bouncing. The CO2 laser is used to vaporize aerosol compounds captured on the particle trap. The major benefits of using a CO2 laser are that most of inorganic and organic compounds, including polymers, strongly absorb far-infrared radiation and that the desorption rates are easy to control. The thermal processing cell has two exits for the evolved gas. A fraction of the evolved gas is directly analyzed using an electron impact ionization (EI) QMS to quantify the mass concentrations of major inorganic compounds such as sulfate and nitrate. The remainder of the evolved gas is catalytically oxidized in the cell and analyzed using another EI-QMS to quantify the mass concentration of organic carbon (OC). The time for accumulating particles on the particle trap can be varied depending on the aerosol concentrations: nominally 5-10 min for typical ambient conditions. A cooling module can be attached to the particle trap so as to reduce loss of semi-volatile compounds during the sampling. The performance of the PT-LDMS has been tested in the laboratory. Detailed evaluation of the instrument, including the detection capability for various compounds, particle collection efficiency of the trap, possible artifacts due to the laser desorption, will be presented.

Takegawa, N.; Miyakawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sameshima, Y.; Takei, M.; Kondo, Y.; Hirayama, N.

2010-12-01

403

Microscale Phosphorus Distribution and Chemistry in Marine Particles: New Insights From X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) Spectroscopy and X-ray Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved and particulate organic materials are a significant source of bioavailable phosphorus (P) in many aquatic environments. In order to gain a better understanding of marine P cycling, the bulk composition of dissolved and particulate materials has been the focus of studies using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. One puzzling observation of NMR studies is the high proportion of P as phosphonate compounds (containing a direct C-P bond) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) compared to the almost undetectable quantities of phosphonates in most living organisms and particulate organic matter. The source of phosphonates in DOM has remained a mystery and has driven the search for new methods to examine P cycling in natural samples. Scanning tandem fluorescence and transmission X-ray microscopy, together with P x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (P-XANES), provide a way to examine P composition in natural samples on sub-micron scales. These techniques were used to compositionally characterize Cariaco Basin sediment trap particulates as well as freeze-dried DOM. Elemental mapping of particulates revealed a heterogeneous P distribution characterized by several micron diameter P rich regions associated with organic phases. The proportion of P esters and phosphonates in these regions varied from 100% P esters to some areas containing greater than 50% phosphonates. The results imply a source or concentrating mechanism capable of producing highly phosphonate rich particulates. Solubilization of such particulates along with selective decompostion of non-phosphonate P may be one possible mechanism to explain the high proportion of phosphonates in DOM.

Ingall, E.; Brandes, J.; Paterson, D.; Northrup, P.; Benitez-Nelson, C.

2004-12-01

404

Comparative genomics of methylated amine utilization by marine Roseobacter clade bacteria and development of functional gene markers (tmm, gmaS).  

PubMed

The marine Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise up to 20% of the microbial community in coastal surface seawater. Marine Roseobacter clade bacteria are known to catalyse some important biogeochemical transformations in marine carbon and sulfur cycles. Using a comparative genomic approach, this study revealed that many marine Roseobacter clade bacteria have the genetic potential to util