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Sample records for marine particles development

  1. First characterization of marine particles by laser scanning flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, F.; Fiorani, L.; Palucci, A.; Tarasov, P.

    2006-11-01

    A new laser scanning flow cytometer (CLASS) has been developed at ENEA to characterize single marine particles. The first setup of the instrument allowing the detection of the particle light scattering over a wide angular range is presented. A test of CLASS employing polystyrene microspheres is described. Eventually, the first measurements of biological particles (Penicillium Italicum conidia) and marine phytoplankton (Synechocystis cells) are reported.

  2. Optical assessment of large marine particles: Development of an imaging and analysis system for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Final report, June 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, I.D.; Gardner, W.D.

    1997-04-01

    The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) has been to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean. The overall objective of this work within OMP was to develop an instrument package to measure the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment at a rate sufficient to integrate the observed particle distributions into the coupled physical and biogeochemical models necessary to understand the shelf and slope as a system. Pursuant to this the authors have developed a video and optical instrument package (LAPS: Large Aggregate Profiling System) and assembled the computer and software methods to routinely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the `marine snow` size particles (dia. > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean. The instrument package collects aggregate abundance and size spectrum data using two video camera/strobe subsystems with a third subsystem collecting CTD, beam attenuation and fluorescence data. Additionally, measurements of particle flux were made with sediment traps deployed on the continental slope in conjunction with the physical oceanography mooring program. The authors envisioned a three stages development of the instrument package: (1) design, assembly, and laboratory testing of all components and the package as a whole, (2) a short period of laboratory and field testing of the instrument package to determine the best operational parameters, and (3) operations within a framework of complementary analytical sampling such as an appropriate process study funded under the OMP. The first two stages were covered by this proposal and completed. The third stage was limited to scoping work with the LAPS and deployment of sediment traps.

  3. Optical assessment of large marine particles: development of an imaging and analysis system for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Annual report, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, I.D.; Gardner, W.D.

    1994-12-31

    The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) is to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean (Program Announcement, 1991). A major component of the OMP will be to measure carbon flux on the shelf and across the shelf to the slope and open ocean. In the first round of OMP funding we proposed to develop an optical instrument package and the analytical techniques to measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the ``marine snow`` size particles (diameters > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean (McCave, 1975; Asper, 1987; Walsh and Gardner, 1992). The overall objective of this proposal was to develop an instrument package and the analytical techniques to precisely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment at a rate sufficient to integrate the observed particle distributions into the coupled physical and biogeochemical models necessary to understand the shelf and slope as a system. We envisioned three stages of development of the instrument package: (1) design, assembly, and laboratory testing of all components and the package as a whole, (2) a short period of laboratory and field testing of the instrument package to determine the best operational parameters, and (3) operations within a framework of complementary analytical sampling such as an appropriate process study funded under the OMP. The first two stages were covered by this proposal. A renewal proposal follows to cover the third stage. 6 figs.

  4. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Al; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power plants while mitigating nearby and distant impacts. Activities may include laboratory and computational modeling of mooring design or research on device spacing. The geographies, resources, technologies, and even nomenclature of the U.S. marine and hydrokinetic technology industry have yet to be fully understood or defined. The program characterizes and assesses marine and hydrokinetic devices, and then organizes the collected information into a comprehensive and searchable Web-based database, the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. The database, which reflects intergovernmental and international collaboration, provides industry with one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date public resources on marine and hydrokinetic devices.

  5. Fractionation of iron isotopes during leaching of natural particles by acidic and circumneutral leaches and development of an optimal leach for marine particulate iron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revels, Brandi N.; Zhang, Ruifeng; Adkins, Jess F.; John, Seth G.

    2015-10-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for life on land and in the oceans. Iron stable isotope ratios (δ56Fe) can be used to study the biogeochemical cycling of Fe between particulate and dissolved phases in terrestrial and marine environments. We have investigated the dissolution of Fe from natural particles both to understand the mechanisms of Fe dissolution, and to choose a leach appropriate for extracting labile Fe phases of marine particles. With a goal of finding leaches which would be appropriate for studying dissolved-particle interactions in an oxic water column, three particle types were chosen including oxic seafloor sediments (MESS-3), terrestrial dust (Arizona Test Dust - A2 Fine), and ocean sediment trap material from the Cariaco basin. Four leaches were tested, including three acidic leaches similar to leaches previously applied to marine particles and sediments (25% acetic acid, 0.01 N HCl, and 0.5 N HCl) and a pH 8 oxalate-EDTA leach meant to mimic the dissolution of particles by organic complexation, as occurs in natural seawater. Each leach was applied for three different times (10 min, 2 h, 24 h) at three different temperatures (25 °C, 60 °C, 90 °C). MESS-3 was also leached under various redox conditions (0.02 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride or 0.02 M hydrogen peroxide). For all three sample types tested, we find a consistent relationship between the amount of Fe leached and leachate δ56Fe for all of the acidic leaches, and a different relationship between the amount of Fe leached and leachate δ56Fe for the oxalate-EDTA leach, suggesting that Fe was released through proton-promoted dissolution for all acidic leaches and by ligand-promoted dissolution for the oxalate-EDTA leach. Fe isotope fractionations of up to 2‰ were observed during acidic leaching of MESS-3 and Cariaco sediment trap material, but not for Arizona Test Dust, suggesting that sample composition influences fractionation, perhaps because Fe isotopes are greatly fractionated during leaching of silicates and clays but only minimally fractionated during dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides. Two different analytical models were developed to explain the relationship between amount of Fe leached and δ56Fe, one of which assumes mixing between two Fe phases with different δ56Fe and different dissolution rates, and the other of which assumes dissolution of a single phase with a kinetic isotope effect. We apply both models to fit results from the acidic leaches of MESS-3 and find that the fit for both models is very similar, suggesting that isotope data will never be sufficient to distinguish between these two processes for natural materials. Next, we utilize our data to choose an optimal leach for application to marine particles. The oxalate-EDTA leach is well-suited to this purpose because it does not greatly fractionate Fe isotopes for a diversity of particle types over a wide variety of leaching conditions, and because it approximates the conditions by which particulate Fe dissolves in the oceans. We recommend a 2 h leach at 90 °C with 0.1 M oxalate and 0.05 M EDTA at pH 8 to measure labile "ligand-leachable" particulate δ56Fe on natural marine materials with a range of compositions.

  6. Expression and self-assembly of virus-like particles from two genotypes of marine vesiviruses and development of an ELISA for the detection of antibodies.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Bok, Karin; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Neill, John D; Burek, Kathy A; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Smith, Alvin W; Green, Kim Y; Romero, Carlos H

    2010-05-19

    Sequences encoding the major and minor capsid proteins (VP1 and VP2) from two marine vesivirus isolates (Steller sea lion viruses V810 and V1415) were engineered for expression of virus-like particles (VLPs) in the baculovirus system. The resulting VLPs were morphologically similar to native vesivirus virions. Purified VLPs were probed in immunoblots with pooled antisera specific for nine San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) types, and a predominant protein of approximately 60kDa was detected. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies was developed in which the VLPs served as antigen. The VLPs were adsorbed to the wells of a microplate, and the specificity of the ELISA was established with hyperimmune sera raised against 24 serotypes of the genus Vesivirus. The ELISA was used to screen for the presence of vesivirus specific antibodies in the sera of free-ranging Steller sea lions. The ELISA results demonstrated that Steller sea lions that inhabit the Pacific Ocean waters of southeast Alaska are widely exposed to antigenically related marine vesiviruses, while no previous exposure could be demonstrated using VLP antigens in 17 Steller sea lions from the Aleutian Islands. The broad reactivity of these VLPs and their non-infectious nature will facilitate global sero-epidemiological studies aimed at determining the incidence and prevalence of marine vesiviruses in mammals that inhabit the Pacific and Atlantic oceans as well as susceptible terrestrial animals. PMID:19913368

  7. Intermittent particle dynamics in marine coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renosh, P. R.; Schmitt, F. G.; Loisel, H.

    2015-10-01

    Marine coastal processes are highly variable over different space scales and timescales. In this paper we analyse the intermittency properties of particle size distribution (PSD) recorded every second using a LISST instrument (Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry). The particle concentrations have been recorded over 32 size classes from 2.5 to 500 μm, at 1 Hz resolution. Such information is used to estimate at each time step the hyperbolic slope of the particle size distribution, and to consider its dynamics. Shannon entropy, as an indicator of the randomness, is estimated at each time step and its dynamics is analysed. Furthermore, particles are separated into four classes according to their size, and the intermittent properties of these classes are considered. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used, associated with arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis (AHSA), in order to retrieve scaling multifractal moment functions, for scales from 10 s to 8 min. The intermittent properties of two other indicators of particle concentration are also considered in the same range of scales: the total volume concentration Cvol-total and the particulate beam attenuation coefficient cp(670). Both show quite similar intermittent dynamics and are characterised by the same exponents. Globally we find here negative Hurst exponents (meaning the small scales show larger fluctuation than large scales) for each time series considered, and nonlinear moment functions.

  8. Intermittent particle dynamics in marine coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renosh, P. R.; Schmitt, F. G.; Loisel, H.

    2015-07-01

    Marine coastal processes are highly variable over different space and time scales. In this paper we analyse the intermittency properties of particle size distribution (PSD) recorded every second using a LISST instrument (Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry). The particle concentrations have been recorded over 32 size classes from 2.5 to 500 μm, at 1 Hz resolution. Such information is used to estimate at each time step the hyperbolic slope of the particle size distribution, and to consider its dynamics. Shannon entropy, as an indicator of the randomness, is estimated at each time step and its dynamics is analysed. Furthermore, particles are separated into four classes according to their size, and the intermittent properties of these classes are considered. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used, associated with arbitrary order Hilbert spectral analysis (AHSA), in order to retrieve scaling multi-fractal moment functions, for scales from 10 s to 8 min. The intermittent properties of two other indicators of particle concentration are also considered on the same range of scales: the total volume concentration Cvol-total and the particulate beam attenuation coefficient cp(670). Both show quite similar intermittent dynamics and are characterized by the same exponents. Globally we find here negative Hurst exponents for each time series considered, and nonlinear moment functions.

  9. Expression and Self-Assembly of Virus-Like Particles from Two Genotypes of Marine Vesiviruses and Development of an ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequences encoding the major capsid protein (VP1) from two marine vesivirus isolates (Steller sea lion viruses V810 and V1415) were engineered for expression of virus-like particles (VLPs) in the baculovirus system. The resulting VLPs were morphologically similar to native vesivirus virions. Purif...

  10. Particles in the oceans: Implication for a safe marine environment.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Julian; Corsi, Ilaria; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-10-01

    Strategies and technologies for the ecosafety assessment and design of engineered particles entering the marine environment are urgently needed. As the application of nanoparticles in science and technology grows, the need to understand their impact on the marine environment becomes increasingly important. This Editorial introduces a Special Issue on the topic of a sustainable and safety use of nanoparticles for protecting, recovering and supporting the oceans' environment and consequently human health. The issue focus on the impact of micro/nano-plastics and metallic nanoparticles on marine organisms, as well as some methodological aspects associated to the eco/toxicity and analytical approaches for in deep physico-chemical characterization of nanoparticles in marine waters and sediment media. Important and urgent topics are addressed in the field of nano-ecosafety in order to assess more precisely both exposure routes and environmental hazards of nanoparticles in the ocean. Ecotoxicological and toxicological data, obtained using a wide variety of organisms representative of different trophic levels and biological organization, from whole animals to macromolecules, will be useful for a better definition of cleaner and safer nanoparticles. Efforts in developing a broad understanding of target species, expected results, benchmarks and timelines, will be of primary importance. PMID:26515473

  11. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal in Atlantic seawater and marine aerosol particles: method development and first application during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Pinxteren, M.; Herrmann, H.

    2013-12-01

    An analytical method for the determination of the alpha dicarbonyls glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY) from seawater and marine aerosol particles is presented. The method is based on derivatization with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine (PFBHA) reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The method showed good precision (RSD < 10%), sensitivity (detection limits in the low ng L-1 range), and accuracy (good agreement between external calibration and standard addition). The method was applied to determine GLY and MGLY in oceanic water sampled during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4 from Capetown to Bremerhaven in spring 2011. GLY and MGLY were determined in the sea surface microlayer (SML) of the ocean and corresponding bulk water (BW) with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). The results show a significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the SML. Furthermore, marine aerosol particles (PM1) were sampled during the cruise and analyzed for GLY (average concentration 0.19 ng m-3) and MGLY (average concentration 0.15 ng m-3). On aerosol particles, both carbonyls show a very good correlation with oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. Concentrations of GLY and MGLY in seawater and on aerosol particles were correlated to environmental parameters such as global radiation, temperature, distance to the coastline and biological activity. There are slight hints for a photochemical production of GLY and MGLY in the SML (significant enrichment in the SML, higher enrichment at higher temperature). However, a clear connection of GLY and MGLY to global radiation as well as to biological activity cannot be concluded from the data. A slight correlation between GLY and MGLY in the SML and in aerosol particles could be a hint for interactions, in particular of GLY, between seawater and the atmosphere.

  12. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Pinxteren, Manuela; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    The two α-dicarbonyls glyoxal (CHOCHO; GLY) and methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO; MGLY) have attracted increasing attention over the past years because of their potential role in secondary organic aerosol formation. Recently Sinreich et al. (2010) suggested the open ocean as an important (so far unknown) source for GLY in the atmosphere. To date, there are few available field data of these compounds in the marine area. In this study we present measurements of GLY and MGLY in seawater and marine aerosol particles sampled during a transatlantic Polarstern cruise in spring 2011. In seawater we especially investigated the sea surface microlayer (sampled with the glass plate technique) as it is the direct interface between ocean and atmosphere. Analytical measurements were based on derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The results show that GLY and MGLY are present in the sea surface microlayer of the ocean and corresponding bulkwater with average concentrations of 228 ng L-1 (GLY) and 196 ng L-1 (MGLY). Significant enrichment (factor of 4) of GLY and MGLY in the sea surface microlayer was found implying photochemical production of the two carbonyls though a clear connection to global radiation was not observed. On aerosol particles, both carbonyls were detected (average concentration 0.2 ng m-3) and are strongly connected to each other, suggesting similar formation mechanisms. Both carbonyls show a very good correlation with particulate oxalate, supporting the idea of a secondary formation of oxalic acid via GLY and MGLY. A slight correlation of the two carbonyls in the sea surface microlayer and in the aerosol particles was found at co-located sampling areas. In summary, the results of GLY and MGLY in marine aerosol particles and in the oceanic water give first insights towards interaction processes of these alpha dicarbonyls between ocean and atmosphere (van Pinxteren and Herrmann (2013)). References: Sinreich et al., Ship-based detection of glyoxal over the remote tropical Pacific Ocean. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(23), 11359-11371 (2010). van Pinxteren and Herrmann, Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and marine Aerosol Particles: Method development and first application during the Polarstern cruise ANT XXVII/4. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 11791-11802 (2013).

  13. Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust?

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Hoose, C.; Poschl, U.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-01-11

    Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth’s energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

  14. Regional signatures in the organic composition of marine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Keene, William C.; Kieber, David J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.

    2013-05-01

    Marine aerosol particles play an important role in the earth's radiative balance, yet the sources and composition of the organic fraction remain largely unconstrained. Recent measurements have been made in order to characterize the sources, composition, and concentration of aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer. The organic composition of submicron particles derived from multiple seawater regions have been measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cluster analysis of FTIR organic spectra suggest different spectral signatures based on collection location, seawater composition, and ambient conditions. Measurements including non-refractory aerosol composition from a high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), seawater composition, and wind speed were used to interpret the cluster results, depending on the availability from each campaign. FTIR spectra of ambient particles are compared to FTIR spectra of primary marine particles generated from model ocean systems to infer the ambient particle production mechanisms and aging processes. Recent measurements used in the comparison include ambient and generated marine aerosol particles measured off the coast of California during CalNex in May and June 2010. Remote ambient marine aerosol particles were collected 100 miles off the coast of Monterey in the eastern Pacific during the EPEACE experiment in July 2011. Ambient and generated marine particles were measured in two different seawater types during WACS 2012 including colder, more productive water off the coast of the northeastern United States and warmer, oligotrophic water in the Sargasso Sea. These particles are also compared with those measured in the southeastern Pacific during VOCALS and the north Atlantic during ICEALOT.

  15. Measurements of Gas and Particle Emissions From Commercial Marine Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E.; Lerner, B.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T.

    2005-12-01

    Commercial marine vessels are powered by large diesel engines with power outputs up to 80 MW and typically consume high-sulfur fuel. They can be viewed as small floating power plants that produce large quantities of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particles. Thus these vessels can be significant pollution sources globally, regionally (e.g., coastal shipping lanes) and locally (e.g., ports). Assessment of this significance is done via emission inventory modelling in which activity factors are combined with emission factors to produce estimates of source strengths over different scales. This work addresses potential uncertainties in marine vessel emission factors. Measurements of trace gases and particles in the exhaust plumes from commercial marine vessels were made from the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the 2002 and 2004 NEAQS missions in the Gulf of Maine. Numerous encounters with these exhaust plumes provided the opportunity to examine emission of NOx, SO2, CO, CO2, particle number, and particle composition from these ships. Data from these studies suggest that emission factors used in current inventories may not adequately represent emission from ships under actual operating conditions. For example, our NOy data indicate that current inventories may overestimate these emissions by 20-30%. Though emission of CO by marine diesel engines is typically very low, several encounters with diesel-powered fishing vessel exhaust plumes showed high levels of CO which may indicate that engine maintenance plays a large role in the actual emissions from these vessels. Particle composition data from a container ship plume indicate that sub-micron mass was principally organic and not sulfate while literature data suggest a strong dependence of particle mass emission on the fuel sulfur level. In this presentation we will discuss the emission factors determined from our data and the importance of marine vessel emissions at different scales.

  16. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Theodore W; Ladino, Luis A; Alpert, Peter A; Breckels, Mark N; Brooks, Ian M; Browse, Jo; Burrows, Susannah M; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Huffman, J Alex; Judd, Christopher; Kilthau, Wendy P; Mason, Ryan H; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, Lisa A; Nájera, Juan J; Polishchuk, Elena; Rae, Stuart; Schiller, Corinne L; Si, Meng; Temprado, Jesús Vergara; Whale, Thomas F; Wong, Jenny P S; Wurl, Oliver; Yakobi-Hancock, Jacqueline D; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Aller, Josephine Y; Bertram, Allan K; Knopf, Daniel A; Murray, Benjamin J

    2015-09-10

    The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean. PMID:26354482

  17. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T. W.; Ladino, L. A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Breckels, M. N.; Brooks, I. M.; Browse, J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Judd, C.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, L. A.; Najera, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Rae, S.; Schiller, C. L.; Si, M.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Whale, Thomas; Wong, J P S; Wurl, O.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Abbatt, JPD; Aller, Josephine Y.; Bertram, Allan K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-09

    The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3–11. Here we show that material in the sea surface microlayer, which is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea- spray aerosol12–21, nucleates ice under conditions that occur in mixed-phase clouds and high-altitude ice clouds. The ice active material is likely biogenic and is less than ~0.2 ?m in size. We also show that organic material (exudate) released by a common marine diatom nucleates ice when separated from cells and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates are a candidate for the observed ice nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. By combining our measurements with global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, we show that ice nucleating particles of marine origin are dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic.

  18. Characteristics of aerosolized ice forming marine biogenic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Peter A.

    Ice particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere existing as the sole constituents of glaciated cirrus clouds or coexisting with supercooled liquid droplets in mixed-phase clouds. Aerosol particles serving as heterogeneous ice nuclei for ice crystal formation impact the global radiative balance by modification of cloud radiative properties, and thus climate. Atmospheric ice formation is not a well understood process and represents great uncertainty for climate prediction. The oceans which cover the majority of the earth's surface host nearly half the total global primary productivity and contribute to the greatest aerosol production by mass. However, the effect of biological activity on particle aerosolization, particle composition, and ice nucleation is not well established. This dissertation investigates the link between marine biological activity, aerosol particle production, physical/chemical particle characteristics, and ice nucleation under controlled laboratory conditions. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions of particles from bursting bubbles generated by plunging water jets and aeration through frits in a seawater mesocosm containing bacteria and/or phytoplankton cultures, were measured as a function of biological activity. Total particle production significantly increases primarily due to enhanced aerosolization of particles ?100 nm in diameter attributable to the presence and growth of phytoplankton. Furthermore, hygroscopicity measurements indicate primary organic material associated with the sea salt particles, providing additional evidence for the importance of marine biological activity for ocean derived aerosol composition. Ice nucleation experiments show that these organic rich particles nucleate ice efficiently in the immersion and deposition modes, which underscores their importance in mixed-phase and cirrus cloud formation processes. In separate ice nucleation experiments employing pure cultures of Thalassiosira pseudonana, Nannochloris atomus and Emiliania huxleyi, cells and cell fragments efficiently nucleate ice in the deposition mode, however, only T. pseudonana and N. atomus form ice in the immersion mode, presumably due to different cell wall compositions. This further corroborates the role of phytoplanktonic species for aerosolization of marine biogenic cloud active particles. Experimental data are used to parameterize marine biogenic particle fluxes and heterogeneous ice nucleation as a function of biological activity. The atmospheric implications of the results and their implementation into cloud and climate models are discussed.

  19. Marine Cloud Brightening: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, J.; Gadian, A.; Kleypas, J. A.; Parkes, B.; Hauser, R.; Salter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Our detailed review of Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB) [Latham et al. (2012) Phil Trans Roy Soc] covers our work up to late 2010. We present herein an outline of some subsequent work. Areas in which we have been particularly active in the last 2 years include; (1) seawater spray technology, (2) influence of MCB on rainfall, (3) CFD studies of Flettner Rotor stability. (4) pseudo-random studies, (5), use of MCB to weaken hurricanes and halt coral bleaching. We used the UK Met. Office HADGEM 1 ocean/atmosphere coupled climate model in all the studies mentioned below. Our treatment of MCB is as described in our 2012 paper. In all cases below our conclusions are provisional, with more work required. We have analysed research conducted by others and ourselves on the important topic of the impact of MCB on rainfall. It appears that the widely varying predictions from different studies result from differences in cloud seeding locations and amounts. This raises the possibility - which needs much more investigation - that unacceptable rainfall differences could be overcome by changing seeding locations. It may be possible to produce a world-wide, everywhere-to-everywhere transfer function of the effects of increased cloud reflectivity by using pseudo-random variation of the CCN concentration in a climate model. Tests on artificial alterations to a real daily temperature record showed that, over a 20 year run, the scatter of results of the detection of the magnitude of the alteration were about 1% of the root mean square of the natural variation. In these studies the CCN values in 89 regions of the oceans were either multiplied or divided by a chosen constant, at different random 10-day intervals, during a run of 20 years. The resulting model predictions of important meteorological parameters such as temperature, precipitation and ice extent were recorded for all the regions of the world. For each point of interest the precipitation record was correlated for each different source region to give a world map of the influence of each spray region. This might be positive, negative or neutral. We obtained statistically significant results for precipitation in both directions at places far from the spray source, even in the opposite hemisphere, over eight 20 year runs. We may be able to reduce the probability of both floods and droughts by directing movements and activity of spray vessels. Our modeling indicates that MCB seeding of marine stratocumulus clouds in regions where hurricanes spawn or develop could reduce sea-surface-temperatures [SST] sufficiently to reduce hurricane intensity by perhaps one Category. Further modeling indicates that substantial coral bleaching predicted to result from CO2-doubling, in 3 important coral regions, might be essentially eliminated by MCB seeding.

  20. Ice Formation Potential of Field-Collected Marine Biogenic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrion-Matta, A.; Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Marine biogenic particles composed mainly of sea salt and organic material aerosolized from a mesocosm in laboratory experiments have recently been found to act as ice nuclei. How these particles relate to those collected from sea spray under ambient conditions in the field is unknown. This study reports on the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of particles collected during the marine aerosol characterization experiment (MACE) on the south shore of Long Island, New York. Ambient aerosol size distributions were measured and particles were collected on hydrophobically coated substrates and subsequently used for ice nucleation experiments using an ice nucleation cell coupled to an optical microscope. This technique allows detection of ice formation for temperatures between 200 and 273 K and for relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) from 100% up to water saturation. Individual ice nucleating particles were identified for subsequent chemical and physical characterization using both X-ray and electron micro-spectroscopic techniques. Concentrations of bacteria, viruses, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the bulk seawater, sea-surface microlayer (SML), and in sea spray were determined using established methods and related to airborne sea spray particles and their ice nucleation potential. Onshore aerosol size distribution measurements taken at 5 m height and 10 m away from the breaking waves, revealed a peak maximum at 100 nm and Ntot = 6.8 x 10^2 cm^-3. Bacterial, viral, and TEP were found to be enriched in the SML. Ambient particles collected during MACE were found to nucleate ice efficiently, e. g. at 215 K, ice nucleation occurred on average at 125% RHice. Results of aerosol size distributions and ice nucleation efficiencies are compared to laboratory bubble bursting experiments in which natural seawater was used. The goal of this study is to understand the connection between sea spray aerosolization and atmospheric ice cloud formation and to provide physically and chemically based descriptions of ice nucleation for implementation in aerosol-cloud interaction models.

  1. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  2. The influence of marine biogenic particles on ice phase initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Aller, J. Y.; Knopf, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol particles vary in composition with many being biogenic and of terrestrial or marine origin. Efficient ice forming biogenic particles are typically thought to be of terrestrial origin; however, recent data demonstrate that marine biogenic particles can act as ice nuclei (IN) in both immersion and deposition modes, with and without association of NaCl. These results are significant given that ocean derived particles including phytoplankton, microorganisms, transparent exopolymers, and colloidal gels become aerosolized from the sea surface microlayer through wave breaking and bubble bursting. Such particles typically include sea salt, but in situ observations of air masses associated with phytoplankton blooms have identified organic compounds as significant mass contributors to aerosol loading. Here we present results from experiments with Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nanochloris atomus, phytoplankton with distinctly different cell walls: silica, calcite, and cellulose fibrils, respectively, as efficient IN in immersion and deposition modes at typical tropospheric conditions. In a separate set of experiments, submicron size particles with and without organics are generated through bubble bursting in a custom built seawater tank. Subsequently collected, these particles are observed using a coupled cooling stage/optical microscope, for their ice nucleation potential as a function of particle temperature (T), water activity (aw), relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice), droplet volume, and particle surface area. In the immersion mode, fragmented and intact cells of T. pseudonana and N. atomus enhance ice nucleation in aqueous NaCl solution droplets by ~10-30 K and 10-20 K above the homogeneous freezing limit, and for a range of aw of 1.0-0.8, while E. huxleyi do not enhance freezing temperatures. In the deposition mode, all three species nucleate ice for RHice as low as ~120%, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer temperatures. T. pseudonana and N. atomus take up water as low as ~85% relative humidity and subsequently nucleate via immersion freezing. E. huxleyi can nucleate ice via deposition freezing for T as high as 245 K. Direct measurements of cell surface area are used to derive ice nucleation rate coefficients and contact angles, α, following classical nucleation theory, a time-dependent description of ice nucleation. A time-independent deterministic description is used to derive ice active surface site densities. Values of α range from 60° to 100° and depend on T and RHice in the immersion mode; however, for deposition freezing, α can be reproduced as a function of RHice between 16° to 30°. These results underscore the importance of ocean derived biogenic particles for the formation and evolution of ice and mixed phase clouds in the atmosphere.

  3. Techniques employed for detection of hot particles in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Pillsbury, G D

    2007-09-01

    During the decommissioning of the Maine Yankee nuclear plant, several methods were developed and employed to survey for hot particles in the marine environment surrounding the site. The methods used and the sensitivities achieved in the search for environmentally dispersed particles during the various decommissioning activities performed are described in detail. Surveys were performed on dry soil, exposed marine sediment and submerged marine sediment. Survey techniques ranged from the use of the basic NaI detector coupled to a count rate meter to an intrinsic germanium detector deployed in a submarine housing coupled to a multi-channel analyser. The initial surveys consisted of collecting samples of marine sediment, spreading them out over a 1 m2 surface in a thin layer, and scanning the deposited sediment by hand using a 5 cm by 5 cm NaI detector coupled to a standard count rate meter. This technique was later replaced by walkover scans with the 5 cm by 5 cm NaI detector moved in a serpentine pattern over the sediment surface. By coupling the detector to a 'smart meter', an alarm set point could be used to alert the surveyor to the presence of a particle within the instrument's field of view. A similar technique, with the detector mounted in a watertight housing secured to the end of a pole, was also employed to scan underwater locations. The most sensitive method developed for performing underwater surveys was the use of the intrinsic germanium detector placed in a submarine housing. Detailed descriptions of the methods employed and the results obtained are presented. This work demonstrates that there are several approaches to surveying for discrete particles in the marine environment and the relative merits of each are considered. PMID:17768317

  4. Comparison of bacterial communities on limnic versus coastal marine particles reveals profound differences in colonization.

    PubMed

    Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Zeder, Michael; Ionescu, Danny; Orlić, Sandi; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Amann, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    Marine and limnic particles are hotspots of organic matter mineralization significantly affecting biogeochemical element cycling. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes were combined to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition on limnic and coastal marine particles > 5 and > 10 μm respectively. Limnic particles were more abundant (average: 1 × 10(7) l(-1)), smaller in size (average areas: 471 versus 2050 μm(2)) and more densely colonized (average densities: 7.3 versus 3.6 cells 100 μm(-2)) than marine ones. Limnic particle-associated (PA) bacteria harboured Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and unlike previously suggested sizeable populations of Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Marine particles were colonized by Planctomycetes and Betaproteobacteria additionally to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Large differences in individual particle colonization could be detected. High-throughput sequencing revealed a significant overlap of PA and free-living (FL) bacteria highlighting an underestimated connectivity between both fractions. PA bacteria were in 14/21 cases more diverse than FL bacteria, reflecting a high heterogeneity in the particle microenvironment. We propose that a ratio of Chao 1 indices of PA/FL < 1 indicates the presence of rather homogeneously colonized particles. The identification of different bacterial families enriched on either limnic or marine particles demonstrates that, despite the seemingly similar ecological niches, PA communities of both environments differ substantially. PMID:24674021

  5. Development of marine probiotics: prospects and approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Bhatnagar, Ira; Kang, Kyong-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    The term probiotics stands for bacterial strain acting for the upliftment of beneficial gut microflora as well as restricting the growth of decay or disease causing bacteria and other agents. They protect us from disease causing microorganisms and are vital for the digestion of nutrients and food. Researchers are now trying to explore the possibilities of therapeutic applications of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease, treating diarrhea, eczema prevention in children, and reducing bladder cancer recurrence and urinary tract infections. The best known probiotic strains are Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, and Streptococcus thermophilus and can be found in food products such as yoghurts, fermented and unfermented milk, miso, tempeh, and some juices and soy beverages. Thus, as a substitute to the use of antibiotics, the dietary supplementation with probiotic bacteria is being widely employed in the aquaculture industry. This chapter is an attempt to shift the paradigm of research in probiotic area to the marine environment and to find ways of expanding the research in marine probiotics development. PMID:22361199

  6. Development and application of distributed marine simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yong; Jin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiufeng; Ren, Hongxiang; Li, Zhihua; Zhang, Baian

    2003-04-01

    This paper introduces the main functions and technologies used in distributed full-mission marine simulator developed by Dalian Maritime University recently. As a facility for research analysis, captain training, engineering design, the simulation system has advantages of high accuracy mathematical model, low price and can display three dimension scene with 270 degree viewing field, ship dynamic image on ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display Information System) and radar image of certain sea area for training. The paper describes the main technologies used in the simulator include DIS (Distributed Interactive Simulation) technology, ship manoeuvring mathematical model, ship dynamic display based on ECDIS, Radar image, 3D scene generation using OpenGL and OpenGVS and network technology etc. The paper also introduces the application of this system in wharf design, pilot plan etc.

  7. Composition of 15-85 nm particles in marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, M. J.; Whitehead, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Monahan, C.; McFiggans, G.; Smith, J. N.

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of 15-85 nm diameter particles was measured at Mace Head, Ireland, during May 2011 using the TDCIMS (thermal desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Measurable levels of chloride, sodium, and sulfate were present in essentially all collected samples of these particles at this coastal Atlantic site. Acetaldehyde and benzoic acid were also frequently detected. Concomitant particle hygroscopicity observations usually showed a sea-salt mode and a lower hygroscopicity mode with growth factors near to that of ammonium sulfate. There were many periods lasting from hours to about 2 days during which the 10-60 nm particle number increased dramatically in polar oceanic air. These periods were correlated with the presence of benzoic acid in the particles and an increase in the number of lower hygroscopicity mode particles. Very small (< 10 nm) particles were also present, suggesting that new particle formation contributed to these nanoparticle enhancement events.

  8. Development of an industrial marine riser joint

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.L.; Ganser, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    A marine riser pup joint was instrumented to measure riser tension, bending moment, and mud temperature and pressure. The ground rules for the design, major design decisions, significant details, and calibration and testing are discussed.

  9. Characterization of particles from a marine engine operating at low loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Maria; Salo, Kent; Hallquist, Åsa M.; Fridell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Particle emissions from a marine diesel engine operating at low loads with four different fuels were characterized with respect to particle number (PN) and particle mass (PM), size distribution, volatility and chemical composition. The four different fuels used were Swedish Environmental class 1 (MK1) and class 3 diesel (MK3), heavy fuel oil (HFO, 0.12 wt% S) and marine diesel oil (MDO, 0.52 wt% S). The measurements were performed for a marine diesel engine in a test-bed engine lab and the particle emissions were measured with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer and a Dust Monitor, giving the number concentrations in the size range of 5.6-560 nm and 300 nm to 20 μm, respectively. To quantify the amount of solid particles a thermodenuder was used. Additionally, filter samples were taken for gravimetric, black carbon (BC) and elemental analysis. The particle emissions showed a bimodal size distribution by number and the number concentrations were dominated by nanoparticles (diameter (Dp) < 50 nm). The nanoparticles measured were both primary and secondary particles, depending on fuel and engine load, while the particles with Dp > 50 nm generally were solid primary particles. Combustion of HFO resulted in the highest PN and PM concentrations. Emission factors (EFs) for PM and PN for both the total particle emissions and the fraction of primary, solid particles are presented for different fuels and loads. EFs for nitrogen oxides (NOx), BC and some elements (Ca, Fe, V, Ni, Zn) are presented as well. This study contributes to understanding particle emissions from potential future fuels as well as emissions in ports and coastal areas where lower engine loads are common.

  10. Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition following marine aggregate dredging.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Keith M

    2012-08-01

    In the UK, Government policy requires marine aggregate extraction companies to leave the seabed in a similar physical condition after the cessation of dredging. This measure is intended to promote recovery, and the return of a similar faunal community to that which existed before dredging. Whilst the policy is sensible, and in line with the principles of sustainable development, the use of the word 'similar' is open to interpretation. There is, therefore, a need to set quantifiable limits for acceptable change in sediment composition. Using a case study site, it is shown how such limits could be defined by the range of sediment particle size composition naturally found in association with the faunal assemblages in the wider region. Whilst the approach offers a number of advantages over the present system, further testing would be required before it could be recommended for use in the regulatory context. PMID:22721693

  11. The Development of a Virtual Marine Museum for Educational Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarng, Wermhuar; Change, Mei-Yu; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Ya-Wen; Liou, Hsin-Hun

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the computer animation and virtual reality technologies for developing a virtual marine museum. The museum consists of three exhibition areas. The first area displays fishes in freshwater, including creeks, rivers, and dams in Taiwan. The second area exhibits marine ecology and creatures of different

  12. The Development of a Virtual Marine Museum for Educational Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarng, Wermhuar; Change, Mei-Yu; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Ya-Wen; Liou, Hsin-Hun

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the computer animation and virtual reality technologies for developing a virtual marine museum. The museum consists of three exhibition areas. The first area displays fishes in freshwater, including creeks, rivers, and dams in Taiwan. The second area exhibits marine ecology and creatures of different…

  13. Static stability variations during a winter marine cyclone development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Chih-Hua

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between lower tropospheric static stability and a case of explosive marine cyclone development is examined. The case studied is a cyclone which developed between January 18-21, 1979, about 500 km south of Nova Scotia. Diagnoses of the static stability parameter for this case are presented. Also, the static stability parameters and sea level pressures during marine cyclone development and continental development are compared.

  14. [Development of marine-derived anti-cancer compounds].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Tetsuo

    2003-05-01

    The marine environment offers a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. Marine organisms have evolved the enzymatic capability to produce potent chemical entities that make them promising sources of innovative cytotoxic compounds. Prominent in the identification and development of novel anti-cancer agents from marine sources is the Spanish biotechnology company, Pharma Mar, which currently has a large number of oncology products in late preclinical and clinical development. These include: Ecteinascidin-743 (ET-743), Aplidin, Kahalalide F and ES-285. Many of these innovative compounds have novel mechanisms of anti-tumor action that have yet to be fully elucidated. PMID:12795086

  15. Exploring the ocean for new drug developments: Marine pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Malve, Harshad

    2016-01-01

    Disease ailments are changing the patterns, and the new diseases are emerging due to changing environments. The enormous growth of world population has overburdened the existing resources for the drugs. And hence, the drug manufacturers are always on the lookout for new resources to develop effective and safe drugs for the increasing demands of the world population. Seventy-five percentage of earth's surface is covered by water but research into the pharmacology of marine organisms is limited, and most of it still remains unexplored. Marine environment represents countless and diverse resource for new drugs to combat major diseases such as cancer or malaria. It also offers an ecological resource comprising a variety of aquatic plants and animals. These aquatic organisms are screened for antibacterial, immunomodulator, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, analgesic, and antimalarial properties. They are used for new drug developments extensively across the world. Marine pharmacology offers the scope for research on these drugs of marine origin. Few institutes in India offer such opportunities which can help us in the quest for new drugs. This is an extensive review of the drugs developed and the potential new drug candidates from marine origin along with the opportunities for research on marine derived products. It also gives the information about the institutes in India which offer marine pharmacology related courses. PMID:27134458

  16. Exploring the ocean for new drug developments: Marine pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Malve, Harshad

    2016-01-01

    Disease ailments are changing the patterns, and the new diseases are emerging due to changing environments. The enormous growth of world population has overburdened the existing resources for the drugs. And hence, the drug manufacturers are always on the lookout for new resources to develop effective and safe drugs for the increasing demands of the world population. Seventy-five percentage of earth's surface is covered by water but research into the pharmacology of marine organisms is limited, and most of it still remains unexplored. Marine environment represents countless and diverse resource for new drugs to combat major diseases such as cancer or malaria. It also offers an ecological resource comprising a variety of aquatic plants and animals. These aquatic organisms are screened for antibacterial, immunomodulator, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, analgesic, and antimalarial properties. They are used for new drug developments extensively across the world. Marine pharmacology offers the scope for research on these drugs of marine origin. Few institutes in India offer such opportunities which can help us in the quest for new drugs. This is an extensive review of the drugs developed and the potential new drug candidates from marine origin along with the opportunities for research on marine derived products. It also gives the information about the institutes in India which offer marine pharmacology related courses. PMID:27134458

  17. Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the California Current

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2008-03-12

    Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.

  18. Chemical speciation of sulfur in marine cloud droplets and particles: Analysis of individual particles from the marine boundary layer over the California current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. On the basis of composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na > 0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42- > 0.6.

  19. Enhancing effect of marine oligotrophy on environmental concentrations of particle-reactive trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffree, R.A.; Szymczak, R.

    2000-05-15

    A biogeochemical model has been previously developed that explains the inverse and nonlinear relationship between Po-210 concentration in zooplankton and their biomass, under oligotrophic conditions in French Polynesia. In this study the model structure was reviewed to determine a set of biogeochemical behaviors of Po-210, proposed to be critical to its environmental enhancement under oligotrophy: this set was then used to identify 25 other elements with comparable behaviors to Po-210. Field investigation in the Timor Sea showed that four of these a priori identified elements, viz. Cd, Co, Pb, and Mn as well as Cr and Ni, showed elevated water concentrations with reduced particle removal rates in the euphotic zone, results that are consistent with those previously obtained for Po-210 and the proposed explanatory model. These findings point to the enhanced susceptibility to contamination with particle-reactive elements of oligotrophic marine systems, whose degree and geographic extent may be enhanced by projected increases in sea surface temperatures from global warming.

  20. The viscosity effect on marine particle flux: A climate relevant feedback mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taucher, J.; Bach, L. T.; Riebesell, U.; Oschlies, A.

    2014-04-01

    Oceanic uptake and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are strongly driven by the marine "biological pump," i.e., sinking of biotically fixed inorganic carbon and nutrients from the surface into the deep ocean (Sarmiento and Bender; Volk and Hoffert). Sinking velocity of marine particles depends on seawater viscosity, which is strongly controlled by temperature (Sharqawy et al.). Consequently, marine particle flux is accelerated as ocean temperatures increase under global warming (Bach et al.). Here we show that this previously overlooked "viscosity effect" could have profound impacts on marine biogeochemical cycling and carbon uptake over the next centuries to millennia. In our global warming simulation, the viscosity effect accelerates particle sinking by up to 25%, thereby effectively reducing the portion of organic matter that is respired in the surface ocean. Accordingly, the biological carbon pump's efficiency increases, enhancing the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 into the ocean. This effect becomes particularly important on longer time scales when warming reaches the ocean interior. At the end of our simulation (4000 A.D.), oceanic carbon uptake is 17% higher, atmospheric CO2 concentration is 180 ppm lower, and the increase in global average surface temperature is 8% weaker when considering the viscosity effect. Consequently, the viscosity effect could act as a long-term negative feedback mechanism in the global climate system.

  1. Atmospheric new particle formation as a source of CCN in the eastern Mediterranean marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivitis, N.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kouvarakis, G.; Stavroulas, I.; Bougiatioti, A.; Nenes, A.; Manninen, H. E.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2015-08-01

    While cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production associated with atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is thought to be frequent throughout the continental boundary layers, few studies on this phenomenon in marine air exist. Here, based on simultaneous measurement of particle number size distributions, CCN properties and aerosol chemical composition, we present the first direct evidence on CCN production resulting from NPF in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. We show that condensation of both gaseous sulfuric acid and organic compounds from multiple sources leads to the rapid growth of nucleated particles to CCN sizes in this environment during the summertime. Sub-100 nm particles were found to be substantially less hygroscopic than larger particles during the period with active NPF and growth (the value of κ was lower by 0.2-0.4 for 60 nm particles compared with 120 nm particles), probably due to enrichment of organic material in the sub-100 nm size range. The aerosol hygroscopicity tended to be at minimum just before the noon and at maximum in the afternoon, which was very likely due to the higher sulfate-to-organic ratios and higher degree of oxidation of the organic material during the afternoon. Simultaneous with the formation of new particles during daytime, particles formed during the previous day or even earlier were growing into the size range relevant to cloud droplet activation, and the particles formed in the atmosphere were possibly mixed with long-range-transported particles.

  2. Preliminary study on the development of syntactic foams for marine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Z.; Islam, M. M.; Ku, H.

    2013-08-01

    This paper focuses on the comparison of various types of matrix materials and their mechanical properties for development of syntactic foams for marine applications. Generally, syntactic foams are close pore foams fabricated by the mechanical mixing of hollow microsphere particles in a polymeric matrix resin. From the literature review, it was found that there are several polymeric resins that have been used for development of syntactic foams such as epoxy, cyanate ester, polypropylene, polysialate and vinyl ester. In this paper, a comparative discussion is presented on the mechanical properties of hollow glass particles mixing with polymeric resins for development of syntactic foams for the use of these composites in bulk applications such as marine structures.

  3. Particle accelerator development: Selected examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie

    2016-03-01

    About 30 years ago, I was among several students mentored by Professor Yang at Stony Brook to enter the field of particle accelerator physics. Since then, I have been fortunate to work on several major accelerator projects in USA and in China, guided and at times directly supported by Professor Yang. The field of accelerator physics is flourishing worldwide both providing indispensable tools for fundamental physics research and covering an increasingly wide spectrum of applications beneficial to our society.

  4. Aerosolization, Chemical Characterization, Hygroscopicity and Ice Formation of Marine Biogenic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The oceans cover the majority of the earth's surface, host nearly half the total global primary productivity and are a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. However, effects of biological activity on sea spray generation and composition, and subsequent cloud formation are not well understood. Our goal is to elucidate these effects which will be particularly important over nutrient rich seas, where microorganisms can reach concentrations of 10^9 per mL and along with transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) can become aerosolized. Here we report the results of mesocosm experiments in which bubbles were generated by two methods, either recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits, in natural or artificial seawater containing bacteria and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus. Over time we followed the size distribution of aerosolized particles as well as their hygroscopicity, heterogeneous ice nucleation potential, and individual physical-chemical characteristics. Numbers of cells and the mass of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), TEP (which includes polysaccharide-containing microgels and nanogels >0.4 μm in diameter) were determined in the bulk water, the surface microlayer, and aerosolized material. Aerosolized particles were also impacted onto substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, elemental analysis using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), and determination of carbon bonding with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Regardless of bubble generation method, the overall concentration of aerosol particles, TEP, POC and DOC increased as concentrations of bacterial and phytoplankton cells increased, stabilized, and subsequently declined. Particles <100 nm generated by means of jets were enhanced with time compared with larger sizes. In contrast, all particle sizes were equally enhanced when frits were used. Aerosolized particles were hygroscopic, a finding with significance for warm cloud formation and potential liquid-to-ice phase transformations. Aqueous and dry aerosolized particles from biologically active mesocosm water were found to efficiently nucleate ice exposed to supersaturated water vapor. The majority of particles, including those nucleating ice, consisted of a sea salt core coated with organic material dominated by the carboxyl functional group, and corresponded to a particle type commonly found in marine air. Our results provide improved estimates of marine aerosol production, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity, as well as an accurate physical and chemical representation of ice nucleation by marine biogenic aerosol particles for use in cloud and climate models.

  5. The oceanographic toolbox for the collection of sinking and suspended marine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Andrew M. P.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Sanders, Richard; Riley, Jennifer S.; Marsay, Chris; Smith, Helen E. K.; Sargent, Elizabeth C.; Lampitt, Richard S.; Bishop, James K. B.

    2015-04-01

    Marine particles play a central role in controlling the transport, cycling, and inventories of many major elements and trace elements and isotopes throughout the oceans. Studies seeking to elucidate the biogeochemical roles of marine particles often require reliable ways to collect them from the ocean. Here, we review the oceanographic toolbox of techniques and instrumentation that are employed to collect both suspended and sinking particles. With these tools, it is possible to determine both the concentrations and vertical fluxes of important elements and individual particle types. We describe the various methods for quantifying the concentrations of particulate matter with in situ pumps, towed sampling devices, bottle collectors, and large volume capture devices. The uses of various types of flux collection platforms are discussed including surface tethered, neutrally buoyant, and bottom moored devices. We address the issues of sediment trap collection biases and the apparent inconsistencies that can arise due to differences in the temporal and spatial scales sampled by the various methodologies. Special attention is given to collection considerations made for the analysis of trace metals and isotopes, as these methodologies are of high importance to the ongoing GEOTRACES program which seeks to identify the processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes in the ocean. With the emergence of new particle collection methodologies and the continued reliance on traditional collection methods, it is imperative that we combine these multiple approaches in ways that will help improve their accuracy and precision while enhancing their utility in advancing understanding of the biogeochemical and ecological roles of marine particles.

  6. The phase function of Venus cloud particles from Mariner 10 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.

    1978-01-01

    Mariner 10 images of Venus taken at several phase angles were photometrically reduced. The analysis shows that the phase function of the cloud particles is not isotropic, as had been deduced earlier from the brightness distribution on spacecraft images taken at a single phase angle, but has a broad minimum near 60 deg and is forward-scattering. The scattering properties are in quantitative agreement with previous deductions from earth-based polarization measurements by Hansen and his associates.

  7. Development of Novel Drugs from Marine Surface Associated Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Penesyan, Anahit; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

    2010-01-01

    While the oceans cover more than 70% of the Earths surface, marine derived microbial natural products have been largely unexplored. The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds (bioactives) to adapt to particular environmental conditions. For example, marine surface associated microorganisms have proven to be a rich source for novel bioactives because of the necessity to evolve allelochemicals capable of protecting the producer from the fierce competition that exists between microorganisms on the surfaces of marine eukaryotes. Chemically driven interactions are also important for the establishment of cross-relationships between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, in which organisms producing antimicrobial compounds (antimicrobials), may protect the host surface against over colonisation in return for a nutrient rich environment. As is the case for bioactive discovery in general, progress in the detection and characterization of marine microbial bioactives has been limited by a number of obstacles, such as unsuitable culture conditions, laborious purification processes, and a lack of de-replication. However many of these limitations are now being overcome due to improved microbial cultivation techniques, microbial (meta-) genomic analysis and novel sensitive analytical tools for structural elucidation. Here we discuss how these technical advances, together with a better understanding of microbial and chemical ecology, will inevitably translate into an increase in the discovery and development of novel drugs from marine microbial sources in the future. PMID:20411108

  8. Optical signatures of particle size and dynamics in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, Wayne Homer

    Particulate matter in the ocean is ubiquitous, ranging in size from submicron colloids to large marine snow aggregates. Particle size and dynamics play major roles in---and are reflective of---many marine processes, ranging from ocean-basin scale phytoplankton blooms to sediment transport in coastal regions. The use of optical sensing techniques such as remote sensing or in situ scattering sensors affords examination of these dynamics across comparable, relevant, process scales. How the optical properties, especially backscattering, are dependent on the size, composition, and packaging of particulate matter remains an active area of research, using both modeling and empirical approaches. This dissertation advances new methods for making measurements of particle optical properties in the environment, and uses these methods for examining how the optical properties of particles depend on their size distribution and packaging into aggregates. Advances in methodology include the adaptation of an existing instrument for measurement of near-forward scattering, providing some of the first measurements of this important property in decades. The near-forward scattering is also related to particle dynamics in the bottom boundary layer. A method for measurement of optical properties that is resistant to bio-fouling is also described, and used over several years to build a dataset of particle size distribution and multi-spectral optical properties. The spectral shape of attenuated and backscattered light is shown to be related to the particulate size distribution in the highly-scattering bottom boundary layer. Finally, since a variety of dynamic processes act to change the particle size distribution in the environment, two experiments are described to isolate the effects of particle aggregation in order to link changes in particle packaging to optical properties.

  9. An acoustical approach to the study of marine particle dynamics near the bottom boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Clementina R.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to quantify suspended sediment concentrations in marine environments is invaluable; mass concentration plays an important role in many applications, e.g., in turbulence modeling and in underwater communication. Marine particles have optical and acoustical properties that can be used to quantify particle mass concentration, and can provide information regarding the dynamics of particles (e.g., aggregation, settling/resuspension). Both methods have inherent advantages and disadvantages: in-situ optical sensors are very sensitive to biofouling as where acoustical sensors are not, but the effects of ambient noise on higher frequency acoustics is less known. Previous studies have been performed that tested the validity of an acoustic approach to measuring suspended sediment concentration in-situ. While it is generally accepted that acoustic backscatter systems are adept at measuring the first. order variability (due to suspended mass) in marine environments, there is less agreement over how well the second-order variability (due to changes in: particle size, composition, and aggregation) can be ascertained with an acoustic approach. The work presented in this dissertation explores the use of acoustic backscatter sensors in the study of particle dynamics, in-situ, and experiments were performed in the laboratory and in the field to assess the acoustic backscattering to dynamical events. The first chapter describes a laboratory calibration of an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) that was performed in order to characterize the signal strength to changes in suspended mass, and then to characterize the mass-normalized backscattering to particle size. The second chapter describes laboratory and field investigations of optical and acoustic backscattering responses to aggregation events. The third chapter investigates: the correlation between co-deployed optical and acoustic backscatter measurements, the predictability of one method from the other, and the possible causes for de-correlation between the two methods. The results from each of these studies suggest that the interactions between marine particulates during dynamic events can affect the optical and acoustical properties of particles which can, in turn, affect the predictability of suspended sediment concentration. Because each method is affected differently by dynamical events, judicious co-deployments of optical and acoustical instrumentation can provide complimentary measurements.

  10. Primary and secondary particles chemical composition of marine emissions from Mediterranean seawaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, Barbara; Meme, Aurelie; Rmili, Badr; Pey, Jorge; Marchand, Nicolas; Schwier, Allison; Sellegri, Karine; Charriere, Bruno; Sempere, Richard; Mas, Sebastien; Parin, David

    2015-04-01

    Marine emissions are among the largest source of both primary particles and do highly contribute secondary organic aerosols (SOA) at a global scale. Whereas physical processes control the primary production of marine aerosols, biological activity is responsible for most of the organic fraction released from marine sources, potentially transformed into SOA when exposed to atmospheric oxidants. The Mediterranean atmosphere displays important concentrations of SOA, especially in summer, when atmospheric oxidants and photochemical activity are at their maximum. The origin of these elevated concentrations of SOA remain unclear. Here we present the results from a mesocosms study in a remote location in Corsica and a chamber study (using fresh sea water from Western Mediterranean) as part of the Source of marine Aerosol particles in the Mediterranean atmosphere (SAM) project. The mesocosm study was conducted at the Oceanographic and Marine Station STARESO (Corsica) in May 2013. One mesocosm was used as a control (with no enrichment) and the other two were enriched with nitrate and phosphate respecting Redfield ratio (N:P = 16) in order to produce a bloom of biological activity. Physical and chemical properties of the enclosed water samples together with their surrounding atmosphere were monitored during 20 days by a multi-instrumental high-time resolution set-up. In parallel, numerous additional measurements were conducted including water temperature, incident light, pH, conductivity, chemical and biological analyses, fluorescence of chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen concentration. The chamber studies were performed in a Teflon chamber of 1. 5m3 that accommodates a pyrex-container for the fresh sea-water samples. After injection of sea-water in the pyrex-container, the system is allowed to stabilize to 20-30 minutes, then it was exposed to 60-100ppbv of ozone and/or UV-A irradiation. Aerosol concentrations and their physical characteristics were followed by means of Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers; clusters concentration was monitored using a Particle Size Magnifyer (PSM); the gas-phase composition of volatile organic compounds was determined by using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer and cartridges. Aerosol chemical composition was investigated using High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, filters analysis and TEM-EDX microscopy. Results evidence a complex nature of the primary emitted aerosol which is not clearly associated to the biological bloom (ex. cholrophyll), VOCs emission was observed during high biological activity periods. Formation of new particles was observed in the chamber and seemed to be related to iodine species (in the absence of any macroalgea population).

  11. FDPS: Framework for Developing Particle Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasawa, Masaki; Tanikawa, Ataru; Hosono, Natsuki; Nitadori, Keigo; Muranushi, Takayuki; Makino, Junichiro

    2016-04-01

    FDPS provides the necessary functions for efficient parallel execution of particle-based simulations as templates independent of the data structure of particles and the functional form of the interaction. It is used to develop particle-based simulation programs for large-scale distributed-memory parallel supercomputers. FDPS includes templates for domain decomposition, redistribution of particles, and gathering of particle information for interaction calculation. It uses algorithms such as Barnes-Hut tree method for long-range interactions; methods to limit the calculation to neighbor particles are used for short-range interactions. FDPS reduces the time and effort necessary to write a simple, sequential and unoptimized program of O(N^2) calculation cost, and produces compiled programs that will run efficiently on large-scale parallel supercomputers.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A SPERM CELL TOXICITY TEST FOR MARINE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary methods for conducting a quick and sensitive sperm cell toxicity test for marine waters have been developed. This paper presents a simple static test in which sea urchin or sand dollar sperm cells are exposed to test or control solutions for short periods of time (typ...

  13. Marine ecology service reuse through taxonomy-oriented SPL development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Pol`la, Matias; Arias, Maximiliano; del Socorro Doldan, Maria; Morsan, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, reusing software applications encourages researchers and industrials to collaborate in order to increase software quality and to reduce software development costs. However, effective reuse is not easy and only a limited portion of reusable models actually offers effective evidence regarding their appropriateness, usability and/or effectiveness. Focusing reuse on a particular domain, such as marine ecology, allows us to narrow the scope; and along with a systematic approach such as software product line development, helps us to potentially improving reuse. From our experiences developing a subdomain-oriented software product line (SPL for the marine ecology subdomain), in this paper we describe semantic resources created for assisting this development and thus promoting systematic software reuse. The main contributions of our work are focused on the definition of a standard conceptual model for marine ecology applications together with a set of services and guides which assist the process of product derivation. The services are structured in a service taxonomy (as a specialization of the ISO 19119 std) in which we create a new set of categories and services built over a conceptual model for marine ecology applications. We also define and exemplify a set of guides for composing the services of the taxonomy in order to fulfill different functionalities of particular systems in the subdomain.

  14. Development and Implementation of an Interinstitutional Undergraduate Marine Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Arthur James, II; Loop, Taylor Henry

    Described are the efforts of the New Hampshire College and University Council to develop and institutionalize an interinstitutional, multi-disciplinary undergraduate marine science program. Among the aspects of the program that are presented are the structural elements, the three major components and the activities under each, a summary of the

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  16. High-temperature LDV seed particle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such particles would also be valuable to manufacturers of ceramic or abrasive products, and this technique may find its greatest commercial potential in those areas.

  17. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) > 3 nm, black carbon (BC) concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1), a 4 h enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb), BC (~ 1400 ng m-3) and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm-3) with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. A wind direction change lead to a dramatic reduction in BB tracers and a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm. The dominant mode increased in size to 80 nm over 5 h in calm sunny conditions, accompanied by an increase in ozone. Due to an enhancement in BC but not CO during particle growth, the presence of BB emissions during this period could not be confirmed. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80) to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 ± 8 %), higher during the particle growth period (77 ± 4 %) and higher still (104 ± 3 %) in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000 and 5000 CCN cm-3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6-34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2) CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed (ΔO3 / ΔCO 0.001-0.074). A short-lived increase in NMOCs by a factor of 10 corresponded with a large CO enhancement, an increase of the NMOC / CO emission ratio (ER) by a factor of 2-4 and a halving of the BC / CO ratio. Rainfall on Robbins Island was observed by radar during this period which likely resulted in a lower fire combustion efficiency, and higher emission of compounds associated with smouldering. This highlights the importance of relatively minor meteorological events on BB emission ratios. Emission factors (EFs) were derived for a range of trace gases, some never before reported for Australian fires, (including hydrogen, phenol and toluene) using the carbon mass balance method. This provides a unique set of EFs for Australian coastal heathland fires. Methyl halide EFs were higher than EFs reported from other studies in Australia and the Northern Hemisphere which is likely due to high halogen content in vegetation on Robbins Island. This work demonstrates the substantial impact that BB plumes can have on the composition of marine air, and the significant changes that can occur as the plume interacts with terrestrial, aged urban and marine emission sources.

  18. Effects of soot deposition on particle dynamics and microbial processes in marine surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Xavier; Lefèvre, Jérôme; Torréton, Jean-Pascal; Bettarel, Yvan; Pringault, Olivier; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Marchesiello, Patrick; Menkes, Christophe; Rodier, Martine; Migon, Christophe; Motegi, Chiaki; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Legendre, Louis

    2014-07-01

    Large amounts of soot are continuously deposited on the global ocean. Even though significant concentrations of soot particles are found in marine waters, the effects of these aerosols on ocean ecosystems are currently unknown. Using a combination of in situ and experimental data, and results from an atmospheric transport model, we show that the deposition of soot particles from an oil-fired power plant impacted biogeochemical properties and the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem in tropical oligotrophic oceanic waters off New Caledonia. Deposition was followed by a major increase in the volume concentration of suspended particles, a change in the particle size spectra that resulted from a stimulation of aggregation processes, a 5% decrease in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a decreases of 33 and 23% in viral and free bacterial abundances, respectively, and a factor ~2 increase in the activity of particle-attached bacteria suggesting that soot introduced in the system favored bacterial growth. These patterns were confirmed by experiments with natural seawater conducted with both soot aerosols collected in the study area and standard diesel soot. The data suggest a strong impact of soot deposition on ocean surface particles, DOC, and microbial processes, at least near emission hot spots.

  19. Characterizing marine particles and their impact on biogeochemical cycles in the GEOTRACES program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert F.; Hayes, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) are of priority interest in several subdisciplines of oceanography. For example, the vital role of trace element micronutrients in regulating the growth of marine organisms, which, in turn, may influence the structure and composition of marine ecosystems, is now well established (Morel and Price, 2003; Twining and Baines, 2013). Natural distributions of some TEIs have been severely impacted by anthropogenic emissions, leading to substantial perturbations of natural ocean inventories. Pb and Hg, for example, (Lamborg et al., 2002; Schaule and Patterson, 1981), may represent a significant threat to human food supply. Furthermore, much of our knowledge of past variability in the ocean environment, including the ocean's role in climate change, has been developed using TEI proxies archived in marine substrates such as sediments, corals and microfossils. Research in each of these areas relies on a comprehensive knowledge of the distributions of TEIs in the ocean, and on the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions. With numerous processes affecting the regional supply and removal of TEIs in the ocean, a comprehensive understanding of the marine biogeochemical cycles of TEIs can be attained only by a global, coordinated, international effort. GEOTRACES, an international program designed to study the marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes (Anderson et al., 2014; Henderson et al., 2007), aims to achieve these goals.

  20. Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological activity can contain sea salts associated with organic material, with smaller particles containing a larger mass fraction of organics than larger particles. This likely indicates a link between phytoplankton productivity in oceans and particulate organic material in marine air. Once aerosolized, particles with significant amount of organic material can affect cloud activation and formation of ice crystals, among other atmospheric processes, thus influencing climate. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, in which concentrations of biological organisms can reach up to 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms. Here we present results of bubble bursting aerosol production from a seawater mesocosm containing artificial seawater, natural seawater and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species. These phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emilianaia huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus), possessed siliceous frustules, calcareous frustules and no frustules, respectively. Bubbles were generated employing recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions and bulk aerosol organic composition were measured as a function of phytoplankton growth, and chlorophyll composition and particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the water were determined. Finally, particles were collected on substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, their elemental compositions were determined using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEMEDAX), and their carbon speciation was determined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle size distributions exposed to dry and humidified air employing artificial seawater show agreement with previous studies. As the phytoplankton population grows, particle production increases, with particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter primarily contributing to this increase. CCSEM/EDAX and STXM/NEXAFS analysis shows that phytoplankton presence can result in purely organic airborne particles, NaCl particles coated with organic material and organic particles containing phytoplankton frustule fragments. We also have observed that submicrometer particles can efficiently nucleate ice and that the same ice nucleating particles examined with CCSEM/EDAX and STXM/NEXAFS contain significant organic material by mass. These results will aid in understanding the effects of biological activity on the composition and mixing state of ocean derived aerosol particles and their potential impact on cold cloud formation.

  1. Asian dust particles converted into aqueous droplets under remote marine atmospheric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tobo, Yutaka; Zhang, Daizhou; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2010-01-01

    The chemical history of dust particles in the atmosphere is crucial for assessing their impact on both the Earths climate and ecosystem. So far, a number of studies have shown that, in the vicinity of strong anthropogenic emission sources, Ca-rich dust particles can be converted into aqueous droplets mainly by the reaction with gaseous HNO3 to form Ca(NO3)2. Here we show that other similar processes have the potential to be activated under typical remote marine atmospheric conditions. Based on field measurements at several sites in East Asia and thermodynamic predictions, we examined the possibility for the formation of two highly soluble calcium salts, Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2, which can deliquesce at low relative humidity. According to the results, the conversion of insoluble CaCO3 to Ca(NO3)2 tends to be dominated over urban and industrialized areas of the Asian continent, where the concentrations of HNO3 exceed those of HCl ([HNO3/HCl]>?1). In this regime, CaCl2 is hardly detected from dust particles. However, the generation of CaCl2 becomes detectable around the Japan Islands, where the concentrations of HCl are much higher than those of HNO3 ([HNO3/HCl]marine boundary layer are sufficient to modify Ca-rich particles in dust storms and can play a more important role in forming a deliquescent layer on the particle surfaces as they are transported toward remote ocean regions. PMID:20921372

  2. Supporting Marine Protected Area Development through Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, J.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; McDonald, E.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2004 NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) has partnered with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to discover, explore and characterize unknown and poorly-known ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic Seaboard. These joint-efforts have led to the discovery of many sensitive deep-sea coral habitats in both the Gulf and the Atlantic. Data and information gathered during these projects will assist in protecting important ecosystems and historical sites in advance of potential future off-shore energy development. OER, BOEM and USGS have separate, yet aligned project goals enabling successful projects, which have societal, economic and environmental benefits for the nation.

  3. Physicochemical Characterization of Cloud Drop Residual Particles in Eastern Pacific Marine Stratocumulus: Airborne Measurements Downstream of a Newly-Developed Counterflow Virtual Impactor Inlet during the 2011 E-PEACE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Jonsson, H.; Metcalf, A. R.; Craven, J. S.; Coggon, M.; Lin, J. J.; Nenes, A.; Seinfeld, J.

    2011-12-01

    The aerosol nuclei that are the seeds of cloud drops are a critically important component of the atmosphere as they influence radiative transfer, visibility, and cloud microphysics. Aircraft must employ special inlets to exclusively sample cloud drops, which involves rejecting the smaller interstitial aerosol in clouds, and then subsequently drying the drops to leave only the residual particles. A new counterflow virtual impactor inlet (CVI) was recently deployed on the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE). Several state-of-the-art instruments sampling downstream of the CVI characterized the physical and chemical properties of the droplet residual particles including measurements of composition, size distribution, optical properties, and water-uptake properties. This work will summarize CVI measurements from over 25 flights during the E-PEACE campaign off the central coast of California between July and August. The flights specifically targeted aerosol-cloud interactions in a region where stratocumulus clouds are perturbed by emissions from ship traffic. New findings related to the physicochemical properties of drop residual particles will be highlighted in addition to a characterization of CVI performance.

  4. Marine management efforts for the Pagerungan gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamzah, A.; Saleh, A.A.; Budhi, T.S.

    1996-12-31

    ARCO and Pertamina in Indonesia have developed and are producing from gas reserves in the Pagerungan Field. The substantial commercial gas reserves of Pagerungan Field were discovered 1985. The gas producing facilities were built in 1991-1993 on Pagerungan and were designed for 350 MMSCFD of dry gas and 3,500 bbl/day of condensate. About 9 of the 16 planned wells are producing. The gas and condensate sales commenced on January 1994. In Pagerungan island, the aquatic marine environment plays an important role in sustaining organisms which in turn provide both employment and business opportunities for the local people. The Pagerungan gas development has been completed with a series of environmental studies. The studies point out that the development is likely to have a significant impact on the marine environment. For this reason, the company are responsible for managing and monitoring these possible effects and taking action to mitigate potential or actual problems.

  5. Persistence and Stability of Teflubenzuron and Diflubenzuron When Associated to Organic Particles in Marine Sediment.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Ole B

    2016-02-01

    The persistence and stability of the oral administered anti salmon-lice drugs teflubenzuron and diflubenzuron were tested when associated to organic material as faecal particles from Atlantic salmon and medicated food pellets. This laboratory study was performed in seawater under aerobic conditions, at 7C in the dark and showed that both compounds were remarkably persistent and stable since no significant reduction in the concentrations of flubenzurons in sediment were seen after 24weeks. Therefore neither chemical or microbial degradation nor outwashing seems to be important pathways for these drugs to disappear from sediment under fish farms. Thus, it is more likely that the decrease of flubenzurons from marine sediments described in field investigations is caused by either bioturbation, resuspension of organic particles or a combination of these. PMID:26662043

  6. The expanding role of marine microbes in pharmaceutical development

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Amanda L.; Hill, Russell T.; Place, Allen R.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Marine microbes have received growing attention as sources of bioactive metabolites and offer a unique opportunity to both increase the number of marine natural products in clinical trials as well as expedite their development. This review focuses specifically on those molecules currently in the clinical pipeline that are established or highly likely to be produced by bacteria based on expanding circumstantial evidence. We also include an example of how compounds from harmful algal blooms may yield lead both tools for measuring environmental change as well as leads for pharmaceutical development. An example of the karlotoxin class of compounds isolated from the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum reveals a significant environmental impact in the form of massive fish kills but also provides opportunities to construct new molecules for the control cancer and serum cholesterol assisted by tools associated with rational drug design. PMID:20956080

  7. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production

  8. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemicalmore » reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production« less

  9. Modeling of microphysics and optics of aerosol particles in the marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, Gennady

    2013-05-01

    We present a microphysical model for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, height above sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (RH), are investigated. At present, the model covers the ranges H = 0 - 25 m, U = 3 - 18 km s-1, X ≤ 120 km and RH = 40 - 98%. The latest version of the Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles model (MaexPro) is described and applied for the computation and analysis of the spectral profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients α(λ) in the wavelength band λ = 0.2-12 μm. MaexPro is based on the aforementioned aerosol model assuming spherically shaped aerosol particles and the well-known Mie theory. The spectral profiles of α(λ) calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable tool for investigating the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  10. The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

    2006-04-01

    Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments worldwide. Interestingly, organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events to potential CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and high biological activity (HBA, i.e. a high mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in spring 2002. Additionally, a PHA-UCPC (pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter) technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity (LBA, i.e. a lower mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in October 2002. The overall results of the UFO-TDMA and the PHA-UCPC measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine/coastal biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation by iodine, hydroxyl radical, and ozone. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the UFO-TDMA results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to CCN and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the coastal/marine particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to coastal/marine particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

  11. Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hongyue; Lovell, Charles R

    2016-03-01

    Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration. PMID:26700108

  12. Distribution and isotopic signature of Thorium and REE-bearing phases in marine particles and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchandise, S.; Roy-Barman, M.; Ayrault, S.; Colin, C. C.

    2010-12-01

    Particle-reactive tracers like Thorium (Th) and Neodymium (Nd) are widely used to evaluate marine particle fluxes but theirs host phases are controversial. We study the Th and Nd-rich phases in marine sediments from the Mediterranean Sea (DYFAMED site) in order to: (1) constrain the nature of the phases carrying Th isotopes (232Th which is a “lithogenic” tracer but also, potentially, in situ produced 230Thex) and (2) determine the nature of the phases involved in the Boundary Exchange which is a key feature of the Nd cycle in the ocean. Using systematic survey and quantitative analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we have identified on the Th-REE rich phases of clearly lithogenic origin such as zircon ZrSiO4, xenotime YPO4, monazite (REE, Th)PO4, allanite (REE,Y)2(Al,Fe3)3(SiO4)3(OH)6 but also florencite (REE)Al3(PO4)3(OH)6, a mineral of possible authigenic origin. The two main 232Th-carrying phases are monazite and zircon. The average U/Th ratio in zircon (0.6 g/g) is higher than the crustal average (0,3) but this ratio is very heterogeneous among the zircon crystal population. The U/Th ratio of monazite grains is (~ 0.20 g/g) lower than the crustal average. The inventory of these grains indicates that a large fraction of the 232Th and of the Nd contained in the sediment could reside in monazite (for Th), zircon and florencite (for Th and Nd). Mineral separates micron size-phases were obtained by density and chemical separation for isotopic analyses by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS). Their purity was checked by SEM. The low 230Th/232Th ratio (~ 2.7×10-6 mol/mol) of the monazite fraction is significantly below the crustal average (4-5×10-6), in agreement with the low U/Th ratio of these minerals (assuming secular equilibrium between 238U and 230Th). The 230Th/232Th ratio of florencite shows no 230Thxs enrichment compared to secular equilibrium, indicating that it is of lithogenic origin and leads us to the conclusion that 230Th et 232Th may not be carried by the same particles in the ocean (at least in these Mediterranean sediments). It’s consistent with the Nd analysis demonstrating identical isotopic compositions in monazite phase, florencite phase and bulk samples. These results help to understand the large variability of the U/Th ratio in marine particles collected in sediment traps moored in the Mediterranean Sea and to better evaluate the 230Thxs in these samples. Concerning boundary exchange, it suggests that most Nd and Th in marine sediments is locked in refractory minerals and therefore may not participate to this isotopic exchange. Analyses of Th and Nd isotopes in small filtered particles and large trapped particles collected in the Mediterranean Sea following the same protocol are underway in order to improve these first observations. Besides, the study of samples from the Austral Ocean, where the lithogenic inputs are much lower than in the Mediterranean sea, are also in progress to ameliorate our previous results about the 230Thxs bearing phases.

  13. Development of a whole-sediment toxicity test using a benthic marine microalga.

    PubMed

    Adams, Merrin S; Stauber, Jennifer L

    2004-08-01

    An acute whole-sediment toxicity test with a benthic marine microalga was developed and optimized using flow cytometry to distinguish algae (based on their chlorophyll a autofluorescence) from sediment particles. Of seven benthic marine algae screened, the diatom Entomoneis cf punctulata was most suitable because of its tolerance of a wide range of water and sediment physicochemical parameters, including salinity, pH, ammonia, and sulfide. A whole-sediment and water-only toxicity test based on inhibition of esterase activity in this species was developed. Enzyme activity rather than growth was used as the test endpoint, as nutrient release from sediments has previously been found to stimulate algal growth, potentially masking contaminant toxicity. The sensitivity of the bioassay to a range of metals (copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, manganese) and phenol in water-only exposures was compared to the standard 72-h growth rate inhibition test. The esterase enzyme inhibition test was sensitive to copper, with a 3-h inhibitory concentration to cause a 50% (IC50) reduction in a fluorescein diacetate fluorescence value of 97 +/- 39 microg Cu/L. A concentration-dependent response was also observed in the presence of sediment particles (copper tailings), with and without dilution, using a control clean sediment. The primary route of exposure to copper was via pore water rather than by direct contact with tailings particles. This is the first whole-sediment bioassay developed with a benthic alga suitable for sediment quality assessment in marine/estuarine systems, and its advantages and limitations are discussed. PMID:15352485

  14. Steady-state configuration and tension calculations of marine cables under complex currents via separated particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-song

    2014-12-01

    Under complex currents, the motion governing equations of marine cables are complex and nonlinear, and the calculations of cable configuration and tension become difficult compared with those under the uniform or simple currents. To obtain the numerical results, the usual Newton-Raphson iteration is often adopted, but its stability depends on the initial guessed solution to the governing equations. To improve the stability of numerical calculation, this paper proposed separated the particle swarm optimization, in which the variables are separated into several groups, and the dimension of search space is reduced to facilitate the particle swarm optimization. Via the separated particle swarm optimization, these governing nonlinear equations can be solved successfully with any initial solution, and the process of numerical calculation is very stable. For the calculations of cable configuration and tension of marine cables under complex currents, the proposed separated swarm particle optimization is more effective than the other particle swarm optimizations.

  15. Particle sizes and composition of Mars atmospheric dust based upon Viking and Mariner 9 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Mars atmospheric dust can play an important role in the thermal structure of the Mars atmosphere during periods of high dust loading. However, the radiative properties of Mars atmospheric dust remain uncertain due to uncertain definitions of the dust composition and size distribution. The analysis by Toon et al., of Mariner 9 IRIS spectra during the 1971-1972 global dust storm indicated a reasonable match between the modeled 9-micron absorption of montmorillinite and the observed 9-micron absorption. Toon et al. also determined that an effective (cross-section weighted) mean radius of 2.5 microns (R(sub mode) = 0.4 microns) provided a consistent fit of montmorillinite to the IRIS dust spectra at 9 microns. Pollack et al. analyzed Viking lander observations of atmospheric extinction and scattering at visible-near IR wavelengths (0.5-1.0 microns), and obtained consistency with the Toon et al. dust size distribution when the effects of nonspherical particle shapes were included. An additional, minor (1 percent) component of visible-ultraviolet absorbing material was required to model the derived visible (0.86) and ultraviolet (0.4-0.6) single-scattering albedos of the dust, since montmorillinite does not absorb sufficiently in this wavelength region. A combined analysis of the Viking IRTM and Mariner 9 observations was conducted to reassess the model of Mars atmospheric ultraviolet-to-infrared measurements of dust absorption and scattering. The optical constants for palagonite are incorporated in a doubling-adding radiative transfer model of the Mars atmosphere to simulate Mariner 9 IRIS spectra as well as the Viking IRTM IR band observations. Visible and ultraviolet single-scattering albedos based on the Hansen and Travis Mie scattering code were also derived. A tentative conclusion is that smaller dust particles (R(sub mode) = 0.15 microns, cross-section weighted mean R = 1.2 microns) composed of palagonite provide a much improved fit to the Mariner 9 IRIS spectra; agreement with the observed ratio of visible-to-infrared extinction opacities; and ultraviolet and visible single-scattering albedos comparable to their observed values.

  16. On the modeling of the bottom particles segregation with non-linear diffusion equations: application to the marine sand ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiguercha, Djlalli; Bennis, Anne-claire; Ezersky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The elliptical motion in surface waves causes an oscillating motion of the sand grains leading to the formation of ripple patterns on the bottom. Investigation how the grains with different properties are distributed inside the ripples is a difficult task because of the segration of particle. The work of Fernandez et al. (2003) was extended from one-dimensional to two-dimensional case. A new numerical model, based on these non-linear diffusion equations, was developed to simulate the grain distribution inside the marine sand ripples. The one and two-dimensional models are validated on several test cases where segregation appears. Starting from an homogeneous mixture of grains, the two-dimensional simulations demonstrate different segregation patterns: a) formation of zones with high concentration of light and heavy particles, b) formation of «cat's eye» patterns, c) appearance of inverse Brazil nut effect. Comparisons of numerical results with the new set of field data and wave flume experiments show that the two-dimensional non-linear diffusion equations allow us to reproduce qualitatively experimental results on particles segregation.

  17. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-01

    The sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) have been investigated with a range of physical and chemical measurements from open-ocean research cruises. This study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) of aMA from five ocean regions to show the following: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMA that can be identified as mainly atmospheric primary marine (ocean derived) aerosol particles (aPMA) is 65 ± 12% hydroxyl, 21 ± 9% alkane, 6 ± 6% amine, and 7 ± 8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal or continental emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model-generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater (gPMA, which has 55 ± 14% hydroxyl, 32 ± 14% alkane, and 13 ± 3% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied and the ratio of organic carbon to sodium (OC/Na+) in the gPMA remained nearly constant over a broad range of chlorophyll a concentrations, the gPMA alkane group fraction appeared to increase with chlorophyll a concentrations (r = 0.66). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (42 ± 9%) compared to gPMA from nonproductive seawater (22 ± 10%), perhaps due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater organic mass hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production.

  18. Effects of Inorganic Particles on Metabolism by a Periphytic Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Andrew S.; Gerchakov, Sol M.; Millero, Frank J.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements were made of adsorption of a periphytic marine bacterium, glucose, and glutamic acid to inorganic particles in seawater and defined bacterial growth medium. Measurements of the metabolism of bacteria were made in the presence and absence of particles by microcalorimetry and radiorespirometry. It was found that hydroxyapatite adsorbs glutamic acid, but not glucose, from the experimental medium. It was also found that hydroxyapatite adsorbs essentially all of the bacteria from the medium when the bacterial concentration is approximately 6 105 bacteria per ml. If the bacterial concentration is approximately 6 107, then only a small fraction of cells become attached. It was therefore possible to select bacterial concentrations and organic nutrients so that bacterial attachment, organic nutrient adsorption, or both would occur in different experiments. In this experimental system the metabolism by attached and nonattached bacteria of adsorbing and nonadsorbing organic nutrients was measured. The results show that bacterial activity in this model system was not enhanced by the particles, regardless of whether the bacteria, the organic nutrient, or both were associated with the surface. In fact, the respiratory activity of the attached bacteria was diminished in comparison with that of free bacteria. PMID:16346191

  19. Chemical Composition and Sources of Coastal Marine Aerosol Particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.- N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, John T.; Wang, Jian; Hubbe, John M.; Senum, Gunnar I.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.

    2014-05-23

    The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp 1.5 μm) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO2−4, followed by Na+, Cl−, Org (total organics), NH+4 , and NO−3 , in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO−3 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH+4 to SO2−4 equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl− deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO2−4. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol concentrations were negligible. The very low levels of CH3SO−3 observed as well as the correlation between SO2−4 and NO−3 (which is thought primarily anthropogenic) suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO2−4 aerosol production during VOCALS.

  20. Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2011-03-15

    Emissions from harbor-craft significantly affect air quality in populated regions near ports and inland waterways. This research measured regulated and unregulated emissions from an in-use EPA Tier 2 marine propulsion engine on a ferry operating in a bay following standard methods. A special effort was made to monitor continuously both the total Particulate Mass (PM) mass emissions and the real-time Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The engine was operated following the loads in ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle for comparison with the certification standards and across biodiesel blends. Real-time measurements were also made during a typical cruise in the bay. Results showed the in-use nitrogen oxide (NOx) and PM(2.5) emission factors were within the not to exceed standard for Tier 2 marine engines. Comparing across fuels we observed the following: a) no statistically significant change in NO(x) emissions with biodiesel blends (B20, B50); b) ∼ 16% and ∼ 25% reduction of PM(2.5) mass emissions with B20 and B50 respectively; c) a larger organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratio and organic mass (OM) to OC ratio with B50 compared to B20 and B0; d) a significant number of ultrafine nuclei and a smaller mass mean diameter with increasing blend-levels of biodiesel. The real-time monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions during a typical cruise in the San Francisco Bay (in-use cycle) revealed important effects of ocean/bay currents on emissions: NO(x) and CO(2) increased 3-fold; PM(2.5) mass increased 6-fold; and ultrafine particles disappeared due to the effect of bay currents. This finding has implications on the use of certification values instead of actual in-use emission values when developing inventories. Emission factors for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported as supplemental data. PMID:21344849

  1. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. ); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. )

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  2. Marine Fisheries Case Studies. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Case Study No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakroff, Marilyn; DuBois, Random

    This guide was developed to aid Peace Corps volunteers interested in programming marine fisheries projects. Although these projects are not new to the Peace Corps, new staff members may not be aware of the history of marine fisheries efforts in their country. Chapter 1 discusses all past marine fisheries projects initiated by the Peace Corps in…

  3. Development of marine water quality criteria for the USA.

    PubMed

    Russo, R C

    2002-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base requirements, data evaluation procedures, and calculations. The guidelines have been in place for a long time, and states have used them to derive water quality standards for their water bodies. More recent efforts have been directed towards the development of technical guidance based on the concept that bioassessment and biocriteria programs for estuaries and near coastal waters are interrelated and are critical components of comprehensive water resource protection and management. This is a holistic approach to protection and management, integrating biological assessments into traditional chemical and physical evaluations and augmenting the established water quality criteria. The method for deriving water quality criteria and the approach for biocriteria development for marine systems are described. PMID:12398371

  4. Observed chemical characteristics of long-range transported particles at a marine background site in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cayetano, Mylene G; Kim, Young J; Jung, Jin Sang; Batmunkh, Tsatsral; Lee, Kwang Yul; Kim, Sung Yong; Kim, Kwan Chul; Kim, Dong Gyu; Lee, Suk Jo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seek

    2011-11-01

    Deokjeok Island is located off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and is a suitable place to monitor the long-range transport of air pollutants from the Asian continent. In addition to pollutants, Asian dust particles are also transported to the island during long-range transport events. Episodic transport of dust and secondary particles was observed during intensive measurements in the spring (March 31-April 11) and fall (October 13-26) of 2009. In this study, the chemical characteristics of long-range-transported particles were investigated based on highly time-resolved ionic measurements with a particle-into-liquid system coupled with an online ion chromatograph (PILS-IC) that simultaneously measures concentrations of cations (Li+, Na , NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and anions (F-, C1-, NO3-, SO42-). The aerosol optical thickness (AOT) distribution retrieved by the modified Bremen Aerosol Retrieval (M-BAER) algorithm from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data confirmed the presence of a thick aerosol plume coming from the Asian continent towards the Korean peninsula. Seven distinctive events involving the long-range transport (LRT) of aerosols were identified and studied, the chemical components of which were strongly related to sector sources. Enrichment of acidic secondary aerosols on mineral dust particles, and even of sea-salt components, during transport was observed in this study. Backward trajectory, chemical analyses, and satellite aerosol retrievals identified two distinct events: a distinctively high [Ca2++Mg2]/[Na+] ratio (>2.0), which was indicative of a preprocessed mineral dust transport event, and a low [Ca2++Mg2+]/[Na+] ratio (<2.0), which was indicative of severe aging of sea-salt components on the processed dust particles. Particulate C1- was depleted by up to 85% in spring and 50% in the fall. A consistent fraction of carbonate replacement (FCR) averaged 0.53 in spring and 0.55 in the fall. Supporting evidences of C1- enrichment on the marine boundary layer prior to a dust front were also found. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association for sector and air mass classifications of clean and LRT cases. PMID:22168103

  5. Paulsenella Chatton (Dinophyta), ectoparasites of marine diatoms: development and taxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drebes, G.; Schnepf, E.

    1988-09-01

    All members of the dinophyte Paulsenella are ectoparasites on marine planktonic diatoms. At present three species are known, two of which are described here for the first time. The taxonomy of the type species, P. chaetoceratis, is paid critical attention. The species are clearly distinguished by their host specificity and additionally by differences in morphology, especially of the trophonts. Using clonal cultures the life cycles of the three species are compared. The vegetative development may be interrupted by formation of temporary and resting cysts. In ageing cultures, stages with nuclear cyclosis occur, believed to indicate meiosis. In P. vonstoschii, the meiospores are capable of developing into resting cysts. As yet, knowledge on sexual reproduction is still incomplete.

  6. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; Lauer, P.; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; Schlager, H.; Weingartner, E.

    2008-05-01

    Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel)-1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel)-1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC). Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  7. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; Lauer, P.; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; Schlager, H.; Weingartner, E.

    2007-10-01

    Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel)-1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel)-1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC). Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  8. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated.

  9. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving chemical tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity, sodium and methanesulfonic acid, indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated. This finding illustrates that additional measurements are needed to improve parameterizations of INPs and their subsequent climatic impacts.

  10. Evaluation of the atmospheric transport of marine-derived particles using long-chain unsaturated ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Sicre, M.A.; Gagosian, R.B.; Peltzer, E.T. )

    1990-02-20

    Biomarker source information provided by long-chain alkenone (LCA) distribution patterns was used to assess the transport pathways of marine aerosols. The C{sub 37}-C{sub 39}LCA were found in significant amounts in aerosols collected in New Zealand. Their occurrence in the atmosphere stems from their introduction by bubble-bursting processes during wave breaking. The surface water temperatures calculated from the U{sub 37}{sup k} ratios suggested a local origin and short atmospheric residence times of the LCA. They were not detected in aerosol samples collected on American Samoa due to the absence of the source organisms in surface waters. The distribution of LCA was also investigated in size-fractionated aerosols over a range of < 0.5 to > 7.2 {mu}m equivalent diameter. Their distribution over the size spectrum demonstrated that they were only associated with large particles (d{sub eq} > 3.0 {mu}m), suggesting a direct injection of algal cells and/or their fragments into the atmosphere.

  11. Marine Resources and Legal-Political Arrangements for Their Development; Volume 3, Panel Reports of the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources, Washington, DC.

    The Marine Resources Panel addressed itself to three tasks: describing the current rate of exploration and exploitation of marine resources and the physical, economic, and legal conditions under which they are produced; identifying deterrents to development and efficient utilization of marine resources; and recommending programs that will remove…

  12. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Development Risk Management Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Snowberg, David; Weber, Jochem

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, the global marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry has suffered a number of serious technological and commercial setbacks. To help reduce the risks of industry failures and advance the development of new technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an MHK Risk Management Framework. By addressing uncertainties, the MHK Risk Management Framework increases the likelihood of successful development of an MHK technology. It covers projects of any technical readiness level (TRL) or technical performance level (TPL) and all risk types (e.g. technological risk, regulatory risk, commercial risk) over the development cycle. This framework is intended for the development and deployment of a single MHK technology—not for multiple device deployments within a plant. This risk framework is intended to meet DOE’s risk management expectations for the MHK technology research and development efforts of the Water Power Program (see Appendix A). It also provides an overview of other relevant risk management tools and documentation.1 This framework emphasizes design and risk reviews as formal gates to ensure risks are managed throughout the technology development cycle. Section 1 presents the recommended technology development cycle, Sections 2 and 3 present tools to assess the TRL and TPL of the project, respectively. Section 4 presents a risk management process with design and risk reviews for actively managing risk within the project, and Section 5 presents a detailed description of a risk registry to collect the risk management information into one living document. Section 6 presents recommendations for collecting and using lessons learned throughout the development process.

  13. MISTRA mechanism development: A new mechanism focused on marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruer, Peter; Sommariva, Roberto; von Glasow, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The tropospheric multiphase chemistry of halogen compounds plays a key role in marine environments. Moreover, halogen compounds have an impact on the tropospheric oxidation capacity and climate. With more than two thirds of the Earth's surface covered with oceans, effects are of global importance. Various conditions are found in marine environments ranging from pristine regions to polluted regimes in the continental outflow. Furthermore, there are important sources for halogen compounds over land, such as volcanoes, salt lakes, or emissions from industrial processes. To assess the impact of halogen chemistry with numerical models under these distinct conditions, a multiphase mechanism has been developed in the last decades and applied successfully in numerous box and 1D model studies. Contributions from these model studies helped to identify important chemical cycles affecting the composition and chemistry of the troposphere. However, several discrepancies between model results and field measurements remain. Therefore, a major revision of the chemical mechanism has been performed including an update of the kinetic data and the addition of new reaction cycles. The extended mechansims have been evaluated in several model studies with the 1D model MISTRA. Current work focuses at the identification of the most important reaction cycles, which led to significant changes in the concentration-time profiles of several halogen species. Subsequently, the mechanism will be reduced to the most imporatant reactions, which are currently investigated. As regional and global model studies become more important to identify the importance of tropospheric halogen multiphase chemistry, the goal is to derive parameterisations for the most important halogen chemistry cycles, which can than be implemented in regional and global 3D models. In the reduction process, the extented MISTRA version will serve as a benchmark to assess the quality and accuracy of the reduced mechansim versions.

  14. Induction of reverse development in two marine Hydrozoans.

    PubMed

    Schmich, Jurgen; Kraus, Yulia; De Vito, Doris; Graziussi, Daria; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians are unique organisms in the animal kingdom because of their unequalled potential to undergo reverse development (RD). The life cycle of some species can temporarily shift ordinary, downstream development from zygote to adult into the opposite ontogenetic direction by back-transformation of some life stages. The potential for RD in cnidarians offers the possibility to investigate how integrative signalling networks operate to control directionality of ontogeny (reverse vs. normal development). Striking examples are found in some hydrozoans, where RD of medusa bud or liberated medusa stages leads to rejuvenation of the post-larval polyp stage. Artificial stress may determine ontogeny reversal. We describe here the results of experimental assays on artificial induction of RD by different chemical and physical inducers on two marine hydrozoans, Turritopsis dohrnii and Hydractinia carnea, showing a different potential for RD. A cascade of morphogenetic events occurs during RD by molecular mechanisms and cellular patterns recalling larval metamorphosis. For the first time, we show here that exposure to cesium chloride (CsCl), an inducer of larval metamorphosis, may also induce RD, highlighting similarities and differences between these two master ontogenetic processes in cnidarians. PMID:17183464

  15. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95–98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets. PMID:26940454

  16. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-03-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95–98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets.

  17. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bochdansky, Alexander B; Clouse, Melissa A; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of "dragon kings." Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95-98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets. PMID:26940454

  18. Trends in the development of environmentally friendly fouling-resistant marine coatings.

    PubMed

    Callow, James A; Callow, Maureen E

    2011-01-01

    'Marine biofouling', the undesired growth of marine organisms such as microorganisms, barnacles and seaweeds on submerged surfaces, is a global problem for maritime industries, with both economic and environmental penalties. The primary strategy for combating marine fouling is to use biocide-containing paints, but environmental concerns and legislation are driving science and technology towards non-biocidal solutions based solely on physico-chemical and materials properties of coatings. Advances in nanotechnology and polymer science, and the development of novel surface designs 'bioinspired' by nature, are expected to have a significant impact on the development of a new generation of environmentally friendly marine coatings. PMID:21427715

  19. A case study of columnar marine and dust particle ratios calculated with photometric and lidar measurements during the CHARADMEXP campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotis Raptis, Ioannis; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Amiridis, Vassilis; Taylor, Michael; Kazadzis, Stelios

    2015-04-01

    The CHARADMEXP campaign took place at the Finokalia meteorological station on the island of Crete, Greece from the 20th of June to 10th July 2014 deploying various instruments to monitor aerosol mixtures of dust and marine origin (more info at http://charadmexp.gr). In this study we focus on data recorded on 1st July. This day gain our interest because we had two distinguished layer of particles at different heights, sea salt near the ground and dust at planetary boundary layer height. A raman/depolarization lidar (EMORAL) and a CIMEL photometer were simultaneously operating during the time of interest in the area. Multimodal analysis of retrieved AERONET volume size distributions on that day was used to distinguish between dominant aerosol types and to calculate the percentage contribution of each mode to the columnar volume concentration. Selection of the method was based on previous work which showed that in cases of mixtures that contain sea salt, bi-lognormals fail to recover key features of the average size distribution. Linear particle depolarization ratio profiles were used to discriminate spherical from non-spherical particles and to validate the columnar volume percentage contribution of different types provided by multimodal analysis. We found that the column was dominated mainly by coarse mode aerosol of marine and dust origin in equal volume proportion in the morning hours. As the day progressed, dust concentrations declined and marine particles became dominant . Lidar profiles confirmed dual layering of particles. The aerosol load was found to be low (AOD≈0.1-0.2) and allowed for a test of the sensitivity of the multimodal method at small concentrations.

  20. Development of marine toxicity data for ordnance compounds.

    PubMed

    Nipper, M; Carr, R S; Biedenbach, J M; Hooten, R L; Miller, K; Saepoff, S

    2001-10-01

    A toxicity database for ordnance compounds was generated using eight compounds of concern and marine toxicity tests with five species from different phyla. Toxicity tests and endpoints included fertilization success and embryological development with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata; zoospore germination, germling length, and cell number with the green macroalga Ulva fasciata; survival and reproductive success of the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus; larvae hatching and survival with the redfish Sciaenops ocellatus; and survival of juveniles of the opossum shrimp Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia). The studied ordnance compounds were 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl), 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The most sensitive toxicity test endpoints overall were the macroalga zoospore germination and the polychaete reproduction tests. The most toxic ordnance compounds overall were tetryl and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene. These were also the most degradable compounds, often being reduced to very low or below-detection levels at the end of the test exposure. Among the dinitro- and trinitrotoluenes and benzenes, toxicity tended to increase with the level of nitrogenation. Picric acid and RDX were the least toxic chemicals tested overall. PMID:11503067

  1. Development of an injectable chitosan/marine collagen composite gel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Itoh, Soichiro; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Okawa, Atsushi; Sakai, Katsuyoshi; Ohkuma, Tsuneo; Demura, Makoto

    2010-12-01

    A chitosan/marine-originated collagen composite has been developed. This composite gel was characterized and its biocompatibility, as well as an inflammatory reaction, was observed. The chitosan gel including N-3-carboxypropanoil-6-O-(carboxymethyl) chitosan of 3 mol%, 6-O-(carboxymethyl) chitosan of 62 mol% and 6-O-(carboxymethyl) chitin of 35 mol% was prepared and compounded with the salmon atelocollagen (SA) gel at different mixture ratios. The composite gels were injected subcutaneously in to the back of rats. The specimens were harvested for a histological survey as well as a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) assay by ELISA. The inflammatory cell infiltration and release of TNF-α were successively controlled low with the ratio of SA to chitosan at 10:90 or 20:80. The SA gel first, within 2 weeks, and then chitosan in the composite gel were slowly absorbed after implantation, followed by soft tissue formation. It is expected that this composite gel will be available as a carrier for tissue filler and drug delivery systems. PMID:21060147

  2. Planar Particle Imaging Doppler Velocimetry Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    2000-01-01

    Two current techniques exist for the measurement of planar, three-component velocity fields. Both techniques require multiple views of the illumination plane in order to extract all three velocity components. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a high-resolution, high accuracy, planar velocimetry technique that provides valuable instantaneous velocity information in aeropropulsion test facilities. PIV can provide three-component flow-field measurements using a two-camera, stereo viewing configuration. Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) is another planar velocimetry technique that can provide three component flow-field measurements; however, it requires three detector systems that must be located at oblique angles from the measurement plane. The three-dimensional configurations of either technique require multiple (DGV) or at least large (stereo PIV) optical access ports in the facility in which the measurements are being conducted. Optical access is extremely limited in aeropropulsion test facilities. In many cases, only one optical access port is available. A hybrid measurement technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, planar particle image and Doppler velocimetry (PPIDV), which combines elements from both the PIV and DGV techniques into a single detection system that can measure all three components of velocity across a planar region of a flow field through a single optical access port. In the standard PIV technique, a pulsed laser is used to illuminate the flow field at two closely spaced instances in time, which are recorded on a "frame-straddling" camera, yielding a pair of single-exposure image frames. The PIV camera is oriented perpendicular to the light sheet, and the processed PIV data yield the two-component velocity field in the plane of the light sheet. In the standard DGV technique, an injection-seeded Nd:YAG pulsed laser light sheet illuminates the seeded flow field, and three receiver systems are used to measure three components of velocity. The receiver systems are oriented at oblique angles to the light sheet in order to accurately resolve the three-component velocity. Each DGV receiver system contains two cameras, which share a common view of the illuminated flow through a beam-splitting cube. One camera views the illuminated flow directly (reference camera) and the second camera images the illuminated flow through an iodine vapor cell (signal camera). The laser frequency (wavelength) is adjusted so that the Doppler-shifted light from particles in the flow falls on an iodine absorption feature, see the following graph. The iodine vapor cell acts as a frequency-to-velocity filter by modulating the intensity of the transmitted light as a function of the flow velocity (Doppler shift). The ratio of the signal and reference images yields the component of the flow velocity along the bisector of the laser sheet propagation direction and the receiver system observation direction. The hybrid system employs a single-component DGV receiver system configured to simultaneously acquire PIV image data, as shown in the following diagram. The cameras used in the DGV receiver are replaced with PIV frame-straddling cameras, and the receiver system views the illuminated light sheet plane at 90 (as in the standard PIV configuration).

  3. Microscale Simulations of Shock Interaction with Large Assembly of Particles for Developing Point-Particle Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Siddharth; Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Sridharan, Prashanth; Jackson, Tom; Balachandar, S.; University of Florida Team

    2015-06-01

    Micrsoscale simulations are being conducted for developing point-particle models that are needed for macroscale simulations of explosive dispersal of particles. These particle models are required to compute instantaneous force and heat transfer between particles and surroundings. A strategy for a sequence of microscale simulations has been devised for systematic development of hybrid surrogate models that are applicable at conditions representative of explosive dispersal. The microscale simulations examine particle force dependence on: Mach number, Reynolds number, and volume fraction (particle arrangements such as cubic, face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic and random). Future plans include investigation of sequences of fully-resolved microscale simulations consisting of an array of particles subjected to more realistic time-dependent flows that progressively better approximate the problem of explosive dispersal. Additionally, effects of particle shape, size, and number as well as the transient particle deformation dependence on parameters including: (a) particle material, (b) medium material, (c) multiple particles, (d) incoming shock pressure and speed, (e) medium to particle impedance ratio, (f) particle shape and orientation to shock, etc. are being investigated.

  4. Acclimation of a marine microbial consortium for efficient Mn(II) oxidation and manganese containing particle production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Pan, Haixia; Xu, Jianqiang; Xu, Weiping; Liu, Lifen

    2016-03-01

    Sediment contamination with metals is a widespread concern in the marine environment. Manganese oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are extensively distributed in various environments, but a marine microbial community containing MOB is rarely reported. In this study, a consortium of marine metal-contaminated sediments was acclimated using Mn(II). The shift in community structure was determined through high-throughput sequencing. In addition, the consortium resisted several harsh conditions, such as toxic metals (1mM Cu(II) and Fe(III)), and exhibited high Mn(II) oxidation capacities even the Mn(II) concentration was up to 5mM. Meanwhile, biogenic Mn containing particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and N2 adsorption/desorption. Dye removal performance of the Mn containing particles was assayed using methylene blue, and 20.8 mg g(-1) adsorption capacity was obtained. Overall, this study revealed several new genera associated with Mn(II) oxidation and rare biogenic Na3MnPO4CO3. Results suggested the complexity of natural microbe-mediated Mn transformation. PMID:26606462

  5. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing an international collaboration in marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Miller, Stephen; Proctor, Roger

    2013-04-01

    Marine data is collected by thousands of organisations around the world using a variety of different instruments and platforms. The high cost of its acquisition and the fact that the data itself is often unique and irreplaceable makes its re-use a priority for marine data managers. A significant barrier to the re-use of marine data is often the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc. which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of this data at a regional, national and international scale. This lack of a common approach to how the data is managed is also hindering the development of interoperability with other disciplines at a time when there is a need to adopt a more ecosystem based approach to marine research. Initiatives in a number of regions including Europe, USA and Australia are making significant progress in addressing these issues through the development of marine data management infrastructures. However the need for a more holistic approach to marine research necessitates a move towards a common marine data management infrastructure through the development of interoperability between these regional initiatives. To bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the EU, the National Science Foundation in the USA and the Australian government have recently funded the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project. ODIP is a collaborative project between 14 organisations in Europe, USA and Australia engaged in the acquisition and management of marine data. ODIP aims to develop interoperability between the regional marine data management infrastructures and to demonstrate this co-ordination through the development of several joint prototypes that illustrate effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and national boundaries. This will ultimately lead to the development of a common infrastructure for marine data management that can be extended to other organisations and global regions.

  6. Effect of type and concentration of ballasting particles on sinking rate of marine snow produced by the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Lombard, Fabien; Guidi, Lionel; Kirboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ballast material (organic, opal, calcite, lithogenic) is suggested to affect sinking speed of aggregates in the ocean. Here, we tested this hypothesis by incubating appendicularians in suspensions of different algae or Saharan dust, and observing the sinking speed of the marine snow formed by their discarded houses. We show that calcite increases the sinking speeds of aggregates by ~100% and lithogenic material by ~150% while opal only has a minor effect. Furthermore the effect of ballast particle concentration was causing a 33md(-1) increase in sinking speed for a 510(5) m(3)ml(-1) increase in particle concentration, near independent on ballast type. We finally compare our observations to the literature and stress the need to generate aggregates similar to those in nature in order to get realistic estimates of the impact of ballast particles on sinking speeds. PMID:24086610

  7. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  8. Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

    2014-05-01

    Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test and validate, on the basis of observations, innovative integrative modelling tools in order to further strengthen our understanding of ecosystem and biodiversity changes in space and time. The resultant models are being developed for implementation as operational tools for managers, decision takers and policy makers. The project is contributing (i) to enable the adaptive development of management (ecosystem-based management approach) strategies and management measures as a result of their implementation taking into account the role of industry and relevant stakeholders, (ii) to provide economic assessment of the consequences of management practices, (iii) to identify the barriers (socio-economic and legislative) that prevent the GES to be achieved (e.g. eutrophication), (iv) to provide a set of policy options for the relevant authorities. In addition the project should propose and demonstrate the utility of innovative monitoring systems capable of providing data on a range of parameters, efficiently and effectively, that may be used as indicators of good environmental status. This contribution presents a summary of most of these aspects.

  9. Marine Education: Guidelines for Curriculum Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympus Research Corp., Boston, MA.

    This report describes the status of marine career education in the United States as of July 1975. The objectives of this work are: (1) to assess the current and future manpower needs, (2) to determine the extent of curriculum offerings, (3) to report the availability of relevant materials, (4) to describe the need for new program offerings, (5) to…

  10. Development of a particle nanoimprinting technique by core-shell particles.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Nishimura, M; Fukui, Y; Fujimoto, K

    2014-02-18

    We developed a particle nanoimprinting technique assisted by the array of core-shell particles. Core-shell particles composed of a solid core of polystyrene and a soft shell were prepared by soap-free emulsion polymerization and subsequently seeded polymerization. By the Langmuir-Blodgett method, particles were arranged into a closely packed 2D array over the water surface and transferred onto a polystyrene (PS) substrate at a regular interval. The PS substrate was heated up above its glass transition temperature (Tg) by either UV irradiation using a high-pressure Hg lamp or heat treatment in a temperature-controlled incubator. It could be observed that a nanopatterned indented surface was formed through the denting of particles into the PS substrate (particle nanoindenting). By the detachment of particles from the substrate by ultrasonication in ethanol, nanoholes were produced over the surface (particle nanoimprinting). The depth and the wall of nanoholes and their interval were tunable by the shell thickness and the 2D packing ratio of core-shell particle monolayers. The contact angle decreased from 70 degrees of the pristine particle monolayer to 13 degrees by the particle nanoindenting, and again increased to 50 degrees by detaching the particles from the substrate to create the nanoholes. The use of nanoholes as zepto-litter volume vessels enabled us to produce and arrange nanocrystals, such as NaCl and CaCO3 (zepto-reactor). PMID:24446687

  11. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania, 41° S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) > 3 nm, black carbon (BC) concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monixide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1), a four hour enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb), BC (~ 1400 ng m-3) and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm-3) with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. Dilution of the plume resulted in a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm, and then growth to 80 nm over 5 h. This was accompanied by an increase in O3, suggesting that photochemical processing of air and condensation of low volatility oxidation products may be driving particle growth. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80) to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 %), higher during the particle growth event (77 %) and higher still (104 %) in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000-5000 CCN cm-3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6-34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2) CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed (ΔO3 / ΔCO 0.001-0.074). A shortlived increase in NMOCs by a factor of 10 corresponded with a large CO enhancement, an increase of the NMOC / CO emission ratio (ER) by a factor of 2-4 and a halving of the BC / CO ratio. Rainfall on Robbins Island was observed by radar during this period which likely resulted in a lower fire combustion efficiency, and higher emission of compounds associated with smouldering. This highlights the importance of relatively minor meterological events on BB emissions. Emission factors (EF) were derived for a range of trace gases, some never before reported for Australian conditions, (including hydrogen, phenol and toluene) using a calculated ER to CO and a published CO EF. The EF derived for most species are comparable to other temperate Australian studies but lower than Northern Hemisphere temperate studies. This work demonstrates the substantial impact that BB plumes have on the composition of marine air, and the significant changes that can occur as the plume is diluted and interacts with other emission sources. We also provide new trace gas and particle EF for temperate southern Australia.

  12. Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

  13. Contribution to the Understanding of Particle Motion Perception in Marine Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    André, Michel; Kaifu, Kenzo; Solé, Marta; van der Schaar, Mike; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Balastegui, Andreu; Sánchez, Antonio M; Castell, Joan V

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrates potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise. Exposure to anthropogenic sound sources could have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The availability of novel laser Doppler vibrometer techniques has recently opened the possibility of measuring whole body (distance, velocity, and acceleration) vibration as a direct stimulus eliciting statocyst response, offering the scientific community a new level of understanding of the marine invertebrate hearing mechanism. PMID:26610943

  14. Assessing the Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development on Marine and Estuarine Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-07-30

    The world’s oceans and estuaries offer an enormous potential to meet the nation’s growing demand for energy. The use of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to harness the power of wave and tidal energy could contribute significantly toward meeting federal- and state-mandated renewable energy goals while supplying a substantial amount of clean energy to coastal communities. Locations along the eastern and western coasts of the United States between 40° and 70° north latitude are ideal for MHK deployment, and recent estimates of energy potential for the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California suggest that up to 25 gigawatts could be generated from wave and tidal devices in these areas. Because energy derived from wave and tidal devices is highly predictable, their inclusion in our energy portfolio could help balance available sources of energy production, including hydroelectric, coal, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal, and others.

  15. Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) production by marine phytoplankton in response to increasing CO2 : laboratory and field mesocosm experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Heemann, C.; Schartau, M.; Schneider, U.; Thoms, S.; Delille, B.; Jacquet, S.; Riebesell, U.; Zondervan, I.

    2003-04-01

    The export of organic carbon to the deep ocean is mediated by sinking of large particles, such as marine snow, the formation of which is enhanced in the presence of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) . TEP form from dissolved and colloidal polysaccharides by aggregation processes. Especially when running into nutrient limitation phytoplankton organisms are a source of TEP in pelagic ecosystems as the cells release a significant amount of the assimilated carbon in the form of polysaccharides. Because CO_2 concentration influences carbon assimilation rates, we hypothesized that polysaccharide exudation and aggregation into TEP is related to CO_2 concentration under nutrient limiting conditions. We tested this hypothesis in several lab and outdoor experiments with natural populations and cultures of phytoplankton exposed to various levels of CO_2 concentrations. Our results indicate that TEP production increases with CO_2 concentration and provides an enhanced sink for carbon during phytoplankton blooms.

  16. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-15

    The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. PMID:24279956

  17. Variability of CCN Activation Behaviour of Aerosol Particles in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Silvia; Dieckmann, Katrin; Hartmann, Susan; Schäfer, Michael; Wu, Zhijun; Merkel, Maik; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2013-04-01

    The variability of cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activation behaviour and total CCN number concentrations was investigated during three ship cruises. Measurements were performed in a mobile laboratory on the German research vessel FS Polarstern cruising between Cape Town and Bremerhaven (April / May and October / November 2011) as well as between Punta Arenas and Bremerhaven (April / May 2012). CCN size distributions were measured for supersaturations between 0.1% and 0.4% using a Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (DMT, USA). Aerosol particle and CCN total number concentrations as well as the hygroscopicity parameter κ (Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007) were determined. Furthermore, size distribution data were collected. The hygroscopicity parameter κ featured a high variability during the cruises, with a median κ-value of 0.52 ± 0.26. The κ-values are depended on air mass origin; and are as expected mainly dominated by marine influences, but also long range transport of aerosol particles was detected. In the Celtic Sea, κ was found to be lower than that of clean marine aerosol particles (0.72 ± 0.24; Pringle et al., 2010) with κ-values ~0.2, possibly influenced by anthropogenic emissions from Europe. Close to the West African coast particle hygroscopicity was found to be influenced by the Saharan dust plume, resulting in low κ-values ~0.25. Petters, M.D. and S.M. Kreidenweis (2007), A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity, Atmos. Chem. and Phys., 7, 1961-1971. Pringle, K.J., H. Tost, A. Pozzer, U. Pöschl, and J. Lelieveld (2010), Global distribution of the effective aerosol hygroscopicity parameter for CCN activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5241-5255.

  18. Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Targeted and Single Particle Subcellular Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-03-12

    The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube.

  19. The impact of particle size, relative humidity, and sulfur dioxide on iron solubility in simulated atmospheric marine aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Benton T; Marcotte, Aurelie R; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Majestic, Brian J

    2015-06-16

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans, and its most significant source is atmospheric deposition. To understand the pathways of iron solubilization during atmospheric transport, we exposed size segregated simulated marine aerosols to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide at arid (23 ± 1% relative humidity, RH) and marine (98 ± 1% RH) conditions. Relative iron solubility increased as the particle size decreased for goethite and hematite, while for magnetite, the relative solubility was similar for all of the fine size fractions (2.5-0.25 μm) investigated but higher than the coarse size fraction (10-2.5 μm). Goethite and hematite showed increased solubility at arid RH, but no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two humidity levels for magnetite. There was no correlation between iron solubility and exposure to SO2 in any mineral for any size fraction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements showed no change in iron speciation [Fe(II) and Fe(III)] in any minerals following SO2 exposure. SEM-EDS measurements of SO2-exposed goethite revealed small amounts of sulfur uptake on the samples; however, the incorporated sulfur did not affect iron solubility. Our results show that although sulfur is incorporated into particles via gas-phase processes, changes in iron solubility also depend on other species in the aerosol. PMID:26000788

  20. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, B C; Lind, O C; Bradshaw, C; Salbu, B

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as (137)Cs and (90)Sr/(90)Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gyh(-1)) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the "no-effect dose" are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example potential recycling within a population, or trophic transfer in the food chain. PMID:25240099

  1. Turbulent particle clustering in a fully developed square channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villafane, Laura; Banko, Andrew; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John

    2015-11-01

    Particle-turbulence interactions are investigated in a fully developed turbulent channel air flow to determine the gas phase effect on the particle concentration and velocity fields. The experimental apparatus is a vertical channel with square cross section. The Reynolds number based on channel width is about 104. The 12 um nominal diameter nickel particles are smaller than the Kolmogorov length scale and the corresponding Stokes number is of the order of one. Low volume and mass loading ratios are considered. Under these conditions preferential concentration is expected to be strong while the effect of particles on the gas flow negligible. The square channel flow contains mean secondary flows not present in high aspect ratio channels studied previously. These will increase transport of particles away from the walls and raise turbulence levels in the central region. Current experiments are focused on the statistics of the particle phase including particle concentration inhomogeneities and particle velocities. The particle concentration field is analyzed from high resolution laser illuminated planar images. Particle velocity distributions are measured by PIV techniques and compared to the carrier-phase mean velocities from aerodynamic pressure measurements in the unladen case. The effect of increasing mass loading ratio on the particle velocities is analyzed. This Material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0002373-1.

  2. Current Development Status of a Particle Size Analyzer for Coated Particle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew T; Hunn, John D; Karnowski, Thomas Paul

    2007-08-01

    Work was performed to develop a prototype Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) for application to coated particle fuel characterization. This system was based on a light obscuration method and targeted towards high throughput analysis. Although never matured to the point of replacing existing lower throughput optical microscopy shadowgraph methods, the system was successfully applied to automating the counting of large particle samples for increased accuracy in calculating mean particle properties based on measurements of multiparticle samples. The measurement of particle size with the PSA was compared to current shadowgraph techniques and found to result in considerably greater throughput at the cost of larger measurement uncertainty. The current algorithm used by the PSA is more sensitive to particle shape and this is a likely cause of the greater uncertainty when attempting to measure average particle diameter. The use of the PSA to measure particle shape will require further development. Particle transport through the PSA and stability of the light source/detector are key elements in the successful application of this technique. A number of system pitfalls were studied and addressed.

  3. Development of Blood Analog Fluids Using Human Hair Protein Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shunichi; Morikawa, Hirohisa; Ishii, Shinji; Fujii, Toshihiro

    Model experiments of blood flow are very important in the study of mechanical aspects in cardiovascular research and the development of artificial organs. Several blood analog fluids, such as non-Newtonian fluids have been developed and used in model experiments. However, little is known about blood substitutes with biocompatible properties. We have developed novel procedures for preparing human hair protein films, and have fabricated protein particle suspensions from the films, by mechanical stimulation, for use as blood analog fluid. The average diameter of the protein particles was controlled and microscopic observations were done using a confocal microscope. The Casson’s plot patterns of the suspension containing the protein particles were similar to those of human blood. The protein particles also worked well as ultrasound contrast agents in the ultrasound Doppler flow velocity measurements in the model experiments. Therefore, the protein particle system is a promising alternative for blood cells in artificial blood.

  4. Stress and Microstructure Development in Particle-Based Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Kyle Kirk-Arthur

    Particle-based coatings have a wide range of uses and applications in everyday life. Stress development during the drying process has the potential to impact the performance of the coating. Stress development can be monitored in-situ using a cantilever deflection technique with a laser-photodiode combination. Stress development in the film is directly related to the development of the coating microstructure during drying. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is a powerful characterization method capable of visualizing the microstructure of the coating during the intermediate stages of drying. Using this method, the coating is frozen to arrest microstructure development and solidify the sample so that it can survive the high-vacuum environment of the SEM. This thesis explores the connections between stress and microstructure development in particle-based coatings during drying. Characterization is often complicated by lateral drying, a common phenomenon in particle-based coatings. To avoid these complications, walled substrates were developed which are used to suppress lateral drying and promote drying uniformity. CryoSEM revealed that latex coatings dried on substrates (with photoresist walls) exhibit a greater degree of drying uniformity. Silicon cantilevers with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) walls along the perimeter were used to suppress the effects of lateral drying during stress measurement. The walled cantilevers were used to characterize stress development in ceramic particle coatings and latex films. For the ceramic particle coatings, stress measurements were combined with cryoSEM revealing the origins of stress development in hard particle coatings. Stress development was correlated with the extent of drying and the degree of saturation in the coating. Stress development in latex particle coatings was influenced by the composition and morphology of the latex particles. Additionally, the influence of coalescing aids on stress development was also investigated. The film formation behavior was studied using a variety of techniques including AFM, cryoSEM, and minimum film formation temperature (MFFT) measurements.

  5. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F.; McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C.

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  6. Mind the Gap: furthering the development of an international collaboration in marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H. M.; Miller, S. P.; Proctor, R.; Schaap, D.

    2012-12-01

    A large and ever increasing amount of marine data is available throughout Europe, USA, Australia and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collection is high and the data itself often irreplaceable. At a time when the demand for marine data is growing while financial resources for its collection are being dramatically reduced the need to maximise its re-use is becoming a priority for marine data managers. A number of barriers to the re-use of marine data currently exist due to the various formats, standards, vocabularies etc. used by the organisations engaged in collecting and managing this data. These challenges are already being addressed at a regional level by projects in Europe (Geo-Seas, SeaDataNet etc.), USA (R2R) and Australia (IMOS). To expand these projects further and bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) will establish a collaborative platform which will facilitate the development of a common approach to marine data management. Proactive dissemination of the outcomes and products of this project will promote adoption of the common standards and practices developed by the ODIP project to other organisations and regions beyond the 20 original consortium partners. To demonstrate this coordinated approach several joint prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential solutions for solving the marine data management issues identified within the different marine disciplines. These prototypes will also be used to illustrate the effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and international boundaries through the development of common practices and standards in marine data management.

  7. Mind the Gap: furthering the development of an international collaboration in marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Miller, Stephen; Proctor, Roger; Schaap, Dick

    2013-04-01

    A large and ever increasing amount of marine data is available throughout Europe, USA, Australia and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collection is high and the data itself often irreplaceable. At a time when the demand for marine data is growing while financial resources for its collection are being dramatically reduced the need to maximise its re-use is becoming a priority for marine data managers. A number of barriers to the re-use of marine data currently exist due to the various formats, standards, vocabularies etc. used by the organisations engaged in collecting and managing this data. These challenges are already being addressed at a regional level by projects in Europe (Geo-Seas, SeaDataNet etc.), USA (R2R) and Australia (IMOS). To expand these projects further and bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) will establish a collaborative platform which will facilitate the development of a common approach to marine data management. Proactive dissemination of the outcomes and products of this project will promote adoption of the common standards and practices developed by the ODIP project to other organisations and regions beyond the 20 original consortium partners. To demonstrate this coordinated approach several joint prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential solutions for solving the marine data management issues identified within the different marine. These prototypes will also be used to illustrate the effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and international boundaries through the development of common practices and standards in marine data management.

  8. Adding pharmacogenomics to the development of new marine-derived anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno, José; Aracil, Miguel; Tercero, Juan Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Nature has always been a highly productive tool in the development of anticancer therapies. Renewed interest in the potential of this tool has recently been sparked by the realization that the marine ecosystem can be used for the discovery and development of new compounds with clinical potential in advanced resistant tumors. These compounds can be incorporated into combination approaches in a chronic therapy scenario. Our marine anticancer program is using the sea to develop new agents with activity in resistant solid tumors and to identify new cellular targets for therapeutic intervention. This review describes the integration of different pharmacogenomic tools in the development of Yondelis™, Aplidin® and Kahalalide F, three marine-derived compounds currently in Phase II or III development. Our results are reinforcing the targeted selectivity of these agents and opening the gates for customized therapies in cancer patients in the near future. PMID:16401350

  9. Mind the Gap: furthering the development of EU-US collaboration in marine geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H. M.; Miller, S. P.; Schaap, D.; Geo-Seas Consortium Partners

    2011-12-01

    There is a large and ever increasing amount of marine geological and geophysical data available throughout Europe, the USA and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collecting it is very high and there is therefore a need to maximise the potential re-use of this data wherever possible. Facilitating this is becoming an increasingly important aspect of marine geosciences data management as the need for marine data increases at a time when the financial resources for data acquisition are being dramatically reduced. A significant barrier to this re-use of marine geosciences data is the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of marine geosciences data at a regional, national and international scale. This is also proving to be a barrier to the development of interoperability with other data types at a time when there is a need to develop a more holistic approach to marine research. These challenges are currently being addressed within Europe by a number of EU funded initiatives, the objectives of which are an improvement in the discovery and access to marine data. The Geo-Seas project is just one of these initiatives, the focus of which is the development of an e-infrastructure for the delivery of standardised marine geological and geophysical data across Europe. The project is developing this e-infrastructure by adopting and adapting the methodologies of the related SeaDataNet project which currently provides an e-infrastructure for the management of oceanographic data. This re-use of the existing technologies has lead to the development a joint multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the delivery or both geoscientific and oceanographic data. In order to develop this initiative further and bridge the gap between these European projects and those being undertaken by colleagues in both the US and elsewhere a number of collaborative relationships including with the US based Rolling Deck Repository (R2R) project have been developed. To facilitate these growing collaborative relationships further a new EU initiative has recently been established in parallel with the relevant funding agencies in the USA and Australia. Through the development of these collaborative initiatives and the provision of the necessary financial support there is now an opportunity to develop common standards and methodologies which will allow the development of a common multidisciplinary approach to marine science on both sides of the Atlantic.

  10. Investigating Primary Marine Aerosol Properties: CCN Activity of Sea Salt and Mixed Inorganic–Organic Particles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sea spray particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater containing salt and organic matter in a stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a diffuser or by water jet impingement on the seawater surface. Three objectives were addressed in this study. First, CCN activities of NaCl and two types of artificial sea salt containing only inorganic components were measured to establish a baseline for further measurements of mixed organic–inorganic particles. Second, the effect of varying bubble residence time in the bulk seawater solution on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. Finally, CCN activities of particles produced from jet impingement were compared with those produced from diffuser aeration. Analyses indicate a considerable amount of organic enrichment in the jet-produced particles relative to the bulk seawater composition when sodium laurate, an organic surfactant, is present in the seawater. In this case, the production of a thick foam layer during impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not equal. PMID:22809370

  11. Mind the Gap: furthering the development of EU-US collaboration in marine geoscience.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H.; Miller, S.; Schaap, D.

    2012-04-01

    There is a large and ever increasing amount of marine geological and geophysical data available throughout Europe, the USA and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collecting it is very high and there is therefore a need to maximise the potential re-use of this data wherever possible. Facilitating this is becoming an increasingly important aspect of marine geosciences data management as the need for marine data increases at a time when the financial resources for data acquisition are being dramatically reduced. A significant barrier to the re-use of marine geoscience data is the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of marine geosciences data at a regional, national and international scale. This is also proving to be a barrier to the development of interoperability with other data types at a time when there is a need to develop a more holistic approach to marine research. These challenges are currently being addressed within Europe by a number of EU funded initiatives, the objectives of which are an improvement in the discovery and access to marine data. The Geo-Seas project is just one of these initiatives, the focus of which is the development of an e-infrastructure for the delivery of standardised marine geological and geophysical data across Europe. The project is developing this e-infrastructure by adopting and adapting the methodologies of the SeaDataNet project which currently provides an e-infrastructure for the management of oceanographic data. This re-use of the existing technologies has lead to the development a joint multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the delivery or both geoscientific and oceanographic data. In order to expand these initiatives further and bridge the gap between these European projects and those being undertaken by colleagues in both the US and elsewhere a number of collaborative relationships have been developed. To further these growing collaborative relationships a new EU initiative has recently been proposed in parallel with the relevant funding agencies in the USA and Australia with the objective of developing common standards and methodologies which will allow the development of a common multidisciplinary approach to marine science on an international scale.

  12. Particle emissions from a marine engine: chemical composition and aromatic emission profiles under various operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Sippula, O; Stengel, B; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Rabe, R; Orasche, J; Lintelmann, J; Michalke, B; Abbaszade, G; Radischat, C; Gröger, T; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Harndorf, H; Zimmermann, R

    2014-10-01

    The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-speed four-stroke marine engine, operated on both heavy fuel oil (HFO) and distillate fuel (DF), was studied under various operating conditions. PM emission factors for organic matter, elemental carbon (soot), inorganic species and a variety of organic compounds were determined. In addition, the molecular composition of aromatic organic matter was analyzed using a novel coupling of a thermal-optical carbon analyzer with a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) mass spectrometer. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly present in an alkylated form, and the composition of the aromatic organic matter in emissions clearly resembled that of fuel. The emissions of species known to be hazardous to health (PAH, Oxy-PAH, N-PAH, transition metals) were significantly higher from HFO than from DF operation, at all engine loads. In contrast, DF usage generated higher elemental carbon emissions than HFO at typical load points (50% and 75%) for marine operation. Thus, according to this study, the sulfur emission regulations that force the usage of low-sulfur distillate fuels will also substantially decrease the emissions of currently unregulated hazardous species. However, the emissions of soot may even increase if the fuel injection system is optimized for HFO operation. PMID:25202837

  13. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Mani

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  14. Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, Hubert; Nicolas, Jean-Marc; Sciandra, Antoine; Stramski, Dariusz; Poteau, Antoine

    2006-09-01

    Knowledge of the relative proportion between small-sized and larger particles in the surface ocean is essential to understand the ocean ecology and biogeochemistry, including particle dynamics and carbon cycling. We show that this information may be assessed qualitatively from satellite observations of ocean color. Such capability is based on the estimation of spectral dependence, γ, of particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, which is sensitive to particle size distribution. Our results obtained from satellite observations of the global ocean are supported by in situ measurements, and they demonstrate a general decrease of the spectral slope γ from oligotrophic to eutrophic regimes, although significant regional differences are observed in the relationship between γ and the chlorophyll a concentration, Chl. To first approximation, such a decrease in γ is expected to be accompanied by an increased role of larger particles. This is consistent with our field data that show relatively high concentrations of submicron particles in very clear oceanic waters. Different seasonal patterns are also observed depending on the oceanic regions. The seasonal amplitude of γ is generally higher than that of Chl and bbp in equatorial and tropical regions, and it is much lower at temperate latitudes. These spatio-temporal patterns are interpreted in terms of processes that modify the composition of particulate assemblages and physiology of phytoplankton in response to environmental forcing. The changes in γ are clearly related to variations in the mixed layer depth and photosynthetic available radiation.

  15. Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. M.; Butcher, A. C.; Rosenoern, T.; Coz, E.; Lieke, K. I.; de Leeuw, G.; Nilsson, E. D.; Bilde, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sea salt particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater in a closed stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. The two-component artificial seawater consisted of salt, either NaCl or sea salt, and one organic compound in deionized water. Several organic molecules representative of oceanic organic matter were investigated. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a porous diffuser or by water jet impingement on the surface of the artificial seawater. The effect of bubble lifetime, which was controlled by varying the depth of the diffuser in the water column, on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. The CCN activities of particles produced from diffuser-generated bubbles were generally governed by the high hygroscopicity of salt, such that activation was indistinguishable from that of salt, except in the case of very low mass ratio of salt to organic matter in the seawater solution. There was, however, a considerable decrease in CCN activity for particles produced from jet impingement on seawater that had a salinity of 10‰ and contained 0.45 mM of sodium laurate, an organic surfactant. The production of a thick foam layer from impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not similar. Accurate conclusions from observed CCN activities of particles from artificial seawater containing organic matter require knowledge of the CCN activity of the inorganic component, especially as a small amount of the inorganic can heavily influence activation. Therefore, the CCN activity of both artificial sea salt and NaCl were measured and compared. Part of the discrepancy observed between the CCN activities of the two salts may be due to morphological differences, which were investigated using electron microscopy.

  16. Development and testing of hierarchically wrinkled coatings for marine antifouling.

    PubMed

    Efimenko, Kirill; Finlay, John; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Genzer, Jan

    2009-05-01

    We report on the formation and testing of novel marine coatings comprising hierarchically wrinkled surface topographies (HWTS) having wrinkles of different length scales (generations) ranging from tens of nanometers to a fraction of a millimeter. The individual wrinkle generations are arranged in nested patterns, where each larger wrinkle resides underneath and represents a scaled-up version of the smaller wrinkle. We present and discuss results from field tests in seawater and laboratory experiments. The results of our field tests reveal that while coatings with flat topographies foul after relatively short time periods (4-15 weeks), the HWST coatings with the same chemistries as flat coatings remain relatively free of biofouling even after prolonged exposure to seawater (18 months). In contrast to flat coatings, the HWST substrates are not colonized by barnacles. These observations suggest that surface topography plays a dominant role in governing the coating defense against barnacle fouling even without fine-tuning the chemical composition of the overcoat. Laboratory experiments indicate that settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva and the strength of attachment of sporelings (young plants) depend on the chemical composition of the coating as well as surface topography. PMID:20355888

  17. Organic carbon and aliphatic amines in marine particles: exchange processes between ocean and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Pinxteren, Manuela; Fomba, Wadinga; Müller, Konrad; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Within exchange processes between air and sea, the export of organic compounds from the oceans to the atmosphere play an essential role as the oceans cover a substantial area of the planet. In order to investigate such interactions, in two intensive campaigns in 2011 at the Cape Verde islands, seawater and marine aerosol was sampled and analyzed regarding the organic content. The Cape Verdes islands generally represent a region of low nutrient supply and biological activity, but at certain times of the year biological activity increases due to local upwelling and nutrient input from the desert via dust deposition. Chlorophyll A data showed low biological activity at the first campaign (May 2011) but higher biological activity in the second campaign (November 2011). Regarding seawater analysis, higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were found in November 2011. Furthermore, enrichment of organic carbon in the sea surface microlayer - the direct interface between air and sea - was found up to an enrichment factor of 2. General aerosol composition in terms of inorganic ions (sodium, chloride, ammonium, and sulfate) was similar in May and November, but the OC content was strongly increased in November at high biological activity. Also OC enrichment in aerosols compared to seawater increased in times of high biological activity by 30%. Backward trajectories showed that the collected aerosols were all of marine origin. Besides organic sum parameters, aliphatic amines were investigated on aerosols as they are important organic compounds in the atmosphere and expected to contribute in secondary organic aerosol formation. Aliphatic amines were found on the aerosols in concentrations between 11 and 17 ng m-3. Although concentrations of the amines were similar at the two campaigns, their contribution to the dissolved organic carbon was higher at times of high biological activity (November). The aliphatic amines also show a correlation to chlorophyll A and amine specific pigments determined in seawater. The results support the assumption that organic carbon on aerosols is connected to the biological activity within the ocean being an important source.

  18. Acute toxicity of interstitial and particle-bound cadmium to a marine infaunal amphipod

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.; Swartz, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The relative acute toxicity of particle-bound and dissolved interstitial cadmium was investigated using a new bioassay procedure. Interstitial concentration of Cd was controlled by means of peristaltic pumps, allowing separate manipulation of interstitial and particle properties. Addition of small quantities of organic-rich fine particles to sandy sediment resulted in greatly differing particle-bound Cd concentrations in sediment with similar interstitial Cd concentrations. Analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in the survival or ability to rebury in sediment of the phoxocephalid amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius (Barnard), when exposed to sediment with different total Cd concentrations but nearly equal interstitial Cd concentrations; in one case LC50 data indicated slightly increased mortality in sediment with higher total Cd concentration. At least 70.2-87.9% of mortality could be predicted from past data on mortality based on dissolved Cd concentrations. The acute toxicity of Cd to the infaunal amphipod appears to be due principally to Cd dissolved in interstitial water.

  19. Oil-particle interactions and submergence from crude oil spills in marine and freshwater environments: review of the science and future research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Boufadel, Michael C.; Johnson, Rex; Lee, Kenneth W.; Graan, Thomas P.; Bejarano, Adriana C.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Waterman, David; Capone, Daniel M.; Hayter, Earl; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Dekker, Timothy; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Hassan, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about oil-particle interactions in coastal marine environments, there remains a need for additional science on methods to detect and quantify the presence of OPAs and to understand their effects on containment and recovery of oil spilled under various temperature regimes and in different aquatic habitats including freshwater environments.

  20. Developing human capital for successful implementation of international marine scientific research projects.

    PubMed

    Morrison, R J; Zhang, J; Urban, E R; Hall, J; Ittekkot, V; Avril, B; Hu, L; Hong, G H; Kidwai, S; Lange, C B; Lobanov, V; Machiwa, J; San Diego-McGlone, M L; Oguz, T; Plumley, F G; Yeemin, T; Zhu, W; Zuo, F

    2013-12-15

    The oceans play a crucial role in the global environment and the sustainability of human populations, because of their involvement in climate regulation and provision of living and non-living resources to humans. Maintenance of healthy oceans in an era of increasing human pressure requires a high-level understanding of the processes occurring in the marine environment and the impacts of anthropogenic activities. Effective protection and sustainable resource management must be based, in part, on knowledge derived from successful research. Current marine research activities are being limited by a need for high-quality researchers capable of addressing critical issues in broad multidisciplinary research activities. This is particularly true for developing countries which will require the building of capacity for marine scientific research. This paper reviews the current activities aimed at increasing marine research capacity in developing and emerging countries and analyses the challenges faced, including: appropriate alignment of the research goals and societal and policy-relevant needs; training in multidisciplinary research; increasing capacity for overall synthesis of scientific data; building the capacity of technical staff; keeping highly qualified personnel in marine scientific research roles; cross-cultural issues in training; minimising duplication in training activities; improving linkages among human capital, project resources and infrastructure. Potential solutions to these challenges are provided, along with some priorities for action aimed at improving the overall research effort. PMID:24055460

  1. Toxicity and accumulation of silver nanoparticles during development of the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    García-Alonso, Javier; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Neus; Misra, Superb K.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants affecting species at the population level generate ecological instability in natural systems. The success of early life stages, such as those of aquatic invertebrates, is highly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Silver released into the environment from emerging nanotechnology represents such a threat. Sediments are sinks for numerous pollutants, which aggregate and/or associate with depositing suspended particles. Deposit feeder such as the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which has a large associated literature on its development, is an excellent model organism for exposure studies in coastal environments. We exposed eggs, larvae, juveniles and adults of P. dumerilii to various concentrations of citrate (cit-Ag NPs) or humic acid (HA-Ag NPs) capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as well to dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3). We showed that mortality and abnormal development rate increased with younger life stages. While adults and juvenile were the most tolerant life stages, fertilized eggs were highly sensitive to AgNO3, cit-Ag NPs and HA-Ag NPs. Exposures to HA-Ag NPs triggered the highest cute toxicity responses in P. dumerilii and in most cases both Ag NPs were more toxic than AgNO3. Uptake rate of HA-Ag NPs in adult worms was also higher than from other Ag forms, consistent with toxicity to other life stages. The early stages of the life cycle of marine coastal organisms are more affected by Ag NPs than the juvenile or adult life stages, indicating that exposure experiments at the larval level contribute to realistic eco-toxicological studies in aquatic environments.

  2. Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed beads mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.

    2016-02-01

    Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed beads mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The beads mill consist of glass beads, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of beads mill is the performance of the designed on separating the beads with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of beads mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass beads with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after beads mill, it is concluded that the current design of bead mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.

  3. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm) was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1) • d(-1), respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P < 0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P < 0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  4. Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind−1•d−1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P<0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P<0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  5. The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

  6. Marine Information Centre Development: An Introductory Manual. Manuals and Guides 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Allan

    The purpose of this introductory manual is briefly to explain and put into context the elements involved in marine information center development and operation. Its goal is to provide an overview and create an awareness of the range of the inter-connected procedures, activities, and products that make up an information service. The introductory…

  7. Temporal succession in carbon incorporation from macromolecules by particle-attached bacteria in marine microcosms.

    PubMed

    Mayali, Xavier; Stewart, Benjamin; Mabery, Shalini; Weber, Peter K

    2016-02-01

    We investigated bacterial carbon assimilation from stable isotope-labelled macromolecular substrates (proteins; lipids; and two types of polysaccharides, starch and cellobiose) while attached to killed diatom detrital particles during laboratory microcosms incubated for 17 days. Using Chip-SIP (secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of RNA microarrays), we identified generalist operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the genera Colwellia, Glaciecola, Pseudoalteromonas and Rheinheimera, and from the Bacteroidetes, genera Owenweeksia and Maribacter, that incorporated the four tested substrates throughout the incubation period. Many of these OTUs exhibited the highest isotope incorporation relative to the others, indicating that they were likely the most active. Additional OTUs from the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria exhibited generally (but not always) lower activity and did not incorporate all tested substrates at all times, showing species succession in organic carbon incorporation. We also found evidence to suggest that both generalist and specialist OTUs changed their relative substrate incorporation over time, presumably in response to changing substrate availability as the particles aged. This pattern was demonstrated by temporal succession from relatively higher starch incorporation early in the incubations, eventually switching to higher cellobiose incorporation after 2 weeks. PMID:26525158

  8. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans. PMID:26088539

  9. The number of sea-salt, sulfate, and carbonaceous particles in the marine atmosphere:. EM measurements consistent with the ambient size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Lynn; Covert, David; Baker, Brad

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate the number of sea-salt, sulfate, and carbonaceous particles associated with the fine and coarse mode aerosol in the marine boundary layer and from the marine/continental interface, the elemental composition of individual aerosol particles was determined with EM. Samples were collected from the Pacific marine boundary layer during a research cruise along 140°W from the southern to northern hemisphere, and from a coastal station in NW Washington. Consistently, the most dominant aerosol types found were ammonium sulfate and acidic sulfate comprising 52 to 96% of the total number at a median diameter of 0.14 µm. Sea-salt particles were 4 to 13% of the total number, with modes at 0.2 and 0.6 µm. Carbonaceous particles, mostly as organic compounds, made up the remainder of the submicrometer aerosol at a few percentage to as much as 31% of the total number for continentally influenced periods. Silica-rich minerals and potassium and calcium salts were observed during such periods, representing a measurable, but small fraction of the total number. Sea-salt particles were 86 to 100% of the number of supermicrometer particles with a mass median diameter of 1.5 µm. A less abundant, and variable fraction of mineral particles made up the remainder of the coarse aerosol number concentration identified primarily as aluminosilicates, mass median diameter of 0.9 µm. Very little soot was observed in either the coarse or fine mode. Particle number concentrations were consistently low and airmass trajectories suggest the air originated over the open ocean for the majority of the sampling periods. Overall, normalized EM distributions agreed fairly well with in-situ measurements of the aerosol size distribution.

  10. HEASD PM RESEARCH METHODS: PARTICLE METHODS EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FRM developed by NERL forms the backbone of the EPA's national monitoring strategy. It is the measurement that defines attainment of the new standard. However, the agency has numerous other needs in assessing the physical and chemical characteristics of ambient fine particl...

  11. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common approach to marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H.; Schaap, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports this ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. To address these issues, the ODIP project is creating a co-ordination platform between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts will come together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first ODIP workshop. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential prototypes have been identified and work has now begun work to implement these solutions. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies from each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from 6 European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

  12. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara ); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt )

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines; 2) the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals; and 3) the effects of energy removal on physical systems. Each case study contains a description of environmental monitoring efforts and research studies, lessons learned, and analysis of remaining information gaps. The information collected through the Annex IV effort and referenced in this report, can be accessed on the Tethys database at http://mhk.pnnl.gov/wiki/index.php/Tethys_ Home.

  13. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  14. Global Simulations of Radiative Forcing from Sea Salt Injections into Marine Clouds: The Effect of Injection Rate and Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alterskjaer, K.; Kristjánsson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sea salt seeding of low level marine clouds is a suggested technique to counteract or slow global warming. The injected sea salt is to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and through the aerosol indirect effect increase the cloud albedo and therefore the reflection of solar radiation from the earth-atmosphere system. Using the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) we investigate the global radiative forcing achieved through sea salt seeding as a function of both (i) emission rate and (ii) sea salt particle size. The injection rates are uniform and confined over ocean between 30°S and 30°N, and range from 10-9 to 10-11 kg m-2 s-1. The size of the particles ranges from a dry modal radius of 0.022 μm to 0.13 μm, with geometric standard deviations of 1.59. The study includes aerosol indirect effects both in the shortwave and the longwave and investigates the direct radiative effect of the added sea salt particles. Preliminary results show that increasing emissions of the 0.13 μm sea salt mode leads to an aerosol indirect effect of between -3.4 Wm-2 and -0.04 Wm-2, depending on emission rate. The maximum achieved forcing is close to cancelling the positive forcing resulting from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (-3.8 Wm-2). Results also show that the direct effect of the sea salt parties is much larger than previously assumed, and the total radiative effect and the cooling potential of this geo-engineering technique may therefore be much greater than what has been assumed earlier. We find that ignoring the direct effect of sea salt may lead to serious errors in determining both the effectiveness of sea salt seeding and possible side effects. The longwave forcing resulting from a change in cloud emissivity with added sea salt is found to be negligible. Results also show that the size of the added sea salt is of crucial importance for the achieved radiative forcing. While adding large sea salt particles leads to a significant negative forcing at the top of the atmosphere, the opposite is true for particles below a certain size. This happens because the injected sea salt provide a large surface area for water vapor and gaseous sulfuric acid to condense on, thereby lowering the maximum cloud supersaturation and suppressing the nucleation of sulfate particles. Adding particles that are too small to become activated to cloud droplets merely leads to a reduced supersaturation and sulfate concentration and therefore to a decrease in the overall CCN concentration. This results in a reduced cloud droplet number concentration and a positive globally averaged forcing.

  15. Some developments in neutron and charged particle dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bos, Adrie J J; d'Errico, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing need for dosimetry of neutrons and charged particles. Increasing exposure levels are reported in the nuclear industry, deriving from more frequent in-service entries at commercial nuclear power plants, and from increased plant decommissioning and refurbishment activities. Another need stems from the compliance with requirements of the regulations and standards. The European Council directive 96/29 requires dosimetric precautions if the effective dose exceeds 1 mSv a(-1). On average, aircrew members exceed this value. Further, there is a trend of increasing use of charged particles in radiotherapy. The present situation is that we have reasonably good photon dosemeters, but neutron and charged particle dosemeters are still in need of improvements. This work highlights some of the developments in this field. It is mainly concentrated on some developments in passive dosimetry, in particular thermally and optically stimulated luminescent detectors, indicating the direction of ongoing research. It shows that passive dosemeters are still a very active field. Active dosemeters will not be discussed with the exception of new developments in microdosimetric measurements [new types of tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs)]. The TEPC is unique in its ability to provide a simultaneous determination of neutron / charged particle / gamma ray doses, or dose equivalents using a single detector. PMID:16987918

  16. Marine toxicity tests development with a New Zealand echinoid

    SciTech Connect

    Nipper, M.G.; Roper, D.S.; Martin, M.L.; Williams, E.K.

    1995-12-31

    The generally low levels of contamination around New Zealand lead to the search for a sensitive toxicity test, which could be used to screen effluent and to detect contaminant effects in coastal waters and sediments. Echinoid early life stage tests were considered ideal candidates. However, the adaptation of international toxicity test methods to indigenous species has not been straightforward or troublefree! The echinoid Fellaster zelandiae was selected because it is abundant around New Zealand and is fertile year round. Fertilization tests showed that gamete density, rather than sperm/egg ratio, was a crucial factor for successful control fertilization rates. This method, however, presented several problems related to (1) temporal variability in the quality of sperm batches, (2) rapid reduction of egg quality and viability after spawning, and (3) highly variable sensitivity in reference toxicant tests. Embryo tests were more reliable, with good control results (> 80% normal embryos) and consistent sensitivity to a reference toxicant, zinc sulfate. EC{sub 50} values averaged 0.06 mg Zn/L, comparable to the sensitivity of echinoid species used elsewhere. Brine prepared by freezing seawater was suitable for adjusting the salinity of effluents, with more than 90% normal embryos developing in brine diluted with UV-treated deionized water as a test-control. The assessment of the embryo development test as a tool for screening sediment toxicity (using sediment pore water), is presently underway, concurrently with growth and behavioral endpoint tests using indigenous amphipods and bivalves.

  17. The effect of dynamic operating conditions on nano-particle emissions from a light-duty diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyungmin; Jeong, Yeonhwan

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the nano-sized particle emission characteristics from a small turbocharged common rail diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels. The experiments were conducted under dynamic engine operating conditions, such as steady-state, cold start, and transient conditions. The particle number and size distributions were analyzed with a high resolution PM analyzer. The diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) had an insignificant effect on the reduction in particle number, but particle number emissions were drastically reduced by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) at various steady conditions. Under high speed and load conditions, the particle filtering efficiency was decreased by the partial combustion of trapped particles inside the DPF because of the high exhaust temperature caused by the increased particle number concentration. Retarded fuel injection timing and higher EGR rates led to increased particle number emissions. As the temperature inside the DPF increased from 25 °C to 300 °C, the peak particle number level was reduced by 70% compared to cold start conditions. High levels of nucleation mode particle generation were found in the deceleration phases during the transient tests.

  18. Charged Particle Environment Definition for NGST: Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Evans, Steven W.; Hardage, Donna M.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    NGST will operate in a halo orbit about the L2 point, 1.5 million km from the Earth, where the spacecraft will periodically travel through the magnetotail region. There are a number of tools available to calculate the high energy, ionizing radiation particle environment from galactic cosmic rays and from solar disturbances. However, space environment tools are not generally available to provide assessments of charged particle environment and its variations in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail at L2 distances. An engineering-level phenomenology code (LRAD) was therefore developed to facilitate the definition of charged particle environments in the vicinity of the L2 point in support of the NGST program. LRAD contains models tied to satellite measurement data of the solar wind and magnetotail regions. The model provides particle flux and fluence calculations necessary to predict spacecraft charging conditions and the degradation of materials used in the construction of NGST. This paper describes the LRAD environment models for the deep magnetotail (XGSE < -100 Re) and solar wind, and presents predictions of the charged particle environment for NGST.

  19. The marine alga Gelidium amansii promotes the development and complexity of neuronal cytoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Abdul; Kang, Ji-Young; Hong, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hyunsook; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are vital not only to support neuronal development but also to protect mature neurons from atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases. As an effort to explore natural sources that possess neurotrophic activity, we screened common marine algae for their neuritogenic activity in the developing rat hippocampal neurons in culture. Of the 22 seaweed species examined, ethanol extracts of Gelidium amansii (GAE) exhibited potent neuritogenic activity, followed by Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum fulvellum extracts. The effects of GAE were dose dependent with an optimum concentration of 15 µg/mL. The GAE significantly promoted the initial neuronal differentiation from the stage I into the stage II and increased the indices of axonal and dendritic development such as the length, the numbers of primary processes, and branching frequencies by a minimum of twofold compared with the vehicle control. These results show that marine algae are promising candidates for neurotrophic potentials. PMID:22438103

  20. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, T; Matsunaga, N; Tsubaki, K; Tanaka, T

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 mumol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:3020006

  1. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.; Matsunaga, N.; Tsubaki, K.; Tanaka, T.

    1986-10-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 ..mu..mol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria.

  2. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil.

    PubMed

    Estrada, J D; Boeneke, C; Bechtel, P; Sathivel, S

    2011-12-01

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate its characteristics during 1 mo of storage. Unpurified salmon oil (USO) was purified (PSO) and both USO and PSO were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total oxidation, free fatty acids (FFA), and moisture content. A stable emulsion was prepared with 7% PSO, 22% gum arabic, 11% maltodextrin, and 60% water. The emulsion was spray-dried to produce MSO. The MSO was added to strawberry-flavored yogurt (SYMSO) before pasteurization and homogenization, and a control (SY) without MSO was produced. Both yogurts were stored for 1 mo at 4°C and we determined the quality characteristics including acidity (pH), syneresis, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), fatty acid methyl ester composition, color, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Total oxidation (unitless) of USO, PSO, and MSO was calculated to be 20.7±1.26, 10.9±0.1, and 13.4±0.25, respectively. Free fatty acid contents were 1.61±0.19%, 0.59±0.02%, and 0.77±0.02% for USO, PSO, and MSO, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids in MSO and in SYMSO, but neither was detected in SY. Fortification of SY with MSO had no significant effect on yogurt pH or syneresis. A decrease in concentration of lactic acid bacteria was observed during the storage of all yogurts. Thiobarbituric acid values significantly increased as storage time increased and SY had a significantly lighter (higher L*) and less yellow (lower b*) color than SYMSO. Although some slight differences were observed in the color and oxidation of SYMSO compared with SY, the study demonstrated that SY could be fortified with salmon oil. PMID:22118066

  3. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  4. Great skua (Stercorarius skua) movements at sea in relation to marine renewable energy developments.

    PubMed

    Wade, H M; Masden, E A; Jackson, A C; Thaxter, C B; Burton, N H K; Bouten, W; Furness, R W

    2014-10-01

    Marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) are an increasing feature of the marine environment. Owing to the relatively small number of existing developments and the early stage of their associated environmental monitoring programmes, the effects of MREDs on seabirds are not fully known. Our ability to fully predict potential effects is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding movements of seabirds at sea. We used GPS tracking to improve our understanding of the movements at sea of a protected seabird species breeding in Scotland, the great skua (Stercorarius skua), to better predict how this species may be affected by MREDs. We found that the overlap of great skuas with leased and proposed MREDs was low; particularly with offshore wind sites, which are predicted to present a greater risk to great skuas than wave or tidal-stream developments. Failed breeders overlapped with larger areas of MREDs than breeding birds but the overall overlap with core areas used remained low. Overlap with wave energy development sites was greater than for offshore wind and tidal-stream sites. Comparison of 2011 data with historical data indicates that distances travelled by great skuas have likely increased over recent decades. This suggests that basing marine spatial planning decisions on short-term tracking data could be less informative than longer-term data. PMID:25262489

  5. Development and testing of the infrared radiometer for the Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, T. C.

    1975-01-01

    The science objectives, development history, functional description, and testing of the Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 infrared radiometer are discussed. Included in the functional description section is a thorough discussion of the IRR optical system, electronic operation, and thermal control. Signal development and its conversion to engineering units is traced, starting with the radiant space object, passing through the IRR optics and electronics, and culminating with data number development and interpretation. The test program section includes discussion of IRR calibration and alignment verification. Finally, the problems and failures encountered by the IRR during the period of its development and testing are reviewed.

  6. Development and application of a marine sediment porewater toxicity test using algal spores

    SciTech Connect

    Hooten, R.; Carr, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    An acute pore water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of marine macroalgae as endpoints was developed to indicate the presence of toxic compounds in marine/estuarine and sediment porewater samples. Zoospores collected from Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca were used as test organisms. Preliminary results with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a reference toxicant) indicate that zoospores germination and growth of embryonic gametophytes are as sensitive as the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development toxicity tests. Algal germination and growth data for copper, mercury and other metals will be presented. The results of tests utilizing this algal assay with sediment pore water from contaminated sediments will be compared with more traditional sediment toxicity test methods.

  7. Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae

    PubMed Central

    de Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Delorme, Natali; Atkins, John; Howard, Sunkita; Williams, James; Johnson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of noise on marine fauna at the population level requires knowledge about the vulnerability of different life-stages. Here we provide the first evidence that noise exposure during larval development produces body malformations in marine invertebrates. Scallop larvae exposed to playbacks of seismic pulses showed significant developmental delays and 46% developed body abnormalities. Similar effects were observed in all independent samples exposed to noise while no malformations were found in the control groups (4881 larvae examined). Malformations appeared in the D-veliger larval phase, perhaps due to the cumulative exposure attained by this stage or to a greater vulnerability of D-veliger to sound-mediated physiological or mechanical stress. Such strong impacts suggest that abnormalities and growth delays may also result from lower sound levels or discrete exposures during the D-stage, increasing the potential for routinely-occurring anthropogenic noise sources to affect recruitment of wild scallop larvae in natural stocks. PMID:24088868

  8. The Pandora Software Development Kit for Particle Flow Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Pandora is a robust and efficient framework for developing and running pattern-recognition algorithms. It was designed to perform particle flow calorimetry, which requires many complex pattern-recognition techniques to reconstruct the paths of individual particles through fine granularity detectors. The Pandora C++ software development kit (SDK) consists of a single library and a number of carefully designed application programming interfaces (APIs). A client application can use the Pandora APIs to pass details of tracks and hits/cells to the Pandora framework, which then creates and manages named lists of self-describing objects. These objects can be accessed by Pandora algorithms, which perform the pattern-recognition reconstruction. Development with the Pandora SDK promotes the creation of small, re-usable algorithms containing just the kernel of a specific operation. The algorithms are configured via XML and can be nested to perform complex reconstruction tasks. As the algorithms only access the Pandora objects in a controlled manner, via the APIs, the framework can perform most book-keeping and memory-management operations. The Pandora SDK has been fully exploited in the implementation of PandoraPFA, which uses over 60 algorithms to provide the state of the art in particle flow calorimetry for ILC and CLIC.

  9. The Effect of Organic Material on Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation - Insights from Microscopic Analysis of Field-Collected, Laboratory Generated, and Marine Biogenic Particles (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation has been shown to play an important role in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Although their importance is widely acknowledged, the actual effects of aerosol particles on heterogeneous ice formation are insufficiently understood. Here, we present laboratory studies investigating the ice nucleation efficiency of organic dominated anthropogenic particles impacted by different degrees of photochemical aging collected in and around Mexico City, particles sampled in Los Angeles, laboratory generated organic particles composed of humic and fulvic acids exposed to O3, and biogenic marine particles. Using the optical microscope (OM) method, heterogeneous ice nucleation by particles deposited on hydrophobically coated substrates via immersion and deposition mode has been determined. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures and corresponding nucleation rates are derived, the latter being discussed in terms of atmospherically relevant ice particle production rates. The physical and chemical characteristics of the field collected particles were determined by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), CCSEM/EDX analysis (computer controlled SEM with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays and STXM/NEXAFS (scanning transmission X-ray microscopy combined with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy). The anthropogenic particles examined nucleate ice heterogeneously at temperatures and relative humidity relevant to cirrus onset conditions observed in the northern hemisphere. Increases in organic content due to photochemical aging did not affect the particles’ IN efficiencies. Solid humic and fulvic acid particles nucleate ice via immersion and deposition modes at atmospherically relevant conditions and a corresponding ice nucleation parameterization is derived. Oxidation by O3, has various effects on the particles’ IN efficiency but no clear relationship between increased particle hydrophilicity due to oxidation and IN efficiency was found. Planktonic diatoms are the first unambiguously identified marine organism which acts as efficient IN in the immersion and deposition modes. These findings can resolve elevated atmospheric IN concentrations observed over surface waters containing phytoplankton. Heterogeneous freezing of micrometer-sized aqueous NaCl droplets containing intact diatoms as well as fragments occurs up to 30 K higher than expected by homogeneous ice nucleation. Nucleation is found to behave stochastically and is independent of diatom surface area and droplet volume. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rates are about one order of magnitude higher than homogeneous ice nucleation making diatoms and/or their fragments competitive IN even at atmospheric updrafts typically dominated by homogeneous ice nucleation. In summary, single particle resolved analytical techniques and the particles-on-substrate approach coupled to OM can provide a very useful tool to improve our understanding of the phase transition of aerosol particles.

  10. Particle morphological and roughness controls on mineral surface charge development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boily, Jean-François; Kozin, Philipp A.

    2014-09-01

    Effects of mineral particle morphology and roughness on potential determining ion (p.d.i.; H+, OH-) loadings achieved at synthetic lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) surfaces were predominantly investigated by potentiometry and thermodynamic modeling. Nanosized rod- (RL) and lath-shaped (LL) particles exhibiting different proportions of the same predominant crystallographic faces acquired largely comparable pH, ionic strength and counterion (NaCl, NaClO4) dependencies on p.d.i. loadings. These results supported previous claims that faces ideally containing proton silent sites only, are likely populated by additional proton active sites. This concept was supported further by results of roughened LL-like particles (LLR) also showing highly congruent pH-, ionic strength- and composition-dependent p.d.i. loadings with those of LL and RL. These loadings thereby correspond to maximal levels allowed by net attractive and repulsive forces at each solution composition, irrespective of particle morphology. Contrasting equilibration times required to achieve these loadings revealed considerably slower exchange of p.d.i. and electrolyte ions near the point of zero charge in the rough LLR than in the more idealized LL and RL particles. Thermodynamic modeling was used to test various concepts accounting for these results. The model made use of a novel framework capable of isolating electrostatic contributions from different faces, and of accounting for ion-specific double-layer properties within a single crystallographic face. These efforts made use of capacitance values for each electrolyte ions within the framework of a recently developed Variable Capacitance Model. Attempts at modeling all three particle types were used to suggest that the (0 1 0) face contains ∼0.9 site nm-2 of proton active sites, a value notably constrained by recently published Na+, Cl-, and ClO4- loadings derived by cryogenic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The model presented in this work thus provides a means to predict p.d.i. loadings on multifaceted mineral particle surfaces, and can therefore be used to constrain further our understanding of mineral/water interface reactivity.

  11. Development of training modules for magnetic particle inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Daigo; Eisenmann, David J.; Enyart, Darrel; Nakagawa, Norio; Lo, Chester; Orman, David

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a nondestructive evaluation technique used with ferromagnetic materials. Although the application of this method may appear straightforward, MPI combines the complicated nature of electromagnetics, metallurgical material effects, fluid-particle motion dynamics, and physiological human factors into a single inspection. To fully appreciate industry specifications such as ASTM E-1444, users should develop a basic understanding of the many factors that are involved in MPI. We have developed a series of MPI training modules that are aimed at addressing this requirement. The modules not only offer qualitative explanations, but also show quantitative explanations in terms of measurement and numerical simulation data in many instances. There are five modules in all. Module ♯1 shows characteristics of waveforms and magnetizing methods. This allows MPI practitioners to make optimum choice of waveform and magnetizing method. Module ♯2 explains how material properties relate to the magnetic characteristics. Module ♯3 shows the strength of the excitation field or the flux leakage from a crack and how it compares to the detectability of a crack by MPI. Module ♯4 shows how specimen status may influence defect detection. Module ♯5 shows the effects of particle properties on defect detection.

  12. Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334-newton (300-lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. The development and in-flight performance are described and summarized of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicated upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling of the Mariner 9 subsystem are discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data. The flight performance of the subsystem was excellent, as were the performance prediction correlations. These correlations are presented.

  13. Development of a site-specific marine water quality standard for cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Arredondo, L.A.; Brix, K.V.; Cardwell, R.D.; Marsden, A.

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to develop a site-specific marine standard for cyanide. The generic cyanide standard of 1 {micro}g/L is ``driven`` by toxicity data for eastern rock crab (Cancer irroratus) zoeae. The reported LC50 for C. irroratus is 4.9 {micro}g/L cyanide and is six times more sensitive that any other marine species tested. In order to develop a site-specific standard for Washington state, cyanide toxicity tests were conducted using the first stage zoeae of Cancer magister and Cancer oregonensis, two Cancer resident to Puget Sound, in accordance with standard ASTM test methods. Testing with C. magister and C. oregonensis resulted in Species Mean Acute Values (SMAVS) of 68 and 131 {micro}g/L cyanide based on measured test concentrations. This is considerably higher than that reported for C. irroratus, is more consistent with cyanide toxicity values for other species tested, and results in a water quality criterion of 9.85 {micro}g/L cyanide with inclusion of these values in the data set. This paper presents the test methods used and the potential effects the test results may have on the marine water quality criterion for cyanide.

  14. Marine actinomycetes as an emerging resource for the drug development pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zotchev, Sergey B

    2012-04-30

    Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinomycetes from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, yielding many important anti-infective and anti-cancer drugs. However, frequent re-discovery of the same compounds in terrestrial actinomycetes have made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinomycetes isolated from the marine environment currently receive considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. This review highlights achievements and challenges in the isolation of marine actinomycetes, some examples of bioactive metabolites identified by conventional screening, and presents new developments in the field of genome mining and heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters leading to the discovery of novel compounds. PMID:21683100

  15. Development of marine sediment toxicity identification evaluation methods using Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Mytilus edulis, and Eohaustorius estuarius

    SciTech Connect

    Wortham, G.; Cotsifas, J.S.; Taberski, K.; Hansen, S.R.

    1994-12-31

    Widespread sediment toxicity, including ``clean`` reference sites, dictates that the causes of toxicity in sediments be determined. Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE) are useful tools in characterizing compounds responsible for toxicity, but were unavailable for sediment samples. TIE methods were developed for sediment porewater and included the following components: determination of an appropriate porewater extraction process; control TIE tests using marine water and porewater evaluating species sensitivities to the fractionation procedures; validation experiments investigating the removal efficiencies of organics using C18 solid phase extraction, and metals chelation using EDTA and STS; spiking experiments to determine the effectiveness of the TIE procedure in identifying multiple toxicants. The authors determined that fractionation procedures could be applied to both marine water and porewater using S. purpuratus, M. edulis and E. estuarius as biological detectors.

  16. Development of a methodology for assessing the environmental impact of radioactivity in Northern Marine environments.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; Hosseini, A; Børretzen, P; Thørring, H

    2006-10-01

    The requirement to assess the impacts of radioactivity in the environment explicitly and transparently is now generally accepted by the scientific community. A recently developed methodology for achieving this end for marine ecosystems is presented within this paper. With its clear relationship to an overarching system, the marine impact assessment is built around components of environmental transfer, ecodosimetry and radiobiological effects appraisal relying on the use of "reference organisms". Concentration factors (CFs), dynamic models and, in cases where parameters are missing, allometry have been employed in the consideration of radionuclide transfer. Dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) have been derived for selected flora and fauna using, inter alia, dose attenuation and chord distribution functions. The calculated dose-rates can be contextualised through comparison with dose-rates arising from natural background and chronic dose-rates at which biological effects have been observed in selected "umbrella" endpoints. PMID:16914169

  17. Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Around the World. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, L.; Whiting, J.; Geerlofs, S.; Grear, M.; Blake, K.; Coffey, A.; Massaua, M.; Brown-Saracino, J.; Battey, H.

    2013-01-01

    This Annex IV report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment addressing the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines, the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals, and the effects of energy removal on physical systems.

  18. Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).

  19. Interior flow and near-nozzle spray development in a marine-engine diesel fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hult, J.; Simmank, P.; Matlok, S.; Mayer, S.; Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-04-01

    A consolidated effort at optically characterising flow patterns, in-nozzle cavitation, and near-nozzle jet structure of a marine diesel fuel injector is presented. A combination of several optical techniques was employed to fully transparent injector models, compound metal-glass and full metal injectors. They were all based on a common real-scale dual nozzle hole geometry for a marine two-stroke diesel engine. In a stationary flow rig, flow velocities in the sac-volume and nozzle holes were measured using PIV, and in-nozzle cavitation visualized using high-resolution shadowgraphs. The effect of varying cavitation number was studied and results compared to CFD predictions. In-nozzle cavitation and near-nozzle jet structure during transient operation were visualized simultaneously, using high-speed imaging in an atmospheric pressure spray rig. Near-nozzle spray formation was investigated using ballistic imaging. Finally, the injector geometry was tested on a full-scale marine diesel engine, where the dynamics of near-nozzle jet development was visualized using high-speed shadowgraphy. The range of studies focused on a single common geometry allows a comprehensive survey of phenomena ranging from first inception of cavitation under well-controlled flow conditions to fuel jet structure at real engine conditions.

  20. Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Bedoya, F.; Allain, J. P.; Boyle, D. P.; Schmitt, J. C.; Onge, D. A. St.

    2014-11-01

    The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, designed to provide in situ surface characterization of plasma facing components in a tokamak environment. MAPP has been implemented for operation on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where all control and analysis systems are currently under development for full remote operation. Control systems include vacuum management, instrument power, and translational/rotational probe drive. Analysis systems include onboard Langmuir probes and all components required for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy surface analysis techniques.

  1. Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Stelzer, H.

    1980-08-01

    The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown.

  2. Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe.

    PubMed

    Lucia, M; Kaita, R; Majeski, R; Bedoya, F; Allain, J P; Boyle, D P; Schmitt, J C; Onge, D A St

    2014-11-01

    The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, designed to provide in situ surface characterization of plasma facing components in a tokamak environment. MAPP has been implemented for operation on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where all control and analysis systems are currently under development for full remote operation. Control systems include vacuum management, instrument power, and translational/rotational probe drive. Analysis systems include onboard Langmuir probes and all components required for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy surface analysis techniques. PMID:25430248

  3. Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, M. Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Boyle, D. P.; Schmitt, J. C.; Onge, D. A. St.; Bedoya, F.; Allain, J. P.

    2014-11-15

    The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, designed to provide in situ surface characterization of plasma facing components in a tokamak environment. MAPP has been implemented for operation on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), where all control and analysis systems are currently under development for full remote operation. Control systems include vacuum management, instrument power, and translational/rotational probe drive. Analysis systems include onboard Langmuir probes and all components required for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy surface analysis techniques.

  4. Seabed characterization for the development of marine renewable energy on the Pacific margin of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.

    2014-07-01

    An inventory of Canada's marine renewable energy resources based on numerical modeling of the potential tidal, wave and wind energy has been published that identifies areas with maximum resource potential. However, the inventory does not consider the seabed geological conditions that will control the safe development of seabed installations and cable corridors. The Geological Survey of Canada (Natural Resources Canada) has therefore undertaken an assessment of seafloor geological characteristics and physical environmental parameters that will be encountered during any extensive deployment of marine renewable energy systems for the Pacific offshore of Canada. Here we present an overview of seabed characterization for key sites for each of the three energy types. Narrow passages exiting the Salish Sea near the Canadian boundary with the United States and northwards out of the Strait of Georgia provide very promising sites for tidal generation. Here, elliptical fields of very large subaqueous dunes, from 12 to 28 m in height, present a significant challenge to site development. Along the exposed continental shelf of Vancouver Island focused wave-energy close to shore (40-60 m water depth) offers significant energy potential, but any engineering systems would have to be founded on a seafloor made up of a mobile gravel lag and an extensive boulder pavement. A large wind farm proposed for the Pacific North Coast would be built on an extensive shallow bank that has active sediment transport and a large field of sand ridges that have developed within a macrotidal environment. A significant challenge is providing for a safe seafloor cable corridor of over 100 km that crosses a large subaqueous dune field to connect to the electrical grid on the mainland. These examples show how geoscience has and will provide critical information to project proponents and regulators for the safe development of marine renewable energy.

  5. Tool kit development to refine and visualize essential climate data and information for marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, L.; Stachniewicz, J.; Shein, K. A.; Ansari, S.; Jarvis, C.

    2013-05-01

    Marine ecosystem responses to climate variability and change such as changing water temperature, water chemistry (e.g., pH, salinity), water level, or storminess may result in adverse impacts including mass mortality, loss of habitat, increased disease susceptibility, and trophic cascade feedbacks. Unfortunately, while marine ecosystem resource managers are aware of these threats, they often lack sufficient expertise with identifying, accessing and using the many large and complex climate data products that would inform ecosystem-scale climate impact assessments. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has been working with the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Ocean Climate Center to enhance and expand the functionality of NCDC's Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) to begin to address this limitation. The WCT is a freely available, Java-based user interface (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wct/) designed to access, analyze, and display a variety of NCDC's georeferenced climate data products (e.g., satellite data, radar, reanalysis datasets, in-situ observations). However, the WCT requires the user to have already identified a data set of interest and gained access to it. This can limit its utility by users who are not knowledgeable about which data sets are relevant to their needs and where those data sets can be found. The Integrated Marine Protected Area Climate Tools (IMPACT) prototype modification to the WCT addresses those requirements through an iterative process between climate scientists and resource managers. The WCT-IMPACT prototype couples a user query approach with a quasi-expert system that determines, retrieves, and loads the appropriate data products for visualization and analysis by the user. Relevant data products are identified based on the environmental variables in which ecosystem managers have indicated an importance to their ecosystems. To improve response time, the user, through the WCT-IMPACT interface, crops (or subsets) the larger gridded data products, such as NOAA's satellite Climate Data Records to the geographic boundaries of each included marine protected area (MPA). These clipped data sets are processed to produce MPA-specific analytics (e.g., files for averages, extremes, peaks over threshold, etc). Once a specific MPA has been selected, the associated data may be visualized, analyzed, and exported to other formats (e.g., netCDF, KML) from within the tool. The WCT-IMPACT tool kit will provide marine ecosystem managers with the capacity to answer such questions as what was the climate like during periods of optimal ecological health, or have climate conditions changed equally across an ecosystem's domain? The WCT-IMPACT extension is being developed specifically to address the needs of marine ecosystem managers to have access to relevant climate data and information for developing ecosystem-scale climate assessments, while retaining the ability for a WCT user to identify and access the full suite of georeferenced climate data provided by NCDC. In this tool kit development scheme, the need to coordinate with the resource managers is paramount and end user participation in an iterative process with the climate scientists is essential.

  6. Development of Pressure sensing Particles through SERS and Upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widejko, Ryan; Wang, Fenglin; Anker, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    With the increasing distance of space travel, there is a critical need for non-invasive point-of-care diagnostic techniques. According to the NASA Human Research Roadmap, the ``lack of non-invasive diagnostic imaging capability and techniques to diagnose identified Exploration Medical Conditions involving internal body parts,'' is a critical capability gap for long distance space travel. To address this gap, we developed a novel technique for non-invasive monitoring of strain on implanted devices. We constructed a prototype tension-indicating washer with an upconversion spectrum that depended upon strain. The washer was made of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixture with upconversion particles embedded in it. This mixture was cured onto a lenticular lens. Methylene blue dye solution was sealed between the lenticular lens and PDMS so that pressure on the washer displaced the dye and uncovered the upconversion particles. We also began work on a tension-indicating screw based upon surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Future work for this project is to quantitatively correlate the spectral intensity with pressure, further develop SERS washers, and construct SERS and/or upconversion screws or bolts. Non-invasive tension-indicating devices and techniques such as these can be applied to orthopedics, used as a general technique for measuring micro-strain, verifying proper assembly of equipment, and observing/studying bolt loosening.

  7. New developments in photodetection for particle physics and nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, J. E.

    2000-03-01

    Photodetectors are widely used in particle and nuclear physics research. Since the beginning of the modern era of photoelectric transducers in the late 1930s, many types of devices have been developed and exploited for physics research. New performance requirements arising in physics experiments have often provided very interesting technological drivers for industry. New ideas for photo-detection are rapidly adapted by the physics community to enable more powerful experimental capabilities. This report gives a sampling of new developments in photodetection for physics research in the period since the first conference in this series, Beaune 96. Representative examples of advances in vacuum devices, solid-state devices and gaseous photodetectors are described including, where appropriate, areas where technological improvements are needed or expected.

  8. Determining Risk - How to Evaluate the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copping, A. E.; Blake, K.; Zdanski, L.

    2011-12-01

    As marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy development projects progress towards early deployments in the U.S., the process of determining the risks to aquatic animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes from these engineered systems continues to be a significant barrier to efficient siting and permitting. Understanding the risk of MHK installations requires that the two elements of risk - consequence and probability - be evaluated. However, standard risk assessment methodologies are not easily applied to MHK interactions with marine and riverine environment as there are few data that describe the interaction of stressors (MHK devices, anchors, foundations, mooring lines and power cables) and receptors (aquatic animals, habitats and ecosystem processes). The number of possible combinations and permutations of stressors and receptors in MHK systems is large: there are many different technologies designed to harvest energy from the tides, waves and flowing rivers; each device is planned for a specific waterbody that supports an endemic ecosystem of animals and habitats, tied together by specific physical and chemical processes. With few appropriate analogue industries in the oceans and rivers, little information on the effects of these technologies on the living world is available. Similarly, without robust data sets of interactions, mathematical probability models are difficult to apply. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists are working with MHK developers, researchers, engineers, and regulators to rank the consequences of planned MHK projects on living systems, and exploring alternative methodologies to estimate probabilities of these encounters. This paper will present the results of ERES, the Environmental Risk Evaluation System, which has been used to rank consequences for major animal groups and habitats for five MHK projects that are in advanced stages of development and/or early commercial deployment. Probability analyses have been performed for high priority stressor/receptor interactions where data are adaptable from other industries. In addition, a methodology for evaluating the probability of encounter, and therefore risk, to an endangered marine mammal from tidal turbine blades will be presented.

  9. Development of anisotropic particle morphology in an isotropically transforming matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    III, Dunbar P. Birnie; Weinberg, Michael C.

    2000-10-01

    In the present work we consider the growth of a very dilute concentration of anisotropic particles, nucleated with random orientations, in a matrix of growing spherical particles. It is assumed that the matrix particles obey the usual JMAK kinetics. We concentrate on describing the change in anisotropic particle grain morphology as the transformation process proceeds. An eccentric shaped particle will have certain growth directions that are rapid and others that are slower. Faster growing directions impinge upon the matrix particles much sooner than slower growing directions, and this feature leads to an effective change in particle morphology as the transformation process progresses. We analyze such changes in particle morphology by deriving expressions for the probabilities that growth rays will travel a certain distance before encountering matrix particles and that the length ratio of fast-axis to slow-axis growth of the anisotropic particle will attain certain values. The changes in particle morphology are examined as a function of the relative speeds of growth of anisotropic particle growth rays to matrix particle growth rates.

  10. Developing an Empirical Model for Predicting Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, R. A.; Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.; Ashley, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are powerful enhancements in the particle flux received at Earth. These events, often related to coronal mass ejections, can be disruptive to ionospheric communications, destructive to satellites, and pose a health risk to astronauts. To develop a useful forecast for the onset time and peak flux of SEP events, we are examining the radio burst, proton, and electron properties associated with the SEPs of the current solar cycle. Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010-2013, we analyzed the 123 decametric-hectometric type II solar radio burst properties, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with SEP properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. Through a principal component and logistic regression analyses, we find that the radio properties alone can be used to predict the occurrence of an SEP event with a false alarm rate of 17%, a probability of detection of 65%, and with 88% of the classifications correct. We also explore the use of the > 2 MeV electron flux to forecast proton peak flux and event onset time, with preliminary results suggesting a correlation between the peak electron and proton flux.

  11. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications. PMID:25939279

  12. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F; McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C

    1992-04-01

    The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

  13. Development and testing of the pyrotechnic subsystem to the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P. (Compiler); Earnest, J.; Murphy, A.; Quinn, J.

    1971-01-01

    Design, fabrication, and testing of the Mariner Mars 1971 pyrotechnic subsystem are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on those changes from the Mariner Mars 1969 configuration. Major problems occurring in the developmental and testing phases are discussed.

  14. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of marine caliciviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than forty different marine caliciviruses (family Caliciviridae, genus Vesivirus) have been identified from marine and terrestrial host since their initial isolation in 1972. Marine vesiviruses have previously infected swine along the Western coast of the United States and produce a disease cl...

  15. Education and Conservation Benefits of Marine Wildlife Tours: Developing Free-Choice Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeppel, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Marine wildlife tours can provide a range of education and conservation benefits for visitors, including emotional (i.e., affective) responses and learning (i.e., cognition). Interpretive programs cover the biology, ecology, and behavior of marine species; best practice guidelines; and human threats to marine areas. The author reviews the

  16. Education and Conservation Benefits of Marine Wildlife Tours: Developing Free-Choice Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeppel, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Marine wildlife tours can provide a range of education and conservation benefits for visitors, including emotional (i.e., affective) responses and learning (i.e., cognition). Interpretive programs cover the biology, ecology, and behavior of marine species; best practice guidelines; and human threats to marine areas. The author reviews the…

  17. Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Redmond, M.S.; Sewall, J.E.; Swartz, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance of these amphipods within Chesapeake Bay and methodologies for establishing cultures of amphipods which could be readily adopted by other laboratories. The second chapter reports the development of acute and chronic sediment toxicity test methods for L. plumulosus, its sensitivity to non-contaminant environmental variables, cadmium, two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The third chapter reports the authors attempts to develop a chronic sediment toxicity test with Ampelisca abdita.

  18. Development and validation of rapid magnetic particle based extraction protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to control and eradicate transboundary animal diseases, early diagnosis and reaction is essential for the implementation of control activities. Thus, mobile diagnostic units which allow analytical testing close to the site of occurrence could provide valuable support for centralized laboratories. Consequently, the availability of diagnostic tests using mobile amplification and detection technologies has been increasing over the past years. However, methods enabling rapid and simple nucleic acid extraction also under resource-limited settings are still scarce. Methods In the present study rapid extraction protocols based on magnetic particle technology have been developed. For this purpose, the two open extraction platforms KingFisher™ Duo (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and BioSprint® 15 (Qiagen) as well as the fully automated EZ1® advanced XL instrument (Qiagen) were used. All protocols were validated in comparison to standard manual extraction using blood and serum samples from animals infected with Schmallenberg virus or bovine viral diarrhea virus. Results All newly developed protocols allowed a complete extraction within 30 minutes of time. The fully automated EZ1-extraction yielded the highest reproducibility, whereas slightly higher intra- and inter-assay variations were observed using the open platforms. Compared to the manual procedure, the analytical sensitivity of all the rapid protocols was 1 log10 step reduced for extraction from blood samples. For sera a reduced dynamic range could only be observed using the maximally shortened BioSprint 15 protocol. Validation using clinical samples showed an excellent concordance of all the rapid extraction protocols to the standard manual extraction procedure, independent of sample materials and target viruses. Conclusions The results of this study show that the speed-optimized novel extraction protocols allow rapid and simple nucleic acid extractions for a variety of target viruses without significant loss of sensitivity compared to standard procedures. For this reason they represent valuable tools to accelerate magnetic particle based automated extraction. PMID:25086594

  19. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Ahlborg, Mandy; Bringout, Gael; Debbeler, Christina; Graeser, Matthias; Kaethner, Christian; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Medimagh, Hanne; Stelzner, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs’ response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs’ superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs’ response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle’s MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles’ iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles’ suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number of different theories and technical approaches on the way to the actual implementation of the basic concept of MPI have been seen in the last few years. Research groups around the world are working on different scanner geometries, from closed bore systems to single-sided scanners, and use reconstruction methods that are either based on actual calibration measurements or on theoretical models. This review aims at giving an overview of current developments and future directions in MPI about a decade after its first appearance. PMID:25960650

  20. Axonal Transport and Neurodegeneration: How Marine Drugs Can Be Used for the Development of Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph A; Banerjee, Rupkatha; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2016-05-01

    Unlike virtually any other cells in the human body, neurons are tasked with the unique problem of transporting important factors from sites of synthesis at the cell bodies, across enormous distances, along narrow-caliber projections, to distally located nerve terminals in order to maintain cell viability. As a result, axonal transport is a highly regulated process whereby necessary cargoes of all types are packaged and shipped from one end of the neuron to the other. Interruptions in this finely tuned transport have been linked to many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggesting that this pathway is likely perturbed early in disease progression. Therefore, developing therapeutics targeted at modifying transport defects could potentially avert disease progression. In this review, we examine a variety of potential compounds identified from marine aquatic species that affect the axonal transport pathway. These compounds have been shown to function in microtubule (MT) assembly and maintenance, motor protein control, and in the regulation of protein degradation pathways, such as the autophagy-lysosome processes, which are defective in many degenerative diseases. Therefore, marine compounds have great potential in developing effective treatment strategies aimed at early defects which, over time, will restore transport and prevent cell death. PMID:27213408

  1. Unshelled abalone and corrupted urchins: development of marine calcifiers in a changing ocean

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Maria; Ho, Melanie; Wong, Eunice; Soars, Natalie A.; Selvakumaraswamy, Paulina; Shepard-Brennand, Hannah; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Davis, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    The most fragile skeletons produced by benthic marine calcifiers are those that larvae and juveniles make to support their bodies. Ocean warming, acidification, decreased carbonate saturation and their interactive effects are likely to impair skeletogenesis. Failure to produce skeleton in a changing ocean has negative implications for a diversity of marine species. We examined the interactive effects of warming and acidification on an abalone (Haliotis coccoradiata) and a sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) reared from fertilization in temperature and pH/pCO2 treatments in a climatically and regionally relevant setting. Exposure of ectodermal (abalone) and mesodermal (echinoid) calcifying systems to warming (+2°C to 4°C) and acidification (pH 7.6–7.8) resulted in unshelled larvae and abnormal juveniles. Haliotis development was most sensitive with no interaction between stressors. For Heliocidaris, the percentage of normal juveniles decreased in response to both stressors, although a +2°C warming diminished the negative effect of low pH. The number of spines produced decreased with increasing acidification/pCO2, and the interactive effect between stressors indicated that a +2°C warming reduced the negative effects of low pH. At +4°C, the developmental thermal tolerance was breached. Our results show that projected near-future climate change will have deleterious effects on development with differences in vulnerability in the two species. PMID:21177689

  2. Axonal Transport and Neurodegeneration: How Marine Drugs Can Be Used for the Development of Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    White, Joseph A.; Banerjee, Rupkatha; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2016-01-01

    Unlike virtually any other cells in the human body, neurons are tasked with the unique problem of transporting important factors from sites of synthesis at the cell bodies, across enormous distances, along narrow-caliber projections, to distally located nerve terminals in order to maintain cell viability. As a result, axonal transport is a highly regulated process whereby necessary cargoes of all types are packaged and shipped from one end of the neuron to the other. Interruptions in this finely tuned transport have been linked to many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggesting that this pathway is likely perturbed early in disease progression. Therefore, developing therapeutics targeted at modifying transport defects could potentially avert disease progression. In this review, we examine a variety of potential compounds identified from marine aquatic species that affect the axonal transport pathway. These compounds have been shown to function in microtubule (MT) assembly and maintenance, motor protein control, and in the regulation of protein degradation pathways, such as the autophagy-lysosome processes, which are defective in many degenerative diseases. Therefore, marine compounds have great potential in developing effective treatment strategies aimed at early defects which, over time, will restore transport and prevent cell death. PMID:27213408

  3. Effects of marine toxins on the reproduction and early stages development of aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

  4. Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

  5. The adhesive strategies of cyprids and development of barnacle-resistant marine coatings.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, approaches to the development of surfaces that perturb settlement and/or adhesion by barnacles have diversified substantially. Although, previously, coatings research focussed almost exclusively on biocidal technologies and low modulus, low surface-free-energy 'fouling-release' materials, novel strategies to control surface colonisation are now receiving significant attention. It is timely, therefore, to review the current 'state of knowledge' regarding fouling-resistant surface characteristics and their mechanisms of action against settling larvae of barnacles. The role of the barnacle in marine fouling is discussed here in the context of its life cycle and the behavioural ecology of its cypris larva. The temporary and permanent adhesion mechanisms of cyprids are covered in detail and an overview of adult barnacle adhesion is presented. Recent legislation has directed academic research firmly towards environmentally inert marine coatings, so the actions of traditional biocides on barnacles are not described here. Instead, the discussion is restricted to those surface modifications that interfere with settlement-site selection and adhesion of barnacle cypris larvae; specifically, textural engineering of surfaces, development of inert 'non-fouling' surfaces and the use of enzymes in antifouling. PMID:18597201

  6. Cell cycle arrest and activation of development in marine invertebrate deuterostomes.

    PubMed

    Costache, Vlad; McDougall, Alex; Dumollard, Rémi

    2014-08-01

    Like most metazoans, eggs of echinoderms and tunicates (marine deuterostomes, there is no data for the cephalochordates) arrest awaiting fertilization due to the activity of the Mos/MEK/MAPK cascade and are released from this cell cycle arrest by sperm-triggered Ca2+ signals. Invertebrate deuterostome eggs display mainly three distinct types of cell cycle arrest before fertilization mediated by potentially different cytostatic factors (CSF): one CSF causes arrest during meiotic metaphase I (MI-CSF in tunicates and some starfishes), another CSF likely causes arrest during meiotic metaphase II (amphioxus), and yet another form of CSF causes arrest to occur after meiotic exit during G1 of the first mitotic cycle (G1-CSF). In tunicates and echinoderms these different CSF activities have been shown to rely on the Mos//MAPK pathway for establishment and on Ca2+ signals for their inactivation. Despite these molecular similarities, release of MI-CSF arrest is caused by APC/C activation (to destroy cyclin B) whereas release from G1-CSF is caused by stimulating S phase and the synthesis of cyclins. Further research is needed to understand how both the Mos//MAPK cascade and Ca2+ achieve these tasks in different marine invertebrate deuterostomes. Another conserved feature of eggs is that protein synthesis of specific mRNAs is necessary to proceed through oocyte maturation and to maintain CSF-induced cell cycle arrest. Then activation of development at fertilization is accompanied by an increase in the rate of protein synthesis but the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown in most of the marine deuterostomes. How the sperm-triggered Ca2+ signals cause an increase in protein synthesis has been studied mainly in sea urchin eggs. Here we review these conserved features of eggs (arrest, activation and protein synthesis) focusing on the non-vertebrate deuterostomes. PMID:24721426

  7. Progress in the clinical development of new marine-derived anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Jimeno, Jose; López-Martín, J A; Ruiz-Casado, A; Izquierdo, M A; Scheuer, P J; Rinehart, K

    2004-04-01

    Naturally derived anticancer agents continue to be instrumental in the systemic therapeutic intervention against solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Such compounds now have a relevant role in contemporary models of combination with targeted agents, thus providing a rationale to consider nature as a valid tool to discover new innovative anticancer agents. The marine ecosystem has increasingly been the focus of interest for new discoveries in the field that are expected to be of significant therapeutic impact in cancer patients. A critical review of the integrated data generated in our marine-derived anticancer program seems to confirm such expentancies. ET-743 (Yondelis) represents the first new agent developed against advanced pretreated soft tissue sarcoma in the past 25 years, and also harbors activity in women bearing pretreated ovarian cancer and a solid potential in combination therapy. The lack of cumulative toxicities makes this compound suitable for long-lasting therapies, reversible transaminitis being the most prevalent toxicity. Aplidin has shown a positive therapeutic index in phase I trials and phase II studies are ongoing. In contrast to the lack of bone marrow toxicity, a set of translational results anticipates a potential in leukemia. Kahalalide F has also successfully completed the phase I program in solid tumors with evidence of activity in resistant tumors and phase II studies are under way. Finally, the mechanistic data generated in parallel with the clinical program confirms the potential of the marine ecosystem in the discovery of new agents acting against new cellular targets of relevance in cancer cell biology. PMID:15057135

  8. Development of a novel protocol for generating flavivirus reporter particles.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Igor Velado; Okamoto, Natsumi; Ito, Aki; Fukuda, Miki; Someya, Azusa; Nishino, Yosii; Sasaki, Nobuya; Maeda, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a growing public and animal health concern worldwide. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies for the infection are urgently required. Recently, viral reverse genetic systems have been developed and applied to clinical WNV virology. We developed a protocol for generating reporter virus particles (RVPs) of WNV with the aim of overcoming two major problems associated with conventional protocols, the difficulty in generating RVPs due to the specific skills required for handling RNAs, and the potential for environmental contamination by antibiotic-resistant genes encoded within the genome RNA of the RVPs. By using the proposed protocol, cells were established in which the RVP genome RNA is replicated constitutively and does not encode any antibiotic-resistant genes, and used as the cell supply for RVP genome RNA. Generation of the WNV RVPs requires only the simple transfection of the expression vectors for the viral structural proteins into the cells. Therefore, no RNA handling is required in this protocol. The WNV RVP yield obtained using this protocol was similar that obtained using the conventional protocol. According to these results, the newly developed protocol appears to be a good alternative for the generation of WNV RVPs, particularly for clinical applications. PMID:25116200

  9. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): Developing a Common Framework for Marine Data Management on a Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H. M.; Schaap, D.

    2014-12-01

    As marine research becomes increasingly multidisciplinary in its approach there has been a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data. A number of regional initiatives are already addressing this requirement through the establishment of e-infrastructures to improve the discovery and access of marine data. Projects such as Geo-Seas and SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and IMOS in Australia have implemented local infrastructures to facilitate the exchange of standardised marine datasets. However, each of these regional initiatives has been developed to address their own requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale these is a need to develop interoperability solutions that can be implemented across these initiatives.Through a series of workshops attended by the relevant domain specialists, the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project has identified areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures and used these as the foundation for the development of three prototype interoperability solutions addressing: the use of brokering services for the purposes of providing access to the data available in the regional data discovery and access services including via the GEOSS portal the development of interoperability between cruise summary reporting systems in Europe, the USA and Australia for routine harvesting of cruise data for delivery via the Partnership for Observation of Global Oceans (POGO) portal the establishment of a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for selected sensors installed on vessels and in real-time monitoring systems using sensor web enablement (SWE) These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common global approach to the management of marine data which can be promoted to the wider marine research community. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia but which is seeking to expand this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures.

  10. Development of the code MaexPro for calculation atmospheric aerosol extinction in the marine and coastal surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, Gennady A.; Shishkin, Sergey A.; Serov, Sergey A.

    2006-11-01

    In the paper the description of the last version of the code MaexPro (Marine aerosol extinction Profile) for calculation spectral and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient α( λ), aerosol sizes distribution, area distribution, volumes distribution, modes aerosol extinction spectra using standard meteorological parameters, aerosol microphysical structure, a spectral band and a height of the sensor location place is submitted. The code MaexPro is the computer program under constantly development to estimate of EO systems signal power at a location place in which a fetch is key entrance parameter. Spectral behavior α( λ) can be submitted as graphically, and as tables. Commands overplot for superposition or change of figures; profiles extrapolation; a lens; all kinds of possible copying; the data presentation, convenient for an input in code MODTRAN, and etc. are stipulated. The code MaexPro is a completely mouse-driven PC Windows program with a user-friendly interface. Calculation time of spectral and vertical profiles of α( λ) depends on the necessary wave length resolution, radius of aerosol particles and the location place height, and does not exceed tens seconds for each new meteorological condition. Other calculations characteristics, such as aerosol sizes distribution, area distribution, volumes distribution, modes aerosol extinction spectra, are performed in a few seconds.

  11. Plan that failed: a solar retirement housing development in Marin County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Symbolic landmines surround our everyday lives. This dissertation weaves through housing, political, and management landmines that often blow needed housing projects out of developers, architects, and builders minds. Some of the reasons homeseekers scream for affordable housing are examined in this study of Posada de Sol (PDS). Technically, financially, and environmentally PDS, a 280-unit model solar-energy retirement community, addresses national housing needs. It would turn an ugly six-acre rock quarry scar into an architectural delight and leave deer roaming and trees growing on the remaining 26 acres. Proposed for San Rafael, the largest city in affluent and environmentally concerned Marin County, the author describes PDS as tumbling instead into another pit whose walls were greased by high interest rates and guarded from above by local political ostriches and parochial neighbors. Personally involved in PDS, he uses these experiences and observations along with the testimony of state officials, builders, and developers to recount it's demise.

  12. The implications of developments on the Atlantic Frontier for marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, John; Wilson, Ben

    2001-05-01

    We review the available information on the distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the Atlantic Frontier area, and the literature on the potential effects of oil exploration and extraction on these species. Reliable estimates of seal abundance are only available for two species (grey and harbour seals). For grey seals and hooded seals there is also information from telemetry studies on their distribution at sea. Data on cetaceans comes from a variety of sources including whaling statistics, dedicated surveys, observers placed on vessels of opportunity, and from bottom-mounted hydrophone arrays. These indicate that the Atlantic Frontier region is of national, and possibly international, importance for a number of cetacean species. The most abundant small cetacean is likely to be the white-sided dolphin; however, smaller numbers of large whales, including endangered blue, right, fin and sei whales, and vulnerable humpback and sperm whales are also likely to be present in summer. There is growing evidence that a number of marine mammal species respond to the acoustic and physical disturbance associated with exploration for oil and gas resources, although the ecological impact of these responses is unclear. We describe how risk assessment frameworks, initially developed for evaluating the environmental impacts of hazardous chemicals, can be used to address this problem.

  13. Marine Derived Nutrients (MDN) in Riverine Ecosystems: Developing Monitoring Tools for Tracking MDN in Alaska Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinella, D. J.; Wipfli, M. S.; Walker, C.; Stricker, C. A.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study is to measure marine derived nutrient (MDN) presence and effects in stream and riparian habitats on the southern Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Year 1 approach was to link stream chemistry, marine isotope signatures, and lipid measures along a gradient from headwaters to mouth in watersheds with and without spawning salmon (i.e., N.F. Anchor River and Happy Creek, respectively). The N.F. Anchor River received 13,000 kg of chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and 2000 kg of coho (O. kisutch) biomass in 2004. Contrary to our hypothesis, NH4 concentrations were not related to salmon escapement, possibly due to rapid uptake in this apparently phosphorus-rich system. Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma), horsetail (Equisetum sp.), and macroinvertebrates collected in spawning reaches showed enriched 15N values relative to an upstream reference and Happy Valley Creek. Biota also showed a general trend toward 15N enrichment along a gradient from headwaters to mouth for both streams, suggesting that trophic complexity increased with stream size regardless of spawning salmon presence. In years 2 and 3 we will expand this study across replicate salmon and non-salmon watersheds and integrate with related studies develop a broader regional understanding of MDN effects in watersheds.

  14. Different carbon isotope fractionation patterns during the development of phototrophic freshwater and marine biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staal, M.; Thar, R.; Kühl, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Wolf, G.; de Brouwer, J. F. C.; Rijstenbil, J. W.

    2007-08-01

    Natural phototrophic biofilms are influenced by a broad array of abiotic and biotic factors and vary over temporal and spatial scales. Different developmental stages can be distinguished and growth rates will vary due to the thickening of the biofilm, which is expected to lead to a limitation of light or mass transport. This study shows that variation in CO2(aq) availability leads to a fractionation shift and thereby affects δ13C signatures during biofilm development. For phototrophic freshwater biofilms it was found that the δ13C value became less negative with the thickening of the biofilm, while the opposite trend was found in marine biofilms. Modeling and pH profiling indicated that the trend in the freshwater system was caused by an increase in CO2(aq) limitation resulting in an increase of HCO3- as C-source. The opposite trend in the marine system could be explained by a higher heterotrophic biomass and activity causing a higher carbon recycling and thereby lower δ13C values. We conclude that δ13C was more related to the net areal photosynthesis rate and carbon recycling, rather than to the growth rate of the biofilms.

  15. Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

    2013-10-01

    As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 μatm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 μatm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment. PMID:24198929

  16. The Influence of Bioactive Oxylipins from Marine Diatoms on Invertebrate Reproduction and Development

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    Diatoms are one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and occupy a vital link in the transfer of photosynthetically-fixed carbon through aquatic food webs. Diatoms produce an array of biologically-active metabolites, many of which have been attributed as a form of chemical defence and may offer potential as candidate marine drugs. Of considerable interest are molecules belonging to the oxylipin family which are broadly disruptive to reproductive and developmental processes. The range of reproductive impacts includes; oocyte maturation; sperm motility; fertilization; embryogenesis and larval competence. Much of the observed bioactivity may be ascribed to disruption of intracellular calcium signalling, induction of cytoskeletal instability and promotion of apoptotic pathways. From an ecological perspective, the primary interest in diatom-oxylipins is in relation to the potential impact on energy flow in planktonic systems whereby the reproductive success of copepods (the main grazers of diatoms) is compromised. Much data exists providing evidence for and against diatom reproductive effects; however detailed knowledge of the physiological and molecular processes involved remains poor. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge of the mechanistic impacts of diatom-oxylipins on marine invertebrate reproduction and development. PMID:19841721

  17. Development of a toxicity identification evaluation procedure for characterizing metal toxicity in marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Cook, H.F.; Kuhn, A.

    2000-04-01

    A multiagency effort is underway to develop whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites and in the conduct of environmental risk assessments. The research approach is based on the predominance of three classes of toxicants in sediments: ammonia, nonpolar organic chemicals, and metals. Here the authors describe a procedure for characterizing acute toxicity caused by metals in whole marine sediments. The procedure involves adding a chelating resin to sediments, resulting in the sequestration of bioavailable metal while not stressing testing organisms. Within the testing chambers, the presence of resin resulted in statistically significant reductions in the overlying and interstitial water concentrations of five metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc) generally by factors of 40 and 200. Toxicity to both the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and mysid Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) of sediments spiked with the five metals was decreased by approximately a factor of four when resin was present. While very effective at reducing the concentrations and toxicity of metals, the resin has only minor ameliorative effects on the toxicity of ammonia and a representative nonpolar toxicant (Endosulfan). Resin and accumulated metal were easily isolated from the testing system following exposures allowing for the initiation of phase II TIE (identification) procedures. This procedure using the addition of a chelating resin provides an approach for determining the importance of metals to the toxicity of marine sediments. Work is continuing to validate the method with environmentally contaminated sediments.

  18. The Vorticity Budgets of North Atlantic Winter Marine Extratropical Cyclones Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, R.; Sorteberg, A.

    2012-12-01

    A partitioned form of the Zwack-Okossi (Z-O) tendency equation is employed to examine the composite role of dynamic and thermodynamic forcing mechanisms to the development of North Atlantic winter marine extratropical cyclones. The results provide a further insight into the budgets of near surface cyclonic geostrophic vorticity (CGV) and their evolution during the life cycle of mid-latitude low pressure systems. Of interest are the direct, indirect and net effects of the Z-O forcing mechanisms. The direct effect shows the contribution of each process to the near surface geostrophic vorticity tendency, while the indirect effect implies the contribution from the associated vertical motion and resulting adiabatic cooling or warming. The net effect is the sum of the direct and indirect effects.We found that the vorticity advection term is the largest net contributor to the development of the marine cyclones. The net positive effect of both the temperature advection and latent heating terms is smaller owing to the induced adiabatic cooling which reduces the positive direct contributions. The direct and indirect parts of ageostrophic tendency and friction terms support each other, resulting in significant net contributions at the low center.Comparisons of the composite contributions by the Z-O forcing terms at different pressure levels over the low center indicate that, in agreement with previous studies, the commencement of significant development is accompanied with the upper level cyclonic absolute vorticity advection, upper level warm advection and mid-to low level latent heating. However, during the end of the development, mid-tropospheric net contribution by vorticity advection term and low level warm advection controls the production of CGV. The former is due to both the presence of mid-level cyclonic vorticity advection and induced adiabatic warming over the composite low center.

  19. On microalgal settlements and the sluggish development of marine biofouling in Port Blair waters, Andamans.

    PubMed

    Eashwar, M; Nallathambi, T; Kuberaraj, K

    2008-01-01

    Settlement of microalgae was investigated on Perspex, aluminium and zinc coupons immersed in Port Blair Bay waters for over 3 months. Commencement of fouling was exceptionally slow, and few microalgae were found until 14 days. Settlement occurred thereafter, and 47 microalgal species contributed to the fouling. The dominant forms belonged to the genera Navicula and Nitzschia, whereas Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Gyrosigma balticum and Trichodesmium erythraeum also accounted for high proportions of the settlements. The dominance of Nitzschia sigma was particularly marked on zinc coupons, suggesting an ability by the organism to resist toxicity. Settlement of both centric and pennate diatoms was observed in the early and mid periods, and absolute dominance of the pennate diatoms subsequently. The fouling mass was low even after 103 days, and it is speculated that strong ultraviolet radiation might be the prime reason for the sluggish development of marine biofouling in these oceanic island waters. PMID:18097790

  20. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen

    2015-04-01

    Marine research is rapidly moving away from traditional discipline specific science to a wider ecosystem level approach. This more multidisciplinary approach to ocean science requires large amounts of good quality, interoperable data to be readily available for use in an increasing range of new and complex applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are already available throughout the world as a result of e-infrastructures being established at a regional level to manage and deliver marine data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. Establishing a common framework for marine data management on a global scale necessitates that there is interoperability across these existing data infrastructures and active collaboration between the organisations responsible for their management. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project is promoting co-ordination between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures including SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) in Australia, the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach the ODIP project partners are currently working together to develop several prototypes to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities between the individual regional marine data infrastructures. However, many of the issues being addressed by the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform are not specific to marine science. For this reason many of the outcomes of this international collaborative effort are equally relevant and transferable to other domains.

  1. An algal probe for copper speciation in marine waters: laboratory method development.

    PubMed

    Karner, Dawn A; Shafer, Martin M; Overdier, Joel T; Hemming, Jocelyn D C; Sonzogni, William C

    2006-04-01

    Laboratory-based algal assays were developed to explore the bioavailability of copper to the marine alga Thalassiosira weissflogii. A calibration strategy was developed that avoided use of the synthetic ligand ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the Aquil growth medium, thereby allowing ambient metal speciation. In a comparison of T. weissflogii cells grown in Aquil medium with EDTA to medium containing no added copper, zinc, and less than 0.003 nM of EDTA, no significant growth differences were observed after 8 d, indicating adequate stored nutrients. A 30-h assay was selected as the optimal time frame after examination of data from concentration-response experiments. Using 65Cu stable isotope additions, parameters examined included growth, chlorophyll a, copper uptake, phytochelatin production, and dissolved organic carbon excretion. The T. weissflogii specific growth rates decreased from 1.36 d(-1)( at pCu (i.e., the negative logarithmic concentration of free Cu) = 8.8 to 0.56 d(-1) at pCu = 7.8, whereas intercellular copper concentrations increased from 13.6 to 70.1 fg/cell, respectively. Calculated values of the copper concentration that caused a 50% reduction in algal growth of pCu = 7.7 and copper per algal mass of 625 microg/g were established. Using an algal assay based on EDTA-free culture medium, along with trace-metal clean techniques, the effect of copper on T. weissflogii and the speciation of copper in marine waters can be studied. PMID:16629150

  2. Ion toxicity and the development of a salinity toxicity relationship (STR) model for marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Mount, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Salinity in effluents can cause acute toxicity to marine organisms. The toxicity of the water can be due to an excess or deficiency of common ions, which usually are not thought of as toxicants. In order to develop an understanding of this phenomenon, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted to determine the effects of single ion deficiency, single ion excess, multiple ion deficiency, multiple ion excess, and total salinity on survival of three common marine test organisms (Mysidopsis bahia, Cyprinidon variegatus, and Menidia beryllina). The ions which were manipulated in these studies were Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, Mg{sup ++}, Sr{sup ++}, Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}{minus}}, HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{sup {minus}{minus}}. Results indicate that Ca{sup ++} and K{sup +} are essential ions at normal salinities, since the deficiency of these two ions causes mortality. In contrast, the complete deficiency of Mg{sup ++}, Sr{sup ++}, B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{sup {minus}{minus}}, and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} did not affect survival. The single ion excess studies demonstrated that K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, Mg{sup ++}, and B{sub 4}O{sub 7}{sup {minus}} were acutely toxic in excess at normal salinities. Total salinity studies determined the salinity tolerance range for each species, with upper and lower LC{sub 50}s for Mysidopsis bahia at 44 g/L and 8 g/L, for Cyprinidon variegatus at 73 g/L and < 0 g/L, and for Menidia beryllina at 45 g/L and < 0 g/L. These data will be used to develop a model to predict toxicity due to common ions.

  3. Navy/Marine Corps innovative science and technology developments for future enhanced mine detection capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, John H., Jr.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Miller, Richard E.; Davis, Kenn S.; Suiter, Harold R.; Hilton, Russell J.

    2000-08-01

    JMDT is a Navy/Marine Corps 6.2 Exploratory Development program that is closely coordinated with the 6.4 COBRA acquisition program. The objective of the program is to develop innovative science and technology to enhance future mine detection capabilities. The objective of the program is to develop innovative science and technology to enhance future mine detection capabilities. Prior to transition to acquisition, the COBRA ATD was extremely successful in demonstrating a passive airborne multispectral video sensor system operating in the tactical Pioneer unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), combined with an integrated ground station subsystem to detect and locate minefields from surf zone to inland areas. JMDT is investigating advanced technology solutions for future enhancements in mine field detection capability beyond the current COBRA ATD demonstrated capabilities. JMDT has recently been delivered next- generation, innovative hardware which was specified by the Coastal System Station and developed under contract. This hardware includes an agile-tuning multispectral, polarimetric, digital video camera and advanced multi wavelength laser illumination technologies to extend the same sorts of multispectral detections from a UAV into the night and over shallow water and other difficult littoral regions. One of these illumination devices is an ultra- compact, highly-efficient near-IR laser diode array. The other is a multi-wavelength range-gateable laser. Additionally, in conjunction with this new technology, algorithm enhancements are being developed in JMDT for future naval capabilities which will outperform the already impressive record of automatic detection of minefields demonstrated by the COBAR ATD.

  4. Inhibition of larval development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa by four synthetic musk substances.

    PubMed

    Wollenberger, Leah; Breitholtz, Magnus; Ole Kusk, Kresten; Bengtsson, Bengt Erik

    2003-04-15

    A nitro musk (musk ketone) and three polycyclic musks (Tonalide, Galaxolide and Celestolide) were tested for acute and subchronic effects on a marine crustacean, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Sublethal effects on A. tonsa larvae were investigated with a rapid and cost effective bioassay, which is based on the easily detectable morphological change from the last nauplius to the first copepodite stage during copepod larval development. The inhibition of larval development after 5 days exposure was a very sensitive endpoint, with 5-d-EC(50)-values as low as 0.026 mg/l (Tonalide), 0.059 mg/l (Galaxolide), 0.066 mg/l (musk ketone) and 0.160 mg/l (Celestolide), respectively. These values were generally more than one order of magnitude below the 48-h-LC(50)-values found for adults, which were 0.47 mg/l (Galaxolide), 0.71 mg/l (Celestolide), 1.32 mg/l (musk ketone) and 2.5 mg/l (Tonalide). Since the synthetic musks strongly inhibited larval development in A. tonsa at low nominal concentrations, they should be considered as very toxic. The larval development test with A. tonsa is able to provide important aquatic toxicity data for the evaluation of synthetic musks, for which there is little published ecotoxicological information available regarding Crustacea. It is suggested that subchronic and chronic copepod toxicity tests should be used more frequently for risk assessment of environmental pollutants. PMID:12670757

  5. Development of marine sediment bioassays and toxicity tests for monitoring and regulation in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Thain, J.; Matthiessen, P.

    1995-12-31

    There is a need in Europe and elsewhere for a broad suite of whole-sediment bioassays and toxicity tests which can be used for routine monitoring and assessment of the marine environment and for evaluating the toxic effects of chemicals which may find their way into sediments. Until recently, few European species had been incorporated into such tests but the availability of suitable methodologies is now increasing rapidly. Perhaps the most important recent activity in this area consisted of an international ring test of acute sediment toxicity test methods which was organized by the Oslo and Paris Commissions in 1993, using up to 4 offshore chemicals as test materials. It evaluated the performance of 4 acute (5--10 day) tests involving: the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum, the bivalve mollusc Abra alba, the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina. The ring test concluded that the C. volutator test was the most appropriate for evaluating offshore chemicals, but all these methods are now widely used in Europe, both as toxicity tests and as bioassays. For example, the A. marina procedure (which has both lethal and sublethal endpoints), in combination with the C. volutator method, is now routinely used in the UK for monitoring the toxicity of estuarine sediments. Further activities are in progress. Perhaps the most important is the development of chronic marine sediment tests and bioassays which can be used to assess the long-term effects of the many sedimentary contaminants which are able to persist in this type of habitat and possibly cause delayed effects on the growth and reproduction, etc. of benthic fauna.

  6. Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, C.M.; Branch, G.; Bustamante, R.H.; Castilla, J.C.; Dugan, J.; Halpern, B.S.; Lafferty, K.D.; Leslie, H.; Lubchenco, J.; McArdle, D.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Warner, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are being established worldwide in response to a growing recognition of the conservation crisis that is building in the oceans. However, designation of reserves has been largely opportunistic, or protective measures have been implemented (often overlapping and sometimes in conflict) by different entities seeking to achieve different ends. This has created confusion among both users and enforcers, and the proliferation of different measures provides a false sense of protection where little is offered. This paper sets out a procedure grounded in current understanding of ecological processes, that allows the evaluation and selection of reserve sites in order to develop functional, interconnected networks of fully protected reserves that will fulfill multiple objectives. By fully protected we mean permanently closed to fishing and other resource extraction. We provide a framework that unifies the central aims of conservation and fishery management, while also meeting other human needs such as the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., maintenance of coastal water quality, shoreline protection, and recreational opportunities). In our scheme, candidate sites for reserves are evaluated against 12 criteria focused toward sustaining the biological integrity and productivity of marine systems at both local and regional scales. While a limited number of sites will be indispensable in a network, many will be of similar value as reserves, allowing the design of numerous alternative, biologically adequate networks. Devising multiple network designs will help ensure that ecological functionality is preserved throughout the socioeconomic evaluation process. Too often, socioeconomic criteria have dominated the process of reserve selection, potentially undermining their efficacy. We argue that application of biological criteria must precede and inform socioeconomic evaluation, since maintenance of ecosystem functioning is essential for meeting all of the goals for reserves. It is critical that stakeholders are fully involved throughout this process. Application of the proposed criteria will lead to networks whose multifunctionality will help unite the objectives of different management entities, so accelerating progress toward improved stewardship of the oceans.

  7. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common framework for marine data management on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick

    2015-04-01

    As marine research becomes increasingly multidisciplinary in its approach there has been a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data. A number of regional initiatives are already addressing this requirement through the establishment of e-infrastructures to improve the discovery and access of marine data. Projects such as SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) in Australia have implemented local infrastructures to facilitate the exchange of standardised marine datasets. However, each of these systems has been developed to address local requirements and created in isolation from those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale there is a need to develop interoperability solutions that can be implemented across these initiatives. Through a series of workshops attended by the relevant domain specialists, the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project has identified areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures and used these as the foundation for the development of three prototype interoperability solutions addressing: 1. the use of brokering services for the purposes of providing access to the data available in the regional data discovery and access services including via the GEOSS portal 2. the development of interoperability between cruise summary reporting systems in Europe, the USA and Australia for routine harvesting of cruise data for delivery via the Partnership for Observation of Global Oceans (POGO) portal 3. the establishment of a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for selected sensors installed on vessels and in real-time monitoring systems using sensor web enablement (SWE) These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common global approach to the management of marine data which can be promoted to the wider marine research community. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia but which is seeking to expand this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures.

  8. Mariner 4 - A study of the cumulative flux of dust particles over a heliocentric range of 1-1.56 AU 1964-1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. M.; Bohn, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Between December 1964 and December 1967, the Mariner 4 dust particle experiment obtained data concerning the distribution of minute zodiacal dust cloud particles over a heliocentric range of 1-1.56 AU. The first measurement was over the complete heliocentric range, while the two additional measurements were made between 1.1 and 1.25 AU in 1966, and between 1.2 and 1.5 AU in 1967. The initial results of these measurements presented the mean cumulative flux for the respective data periods. The results of a detailed study and comparison of the three measurements are presented, with particular emphasis on the variation of the flux as a function of heliocentric range. A small, but statistically significant, increase in the flux is observed between 1.15 and 1.4 AU. The initial reports showed a lower cumulative flux for the latter two measurements. However, a detailed analysis containing corrections for spacecraft attitude indicate that all three measurements yield similar results, and that the particles detected were in low inclination orbits.

  9. 78 FR 34047 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Reconnaissance Sonar System in the NSWC PCD Testing Range, 2012-2014,'' which is also available at the same... Harassment Authorization to Take Marine Mammals by Harassment Incidental to Conducing High-Frequency Sonar... only, of marine mammals incidental to conducting testing of the AN/AQS- 20A Mine Reconnaissance...

  10. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    SciTech Connect

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

  11. Hierarchical Population Genetic Structure in a Direct Developing Antarctic Marine Invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joseph I.; Clarke, Andrew; Clark, Melody S.; Peck, Lloyd S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between life-history variation and population structure in marine invertebrates is not straightforward. This is particularly true of polar species due to the difficulty of obtaining samples and a paucity of genomic resources from which to develop nuclear genetic markers. Such knowledge, however, is essential for understanding how different taxa may respond to climate change in the most rapidly warming regions of the planet. We therefore used over two hundred polymorphic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) to explore population connectivity at three hierachical spatial scales in the direct developing Antarctic topshell Margarella antarctica. To previously published data from five populations spanning a 1500 km transect along the length of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, we added new AFLP data for four populations separated by up to 6 km within Ryder Bay, Adelaide Island. Overall, we found a nonlinear isolation-by-distance pattern, suggestive of weaker population structure within Ryder Bay than is present over larger spatial scales. Nevertheless, significantly positive Fst values were obtained in all but two of ten pairwise population comparisons within the bay following Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. This is in contrast to a previous study of the broadcast spawner Nacella concinna that found no significant genetic differences among several of the same sites. By implication, the topshell's direct-developing lifestyle may constrain its ability to disperse even over relatively small geographic scales. PMID:23691125

  12. Hierarchical population genetic structure in a direct developing antarctic marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Joseph I; Clarke, Andrew; Clark, Melody S; Peck, Lloyd S

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between life-history variation and population structure in marine invertebrates is not straightforward. This is particularly true of polar species due to the difficulty of obtaining samples and a paucity of genomic resources from which to develop nuclear genetic markers. Such knowledge, however, is essential for understanding how different taxa may respond to climate change in the most rapidly warming regions of the planet. We therefore used over two hundred polymorphic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) to explore population connectivity at three hierachical spatial scales in the direct developing Antarctic topshell Margarella antarctica. To previously published data from five populations spanning a 1500 km transect along the length of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, we added new AFLP data for four populations separated by up to 6 km within Ryder Bay, Adelaide Island. Overall, we found a nonlinear isolation-by-distance pattern, suggestive of weaker population structure within Ryder Bay than is present over larger spatial scales. Nevertheless, significantly positive F st values were obtained in all but two of ten pairwise population comparisons within the bay following Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. This is in contrast to a previous study of the broadcast spawner Nacella concinna that found no significant genetic differences among several of the same sites. By implication, the topshell's direct-developing lifestyle may constrain its ability to disperse even over relatively small geographic scales. PMID:23691125

  13. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH3) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH3 than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH3 concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH3 concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH3 and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH3.

  14. A Sourcebook of Marine Activities Developed in the Milwaukee Great Lakes Summer Education Program, 1977 and 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Richard E., Ed.

    Twenty-seven activities dealing with the marine environment of the Great Lakes are presented. Designed for junior and senior high school students, these activities develop awareness of the biological, physical, social, economical, and aesthetic dimensions of the Great Lakes. Field trips, films, discussion, and hands-on activities are used to teach…

  15. A Model for Particle Microphysics,Turbulent Mixing, and Radiative Transfer in the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer and Comparisons with Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, Owen B.; Hobbs, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an approx. 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gate conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The vertical profile of cloud droplet concentration is sensitive to the lower size cutoff of the droplet size distribution due to the presence of unactivated haze particles in the lower region of the modeled cloud. Increases in total droplet concentrations do not always produce less drizzle and more cloud water in the model. The radius of the mean droplet volume does not correlate consistently with drizzle, but the effective droplet radius does. The greatest impacts on cloud properties predicted by the model are produced by halving the width of the size distribution of input condensation nuclei and by omitting the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling on the condensational growth of cloud droplets. The omission of infrared scattering produces noticeable changes in cloud properties. The collection efficiencies for droplets less than 30-micron radius, and the value of the accommodation coefficient for condensational droplet growth, have noticeable effects on cloud properties. The divergence of the horizontal wind also has a significant effect on a 12-h model simulation of cloud structure. Conclusions drawn from the model are tentative because of the limitations of the 1D model framework. A principal simplification is that the model assumes horizontal homogeneity, and, therefore, does not resolve updrafts and downdrafts. Likely consequences of this simplification include overprediction of the growth of droplets by condensation in the upper region of the cloud, underprediction of droplet condensational growth in the lower region of the cloud, and under-prediction of peak supersaturations.

  16. A Model for Particle Microphysics, Turbulent Mixing, and Radiative Transfer in the Stratocumulus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer and Comparisons with Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Andrew S.; Toon, Owen B.; Hobbs, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an approx. 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gale conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The vertical profile of cloud droplet concentration is sensitive to the lower size cutoff of the droplet size distribution due to the presence of unactivated haze particles in the lower region of the modeled cloud. Increases in total droplet concentrations do not always produce less drizzle and more cloud water in the model. The radius of the mean droplet volume does not correlate consistently with drizzle, but the effective droplet radius does. The greatest impacts on cloud properties predicted by the model are produced by halving the width of the size distribution of input condensation nuclei and by omitting the effect of cloud-top radiative cooling on the condensational growth of cloud droplets. The omission of infrared scattering produces noticeable changes in cloud properties. The collection efficiencies for droplets less than 30-micrometers radius, and the value of the accommodation coefficient for condensational droplet growth, have noticeable effects on cloud properties. The divergence of the horizontal wind also has a significant effect on a 12-h model simulation of cloud structure. Conclusions drawn from the model are tentative because of the limitations of the 1D model framework. A principal simplification is that the model assumes horizontal homogeneity, and, therefore, does not resolve updrafts and downdrafts. Likely consequences of this simplification include overprediction of the growth of droplets by condensation in the upper region of the cloud, underprediction of droplet condensational growth in the lower region of the cloud, and underprediction of peak supersaturations.

  17. Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Radford, Andrew N; Simpson, Stephen D; Nedelec, Brendan; Lecchini, David; Mills, Suzanne C

    2014-01-01

    Human activities can create noise pollution and there is increasing international concern about how this may impact wildlife. There is evidence that anthropogenic noise may have detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology in many species but there are few examples of experiments showing how fitness may be directly affected. Here we use a split-brood, counterbalanced, field experiment to investigate the effect of repeated boat-noise playback during early life on the development and survival of a marine invertebrate, the sea hare Stylocheilus striatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia). We found that exposure to boat-noise playback, compared to ambient-noise playback, reduced successful development of embryos by 21% and additionally increased mortality of recently hatched larvae by 22%. Our work, on an understudied but ecologically and socio-economically important taxon, demonstrates that anthropogenic noise can affect individual fitness. Fitness costs early in life have a fundamental influence on population dynamics and resilience, with potential implications for community structure and function. PMID:25080997

  18. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linlin; Dong, Wenhong; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs), isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA). PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0) till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. PMID:26058015

  19. Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, Sophie L.; Radford, Andrew N.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Nedelec, Brendan; Lecchini, David; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2014-07-01

    Human activities can create noise pollution and there is increasing international concern about how this may impact wildlife. There is evidence that anthropogenic noise may have detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology in many species but there are few examples of experiments showing how fitness may be directly affected. Here we use a split-brood, counterbalanced, field experiment to investigate the effect of repeated boat-noise playback during early life on the development and survival of a marine invertebrate, the sea hare Stylocheilus striatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia). We found that exposure to boat-noise playback, compared to ambient-noise playback, reduced successful development of embryos by 21% and additionally increased mortality of recently hatched larvae by 22%. Our work, on an understudied but ecologically and socio-economically important taxon, demonstrates that anthropogenic noise can affect individual fitness. Fitness costs early in life have a fundamental influence on population dynamics and resilience, with potential implications for community structure and function.

  20. Marine Science in Support for Sustainable Development of the Indian Ocean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbeck, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Indian Ocean rim is home to a significant part of the global population. Its large heat capacity and ocean circulation responds to and regulates seasonal to multi-decadal and long term climate change. In particular the monsoon type circulation regulates rain and drought patterns over India, Africa and Southern Asia. Fishing and more recently resource extraction of energy and materials make the ocean economically important. Global trade and ocean related hazards (such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, ocean de-oxygenation, loss of biodiversity, sea level rise and earth quakes and tsunamis) have important other economic impacts on all societies. On the other hand our current scientific understanding, ability to continually observe changes in the marine environment, model all aspects of the connected ocean system and develop plausible scenarios for the Indian Ocean of the future are still in its infancy. The possibility for a decade long comprehensive Indian Ocean Study in support of providing the information needed for sustainable development of the region is explored.

  1. Laboratory Studies of Marine Sulfur and Halogen Chemistry: Recent Developments and Key Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    The chemistry of organic sulfur compounds and halogen source compounds in the marine environment is complex, involving gas phase, aqueous phase, and surface-mediated transformations. Furthermore, halogen and sulfur chemistries are strongly coupled through the reactions of X atoms and XO radicals with DMS and its oxidation products (X = halogen atom). This presentation will focus on recent developments that provide useful constraints for model interpretation of field observations as well as a discussion of some important remaining uncertainties. The role of atomic chlorine as an oxidant for organic sulfur and iodine compounds will be discussed in light of new information about weakly-bound 2-center -- 3-electron bonded complexes involving these species. Also, our current understanding of gas-phase and aqueous-phase oxidation mechanisms that govern conversion of DMS to H2SO4(g), MSA(g), methanesulfonate(aq), and sulfate(aq) will be assessed with focus on new developments and identification of topics in need of further study.

  2. Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Nedelec, Sophie L.; Radford, Andrew N.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Nedelec, Brendan; Lecchini, David; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities can create noise pollution and there is increasing international concern about how this may impact wildlife. There is evidence that anthropogenic noise may have detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology in many species but there are few examples of experiments showing how fitness may be directly affected. Here we use a split-brood, counterbalanced, field experiment to investigate the effect of repeated boat-noise playback during early life on the development and survival of a marine invertebrate, the sea hare Stylocheilus striatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia). We found that exposure to boat-noise playback, compared to ambient-noise playback, reduced successful development of embryos by 21% and additionally increased mortality of recently hatched larvae by 22%. Our work, on an understudied but ecologically and socio-economically important taxon, demonstrates that anthropogenic noise can affect individual fitness. Fitness costs early in life have a fundamental influence on population dynamics and resilience, with potential implications for community structure and function. PMID:25080997

  3. Effects of barium and cadmium on the population development of the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina.

    PubMed

    Lira, V F; Santos, G A P; Derycke, S; Larrazabal, M E L; Fonsca-Genevois, V G; Moens, T

    2011-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling often involves the use of fluids containing barium and traces of other heavy metals. These may affect the environment, but information on their toxicity to benthic biota remains scant. Here, we present results of a 10-day bioassay with the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina at different loads of barium (0-10 ,000 ppm nominal concentrations) and cadmium (0-12 ppm) in the range of concentrations reported from drilling-impacted sediments. Barium did not affect the fitness and population development of R. (P.) marina at concentrations up to 300 ppm, but did cause a decrease in population abundance and an increase in development time from concentrations of 400-2000 ppm onwards. Increased mortality occurred at 4800 ppm Ba. For cadmium, LOEC and EC?? values for total population abundance were 2.95 and 8.82 ppm, respectively. Cd concentrations as low as 2.40 to 2.68 caused a decrease in the abundance of adult nematodes, indicating that assays covering more generations would likely demonstrate yet more pronounced population-level effects. Our results indicate that oil and gas drilling activities may potentially have important implications for the meiobenthos through the toxicity of barium and associated metals like cadmium. PMID:21855994

  4. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linlin; Dong, Wenhong; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yajun

    2015-06-01

    Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs), isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA). PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0) till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. PMID:26058015

  5. particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yu; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengguo; Fang, Xiaoming; Liang, Guozheng

    2014-05-01

    We explore a facile and nontoxic hydrothermal route for synthesis of a Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material by using l-cysteine as the sulfur source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the complexing agent. The effects of the amount of EDTA, the mole ratio of the three metal ions, and the hydrothermal temperature and time on the phase composition of the obtained product have been systematically investigated. The addition of EDTA and an excessive dose of ZnCl2 in the hydrothermal reaction system favor the generation of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4. Pure kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 has been synthesized at 180°C for 12 h from the reaction system containing 2 mmol of EDTA at 2:2:1 of Cu/Zn/Sn. It is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy that those binary and ternary phases are absent in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 product. The kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 material synthesized by the hydrothermal process consists of flower-like particles with 250 to 400 nm in size. It is revealed that the flower-like particles are assembled from single-crystal Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoflakes with ca. 20 nm in size. The band gap of the Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline material is estimated to be 1.55 eV. The films fabricated from the hierarchical Cu2ZnSnS4 particles exhibit fast photocurrent responses under intermittent visible-light irradiation, implying that they show potentials for use in solar cells and photocatalysis.

  6. Engaging Scientists in K-12 Professional Development and Curriculum Development in the Context of Alaska's Large Marine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigman, M.; Anderson, A.; Deans, N. L.; Dublin, R.; Dugan, D.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Warburton, J.

    2012-12-01

    Alaska marine ecosystem-based professional development workshops have proven to be a robust context for engaging scientists from a variety of disciplines in overcoming barriers to communication and collaboration among scientists and educators. Scientists came away from scientist-teacher workshops with effective K-12 outreach strategies as well as a deeper understanding about how to contribute meaningfully to K-12 education. The establishment of the Alaskan Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE-AK) in 2009 was the catalyst for a series of professional development workshops related to the North Pacific Research Board's (NPRB) marine focus areas (Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, and Arctic Ocean) for Integrated Ecosystem Research Programs (IERPs). During 2010-2012, COSEE-AK and NPRB partnered with the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS), and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) to support a five-day professional development workshop focused on each ecosystem. The workshops brought together three types of participants: 1) Alaska-focused marine ecosystem scientists; 2) rural Alaskan teachers living within each ecosystem; and 3) teachers from outside Alaska who had research experiences with scientists in the ecosystem. Over the course of the workshops, we developed a workshop model with four objectives: 1) to increase the science content knowledge of educators and their ability to teach ecosystem science; 2) to provide the scientists an opportunity to have broader impacts from their research on educators and Alaska Native and rural students; 3) to increase the knowledge and skills of educator and scientist participants to provide effective learning experiences for K-12 students; and 4) to facilitate the collaborative development of lesson plans. A total of 28 scientists and 41 educators participated in the three workshops. The success of the workshop for the educators was evaluated by pre- and post-workshop surveys of their perceived increase in content knowledge in specific topics and increased confidence in teaching those topics. The experiences of the scientists were evaluated based on recorded one-on-one interviews. Preliminary results indicate that the Arctic Ocean workshop was the most successful of the three in meeting the workshop objectives for both teacher and scientist participants. The gain in teachers' level of knowledge and confidence was significant for five scientific topics. Scientists reported gains in their understanding of K-12 education, working with teachers, lesson plan design, and how to make their science relevant to Alaska Native students and communities. A comparison of scientists responses from all three workshops indicate that the factors unique to the Arctic Ocean Workshop which contributed to meeting the workshop objectives in terms of scientist engagement were: 1) the sustained involvement of the scientists throughout the workshop, 2) an effective ratio of scientists to teachers (1:1), with flexibility for smaller group work), and 3) the involvement of Alaska Native scientists, educators, and community members in the collaborative work. The lesson plans have been posted to the ARCUS (http://www.polartrec.com) and MBARI (http://www.mbari/earth) websites.

  7. Development of a Testing Platform for Scaled-Laboratory Studies of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, M. L.; Volpe, M. A.; Riley, D. R.; Krane, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    A small-scale platform for testing model hydrokinetic devices in riverine environments has been developed for the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, 1.5 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&H) at Bucknell University. This platform is being used to advance development of marine hydrokinetic technologies by providing scaled-laboratory testing in a controlled environment. The results will provide validation of numerical predictions for device effects on the local substrate. Specifically, the flume is being used to model the effect of an underwater turbine on the sediment transport through its wake flow as it converts hydrokinetic energy to power. A test bed has been designed and assembled to hold sediment of varying size and material, where a single model turbine or an array formation, can be rooted within an erodible bed to conduct scour and erosion studies. Additionally, the facility is equipped with contraction inserts to increase the range of flow speeds available for turbine testing. For accurate flow field measurements the testing platform is instrumented with a Sontek Horizon 16 MHz Micro Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) which is used to characterize the mean velocity field of the wake generated by the turbine to correlate the strength of the wake with changes in the sediment bed. Finally, the testing platform includes an HR Wallingford 2D Sediment Bed Profiler with a low-powered laser distance sensor mounted inside a waterproof housing to enable characterization of changes in bed form topology for various turbine performance regimes. The flume is equipped with a track that allows a precision 3D traversing system to position measurement probes along the length, width and depth of the flume. Model turbine performance in terms of torque and power are characterized. This testing platform for laboratory-scaled studies are instrumental in yielding physical measurements of the alteration of sediment caused by variations in flow and wake structures due to the presence of marine hydrokinetic devices. These results will facilitate siting assessment for green energy technologies.

  8. Transparent exopolymer particle production and aggregation by a marine planktonic diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii) at different growth rates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Thornton, Daniel C O

    2015-04-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) play an important role in the ocean carbon cycle as they are sticky and affect particle aggregation and the biological carbon pump. We investigated the effect of growth rate on TEP production in nitrogen limited semi-continuous cultures of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (Grunow) G. Fryxell & Hasle. Steady-state diatom concentrations and other indicators of biomass (chl a, and total carbohydrate) were inversely related to growth rate, while individual cell volume increased with growth rate. There was no change in total TEP area with growth rate; however, individual TEP were larger at high growth rates and the number of individual TEP particles was lower. TEP concentration per cell was higher at higher growth rates. SYTOX Green staining showed that <5% of the diatom population had permeable cell membranes, with the proportion increasing at low growth rates. However, TEP production rates were greater at high growth rates, refuting our hypothesis that TEP formation is dependent on dying cells with compromised cell membranes in a diatom population. Measurements of particle size distribution in the cultures using laser scattering showed that they were most aggregated at high growth rates. These results indicate a coupling between TEP production and growth rate in diatoms under N limitation, with fast growing T. weissflogii producing more TEP and aggregates. PMID:26986532

  9. Development and testing of the ultraviolet spectrometer for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrar, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The Mariner Mars 1971 ultraviolet spectrometer is an Ebert-Fastie type of the same basic design as the Mariner Mars 1969 instrument. Light enters the instrument and is split into component wavelengths by a scanning reflection diffraction grating. Two monochrometer exit slits allow the use of two independent photomultiplier tube sensors. Channel 1 has a spectral range of 1100 to 1692 A with a fixed gain, while Channel 2 has a spectral range of 1450 to 3528 A with an automatic step gain control, providing a dynamic range over the expected atmosphere and surface brightness of Mars. The scientific objectives, basic operation, design, testing, and calibration for the Mariner Mars 1971 ultraviolet spectrometer are described. The design discussion includes those modifications that were necessary to extend the lifetime of the instrument in order to accomplish the Mariner Mars 1971 mission objectives.

  10. Development of marine biotechnology as a resource for novel proteases and their role in modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Homaei, Ahmad; Lavajoo, Fatemeh; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2016-07-01

    Marine environment consists of the largest sources diversified genetic pool of material with an enormous potential for a wide variety of enzymes including proteases. A protease hydrolyzes the peptide bond and most of proteases possess many industrial applications. Marine proteases differ considerably from those found in internal or external organs of invertebrates and vertebrates. In common with all enzymes, external factors such as temperature, pH and type of media are important for the activity, catalytic efficiency, stability and proper functioning of proteases. In this review valuable characteristics of proteases in marine organisms and their applications are gathered from a wide literature survey. Considering their biochemical significance and their increasing importance in biotechnology, a thorough understanding of marine proteases functioning could be of prime importance. PMID:27086293

  11. Early developments: Particle physics aspects of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays is the birthplace of elementary particle physics. The 1936 Nobel prize was shared between Victor Hess and Carl Anderson. Anderson discovered the positron in a cloud chamber. The positron was predicted by Dirac several years earlier. In subsequent cloud chamber investigations Anderson and Neddermeyer saw the muon, which for some time was considered to be a candidate for the Yukawa particle responsible for nuclear binding. Measurements with nuclear emulsions by Lattes, Powell, Occhialini and Muirhead clarified the situation by the discovery of the charged pions in cosmic rays. The cloud chamber continued to be a powerful instrument in cosmic ray studies. Rochester and Butler found V's, which turned out to be shortlived neutral kaons decaying into a pair of charged pions. Also Λ's, Σ's, and Ξ's were found in cosmic rays. But after that accelerators and storage rings took over. The unexpected renaissance of cosmic rays started with the search for solar neutrinos and the observation of the supernova 1987A. Cosmic ray neutrino results were best explained by the assumption of neutrino oscillations opening a view beyond the standard model of elementary particles. After 100 years of cosmic ray research we are again at the beginning of a new era, and cosmic rays may contribute to solve the many open questions, like dark matter and dark energy, by providing energies well beyond those of accelerators.

  12. Development and bias assessment of a method for targeted metagenomic sequencing of marine cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Batmalle, Cécilia S; Chiang, Hsin-I; Zhang, Kun; Lomas, Michael W; Martiny, Adam C

    2014-02-01

    Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in oligotrophic waters and responsible for a significant percentage of the earth's primary production. Here we developed a method for metagenomic sequencing of sorted Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations using a transposon-based library preparation technique. First, we observed that the cell lysis technique and associated amount of input DNA had an important role in determining the DNA library quality. Second, we found that our transposon-based method provided a more even coverage distribution and matched more sequences of a reference genome than multiple displacement amplification, a commonly used method for metagenomic sequencing. We then demonstrated the method on Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus field populations from the Sargasso Sea and California Current isolated by flow cytometric sorting and found clear environmentally related differences in ecotype distributions and gene abundances. In addition, we saw a significant correspondence between metagenomic libraries sequenced with our technique and regular sequencing of bulk DNA. Our results show that this targeted method is a viable replacement for regular metagenomic approaches and will be useful for identifying the biogeography and genome content of specific marine cyanobacterial populations. PMID:24296495

  13. Nutrition and bioprocess development for efficient biosynthesis of an antitumor compound from marine-derived fungus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiqiang; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Jiushun; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Jiao; Wang, Meixia; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2013-10-01

    An integrated nutrition and bioprocess strategy was developed for improving the biosynthesis of an antitumor compound, 1403C, by a marine-derived fungus, Halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403). First, statistical design strategies were synthetically applied to optimize the nutritional composition. The resulting 1403C production reached 2.07g/l, which was 143.5% higher than the original production. However, it only produced 0.44g/l of 1403C in 5-l bioreactor fermentation. Thus, the operating parameters including culture pH, dissolved oxygen, agitation speed, impeller type and inoculum level were considered to improve the fermentation process, and an effective control strategy for 1403C production by Halorosellinia sp. submerged in a 5-l bioreactor was established. When inoculating 0.22g/l dry biomass, controlling dissolved oxygen not lower than 30% during the growth phase but ranging between 30 and 40% during the stationary phase, using a double-layer six-flat-blade Rushton disc turbine agitated at 400rpm, keeping short-term low pH and rapid-rising pH with glucose starvation, the highest 1403C production was finally obtained at 1.32g/l, which was promoted by 200% compared to before optimization. Fermentation scale-up was finally performed in a 500-l bioreactor, and 1403C production of 1.09g/l was obtained. PMID:23887857

  14. Bioassay development using early life stages of the marine macroalga, Ecklonia radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Wheeler, K.D.; Roper, J.; Burridge, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    A lack of standard toxicity test methods for species native to Australia has stimulated research to overcome this deficiency. In the present work, germination inhibition was utilized as an endpoint in 48h bioassays with the marine macroalga Ecklonia radiata. E radiata is often a dominant member of temperate subtidal communities in Australia and other parts of the southern hemisphere. The alga fills an ecological niche similar to that of Macrocystis pyrifera, the giant kelp which occurs in the northern hemisphere. In an adaptation of test methods used for M. pyrifera, release of E. radiata zoospores was induced in the laboratory. Settled spores were then exposed to toxicants for 48 h and germination success was determined by scoring the spores for the development of a germination tube. At 20 C, EC{sub 50} values ranging between 53.4 and 77.4 mg/L were generated in tests with hexavalent chromium (potassium chromate). The EC{sub 50} for copper (cupric chloride) was 0.53 mg/L. Sensitivity of E. radiata to metals such as copper may have significance toward assessing the environmental impacts of some antifoulant coatings used on seagoing vessels. In future studies, growth of zoospore germination tubes and comparative sensitivity of different E. radiata populations will be examined.

  15. Development and Bias Assessment of a Method for Targeted Metagenomic Sequencing of Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Batmalle, Cécilia S.; Chiang, Hsin-I; Zhang, Kun; Lomas, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in oligotrophic waters and responsible for a significant percentage of the earth's primary production. Here we developed a method for metagenomic sequencing of sorted Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations using a transposon-based library preparation technique. First, we observed that the cell lysis technique and associated amount of input DNA had an important role in determining the DNA library quality. Second, we found that our transposon-based method provided a more even coverage distribution and matched more sequences of a reference genome than multiple displacement amplification, a commonly used method for metagenomic sequencing. We then demonstrated the method on Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus field populations from the Sargasso Sea and California Current isolated by flow cytometric sorting and found clear environmentally related differences in ecotype distributions and gene abundances. In addition, we saw a significant correspondence between metagenomic libraries sequenced with our technique and regular sequencing of bulk DNA. Our results show that this targeted method is a viable replacement for regular metagenomic approaches and will be useful for identifying the biogeography and genome content of specific marine cyanobacterial populations. PMID:24296495

  16. Marine energy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David

    2007-04-15

    Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized. PMID:17272244

  17. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of

  18. Plasticity of hatching and the duration of planktonic development in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Strathmann, Richard R

    2011-07-01

    Plasticity in hatching potentially adjusts risks of benthic and planktonic development for benthic marine invertebrates. The proportionate effect of hatching plasticity on duration of larval swimming is greatest for animals that can potentially brood or encapsulate offspring until hatching near metamorphic competence. As an example, early hatching of the nudibranch mollusk Phestilla sibogae is stimulated by scattering of encapsulated offspring, as by a predator feeding on the gelatinous egg ribbon. When egg ribbons are undisturbed, hatching is at or near metamorphic competence. Disturbance of an unguarded benthic egg mass can insert 4 or more days of obligate larval dispersal into the life history. As another example, the spionid annelid Boccardia proboscidea broods capsules, each with both cannibalistic and developmentally arrested planktivorous siblings plus nurse eggs. Early hatching produces mainly planktivorous larvae with a planktonic duration of 15 days. Late hatching produces mainly adelphophages who have eaten their planktivorous siblings and metamorphose with little or no period of swimming. Mothers actively hatch their offspring by tearing the capsules, and appeared to time hatching in response to their environment and not to the stage of development of their offspring. Higher temperature increased the variance of brooding time. Females appeared to hatch capsules at an earlier developmental stage at lower temperatures. Species that release gametes or zygotes directly into the plankton have less scope for plasticity in stage at hatching. Their embryos develop singly with little protection and hatch at early stages, often as blastulae or gastrulae. Time of hatching cannot be greatly advanced, and sensory capabilities of blastulae may be limited. PMID:21576120

  19. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)’s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9°×2.5° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1° x 1°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 µm. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4º by 5º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between “clean marine” aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses were carried out over 15 regions selected to be representative of different areas of the global ocean for the time period from June 2006 to April 2011. We show that for very low (less than 4 m s-1) and very high (more than 12 m s-1) wind speed conditions the mean CALIPSO-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) has little dependency on the surface wind speed. For an intermediate (between 4 and 12 m s-1) marine AOD was linearly correlated with the surface wind speed values, with a slope of 0.0062 s m-1. Results of our study suggest that considerable improvements to both optical properties of marine aerosols and their production mechanisms can be achieved by discriminating “clean marine” aerosols (or sea salt particles) from all other types of aerosols present over the ocean.

  20. Development of magnetic luminescent core/shell nanocomplex particles with fluorescence using Rhodamine 6G

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee Uk; Song, Yoon Seok; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A simple method was developed to synthesize Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite particles. ► The magnetic particle shows that highly luminescent and core/shell particles are formed. ► Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. ► The magnetic particles could detect fluorescence for the application of biosensor. -- Abstract: A simple and reproducible method was developed to synthesize a novel class of Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite core/shell particles. Using a single cobalt core, Rhodamine 6G of organic dye molecules was entrapped in a silica shell, resulting in core/shell particles of ∼200 nm diameter. Analyses using a variety of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibration sample magnetometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and fluorescence intensity demonstrated that dye molecules were trapped inside the core/shell particles. A photoluminescence investigation showed that highly luminescent and photostable core/shell particles were formed. Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. The synthesized magnetic particles could be used to detect fluorescence on glass substrate arrays for bioassay and biosensor applications.

  1. Osteogenic cell response to 3-D hydroxyapatite scaffolds developed via replication of natural marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S A; Choi, S Y; McKechnie, Melanie; Burke, G; Dunne, N; Walker, G; Cunningham, E; Buchanan, F

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue engineering may provide an alternative to autograft, however scaffold optimisation is required to maximize bone ingrowth. In designing scaffolds, pore architecture is important and there is evidence that cells prefer a degree of non-uniformity. The aim of this study was to compare scaffolds derived from a natural porous marine sponge (Spongia agaricina) with unique architecture to those derived from a synthetic polyurethane foam. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds of 1 cm(3) were prepared via ceramic infiltration of a marine sponge and a polyurethane (PU) foam. Human foetal osteoblasts (hFOB) were seeded at 1 × 10(5) cells/scaffold for up to 14 days. Cytotoxicity, cell number, morphology and differentiation were investigated. PU-derived scaffolds had 84-91 % porosity and 99.99 % pore interconnectivity. In comparison marine sponge-derived scaffolds had 56-61 % porosity and 99.9 % pore interconnectivity. hFOB studies showed that a greater number of cells were found on marine sponge-derived scaffolds at than on the PU scaffold but there was no significant difference in cell differentiation. X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that Si ions were released from the marine-derived scaffold. In summary, three dimensional porous constructs have been manufactured that support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation but significantly more cells were seen on marine-derived scaffolds. This could be due both to the chemistry and pore architecture of the scaffolds with an additional biological stimulus from presence of Si ions. Further in vivo tests in orthotopic models are required but this marine-derived scaffold shows promise for applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26704539

  2. Evolving science of marine reserves: New developments and emerging research frontiers

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Steven D.; Lester, Sarah E.; Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Costello, Christopher; Pollnac, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The field of marine reserve science has matured greatly over the last decade, moving beyond studies of single reserves and beyond perspectives from single disciplines. This Special Feature exemplifies recent advances in marine reserve research, showing insights gained from synthetic studies of reserve networks, long-term changes within reserves, integration of social and ecological science research, and balance between reserve design for conservation as well as fishery and other commercial objectives. This rich body of research helps to inform conservation planning for marine ecosystems but also poses new challenges for further study, including how to best design integrated fisheries management and conservation systems, how to effectively evaluate the performance of entire reserve networks, and how to examine the complex coupling between ecological and socioeconomic responses to reserve networks. PMID:20978212

  3. Development of optical spectroscopic instruments and application to field measurements of marine trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, Sean Christopher

    Halogens (X = Cl, Br, I) and organic carbon are relevant to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, are linked to atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen cycles, modify aerosols, and oxidize atmospheric mercury. The abundance of halogen radical species in the atmosphere is very low, but even concentrations of parts per trillion (1 ppt = 10-12 volume mixing ratio) or parts per quadrillion (1 ppq = 10-15 volume mixing ratio) are relevant for the aforementioned processes. Halogen radicals can be traced through measurements of halogen oxides (XO, where X = Cl, Br, I), that are ~1-10 times more abundant. However, measurements of halogen oxides are sparse, partly due to the lack of analytical techniques that enable their routine detection. In Chapters II-IV, I describe the development of a research grade Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument to measure bromine monoxide (BrO) and iodine monoxide (IO) routinely in the troposphere. I present autonomous measurements of BrO and IO in Pensacola, Florida that maximize sensitivity towards the detection of BrO in the free troposphere (altitudes >2km) from ground. The measurements are then coupled to a box-model to assess their impact on the oxidation of mercury in the atmosphere. Chapter V describes the Fast Light-Emitting-Diode Cavity-Enhanced DOAS (Fast LED-CE-DOAS) instrument and first measurements of glyoxal diurnal cycles and Eddy Covariance (EC) fluxes of glyoxal in the marine atmosphere. Glyoxal is the smallest alpha-dicarbonyl and a useful tracer molecule for fast photochemistry of hydrocarbons over oceans. The unique physical and chemical properties of glyoxal pose challenges in explaining this soluble gas over the remote ocean, and recent measurements over the open ocean currently remain unexplained by models. Results from a first cruise deployment over the tropical Pacific Ocean (TORERO field campaign) are presented.

  4. Development of a decision support system to manage contamination in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, A; Viarengo, A

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, contamination and its interaction with climate-change variables have been recognized as critical stressors in coastal areas, emphasizing the need for a standardized framework encompassing chemical and biological data into risk indices to support decision-making. We therefore developed an innovative, expert decision support system (Exp-DSS) for the management of contamination in marine coastal ecosystems. The Exp-DSS has two main applications: (i) to determine environmental risk and biological vulnerability in contaminated sites; and (ii) to support the management of waters and sediments by assessing the risk due to the exposure of biota to these matrices. The Exp-DSS evaluates chemical data, both as single compounds and as total toxic pressure of the mixture, to compare concentrations to effect-based thresholds (TELs and PELs). Sites are then placed into three categories of contamination: uncontaminated, mildly contaminated, and highly contaminated. In highly contaminated sites, effects on high-level ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e. survival and reproduction) are used to determine risk at the organism-population level, while ecological parameters (i.e. alterations in community structure and ecosystem functions) are considered for assessing effects on biodiversity. Changes in sublethal biomarkers are utilized to assess the stress level of the organisms in mildly contaminated sites. In Triad studies, chemical concentrations, ecotoxicological high-level effects, and ecological data are combined to determine the level of environmental risk in highly contaminated sites; chemical concentration and ecotoxicological sublethal effects are evaluated to determine biological vulnerability in mildly contaminated sites. The Exp-DSS was applied to data from the literature about sediment quality in estuarine areas of Spain, and ranked risks related to exposure to contaminated sediments from high risk (Huelva estuary) to mild risk (Guadalquivir estuary and Bay of Cadiz). A spreadsheet-based version of the Exp-DSS is available at the MEECE and DiSIT web sites (www.meece.eu and www.disit.unipmn.it). PMID:23892026

  5. Marine Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

  6. Modelling the role of marine particle on large scale 231Pa, 230Th, Iron and Aluminium distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutay, J.-C.; Tagliabue, A.; Kriest, I.; van Hulten, M. M. P.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of trace elements in the ocean is governed by the combined effects of various processes, and by exchanges with external sources. Modelling these represents an opportunity to better understand and quantify the mechanisms that regulate the oceanic tracer cycles. Observations collected during the GEOTRACES program provide an opportunity to improve our knowledge regarding processes that should be considered in biogeochemical models to adequately represent the distributions of trace elements in the ocean. Here we present a synthesis about the state of the art for simulating selected trace elements in biogeochemical models: Protactinium, Thorium, Iron and Aluminium. In this contribution we pay particular attention on the role of particles in the cycling of these tracers and how they may provide additional constraints on the transfer of matter in the ocean.

  7. Research and development of two marine-degradable biopolymers. Rept. for 1 Oct 89-30 Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    Andrady, A.L.; Pegram, J.E.; Olson, T.M.

    1992-03-01

    The Navy is developing a biopolymeric film material suitable for fabrication into marine-disposable trash bags so that it can comply with impending national and international requirements which will prohibit the discharge of plastics into the sea. Two biopolymers, chitosan and regenerated cellulose, were selected and tested to meet this need. After 6 weeks of marine exposure, regenerated cellulose samples disappeared; after 10 weeks, chitosan samples became brittle and separated, while chitosan showed greater anaerobic degradation than regenerated cellulose in soil studies, the opposite occurred in the marine sediment environment. Aerobic degradation was much higher than anaerobic degradation for both biopolymers. To improve flexibility, 50 plasticizers were tested in chitosan. Ten percent lithium bromide and 5% lithium acetate/10% PEG 400 in chitosan were the most effective plasticizers. Regenerated cellulose films treated with lithium salt solutions also showed improved flexibility. Incorporating urea and potassium phosphate into cellulose showed that degradation could be increased in soil. Tests are ongoing to further accelerate the rate of biodegradation by increasing the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. Fabricating trash bags will require adhesive bonding. Five adhesives were evaluated with regenerated cellulose. Covinax 220, JW 2-47, and Adcote 333T proved acceptable. Chitosan requires further development to be produced and processed into bags efficiently. With minor adjustments, regenerated cellulose presently meets this requirement; thus, it is the more promising film. Progress towards the goal of developing a biopolymeric film material meeting the Navy's requirements is continuing.

  8. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon currently growing along the Andean fluvial system on altitudes between c. 2000 up to c. 4800 m. Alnus is an important Andean forest taxa since Pliocene. In summary, the Neogene palynological record of the Amazon Fan strongly reflects and confirms the influence of the uplift of the Andes and its transcontinental character from late Miocene onwards.

  9. Fluvial and marine controls on combined subaerial and subaqueous delta progradation: Morphodynamic modeling of compound-clinoform development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, John B.; Paola, Chris; Pratson, Lincoln; Voller, Vaughan R.; Murray, A. Brad

    2005-06-01

    Fluviodeltaic systems commonly display a compound-clinoform geometry that consists of a subaerial/subaqueous delta couplet. The extent of subaqueous delta development varies significantly and, in modern systems, is a function of fluvial input and basin hydrodynamics. We present a model of fluviodeltaic progradation in which the repeated occurrence of characteristic terrestrial floods and large coastal storms drives fluvial and shallow marine morphodynamics, respectively. We couple fluvial and shallow marine sediment dynamics via the surf zone, which we collapse to a shock condition and treat as a moving boundary. With steady sediment supply and sea level and simple basin geometry, our model naturally develops prograding deltas with compound-clinoform geometries. The subaerial delta grows via fluvial aggradation and shoreface progradation, whereas the subaqueous delta expands through foreset progradation, with only minor topset aggradation. The interplay of fluvial input with the wave/current field controls the basic partitioning of sediment between subaerial and subaqueous deltas and, by extension, the compound-clinoform geometry. Increasing the frequency or magnitude of coastal storms, decreasing flood frequency or discharge, and reducing grain size all increase the fraction of sediment delivered to the shallow marine environment and the extent of subaqueous delta progradation relative to subaerial delta development. Our model, which emphasizes the intrinsic coupling of fluvial and shallow marine sediment dynamics and downplays the importance of allogenic fluctuations, can explain many of the first-order morphologic features of natural delta systems, including significant lateral separation of the shoreline and clinoform rollover and differing rates of subaerial and subaqueous delta progradation.

  10. Development of a particle injection system for impurity transport study in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. Y.; Hong, Joohwan; Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Siwon; Jang, Juhyeok; Jeon, Taemin; Park, Jae Sun; Choe, Wonho; Hong, Suk-Ho

    2014-11-15

    A solid particle injection system is developed for KSTAR. The system has a compact size, compatibility with a strong magnetic field and high vacuum environment, and the capability to inject a small amount of solid particles with a narrow injection angle. The target flight-distance of 10 cm has been achieved with a particle loss rate of less than 10%. Solid impurity particles such as tungsten and carbon will be injected by this system at the midplane in KSTAR. The impurity transport feature will be studied with a soft X-ray array, a vacuum ultra-violet diagnostic, and Stand Alone Non-Corona code.

  11. Taylor particle dispersion during transition to fully developed two-dimensional turbulence.

    PubMed

    Xia, H; Francois, N; Punzmann, H; Shats, M

    2014-03-14

    We report new measurements of single particle dispersion in turbulent two-dimensional (2D) flows. Laboratory experiments in electromagnetically driven and Faraday wave driven turbulence reveal a transition from weakly dispersing superdiffusive regime to strongly dispersing Brownian diffusion as the flow energy is increased in a broad range. The transition to fully developed 2D turbulence is characterized by the topological changes in the fluid particle trajectories and the development of self-similar diffusion. The degree of 2D turbulence development can be quantified by a parameter describing the deviation of single particle dispersion from the Taylor dispersion. PMID:24679297

  12. Expert Witness or Advocate: Developing Oral Argument Skills in the Marine Science Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, James; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article details an undergraduate/graduate-level, experimental, marine science education course utilizing interactive student participation concerning the relationship between individual property interests and coastal protection legislation in the aftermath of hurricane Hugo in 1989. Students successfully gained an understanding of the…

  13. Development of particle characteristics diagnosis system for nanoparticle analysis in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongbin; Mun, Jihun; Kim, HyeongU; Yun, Ju-Young; Kim, Yong-Ju; Kim, TaeWan; Kim, Taesung; Kang, Sang-Woo

    2016-02-01

    A particle characteristics diagnosis system (PCDS) was developed to measure nano-sized particle properties by a combination of particle beam mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It allows us to measure the size distributions of nano-sized particles in real time, and the shape and composition can be determined by in situ SEM imaging and EDS scanning. PCDS was calibrated by measuring the size-classified nano-sized NaCl particles generated using an aqueous solution of NaCl by an atomizer. After the calibration, the characteristics of nano-sized particles sampled from the exhaust line of the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process were determined using PCDS.

  14. Development of particle characteristics diagnosis system for nanoparticle analysis in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongbin; Mun, Jihun; Kim, HyeongU; Yun, Ju-Young; Kim, Yong-Ju; Kim, TaeWan; Kim, Taesung; Kang, Sang-Woo

    2016-02-01

    A particle characteristics diagnosis system (PCDS) was developed to measure nano-sized particle properties by a combination of particle beam mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It allows us to measure the size distributions of nano-sized particles in real time, and the shape and composition can be determined by in situ SEM imaging and EDS scanning. PCDS was calibrated by measuring the size-classified nano-sized NaCl particles generated using an aqueous solution of NaCl by an atomizer. After the calibration, the characteristics of nano-sized particles sampled from the exhaust line of the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process were determined using PCDS. PMID:26931842

  15. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C; Kane, Ravi S

    2011-02-01

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. PMID:20886559

  16. Marine Animal Alert System -- Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies -- FY 2011 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal turbines to be deployed in Puget Sound in Washington State. The MAAS will help manage the risk of injury or mortality to marine animals from blade strike or contact with tidal turbines. In particular, development has focused on detection, classification, and localization of listed Southern Resident killer whales within 200 m of prototype turbines using both active and passive acoustic approaches. At the close of FY 2011, a passive acoustic system consisting of a pair of four-element star arrays and parallel processing of eight channels of acoustic receptions has been designed and built. Field tests of the prototype system are scheduled for the fourth quarter of calendar year 2011. Field deployment and testing of the passive acoustic prototype is scheduled for the first quarter of FY 2012. The design of an active acoustic system that could be built using commercially available off-the-shelf components from active acoustic system vendors is also in the final stages of design and specification.

  17. Coordinated Parameterization Development and Large-Eddy Simulation for Marine and Arctic Cloud-Topped Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretherton, Christopher S.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to compare observations of marine and arctic boundary layers with: (1) parameterization systems used in climate and weather forecast models; and (2) two and three dimensional eddy resolving (LES) models for turbulent fluid flow. Based on this comparison, we hoped to better understand, predict, and parameterize the boundary layer structure and cloud amount, type, and thickness as functions of large scale conditions that are predicted by global climate models. The principal achievements of the project were as follows: (1) Development of a novel boundary layer parameterization for large-scale models that better represents the physical processes in marine boundary layer clouds; and (2) Comparison of column output from the ECMWF global forecast model with observations from the SHEBA experiment. Overall the forecast model did predict most of the major precipitation events and synoptic variability observed over the year of observation of the SHEBA ice camp.

  18. Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanek, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

  19. Vertical distribution and in situ feeding of marine particle-grazers in relation to their food, the microplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Napp, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A cruise was completed to measure the vertical distributions of plant biomass, growth, size and species composition, nutritional content and the zooplankton biomass and species composition. There were no consistent differences in the size spectra of particles between the regions of highest plant biomass and highest growth rates. Species known to be noxious or distasteful to the zooplankton were not members of either assemblage. The nutritional content of the particulate matter was greatest at the plant biomass maximum. Thus there was no evidence that the region of higher plant growth rates was a better place for zooplankton to feed. The diurnal distribution of zooplankton biomass was not consistently related to the vertical distributions of plant biomass, primary productivity, or productivity/chlorophyll. At night, the vertical distribution of zooplankton biomass was consistently related to the vertical distribution of plant biomass. There were species whose vertical distributions were consistently related to either the vertical distribution of plant biomass or productivity/chlorophyll a but not primary productivity, contrary to the observations of others. The total grazing pressure, measured in situ with a new design of grazing chamber and an isotopic carrier which labels the particulate matter day and night, indicated that the daily production of plant carbon was much greater than its rate of removal by the grazers. Thus, it is not necessary for the grazer biomass maximum to be located above the chlorophyll a maximum in order for that feature to persist.

  20. Marine biogeochemistry from space: recent developments in measuring the carbon cycle in the ocean using visible spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoepffner, N.

    Optical sensors on-board satellite have given over the last two decades another dimension to marine biology and ecosystem studies providing key information on the timing and spatial distribution of phytoplankton blooms and the magnitude of primary production The radiance backscattered from the upper layer of the ocean or the water leaving radiances at various spectral bands relates to the so-called ocean colour and varies with the concentration and composition of optically-active components OACs in suspension In reality these constituents cover a broad size range from water molecules to large zooplankton particles and include a large number of different organisms such as bacteria virus phytoplankton organic detritus minerals and more A quantitative description of the water-leaving radiances results theoretically from the additive contribution of all these constituents and their capacity to absorb and scatter the surrounding photons Remote observations of ocean colour from space represent therefore a major tool directly related to these biogeochemical distributions and associated processes and complement traditional ship measurements in the global assessment of the flux of material through the water column Present satellite instruments such SeaWiFS MODIS and MERIS are providing unprecedented and accurate views of the marine systems owing to some advanced characteristics of the sensors themselves but also to a substantial progress in the performance of bio-optical models to support the signal processing and the calibration of

  1. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings: VIII: Overview of the high-throughput measurement systems developed for a marine coating workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Bret J.; Stafslien, Shane J.; Christianson, David A.; Gallagher-Lein, Christy; Daniels, Justin W.; Rafferty, Crystal; Wal, Lyndsi Vander; Webster, Dean C.

    2007-11-01

    A combinatorial workflow has been produced for the development of novel, environmental-friendly marine coatings. A particularly challenging aspect of the workflow development was the selection and development of high-throughput screening methods that allow for some degree of prediction of coating performance in the aquatic environment of interest. The high-throughput screening methods currently in place include measurements of surface energy, viscoelastic properties, pseudobarnacle adhesion, and a suite of biological assays based on various marine organisms. An experiment involving a series of fouling-release coatings was used to correlate high-throughput screening data to data obtained from ocean site immersion testing. The results of the experiment showed that both bacterial biofilm surface coverage and storage modulus at 30 °C showed a good correlation with barnacle adhesion strength and a fair correlation with fouling rating, but surface energy and pseudobarnacle adhesion did not correlate with the results from ocean site testing.

  2. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): supporting the development of a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Arko, Robert; Proctor, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports an ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. The Ocean Data Interoperability (ODIP) project is creating a co-ordination platform to support collaboration between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and also the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts are coming together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first two ODIP workshops. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential interoperability solutions have been identified and work has now begun to implement these solutions within three prototype development tasks which will be outlined as part of this presentation. ODIP is a community led project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies in each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from six European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 (FP7) programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

  3. Development of novel electromagnetic antenna for deep target marine CSEM survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Yahya, Noorhana; Shafie, Afza; Nasir, Nadeem; Kashif, Muhammad; Zaid, Hasnah Mohd

    2012-09-01

    Marine controlled source electromagnetic method (MCSEM) is a new and versatile method for hydrocarbon detection. Deep sea hydrocarbon reservoir exploration is still challenging and expensive. Due to unreliability for the detection of DHIs using seismic data, new methods have been investigated. Sea bed logging (SBL) is a new technique for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon and has potential to reduce the risks of DHIs (direct hydrocarbon indicators) in deep sea environment. The magnitude of EM waves is very important for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon reservoir below 4000m from the sea floor. Nanotechnology has been introduced very effective and shows promising results in many research fields. Ferrite magnetic materials play an important role in many applications due to its versatile magnetic properties. The aluminum based EM antenna is developed and NiZn, YIG ferrite as magnetic feeders are used to increase the field strength from EM antenna. FESEM images show that grain size increases with the increase of sintering temperature and ranges from 30 to 60nm for Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 where as grain size increases from 45 to 110nm for Y3Fe5O12 samples. Due to better magnetic properties, samples (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4-PVDF) sintered at 950°C and (Y3Fe5O12-PVDF) sintered at 1350°C were used as magnetic feeders for the EM antenna. It was investigated that magnitude of EM waves from the novel EM antenna with (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4-PVDF) sintered at 950°C and Y3Fe5O12-PVDF) sintered at 1150°C increases up to 143% and 220% respectively in the lab scale environment. Modeling results by using CST software shows that new EM antenna with magnetic feeders has an ability to increase the D, E, B and H field components. This novel EM antenna with magnetic feeders may be used for the deep target hydrocarbon detection due to enhanced field strength. This new EM transmitter based on nanotechnology may open new horizons for oil and gas industry for deep target hydrocarbon reservoir.

  4. Plan for utilizing Alcator A for developing actively cooled limiters and particle-pumping methods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.F.

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this plan is: to develop a limiter or limiters (subjected to high heat and particle fluxes at plasma edge) for long pulse operation of tokamak fusion devices; to study the particle removal with the limiters; and to study and develop the methods for protections against disruptions and other abnormal operation, such as run-away electrons and arcing. Alcator A has a peak heat of 5 kW/cm/sup 2/ and high particle flux, and as such is an ideal test facility. Access is adequate for small scale tests.

  5. Development of phoH as a novel signature gene for assessing marine phage diversity.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Dawn B; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A; Weinbauer, Markus G; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-11-01

    Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment. PMID:21926220

  6. Central Heating Plant site characterization report, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the methodology and results of a characterization of the operation and maintenance (O M) environment at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This characterization is part of a program intended to provide the O M staff with a computerized artificial intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist the plant staff in more efficient operation of their plant. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Development of marine magnetic vector measurement system using AUV and deep-towed vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, K.; Isezaki, N.; Matsuo, J.; Harada, M.; Kasaya, T.; Nishimura, K.; Baba, H.

    2012-04-01

    Marine magnetic survey is one of useful methods in order to investigate the nature of the oceanic crust. Most of the data are, however, intensity of the geomagnetic field without its direction. Therefore we cannot properly apply a physical formula describing the relation between magnetic field and magnetization to analyses of the data. With this problem, Isezaki (1986) developed a shipboard three-component magnetometer which measures the geomagnetic vector at the sea. On the other hand, geophysical surveys near the seafloor have been more and more necessary in order to show the details of the oceanic crust. For instance, development of seabed resources like hydrothermal deposits needs higher resolution surveys compared with conventional surveys at the sea for accurate estimation of abundance of the resources. From these viewpoints, we have been developing a measurement system of the deep-sea geomagnetic vector using AUV and deep-towed vehicle. The measurement system consists of two 3-axis flux-gate magnetometers, an Overhauser magnetometer, an optical fiber gyro, a main unit (control, communication, recording), and an onboard unit. These devices except for the onboard unit are installed in pressure cases (depth limit: 6000m). Thus this measurement system can measure three components and intensity of the geomagnetic field in the deep-sea. In 2009, the first test of the measurement system was carried out in the Kumano Basin using AUV Urashima and towing vehicle Yokosuka Deep-Tow during the R/V Yokosuka YK09-09 cruise. In this test, we sank a small magnetic target to the seafloor, and examined how the system worked. As a result, we successfully detected magnetic anomaly of the target to confirm the expected performance of that in the sea. In 2010, the measurement system was tested in the Bayonnaise Knoll area both using a titanium towing frame during the R/V Bosei-maru cruise and using AUV Urashima during the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the performance of the system in an actual hydrothermal deposit area for practical applications of that. The Bayonnaise Knoll is a submarine caldera with an outer rim of 2.5-3 km and a floor of 840-920 m, which is located in the Izu-Ogasawara arc. A large hydrothermal deposit, Hakurei deposit lies in the southeast part of the caldera. In the R/V Bosei-maru cruise, we observed three components of magnetic anomalies at depths of 400-570 m along SE-NW and WE tracks across the caldera. In the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise, we observed three components and intensity of magnetic anomalies at altitudes of 60-100 m around the Hakurei deposit and at depth of 500 m above the caldera. From these tests, we have succeeded in measuring the geomagnetic vector and intensity using the AUV and the deep-towed vehicle, and also have obtained detailed magnetic anomaly in the Hakurei deposit area. We will here present the outlines of the measurement system and the tests in the sea. Note that this study has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT).

  8. An Assessment of Differences Between Cloud Effective Particle Radius Retrievals for Marine Water Clouds from Three MODIS Spectral Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud product provides three separate 1 km resolution retrievals of cloud particle effective radii (r (sub e)), derived from 1.6, 2.1 and 3.7 micron band observations. In this study, differences among the three size retrievals for maritime water clouds (designated as r (sub e), 1.6 r (sub e), 2.1 and r (sub e),3.7) were systematically investigated through a series of case studies and global analyses. Substantial differences are found between r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.1 retrievals (delta r (sub e),3.7-2.l), with a strong dependence on cloud regime. The differences are typically small, within +/- 2 micron, over relatively spatially homogeneous coastal stratocumulus cloud regions. However, for trade wind cumulus regimes, r (sub e),3.7 was found to be substantially smaller than r (sub e),2.1, sometimes by more than 10 micron. The correlation of delta r(sub e),3.7-2.1 with key cloud parameters, including the cloud optical thickness (tau), r (sub e) and a cloud horizontal heterogeneity index (H-sigma) derived from 250 m resolution MODIS 0.86 micron band observations, were investigated using one month of MODIS Terra data. It was found that differences among the three r (sub e) retrievals for optically thin clouds (tau <5) are highly variable, ranging from - 15 micron to 10 micron, likely due to the large MODIS retrieval uncertainties when the cloud is thin. The delta r (sub e),3.7-2.1 exhibited a threshold-like dependence on both r (sub e),2.l and H-sigma. The re,3.7 is found to agree reasonably well with re,2.! when re,2.l is smaller than about 15J-Lm, but becomes increasingly smaller than re,2.1 once re,2.! exceeds this size. All three re retrievals showed little dependence when H-sigma < 0.3 (defined as standard deviation divided by the mean for the 250 m pixels within a 1 km pixel retrieval). However, for H-=sigma >0.3, both r (sub e),1.6 and r (sub e),2.1 were seen to increase quickly with H-sigma. On the other hand, r (sub e),3.7 statistics showed little dependence on H-sigma and remained relatively stable over the whole range of H-sigma values. Potential contributing causes to the substantial r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.1 differences are discussed. In particular, based on both 1-D and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, we have elucidated mechanisms by which cloud heterogeneity and 3-D radiative effects can cause large differences between r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.l retrievals for highly inhomogeneous clouds. Our results suggest that the contrast in observed delta r (sub e)3.7-2.1 between cloud regimes is correlated with increases in both cloud r (sub e) and H-sigma. We also speculate that in some highly inhomogeneous drizzling clouds, vertical structure induced by drizzle and 3-D radiative effects might operate together to cause dramatic differences between r (sub e),3.7 and r (sub e),2.1 retrievals.

  9. Development of a controllable particle generator for LV seeding in hypersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, W. V.; Meyers, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the considerations that went into the development of a controllable particle generator for laser velocimeter seeding in a hypersonic wind tunnel operating at 3.45 million N/sq m, 533 K, and stream speed of about 1000 m/sec. Operating conditions determined the choice of a silicone oil as the material, and the requirement that the particle follow the flow within a certain accuracy range put constraints on the allowable particle size range. The principle of the particle generating device chosen was that of the LaMer generator, in which a liquid is first vaporized, mixed with the carrier gas, and then condensed under carefully controlled conditions. Preliminary results of studies on the effect of various apparatus parameters on the particle median diameter are given.

  10. Molecular analysis of magnetotactic bacteria and development of functional bacterial magnetic particles for nano-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Arakaki, Atsushi

    2007-04-01

    Biomineralization is an elaborate process that produces complex nano-structures consisting of organic and inorganic components of uniform size and highly ordered morphology that self-assemble into structures in a hierarchical manner. Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize nano-sized magnetite crystals that are highly consistent in size and morphology within bacterial species; each particle is surrounded by a thin organic membrane, which facilitates their use for various biotechnological applications. Recent molecular studies, including mutagenesis, whole genome, transcriptome and comprehensive proteome analyses, have elucidated the processes important to bacterial magnetite formation. Some of the genes and proteins identified from these studies have enabled us, through genetic engineering, to express proteins efficiently, with their activity preserved, onto bacterial magnetic particles, leading to the simple preparation of functional protein-magnetic particle complexes. This review describes the recent advances in the fundamental analysis of bacterial magnetic particles and the development of surface-protein-modified magnetic particles for biotechnological applications. PMID:17306901

  11. Development of miniaturized submersible fluorometers for the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedetti, Marc; Bachet, Caroline; Joffre, Pascal; Ferretto, Nicolas; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most widespread organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Due to their physico-chemical properties, PAHs are persistent and mobile, can strongly bioaccumulate in food chains and are harmful to living organisms. They are thus recognized by various international organizations as priority contaminants and are included in the list of 45 priority regulated substances by the European Union. Because of their aromatic structure, PAHs are "optically active" and have inherent fluorescence properties in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral domain (200-400 nm). Therefore, UV fluorescence spectroscopy has been successfully used to develop PAH sensors (i.e. UV fluorometers). Currently, five UV submersible fluorometers are commercially available for in situ measurements of PAHs: EnviroFlu-HC (TriOS Optical Sensors, Germany), Hydrocarbon Fluorometer (Sea & Sun Technology, Germany), HydroC ™ / PAH (CONTROS, Germany), UviLux AquaTracka (Chelsea Technology Group, UK) and Cyclops-7 (Turner Designs, US). These UV fluorometers are all dedicated to the measurement of phenanthrene (λEx /λEm: 255/360 nm), one of the most abundant and fluorescent PAHs found in the aquatic environment. In this study, we developed original, miniaturized submersible fluorometers based on deep UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for simultaneous measurements of two PAHs of interest: the MiniFluo-UV 1 for the detection of phenanthrene (PHE, at λEx /λEm: 255/360 nm) and naphthalene (NAP, at λEx /λEm: 270/340 nm), and the MiniFluo-UV 2 for the detection of fluorene (FLU, at λEx /λEm: 255/315 nm) and pyrene (PYR, at λEx /λEm: 270/380 nm). The MiniFluo-UV sensors have several features: measurements of two PAHs at the same time, small size (puck format, 80 x 60 mm), very low energy consumption (500 mW at 12V), LED monitoring, analog and numerical communication modes. The two MiniFluo-UV sensors were first tested in the laboratory: 1) on standard solutions of PHE, NAP, FLU and PYR in the range 0.1-100 µg l-1 and 2) on a water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil diluted in 0.2 µm filtered seawater (0 to 50% of WSF in seawater). Then, the MiniFluo-UV sensors were mounted onto a conductivity temperature depth (CTD) vertical profiler and tested at sea. Several profiles were performed in the Bay of Marseilles, in different harbours and hydrocarbon-impacted sites. The MiniFluo-UV measurements performed in the laboratory and in the field were associated with spectrofluorometric (EEM/PARAFAC) and/or chromatographic (GC-MS) analyses. The result obtained show that the MiniFluo-UV are pertinent and efficient tool for monitoring hydrocarbon pollutions in the marine environment. This work is a contribution of three projects labelled by the Competitivity Cluster Mer PACA: FUI SEA EXPLORER, DGCIS - Eco industries VASQUE (PI: ACSA-ALCEN, Meyreuil, France) and ANR - ECOTECH IBISCUS (PI: M. Goutx, MIO, Marseille, France).

  12. Advanced development of particle beam probe diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, T. P.; Schoch, P. M.; Connor, K. A.

    This progress report under DOE Grant DE-FG02-85ER3211 covers the period 15 Dec. 1992 through 15 Oct. 1993. The major accomplishments of this period are summarized. The basic TEXT heavy ion beam probe including the primary beam line, the upper secondary beam line with the old 500 keV analyzer, and the lower secondary beam line with the new 2 MeV analyzer is operational, and system shake-down is now beginning. Several subsystems of the complete system design are still under development including secondary beam line sweeps, primary beam detectors, the digital control, and data acquisition system. The lower analyzer entrance aperture and detector plates also have very limited capabilities to make it possible to more rapidly obtain satisfactory initial alignment and calibration conditions. We have performed a variety of high voltage tests that establish the basic efficacy of the 2 MeV analyzer design. We have upgraded the ion optics and added vacuum chambers in our vertical test stand facility to allow us to test the 2 MeV analyzers. We have also constructed a facility for testing ion source characteristics. We analyzed data on primary beam modulation taken during the last run period and confirmed the accuracy of our simulation code. Analysis of magnetic field measurements continued.

  13. Use of mineral magnetic concentration data as a particle size proxy: a case study using marine, estuarine and fluvial sediments in the Carmarthen Bay area, South Wales, U.K.

    PubMed

    Booth, C A; Walden, J; Neal, A; Smith, J P

    2005-07-15

    Compositional (non-magnetic) data can correlate strongly with particle size, which deems it appropriate as a particle size proxy and, therefore, a reliable means of normalising analytical data for particle size effects. Previous studies suggest magnetic concentration parameters represent an alternative means of normalising for these effects and, given the speed, low-cost and sensitivity of the measurements may, therefore, offer some advantages over other compositional signals. In this work, contemporary sediments from a range of depositional environments have been analysed with regard to their mineral magnetic concentration and textural characteristics, to observe if the strength and nature of the relationship identified in previous studies is universal. Our data shows magnetic parameters (chi(LF), chi(ARM) and SIRM) possess contrasting relationships with standard textural parameters for sediment samples collected from marine (Carmarthen Bay), estuarine (Gwendraeth Estuary) and fluvial (Rivers Gwendraeth Fach and Gwendraeth Fawr) settings. Magnetic concentrations of sediments from both the marine and estuarine environments are highly influenced by the magnetic contribution of finer particle sizes; Gwendraeth Fawr River sediments are influenced by the magnetic contribution of coarser particle sizes, while sediments from the Gwendraeth Fach River are not influenced significantly by any variations in textural properties. These results indicate mineral magnetic measurements have considerable potential as a particle size proxy for particular sedimentary environments, which in certain instances could be useful for geochemical, sediment transport, and sediment provenance studies. However, the data also highlight the importance of fully determining the nature of the relationship between sediment particle size and magnetic properties before applying mineral magnetic data as a particle size proxy. PMID:16084980

  14. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  15. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  16. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  17. Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples.

  18. Development of Flow Imaging Analysis for Subvisible Particle Characterization in Glatiramer Acetate.

    PubMed

    Levin, Inna; Zigman, Shiri; Komlosh, Arthuer; Kettenring, Juergen

    2015-11-01

    Proteins, peptides, colloids, and polymers present a rapidly growing field of pharmaceutical industry. Bringing these products into market, however, is a huge regulatory challenge, especially because many of these therapeutics are intended for parenteral administration. Physicochemical properties of such products--size, shape, surface potential, and extent of particle-particle interaction-have to be well understood and monitored throughout manufacturing, release, and stability testing. First and foremost, size distribution of subvisible particles (SVP) in these products should be reliably measured. We present development of a flow imaging method to assess SVP in the polypeptide injectable therapeutic product-glatiramer acetate (Copaxone(®)). Flow imaging comprises optical inspection of a flowing liquid and allows quantitation of particles in the range of 1-500 μm. The challenges of method development are discussed and the method performance characteristics--accuracy, precision, linearity, and specificity--are demonstrated. PMID:26099719

  19. Marine biomass program: anaerobic digestion systems development and stability study. Final report 1 Feb-31 Dec 82

    SciTech Connect

    Fannin, K.F.; Srivastava, V.J.; Mensinger, J.D.; Chynoweth, D.P.

    1983-07-01

    Marine biomass represents a significant potential worldwide energy resource that can be converted to methane by anaerobic digestion. Through efficient biomass production, harvesting, and conversion techniques, competitive methane gas costs are achievable. The objective of this research project is to develop and define an anaerobic digestion process for producing methane from giant brown kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Kelp continues to show superior performance as a feedstock for gas production when compared with other particulate biomass feedstocks. Further work on upflow solids reactors and two-phase reactor systems is expected to improve gas cost estimates over those made using other state-of-the-art reactors.

  20. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  1. Marine Science and Technology in Africa: Present State and Future Development. Synthesis of Unesco/ECA Survey Missions to African Coastal States, 1980. Project RAF/78/024. Unesco Reports in Marine Science, No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Presented is a synthesis of reports designed to assess the development of marine science and technology in African coastal states. This situation is analyzed from a regional (i.e., continent-wide) point of view. Five chapters comprise the report: (1) summary of recommendations, (2) introduction; (3) nation-by-nation descriptions and analyses; (4)

  2. Marine Geoscience Leadership Symposium: A New Paradigm for Early Career Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meth, C. E.; Powell, E. A.; Schuffert, J.; O'Riordan, C.

    2009-12-01

    Earth and marine geoscientists are crossing the boundaries between traditional scientific disciplines, pushing the frontiers of scientific research, and addressing the needs of society. As it becomes increasingly important for scientists to form interdisciplinary collaborations and communicate their science to the public and policymakers, early career scientists are seeking insight into the non-traditional skills needed today to achieve a successful career. With funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Consortium for Ocean Leadership organized the first Marine Geoscience Leadership Symposium to provide valuable leadership training to early career scientists. The symposium established a new paradigm for early career workshops by focusing on the different perspectives of leadership and the varied aspects of building a successful academic career. Meeting with over 40 leaders from the academic, policy, and education communities, the symposium exposed the 25 meeting participants to leadership qualities that will help them navigate the laboratory and beyond. The discussion and activities focused on the tangible and intangible aspects of building a career, such as proposal writing, research funding, building interdisciplinary collaborations, and communicating to non-academic audiences. The symposium took place in Washington, DC, where the participants had an opportunity to meet with program officers at the National Science Foundation and to attend a science policy function on Capitol Hill. Featured speakers addressed academic issues such as multidisciplinary science initiatives, achieving tenure, and collaborative research studies. Science policy and communication to non-scientific audiences were reoccurring themes throughout the symposium. The participants spent a portion of each day discussing research priorities for the Arctic region, blue water ocean, coastal areas, and in regions of active tectonics, and then discussed how these priorities could be made accessible to policymakers. Through exposure to skills that extend beyond the classroom and laboratory, the early career researchers who participated in the first Marine Geoscience Leadership Symposium gained a rare insight into the academic and policy world that will serve them and the community well in the years to come.

  3. Proteomic studies highlight outer-membrane proteins related to biofilm development in the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Andrés; Com, Emmanuelle; Bazire, Alexis; Goncalves, Marina Dos Santos; Delage, Ludovic; Le Pennec, Gaël; Pineau, Charles; Dreanno, Catherine; Compère, Chantal; Dufour, Alain

    2012-11-01

    Bacterial biofilm development is conditioned by complex processes involving bacterial attachment to surfaces, growth, mobility, and exoproduct production. The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain D41 is able to attach strongly onto a wide variety of substrates, which promotes subsequent biofilm development. Study of the outer-membrane and total soluble proteomes showed ten spots with significant intensity variations when this bacterium was grown in biofilm compared to planktonic cultures. MS/MS de novo sequencing analysis allowed the identification of four outer-membrane proteins of particular interest since they were strongly induced in biofilms. These proteins are homologous to a TonB-dependent receptor (TBDR), to the OmpW and OmpA porins, and to a type IV pilus biogenesis protein (PilF). Gene expression assays by quantitative RT-PCR showed that the four corresponding genes were upregulated during biofilm development on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants unable to produce any of the OmpW, OmpA, and PilF homologues yielded biofilms with lower biovolumes and altered architectures, confirming the involvement of these proteins in the biofilm formation process. Our results indicate that Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41 shares biofilm formation mechanisms with human pathogenic bacteria, but also relies on TBDR, which might be more specific to the marine environment. PMID:22965736

  4. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  5. Subvisible (2-100 μm) particle analysis during biotherapeutic drug product development: Part 2, experience with the application of subvisible particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Corvari, Vincent; Narhi, Linda O; Spitznagel, Thomas M; Afonina, Nataliya; Cao, Shawn; Cash, Patricia; Cecchini, Irene; DeFelippis, Michael R; Garidel, Patrick; Herre, Andrea; Koulov, Atanas V; Lubiniecki, Tony; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Mangiagalli, Paolo; Nesta, Douglas; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo; Polozova, Alla; Rossi, Mara; Schmidt, Roland; Simler, Robert; Singh, Satish; Weiskopf, Andrew; Wuchner, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    Measurement and characterization of subvisible particles (including proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous particulate matter) is an important aspect of the pharmaceutical development process for biotherapeutics. Health authorities have increased expectations for subvisible particle data beyond criteria specified in the pharmacopeia and covering a wider size range. In addition, subvisible particle data is being requested for samples exposed to various stress conditions and to support process/product changes. Consequently, subvisible particle analysis has expanded beyond routine testing of finished dosage forms using traditional compendial methods. Over the past decade, advances have been made in the detection and understanding of subvisible particle formation. This article presents industry case studies to illustrate the implementation of strategies for subvisible particle analysis as a characterization tool to assess the nature of the particulate matter and applications in drug product development, stability studies and post-marketing changes. PMID:26324466

  6. Significance of investigating allelopathic interactions of marine organisms in the discovery and development of cytotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshika; Thakur, Narsinh L

    2016-01-01

    Marine sessile organisms often inhabit rocky substrata, which are crowded by other sessile organisms. They acquire living space via growth interactions and/or by allelopathy. They are known to secrete toxic compounds having multiple roles. These compounds have been explored for their possible applications in cancer chemotherapy, because of their ability to kill rapidly dividing cells of competitor organisms. As compared to the therapeutic applications of these compounds, their possible ecological role in competition for space has received little attention. To select the potential candidate organisms for the isolation of lead cytotoxic molecules, it is important to understand their chemical ecology with special emphasis on their allelopathic interactions with their competitors. Knowledge of the ecological role of allelopathic compounds will contribute significantly to an understanding of their natural variability and help us to plan effective and sustainable wild harvests to obtain novel cytotoxic chemicals. This review highlights the significance of studying allelopathic interactions of marine invertebrates in the discovery of cytotoxic compounds, by selecting sponge as a model organism. PMID:26362501

  7. Minimizing collision risk between migrating raptors and marine wind farms: development of a spatial planning tool.

    PubMed

    Baisner, Anette Jaegerfeldt; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Yde Granath, Simon Wilhelm; Madsen, Karin Olgaard; Desholm, Mark

    2010-11-01

    An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements of body mass, wingspan and wing area of eight European raptor species, to calculate their Best Glide Ratio (BGR). The BGR was used to construct a linear equation, which, by the use of initial take-off altitude, could be used to calculate a Theoretical Maximum Distance (TMD) from the coast, attained by these soaring-gliding raptor species. If the nearest turbine, of future marine wind farms, is placed farther away from the coast than the estimated TMD, the collision risk between the turbine blades and these gliding raptors will be minimized. The tool was demonstrated in a case study at the Rødsand II wind farm in Denmark. Data on raptor migration altitude were gathered by radar. From the TMD attained by registered soaring-gliding raptors in the area, we concluded that the Rødsand II wind farm is not sited ideally, from an ornithological point of view, as potentially all three registered species are at risk of gliding through the area swept by the turbine rotor blades, and thereby at risk of colliding with the wind turbines. PMID:20711780

  8. Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisner, Anette Jægerfeldt; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Yde Granath, Simon Wilhelm; Madsen, Karin Ølgaard; Desholm, Mark

    2010-11-01

    An increased focus on renewable energy has led to the planning and construction of marine wind farms in Europe. Since several terrestrial studies indicate that raptors are especially susceptible to wind turbine related mortality, a Spatial Planning Tool is needed so that wind farms can be sited, in an optimal way, to minimize risk of collisions. Here we use measurements of body mass, wingspan and wing area of eight European raptor species, to calculate their Best Glide Ratio (BGR). The BGR was used to construct a linear equation, which, by the use of initial take-off altitude, could be used to calculate a Theoretical Maximum Distance (TMD) from the coast, attained by these soaring-gliding raptor species. If the nearest turbine, of future marine wind farms, is placed farther away from the coast than the estimated TMD, the collision risk between the turbine blades and these gliding raptors will be minimized. The tool was demonstrated in a case study at the Rødsand II wind farm in Denmark. Data on raptor migration altitude were gathered by radar. From the TMD attained by registered soaring-gliding raptors in the area, we concluded that the Rødsand II wind farm is not sited ideally, from an ornithological point of view, as potentially all three registered species are at risk of gliding through the area swept by the turbine rotor blades, and thereby at risk of colliding with the wind turbines.

  9. The dynamics of particle disks. III - Dense and spinning particle disks. [development of kinetic theory for planetary rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araki, Suguru

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic theory of planetary rings developed by Araki and Tremaine (1986) and Araki (1988) is extended and refined, with a focus on the implications of finite particle size: (1) nonlocal collisions and (2) finite filling factors. Consideration is given to the derivation of the equations for the local steady state, the low-optical-depth limit, and the steady state at finite filling factors (including the effects of collision inelasticity, spin degrees of freedom, and self-gravity). Numerical results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. The importance of distinguishing effects (1) and (2) at low optical depths is stressed, and the existence of vertical density profiles with layered structures at high filling factors is demonstrated.

  10. New developments in treatment planning and verification of particle beam therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Reinhard W.; Wroe, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Charged particle beam therapy has been used for almost 60 years. During the initial 40 years, the medical use of protons and heavy ions was explored at accelerator laboratories in a limited number of patients and for a limited number of cancerous and non-cancerous disease conditions. After the development of computed tomography and 3D treatment planning, it was time to move charged particle therapy into the clinical realm. This happened in October 1991 when an ocular melanoma patient became the first patient to be treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center in California. Due to the increased awareness of the advantages of charged particle therapy and promising results of single-institution experiences, one currently observes a phase of rapid expansion of proton treatment centers throughout the world. A few of these centers are combined proton/carbon ion facilities. It is very important that the technological evolution of charged particle therapy will continue during this phase of clinical expansion to ensure that the increasing number of patients exposed to therapeutic charged particles will benefit most from the advantageous dose distributions that these particles afford. This report will give an overview of translational research activities related to planning and verification of proton therapy in which the authors have been involved for a number of years. While our activities focus on protons, these developments are to a large degree also applicable to carbon ion therapy. PMID:25520941

  11. An Optimized Method for Delivering Flow Tracer Particles to Intravital Fluid Environments in the Developing Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gilday, Steven D.; Dabiri, Dana; Hove, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Growing evidence suggests that intravital flow–structure interactions are critical morphogens for normal embryonic development and disease progression, but fluid mechanical studies aimed at investigating these interactions have been limited in their ability to visualize and quantify fluid flow. In this study, we describe a protocol for injecting small (≤1.0 μm) tracer particles into fluid beds of the larval zebrafish to facilitate microscale fluid mechanical analyses. The microinjection apparatus and associated borosilicate pipette design, typically blunt-tipped with a 2–4 micron tip O.D., yielded highly linear (r2=0.99) in vitro bolus ejection volumes. The physical characteristics of the tracer particles were optimized for efficient particle delivery. Seeding densities suitable for quantitative blood flow mapping (≥50 thousand tracers per fish) were routinely achieved and had no adverse effects on zebrafish physiology or long-term survivorship. The data and methods reported here will prove valuable for a broad range of in vivo imaging technologies [e.g., particle-tracking velocimetry, μ-Doppler, digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), and 4-dimensional-DPIV] which rely on tracer particles to visualize and quantify fluid flow in the developing zebrafish. PMID:22985309

  12. Development of a Spatially Resolved ^3He Quasi-Particle Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barquist, C. S.; Zheng, P.; Jiang, W. G.; Lee, Y.; Yoon, Y. K.; Schumann, T.; Nogan, J.; Lilly, M.

    2016-05-01

    Andreev surface bound sates are known to exist on the boundaries of superfluid ^3He-B. However, the detailed nature of their interaction with bulk quasi-particles is not well known. In a manner similar to angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy, surface states can be probed by measuring the change in momentum of bulk quasi-particles scattered from the surface. In order to make such a measurement, we have designed a spatially resolved quasi-particle detector. The detector consists of an array of micro-machined resonators, which are sensitive to quasi-particle flux. The detector is based on previously developed micro-machined resonators, which have been successfully used to study superfluid ^3He-B and ^4He. Presented here is the design of the detector and the fabrication procedure.

  13. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-08-01

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

  14. Stratigraphic development, mineral sources and preservation of marine placers from Pleistocene terraces in Southern Oregon, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Gleeson, George W.; Wetzel, Nick

    1987-07-01

    Marine placers containing economic minerals (chromite, ilmenite, magnetite and zircon) have been extensively studied in Pleistocene coastal deposits of southwest Oregon. The two largest placers occur on adjacent, uplifted terraces south of a prominent headland, Cape Arago, and include the older Seven Devils placer, covering 11 km 2 and containing 1.1 × 10 7 m 3 placer sand (heavy minerals > 50% weight abundance) and the younger Pioneer placer, covering about 0.9 km 2 and containing 9 × 10 5 m 3 placer sand. The most highly enriched beds of placer ore, containing at least 6% chromite by weight, are generally concentrated in the bottom 1-4 m of terrace stratigraphic sections. Upsection sequences of nearshore to inner-shelf facies in the Seven Devils deposit, and beach to eolian dune facies in the Pioneer deposit, respectively, indicate placer formation during (1) marine transgression, and (2) sea-level high stand with beachface progradation. Microprobe analyses of opaque minerals establish local river sources of placer minerals for both Seven Devils and Pioneer deposits. In contrast, younger terrace and modern beach deposits are supplied by distant river sources, 100-150 km south, as well as local rivers, indicating increasing net northward littoral drift during successive marine transgressions. Placer thickness in the Seven Devils and Pioneer deposits are controlled in part by platform gradient and paleo-tidal range, respectively. Placer development and preservation in this high wave-energy active-margin setting are strongly controlled by paleo-shoreline orientation and littoral cell bounding headlands.

  15. Comparative analysis of European wide marine ecosystem shifts: a large-scale approach for developing the basis for ecosystem-based management.

    PubMed

    Möllmann, Christian; Conversi, Alessandra; Edwards, Martin

    2011-08-23

    Abrupt and rapid ecosystem shifts (where major reorganizations of food-web and community structures occur), commonly termed regime shifts, are changes between contrasting and persisting states of ecosystem structure and function. These shifts have been increasingly reported for exploited marine ecosystems around the world from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic. Understanding the drivers and mechanisms leading to marine ecosystem shifts is crucial in developing adaptive management strategies to achieve sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystems. An international workshop on a comparative approach to analysing these marine ecosystem shifts was held at Hamburg University, Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany on 1-3 November 2010. Twenty-seven scientists from 14 countries attended the meeting, representing specialists from seven marine regions, including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Barents Sea, the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Bay of Biscay and the Scotian Shelf off the Canadian East coast. The goal of the workshop was to conduct the first large-scale comparison of marine ecosystem regime shifts across multiple regional areas, in order to support the development of ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:21270025

  16. Development, validation, and utilization of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against Brucella species in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Field, Cara; Sidor, Inga; Romano, Tracy; Casinghino, Sandra; Smith, Cynthia R; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory; Wells, Randall; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed by using a whole-cell antigen from a marine Brucella sp. isolated from a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The assay was designed to screen sera from multiple marine mammal species for the presence of antibodies against marine-origin Brucella. Based on comparisons with culture-confirmed cases, specificity and sensitivity for cetacean samples tested were 73% and 100%, respectively. For pinniped samples, specificity and sensitivity values were 77% and 67%, respectively. Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi; n ?=? 28) and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus; n ?=? 48) serum samples were tested, and the results were compared with several other assays designed to detect Brucella abortus antibodies. The comparison testing revealed the marine-origin cELISA to be more sensitive than the B. abortus tests by the detection of additional positive serum samples. The newly developed cELISA is an effective serologic method for detection of the presence of antibodies against marine-origin Brucella sp. in marine mammals. PMID:21088168

  17. Development of an adhesively bonded beryllium propulsion structure for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, J. H.; Layman, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The design, testing, and fabrication of the support truss structure for the propulsion system of the Mariner 9 spacecraft are described. Support is provided by an 8.9-kg (19.5-lbm) truss assembly consisting of beryllium tubes adhesively bonded to magnesium end fittings. Beryllium was selected for the tubular struts in the truss because of its exceptionally high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Adhesive bonding, rather than riveting, was utilized to join the struts to the end fittings because of the low toughness (high notch sensitivity) of beryllium. Magnesium, used in the end fittings, resulted in a 50% weight saving over aluminum since geometric factors in the fitting design resulted in low stress areas where magnesium's lower density is a benefit.

  18. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist for interdisciplinary integration with best practices in: (i) water-energy nexus infrastructure; (ii) responsible tourism; and (iii) open data innovations.

  19. Dounreay hot particles: the story so far.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Frank; Morgan, Graeme; Henderson, Fiona

    2007-09-01

    The first Dounreay hot particle (hereafter 'Particle') to be formally identified was recovered from the Dounreay foreshore in 1983. A further single Particle was recovered from Sandside beach the following year. Particles have been detected and removed from the Dounreay foreshore regularly since 1984 and from the offshore sediments since 1997. Since 1997, an extensive research and development programme has been undertaken to identify the source of Particles, their movement and lifetimes in the marine environment, and their potential effects on human and environmental health. It is now known that Particles were released to the North Atlantic Ocean in the mid to late 1960s and early 1970s. There is no evidence of an on-going source of Particles from the Dounreay site today. The source of Particles recovered from the Dounreay foreshore and from local beaches is the cache currently residing in marine sediments adjacent to Dounreay. Monitoring and sediment modelling studies indicate that the Dounreay Particles are transported approximately parallel to the coast in a north-easterly direction. Studies to define contact frequencies and risks to human health suggest that the health risks associated with Particles are very low There is, however, a significant perception of risk. UKAEA will define a long-term Particle management programme via the development of a best practical environmental option (BPEO) facilitated through consultation with all stakeholders. PMID:17768316

  20. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  1. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;

  2. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, J.; Kottapalli, A. G. P.; Woo, M. E.; Asadnia, M.; Miao, J.; Lang, J. H.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics.

  3. Development of whole sediment bioassay using the marine/estuarine polychaetes Polydora cornuta Bosc 1802 and Boccardia proboscidea Hartman 1940

    SciTech Connect

    Pocklington, P.; Doe, K.; Huybers, A.; Wade, S.; Lee, D.

    1995-12-31

    The growing need by Environment Canada for a battery of marine toxicity tests has prompted the development of chronic, sublethal, sediment bioassay tests using marine or estuarine annelids (polychaetes). Initially several species of polychaetes found in the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic waters were assessed and a few of these were selected for testing survival and sensitivity under laboratory conditions and sensitivity to reference toxicants using field collected specimens. From these experiments, the authors identified several promising species and attempts were made to culture them. To date they have been successful in culturing one species from the Atlantic coast--Polydora cornuta and one species from the Pacific Coast--Boccardia proboscidea. They have been able to generate sufficient numbers of same-age larvae, raise them under controlled conditions to juveniles/young adults, and, subject them to a variety of Non-Contaminant Effects Trials (NCETs) and Contaminant Effects Trials (CETs). In the NCETs the authors determined the effect of food type and food ration, temperature, salinity, grain size, length of test condition. They found them to be moderately robust in terms of variable environmental parameters. In the CETs they found this species to be sensitive to sediments considered by Environment Canada to be toxic. They also determined the animal`s sensitivity to a reference toxicant CdCl{sub 2} (96 hr LC50).

  4. SP-100 coated-particle fuel development. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This document is the final report of Phase I of the SP-100 Coated-Particle Fuel Development Program conducted by GA Technologies Inc. for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AT03-82SF11690. The general objective of the study conducted between September and December 1982 was to evaluate coated-particle type fuel as an alternate or backup fuel to the UO/sub 2/ tile-and-fin arrangement currently incorporated into the reference design of the SP-100 reactor core. This report presents and discusses the following topics in the order listed: the need for an alternative fuel for the SP-100 nuclear reactor; an abbreviated description of the reference and coated-particle fuel module concepts; the bases and results of the study and analysis leading to the preliminary design of a coated particle suitable for the SP-100 space power reactor; incorporation of the fuel particles into compacts and heat-pipe-cooled modules; initial efforts and plans to fabricate coated-particle fuel and fuel compacts; the design and performance of the proposed alternative core relative that of the reference fuel; and a summary of critical issues and conclusions consistent with the level of effort and duration of the study.

  5. Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces - Recent Theoretical and Experimental Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, P. A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the work on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) include: 1) to obtain fundamental understanding of the physics of particle pushing and engulfment, 2) to develop mathematical models to describe the phenomenon, and 3) to perform critical experiments in the microgravity environment of space to provide benchmark data for model validation. Successful completion of this project will yield vital information relevant to a diverse area of terrestrial applications. With PEP being a long term research effort, this report will focus on advances in the theoretical treatment of the solid/liquid interface interaction with an approaching particle, experimental validation of some aspects of the developed models, and the experimental design aspects of future experiments to be performed on board the International Space Station.

  6. Development of droplet microfluidic platforms for the synthesis of monodisperse lipid vesicles and polymer particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Shia-Yen

    This body of work presents my approaches to the design and development of microfluidic platforms for synthesizing monodisperse polymer particles and phospholipid vesicles. There is interest in both of these particles for use in a variety of biomedical applications. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles in particular have been sought out as vehicles for drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and because the rate of degradation -- hence cargo release - can be controlled. On the other hand, liposomes possess membrane structures resembling that of cells, an ability to adopt both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules, and are easily functionalized, which make lipid vesicles the ideal candidate for applications ranging from targeted therapeutic delivery to formation of artificial cells. However, current methods of production for both of these particles result in a wide range of sizes and poor cargo uptake efficiency. We address these challenges by utilizing a flow focusing droplet generation design, which allows for fine control over droplet size and improves encapsulation efficiencies. The size of these droplets can be determined by channel geometry and the ratio of fluid flow rates. I will discuss the work I have done to improve upon current technologies to form nano- to micrometer sized PLGA particles and cell-sized lipid vesicles. Solvent evaporation and solvent extraction methods were implemented and tested in several device designs to optimize the formation process. The particles produced were characterized for their stability, size variation, and ability to encapsulate a model drug. The release profiles of PLGA particles were also measured to determine the length of delivery. In addition, I worked on the generation of monodisperse lipid vesicles to investigate the application of liposomes as an artificial cell. As a proof of principle, expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully carried out in the lipid vesicles. This demonstrates the versatility of the microfluidic device for generating a range of particles of controlled size for therapeutic agent delivery and artificial cell applications.

  7. Development of a focused charged particle microbeam for the irradiation of individual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barberet, Ph.; Balana, A.; Incerti, S.; Michelet-Habchi, C.; Moretto, Ph.; Pouthier, Th.

    2005-01-01

    An irradiation facility, able to expose cellular and subcellular targets to a precise number of particles, has been developed at CENBG for applications in radiobiology. The development of this facility was based on an existing horizontal focused microbeam developed in the early 90's for material analysis. The focusing properties of the line allow the delivering of proton or alpha particle beams in the 1-3.5 MeV energy range with a spatial resolution down to about 1 {mu}m under vacuum. For irradiation of living cells, a removable stage has been developed to extract the beam into air while preserving the analytical capabilities of the microbeam line under vacuum. This stage includes a high resolution epifluorescence microscope for online visualization of the cells and a motorized stage for cell positioning. Single particle control is ensured by a fast electrostatic deflector triggered by the signal induced by the particles through a transmission detector just before reaching the target. A dedicated software, based on an object-oriented architecture, has been designed to control the entire experiment. This includes semiautomatic calibration procedures (necessary to achieve the micron precision) and semiautomatic irradiation procedures used for targeting a large number of individual cells. In air irradiation of solid track detectors has permitted us to estimate that 99.5% of the particles are delivered on the target at a distance lower than 5 {mu}m from the beam center when an alpha particles beam is used. The targeting precision of the overall irradiation procedure, which reflects the alignment precision of the beam center with the target center, has been estimated to be within {+-}2 {mu}m. First experiments involving cells in culture have permitted to estimate an irradiation rate of 2000 cells per hour. This article presents the overall experimental facility and the tests performed for its validation for the irradiation of individual cells in their culture medium.

  8. Development of a towing tank PIV system and a wake survey of a marine current turbine under steady conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen

    2015-11-01

    A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was designed and built at the U.S. Naval Academy. The system was used to study the wake of a scale-independent horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross-section. The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed by registering the resultant vector fields together into a single field of investigation. Results include the field of investigation from a representative case, for the mean velocity field averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, and turbulent statistics including turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  9. Development of a predictive model for the growth kinetics of aerobic microbial population on pomegranate marinated chicken breast fillets under isothermal and dynamic temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Lytou, Anastasia; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a model to describe the growth kinetics of aerobic microbial population of chicken breast fillets marinated in pomegranate juice under isothermal and dynamic temperature conditions. Moreover, the effect of pomegranate juice on the extension of the shelf life of the product was investigated. Samples (10 g) of chicken breast fillets were immersed in marinades containing pomegranate juice for 3 h at 4 °C following storage under aerobic conditions at 4, 10, and 15 °C for 10 days. Total Viable Counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were enumerated, in parallel with sensory assessment (odor and overall appearance) of marinated and non-marinated samples. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of TVC to calculate the maximum specific growth rate (μmax) that was further modeled as a function of temperature using a square root-type model. The validation of the model was conducted under dynamic temperature conditions based on two fluctuating temperature scenarios with periodic changes from 6 to 13 °C. The shelf life was determined both mathematically and with sensory assessment and its temperature dependence was modeled by an Arrhenius type equation. Results showed that the μmax of TVC of marinated samples was significantly lower compared to control samples regardless temperature, while under dynamic temperature conditions the model satisfactorily predicted the growth of TVC in both control and marinated samples. The shelf-life of marinated samples was significantly extended compared to the control (5 days extension at 4 °C). The calculated activation energies (Ea), 82 and 52 kJ/mol for control and marinated samples, respectively, indicated higher temperature dependence of the shelf life of control samples compared to marinated ones. The present results indicated that pomegranate juice could be used as an alternative ingredient in marinades to prolong the shelf life of chicken. PMID:26742613

  10. Advances and future needs in particle production and transport code developments

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    The next generation of accelerators and ever expanding needs of existing accelerators demand new developments and additions to Monte-Carlo codes, with an emphasis on enhanced modeling of elementary particle and heavy-ion interactions and transport. Challenges arise from extremely high beam energies and beam power, increasing complexity of accelerators and experimental setups, as well as design, engineering and performance constraints. All these put unprecedented requirements on the accuracy of particle production predictions, the capability and reliability of the codes used in planning new accelerator facilities and experiments, the design of machine, target and collimation systems, detectors and radiation shielding and minimization of their impact on environment. Recent advances in widely-used general-purpose all-particle codes are described for the most critical modules such as particle production event generators, elementary particle and heavy ion transport in an energy range which spans up to 17 decades, nuclide inventory and macroscopic impact on materials, and dealing with complex geometry of accelerator and detector structures. Future requirements for developing physics models and Monte-Carlo codes are discussed.

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION OF A PROTOTYPE COARSE PARTICLE CONCENTRATOR FOR INHALATION TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES. (R825270)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the development and laboratory characterization of a prototype slit nozzle virtual impactor that can be used to concentrate coarse particles. A variety of physical design and flow parameters were evaluated including different acceleration and collection sli...

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CONTINUOUS COARSE (PM10-PM2.5) PARTICLE MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 um) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating princ...

  13. Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects in Particle Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    The University of Sydney has offered an undergraduate course in particle technology using a contemporary problem based learning (PBL) methodology since 2005. Student learning is developed through the solution of complex, open-ended problems drawn from modern chemical engineering practice. Two examples are presented; i) zero emission electricity…

  14. Development of Contemporary Problem-Based Learning Projects in Particle Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    The University of Sydney has offered an undergraduate course in particle technology using a contemporary problem based learning (PBL) methodology since 2005. Student learning is developed through the solution of complex, open-ended problems drawn from modern chemical engineering practice. Two examples are presented; i) zero emission electricity

  15. Development of uranium reference particles for nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kips, Ruth

    In the oversight of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and as part of the Additional Protocol of the International Atomic Energy Agency, environmental sampling has become an important tool for the detection of non-declared nuclear activities. One extensively developed technique in environmental sampling (ES) makes use of pieces of cotton cloth called swipes to wipe surfaces in and around a nuclear facility. The dust collected on these swipes typically contains micrometer-sized uranium particles with an isotopic composition characteristic for the processes at the inspected facility. Since its implementation in the 1990s, ES has proven to be a very effective tool in the detection of clandestine activities owing to a number of highly sensitive and selective techniques, including secondary ion mass spectrometry and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. However, considering the potential consequences of the analyses, these measurements need to be subjected to a rigorous quality management system. In a continuous effort to improve the accuracy and detection efficiency of the uranium isotope ratio measurements, uranium particle reference materials are being developed by different research groups. It was concluded however, that the existing methods for the production of particulate reference materials generally do not reproduce the particles recovered from swipe samples. For this reason, we developed the aerosol deposition chamber at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements for the production of reference uranium particles that are representative of the particles collected at enrichment facilities. This method is based on the controlled hydrolysis of milligram amounts of uranium hexafluoride with a certified uranium isotopic composition. After optimization of the experimental set-up, the particles produced by the aerosol deposition chamber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The particle morphology and composition were found to be dependent on the relative humidity of the air, the exposure to ultraviolet light and the time elapsed after formation. Possible correlations between the relative amount of fluorine and the age of the particles were investigated. These results were the starting point for the first inter-laboratory measurement evaluation programme (NUSIMEP) on uranium particles.

  16. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  17. Physiography of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary and implications about continental margin development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H.D.; Maher, N.M.; Paull, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    Combined EM-300 multibeam bathymetric data and satellite photography reveal the physiography of the continental margin between 35°50′ and 37°03′N and from the shoreline west of 122°40′ and 122°37′W, which includes Monterey Bay, in a previously unprecedented detail. Patterns in these images clearly reveal the processes that are actively influencing the current geomorphology of the Monterey Bay region, including the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). Our data indicates that seafloor physiography within the MBNMS results from plate margin tectonic deformation, including uplift and erosion along structural lineaments, and from fluid flow. Mass wasting is the dominant process active within the Ascension–Monterey and Sur–Partington submarine canyon systems and along the lower slopes. Meanders, slump dams, and constricted channels within the submarine canyons, especially within Monterey Canyon, slow and interrupt down-canyon sediment transport. We have identified for the first time thin sediment flows, rotational slumps, rills, depressions that may be associated with pipes, and other fluid-induced features we call ‘scallops’ off the Ascension slope, and suggest that fluid flow has sculptured the seafloor morphologies here. These unusual seafloor morphologies are similar to morphologies found in terrestrial areas modified by ground-water flow.

  18. Micron-sized intrapulmonary particle deposition in the developing rat lung

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Gunter; Bolle, Ines; Tsuda, Akira; Karrasch, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of postnatal developmental changes in lung architecture and breathing patterns on intrapulmonary particle deposition. We measured deposition in the developing Wistar-Kyoto rat, whose lung development largely parallels that of humans. Deposition of 2-μm sebacate particles was determined in anesthetized, intubated, spontaneously breathing rats on postnatal days (P) 7 to 90 by aerosol photometry (Karrasch S, Eder G, Bolle I, Tsuda A, Schulz H. J Appl Physiol 107: 1293–1299, 2009). Respiratory parameters were determined by body plethysmography. Tidal volume increased substantially from P7 (0.19 ml) to P90 (2.1 ml) while respiratory rate declined from 182 to 107/min. Breath-specific deposition was lowest (9%) at P7 and P90 and markedly higher at P35 (almost 16%). Structural changes of the alveolar region include a ninefold increase in surface area (Bolle I, Eder G, Takenaka S, Ganguly K, Karrasch S, Zeller C, Neuner M, Kreyling WG, Tsuda A, Schulz H. J Appl Physiol 104: 1167–1176, 2008). Particle deposition per unit of time and surface area peaked at P35 and showed a minimum at P90. At an inhaled particle number concentration of 105/cm3, there was an estimated 450, 690, and 330 particles/(min × cm2) at P7, P35, and P90, respectively. Multiple regression models showed that deposition depends on the mean linear intercept as structural component and the breathing parameters, tidal volume, and respiratory rate (r2 > 0.9). In conclusion, micron-sized particle deposition was dependent on the stage of postnatal lung development. A maximum was observed during late alveolarization (P35), which corresponds to human lungs of about eight years of age. Children at this age may therefore be more susceptible to micron-sized airborne environmental health hazards. PMID:22162522

  19. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  20. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  1. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)

  2. 76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within... technology enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends...

  3. Differences in the timing of cardio-respiratory development determine whether marine gastropod embryos survive or die in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rudin-Bitterli, Tabitha S; Spicer, John I; Rundle, Simon D

    2016-04-01

    Physiological plasticity of early developmental stages is a key way by which organisms can survive and adapt to environmental change. We investigated developmental plasticity of aspects of the cardio-respiratory physiology of encapsulated embryos of a marine gastropod,Littorina obtusata, surviving exposure to moderate hypoxia (PO2 =8 kPa) and compared the development of these survivors with that of individuals that died before hatching. Individuals surviving hypoxia exhibited a slower rate of development and altered ontogeny of cardio-respiratory structure and function compared with normoxic controls (PO2 >20 kPa). The onset and development of the larval and adult hearts were delayed in chronological time in hypoxia, but both organs appeared earlier in developmental time and cardiac activity rates were greater. The velum, a transient, 'larval' organ thought to play a role in gas exchange, was larger in hypoxia but developed more slowly (in chronological time), and velar cilia-driven, rotational activity was lower. Despite these effects of hypoxia, 38% of individuals survived to hatching. Compared with those embryos that died during development, these surviving embryos had advanced expression of adult structures, i.e. a significantly earlier occurrence and greater activity of their adult heart and larger shells. In contrast, embryos that died retained larval cardio-respiratory features (the velum and larval heart) for longer in chronological time. Surviving embryos came from eggs with significantly higher albumen provisioning than those that died, suggesting an energetic component for advanced development of adult traits. PMID:26896537

  4. Development of a Grain Boundary Pinning Model that Considers Particle Size Distribution Using the Phase Field Method

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R Tonks; Yongfeng Zhang; Xian-Ming Bai

    2015-04-01

    Grain boundary (GB) migration significantly impacts material behavior. However, GB migration is slowed or even halted by resistive pressure applied by pores or particles. Zener’s original investigation of particle pinning, and subsequent modifications by other researchers, describe the resistive pressure for various spatial distributions of particles with respect to GBs. In this work, we develop a pinning model that considers the impact of the particle size distribution and we verify it by comparing to mesoscale phase field and Monte Carlo simulations. Resistive pressure expressions are developed that are functions of the percentage of GB area covered by particles and of the particle volume fraction for any spatial distribution of particles. In both expressions, the mean value of the resistive pressure decreases with increasing standard deviation of the particle radius.

  5. [Bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes].

    PubMed

    Mikha?lov, V V; Kuznetsova, T A; Eliakov, G B

    1995-01-01

    Studies of the origin of bioactive metabolites of marine actinomycetes are reviewed. Structures and properties of new metabolites from indigenous marine bacteria from Actinomycetales order, such as a benzanthraquinone antibiotic from a strain of the Chainia purpurogena, istamycins, aplasmomycins, altemicidin, new phenazine esters. C13-butanolide, marinone and debromomarinone, palmyromycin, urauchimicins and some others compounds are presented. Prospects of marine biotechnology and microbiology (with considerable emphasis on the development of the basis biology of marine microorganisms in cultures collection) are discussed. PMID:7710421

  6. The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

    2012-11-28

    Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

  7. Development of antibiotic selection kit towards veterinary applications using glycine passivated magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Vadivoo, V Senthil; Kumanan, Kathaperumal; Prabakaran, Rajamanickam

    2014-01-15

    Glycine functionalized (Gly/Fe3O4) and non-functionalized (Fe3O4) magnetic particles were synthesized in an autoclave and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and zeta potential. The size of the both these particles were in the range of 220-230 nm but the shape of the Gly/Fe3O4 particles was hexagonal in contrast to the spherical shape of Fe3O4 particles. The particle characterization tests confirmed that glycine was functionalized on the Gly/Fe3O4 particles, they were positively charged and possessed strong magnetic property. These particles possessed the ability to bind to bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus in the range of 72-90%. They were used to entrap bacteria from clinical mastitic milk samples from cows. The entrapped bacteria of the above species from these samples were isolated and used individually in the conventional disc-diffusion method of antibiotic susceptibility determination. The results were compared with that of the bacterial species isolated directly from the mastitic milk samples and were found to be 100% concordant (n=25). The developed portable antibiotic selection kit was tested with twenty five samples of mastitic milk. The results indicated that, antibiotic resistant bacteria turned the methylene blue in to white color while the bacteria that were killed (sensitive) retained the blue color of the dye. Thus the right choice of the antibiotic to treat cows with mastitis could be determined based on the naked eye. In conclusion, the kit gave quicker results, was easy to assay and read and can be 'farm-gate' applicable than the presently available conventional method. PMID:23932979

  8. Development of spherical iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate-containing solid particles with sustained drug release.

    PubMed

    Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Farkas, Béla; Gregor, Tamás; Nagy, Kálmán; Pallagi, Edina

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a simple, economic procedure for the manufacturing of coated iron(II) sulfate particles by using a crystallization technique for the development of round particles, followed by coating with a lipophilic material. Several batches of iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate were produced by a cooling crystallization, with variation of the crystallization parameters. The spherical crystals were coated with stearin. The products were characterized for particle size, roundness, bulk density and in vitro drug dissolution. Crystallization was performed from deionized water with no addition of seed crystals and by cooling by applying a linear cooling rate. The developed iron(II) sulfate crystals were round with average diameter of 729+/-165 microm. The best form for the sustained release of iron(II) sulfate was the sample HTP-2 which contained 11% of stearin relative to the iron(II) sulfate. The spherical crystallization of iron(II) sulfate is simple and fast, and does not require a dangerous, expensive solvent. The round particles can coat directly with lipophilic material which results in slow release of iron(II) sulfate and protects the iron(II) from oxidation and inhibits the loss of crystal water. The coated crystals can be filled into capsules to yield the final dosage form. PMID:17125982

  9. Development of Bioadhesive Chitosan Superporous Hydrogel Composite Particles Based Intestinal Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan

    2013-01-01

    Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 32 full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery. PMID:23984380

  10. Development of an integrated energetic neutral particle measurement system on experimental advanced full superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y. B. Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhang, J. Z.; Qi, M. Z.; Xia, S. B.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.

    2014-11-15

    Full function integrated, compact silicon photodiode based solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) have been developed for energetic particle (EP) relevant studies on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ssNPAs will be mostly operated in advanced current mode with a few channels to be operated in conventional pulse-counting mode, aiming to simultaneously achieve individually proved ultra-fast temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution capabilities. The design details together with considerations on EAST specific engineering realities and physics requirements are presented. The system, including a group of single detectors on two vertical ports and two 16-channel arrays on a horizontal port, can provide both active and passive charge exchange measurements. ssNPA detectors, with variable thickness of ultra thin tungsten dominated foils directly deposited on the front surface, are specially fabricated and utilized to achieve about 22 keV energy resolution for deuterium particle detection.

  11. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: GridPP: development of the UK computing Grid for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grid PP Collaboration; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Lowe, L. S.; Tan, C. L. A.; Watkins, P. M.; Bailey, D. S.; Barrass, T. A.; Brook, N. H.; Croft, R. J. H.; Kelly, M. P.; Mackay, C. K.; Metson, S.; Maroney, O. J. E.; Newbold, D. M.; Wilson, F. F.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Burke, S.; Byrom, R.; Coles, J.; Cornwall, L. A.; Djaoui, A.; Field, L.; Fisher, S. M.; Folkes, G. T.; Geddes, N. I.; Gordon, J. C.; Hicks, S. J. C.; Jensen, J. G.; Johnson, G.; Kant, D.; Kelsey, D. P.; Kuznetsov, G.; Leake, J.; Middleton, R. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Prassas, G.; Saunders, B. J.; Ross, D.; Sansum, R. A.; Shah, T.; Strong, B.; Synge, O.; Tam, R.; Thorpe, M.; Traylen, S.; Wheeler, J. F.; White, N. G. H.; Wilson, A. J.; Antcheva, I.; Artiaga, E.; Beringer, J.; Bird, I. G.; Casey, J.; Cass, A. J.; Chytracek, R.; Gallas Torreira, M. V.; Generowicz, J.; Girone, M.; Govi, G.; Harris, F.; Heikkurinen, M.; Horvath, A.; Knezo, E.; Litmaath, M.; Lubeck, M.; Moscicki, J.; Neilson, I.; Poinsignon, E.; Pokorski, W.; Ribon, A.; Sekera, Z.; Smith, D. H.; Tomlin, W. L.; van Eldik, J. E.; Wojcieszuk, J.; Brochu, F. M.; Das, S.; Harrison, K.; Hayes, M.; Hill, J. C.; Lester, C. G.; Palmer, M. J.; Parker, M. A.; Nelson, M.; Whalley, M. R.; Glover, E. W. N.; Anderson, P.; Clark, P. J.; Earl, A. D.; Holt, A.; Jackson, A.; Joo, B.; Kenway, R. D.; Maynard, C. M.; Perry, J.; Smith, L.; Thorn, S.; Trew, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Burgon-Lyon, M.; Cameron, D. G.; Doyle, A. T.; Flavell, A.; Hanlon, S. J.; Martin, D. J.; McCance, G.; Millar, A. P.; Nicholson, C.; Paterson, S. K.; Pickford, A.; Soler, P.; Speirs, F.; St. Denis, R.; Thompson, A. S.; Britton, D.; Cameron, W.; Colling, D.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P.; Egede, U.; Georgiou, K.; Lewis, P.; MacEvoy, B.; Marr, S.; Martyniak, J.; Tallini, H.; Wakefield, S.; Walker, R.; Bertram, I. A.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Evans, D.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Jones, R. W. L.; Love, P.; Downing, S.; George, M. P.; Irving, A. C.; McNeile, C.; Sroczynski, Z.; Tobin, M.; Washbrook, A. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Dallison, S.; Fairey, G.; Forti, A.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Jones, M. A. S.; Kaushal, S.; Marshall, R.; McNab, A.; Salih, S.; Werner, J. C.; Bartsch, V.; Cioffi, C.; Gronbech, P.; Harnew, N.; Harris, J. F.; Huffman, B. T.; Leslie, M.; McArthur, I.; Newman, R.; Soroko, A.; Stokes-Rees, I.; Stonjek, S.; Tseng, J.; Waters, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Arter, T. R.; Cordenonsi, R. A.; Datta, A. S.; Hartin, T.; Lloyd, S. L.; Martin, A. J.; Pearce, S. E.; Williams, C. J.; Gardner, M.; George, S.; Green, B. J.; Johal, S.; Rybkine, G.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Hodgson, P.; Robinson, M.; Tovey, D. R.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Allton, C. R.; Armour, W.; Clarke, P.; Mealor, P.; Waters, D.; Waugh, B.; West, B.

    2006-01-01

    The GridPP Collaboration is building a UK computing Grid for particle physics, as part of the international effort towards computing for the Large Hadron Collider. The project, funded by the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), began in September 2001 and completed its first phase 3 years later. GridPP is a collaboration of approximately 100 researchers in 19 UK university particle physics groups, the Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils and CERN, reflecting the strategic importance of the project. In collaboration with other European and US efforts, the first phase of the project demonstrated the feasibility of developing, deploying and operating a Grid-based computing system to meet the UK needs of the Large Hadron Collider experiments. This note describes the work undertaken to achieve this goal.

  12. Developing Supersonic Impactor and Aerodynamic Lens for Separation and Handling of Nano-Sized Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2008-06-30

    A computational model for supersonic flows of compressible gases in an aerodynamic lens with several lenses and in a supersonic/hypersonic impactor was developed. Airflow conditions in the aerodynamic lens were analyzed and contour plots for variation of Mach number, velocity magnitude and pressure field in the lens were evaluated. The nano and micro-particle trajectories in the lens and their focusing and transmission efficiencies were evaluated. The computational model was then applied to design of a aerodynamic lens that could generate focus particle beams while operating under atmospheric conditions. The computational model was also applied to airflow condition in the supersonic/hypersonic impactor. Variations of airflow condition and particle trajectories in the impactor were evaluated. The simulation results could provide understanding of the performance of the supersonic and hypersonic impactors that would be helpful for the design of such systems.

  13. Development of a low-mass and high-efficiency charged-particle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, D.; Maeda, Y.; Kawasaki, N.; Masuda, T.; Nanjo, H.; Nomura, T.; Sasaki, M.; Sasao, N.; Seki, S.; Shiomi, K.; Tajima, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a low-mass and high-efficiency charged-particle detector for an experimental study of the rare decay K_L rArr π ^0 ν bar {ν }. The detector is important for suppressing the background with charged particles to the level below the signal branching ratio predicted by the Standard Model (O(10^{-11})). The detector consists of two layers of 3 mm thick plastic scintillators with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers and multi-pixel photon counters for the readout. We manufactured the counter and evaluated the performance in terms of light yield, timing resolution, and efficiency. With this design, we achieved an inefficiency per layer against penetrating charged particles of less than 1.5 × 10^{-5}, which satisfies the requirement of the KOTO experiment determined from simulation studies.

  14. 'Hot particles' in the cold light of day: principles for a stakeholder and public engagement architecture relating to historic liabilities in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Rick

    2007-09-01

    This paper discusses issues in stakeholder relations, focusing on the challenges of liabilities management associated with small fragments of irradiated nuclear fuel hereafter termed particles (and sometimes termed 'hot particles' in the public domain, from which this paper gets its title), produced over a number of decades from now ceased operations at Dounreay. It describes key problems confronting the nuclear industry in developing a stakeholder-relations strategy. Drawing upon examples of the stakeholder activity at Dounreay, and using an ecological metaphor, an innovative architecture for stakeholder engagement relating to nuclear issues is outlined. This is based upon the view that the solution of the stakeholder issue must reflect the complexity and connectivity of influences and interests within the stakeholder environment. It is argued that the lay public should be visualised as the stakeholder if an effective stakeholder-relations strategy is to be achieved. The importance of creating trust in a context of scientific uncertainty is highlighted. This will, it is argued, become an increasingly salient issue in the thrust for openness and transparency, two key drivers of nuclear industry public and stakeholder relations, which could make the limits of scientific knowledge and control more widely appreciated, and bring to the fore the role of lay conceptions of perceived risk. PMID:17768312

  15. Online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in bottom spray fluid bed coating--development and application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-08-16

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop a visiometric process analyzer for online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process. The secondary purpose is to investigate the influences of partition gap and air accelerator insert size on particle mass flow rate using the developed visiometric process analyzer. Particle movement in the region between the product chamber and partition column was captured using a high speed camera. Mean particle velocity and number of particles in the images were determined by particle image velocimetry and morphological image processing method respectively. Mass flow rate was calculated using particle velocity, number of particles in the images, particle density and size information. Particle velocity and number findings were validated using image tracking and manual particle counting techniques respectively. Validation experiments showed that the proposed method was accurate. Partition gap was found to influence particle mass flow rate by limiting the rate of solids flux into the partition column; the air accelerator insert was found to influence particle mass flow rate by a Venturi effect. Partition gap and air accelerator insert diameter needed to be adjusted accordingly in relation to the other variability sources and diameter of coating cores respectively. The potential, challenges and possible solutions of the proposed visiometric process analyzer were further discussed. PMID:20594985

  16. Particle dynamics and the development of string-like motion in a supercooled Dzugutov liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Yeshitila; Vogel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon

    2004-03-01

    The microscopic detail of local particle dynamics is studied in a glass-forming one component supercooled liquid modeled by a Dzugutov potential developed for simple metallic glass-formers. Our main goal is to investigate particle motion in the supercooled liquid state, and to ascertain the extent to which this motion is cooperative and occuring in quasi-one dimesional, string-like paths. To this end, we investigate in detail the mechanism by which particles move along these paths. In particular, we show that the degree of coherence - that is, simultaneous motion by consecutive particles along a string - depends on the length of the string. For short strings, the motion is highly coherent. For longer strings, the motion is highly coherent only within shorter segments of the string, which we call ``microstrings.'' Very large strings may contain several microstrings within which particles move simultaneously, but individual microstrings within a given string are temporally uncorrelated with each other. We discuss possible underlying mechanisms for this complex dynamical behavior, and examine our results in the context of recent theoretical work on dynamic facilitation and its role in the glass transition.

  17. Development of vapor deposited silica sol-gel particles for use as a bioactive materials system.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Katherine L; Holmes, Hallie R; VanWagner, Michael J; Hartman, Natalie J; Rajachar, Rupak M

    2013-06-01

    Silica-based sol-gel and bioglass materials are used in a variety of biomedical applications including the surface modification of orthopedic implants and tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work, a simple system for vapor depositing silica sol-gel nano- and micro-particles onto substrates using nebulizer technology has been developed and characterized. Particle morphology, size distribution, and degradation can easily be controlled through key formulation and manufacturing parameters including water:alkoxide molar ratio, pH, deposition time, and substrate character. These particles can be used as a means to rapidly modify substrate surface properties, including surface hydrophobicity (contact angle changes >15°) and roughness (RMS roughness changes of up to 300 nm), creating unique surface topography. Ions (calcium and phosphate) were successfully incorporated into particles, and induced apatitie-like mineral formation upon exposure to simulated body fluid Preosteoblasts (MC3T3) cultured with these particles showed up to twice the adhesivity within 48 h when compared to controls, potentially indicating an increase in cell proliferation, with the effect likely due to both the modified substrate properties as well as the release of silica ions. This novel method has the potential to be used with implants and tissue engineering materials to influence cell behavior including attachment, proliferation, and differentiation via cell-material interactions to promote osteogenesis. PMID:23585242

  18. A personal sampler for aircraft engine cold start particles: laboratory development and testing.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Alfredo; Leith, David

    2003-01-01

    Industrial hygienists in the U.S. Air Force are concerned about exposure of their personnel to jet fuel. One potential source of exposure for flightline ground crews is the plume emitted during the start of aircraft engines in extremely cold weather. The purpose of this study was to investigate a personal sampler, a small tube-and-wire electrostatic precipitator (ESP), for assessing exposure to aircraft engine cold start particles. Tests were performed in the laboratory to characterize the sampler's collection efficiency and to determine the magnitude of adsorption and evaporation artifacts. A low-temperature chamber was developed for the artifact experiments so tests could be performed at temperatures similar to actual field conditions. The ESP collected particles from 0.5 to 20 micro m diameter with greater than 98% efficiency at particle concentrations up to 100 mg/m(3). Adsorption artifacts were less than 5 micro g/m(3) when sampling a high concentration vapor stream. Evaporation artifacts were significantly lower for the ESP than for PVC membrane filters across a range of sampling times and incoming vapor concentrations. These tests indicate that the ESP provides more accurate exposure assessment results than traditional filter-based particle samplers when sampling cold start particles produced by an aircraft engine. PMID:14674798

  19. Progress and hurdles in the development of influenza virus-like particle vaccines for veterinary use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble infectious virus particles in structure and morphology, have been proposed to provide a new generation of vaccine candidates against various viral infections. As effective immunogens, characterized by high immunogenicity and safety, VLPs have been employed in the development of human influenza vaccines. Recently, several influenza VLP vaccines have been developed for veterinary use and successfully evaluated in swine, canine, duck, and chicken models. These VLP vaccine candidates induced protective immune responses and enabled serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals in conjunction with a diagnostic test. Here, we review the current progress of influenza VLP development as a next-generation vaccine technology in the veterinary field and discuss the challenges and future direction of this technology. PMID:25003086

  20. Development of Holographic Particle Velocimetry Techniques for Three-Dimensional Vortical Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hui

    The lack of techniques to measure instantaneous velocity vector fields in three-dimensional (3D) space is the primary obstacle to further understanding of vortex dynamics and turbulence phenomena. Holographic Particle Velocimetry (HPV), which can record a 3D flow field laden with tracer particles on holograms using pulsed laser beams and measure the particle displacements, appears to be highly promising to this end. An HPV technique based on in-line holography has been implemented, which is characterized by geometric simplicity and minimal laser requirements. To overcome limitations (such as intrinsic speckle noise and large depth-of-focus) of in-line HPV, an analytical model has been developed which elucidates the nature of the speckle noise, quantifies the signal-to-noise-ratio of particle images as a function of particle field parameters, and suggests ways for further improvements in HPV concepts. Based upon these results, an off-axis HPV system has been developed in which speckle noise is suppressed and depth-of-focus is reduced, but the system complexity increases as well. Improving upon off-axis HPV, two innovative techniques--viz. multibeam, and in-line recording/off-axis viewing (IROV)--have been proposed. Proof-of-concept has been established for the multibeam HPV which utilizes the laser energy efficiently. The IROV technique, which enjoys the geometric simplicity of in-line HPV as well as the low speckle noise and small depth-of-focus of off-axis HPV has been developed and applied to measure an unstable vortex ring (Re = 1360) in water. The instantaneous velocity vector field in a 3D space (21 mm x 40 mm x 11 mm) is obtained at a spatial resolution of 1 mm. The vorticity distribution and circulation as a function of radius from the core center are calculated.

  1. Developments in Marine Current Turbine Research at the United States Naval Academy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, K. A.; Luznik, L.

    2013-12-01

    A series of tests have been performed on a 1/25th scale model of a two bladed horizontal axis marine current turbine. The tests were conducted in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine model has a 0.8 m diameter (D) rotor with a NACA 63-618 cross section, which is Reynolds number independent with respect to the lift coefficient in the operating range of Rec ≈ 4 x 105. Baseline test were conducted to obtain torque, thrust and rotational speed at a range of tip speed ratios (TSR) from 5 < TSR < 11. The power and thrust coefficients for the model turbine match expected results from blade-element-momentum theory. The lift and drag curves for the numerical model were obtained by testing a 2D NACA 63-618 airfoil in a wind tunnel. Additional tests were performed at two rotor depths (1.3D and 2.25D) in the presence of intermediate and deep water waves. The average values for power and thrust coefficient are weakly dependent on turbine depth. The waves yield a small increase in turbine performance which can be explained by Stokes drift velocity. Phase averaged results indicate that the oscillatory wave velocity results in significant variations in measured turbine torque and rotational speed as a function of wave phase. The turbine rotation speed, power, and thrust reach a maximum with the passing of the wave crest and a minimum with the passing of the wave trough. The torque appears dependent on vertical velocity, which lags the horizontal velocity by 90° of wave phase. Variations of the performance parameters are of the same order of magnitude as the average value, especially when the turbine is near the mean free surface and in the presence of high energy waves. These results demonstrate the impact of surface gravity waves on power production and structural loading. Future tests will focus on measuring and modeling the wake of the turbine for unsteady flow conditions. Model Turbine Power Coefficient vs, Tip Speed Ratio

  2. Development of a multistrain bacterial bioreporter platform for the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Tecon, Robin; Beggah, Siham; Czechowska, Kamila; Sentchilo, Vladimir; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; McGenity, Terry J; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2010-02-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are common contaminants in marine and freshwater aquatic habitats, often occurring as a result of oil spillage. Rapid and reliable on-site tools for measuring the bioavailable hydrocarbon fractions, i.e., those that are most likely to cause toxic effects or are available for biodegradation, would assist in assessing potential ecological damage and following the progress of cleanup operations. Here we examined the suitability of a set of different rapid bioassays (2-3 h) using bacteria expressing the LuxAB luciferase to measure the presence of short-chain linear alkanes, monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds, biphenyls, and DNA-damaging agents in seawater after a laboratory-scale oil spill. Five independent spills of 20 mL of NSO-1 crude oil with 2 L of seawater (North Sea or Mediterranean Sea) were carried out in 5 L glass flasks for periods of up to 10 days. Bioassays readily detected ephemeral concentrations of short-chain alkanes and BTEX (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) in the seawater within minutes to hours after the spill, increasing to a maximum of up to 80 muM within 6-24 h, after which they decreased to low or undetectable levels. The strong decrease in short-chain alkanes and BTEX may have been due to their volatilization or biodegradation, which was supported by changes in the microbial community composition. Two- and three-ring PAHs appeared in the seawater phase after 24 h with a concentration up to 1 muM naphthalene equivalents and remained above 0.5 muM for the duration of the experiment. DNA-damage-sensitive bioreporters did not produce any signal with the oil-spilled aqueous-phase samples, whereas bioassays for (hydroxy)biphenyls showed occasional responses. Chemical analysis for alkanes and PAHs in contaminated seawater samples supported the bioassay data, but did not show the typical ephemeral peaks observed with the bioassays. We conclude that bacterium-based bioassays can be a suitable alternative for rapid on-site quantitative measurement of hydrocarbons in seawater. PMID:20000678

  3. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, John P. Y.; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A.; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development. PMID:26132329

  4. Development of a nano condensation particle counter battery (nano-CPCb) to infer the composition of freshly formed particles down to 1 nm in the boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, C.; Kangasluoma, J.; Wimmer, D.; Rissanen, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wang, J.; Kulmala, M. T.; Petaja, T.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric particle nucleation is an important environmental nano-scale process, with field measurements and modeling studies indicating that freshly nucleated particles are a significant source of global cloud condensation nuclei. However, our understanding of atmospheric nucleation and its influence on climate is limited as few ambient measurements have been made of either the nucleation rate or the chemical composition of the freshly formed clusters, both of which are necessary to constrain the nucleation mechanism and to develop a process-level model. In this study, a nano condensation particle counter battery (nano CPCb) was developed, characterized, and then deployed during an intensive field campaign to infer the size-resolved composition of freshly formed particles down to 1 nm. The nano CPCb is composed of four CPCs optimized for the detection of sub 3 nm particles, using diethylene glycol, water, and butanol as the CPC working fluids. The nano CPCb was characterized in the laboratory with mono-disperse challenge aerosols of diverse composition. By sampling electrical mobility-classified particles, the nano CPCb accounts for the strong dependence of CPC detection on particle size and charge below 3 nm. Measured differences between the various CPC responses are then attributed to composition-specific interactions between the sampled particles and the various working fluids of the nano CPCb. Characterization results for the composition dependent responses of the nano CPCb will be presented. After characterization, the nano CPCb was integrated as a detector in a Nano-SMPS system optimized for particle detection down to 1 nm. The combined instrument was deployed during an intensive field campaign in the Spring of 2013 to study atmospheric nucleation and initial growth at a long-term measurement site in the boreal forest in Hyytiälä, Finland. Preliminary measurements of freshly nucleated aerosol size distributions and the size-resolved composition-dependent response of the nano CPCb will be presented.

  5. Development of Rabies Virus-Like Particles for Vaccine Applications: Production, Characterization, and Protection Studies.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Diego; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Kratje, Ricardo; Prieto, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a viral infection of the central nervous system for which vaccination is the only treatment possible. Besides preexposure, vaccination is highly recommended for people living in endemic areas, veterinarians, and laboratory workers. Our group has developed rabies virus-like particles (RV-VLPs) with immunogenic features expressed in mammalian cells for vaccine applications. In this chapter the methods to obtain and characterize a stable HEK293 cell line expressing RV-VLPs are detailed. Further, analytical ultracentrifugation steps to purify the obtained VLPs are developed, as well as western blot, dynamic light scattering, and immunogold electron microscopy to analyze the size, distribution, shape, and antigenic conformation of the purified particles. Finally, immunization protocols are described to study the immunogenicity of RV-VLPs. PMID:27076129

  6. Development of micro-shock wave assisted dry particle and fluid jet delivery system.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, S G; Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Allam, Uday Sankar; Nataraja, Karaba N; Barhai, P K; Jagadeesh, Gopalan; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2012-11-01

    Small quantity of energetic material coated on the inner wall of a polymer tube is proposed as a new method to generate micro-shock waves in the laboratory. These micro-shock waves have been harnessed to develop a novel method of delivering dry particle and liquid jet into the target. We have generated micro-shock waves with the help of reactive explosive compound [high melting explosive (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) and traces of aluminium] coated polymer tube, utilising ∼9 J of energy. The detonation process is initiated electrically from one end of the tube, while the micro-shock wave followed by the products of detonation escape from the open end of the polymer tube. The energy available at the open end of the polymer tube is used to accelerate tungsten micro-particles coated on the other side of the diaphragm or force a liquid jet out of a small cavity filled with the liquid. The micro-particles deposited on a thin metal diaphragm (typically 100-μm thick) were accelerated to high velocity using micro-shock waves to penetrate the target. Tungsten particles of 0.7 μm diameter have been successfully delivered into agarose gel targets of various strengths (0.6-1.0 %). The device has been tested by delivering micro-particles into potato tuber and Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus (ground nut) stem tissue. Along similar lines, liquid jets of diameter ∼200-250 μm (methylene blue, water and oils) have been successfully delivered into agarose gel targets of various strengths. Successful vaccination against murine salmonellosis was demonstrated as a biological application of this device. The penetration depths achieved in the experimental targets are very encouraging to develop a future device for biological and biomedical applications. PMID:22763845

  7. A 7-d toxicity test for marine pollutants using the Pacific mysid Mysidopsis intii. 1: Culture and protocol development

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, C.J.; Vance, M.M.; Harmon, V.L.; Kreeger, K.E.; Kreeger, D.A.; Chapman, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a short term (7-d) toxicity test for marine pollutants that is practical to perform at sites remote from a source of test organisms. Laboratory culture methods were developed that allowed successful long-term rearing of populations of the mysid Mysidopsis intii, a species indigenous to the Pacific coast of the United States. Mysidopsis intii was found to have a short life cycle of 20 d at 20 C, making it useful for chronic toxicity tests. A 7-d toxicity test was developed by comparing the sensitivities of various life stages of M. intii to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The most sensitive end point was found to be growth (final body length) of juveniles during the first 7 d after release. The sensitivity of mysids to SDS decreased with increasing age. To allow for shipping newly released juveniles to remote sites, a 7-d test was evaluated starting with 2-d-old mysids. The median lethal concentration for M. intii exposed to SDS at ages from 2 to 9 d was 4.59 mg/L (95% confidence limits, 4.21--5.00), and the maximum acceptable SDS concentration was 4.99 mg/L for both survival and growth.

  8. Community Involvement in Early Intervention. A Report on the Planning and Development of "Families First": An Early Intervention Program for Coordinated Family Support Services for Marin City Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald

    This report documents the planning and development of Families First, an early intervention program to be implemented in Marin City, California. The program has been designed to integrate and coordinate the provision of a wide range of services to families of children from the third trimester of pregnancy to the age of 8 years who live in a…

  9. Exploring Larval Development and Applications in Marine Fish Aquaculture Using Pink Snapper Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaru, Clyde; Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.; Gorospe, Kelvin D.; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

    2014-01-01

    This biology investigation on "Pristipomoides filamentosus" larval development, survival, and aquaculture research was developed with three educational objectives: to provide high school students with (1) a scientific background on the biology and science of fisheries as well as overfishing, its consequences, and possible mitigations;

  10. Marine and Maritime Sector Skills Shortages in the South West of England: Developing Regional Training Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Julian; Meethan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Clustering theory assumes that companies gravitate towards each other on the basis of locally and regionally specific resources and supply chain characteristics, which lead in turn to innovation and high-value economic development. In line with such thinking, UK government policy has devolved certain functions to regional development agencies such…

  11. Exploring Larval Development and Applications in Marine Fish Aquaculture Using Pink Snapper Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaru, Clyde; Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.; Gorospe, Kelvin D.; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

    2014-01-01

    This biology investigation on "Pristipomoides filamentosus" larval development, survival, and aquaculture research was developed with three educational objectives: to provide high school students with (1) a scientific background on the biology and science of fisheries as well as overfishing, its consequences, and possible mitigations;…

  12. Development of a Hypertrophic Ovarian Artery After Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun S. Paxton, Ben E.

    2007-09-15

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the treatment of symptomatic leiomyomata has shown excellent short-term clinical efficacy and minimal complications, yet recurrences after successful treatments at mid- and long-term follow-up have been reported. Exact etiologies for such recurrences have not been fully understood. We present a case of symptom recurrence with the development of a hypertrophic ovarian artery after successful UAE with polyvinyl alcohol particles, successfully treated with ovarian and repeat UAEs.

  13. Computed and experimental interactions between eddy structure and dispersed particles in developing free shear layers

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Keller, J.O.; Ellzey, J.; Hubbard, G.; Daily, J.W.

    1982-05-20

    We are investigating the interactive process between turbulent flow and dispersed phase particles. We are focusing on the mechanisms that appear to result in a reduction of local turbulent intensity and a corresponding reduction in wall heat transfer and subsequent wall erosion in turbulent solid propellant combustion flow. We apply computational simulations and physical experiments specialized to a developing free shear layer over a rearward facing step and over a parallel splitter plate. The flow configuration evolves in a two-dimensional, steady, combustion and non-combustion turbulent free shear mixing region, with and without particle additives. The computational simulations combine three basic components: gas phase Navier-Stokes solutions, Lagrange particle field solutions and a Monte Carlo technique for the random encounters, forces and accelerations between the two fields. We concentrate here on relatively large sized additive particles (of the order of tens of microns to 100 microns mean diameter). We examine their apparent influence in breaking up the larger, energy bearing eddy structures into smaller structures which are more readily dissipated.

  14. Development of students' interest in particle physics as effect of participating in a Masterclass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedigk, Kerstin; Pospiech, Gesche

    2016-05-01

    The International Hands On Particle Physics Masterclasses are enjoying increasing popularity worldwide every year. In Germany a national program was brought to live in 2010, which offers these appreciated events to whole classes or courses of high school students all over the year. These events were evaluated concerning the issues of students' interest in particle physics and their perception of the events. How several interest variables interact with each other and the perception of the events is answered by structural equation modelling (sect. 5.2). The results give information about the events' effects on the students' interest development in particle physics, show which event features are important ( e.g. the authenticity) and give information about practical approaches to improve the effects of the Masterclasses. Section 5.3 deals with a group of participants which have a high interest in particle physics 6-8 weeks after the participation. The number of these students is remarkable large, with 26% of all participants. The investigation of this group shows that the Masterclass participation has the same positive effect on both sexes and all levels of physics education.

  15. Integrating Conservation and Development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: Perception and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

    2008-11-01

    Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS’s management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of Alonissos claimed benefits were scant. Tourists (domestic and foreign) believe that the NMPANS is not the main attraction to Alonissos Island but is part of a composite, including serenity, aesthetic beauty, and small-scale tourism development, which can turn Alonissos Island into an ideal eco-tourism destination; a common aspiration for both the tourists and the local community by general consensus. The aim of the NMPANS to integrate conservation and development lies in (1) the effectiveness of the NMPANS management body in formulating a strategic management plan that would accommodate stakeholders’ interests and aspirations and (2) a national policy of conservation and enhancement of natural resources with consistency and continuity. Quantitative assessment of the socioeconomic effectiveness of the Mediterranean MPAs using a common methodology would facilitate the identification of intraregional variation and better planning for the network of MPAs in the Mediterranean.

  16. Antitumor Peptides from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lan-Hong; Wang, Yue-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Yuan; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Sun, Mi

    2011-01-01

    The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides. PMID:22072999

  17. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  18. Hydrodynamics of the developing region in hydrophobic microchannels: A dissipative particle dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, S. Kumar; Patnaik, B. S. V.; Vedantam, Srikanth

    2013-03-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is becoming a popular particle-based method to study flow through microchannels due to the ease with which the presence of biological cells or DNA chains can be modeled. Many lab-on-a-chip devices require the ability to manipulate the transport of cells or DNA chains in the fluid flow. Microchannel surfaces coated with combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials have been found useful for this purpose. In this work we study numerically the hydrodynamics of a steady nonuniform developing flow between two infinite parallel plates with hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the DPD. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces are modeled using partial-slip and no-slip boundary conditions, respectively, in the simulations. We also propose a method to model the inflow and outflow boundaries for the DPD simulations. The simulation results of the developing flow are in good agreement with analytical solutions from continuum theory for no-slip and partial-slip surfaces. The entrance region constitutes a considerable fraction of the channel length in miniaturized devices. Thus it is desirable for the length of the developing region to be short as most microfluidic devices such as cell or DNA separators and mixers are designed for the developed flow field. We study the effect of a hydrophilic strip near the inlet of a hydrophobic microchannel on the developing length. We find that the presence of the hydrophilic strip significantly reduces the developing length.

  19. Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.

    2010-08-01

    The ocean-energy industry is still in its infancy and device developers have provided their own equipment and procedures for testing. Currently, no testing standards exist for ocean energy devices in the United States. Furthermore, as prototype devices move from the test tank to in-water testing, the logistical challenges and costs grow exponentially. Development of a common instrumentation package that can be moved from device to device is one means of reducing testing costs and providing normalized data to the industry as a whole. As a first step, the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has initiated an effort to develop an instrumentation package to provide a tool to allow common measurements across various ocean energy devices. The effort is summarized in this paper. First, we present the current status of ocean energy devices. We then review the experiences of the wind industry in its development of the instrumentation package and discuss how they can be applied in the ocean environment. Next, the challenges that will be addressed in the development of the ocean instrumentation package are discussed. For example, the instrument package must be highly adaptable to fit a large array of devices but still conduct common measurements. Finally, some possible system configurations are outlined followed by input from the industry regarding its measurement needs, lessons learned from prior testing, and other ideas.

  20. Development of Modeling and Simulation for Magnetic Particle Inspection Using Finite Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jun-Youl Lee

    2003-05-31

    Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a widely used nondestructive inspection method for aerospace applications essentially limited to experiment-based approaches. The analysis of MPI characteristics that affect sensitivity and reliability contributes not only reductions in inspection design cost and time but also improvement of analysis of experimental data. Magnetic particles are easily attracted toward a high magnetic field gradient. Selection of a magnetic field source, which produces a magnetic field gradient large enough to detect a defect in a test sample or component, is an important factor in magnetic particle inspection. In this work a finite element method (FEM) has been employed for numerical calculation of the MPI simulation technique. The FEM method is known to be suitable for complicated geometries such as defects in samples. This thesis describes the research that is aimed at providing a quantitative scientific basis for magnetic particle inspection. A new FEM solver for MPI simulation has been developed in this research for not only nonlinear reversible permeability materials but also irreversible hysteresis materials that are described by the Jiles-Atherton model. The material is assumed to have isotropic ferromagnetic properties in this research (i.e., the magnetic properties of the material are identical in all directions in a single crystal). In the research, with a direct current field mode, an MPI situation has been simulated to measure the estimated volume of magnetic particles around defect sites before and after removing any external current fields. Currently, this new MPI simulation package is limited to solving problems with the single current source from either a solenoid or an axial directional current rod.

  1. Development of a He{sup 0} Source for Confined Alpha Particle Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, N.; Kisaki, M.; Iwazaki, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Okamoto, A.; Kobuchi, T.; Shinto, K.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.; Wada, M.

    2008-03-12

    A probing He{sup 0} beam for confined alpha particle measurement using a double charge exchange process is now under development. A proof of principle experiment for ground-state He{sup 0} beam production will be performed on a test stand. Several methods are developed to measure the metastable fraction of a He{sup 0} beam. A full-size strong-focusing He{sup +} source has been constructed and sufficient beam current was achieved with a beam size tolerable to be used on ITER.

  2. A model for particle microphysics, turbulent mixing, and radiative transfer in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer and comparisons with measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, A.S.; Hobbs, P.V.; Toon, O.B.

    1995-04-15

    A detailed 1D model of the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer is described. The model has three coupled components: a microphysics module that resolves the size distributions of aerosols and cloud droplets, a turbulence module that treats vertical mixing between layers, and a multiple wavelength radiative transfer module that calculates radiative heating rates and cloud optical properties. The results of a 12-h model simulation reproduce reasonably well the bulk thermodynamics, microphysical properties, and radiative fluxes measured in an {approx} 500-m thick, summertime marine stratocumulus cloud layer by Nicholls. However, in this case, the model predictions of turbulent fluxes between the cloud and subcloud layers exceed the measurements. Results of model simulations are also compared to measurements of a marine stratus layer made under gale conditions and with measurements of a high, thin marine stratocumulus layer. The variations in cloud properties are generally reproduced by the model, although it underpredicts the entrainment of overlying air at cloud top under gale conditions. Sensitivities of the model results are explored. The collection efficiencies for droplets <30-{mu}m radius, and the value of the accommodation coefficient for condensational droplet growth, have noticeable effects on cloud properties. The divergence of the horizontal wind also has a significant effect on a 12-h model simulation of cloud structure. Conclusions drawn from the model are tentative because of the limitations of the 1D model framework. A principal simplification is that the model assumes horizontal homogeneity, and, therefore, does not resolve updrafts and downdrafts. Likely consequences of this simplification include overprediction of the growth of droplets by condensation in the upper region of the cloud, underprediction of droplet condensational growth in the lower region of the cloud, and underprediction of peak supersaturations. 64 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Development of protocols for chronic toxicity testing of Pacific marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, C.J.; Seim, W.K.; Hoffman, R.L.; Weber, L.

    1990-03-01

    The development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic-effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of the project. In order to achieve acceptable sensitivity as a surrogate for chronic toxicity tests, targeting the reproductive portion of the mysid life cycle and all or part of the embryonic, larval, or early post-larval portion of the fish life cycle was deemed necessary. This targeting is consistent with conclusions based upon earlier work in developing similar tests with Atlantic coast, Gulf coast, and freshwater fish and invertebrates.

  4. Design and Development of the Simulation System for Marine LNG Fuel Reliquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyang; Zhang, Yunqiu; Liu, Yunxin; Li, Diyang

    This paper introduced the background of LNG powered ship reliquefaction plant and its working principle, established the calculation model of simulation system, taking the VLCC ship LNG powered ship as the mother ship, provided the thermodynamic calculation flow chart, developed the software for the operation simulation system and the developed the assessment system and the equipment management system. This software can simulate the operation process and carry out the numerical calculation. It is good for the purpose of training students and has great reference value for research.

  5. Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Sharissa Gay

    2005-09-01

    Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting PSD data. Finally, the SSA of the three powders was measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods, enabling the PSD to be linked to the SSA for these PETN powders. Consistent characterization of other PETN powders can be performed using the appropriate sample-specific preparation method, so that future studies can accurately identify the effect of changes in the PSD on the SSA and ultimately model EBW performance.

  6. Development and Demonstration of a Computational Tool for the Analysis of Particle Vitiation Effects in Hypersonic Propulsion Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Hugh Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the understanding of particle vitiation effects in hypersonic propulsion test facilities, a quasi-one dimensional numerical tool was developed to efficiently model reacting particle-gas flows over a wide range of conditions. Features of this code include gas-phase finite-rate kinetics, a global porous-particle combustion model, mass, momentum and energy interactions between phases, and subsonic and supersonic particle drag and heat transfer models. The basic capabilities of this tool were validated against available data or other validated codes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the code a series of computations were performed for a model hypersonic propulsion test facility and scramjet. Parameters studied were simulated flight Mach number, particle size, particle mass fraction and particle material.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS FOR CHRONIC TOXICITY TESTING OF PACIFIC MARINE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of this project. n order to achieve acceptable sensitivity...

  8. Economic effects of oil and gas development on marine aquaculture leases. Study 17. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caswell, M.F.

    1991-03-01

    There are three primary mariculture products grown in California waters: oysters, mussels, and abalone. In total, the California mariculture industry earns revenues of about $6.5 million. Water quality degradation was the primary concern of most growers. Coliform bacteria and pesticide residues are currently threatening several shallow-water sites. Lease holders (and potential lease holders) for deep-water sites state that coliform bacteria from municipal sewer outfalls and offshore oil and gas drilling effluents are the greatest dangers to their profitability. The Southern California Educational Initiative is an attempt to determine whether such concerns are warranted. A simple model of economic externalities was described to highlight the scientific data one must gather so as to choose the optimal production levels for both energy and mariculture resources. That information is necessary to assess the economic consequences to the California mariculture industry of chronic exposure to oil and gas development. The co-development model shows that the marginal (incremental) effects of oil production on mariculture costs needs to be assessed. The model also shows that if the effects are moderated by distance from the point of discharge, such changes must be estimated in order to determine optimal lease boundaries. The report concludes that interdisciplinary cooperation is essential for designing a co-development plan that maximizes the social welfare to be gained from developing multiple coastal resources.

  9. Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Colin D; Jimenez, Jose L; Bahreini, Roya; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H; Hämeri, Kaarle; Pirjola, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Jennings, S Gerard; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2002-06-01

    The formation of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei--from which marine clouds originate--depends ultimately on the availability of new, nanometre-scale particles in the marine boundary layer. Because marine aerosols and clouds scatter incoming radiation and contribute a cooling effect to the Earth's radiation budget, new particle production is important in climate regulation. It has been suggested that sulphuric acid derived from the oxidation of dimethyl sulphide is responsible for the production of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei. It was accordingly proposed that algae producing dimethyl sulphide play a role in climate regulation, but this has been difficult to prove and, consequently, the processes controlling marine particle formation remains largely undetermined. Here, using smog chamber experiments under coastal atmospheric conditions, we demonstrate that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapours, which are the photolysis products of biogenic iodocarbons emitted from marine algae. Moreover, we illustrate, using aerosol formation models, that concentrations of condensable iodine-containing vapours over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. We suggest therefore that marine iodocarbon emissions have a potentially significant effect on global radiative forcing. PMID:12050661

  10. Extended particle-in-cell schemes for physics in ultrastrong laser fields: Review and developments.

    PubMed

    Gonoskov, A; Bastrakov, S; Efimenko, E; Ilderton, A; Marklund, M; Meyerov, I; Muraviev, A; Sergeev, A; Surmin, I; Wallin, E

    2015-08-01

    We review common extensions of particle-in-cell (PIC) schemes which account for strong field phenomena in laser-plasma interactions. After describing the physical processes of interest and their numerical implementation, we provide solutions for several associated methodological and algorithmic problems. We propose a modified event generator that precisely models the entire spectrum of incoherent particle emission without any low-energy cutoff, and which imposes close to the weakest possible demands on the numerical time step. Based on this, we also develop an adaptive event generator that subdivides the time step for locally resolving QED events, allowing for efficient simulation of cascades. Further, we present a unified technical interface for including the processes of interest in different PIC implementations. Two PIC codes which support this interface, PICADOR and ELMIS, are also briefly reviewed. PMID:26382544

  11. Preparation of large-particle-size monodisperse latexes in space - Polymerization kinetics and process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Micale, F. J.; Sudol, E. D.; Tseng, C. M.; Silwanowicz, A.; Kornfeld, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Monodisperse polystyrene latexes are prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization; however, sizes larger than 2 microns are difficult to prepare because of the creaming and settling of the particles and their sensitivity to mechanical shear. Preparation in space would obviate the creaming and settling, and allow agitation just sufficient for good heat transfer and mixing. Three polymerizations yielding 3-5 micron size particles were carried out successfully on the third flight of the 'Columbia' launched Mar. 22, 1982; however, four polymerizations yielding sizes up to 10 microns on the fourth flight launched June 27, 1982 were incomplete owing to apparatus malfunction. The results of these polymerizations and the prospects of developing a preparative space process are reviewed.

  12. Microphysical particle properties derived from inversion algorithms developed in the framework of EARLINET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Böckmann, C.; Kolgotin, A.; Schneidenbach, L.; Chemyakin, E.; Rosemann, J.; Znak, P.; Romanov, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a summary on the current status of two inversion algorithms that are used in EARLINET for the inversion of data collected with EARLINET multiwavelength Raman lidars. These instruments measure backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, and extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm. Development of these two algorithms started in 2000 when EARLINET was founded. The algorithms are based on manually controlled inversion of optical data which allows for detailed sensitivity studies and thus provides us with comparably high quality of the derived data products. The algorithms allow us to derive particle effective radius, and volume and surface-area concentration with comparably high confidence. The retrieval of the real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index still is a challenge in view of the accuracy required for these parameters in climate change studies in which light-absorption needs to be known with high accuracy. Single-scattering albedo can be computed from the retrieved microphysical parameters and allows us to categorize aerosols into high and low absorbing aerosols. We discuss the current status of these manually operated algorithms, the potentially achievable accuracy of data products, and the goals for future work on the basis of a few exemplary simulations with synthetic optical data. The optical data used in our study cover a range of Ångström exponents and extinction-to-backscatter (lidar) ratios that are found from lidar measurements of various aerosol types. We also tested aerosol scenarios that are considered highly unlikely, e.g., the lidar ratios fall outside the commonly accepted range of values measured with Raman lidar, even though the underlying microphysical particle properties are not uncommon. The goal of this part of the study is to test robustness of the algorithms toward their ability to identify aerosol types that have not been measured so far, but cannot be ruled out based on our current knowledge of aerosol physics. We computed the optical data from monomodal logarithmic particle size distributions, i.e., we explicitly excluded the more complicated case of bimodal particle size distributions which is a topic of ongoing research work. Another constraint is that we only considered particles of spherical shape in our simulations. We considered particle radii as large as 7-10 μm in our simulations. That particle size does not only cover the size range of particles in the fine-mode fraction of naturally occurring particle size distributions but also covers a considerable part of the coarse-mode fraction of particle size distributions. We considered optical-data errors of 15 % in the simulation studies. We target 50 % uncertainty as a reasonable threshold for our data products, though we attempt to obtain data products with less uncertainty in future work.

  13. Investigation using data from ERTS to develop and implement utilization of living marine resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of utilizing ERTS-1 data in conjunction with aerial remote sensing and sea truth information to predict the distribution of menhaden in the Mississippi Sound during a specific time frame has been demonstrated by employing a number of uniquely designed empirical regression models. The construction of these models was made possible through innovative statistical routines specifically developed to meet the stated objectives.

  14. Development of a Promising Fish Model (Oryzias melastigma) for Assessing Multiple Responses to Stresses in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Sijun; Kang, Mei; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been “taken into labs” by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies. PMID:24724087

  15. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, William C.; Long, Michael S.

    2013-05-20

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry’s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earth’s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  16. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  17. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early

  18. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  19. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface. PMID:18618392

  20. High throughput screening of particle conditioning operations: I. System design and method development.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Aaron; Huffman, Ben; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Sunasara, Khurram; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2015-08-01

    The biotech industry is under increasing pressure to decrease both time to market and development costs. Simultaneously, regulators are expecting increased process understanding. High throughput process development (HTPD) employs small volumes, parallel processing, and high throughput analytics to reduce development costs and speed the development of novel therapeutics. As such, HTPD is increasingly viewed as integral to improving developmental productivity and deepening process understanding. Particle conditioning steps such as precipitation and flocculation may be used to aid the recovery and purification of biological products. In this first part of two articles, we describe an ultra scale-down system (USD) for high throughput particle conditioning (HTPC) composed of off-the-shelf components. The apparatus is comprised of a temperature-controlled microplate with magnetically driven stirrers and integrated with a Tecan liquid handling robot. With this system, 96 individual reaction conditions can be evaluated in parallel, including downstream centrifugal clarification. A comprehensive suite of high throughput analytics enables measurement of product titer, product quality, impurity clearance, clarification efficiency, and particle characterization. HTPC at the 1 mL scale was evaluated with fermentation broth containing a vaccine polysaccharide. The response profile was compared with the Pilot-scale performance of a non-geometrically similar, 3 L reactor. An engineering characterization of the reactors and scale-up context examines theoretical considerations for comparing this USD system with larger scale stirred reactors. In the second paper, we will explore application of this system to industrially relevant vaccines and test different scale-up heuristics. PMID:25728932

  1. Effect of chlorination on the development of marine biofilms dominated by diatoms.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jagadish S; Jagadeesan, V

    2011-03-01

    This study addressed the antifouling efficiency of commercially available chlorine at different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) and exposure times (0.5 min, 1 min, 5 min, and 15 min). The rapid and non-destructive FIRe (fluorescence induction and relaxation) technique was used to evaluate the effects of the biocide on diatom dominated biofilms. The efficiency of chlorine in removing diatoms from the developed biofilms increased with an increase in concentration and exposure time. The fluorescence measurements revealed low F(v)/F(m) and high σ(PSII) values for chlorine-treated Navicula and Amphora biofilms indicating that chlorination was efficient in damaging the photosystem-II reaction centers. Chlorination also caused mortality of diatom cells by damaging the cell body. In natural biofilms, the biocidal effect of chlorine was species specific; species of Amphiphrora, Navicula, Cylindrotheca, and Coscinodiscus showed an increase in the density of the population, but species of Pleurosigma, Amphora, and Thalassionema did not increase in density after chlorine treatment. It was also demonstrated that diatoms can colonize, grow and photosynthesize on chlorine-treated surfaces. Under pulse chlorination (treatment every 6 h), irrespective of chlorine concentration, the development of biofouling decreased with an increase in exposure time. Differences between exposure times of 1 to 15 min were not significant. Additionally, transmission levels of the control (non-chlorine-treated) fouled coupons reduced significantly (∼20%) compared to the chlorine-treated fouled coupons (<2%). These results suggest that chlorine can be used as a biocide to control the development of diatom biofilms. PMID:21337191

  2. Antimicrobial metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Habbu, Prasanna; Warad, Vijayanand; Shastri, Rajesh; Madagundi, Smita; Kulkarni, Venkatrao H

    2016-02-01

    Marine ecological niches have recently been described as "particularly promising" sources for search of new antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. Marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products, but they are partly explored. Over 30 000 compounds have been isolated from marine sources. Bacteria, fungi, and cyanobacteria obtained from various marine sources secret several industrially useful bioactive compounds, possessing antibacterial, antifungal, and antimycobacterial activities. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising marine organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, along with the establishment of biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The semisynthetic modifications of marine-based bioactive compounds produce their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as novel lead compounds against resistant pathogens. The present review focuses on promising antimicrobial compounds isolated from marine microbes from 1991-2013. PMID:26968676

  3. Testing the junk-food hypothesis on marine birds: Effects of prey type on growth and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Roby, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    The junk-food hypothesis attributes declines in productivity of marine birds and mammals to changes in the species of prey they consume and corresponding differences in nutritional quality of those prey. To test this hypothesis nestling Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) were raised in captivity under controlled conditions to determine whether the type and quality of fish consumed by young seabirds constrains their growth and development. Some nestlings were fed rations of Capelin (Mallotus villosus), Herring (Clupea pallasi) or Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) and their growth was compared with nestlings raised on equal biomass rations of Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcograma). Nestlings fed rations of herring, sand lance, or capelin experienced higher growth increments than nestlings fed pollock. The energy density of forage fish fed to nestlings had a marked effect on growth increments and could be expected to have an effect on pre- and post-fledging survival of nestlings in the wild. These results provide empirical support for the junk-food hypothesis.

  4. Marine Electromagnetic System Development in the Shallow Water Environment for Radioactive Waste Repository Site Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, K.; Sakashita, S.; Okubo, S.; Yamane, K.

    2006-12-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center of Japan has recently conducted a program to develop an electromagnetic (EM) technology for investigating the subsurface to the depths of 1,000m below the seafloor in the near-shore environment. Potential applications include structural studies for geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The system includes both natural field by magnetotellurics and controlled source EM data was collected to evaluate the feasibility of the methods and instrumentation. The shallow water environment is challenging because of high water currents and wave motion effects contaminating the data. We demonstrate the performance test of the new type of instrument, and the field experiment that was carried out in the Monterey Bay of California, USA, in 2003 and 2004. In this paper we describe the instrumentation developed, shows some examples from field trial and finally provide some inversion results using collected and simulated data. The system consists of EM transmitter deployed on the beach in combination with a series of offshore based multicomponent receivers. Field data collected near Monterey California revealed some of the challenges associated with this type of system. Collected data showed the influence of wave and cultural noise as well. In site of these difficulties we were able to accumulate a sufficient quantity of good quality records to interpret results. We show 2-D inversion results which image the "Navy Fault zone" which strikes NW-SE offshore Monterey bay in water depths of 10 to 40m.

  5. Development and application of a sublethal toxicity test to PAH using marine harpacticoid copepods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleeger, J.W.; Lotufo, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    This research project was designed to improve the understanding of the acute and sublethal effects of PAHs to benthic invertebrates. Sublethal bioassay protocols for benthic harpacticoid copepods were developed, and two species of harpacticoids were exposed to a range of concentrations of sediment-amended PAHs; the single compounds fluoranthene and phenanthrene as well as a complex mixture (diesel fuel). The harpacticoid copepods Schizopera knabeni and Nitocra lacustris were tested using several bioassay approaches. Reproductive assays, feeding assays and avoidance tests were conducted in addition to lethal tests for S. knabeni. Species-specific differences in sensitivity were detected. Early life history stages were much more sensitive than adults in one species but not in the other. Concentrations of PAH as low as 26 micrograms PAH decreased copepod offspring production, egg hatching success, and embryonic and early-stage development, demonstrating the high sensitivity of life history-related endpoints. In addition, grazing on microalgae was significantly impaired at concentrations as low as 20 micrograms/g PAH after short exposures (<30 h). Finally it was demonstrated that harpacticoids can actively avoid contamination.

  6. Discovery of novel metabolites from marine actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kin S

    2006-06-01

    Recent findings from culture-dependent and culture-independent methods have demonstrated that indigenous marine actinomycetes exist in the oceans and are widely distributed in different marine ecosystems. There is tremendous diversity and novelty among the marine actinomycetes present in marine environments. Progress has been made to isolate novel actinomycetes from samples collected at different marine environments and habitats. These marine actinomycetes produce different types of new secondary metabolites. Many of these metabolites possess biological activities and have the potential to be developed as therapeutic agents. Marine actinomycetes are a prolific but underexploited source for the discovery of novel secondary metabolites. PMID:16675289

  7. Development of new polysilsesquioxane spherical particles as stabilized active ingredients for sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, Stephanie Helene

    Healthy skin is a sign of positive self-worth, attractiveness and vitality. Compromises to this are frequently caused by extended periods of recreation in the sun and in turn exposure to the harmful effects of UV radiation. To maintain strength and integrity, protection of the skin is paramount. This can be achieved by implementing skin-care products which contain sunscreen active ingredients that provide UV protection. Unfortunately, photo-degradation, toxicity, and photo-allergies limit the effectiveness of present day sunscreen ingredients. Currently, this is moderated by physically embedding within inert silica particles, but leaching of the active ingredient can occur, thereby negating protective efforts. Alternatively, this research details the preparation and investigation of bridged silsesquioxane analogues of commercial ingredients which can be chemically grafted to the silica matrix. Studies with bridged salicylate particles detail facile preparation, minimized leaching, and enhanced UV stability over physically encapsulated and pendant salicylate counterparts. In terms of UVB protective ability, the highest maintenance of sun protection factor (SPF) after extended UV exposure was achieved with bridged incorporation, and has been attributed to corollary UV stability. Additionally, bridged salicylate particles can be classified as broad-spectrum, and rate from moderate to good in terms of UVA protective ability. Particles incorporated with a bridged curcuminoid silsesquioxane were also prepared and displayed comparable results. As such, an attractive method for sunscreen isolation and stabilization has been developed to eliminate the problems associated with current sunscreens, all while maintaining the established UV absorbance profiles of the parent compound. To appreciate the technology utilized in this research, a thorough understanding of sol-gel science as it pertains to hybrid organic/silica particles, including methods of organic fragment incorporation and insight on the effect of incorporation method on ingredient leaching and UV stability, is vital. This was afforded by analysis of hybrid fluorescent dansyl particles, prepared by both O/W microemulsion polymerization and a modified Stober process, which detailed that covalent entrapment of bridged dansyl silsesquioxane is the incorporation method of choice to ensure minimized leaching and enhanced UV stability. As such, use of this method can provide exciting applications in fields where stability and retainment of the embedded ingredient is paramount for efficacy.

  8. Development of a fast DNA extraction method for sea food and marine species identification.

    PubMed

    Tagliavia, Marcello; Nicosia, Aldo; Salamone, Monica; Biondo, Girolama; Bennici, Carmelo Daniele; Mazzola, Salvatore; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-07-15

    The authentication of food components is one of the key issues in food safety. Similarly taxonomy, population and conservation genetics as well as food web structure analysis, also rely on genetic analyses including the DNA barcoding technology. In this scenario we developed a fast DNA extraction method without any purification step from fresh and processed seafood, suitable for any PCR analysis. The protocol allows the fast DNA amplification from any sample, including fresh, stored and processed seafood and from any waste of industrial fish processing, independently of the sample storage method. Therefore, this procedure is particularly suitable for the fast processing of samples and to carry out investigations for the authentication of seafood by means of DNA analysis. PMID:26948627

  9. Development of Ecogenomic Sensors for Remote Detection of Marine Microbes, Their Genes and Gene Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholin, C.; Preston, C.; Harris, A.; Birch, J.; Marin, R.; Jensen, S.; Roman, B.; Everlove, C.; Makarewicz, A.; Riot, V.; Hadley, D.; Benett, W.; Dzenitis, J.

    2008-12-01

    An internet search using the phrase "ecogenomic sensor" will return numerous references that speak broadly to the idea of detecting molecular markers indicative of specific organisms, genes or other biomarkers within an environmental context. However, a strict and unified definition of "ecogenomic sensor" is lacking and the phrase may be used for laboratory-based tools and techniques as well as semi or fully autonomous systems that can be deployed outside of laboratory. We are exploring development of an ecogenomic sensor from the perspective of a field-portable device applied towards oceanographic research and water quality monitoring. The device is known as the Environmental Sample Processor, or ESP. The ESP employs wet chemistry molecular analytical techniques to autonomously assess the presence and abundance of specific organisms, their genes and/or metabolites in near real-time. Current detection chemistries rely on low- density DNA probe and protein arrays. This presentation will emphasize results from 2007-8 field trials when the ESP was moored in Monterey Bay, CA, as well as current engineering activities for improving analytical capacity of the instrument. Changes in microbial community structure at the rRNA level were observed remotely in accordance with changing chemical and physical oceanographic conditions. Current developments include incorporation of a reusable solid phase extraction column for purifying nucleic acids and a 4-channel real-time PCR module. Users can configure this system to support a variety of PCR master mixes, primer/probe combinations and control templates. An update on progress towards fielding a PCR- enabled ESP will be given along with an outline of plans for its use in coastal and oligotrophic oceanic regimes.

  10. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated CO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: ~pH 8.15 and 404 μatm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were significantly affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish exposed to elevated CO2, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  11. Effect of ocean acidification on otolith development in larvae of a tropical marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, P. L.; Hernaman, V.; Dixson, D. L.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-03-01

    Calcification in many invertebrate species is predicted to decline due to ocean acidification. The potential effects of elevated pCO2 and reduced carbonate saturation state on other species, such as fish, are less well understood. Fish otoliths (earbones) are composed of aragonite, and thus, might be susceptible to either the reduced availability of carbonate ions in seawater at low pH, or to changes in extracellular concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate ions caused by acid-base regulation in fish exposed to high pCO2. We reared larvae of the clownfish Amphiprion percula from hatching to settlement at three pHNBS and pCO2 levels (control: pH 8.15 and 404 μatm CO2; intermediate: pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2; extreme: pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) to test the possible effects of ocean acidification on otolith development. There was no effect of the intermediate treatment (pH 7.8 and 1050 μatm CO2) on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls. However, in the more extreme treatment (pH 7.6 and 1721 μatm CO2) otolith area and maximum length were larger than controls, although no other traits were affected. Our results support the hypothesis that pH regulation in the otolith endolymph of fish exposed to elevated pCO2 can lead to increased precipitation of CaCO3 in otoliths of larval fish, as proposed by an earlier study, however, our results also show that sensitivity varies considerably among species. Importantly, our results suggest that otolith development in clownfishes is robust to even the more pessimistic changes in ocean chemistry predicted to occur by 2100.

  12. Fluid-particle characteristics in fully-developed cluster-induced turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we present a theoretical framework for collisional fluid-particle turbulence. To identify the key mechanisms responsible for energy exchange between the two phases, an Eulerian-Lagrangian strategy is used to simulate fully-developed cluster-inudced turbulence (CIT) under a range of Reynolds numbers, where fluctuations in particle concentration generate and sustain the carrier-phase turbulence. Using a novel filtering approach, a length-scale separation between the correlated particle velocity and uncorrelated granular temperature (GT) is achieved. This separation allows us to extract the instantaneous Eulerian volume fraction, velocity and GT fields from the Lagrangian data. Direct comparisons can thus be made with the relevant terms that appear in the multiphase turbulence model. It is shown that the granular pressure is highly anisotropic, and thus additional transport equations (as opposed to a single equation for GT) are necessary in formulating a predictive multiphase turbulence model. In addition to reporting the relevant contributions to the Reynolds stresses of each phase, two-point statistics, integral length/timescales, averages conditioned on the local volume fraction, and PDFs of the key multiphase statistics are presented and discussed. The research reported in this paper is partially supported by the HPC equipment purchased through U.S. National Science Foundation MRI Grant Number CNS 1229081 and CRI Grant Number 1205413.

  13. Development of Thermal Spraying and Coating Techniques by Using Thixotropic Slurries Including Metals and Ceramics Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, S.; Itakura, Y.; Tasaki, S.

    2013-03-01

    Thermal nanoparticles coating and microlines patterning were newly developed as novel technologies to fabricate fine ceramics layers and geometrical intermetallics patterns for mechanical properties modulations of practical alloys substrates. Nanometer sized alumina particles were dispersed into acrylic liquid resins, and the obtained slurries were sputtered by using compressed air jet. The slurry mists could blow into the arc plasma with argon gas spraying. On stainless steels substrates, the fine surface layers with high wear resistance were formed. In cross sectional microstructures of the coated layers, micromater sized cracks or pores were not observed. Subsequently, pure aluminum particles were dispersed into photo solidified acrylic resins, and the slurry was spread on the stainless steel substrates by using a mechanical knife blade. On the substrates, microline patterns with self similar fractal structures were drawn and fixed by using scanning of an ultra violet laser beam. The patterned pure metal particles were heated by the argon arc plasma spray assisting, and the intermetallics or alloys phases with high hardness were created through reaction diffusions. Microstructures in the coated layers and the patterned lines were observed by using a scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Effect of particle impact on residual stress development in HVOF sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, P.; Shipway, P. H.; Leen, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    The application of thick high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) coatings on metallic parts has been widely accepted as a solution to improve their wear properties. The adherence of these coatings to the substrate is strongly influenced by the residual stresses generated during the coating deposition process. In an HVOF spraying process, due to the relatively low processing temperature, significant peening stresses are generated during impact of molten and semimolten particles on the substrate. At present, finite-element (FE) models of residual stress generation for the HVOF process are not available due to the increased complexities in modeling the stresses generated due to the particle impact. In this work, an explicit FE analysis is carried out to study the effect of molten particle impingement using deposition of an HVOF sprayed copper coating on a copper substrate as an example system. The results from the analysis are subsequently used in a thermomechanical FE model to allow the development of the residual stresses in these coatings to be modeled.

  15. SCOPING STUDIES TO DEVELOP A METHOD TO DETERMINE PARTICLE SIZE IN SIMULANT SLUDGE SLURRIES BY SIEVING

    SciTech Connect

    DAMON, CLICK

    2005-02-07

    A physical separation method (i.e. sieving) was investigated to determine particle size distribution in non-radioactive sludge slurry simulants with the goal of implementation into the SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) shielded cells for use with radioactive sludge slurries. The investigation included obtaining the necessary experimental equipment, developing accessory equipment for use with the sieve shaker (to be able to sieve simulant slurries with aqueous solutions), sieving three different simulant slurries through a number of sieves and determining the particle size distribution gravimetrically, and developing a sufficient cleaning protocol of the sieves for re-use. The experimental protocol involved successive sieving of a NIST standard (to check the particle size retention of the sieves) and three non-radioactive slurry simulants (Batch 3 Tank 40 Test 3, Tank 40 Drum 3 and CETL Sludge Batch 2, which had been previously characterized by Microtrac analysis) through smaller and smaller sieves (150 microns x 5 microns) via use of the wet sieving system or by hand. For each of the three slurries, duplicate experiments were carried out using filtered supernate and DI water (to check the accuracy of the method versus Microtrac data) to sieve the slurry. Particle size determinations using the wet sieving system with DI water agree well with Microtrac data on a volume basis and in some cases the sieving data may be more accurate particularly if the material sieved had large particles. A correction factor had to be applied to data obtained from experiments done with supernate due to the dissolved solids which dried upon the sieves in the drying stage of the experiments. Upon subtraction of the correction factors, the experimental results were very similar to those obtained with DI water. It should be noted that approximately 250 mL of each of three simulant slurries was necessary to have enough filtered supernate available to carry out the experiments. The experimental results for the slurries are below with Microtrac data. The design of the experimental equipment was sufficient initially, but some pieces of the equipment began failing over time due to the caustic nature of the supernate and the vibrations from the sieve shaker. It is therefore recommended that upgrades to the experimental equipment be done before implementation into the SRNL shielded cells. Theses upgrades include using manipulator friendly connections, changing brass parts for stainless steel parts, using Teflon rather than polycarbonate, and possibly a change of pumps used to re-circulate the sieving fluid.

  16. Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

    Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We have examined this process following exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing charged particles in human lymphoid cells and in human epithelial cells. A comparison of the results in these systems can reveal similari-ties and differences as a function of cell type and LET. Last, we will approach the question of the relevance of genomic instability in the context of charged particle mutagenesis. In many models, it has been difficult to link these two processes. We will present data regarding the mechanistic associations between these processes. Taken together, these studies will allow the definition of conserved pathways that are likely to contribute strongly to the cancer risks for astronauts exposed to charged particle radiations. Supported by NASA grant NNJ07HC721 to A. Kronenberg and NASA grant NNX10AC12G to M. Turker.

  17. Development and testing of a prototype tool for integrated assessment of chemical status in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jesper H; Murray, Ciarán; Larsen, Martin M; Green, Norman; Høgåsen, Tore; Dahlgren, Elin; Garnaga-Budrė, Galina; Gustavson, Kim; Haarich, Michael; Kallenbach, Emilie M F; Mannio, Jaakko; Strand, Jakob; Korpinen, Samuli

    2016-02-01

    We report the development and application of a prototype tool for integrated assessment of chemical status in aquatic environments based on substance- and matrix-specific environmental assessment criteria (thresholds). The Chemical Status Assessment Tool (CHASE) integrates data on hazardous substances in water, sediments and biota as well as bio-effect indicators and is based on a substance- or bio-effect-specific calculation of a 'contamination ratio' being the ratio between an observed concentration and a threshold value. Values <1.0 indicate areas potentially 'unaffected', while values >1.0 indicate areas potentially 'affected'. These ratios are combined within matrices, i.e. for water, sediment and biota and for biological effects. The overall assessment used a 'one out, all out principle' with regard to each matrix. The CHASE tool was tested in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in 376 assessment units. In the former, the chemical status was >1.0 in practically all areas indicating that all areas assessed were potentially affected. The North Sea included areas classified as unaffected or affected. The CHASE tool can in combination with temporal trend assessments of individual substances be advantageous for use in remedial action plans and, in particular, for the science-based evaluation of the status and for determining which specific substances are responsible for a status as potentially affected. PMID:26810208

  18. Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meiyu

    The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed. Several excellent correlations between the minimum time required to produce spherical agglomerates or a final agglomerate diameter and the operating parameters were obtained by using the general linear regression method. In addition, the results provided a basis for size scale up of an agglomeration system. In Part II, the technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultrafine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was produced by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this method in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt. % ash, it was shown that the ash content could be reduced to 6--7 wt. % while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis by using a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w %, air saturation of 5 to 15 psig, and i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w % based on the coal weight. It was also shown that the process of agglomeration can be reversed by subjecting an aqueous suspension of agglomerates to a pressure sufficient to redissolve the microbubbles.

  19. Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience. Therefore, some examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be discussed. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new therapies targeting the central nervous system will be addressed, with particular focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, the neuronal growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering, will be highlighted. PMID:24798925

  20. Development of a numerical atlas of the easily flooded zones by marine immersions of the sandy littoral of Languedoc Roussillon (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophe, Esposito

    2010-05-01

    The Regional Direction of the Infrastructure (France) entrusted to the Technical Studies Center of the Infrastructure (CETE Mediterranee) the study of a numerical atlas of the easily flooded area by marine immersions of the sandy littoral of Languedoc Roussillon. The objective of this paper is to present the methodological results. To do the map making of the easily flooded area by marine immersions (storm), we used several numerical data base. We can list, for example, the "BD Topo Pays" and the aerial photography of the National Geographical Institute (IGN), the geological mapping of the Geological and Mining Researsh Department (BRGM). To complete this data, we have realised a geomorphological interpretation of the littoral with the aerial photography. This naturalist approach can give the geomorphological object (beach, sand dune, ...) of the sandy littoral. Our objective was to determinate the limit about coastal plain (flooded by storm) and the alluvial plain (flooded by overfloowing) and not liable to flooding form. In the first phase of the study, a progressive methodology was used to develop a version of the numerical atlas based on the available geographical data of geomorphological, historical and topographic nature. During the second phase, we have developed this approach on the four french's department (Pyrnes-Orientales, Aude, Hrault and Gard). The result is the map making of the easily flooded area by marine immersions for 230 km of the sandy littoral. This mapping define the geomorphological factor of the littoral. Like this, we can found a qualitative hazard about marine immersions. Keywords : Storm, Marine immersions, Atlas of the easily flooded zones, Languedoc-Roussillon, France

  1. Development of porosity in an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy containing nanoscale oxide particles

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Liu, Chain T; Hoelzer, David T; Mills, Michael J.; Sarosi, P. M.; Hayashi, Taisuke; Wendt, Ullrich; Heyse, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    The development of porosity at 1000 C in an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy containing ultra-fine oxide particles with diameters on the order of a few nm is investigated. A comparison with an alloy fabricated by internal oxidation demonstrates that the porosity formation is associated with mechanical alloying with Y2O3 in argon. The pores grow in spite of a sub-micron grain size suggesting that the grain boundaries are not effective paths for removing entrapped gas from the pores.

  2. Alpha particles are extremely damaging to developing hemopoiesis compared to gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tie-Nan Jiang ); Lord, B.I.; Hendry, J.H. )

    1994-03-01

    Estimates of risk of stochastic effects from contamination with [alpha]-particle-emitting radionuclides are based on equivalent doses which take into account the RBE of the high-LET radiation. It is assumed that the RBEs for deterministic effects are considerably less than those for stochastic effects. However, the offspring of mice injected with 30 Bq g[sup [minus]1] [sup 239]Pu at 13 days gestation develop a persistent deficit in hemopoietic stem cells which is primarily the result of damage to their regulatory microenvironment. Their spatial distribution in the marrow is also perturbed, and recent observations on those mice suggested a considerably higher factor than 20. To define a more realistic RBE for hemopoiesis, the effects of external [gamma] irradiation during the fetal development period have been compared directly with those of [sup 239]Pu incorporated via placental transfer on the development of hemopoietic tissue. Pregnant mice were irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays (a) continuously from day 13 of gestation to birth at 0.15 or 0.6 Gy/day; (b) six repeated acute doses (0.6 Gy/min) at 0.1 or 0.3 Gy from day 13 of gestation; (c) one acute dose of 0.6 or 1.8 Gy on day 15 of gestation. The spatial distribution of hemopoietic stem cells in 8-week-old offspring was then determined and compared to that resulting from [alpha]-particle irradiation. In each case, the higher dose was required to match the results for [alpha] particles, suggesting an RBE for developing hemopoiesis of 250-360 compared to a continuous [gamma]-ray dose and a rather lower value of 130-180 compared to a single acute dose of [gamma] rays. This contrasts greatly to values for direct irradiation of the stem cells but argues that the effective RBE, measured for long-term effects in vivo, is the more realistic. It is concluded that an all-embracing factor can be grossly misleading and can greatly underestimate the risks of exposure to [alpha] particles. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Developments of oil-free Bakelite resistive plate chambers for particle physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Lv, Z.; Zhang, J.; Xie, Y.; Qian, S.; Ning, Z.; Xu, J.; Guan, M.; Kebwaro, J. M.; Yan, J.; Xu, M.; Chen, Y.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we sumarized a Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) with non-oil surface treatment. This type of RPC has been installed and run smoothly in BESIII Muon identification system and Daya Bay cosmic Muon veto system. Based on its good performances, it has been futher studied as the sensitive detector of a digital hadron calorimeter for measuring the energies of particles in a hadron jet and as a thermal neutron detector. In addition, since the bulk resistivity of Bakelite plates can be controlled, futher developments with low bulk resistivity are being undertaken to guarantee high rate capability in experiments.

  4. Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Guk Bae; Yim, Dae Hyun; Jung, Sung Yong

    2009-03-15

    A compact x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system employing a medical x-ray tube as a light source was developed to measure quantitative velocity field information of opaque flows. The x-ray PIV system consists of a medical x-ray tube, an x-ray charge coupled device camera, a programmable shutter for a pulse-type x ray, and a synchronization device. Through performance tests, the feasibility of the developed x-ray PIV system as a flow measuring device was verified. To check the feasibility of the developed system, we tested a tube flow at two different mean velocities of 1 and 2 mm/s. The x-ray absorption of tracer particles must be quite different from that of working fluid to have a good contrast in x-ray images. All experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure condition. This system is unique and useful for investigating various opaque flows or flows inside opaque conduits.

  5. Occurrence of venlafaxine residues and its metabolites in marine mussels at trace levels: development of analytical method and a monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Martnez Bueno, M J; Boillot, C; Munaron, D; Fenet, H; Casellas, C; Gmez, E

    2014-01-01

    Coastal areas are subject to growing pressures and impacts because of the increase in human activities. Lipophilic organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been monitored for decades within monitoring programs. However, until now, little information on the detection of so-called "emerging contaminants" such as hydrophilic organic compounds in the marine environment and no data on its metabolites or transformation products in marine organisms is available. In this report, a sensitive analytical methodology for identification and confirmation of venlafaxine (VEN) residues and five of its main metabolites in the marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was validated. The sample preparation procedure was based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) approach. An analytical method was developed to quantify these compounds at trace levels by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was then applied to marine mussels collected from the Mediterranean Sea in southeastern France. Residues of the antidepressant VEN were occasionally detected at ng/g dw level. In addition, the approach allowed us to identify several transformation products in the analyzed samples. N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) was the most frequently detected metabolite followed by N,O-di-desmethylvenlafaxine (NODDV). PMID:24306328

  6. Mariner-Venus 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

  7. Development of ITSASGIS-5D: seeking interoperability between Marine GIS layers and scientific multidimensional data using open source tools and OGC services for multidisciplinary research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagarminaga, Y.; Galparsoro, I.; Reig, R.; Sánchez, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2000, an intense effort was conducted in AZTI's Marine Research Division to set up a data management system which could gather all the marine datasets that were being produced by different in-house research projects. For that, a corporative GIS was designed that included a data and metadata repository, a database, a layer catalog & search application and an internet map viewer. Several layers, mostly dealing with physical, chemical and biological in-situ sampling, and basic and thematic cartography including bathymetry, geomorphology, different species habitat maps, and human pressure and activities maps, were successfully gathered in this system. Very soon, it was realised that new marine technologies yielding continuous multidimensional data, sometimes called FES (Fluid Earth System) data, were difficult to handle in this structure. The data affected, mainly included numerical oceanographic and meteorological models, remote sensing data, coastal RADAR data, and some in-situ observational systems such as CTD's casts, moored or lagrangian buoys, etc. A management system for gridded multidimensional data was developed using standardized formats (netcdf using CF conventions) and tools such as THREDDS catalog (UNIDATA/UCAR) providing web services such as OPENDAP, NCSS, and WCS, as well as ncWMS service developed by the Reading e-science Center. At present, a system (ITSASGIS-5D) is being developed, based on OGC standards and open-source tools to allow interoperability between all the data types mentioned before. This system includes, in the server side, postgresql/postgis databases and geoserver for GIS layers, and THREDDS/Opendap and ncWMS services for FES gridded data. Moreover, an on-line client is being developed to allow joint access, user configuration, data visualisation & query and data distribution. This client is using mapfish, ExtJS - GeoEXT, and openlayers libraries. Through this presentation the elements of the first released version of this system will be described and showed, together with the new topics to be developed in new versions that include among others, the integration of geoNetwork libraries and tools for both FES and GIS metadata management, and the use of new OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) to integrate non gridded multidimensional data such as time series, depth profiles or trajectories provided by different observational systems. The final aim of this approach is to contribute to the multidisciplinary access and use of marine data for management and research activities, and facilitate the implementation of integrated ecosystem based approaches in the fields of fisheries advice and management, marine spatial planning, or the implementation of the European policies such as the Water Framework Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive or the Habitat Framework Directive.

  8. Insights into Particle Cycling from Thorium and Particle Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Marchal, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Marine particles are a main vector by which the biological carbon pump in the ocean transfers carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. Marine particles exist in a continuous spectrum of sizes, but they can be functionally grouped into a small, suspended class (which constitutes most of the total particle mass) and a large, sinking class (which contributes most of the particle flux). These two classes are connected by aggregation and disaggregation processes. The interplay of processes that create, aggregate, and destroy marine particles determines the strength and transfer efficiency of the biological pump. Measurements of radiocarbon, barium, and organic biomarkers on suspended and sinking particles have provided qualitative insights into particle dynamics, and measurements of thorium isotopes have provided quantitative estimates of rates. Here, we review what has been learned so far about particle dynamics in the ocean from chemical measurements on suspended and sinking particles. We then discuss future directions for this approach.

  9. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marchuk, Kyle

    2013-05-15

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

  10. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchuk, Kyle

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

  11. Development of a Bioaerosol single particle detector (BIO IN) for the Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber FINCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, U.; Reimann, B.; Nillius, B.; Jaenicke, R.; Bingemer, H.

    2010-02-01

    In this work we present the setup and first tests of our new BIO IN detector. This detector was constructed to classify atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) for their biological content. It is designed to be coupled to the Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber FINCH. If one particle acts as an ice nucleus, it will be at least partly covered with ice at the end of the development section of the FINCH chamber. The device combines an auto-fluorescence detector and a circular depolarization detector for simultaneous detection of biological material and discrimination between water droplets, ice crystals and non activated large aerosol particles. The excitation of biological material with UV light and analysis of auto-fluorescence is a common principle used for flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, spectroscopy and imaging. The detection of auto-fluorescence of airborne single particles demands some more experimental effort. However, expensive commercial sensors are available for special purposes, e.g. size distribution measurements. But these sensors will not fit the specifications needed for the FINCH IN counter (e.g. high sample flow of up 10 LPM). The newly developed -low cost- BIO IN sensor uses a single high-power UV LED for the electronic excitation instead of much more expensive UV lasers. Other key advantages of the new sensor are the low weight, compact size, and the little effect on the aerosol sample, which allows it to be coupled with other instruments for further analysis. The instrument will be flown on one of the first missions of the new German research aircraft "HALO" (High Altitude and LOng range).

  12. Linking marine biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2002-06-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of ultraviolet sunscreens. PMID:12180100

  13. Developing a weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for biological flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Yaroslav; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless particle method originally developed for astrophysics applications in 1977. Over the years, limitations of the original formulations have been addressed by different groups to extend the domain of SPH application. In biologically relevant internal flows, two of the several challenges still facing SPH are 1) treatment of inlet, outlet, and no slip boundary conditions and 2) treatment of second derivatives present in the viscous terms. In this work, we develop a 2D weakly compressible SPH (WCSPH) for simulating viscous internal flows which incorporates some of the recent advancements made by groups in the above two areas. The method is validated against several analytical and experimental benchmark solutions for both steady and unsteady laminar flows. In particular, the 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration benchmark test case for medical devices - steady forward flow through a nozzle with a sudden contraction and conical diffuser - is simulated for different Reynolds numbers in the laminar region and results are validated against the published experimental and CFD datasets. Support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program (NSF GRFP) is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Development of phosphor imaging diagnostics for particle energization and field line mapping studies in MRX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Yoo, J.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Myers, C.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.

    2014-10-01

    The energization of particles by magnetic reconnection is one of its most important roles in space and astrophysical plasmas. We present results from phosphor-screen imaging diagnostics for the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment, developed to measure the location and timing of particle energization by magnetic reconnection and to map field lines. Phosphor-based imaging diagnostics have previously been to study plasma dynamics in in non-neutral plasmas and low-temperature linear machines. In MRX, movable, phosphor-coated probes are scanned across the current sheet, and phosphor emission is imaged on a fast camera acquiring at typically 500 k frames/sec. Optical filters isolate the phosphor emission from line emission in the plasma. The energy sensitivity of the probe is determined by the characteristics of the phosphor and bias of the probe with respect to the plasma. We also present the development of an e-beam diagnostic to directly map the magnetic field line structure and possibly to measure the parallel electric field and/or cross-field electron transport. A modulated electron beam from a hot tungsten filament will be detected downstream by Langmuir probes and the phosphor imager.

  15. Arctic soil development on a series of marine terraces on Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard: a combined geochronology, fieldwork and modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meij, W. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; de Kleijn, C. M. F. J. J.; Reimann, T.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Zwoliński, Z.; Rachlewicz, G.; Rymer, K.; Sommer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Soils in Arctic regions currently enjoy significant attention because of their potentially substantial changes under climate change. It is important to quantify the natural processes and rates of development of these soils, to better define and determine current and future changes. Specifically, there is a need to quantify the interactions between various landscape and soil forming processes that together have resulted in current soil properties. Soil chronosequences are ideal natural experiments for this purpose. In this contribution, we combine field observations, luminescence dating and soil-landscape modelling to test and improve our understanding about Arctic soil formation. Our field site is a Holocene chronosequence of gravelly raised marine terraces in central Spitsbergen. Field observations suggest that soil-landscape development is mainly driven by weathering, silt translocation, aeolian deposition and rill erosion. Spatial soil heterogeneity is mainly caused by soil age, morphological position and depth under the surface. Substantial organic matter accumulation only occurs in few, badly drained positions. Luminescence dating confirmed existing radiocarbon dating of the terraces, which are between ~ 3.6 and ~ 14.4 ka old. Observations and ages were used to parameterize soil landscape evolution model LORICA, which was subsequently used to test the hypothesis that our field-observed processes indeed dominate soil-landscape development. Model results indicate the importance of aeolian deposition as a source of fine material in the subsoil for both sheltered beach trough positions and barren beach ridge positions. Simulated overland erosion was negligible. Therefore, an un-simulated process must be responsible for creating the observed erosion rills. Dissolution and physical weathering both play a major role. However, by using present day soil observations, relative physical and chemical weathering could not be disentangled. Discrepancies between field and model results indicate that soil formation is non-linear and driven by spatially and temporally varying boundary conditions which were not included in the model. Concluding, Arctic soil and landscape development appears to be more complex and less straight-forward than could be reasoned from field observations.

  16. Development and Application of a Novel SPE-Method for Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Marine Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Cutignano, Adele; Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Ianora, Adrianna; Luongo, Elvira; Romano, Giovanna; Gallo, Carmela; Sansone, Clementina; Aprea, Susanna; Mancini, Francesca; D’Oro, Ugo; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The biological diversity of marine habitats is a unique source of chemical compounds with potential use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and dietary supplements. However, biological screening and chemical analysis of marine extracts pose specific technical constraints and require adequate sample preparation. Here we report an improved method on Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to fractionate organic extracts containing high concentration of salt that hampers the recovery of secondary metabolites. The procedure uses a water suspension to load the extracts on a poly(styrene-divynylbenzene)-based support and a stepwise organic solvent elution to effectively desalt and fractionate the organic components. The novel protocol has been tested on MeOH-soluble material from three model organisms (Reniera sarai, Dendrilla membranosa and Amphidinium carterae) and was validated on a small panel of 47 marine samples, including sponges and protists, within discovery programs for identification of immuno-stimulatory and anti-infective natural products. PMID:26378547

  17. Development and Application of a Novel SPE-Method for Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Marine Extracts.

    PubMed

    Cutignano, Adele; Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Ianora, Adrianna; Luongo, Elvira; Romano, Giovanna; Gallo, Carmela; Sansone, Clementina; Aprea, Susanna; Mancini, Francesca; D'Oro, Ugo; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    The biological diversity of marine habitats is a unique source of chemical compounds with potential use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and dietary supplements. However, biological screening and chemical analysis of marine extracts pose specific technical constraints and require adequate sample preparation. Here we report an improved method on Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to fractionate organic extracts containing high concentration of salt that hampers the recovery of secondary metabolites. The procedure uses a water suspension to load the extracts on a poly(styrene-divynylbenzene)-based support and a stepwise organic solvent elution to effectively desalt and fractionate the organic components. The novel protocol has been tested on MeOH-soluble material from three model organisms (Reniera sarai, Dendrilla membranosa and Amphidinium carterae) and was validated on a small panel of 47 marine samples, including sponges and protists, within discovery programs for identification of immuno-stimulatory and anti-infective natural products. PMID:26378547

  18. Developments Of A Large Scale Three-Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. M.; Lourenco, L.; Krothapalli, A.

    1997-11-01

    A method for performing three-dimensional fluid velocity measurements has been developed using the Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV, measurement technique. Using PIV in conjunction with the photographic method commonly referred to as the Scheimpflug condition, it is possible to focus on a plane in space from an oblique angle. A two camera PIV system then allows the resolution of a fully three-dimensional flow field. This method was developed primarily to permit the use of Off- Axis PIV systems in large wind tunnels. In this application of the method it is intended to be used for two-dimensional large scale measurements. The technique has been demonstrated using small scale three dimensional flows.

  19. Development of Labview based data acquisition and multichannel analyzer software for radioactive particle tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Abdullah, Jaafar B.; Hassan, Hearie B.

    2015-04-29

    A DAQ (data acquisition) software called RPTv2.0 has been developed for Radioactive Particle Tracking System in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. RPTv2.0 that features scanning control GUI, data acquisition from 12-channel counter via RS-232 interface, and multichannel analyzer (MCA). This software is fully developed on National Instruments Labview 8.6 platform. Ludlum Model 4612 Counter is used to count the signals from the scintillation detectors while a host computer is used to send control parameters, acquire and display data, and compute results. Each detector channel consists of independent high voltage control, threshold or sensitivity value and window settings. The counter is configured with a host board and twelve slave boards. The host board collects the counts from each slave board and communicates with the computer via RS-232 data interface.

  20. Development of Labview based data acquisition and multichannel analyzer software for radioactive particle tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Yussup, Nolida; Abdullah, Jaafar B.; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Hassan, Hearie B.

    2015-04-01

    A DAQ (data acquisition) software called RPTv2.0 has been developed for Radioactive Particle Tracking System in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. RPTv2.0 that features scanning control GUI, data acquisition from 12-channel counter via RS-232 interface, and multichannel analyzer (MCA). This software is fully developed on National Instruments Labview 8.6 platform. Ludlum Model 4612 Counter is used to count the signals from the scintillation detectors while a host computer is used to send control parameters, acquire and display data, and compute results. Each detector channel consists of independent high voltage control, threshold or sensitivity value and window settings. The counter is configured with a host board and twelve slave boards. The host board collects the counts from each slave board and communicates with the computer via RS-232 data interface.

  1. Using Image Pro Plus Software to Develop Particle Mapping on Genesis Solar Wind Collector Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The continued success of the Genesis mission science team in analyzing solar wind collector array samples is partially based on close collaboration of the JSC curation team with science team members who develop cleaning techniques and those who assess elemental cleanliness at the levels of detection. The goal of this collaboration is to develop a reservoir of solar wind collectors of known cleanliness to be available to investigators. The heart and driving force behind this effort is Genesis mission PI Don Burnett. While JSC contributes characterization, safe clean storage, and benign collector cleaning with ultrapure water (UPW) and UV ozone, Burnett has coordinated more exotic and rigorous cleaning which is contributed by science team members. He also coordinates cleanliness assessment requiring expertise and instruments not available in curation, such as XPS, TRXRF [1,2] and synchrotron TRXRF. JSC participates by optically documenting the particle distributions as cleaning steps progress. Thus, optical document supplements SEM imaging and analysis, and elemental assessment by TRXRF.

  2. Development of Sulfidogenic Sludge from Marine Sediments and Trichloroethylene Reduction in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Barajas, Claudia; Ordaz, Alberto; García-Solares, Selene Montserrat; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; Bastida-González, Fernando; Zárate-Segura, Paola Berenice

    2015-01-01

    The importance of microbial sulfate reduction relies on the various applications that it offers in environmental biotechnology. Engineered sulfate reduction is used in industrial wastewater treatment to remove large concentrations of sulfate along with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metals. The most common approach to the process is with anaerobic bioreactors in which sulfidogenic sludge is obtained through adaptation of predominantly methanogenic granular sludge to sulfidogenesis. This process may take a long time and does not always eliminate the competition for substrate due to the presence of methanogens in the sludge. In this work, we propose a novel approach to obtain sulfidogenic sludge in which hydrothermal vents sediments are the original source of microorganisms. The microbial community developed in the presence of sulfate and volatile fatty acids is wide enough to sustain sulfate reduction over a long period of time without exhibiting inhibition due to sulfide. This protocol describes the procedure to generate the sludge from the sediments in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) type of reactor. Furthermore, the protocol presents the procedure to demonstrate the capability of the sludge to remove by reductive dechlorination a model of a highly toxic organic pollutant such as trichloroethylene (TCE). The protocol is divided in three stages: (1) the formation of the sludge and the determination of its sulfate reducing activity in the UASB, (2) the experiment to remove the TCE by the sludge, and (3) the identification of microorganisms in the sludge after the TCE reduction. Although in this case the sediments were taken from a site located in Mexico, the generation of a sulfidogenic sludge by using this procedure may work if a different source of sediments is taken since marine sediments are a natural pool of microorganisms that may be enriched in sulfate reducing bacteria. PMID:26555802

  3. Development of a one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction and cleanup method for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minkyu; Kim, Ye-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2014-05-01

    A rapid and accurate one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and cleanup method was developed and validated for 34 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments, giving an extract that could be analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without further cleanup. Marine sediment (5 g) was loaded into the stainless-steel extraction cell above activated copper (5 g) and activated silica gel (5 g). An extraction temperature of 100°C and two 5 min extraction cycles using a 4:1 (v/v) hexane-dichloromethane mixture gave a good extraction efficiency. The integrated method gave extracts that were as clean as those obtained using PLE, followed by separate activated copper and silica gel cleanups. The method was validated, in terms of its accuracy, precision, and application using a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1944), marine sediments spiked at low and high concentrations, and contaminated harbor sediments. The mean recoveries were 92% and 94% for the low and high spike concentrations, respectively, and the accuracy was good (giving a mean of 86% of the certified reference material concentrations). The method developed gave a precision and accuracy equal to or better than the precision and accuracy found using PLE with separate cleanups. The method developed gives a shorter sample preparation time and uses much less solvent than PLE and separate cleanups. PMID:24671040

  4. Status of marine biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, O

    1976-01-01

    A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

  5. Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Joseph J

    2009-08-07

    This Final Report summarizes work performed under DOE STTR Phase II Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER86258 during the project period from August 2006 to August 2009. The project, “Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments,” was led by Prism Computational Sciences (Madison, WI), and involved collaboration with subcontractors University of Nevada-Reno and Voss Scientific (Albuquerque, NM). In this project, we have:  Developed and implemented a multi-dimensional, multi-frequency radiation transport model in the LSP hybrid fluid-PIC (particle-in-cell) code [1,2].  Updated the LSP code to support the use of accurate equation-of-state (EOS) tables generated by Prism’s PROPACEOS [3] code to compute more accurate temperatures in high energy density physics (HEDP) plasmas.  Updated LSP to support the use of Prism’s multi-frequency opacity tables.  Generated equation of state and opacity data for LSP simulations for several materials being used in plasma jet experimental studies.  Developed and implemented parallel processing techniques for the radiation physics algorithms in LSP.  Benchmarked the new radiation transport and radiation physics algorithms in LSP and compared simulation results with analytic solutions and results from numerical radiation-hydrodynamics calculations.  Performed simulations using Prism radiation physics codes to address issues related to radiative cooling and ionization dynamics in plasma jet experiments.  Performed simulations to study the effects of radiation transport and radiation losses due to electrode contaminants in plasma jet experiments.  Updated the LSP code to generate output using NetCDF to provide a better, more flexible interface to SPECT3D [4] in order to post-process LSP output.  Updated the SPECT3D code to better support the post-processing of large-scale 2-D and 3-D datasets generated by simulation codes such as LSP.  Updated atomic physics modeling to provide for more comprehensive and accurate atomic databases that feed into the radiation physics modeling (spectral simulations and opacity tables).  Developed polarization spectroscopy modeling techniques suitable for diagnosing energetic particle characteristics in HEDP experiments. A description of these items is provided in this report. The above efforts lay the groundwork for utilizing the LSP and SPECT3D codes in providing simulation support for DOE-sponsored HEDP experiments, such as plasma jet and fast ignition physics experiments. We believe that taken together, the LSP and SPECT3D codes have unique capabilities for advancing our understanding of the physics of these HEDP plasmas. Based on conversations early in this project with our DOE program manager, Dr. Francis Thio, our efforts emphasized developing radiation physics and atomic modeling capabilities that can be utilized in the LSP PIC code, and performing radiation physics studies for plasma jets. A relatively minor component focused on the development of methods to diagnose energetic particle characteristics in short-pulse laser experiments related to fast ignition physics. The period of performance for the grant was extended by one year to August 2009 with a one-year no-cost extension, at the request of subcontractor University of Nevada-Reno.

  6. Development and validation of a quantitation assay for fluorescently tagged HIV-1 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Cervera, Laura; Gòdia, Francesc; Carrillo, Jorge; Segura, María Mercedes

    2013-10-01

    Upon expression, the Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 assembles spontaneously in the vicinity of the plasma membrane giving rise to enveloped virus-like particles (VLPs). These particulate immunogens offer great promise as HIV-1 vaccines. Robust VLP production and purification processes are required to generate VLPs of sufficient quality and quantity for both pre-clinical and clinical evaluation. The availability of simple, fast and reliable quantitation tools is critical to develop, optimize and monitor such processes. Traditionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used to quantify p24 antigen concentrations, which reflect tightly virus particle concentrations. However, this quantitation technique is not only time-consuming, laborious and costly but it is also prone to methodological variability. As an alternative, the development and validation of a fluorescence-based quantitation assay for Gag VLPs is presented here. A Gag polyprotein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein was used for generation of fluorescent VLPs. A purified standard reference Gag-GFP VLP material was prepared and characterized in house. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The validation characteristics evaluated included accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, range and limit of detection. The method showed to be specific for Gag-GFP. The fluorescence signal correlated well with p24 concentrations measured using a reference p24 ELISA assay. The method showed little variability compared to ELISA and was linear over a 3-log range. The limit of detection was ~10 ng of p24/mL. Finally, fluorescence-based titers were in good agreement with those obtained using transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. This simple, rapid and cost-effective quantitation assay should facilitate development and optimization of bioprocessing strategies for Gag-based VLPs. PMID:23707924

  7. Development of recombinant Salmonellae expressing hybrid hepatitis B virus core particles as candidate oral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Schödel, F; Kelly, S M; Peterson, D; Milich, D; Hughes, J; Tinge, S; Wirtz, R; Curtiss, R

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides a review on the development of hepatitis core antigen as a vaccine carrier moiety and the use of recombinant Salmonella vaccine strains expressing hybrid HBcAg particles as live oral vaccines. Salmonella spp. can be attenuated by defined genetic means so that they become avirulent, yet preserve invasiveness after oral uptake. Oral immunization of mice with such avirulent candidate Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strains elicited serum antibody responses against a limited number of bacterial antigens. A highly immunogenic viral nucleocapsid antigen, hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) that can be expressed in prokaryotes was used as a carrier moiety for B-cell epitopes. Insertion sites with an enhanced immunogenicity for the carried epitopes were defined using HBV envelope protein virus neutralizing epitopes. An internal insertion site in HBcAg was found that drastically enhanced the immunogenicity of the foreign (pre-S1) epitope while reducing the immunogenicity of the carrier protein. Internally fused HBc/pre-S hybrid particles were expressed in Salmonella typhimurium and S. typhi vaccine strains. A single oral immunization of mice with such live recombinant S. typhimurium strains elicited a high titred serum anti-pre-S1 IgG response. Similarly, circumsporozoite repeat epitopes of three different malaria parasites were expressed as HBcAg/CS hybrids in recombinant S. spp. and were found to be highly immunogenic. PMID:7958469

  8. Development and Evaluation of Reverse Polyethylene Samplers for Marine Phase II Whole-Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine and estuarine sediments accumulate contaminants and act as a sink for a wide range of toxic chemicals. As a result, the sediments themselves can become a source of contamination. At sufficient levels, contaminated sediments can cause benthic impairments and toxicity to mar...

  9. Development and Evaluation of Polychaete Reverse Samplers for Marine Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicitiy Identification Evaluations (TIE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine and estuarine sediments accumulate contaminants and act as a sink for a wide range of toxic chemicals. As a result, the sediments themselves can become a source of contamination. At sufficient levels, contaminated sediments can cause benthic impairments and toxicity to m...

  10. Developing and Implementing an Early Retirement Incentive Program for Marin County School Districts. Vol. 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauzy, Byron W.

    In creating an early retirement incentive program for the Marin County (California) schools, the author examined the early retirement ethic, other early retirement plans in the public and private sectors, the impact of early retirement on Social Security benefits, opposition to such programs, and the factors in the California school districts that…

  11. Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development

    PubMed Central

    Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.

    2014-01-01

    The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies. PMID:24424355

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa, including its development in a leech vector

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trypanosomes are ubiquitous blood parasites of marine and freshwater fishes, typically transmitted by aquatic leeches. Phylogenetic studies have been dominated by examples derived from freshwater fishes, with few marine representatives. Furthermore, life cycle studies on marine fish trypanosomes have focused on those of the northern hemisphere. In this investigation, we have examined the life cycle and molecular taxonomy of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa. Methods To locate trypanosome stages, leeches were removed from fishes captured on the west and south coasts of South Africa, and fish blood films and leech squashes were Giemsa-stained and screened; leeches were also examined histologically. To determine whether trypanosome stages in fishes and leeches were of the same genotype, DNA was extracted from Giemsa-stained fish blood films and leech squashes, and from fish whole blood. Fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR using trypanosome-specific primers and sequenced. Resulting sequence data were compared with each other and with published trypanosome 18S rDNA sequences, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Results Trypanosomes were detected in blood films from fishes of the families Clinidae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. The flagellates ranged in size and staining properties within the films and across fish hosts. In squashes and histological sections of adult and juvenile leeches, identified as Zeylanicobdella arugamensis, trypanosome developmental stages were predominantly slender epimastigotes. Sequence data showed that trypanosomes derived from fishes were identical, irrespective of whether they were small or large forms; sequences derived largely from leech epimastigotes were also identical to those obtained from fish trypanosomes. Fish and leech trypanosome sequences fell into a marine fish aquatic clade, and aligned most closely with two trypanosome sequences from marine fishes off Norway. Conclusions Combined morphological and molecular methods indicate that the trypanosomes examined here represent a single pleomorphic species, rather than the three species described originally. This species is identified as Trypanosoma nudigobii Fantham, 1919 with the leech Z. arugamensis as its vector, and T. capigobii Fantham, 1919 and T. blenniclini Fantham, 1930 are regarded as junior synonyms of the species. Phylogenetic analysis establishes its affinity with marine fish trypanosomes off Norway. PMID:24460725

  13. Development of position sensitive proportional counters for hot particle detection in laundry and portal monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Schwahn, S.O.; Bennett, T.E.; Misko, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes research which demonstrates the use of position sensitive proportional counters in contamination monitoring systems. Both laundry monitoring and portal monitoring systems were developed. The laundry monitor was deployed at a nuclear power plant where it was used to monitor clothing during an outage. Position sensitive proportional counter based contamination monitoring systems were shown to have significant advantages over systems using conventional proportional counters. These advantages include the ability to directly measure the area and quantity of contamination. This capability permits identification of hot particles. These systems are also capable of self calibration via internal check sources. Systems deployed with this technology should benefit from reduced complexity, cost and maintenance. The inherent reduction of background that occurs when the counter is electronically divided into numerous detectors permits operation in high background radiation fields and improves detection limits over conventional technology.

  14. Measurement of fluid velocity development behind a circular cylinder using particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goharzadeh, Afshin; Molki, Arman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a non-intrusive experimental approach for obtaining a two-dimensional velocity distribution around a 22 mm diameter circular cylinder mounted in a water tunnel. Measurements were performed for a constant Reynolds number of 7670 using a commercial standard particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Different flow patterns generated behind the circular cylinder are discussed. Both instantaneous and time-averaged velocity distributions with corresponding streamlines are obtained. Key concepts in fluid mechanics, such as contra-rotating vortices, von Kármán vortex street, and laminar-turbulent flow, are discussed. In addition, brief historical information pertaining to the development of flow measurement techniques—in particular, PIV—is described.

  15. Seasonal and short-term variability in dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and biogenic sulfur and sea salt aerosol particles in the arctic marine boundary layer during summer and autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, Caroline; Persson, Cecilia

    1996-04-01

    The International Arctic Ocean Expedition (IAOE), lasting from August to mid-October 1991, provided a unique opportunity to characterize and quantify relationships within the natural sulfur cycle in the marine boundary layer under conditions of limited anthropogenic influence. Concentrations of dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and submicrometer aerosol concentrations of methane sulfonate, non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and elemental carbon ranged from 17 to 0.05nmol m-3 (380 1 ppt(v)), 1.7 0.04nmol m-3 (38 0.9 ppt(v)), 1.4 0.002nmol m-3 (31 0.05 ppt(v), 6.9 0.03nmol m-3 (155 0.7 ppt(v)), 3.9 0.03nmol m-3 (90 0.7 ppt(v)) and 0.51 0.009nmol m-3 (11 0.2 ppt(v)), respectively. Observations showed a seasonal variation of concentrations with highest values for all the marine biogenic sulfur gas-aerosol parametres along the ice edge zone in August and lowest values over the pack ice in late September On average concentrations fell with a decline rate of about 20 40% per week. A similar seasonal change was also reflected in particulate ammonium. This therefore indicates links between the different sulfur compounds as well as between the biogenic sulfur and nitrogen cycles. Concentrations over the pack ice region were generally lower than over the open waters at the ice edge with an estimated net loss rate of roughly 35% per day of transport over the pack ice. Contrary to earlier marine sulfur studies performed outside the Arctic region, a constant methane sulfonate to non-sea-salt sulfate molar ratio was found in the submicrometer size fraction for samples with a minimal influence from fog and anthropogenic sources. This ratio had a value of 0.22 in spite of large seasonal changes in temperature and concentrations of methane sulfonate and non-sea-salt sulfate. Thus we conclude that the sum of the proceses controlling the measured particle properties do not exhibit a net temperature dependence. The one to one molar ratio of ammonium to non-sea-salt sulfate indicated a partly neutralised ammoniated sulfate aerosol. This was further verified by single particle analysis. Measurements of non-sea-salt sulfate and ammonium revealed a bimodal size distribution with about 70% of their mass found in the submicrometer size fraction. Methane sulfonate was mainly associated with submicrometer particles, with less than 8% of the mass observed in the largest particles. We have also shown that the interchange of air between the surface mixed layer and clouds, caused by atmospheric wave motions, dominated the short time variations in atmospheric DMS and submicrometer aerosol concentrations. This interchange will have a strong influence on the chemical and physical processes that control the properties of the aerosol, and deserves more attention in future work.

  16. Some Developments of the Equilibrium Particle Simulation Method for the Direct Simulation of Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macrossan, M. N.

    1995-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the established technique for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. In some flows of engineering interest, such as occur for aero-braking spacecraft in the upper atmosphere, DSMC can become prohibitively expensive in CPU time because some regions of the flow, particularly on the windward side of blunt bodies, become collision dominated. As an alternative to using a hybrid DSMC and continuum gas solver (Euler or Navier-Stokes solver) this work is aimed at making the particle simulation method efficient in the high density regions of the flow. A high density, infinite collision rate limit of DSMC, the Equilibrium Particle Simulation method (EPSM) was proposed some 15 years ago. EPSM is developed here for the flow of a gas consisting of many different species of molecules and is shown to be computationally efficient (compared to DSMC) for high collision rate flows. It thus offers great potential as part of a hybrid DSMC/EPSM code which could handle flows in the transition regime between rarefied gas flows and fully continuum flows. As a first step towards this goal a pure EPSM code is described. The next step of combining DSMC and EPSM is not attempted here but should be straightforward. EPSM and DSMC are applied to Taylor-Couette flow with Kn = 0.02 and 0.0133 and S(omega) = 3). Toroidal vortices develop for both methods but some differences are found, as might be expected for the given flow conditions. EPSM appears to be less sensitive to the sequence of random numbers used in the simulation than is DSMC and may also be more dissipative. The question of the origin and the magnitude of the dissipation in EPSM is addressed. It is suggested that this analysis is also relevant to DSMC when the usual accuracy requirements on the cell size and decoupling time step are relaxed in the interests of computational efficiency.

  17. Development of polymer latex particles for selective cleavage of mismatched DNA and their application for DNA diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Oba, Shinsuke; Hatakeyama, Mamoru; Handa, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Haruma

    2005-01-01

    We developed functional polymer latex particles that can catch and cleave mismatched DNA selectively and propose a new mismatch detection system using the functional particles. The aimed particles possess two functional units composed of mismatch binding protein (MutS) and an anthraquinone derivative (AQ), a light-activated agent that photocleaves dsDNA. Use of the functional particles made it possible to discriminate complementary and mismatched DNAs and photocleave mismatched DNA selectively. The efficiency of photocleavage of mismatched DNA by the functional particles increased with UV irradiation time. It was also found that the functional particles were reusable and had dissociation constants (K(d)) of 1000 and 68.5 nM for G/C homoduplex and G/T heteroduplex, respectively. Using the functional particles and a dsDNA-binding fluorescent dye, SYBR-Gold, we could construct the system for detection of mismatched DNA that was 40 base pairs. The functional particles prepared in this study will be an absolutely new tool for mismatch detection in DNA diagnosis. PMID:15898721

  18. Development of the MICROMEGAS detector for measuring the energy spectrum of alpha particles by using a 241Am source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Yoon; Ham, Cheolmin; Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Andriamonje, Samuel; Kadi, Yacine; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    We have developed MICROMEGAS (MICRO MEsh GASeous) detectors for detecting a particles emitted from an 241Am standard source. The voltage applied to the ionization region of the detector is optimized for stable operation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energy of a particles from the 241Am source can be varied by changing the flight path of the a particle from the 241Am source. The channel numbers of the experimentally-measured pulse peak positions for different energies of the a particles are associated with the energies deposited by the alpha particles in the ionization region of the detector as calculated by using GEANT4 simulations; thus, the energy calibration of the MICROMEGAS detector for a particles is done. For the energy calibration, the thickness of the ionization region is adjusted so that a particles may completely stop in the ionization region and their kinetic energies are fully deposited in the region. The efficiency of our MICROMEGAS detector for a particles under the present conditions is found to be ~97.3%.

  19. Development of three-dimensional integrated microchannel-electrode system to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Obara, H; Sapkota, A; Takei, M

    2016-03-01

    An optical transparent 3-D Integrated Microchannel-Electrode System (