Sample records for marine particles development

  1. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Al LiVecchi; Richard Alan Jepsen

    2010-01-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine

  2. First characterization of marine particles by laser scanning flow cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Barnaba; L. Fiorani; A. Palucci; P. Tarasov

    2006-01-01

    A new laser scanning flow cytometer (CLASS) has been developed at ENEA to characterize single marine particles. The first setup of the instrument allowing the detection of the particle light scattering over a wide angular range is presented. A test of CLASS employing polystyrene microspheres is described. Eventually, the first measurements of biological particles (Penicillium Italicum conidia) and marine phytoplankton

  3. Optical assessment of large marine particles: development of an imaging and analysis system for quantifying large particle distributions and fluxes. Annual report, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, I.D.; Gardner, W.D.

    1994-12-31

    The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) is to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean (Program Announcement, 1991). A major component of the OMP will be to measure carbon flux on the shelf and across the shelf to the slope and open ocean. In the first round of OMP funding we proposed to develop an optical instrument package and the analytical techniques to measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment. This particle population, encompassing the ``marine snow`` size particles (diameters > 0.5 mm), is thought to be the major pathway of material flux in the ocean (McCave, 1975; Asper, 1987; Walsh and Gardner, 1992). The overall objective of this proposal was to develop an instrument package and the analytical techniques to precisely measure a wide spectrum of the large aggregate population of particles in the shelf/slope environment at a rate sufficient to integrate the observed particle distributions into the coupled physical and biogeochemical models necessary to understand the shelf and slope as a system. We envisioned three stages of development of the instrument package: (1) design, assembly, and laboratory testing of all components and the package as a whole, (2) a short period of laboratory and field testing of the instrument package to determine the best operational parameters, and (3) operations within a framework of complementary analytical sampling such as an appropriate process study funded under the OMP. The first two stages were covered by this proposal. A renewal proposal follows to cover the third stage. 6 figs.

  4. Marine Policy Challenges in developing China's marine protected area system

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    ) Challenges in developing China's marine protected area system. Marine Policy 33(4): 599-605. doi:10.1016/j.marpol protected area system. Marine Policy 33(4): 599-605. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2008.12.005 1. Introduction Marine

  5. NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology

    E-print Network

    NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species

  6. Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust?

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Hoose, C.; Poschl, U.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-01-11

    Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth’s energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

  7. Development of a marine mammal transmitter system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jennings; W. Gandy; T. Vanselous

    1979-01-01

    A marine mammal transmitter package is being developed and tested by the National Marine Fisheries Service. The prototype device utilizes the RAMS positioning system of the Nimbus-6 satellite and eventually the ARGOS system. Operationally, the transmitter will have a design life of one year and will use a sea water switch to key transmissions. The package is configured to permit

  8. Marine Cloud Brightening: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, J.; Gadian, A.; Kleypas, J. A.; Parkes, B.; Hauser, R.; Salter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Our detailed review of Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB) [Latham et al. (2012) Phil Trans Roy Soc] covers our work up to late 2010. We present herein an outline of some subsequent work. Areas in which we have been particularly active in the last 2 years include; (1) seawater spray technology, (2) influence of MCB on rainfall, (3) CFD studies of Flettner Rotor stability. (4) pseudo-random studies, (5), use of MCB to weaken hurricanes and halt coral bleaching. We used the UK Met. Office HADGEM 1 ocean/atmosphere coupled climate model in all the studies mentioned below. Our treatment of MCB is as described in our 2012 paper. In all cases below our conclusions are provisional, with more work required. We have analysed research conducted by others and ourselves on the important topic of the impact of MCB on rainfall. It appears that the widely varying predictions from different studies result from differences in cloud seeding locations and amounts. This raises the possibility - which needs much more investigation - that unacceptable rainfall differences could be overcome by changing seeding locations. It may be possible to produce a world-wide, everywhere-to-everywhere transfer function of the effects of increased cloud reflectivity by using pseudo-random variation of the CCN concentration in a climate model. Tests on artificial alterations to a real daily temperature record showed that, over a 20 year run, the scatter of results of the detection of the magnitude of the alteration were about 1% of the root mean square of the natural variation. In these studies the CCN values in 89 regions of the oceans were either multiplied or divided by a chosen constant, at different random 10-day intervals, during a run of 20 years. The resulting model predictions of important meteorological parameters such as temperature, precipitation and ice extent were recorded for all the regions of the world. For each point of interest the precipitation record was correlated for each different source region to give a world map of the influence of each spray region. This might be positive, negative or neutral. We obtained statistically significant results for precipitation in both directions at places far from the spray source, even in the opposite hemisphere, over eight 20 year runs. We may be able to reduce the probability of both floods and droughts by directing movements and activity of spray vessels. Our modeling indicates that MCB seeding of marine stratocumulus clouds in regions where hurricanes spawn or develop could reduce sea-surface-temperatures [SST] sufficiently to reduce hurricane intensity by perhaps one Category. Further modeling indicates that substantial coral bleaching predicted to result from CO2-doubling, in 3 important coral regions, might be essentially eliminated by MCB seeding.

  9. Selective phosphorus regeneration of sinking marine particles: evidence from 31

    E-print Network

    Paytan, Adina

    Selective phosphorus regeneration of sinking marine particles: evidence from 31 P-NMR Adina Paytan oceanic settings and water depths, using 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both in revised form 13 March 2003; accepted 17 March 2003 Abstract Phosphorus (P) regeneration and transformation

  10. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  11. Drug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology-Based Research

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Drug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology- Based Research Oceanyx Pharmaceuticals is a novel drug discovery and development company that leverages marine biology-based natural identified two lead candidates, largazole and apratoxin, as potential drug candidates for the treatment

  12. Modelling particle size distribution dynamics in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Lee, Joseph H W

    2004-03-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out to determine the particle size distribution (PSD) in marine waters by accounting for particle influx, coagulation, sedimentation and breakage. Instead of the conventional rectilinear model and Euclidean geometry, a curvilinear collision model and fractal scaling mathematics were used in the models. A steady-state PSD can be achieved after a period of simulation regardless of the initial conditions. The cumulative PSD in the steady state follows a power-law function, which has three linear regions after log-log transformation, with different slopes corresponding to the three collision mechanisms, Brownian motion, fluid shear and differential sedimentation. The PSD slope varies from -3.5 to -1.2 as a function of the size range and the fractal dimension of the particles concerned. The environmental conditions do not significantly alter the PSD slope, although they may change the position of the PSD and related particle concentrations. The simulation demonstrates a generality in the shape of the steady-state PSD in the ocean, which is in agreement with many field observations. Breakage does not affect the size distribution of small particles, while a strong shear may cause a notable change in the PSD for larger and fractal particles only. The simplified approach of previous works using dimensional analysis still offers valuable approximations for the PSD slopes, although the previous solutions do not always agree with the simulation results. The variation in the PSD slope observed in field investigations can be reproduced numerically. It is argued that non-steady-state conditions in natural waters could be the main reason for the deviation of PSD slopes. A change in the nature of the particles, such as stickiness, and environmental variables, such as particle input and shear intensity, could force the PSD to shift from one steady state to another. During such a transition, the PSD slope may vary to some extent with the particle population dynamics. PMID:14975664

  13. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles: Marine Aerosol Organic Mass Composition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemicalmore »reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production« less

  14. Particle production in the remote marine atmosphere: Cloud outflow and subsidence during ACE 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Clarke; J. L. Varner; F. Eisele; R. L. Mauldin; D. Tanner; M. Litchy

    1998-01-01

    During November and December 1995 the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) was undertaken as part of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. A key objective of the aircraft component of this experiment included the identification of source regions for new particles in the remote marine atmosphere. No evidence was found for particle production in the marine boundary layer

  15. Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic Sea

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    Sound pressure and particle acceleration audiograms in three marine fish species from the Adriatic measured in terms of sound pressure level and particle acceleration level in the three Cartesian directions be either described as acoustic displacement, particle velocity, or particle acceleration, each of which can

  16. Static stability variations during a winter marine cyclone development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Chih-Hua

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between lower tropospheric static stability and a case of explosive marine cyclone development is examined. The case studied is a cyclone which developed between January 18-21, 1979, about 500 km south of Nova Scotia. Diagnoses of the static stability parameter for this case are presented. Also, the static stability parameters and sea level pressures during marine cyclone development and continental development are compared.

  17. The Development of a Virtual Marine Museum for Educational Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarng, Wermhuar; Change, Mei-Yu; Ou, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Ya-Wen; Liou, Hsin-Hun

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the computer animation and virtual reality technologies for developing a virtual marine museum. The museum consists of three exhibition areas. The first area displays fishes in freshwater, including creeks, rivers, and dams in Taiwan. The second area exhibits marine ecology and creatures of different…

  18. Development of friendly antifouling coatings from marine algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Bazes; Fabienne Fay; K. Vallee-Rehel; E. Quemener; J.-P. Braud; N. Bourgougnon

    2005-01-01

    After the ban of TBT-based products, marine paint companies are urged to find an appropriate substitute to prevent biofouling on ship hulls. Biocides commonly used in antifouling paints to replace TBT have caused many doubts about their environmental effects. An alternative is offered by the development of antifouling coatings in which the active ingredients are compounds naturally occurring in marine

  19. Variations in the optical properties of a particle suspension associated with viral infection of marine bacteria

    E-print Network

    Stramski, Dariusz

    of marine bacteria Julia Uitz,a,* Dariusz Stramski,a Anne-Claire Baudoux,b,1 Rick A. Reynolds,a Vanessa M) and associated optical variability caused by viral infection of marine heterotrophic bacteria. The PSD covering, viral abundance increased, and submicron particles were produced as bacteria were disrupted and cell

  20. Simulation of Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines in Unsteady Flow using Vortex Particle Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sale, Danny; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    A vortex particle method has been developed to study the performance and wake characteristics of Marine Hydrokinetic turbines. The goals are to understand mean flow and turbulent eddy effects on wake evolution, and the unsteady loading on the rotor and support structures. The vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian method involving both vortex particle and spatial mesh discretizations. Particle strengths are modified by vortex stretching, diffusion, and body forces; these terms in the vorticity transport equation involve differential operators and are computed more efficiently on a Cartesian mesh using finite differences. High-order and moment-conserving interpolations allow the particles and mesh to exchange field quantities and particle strengths. An immersed boundary method which introduces a penalization term in the vorticity transport equations provides an efficient way to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition on solid boundaries. To provide further computational speedup, we investigate the use of multicore processors and graphics processing units using the OpenMP and OpenCL interfaces within the Parallel Particle-Mesh Library.

  1. 76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine Inboard Engines...and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends in marine inboard engines...this notice (investigating the use of biodiesel fuel blends in marine inboard...

  2. Preliminary study on the development of syntactic foams for marine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Z.; Islam, M. M.; Ku, H.

    2013-08-01

    This paper focuses on the comparison of various types of matrix materials and their mechanical properties for development of syntactic foams for marine applications. Generally, syntactic foams are close pore foams fabricated by the mechanical mixing of hollow microsphere particles in a polymeric matrix resin. From the literature review, it was found that there are several polymeric resins that have been used for development of syntactic foams such as epoxy, cyanate ester, polypropylene, polysialate and vinyl ester. In this paper, a comparative discussion is presented on the mechanical properties of hollow glass particles mixing with polymeric resins for development of syntactic foams for the use of these composites in bulk applications such as marine structures.

  3. [Analysis on sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province based on marine ecological footprint correction model].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Wang, Yu-ting

    2011-03-01

    Based on the theories and methods of ecological footprint, the concept of marine ecological footprint was proposed. According to the characteristics of marine environment in Jiangsu Province, five sub-models of marine ecological footprints, including fishery, transporation, marine engineering construction, marine energy, and tidal flat, were constructed. The equilibrium factors of the five marine types were determined by using improved entropy method, and the marine footprints and capacities in Jiangsu Province from 2000 to 2008 were calculated and analyzed. In 2000-2008, the marine ecology footprint per capita in Jiangsu Province increased nearly seven times, from 36.90 hm2 to 252.94 hm2, and the ecological capacity per capita grew steadily, from 105.01 hm2 to 185.49 hm2. In 2000, the marine environment in the Province was in a state of ecological surplus, and the marine economy was in a weak sustainable development state. Since 2004, the marine ecological environment deteriorated sharply, with ecological deficit up to 109660.5 hm2, and the sustainability of marine economy declined. The high ecological footprint of fishery was the main reason for the ecological deficit. Tidal flat was the important reserve resource for the sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province. PMID:21657034

  4. The elemental composition of virus particles: implications for marine biogeochemical cycles.

    PubMed

    Jover, Luis F; Effler, T Chad; Buchan, Alison; Wilhelm, Steven W; Weitz, Joshua S

    2014-07-01

    In marine environments, virus-mediated lysis of host cells leads to the release of cellular carbon and nutrients and is hypothesized to be a major driver of carbon recycling on a global scale. However, efforts to characterize the effects of viruses on nutrient cycles have overlooked the geochemical potential of the virus particles themselves, particularly with respect to their phosphorus content. In this Analysis article, we use a biophysical scaling model of intact virus particles that has been validated using sequence and structural information to quantify differences in the elemental stoichiometry of marine viruses compared with their microbial hosts. By extrapolating particle-scale estimates to the ecosystem scale, we propose that, under certain circumstances, marine virus populations could make an important contribution to the reservoir and cycling of oceanic phosphorus. PMID:24931044

  5. Composition of Exopolymer Particles Produced By Marine Diatoms

    E-print Network

    Hinson, Audra

    2013-02-04

    biotic organism could heavily impact species differentiation in the ocean. Exopolymer particles are excreted by phytoplankton, including diatoms. These particles are understood to contain carbohydrates and protein that can potentially serve as a food...

  6. Development of Novel Drugs from Marine Surface Associated Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Penesyan, Anahit; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

    2010-01-01

    While the oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, marine derived microbial natural products have been largely unexplored. The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds (“bioactives”) to adapt to particular environmental conditions. For example, marine surface associated microorganisms have proven to be a rich source for novel bioactives because of the necessity to evolve allelochemicals capable of protecting the producer from the fierce competition that exists between microorganisms on the surfaces of marine eukaryotes. Chemically driven interactions are also important for the establishment of cross-relationships between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, in which organisms producing antimicrobial compounds (“antimicrobials”), may protect the host surface against over colonisation in return for a nutrient rich environment. As is the case for bioactive discovery in general, progress in the detection and characterization of marine microbial bioactives has been limited by a number of obstacles, such as unsuitable culture conditions, laborious purification processes, and a lack of de-replication. However many of these limitations are now being overcome due to improved microbial cultivation techniques, microbial (meta-) genomic analysis and novel sensitive analytical tools for structural elucidation. Here we discuss how these technical advances, together with a better understanding of microbial and chemical ecology, will inevitably translate into an increase in the discovery and development of novel drugs from marine microbial sources in the future. PMID:20411108

  7. Characterization of particles from a marine engine operating at low loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Maria; Salo, Kent; Hallquist, Åsa M.; Fridell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Particle emissions from a marine diesel engine operating at low loads with four different fuels were characterized with respect to particle number (PN) and particle mass (PM), size distribution, volatility and chemical composition. The four different fuels used were Swedish Environmental class 1 (MK1) and class 3 diesel (MK3), heavy fuel oil (HFO, 0.12 wt% S) and marine diesel oil (MDO, 0.52 wt% S). The measurements were performed for a marine diesel engine in a test-bed engine lab and the particle emissions were measured with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer and a Dust Monitor, giving the number concentrations in the size range of 5.6-560 nm and 300 nm to 20 ?m, respectively. To quantify the amount of solid particles a thermodenuder was used. Additionally, filter samples were taken for gravimetric, black carbon (BC) and elemental analysis. The particle emissions showed a bimodal size distribution by number and the number concentrations were dominated by nanoparticles (diameter (Dp) < 50 nm). The nanoparticles measured were both primary and secondary particles, depending on fuel and engine load, while the particles with Dp > 50 nm generally were solid primary particles. Combustion of HFO resulted in the highest PN and PM concentrations. Emission factors (EFs) for PM and PN for both the total particle emissions and the fraction of primary, solid particles are presented for different fuels and loads. EFs for nitrogen oxides (NOx), BC and some elements (Ca, Fe, V, Ni, Zn) are presented as well. This study contributes to understanding particle emissions from potential future fuels as well as emissions in ports and coastal areas where lower engine loads are common.

  8. Phylogeny and development of marine model species: strongylocentrotid sea urchins

    E-print Network

    Palumbi, Stephen

    Phylogeny and development of marine model species: strongylocentrotid sea urchins Christiane H The phylogenetic relationships of ten strongy- locentrotid sea urchin species were determined using mitochondrial studied groups of sea urchins. Our phylogeny indicates that a major revision of this group is in order

  9. Marine Operations in the ArcticA New Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayres Freitas

    1983-01-01

    An icebreaker hull form developed on the basis of a novel concept presents new aspects to marine operations in the arctic. The concept makes use of a fundamentally new icebreaking technique which has proved to be efficient in various kinds of ice formations resulting in a considerable reduction in the propulsion power required. The icebreaking mode of the so called

  10. Dispersal kernel estimation: A comparison of empirical and modelled particle dispersion in a coastal marine system

    E-print Network

    Taggart, Christopher

    to the design of marine reserves and the mitigation of species invasions. Here we compare estimates of real modelling. We do so by using a system of magnetically attractive particles (MAPs) and a magnetic- dividuals away from a source location through passive and (or) active means, where the passive component

  11. Thorium isotopes in the western Mediterranean Sea: an insight into the marine particle dynamics

    E-print Network

    Coppola, Laurent

    Thorium isotopes in the western Mediterranean Sea: an insight into the marine particle dynamics M a detailed view of the 230 Th^232 Th systematics in the western Mediterranean Sea in order to constrain water Mediterranean Sea requires the dissolution of 3^5% of the Th associated with all the continental particulate

  12. Enhancing effect of marine oligotrophy on environmental concentrations of particle-reactive trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffree, R.A.; Szymczak, R.

    2000-05-15

    A biogeochemical model has been previously developed that explains the inverse and nonlinear relationship between Po-210 concentration in zooplankton and their biomass, under oligotrophic conditions in French Polynesia. In this study the model structure was reviewed to determine a set of biogeochemical behaviors of Po-210, proposed to be critical to its environmental enhancement under oligotrophy: this set was then used to identify 25 other elements with comparable behaviors to Po-210. Field investigation in the Timor Sea showed that four of these a priori identified elements, viz. Cd, Co, Pb, and Mn as well as Cr and Ni, showed elevated water concentrations with reduced particle removal rates in the euphotic zone, results that are consistent with those previously obtained for Po-210 and the proposed explanatory model. These findings point to the enhanced susceptibility to contamination with particle-reactive elements of oligotrophic marine systems, whose degree and geographic extent may be enhanced by projected increases in sea surface temperatures from global warming.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  14. Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the California Current

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2008-03-12

    Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.

  15. Fucoidan as a Marine Anticancer Agent in Preclinical Development

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jong-Young

    2014-01-01

    Fucoidan is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweeds, crude extracts of which are commercially available as nutritional supplements. Recent studies have demonstrated antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties of fucoidan in vitro. Accordingly, the anticancer effects of fucoidan have been shown to vary depending on its structure, while it can target multiple receptors or signaling molecules in various cell types, including tumor cells and immune cells. Low toxicity and the in vitro effects of fucoidan mentioned above make it a suitable agent for cancer prevention or treatment. However, preclinical development of natural marine products requires in vivo examination of purified compounds in animal tumor models. This review discusses the effects of systemic and local administration of fucoidan on tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immune reaction and whether in vivo and in vitro results are likely applicable to the development of fucoidan as a marine anticancer drug. PMID:24477286

  16. An Unaccounted Fraction of Marine Biogenic CaCO3 Particles

    PubMed Central

    Heldal, Mikal; Norland, Svein; Erichsen, Egil S.; Thingstad, T. Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic production and sedimentation of calcium carbonate in the ocean, referred to as the carbonate pump, has profound implications for the ocean carbon cycle, and relate both to global climate, ocean acidification and the geological past. In marine pelagic environments coccolithophores, foraminifera and pteropods have been considered the main calcifying organisms. Here, we document the presence of an abundant, previously unaccounted fraction of marine calcium carbonate particles in seawater, presumably formed by bacteria or in relation to extracellular polymeric substances. The particles occur in a variety of different morphologies, in a size range from <1 to >100 µm, and in a typical concentration of 104–105 particles L?1 (size range counted 1–100 µm). Quantitative estimates of annual averages suggests that the pure calcium particles we counted in the 1–100 µm size range account for 2–4 times more CaCO3 than the dominating coccolithophoride Emiliania huxleyi and for 21% of the total concentration of particulate calcium. Due to their high density, we hypothesize that the particles sediment rapidly, and therefore contribute significantly to the export of carbon and alkalinity from surface waters. The biological and environmental factors affecting the formation of these particles and possible impact of this process on global atmospheric CO2 remains to be investigated. PMID:23110119

  17. Aerosolization, Chemical Characterization, Hygroscopicity and Ice Formation of Marine Biogenic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The oceans cover the majority of the earth's surface, host nearly half the total global primary productivity and are a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. However, effects of biological activity on sea spray generation and composition, and subsequent cloud formation are not well understood. Our goal is to elucidate these effects which will be particularly important over nutrient rich seas, where microorganisms can reach concentrations of 10^9 per mL and along with transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) can become aerosolized. Here we report the results of mesocosm experiments in which bubbles were generated by two methods, either recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits, in natural or artificial seawater containing bacteria and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus. Over time we followed the size distribution of aerosolized particles as well as their hygroscopicity, heterogeneous ice nucleation potential, and individual physical-chemical characteristics. Numbers of cells and the mass of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), TEP (which includes polysaccharide-containing microgels and nanogels >0.4 ?m in diameter) were determined in the bulk water, the surface microlayer, and aerosolized material. Aerosolized particles were also impacted onto substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, elemental analysis using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), and determination of carbon bonding with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Regardless of bubble generation method, the overall concentration of aerosol particles, TEP, POC and DOC increased as concentrations of bacterial and phytoplankton cells increased, stabilized, and subsequently declined. Particles <100 nm generated by means of jets were enhanced with time compared with larger sizes. In contrast, all particle sizes were equally enhanced when frits were used. Aerosolized particles were hygroscopic, a finding with significance for warm cloud formation and potential liquid-to-ice phase transformations. Aqueous and dry aerosolized particles from biologically active mesocosm water were found to efficiently nucleate ice exposed to supersaturated water vapor. The majority of particles, including those nucleating ice, consisted of a sea salt core coated with organic material dominated by the carboxyl functional group, and corresponded to a particle type commonly found in marine air. Our results provide improved estimates of marine aerosol production, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity, as well as an accurate physical and chemical representation of ice nucleation by marine biogenic aerosol particles for use in cloud and climate models.

  18. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development.

    PubMed

    Lee, DongYoub; Wallis, Chris; Wexler, Anthony S; Schelegle, Edward S; Van Winkle, Laura S; Plopper, Charles G; Fanucchi, Michelle V; Kumfer, Ben; Kennedy, Ian M; Chan, Jackie K W

    2010-10-01

    Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 through 25, and lung function and airway architecture were evaluated 81 days of age. In a separate group of rats, cell proliferation was examined after a single particle exposure at 7 days of age. Early life exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particles altered distal airway architecture and resulted in subtle changes in lung mechanics. Early life exposure to 212 nm high OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture but did alter lung mechanics in a manner suggestive of central airway changes. In contrast, early life exposure to 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture or mechanics. A single 6-h exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particle decreased airway cell proliferation, whereas 212 nm high OC/EC particles increased it and 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not. The early life exposure to ultrafine, high OC/EC particles results in persistent alterations in distal airway architecture that is characterized by an initial decrease in airway cell proliferation. PMID:20634362

  19. Primary and secondary particles chemical composition of marine emissions from Mediterranean seawaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, Barbara; Meme, Aurelie; Rmili, Badr; Pey, Jorge; Marchand, Nicolas; Schwier, Allison; Sellegri, Karine; Charriere, Bruno; Sempere, Richard; Mas, Sebastien; Parin, David

    2015-04-01

    Marine emissions are among the largest source of both primary particles and do highly contribute secondary organic aerosols (SOA) at a global scale. Whereas physical processes control the primary production of marine aerosols, biological activity is responsible for most of the organic fraction released from marine sources, potentially transformed into SOA when exposed to atmospheric oxidants. The Mediterranean atmosphere displays important concentrations of SOA, especially in summer, when atmospheric oxidants and photochemical activity are at their maximum. The origin of these elevated concentrations of SOA remain unclear. Here we present the results from a mesocosms study in a remote location in Corsica and a chamber study (using fresh sea water from Western Mediterranean) as part of the Source of marine Aerosol particles in the Mediterranean atmosphere (SAM) project. The mesocosm study was conducted at the Oceanographic and Marine Station STARESO (Corsica) in May 2013. One mesocosm was used as a control (with no enrichment) and the other two were enriched with nitrate and phosphate respecting Redfield ratio (N:P = 16) in order to produce a bloom of biological activity. Physical and chemical properties of the enclosed water samples together with their surrounding atmosphere were monitored during 20 days by a multi-instrumental high-time resolution set-up. In parallel, numerous additional measurements were conducted including water temperature, incident light, pH, conductivity, chemical and biological analyses, fluorescence of chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen concentration. The chamber studies were performed in a Teflon chamber of 1. 5m3 that accommodates a pyrex-container for the fresh sea-water samples. After injection of sea-water in the pyrex-container, the system is allowed to stabilize to 20-30 minutes, then it was exposed to 60-100ppbv of ozone and/or UV-A irradiation. Aerosol concentrations and their physical characteristics were followed by means of Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers; clusters concentration was monitored using a Particle Size Magnifyer (PSM); the gas-phase composition of volatile organic compounds was determined by using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer and cartridges. Aerosol chemical composition was investigated using High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, filters analysis and TEM-EDX microscopy. Results evidence a complex nature of the primary emitted aerosol which is not clearly associated to the biological bloom (ex. cholrophyll), VOCs emission was observed during high biological activity periods. Formation of new particles was observed in the chamber and seemed to be related to iodine species (in the absence of any macroalgea population).

  20. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. (Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  1. Development of plasmid and oligonucleotide nanometric particles.

    PubMed

    Dauty, E; Behr, J-P; Remy, J-S

    2002-06-01

    Nucleic acids delivery vectors have shown promising therapeutic potential in model systems. However, comparable clinical success is delayed essentially because of their poor biodistribution and of their ineffective intracellular trafficking. The size of condensed DNA particles is a key determinant for in vivo diffusion, as well as for gene delivery to the cell nucleus. Towards this goal, we have developed cationic thiol-detergents that individually compact plasmid DNA molecules into anionic particles. These particles are then 'stabilized' by air-induced dimerization of the detergent into a disulfide lipid on the template DNA. The particles all measure approximately 30 nm, which corresponds to the volume of a single molecule of plasmid DNA. The gel electrophoretic mobility of the anionic particles was found to be higher than that of the plasmid DNA itself. Similarly, particles formed with a 31-mer oligonucleotide measured 19 nm. Improved in vivo diffusion, as well as improved intracellular trafficking may be inferred from the faster migration of the complexes. Moreover, the size of the particles remains compatible with nuclear pore crossing. Finally, in an attempt to improve the biodistribution of these particles, we have coated the monomolecular particles with a poly(ethylene glycol) corona. PMID:12032701

  2. Characterizing marine particles and their impact on biogeochemical cycles in the GEOTRACES program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert F.; Hayes, Christopher T.

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) are of priority interest in several subdisciplines of oceanography. For example, the vital role of trace element micronutrients in regulating the growth of marine organisms, which, in turn, may influence the structure and composition of marine ecosystems, is now well established (Morel and Price, 2003; Twining and Baines, 2013). Natural distributions of some TEIs have been severely impacted by anthropogenic emissions, leading to substantial perturbations of natural ocean inventories. Pb and Hg, for example, (Lamborg et al., 2002; Schaule and Patterson, 1981), may represent a significant threat to human food supply. Furthermore, much of our knowledge of past variability in the ocean environment, including the ocean's role in climate change, has been developed using TEI proxies archived in marine substrates such as sediments, corals and microfossils. Research in each of these areas relies on a comprehensive knowledge of the distributions of TEIs in the ocean, and on the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions. With numerous processes affecting the regional supply and removal of TEIs in the ocean, a comprehensive understanding of the marine biogeochemical cycles of TEIs can be attained only by a global, coordinated, international effort. GEOTRACES, an international program designed to study the marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes (Anderson et al., 2014; Henderson et al., 2007), aims to achieve these goals.

  3. A Lagrangian Stochastic Model for Heavy Particle Dispersion in the Atmospheric Marine Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, James A.; Veron, Fabrice

    2009-02-01

    The dispersion of heavy particles and pollutants is often simulated with Lagrangian stochastic (LS) models. Although these models have been employed successfully over land, the free surface at the air-sea interface complicates the implementation of traditional LS models. We present an adaptation of traditional LS models to the atmospheric marine boundary layer (MBL), where the bottom boundary is represented by a realistic wavy surface that moves and deforms. In addition, the correlation function for the turbulent flow following a particle is extended to the anisotropic, unsteady case. Our new model reproduces behaviour for Lagrangian turbulence in a stratified air flow that departs only slightly from the expected behaviour in isotropic turbulence. When solving for the trajectory of a heavy particle in the air flow, the modelled turbulent forcing on the particle also behaves remarkably well. For example, the spectrum of the turbulence at the particle location follows that of a massless particle for time scales approximately larger than the Stokes’ particle response time. We anticipate that this model will prove especially useful in the context of sea-spray dispersion and its associated momentum, sensible and latent heat, and gas fluxes between spray droplets and the atmosphere.

  4. National Data Program for the Marine Environment Technical Development Plan. Final Report, Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    System Development Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    A national data program for the marine environment is recommended. Volume 2 includes: (1) objectives, scope, and methodology; (2) summary of the technical development plan; (3) agency development plans - Great Lakes and coastal development and (4) marine data network development plans. (Author)

  5. The sources and forms of phosphorus in marine aerosol particles and rain from Northern New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liqi; Arimoto, Richard; Duce, Robert A.

    Various forms of phosphorus were measured in marine aerosol particles and rain samples collected from the northern tip of the North Island of New Zealand. Approximately 58 % of the total phosphorus in the aerosol particles was organic and 7 % was soluble in deionized water. The remaining 35 % was not released by treatment with potassium persulfate, and it was defined as a refractory fraction. Stepwise regression analyses suggested that (1) the concentrations of organic phosphorus in the aerosol particles were related to those of sodium, which was regarded as sea salt tracer, (2) the concentrations of water soluble phosphorus were correlated with those of aluminum, which was considered an indicator of crustal material and (3) total phosphorus was derived from the ocean and from the earth's crust. The mass particle-size distribution of the refractory and organic phosphorus combined was similar to that of sodium and aluminum. However, on submicrometer particles the concentrations of all forms of phosphorus appeared to increase relative to those of sodium, suggesting that small particle phosphorus may be derived from a non-marine source, possibly weathered crustal material or wind blown fertilizer. The wet deposition rates for water soluble and organic phosphorus were calculated to be 0.30 and 0.61 ?g cm -2 y -1, respectively. The dry deposition of these two forms of phosphorus combined (0.14 ?g cm -2 y -1 ) was clearly lower than the wet deposition rate. Total deposition of phosphorus to the site was estimated to be 1.5?gcm -2y -1.

  6. High-temperature LDV seed particle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Pierce, Vicky G.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a method for making monodisperse, unagglomerated spherical particles greater than 50 nm in diameter was demonstrated. Carbonaceous particles were made by pyrolyzing ethylene with a pulsed CO2 laser, thereby creating a non-equilibrium mixture of carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbon vapors, and unpyrolyzed ethylene. Via a complex series of reactions, the carbon and hydrocarbon vapors quickly condensed into the spherical particles. By cooling and dispersing them in a supersonic expansion immediately after their creation, the hot newly-formed spheres were prevented from colliding and coalescing, thus preventing the problem of agglomeration which as plagued other investigators studying laser-simulated particle formation. The cold particles could be left suspended in the residual gases indefinitely without agglomerating. Their uniform sizes and unagglomerated nature were visualized by collecting the particles on filters that were subsequently examined using electron microscopy. It was found the mean particle size can be coarsely controlled by varying the initial ethylene pressure, and can be finely controlled by varying the fluence (energy/unit area) with which the laser irradiates the gas. The motivating application for this research was to manufacture particles that could be used as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) seeds in high-temperature high-speed flows. Though the particles made in this program will not evaporate until heated to about 3000 K, and thus could serve as LDV seeds in some applications, they are not ideal when the hot atmosphere is also oxidizing. In that situation, ceramic materials would be preferable. Research performed elsewhere has demonstrated that selected ceramic materials can be manufactured by laser pyrolysis of appropriate supply gases. It is anticipated that, when the same gases are used in conjunction with the rapid cooling technique, unagglomerated spherical ceramic particles can be made with little difficulty. Such particles would also be valuable to manufacturers of ceramic or abrasive products, and this technique may find its greatest commercial potential in those areas.

  7. DRAFT REGIONAL NRM STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT MARINE AND ESTUARINE HABITAT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1. Overview of the marine and estuarine environmental assets within the Region The Tasmanian marine and estuarine environments are a significant asset of the State. Tasmania has more coastline per unit land area than any other State in Australia - about 4900km (excluding Macquarie Island) (Australian Surveying and Land Information Group 1993). Tasmania's marine and estuarine environments include rocky reefs,

  8. Paulsenella Chatton (Dinophyta), ectoparasites of marine diatoms: development and taxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drebes, G.; Schnepf, E.

    1988-09-01

    All members of the dinophyte Paulsenella are ectoparasites on marine planktonic diatoms. At present three species are known, two of which are described here for the first time. The taxonomy of the type species, P. chaetoceratis, is paid critical attention. The species are clearly distinguished by their host specificity and additionally by differences in morphology, especially of the trophonts. Using clonal cultures the life cycles of the three species are compared. The vegetative development may be interrupted by formation of temporary and resting cysts. In ageing cultures, stages with nuclear cyclosis occur, believed to indicate meiosis. In P. vonstoschii, the meiospores are capable of developing into resting cysts. As yet, knowledge on sexual reproduction is still incomplete.

  9. Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological activity can contain sea salts associated with organic material, with smaller particles containing a larger mass fraction of organics than larger particles. This likely indicates a link between phytoplankton productivity in oceans and particulate organic material in marine air. Once aerosolized, particles with significant amount of organic material can affect cloud activation and formation of ice crystals, among other atmospheric processes, thus influencing climate. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, in which concentrations of biological organisms can reach up to 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms. Here we present results of bubble bursting aerosol production from a seawater mesocosm containing artificial seawater, natural seawater and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species. These phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emilianaia huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus), possessed siliceous frustules, calcareous frustules and no frustules, respectively. Bubbles were generated employing recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions and bulk aerosol organic composition were measured as a function of phytoplankton growth, and chlorophyll composition and particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the water were determined. Finally, particles were collected on substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, their elemental compositions were determined using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEMEDAX), and their carbon speciation was determined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle size distributions exposed to dry and humidified air employing artificial seawater show agreement with previous studies. As the phytoplankton population grows, particle production increases, with particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter primarily contributing to this increase. CCSEM/EDAX and STXM/NEXAFS analysis shows that phytoplankton presence can result in purely organic airborne particles, NaCl particles coated with organic material and organic particles containing phytoplankton frustule fragments. We also have observed that submicrometer particles can efficiently nucleate ice and that the same ice nucleating particles examined with CCSEM/EDAX and STXM/NEXAFS contain significant organic material by mass. These results will aid in understanding the effects of biological activity on the composition and mixing state of ocean derived aerosol particles and their potential impact on cold cloud formation.

  10. Marine Resources and Legal-Political Arrangements for Their Development; Volume 3, Panel Reports of the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources, Washington, DC.

    The Marine Resources Panel addressed itself to three tasks: describing the current rate of exploration and exploitation of marine resources and the physical, economic, and legal conditions under which they are produced; identifying deterrents to development and efficient utilization of marine resources; and recommending programs that will remove…

  11. Sources and Composition of Submicron Organic Mass in Marine Aerosol Particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, P. K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMAP) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemicalmore »reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production« less

  12. Modeling of microphysics and optics of aerosol particles in the marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloshin, Gennady

    2013-05-01

    We present a microphysical model for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 ?m particles. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, height above sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (RH), are investigated. At present, the model covers the ranges H = 0 - 25 m, U = 3 - 18 km s-1, X ? 120 km and RH = 40 - 98%. The latest version of the Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles model (MaexPro) is described and applied for the computation and analysis of the spectral profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients ?(?) in the wavelength band ? = 0.2-12 ?m. MaexPro is based on the aforementioned aerosol model assuming spherically shaped aerosol particles and the well-known Mie theory. The spectral profiles of ?(?) calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable tool for investigating the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  13. Development of plasmid and oligonucleotide nanometric particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Dauty; J-P Behr; J-S Remy

    2002-01-01

    Nucleic acids delivery vectors have shown promising therapeutic potential in model systems. However, comparable clinical success is delayed essentially because of their poor biodistribution and of their ineffective intracellular trafficking. The size of condensed DNA particles is a key determinant for in vivo diffusion, as well as for gene delivery to the cell nucleus. Towards this goal, we have developed

  14. Steady-state configuration and tension calculations of marine cables under complex currents via separated particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-song

    2014-12-01

    Under complex currents, the motion governing equations of marine cables are complex and nonlinear, and the calculations of cable configuration and tension become difficult compared with those under the uniform or simple currents. To obtain the numerical results, the usual Newton-Raphson iteration is often adopted, but its stability depends on the initial guessed solution to the governing equations. To improve the stability of numerical calculation, this paper proposed separated the particle swarm optimization, in which the variables are separated into several groups, and the dimension of search space is reduced to facilitate the particle swarm optimization. Via the separated particle swarm optimization, these governing nonlinear equations can be solved successfully with any initial solution, and the process of numerical calculation is very stable. For the calculations of cable configuration and tension of marine cables under complex currents, the proposed separated swarm particle optimization is more effective than the other particle swarm optimizations.

  15. On the modeling of the bottom particles segregation with non-linear diffusion equations: application to the marine sand ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiguercha, Djlalli; Bennis, Anne-claire; Ezersky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The elliptical motion in surface waves causes an oscillating motion of the sand grains leading to the formation of ripple patterns on the bottom. Investigation how the grains with different properties are distributed inside the ripples is a difficult task because of the segration of particle. The work of Fernandez et al. (2003) was extended from one-dimensional to two-dimensional case. A new numerical model, based on these non-linear diffusion equations, was developed to simulate the grain distribution inside the marine sand ripples. The one and two-dimensional models are validated on several test cases where segregation appears. Starting from an homogeneous mixture of grains, the two-dimensional simulations demonstrate different segregation patterns: a) formation of zones with high concentration of light and heavy particles, b) formation of «cat's eye» patterns, c) appearance of inverse Brazil nut effect. Comparisons of numerical results with the new set of field data and wave flume experiments show that the two-dimensional non-linear diffusion equations allow us to reproduce qualitatively experimental results on particles segregation.

  16. The discovery and development of marine compounds with pharmaceutical potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray H. G. Munro; John W. Blunt; Eric J. Dumdei; Sarah J. H. Hickford; Rachel E. Lill; Shangxiao Li; Christopher N. Battershill; Alan R. Duckworth

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of the current status of marine anticancer compounds is presented along with a case study on the aquaculture of Lissodendoryx n. sp. 1, a sponge that produces the antimitotic agents halichondrin B and isohomohalichondrin B. The use of polymer therapeutics to enhance the properties of marine natural products is considered.

  17. Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the

    E-print Network

    Chami, Malik

    of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations optical properties (IOP) of the water constituents (namely the absorption, scattering, and backscatteringSensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal

  18. Development and testing of the central computer and sequencer for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingon, U. S.

    1971-01-01

    The central computer and sequencer subsystem has been an important part of the Mariner series of interplanetary spacecraft since their inception. As with other spacecraft subsystems, the CC&S has increased in complexity and capability with each spacecraft project. This report describes the design, fabrication, and test associated with the development of the Mariner Mars 1971 CC&S subsystem.

  19. Development of Regional Coastal Ocean Observatories and the Potential Benefits to Marine Sanctuaries

    E-print Network

    Moline, Mark

    Development of Regional Coastal Ocean Observatories and the Potential Benefits to Marine. These observational assets are coupled to nowcast/forecast data assimilative models. These systems will allow the mean. Moline5 , Scott Glenn1 1: Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences

  20. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q

    E-print Network

    Aberdeen, University of

    Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q Nathan D, Lighthouse Field Station, Cromarty, Ross-shire IV11 8YL, UK a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Ship noise, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore

  1. On the presence of giant particles downwind of ships in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Prabhakar, Gouri; Jonsson, Haflidi; Woods, Roy K.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2015-03-01

    This study examines large oceangoing ships as a source of giant cloud condensation nuclei (Dp > 2 µm) due to wake and stack emissions off the California coast. Observed particle number concentrations behind 10 ships exceeded those in "control" areas, exhibiting number concentration enhancement ratios (ERs) for minimum threshold diameters of ~2, ~10, and ~20 µm as high as 2.7, 5.5, and 7.5, respectively. ER decreases with increasing downwind distance and altitude. ER becomes better correlated with ship size variables (gross tonnage, length, and beam) as the minimum size threshold increases from 2 to 20 µm, whereas ship speed has a less distinct relationship with ER. One case study of a container ship shows that there are higher concentrations of sea-salt tracer species behind it relative to adjacent control areas. These results have implications for cloud properties and precipitation in marine boundary layers exposed to ship traffic.

  2. Isolation and characterization of oxygen-evolving thylakoid membranes and Photosystem II particles from a marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Nagao; Akiko Ishii; Osamu Tada; Takehiro Suzuki; Naoshi Dohmae; Akinori Okumura; Masako Iwai; Takeshi Takahashi; Yasuhiro Kashino; Isao Enami

    2007-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes retaining high oxygen-evolving activity (about 250 ?mol O2\\/mg Chl\\/h) were prepared from a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, after disruption of the cells by freeze–thawing. We also succeeded in purification of Photosystem II (PSII) particles by differential centrifugation of the thylakoid membranes after treatment with 1% Triton X-100. The diatom PSII particles showed an oxygen-evolving activity of 850 and

  3. Impact of lugworms (Arenicola marina) on mobilization and transport of fine particles and organic matter in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendelboe, Kim; Egelund, Jonas T.; Flindt, Mogens R.; Valdemarsen, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the impact of sediment reworking fauna and hydrodynamics on mobilization and transport of organic matter and fine particles in marine sediments. Experiments were conducted in an annular flume using lugworms (Arenicola marina) as model organisms. The impact of lugworms on sediment characteristics and particle transport was followed through time in sediments experimentally enriched with fine particles (< 63 ?m) and organic matter. Parallel experiments were run at low and high water current velocity (11 and 25 cm s- 1) to evaluate the importance of sediment erosion at the sediment-water interface. There was no impact of fauna on sediment composition and particle transport at current velocity below the sediment erosion threshold. At current velocity above the erosion threshold, sediment reworking by lugworms resulted in dramatic particle transport (12 kg dry matter m- 2) to an adjacent particle trap within 56 days. The transported matter was enriched 6-8 times in fine particles and organic matter when compared to the initial sediment. This study suggests that sediment reworking fauna is an important controlling factor for the particle composition of marine sediments. A. marina mediated sediment reworking greatly increases the sediment volume exposed to hydrodynamic forcing at the sediment-water interface, and through sediment resuspension control the content of fine particles and organic matter in the entire reworked sediment layer (> 20 cm depth).

  4. Particle Detectors: Research and Development at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Fabjan, C. W. [CERN (Switzerland)

    2008-04-21

    Over the past 15 years a worldwide Detector R and D Programme has made the LHC experiments possible. These experiments operate at a new level of event rate and detection capabilities. Based on these advances, Detector R and D is continuing at CERN in close collaboration with University and Research Institutes. Several main directions are being pursued for solid-state and gaseous tracking devices, advanced crystal and noble liquid calorimetry, particle identification methods, and advanced signal-processing techniques. This effort is directed towards experiments at even higher collision rates at the LHC, the requirements for the next generation of linear electron-positron colliders and for applications outside particle physics, such as medical diagnostics instrumentation. We shall illustrate this challenging, stimulating and creative programme with examples and show how these developments are taking place in close collaboration between CERN and institutions around the globe.

  5. Assessing the effects of marine and hydrokinetic energy development on marine and estuarine resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Ward; Irvin R. Schultz; Dana L. Woodruff; Guritno Roesijadi; Andrea E. Copping

    2010-01-01

    The world's oceans and estuaries offer enormous potential to meet the nation's growing demand for energy. The use of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to harness the power of wave and tidal energy could contribute significantly toward meeting federaland state-mandated renewable energy goals while supplying a substantial amount of clean energy to coastal communities. Locations along the eastern and western

  6. Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A TIE METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING ANIONIC METALS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several methods have been developed for characterizing and identifying toxicants in whole marine sediments including organic pollutants, cationic metals and ammonia. To date, a method for characterizing sediment toxicity caused by metals which form anionic complexes such as ar...

  8. Biogeographic Barriers and the Development of Marine Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, A. A.

    1997-02-01

    The biogeographically ' open ' nature of marine systems is discussed. Narrow endemism is demonstrated in crustacean taxa with planktotrophic larvae, as well as in those with benthic recruitment. A close similarity is demonstrated between the endemicity on islands of shallow-water marine amphipods and that of terrestrial plants. Using comparable collecting techniques, the marine amphipod diversity of tropical lagoons (in Papua New Guinea and in New Caledonia), with different evolutionary histories for c. 60 Ma, was compared. Whilst only about 20% of the species were common to the two lagoons, the number of species collected and the family species richness was strikingly similar. This suggests the existence of evolutionary ' assembly rules '. There is a weak correlation between amphipod species richness and family richness for a given area.

  9. Development of geometrically-nonlinear finite element analysis for marine risers

    E-print Network

    Haas, Mark Edward

    1987-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF GEOMETRICALLY-NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR MARINE RISERS A Thesis MARK EDWARD HAAS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AE-M Hniversity in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree oi' MASTER.... Hogan (Member) James R. . organ (5'Iem er) James K. N on (Memb ) Donald A. Max ell (Interim Head oI Department) August l 98i ABSTRACT Development of Geometrically-Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis for Marine Risers (August 1987) Mark Edward...

  10. Development of an electrical resistivity cone for the detection of gas hydrates in marine sediments

    E-print Network

    McClelland, Martha Ann

    1994-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY CONE FOR THE DETECTION OF GAS HYDRATES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS A Thesis by MARTHA ANN McCLELIAND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... (Member) Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe (I(cad oi' Department) May 1994 Major Subject: Civil Engineering ABSTRACT Development of an Electrical Resistivity Cone for the Detection of Gas Hydrates in Marine Sediments. (May 1994) Martha Ann McClelland, B. S...

  11. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ? 0.5 ?m, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated.

  12. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  13. Marine Animal Alert System -- Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies -- FY 2011 Progress Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Carlson; Zhiqun Deng; Joshua R. Myers; Shari Matzner; Andrea E. Copping

    2011-01-01

    The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal turbines to be deployed in Puget Sound in Washington State. The MAAS will help manage the risk of injury or mortality to marine animals

  14. Identification of polymer types and additives in marine microplastic particles using pyrolysis-GC/MS and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fries, Elke; Dekiff, Jens H; Willmeyer, Jana; Nuelle, Marie-Theres; Ebert, Martin; Remy, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    Any assessment of plastic contamination in the marine environment requires knowledge of the polymer type and the additive content of microplastics. Sequential pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (Pyr-GC/MS) was applied to simultaneously identify polymer types of microplastic particles and associated organic plastic additives (OPAs). In addition, a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyser was used to identify the inorganic plastic additives (IPAs) contained in these particles. A total of ten particles, which were optically identified as potentially being plastics, were extracted from two sediment samples collected from Norderney, a North Sea island, by density separation in sodium chloride. The weights of these blue, white and transparent fragments varied between 10 and 350 ?g. Polymer types were identified by comparing the resulting pyrograms with those obtained from the pyrolysis of selected standard polymers. The particles consisted of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamide, chlorinated PE and chlorosulfonated PE. The polymers contained diethylhexyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, benzaldehyde and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Sequential Py-GC/MS was found to be an appropriate tool for identifying marine microplastics for polymer types and OPAs. The IPAs identified were titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), barium, sulphur and zinc. When polymer-TiO2 composites are degraded in the marine environment, TiO2-NPs are probably released. Thus, marine microplastics may act as a TiO2-NP source, which has not yet been considered. PMID:24056666

  15. Assessing the Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development on Marine and Estuarine Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-07-30

    The world’s oceans and estuaries offer an enormous potential to meet the nation’s growing demand for energy. The use of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to harness the power of wave and tidal energy could contribute significantly toward meeting federal- and state-mandated renewable energy goals while supplying a substantial amount of clean energy to coastal communities. Locations along the eastern and western coasts of the United States between 40° and 70° north latitude are ideal for MHK deployment, and recent estimates of energy potential for the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California suggest that up to 25 gigawatts could be generated from wave and tidal devices in these areas. Because energy derived from wave and tidal devices is highly predictable, their inclusion in our energy portfolio could help balance available sources of energy production, including hydroelectric, coal, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal, and others.

  16. Economic development, marine protected areas and gendered access to fishing resources in a Polynesian lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Louise Endemaño Walker; Michael A. Robinson

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the potential socio-spatial impacts of a new series of marine protected areas (MPAs) on fishers in Moorea, French Polynesia. The establishment of the MPAs is contextualized within recent and historical processes of economic development and theories of women in development and gender, culture and development. Seventy adults from three neighborhoods in Moorea were interviewed. Analysis of the

  17. Planar Particle Imaging Doppler Velocimetry Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    2000-01-01

    Two current techniques exist for the measurement of planar, three-component velocity fields. Both techniques require multiple views of the illumination plane in order to extract all three velocity components. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a high-resolution, high accuracy, planar velocimetry technique that provides valuable instantaneous velocity information in aeropropulsion test facilities. PIV can provide three-component flow-field measurements using a two-camera, stereo viewing configuration. Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) is another planar velocimetry technique that can provide three component flow-field measurements; however, it requires three detector systems that must be located at oblique angles from the measurement plane. The three-dimensional configurations of either technique require multiple (DGV) or at least large (stereo PIV) optical access ports in the facility in which the measurements are being conducted. Optical access is extremely limited in aeropropulsion test facilities. In many cases, only one optical access port is available. A hybrid measurement technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, planar particle image and Doppler velocimetry (PPIDV), which combines elements from both the PIV and DGV techniques into a single detection system that can measure all three components of velocity across a planar region of a flow field through a single optical access port. In the standard PIV technique, a pulsed laser is used to illuminate the flow field at two closely spaced instances in time, which are recorded on a "frame-straddling" camera, yielding a pair of single-exposure image frames. The PIV camera is oriented perpendicular to the light sheet, and the processed PIV data yield the two-component velocity field in the plane of the light sheet. In the standard DGV technique, an injection-seeded Nd:YAG pulsed laser light sheet illuminates the seeded flow field, and three receiver systems are used to measure three components of velocity. The receiver systems are oriented at oblique angles to the light sheet in order to accurately resolve the three-component velocity. Each DGV receiver system contains two cameras, which share a common view of the illuminated flow through a beam-splitting cube. One camera views the illuminated flow directly (reference camera) and the second camera images the illuminated flow through an iodine vapor cell (signal camera). The laser frequency (wavelength) is adjusted so that the Doppler-shifted light from particles in the flow falls on an iodine absorption feature, see the following graph. The iodine vapor cell acts as a frequency-to-velocity filter by modulating the intensity of the transmitted light as a function of the flow velocity (Doppler shift). The ratio of the signal and reference images yields the component of the flow velocity along the bisector of the laser sheet propagation direction and the receiver system observation direction. The hybrid system employs a single-component DGV receiver system configured to simultaneously acquire PIV image data, as shown in the following diagram. The cameras used in the DGV receiver are replaced with PIV frame-straddling cameras, and the receiver system views the illuminated light sheet plane at 90 (as in the standard PIV configuration).

  18. Particle acceleration in time-developing magnetic reconnection process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Sato; Hiroshi Matsumoto; Keisuke Nagai

    1982-01-01

    Particle trajectories and acceleration are numerically studied in time-varying electric and magnetic fields that are obtained by a previous MHD simulation of an externally driven reconnection. Electron and proton orbits are traced under the influence of the developing reconnection fields for various initial particle positions and velocities. A method of continuation of local analytic solution in a particle-pushing algorithm is

  19. Fluid particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg A. Voth; Alice M. Crawford; Jim Alexander; Eberhard Bodenschatz; A. La Porta

    2001-01-01

    The motion of fluid particles as they are pushed along erratic trajectories\\u000aby fluctuating pressure gradients is fundamental to transport and mixing in\\u000aturbulence. It is essential in cloud formation and atmospheric transport,\\u000aprocesses in stirred chemical reactors and combustion systems, and in the\\u000aindustrial production of nanoparticles. The perspective of particle\\u000atrajectories has been used successfully to describe mixing

  20. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  1. Size-dependent effects of micro polystyrene particles in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyun-Woo; Shim, Won Joon; Kwon, Oh Youn; Kang, Jung-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effects of three sizes of polystyrene (PS) microbeads (0.05, 0.5, and 6-?m diameter) on the survival, development, and fecundity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus using acute and chronic toxicity tests. T. japonicus ingested and egested all three sizes of PS beads used and exhibited no selective feeding when phytoplankton were added. The copepods (nauplius and adult females) survived all sizes of PS beads and the various concentrations tested in the acute toxicity test for 96 h. In the two-generation chronic toxicity test, 0.05-?m PS beads at a concentration greater than 12.5 ?g/mL caused the mortality of nauplii and copepodites in the F0 generation and even triggered mortality at a concentration of 1.25 ?g/mL in the next generation. In the 0.5-?m PS bead treatment, despite there being no significant effect on the F0 generation, the highest concentration (25 ?g/mL) induced a significant decrease in survival compared with the control population in the F1 generation. The 6-?m PS beads did not affect the survival of T. japonicus over two generations. The 0.5- and 6-?m PS beads caused a significant decrease in fecundity at all concentrations. These results suggest that microplastics such as micro- or nanosized PS beads may have negative impacts on marine copepods. PMID:23988225

  2. Fluid particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence.

    PubMed

    La Porta, A; Voth, G A; Crawford, A M; Alexander, J; Bodenschatz, E

    2001-02-22

    The motion of fluid particles as they are pushed along erratic trajectories by fluctuating pressure gradients is fundamental to transport and mixing in turbulence. It is essential in cloud formation and atmospheric transport, processes in stirred chemical reactors and combustion systems, and in the industrial production of nanoparticles. The concept of particle trajectories has been used successfully to describe mixing and transport in turbulence, but issues of fundamental importance remain unresolved. One such issue is the Heisenberg-Yaglom prediction of fluid particle accelerations, based on the 1941 scaling theory of Kolmogorov. Here we report acceleration measurements using a detector adapted from high-energy physics to track particles in a laboratory water flow at Reynolds numbers up to 63,000. We find that, within experimental errors, Kolmogorov scaling of the acceleration variance is attained at high Reynolds numbers. Our data indicate that the acceleration is an extremely intermittent variable--particles are observed with accelerations of up to 1,500 times the acceleration of gravity (equivalent to 40 times the root mean square acceleration). We find that the acceleration data reflect the anisotropy of the large-scale flow at all Reynolds numbers studied. PMID:11234005

  3. Can Aerosol Particles Develop Organic Surface Layers Under UT\\/LS Conditions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Iraci; P. H. Deng

    2007-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosol particles contain oligomers and macromolecular humic-like substances that may be created by reactions in or on the surface of particles. Marine aerosols have been observed to possess surface films of fatty acids which can survive the evaporation of water from the interior of the particle. This phenomenon of surface films is of current interest with regard to their

  4. Environmental policies and marine engines—effects on the development and adoption of innovations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heli Hyvättinen; Mikael Hildén

    2004-01-01

    This study indicates that environmental policy interventions significantly influence the innovation processes for reducing the emissions of marine engine technology. Several different types of interventions have been important and the effect is not directly proportional to the strength or spatial coverage of the intervention. Despite its relative weakness, the MARPOL rule on NOx emissions has contributed to technology development. We

  5. Development of the Integrated Target Information System of the Marine Radar and AIS Based on ECDIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Changchuan; Lin Hai; Li Lina; Zhou Jianwen; Ou Yangping

    2009-01-01

    AIS (automatic identification system), a new type of marine equipment, together with radar, are all the key navaid for a ship to navigate. Now in the seafaring, it is one of the most attentive research issues how to adequately and effectively use their information to improve the sail safety. The paper developed the integrated target information system based on ECDIS

  6. Hawaii's Marine Fisheries: Some History, Long-term Trends, and Recent Developments

    E-print Network

    Hawaii's Marine Fisheries: Some History, Long-term Trends, and Recent Developments Introduction Recently Hawaii's commercial ma rine fishery has experienced a period of rapid growth and structural change Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822-2396. ABSTRACT - This paper provides an overview ofHawaii

  7. Toxicity and accumulation of silver nanoparticles during development of the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii.

    PubMed

    García-Alonso, Javier; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Neus; Misra, Superb K; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Luoma, Samuel N; Rainbow, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    Pollutants affecting species at the population level generate ecological instability in natural systems. The success of early life stages, such as those of aquatic invertebrates, is highly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Silver released into the environment from emerging nanotechnology represents such a threat. Sediments are sinks for numerous pollutants, which aggregate and/or associate with depositing suspended particles. Deposit feeder such as the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which has a large associated literature on its development, is an excellent model organism for exposure studies in coastal environments. We exposed eggs, larvae, juveniles and adults of P. dumerilii to various concentrations of citrate (cit-Ag NPs) or humic acid (HA-Ag NPs) capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as well to dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3). We showed that mortality and abnormal development rate increased with younger life stages. While adults and juvenile were the most tolerant life stages, fertilized eggs were highly sensitive to AgNO3, cit-Ag NPs and HA-Ag NPs. Exposures to HA-Ag NPs triggered the highest cute toxicity responses in P. dumerilii and in most cases both Ag NPs were more toxic than AgNO3. Uptake rate of HA-Ag NPs in adult worms was also higher than from other Ag forms, consistent with toxicity to other life stages. The early stages of the life cycle of marine coastal organisms are more affected by Ag NPs than the juvenile or adult life stages, indicating that exposure experiments at the larval level contribute to realistic eco-toxicological studies in aquatic environments. PMID:24514586

  8. Toxicity and accumulation of silver nanoparticles during development of the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    García-Alonso, Javier; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Neus; Misra, Superb K.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants affecting species at the population level generate ecological instability in natural systems. The success of early life stages, such as those of aquatic invertebrates, is highly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Silver released into the environment from emerging nanotechnology represents such a threat. Sediments are sinks for numerous pollutants, which aggregate and/or associate with depositing suspended particles. Deposit feeder such as the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which has a large associated literature on its development, is an excellent model organism for exposure studies in coastal environments. We exposed eggs, larvae, juveniles and adults of P. dumerilii to various concentrations of citrate (cit-Ag NPs) or humic acid (HA-Ag NPs) capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as well to dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3). We showed that mortality and abnormal development rate increased with younger life stages. While adults and juvenile were the most tolerant life stages, fertilized eggs were highly sensitive to AgNO3, cit-Ag NPs and HA-Ag NPs. Exposures to HA-Ag NPs triggered the highest cute toxicity responses in P. dumerilii and in most cases both Ag NPs were more toxic than AgNO3. Uptake rate of HA-Ag NPs in adult worms was also higher than from other Ag forms, consistent with toxicity to other life stages. The early stages of the life cycle of marine coastal organisms are more affected by Ag NPs than the juvenile or adult life stages, indicating that exposure experiments at the larval level contribute to realistic eco-toxicological studies in aquatic environments.

  9. Recent Advances in the Discovery and Development of Marine Microbial Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Feng; Hao, Yu-You; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Marine microbial natural products (MMNPs) have attracted increasing attention from microbiologists, taxonomists, ecologists, agronomists, chemists and evolutionary biologists during the last few decades. Numerous studies have indicated that diverse marine microbes appear to have the capacity to produce an impressive array of MMNPs exhibiting a wide variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular agents. Marine microorganisms represent an underexplored reservoir for the discovery of MMNPs with unique scaffolds and for exploitation in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. This review focuses on MMNPs discovery and development over the past decades, including innovative isolation and culture methods, strategies for discovering novel MMNPs via routine screenings, metagenomics, genomics, combinatorial biosynthesis, and synthetic biology. The potential problems and future directions for exploring MMNPs are also discussed. PMID:23528949

  10. Isolation and characterization of oxygen-evolving thylakoid membranes and photosystem II particles from a marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Ryo; Ishii, Akiko; Tada, Osamu; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Okumura, Akinori; Iwai, Masako; Takahashi, Takeshi; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Enami, Isao

    2007-12-01

    Thylakoid membranes retaining high oxygen-evolving activity (about 250 micromol O(2)/mg Chl/h) were prepared from a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, after disruption of the cells by freeze-thawing. We also succeeded in purification of Photosystem II (PSII) particles by differential centrifugation of the thylakoid membranes after treatment with 1% Triton X-100. The diatom PSII particles showed an oxygen-evolving activity of 850 and 1045 micromol O(2)/mg Chl/h in the absence and presence of CaCl(2), respectively. The PSII particles contained fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding proteins in addition to main intrinsic proteins of CP47, CP43, D2, D1, cytochrome b559, and the antenna size was estimated to be 229 Chl a per 2 molecules of pheophytin. Five extrinsic proteins were stoichiometrically released from the diatom PSII particles by alkaline Tris-treatment. Among these five extrinsic proteins, four proteins were red algal-type extrinsic proteins, namely, PsbO, PsbQ', PsbV and PsbU, whereas the other one was a novel, hypothetical protein. This is the first report on isolation and characterization of diatom PSII particles that are highly active in oxygen evolution and retain the full set of extrinsic proteins including an unknown protein. PMID:17996191

  11. Measurement of particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREG A. VOTH; A. LA PORTA; ALICE M. CRAWFORD; JIM ALEXANDER; EBERHARD BODENSCHATZ

    2002-01-01

    We use silicon strip detectors (originally developed for the CLEO III high\\u000aenergy particle physics experiment) to measure fluid particle trajectories in\\u000aturbulence with temporal resolution of up to 70,000 frames per second. This\\u000ahigh frame rate allows the Kolmogorov time scale of a turbulent water flow to\\u000abe fully resolved for 140 <= R_lambda <= 970. Particle trajectories exhibiting

  12. The Impact of Particle Size, Relative Humidity, and Sulfur Dioxide on Iron Solubility in Simulated Atmospheric Marine Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Benton T; Marcotte, Aurelie R; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Majestic, Brian J

    2015-06-16

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans, and its most significant source is atmospheric deposition. To understand the pathways of iron solubilization during atmospheric transport, we exposed size segregated simulated marine aerosols to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide at arid (23 ± 1% relative humidity, RH) and marine (98 ± 1% RH) conditions. Relative iron solubility increased as the particle size decreased for goethite and hematite, while for magnetite, the relative solubility was similar for all of the fine size fractions (2.5-0.25 ?m) investigated but higher than the coarse size fraction (10-2.5 ?m). Goethite and hematite showed increased solubility at arid RH, but no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two humidity levels for magnetite. There was no correlation between iron solubility and exposure to SO2 in any mineral for any size fraction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements showed no change in iron speciation [Fe(II) and Fe(III)] in any minerals following SO2 exposure. SEM-EDS measurements of SO2-exposed goethite revealed small amounts of sulfur uptake on the samples; however, the incorporated sulfur did not affect iron solubility. Our results show that although sulfur is incorporated into particles via gas-phase processes, changes in iron solubility also depend on other species in the aerosol. PMID:26000788

  13. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common approach to marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H.; Schaap, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports this ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. To address these issues, the ODIP project is creating a co-ordination platform between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts will come together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first ODIP workshop. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential prototypes have been identified and work has now begun work to implement these solutions. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies from each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from 6 European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

  14. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt (US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines; 2) the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals; and 3) the effects of energy removal on physical systems. Each case study contains a description of environmental monitoring efforts and research studies, lessons learned, and analysis of remaining information gaps. The information collected through the Annex IV effort and referenced in this report, can be accessed on the Tethys database at http://mhk.pnnl.gov/wiki/index.php/Tethys_ Home.

  15. Effects of food particle concentration on feeding current velocity in sex species of marine Bryozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Best; J. P. Thorpe

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were carried out using established methods to measure feeding current velocity in six species of marine Bryozoa collected in 1982 and 1983 around low-tide mark at Port St. Mary, Isle of Man (Flustrellidra hispida, Alcyonidium gelatinosum, A. hirsutum, Electra pilosa, Membranipora membranacea and Bowerbankia gracilis feeding on Tetraselmis suecica). It was found that there was a positive correlation between

  16. Soils developed from marine and moraine deposits on the Billefjord coast, West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.

    2012-11-01

    Morphogenetic features of soils developed from noncalcareous and calcareous deposits of the marine and glacial origins on the coasts of Billefjord and Petunia Bay in West Spitsbergen are studied. Grayhumus (soddy) soils develop from noncalcareous deposits; they consist of the AO-AY-C horizons and differ from analogous soils in other locations in a higher bulk content of calcium, a close to neutral reaction, and a relatively high degree of base saturation. Gray-humus residually calcareous soils (AO-AYca-Cca) developed from calcareous deposits have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction; their exchange complex is almost completely saturated with bases. The soils that developed from both marine and moraine deposits are generally similar in their major genetic features. The profiles of all the soils are not differentiated with respect to the contents of major elements, including oxalate-soluble forms of aluminum and iron. Gley features are also absent in the profiles of these soils.

  17. Development of magnetic composite photocatalytic particles for environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwoo

    Hard magnetic composite photocatalytic particles were developed for the purpose of enhancing the separation efficiency, reusability, and photocatalytic activity by applying an external magnetic field. Two types of core-shell structured magnetic composite photocatalysts were developed; the first one is composed of barium ferrite (magnetic core)/titania (photoactive shell) and the second one consists of barium ferrite (magnetic core)/silica (intermediate layer)/titania (photoactive shell). The physical and chemical properties of the developed composite particles were characterized using the various analytical instruments (i.e., SEM, TEM, XRD, W-Vis, BET, and EDS) and the photocatalytic activities of the particles were evaluated by the photodegradation of an organic dye under UV irradiation. A magnetically agitated photocatalytic reactor was developed for the hard magnetic composite photocatalyst developed. A simple model was used to estimate the resonant frequency as a function of particle magnetization and magnetic field gradient. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared composite photocatalytic particles in the magnetically agitated photocatalytic reactor was compared to that in the photocatalytic reactor. Various TiO2-SnO2 composite nanoparticles were synthesized with the three different preparation procedures based on the wet-chemical method to improve the overall photocatalytic activity. The crystal structures of the prepared TiO2-SnO2 composite particles were evaluated using XRD and the photocatalytic activities of the composite particles were compared to those of pure TiO2 particles. Furthermore, the developed TiO2-SnO2 composite particles were adopted and tested on the magnetic composite photocatalytic particles.

  18. Laser wakefield simulations towards development of compact particle accelerators

    E-print Network

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    Laser wakefield simulations towards development of compact particle accelerators C.G.R. Geddes1, D understanding of accelerator physics to advance beam performance and stability, and particle simulations model, France; 9 Oxford University, UK E-mail: cgrgeddes@lbl.gov Abstract. Laser driven wakefield accelerators

  19. Recent Developments in Auxiliary Particle Filtering Nick Whiteley1

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Adam

    Chapter 3 Recent Developments in Auxiliary Particle Filtering Nick Whiteley1 and Adam M. Johansen2 on an algorithm known as the auxiliary particle filter (APF). The APF has seen widespread use in several 1 of the state space. The performance of the method is demonstrated in the context of a switching stochastic

  20. Iron Isotopes in Marine Particles From the Baltic Sea a Profile From the Anoxic Bottom to the Sea Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staubwasser, M.; Schoenberg, R.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Pohl, C.

    2006-12-01

    Significant Fe isotope fractionation has so far been observed in marine sediments from the present day to the earliest geologic time. Fe isotopes are believed to be a potentially useful tool in the study of the marine Fe cycle of the present and the ocean's redox state in the past, such as during the Archean. However, very little is known about Fe isotope fractionation processes in the ocean in general. We have analyzed stable Fe isotope ratios in marine particles filtered across a depth profile from the Gotland Basin in the Baltic Sea. The profile covers a complete redox sequence from the sea surface into the basin's anoxic bottom water with free dissolved H2S. The site is probably the closest modern analogue to an anoxic Archean ocean. The measured profile shows a systematic difference in ?56Fe between particles from the oxygenated water at mid-depth and the anoxic bottom water. Particles from the oxic layer show values close to zero. Those from the anoxic bottom water are about half a permil lower. Fe/Al ratios generally higher than 4 suggest that silicates are not an important contributor of Fe. Because the redoxcline migrates seasonally by up to 50 m, the difference in ?56Fe is unlikely to be the result of an uni-directional redox-driven preciptation of Fe diffusing out of the anoxic Fe-rich bottom water. Rather, an intense recycling with precipitation and redissolution between the Fe-rich anoxic and Fe-poor oxic water is likely. The observation that significant Fe isotope fractionation occurs between particles from different depths is important if the past ocean's redox state is to be inferred from measurements of the sediments. The recent discovery of Fe isotope fractionation during diagenesis adds another dimension to a potential paleoceanographic Fe isotope proxy. Preliminary results from the upper 50 m show a gradient of about half a permil, with the lowest values found close to the surface. Measurements were somewhat compromised by the very low Fe concentration on the filters. Here, Fe/Al ratios are around 1.5, which suggests that part of the signal is of silicate origin. Because a massive cyanobacteria bloom with large visible patches of brown algae mats was present at the time of sampling, the observed fractionation of Fe isotopes could be the result of plankton growth.

  1. The marine alga Gelidium amansii promotes the development and complexity of neuronal cytoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Abdul; Kang, Ji-Young; Hong, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hyunsook; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are vital not only to support neuronal development but also to protect mature neurons from atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases. As an effort to explore natural sources that possess neurotrophic activity, we screened common marine algae for their neuritogenic activity in the developing rat hippocampal neurons in culture. Of the 22 seaweed species examined, ethanol extracts of Gelidium amansii (GAE) exhibited potent neuritogenic activity, followed by Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum fulvellum extracts. The effects of GAE were dose dependent with an optimum concentration of 15 µg/mL. The GAE significantly promoted the initial neuronal differentiation from the stage I into the stage II and increased the indices of axonal and dendritic development such as the length, the numbers of primary processes, and branching frequencies by a minimum of twofold compared with the vehicle control. These results show that marine algae are promising candidates for neurotrophic potentials. PMID:22438103

  2. Development and application of marine gamma-ray measurements: a review.

    PubMed

    Jones, D G

    2001-01-01

    The development of instruments to measure gamma radiation in the marine environment, particularly on the sea floor, and the range of uses to which they have been put is reviewed. Since the first steps in the late 1950s, systems have been developed in at least 10 countries with the main thrust occurring in the 1970s. Development has continued up to the present, primarily in Europe and the USA. Marine gamma-ray spectrometers have been used for a range of applications including the mapping of rocks and unconsolidated sediments, mineral exploration (mainly for heavy minerals and phosphorites), sediment transport studies and investigations in relation to discharged and dumped nuclear wastes and at nuclear weapon test sites. PMID:11379060

  3. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  4. Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334 N (300 lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. This paper describes and summarizes the development and in-flight performance of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicted upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling are also discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data.

  5. Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae

    PubMed Central

    de Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Delorme, Natali; Atkins, John; Howard, Sunkita; Williams, James; Johnson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of noise on marine fauna at the population level requires knowledge about the vulnerability of different life-stages. Here we provide the first evidence that noise exposure during larval development produces body malformations in marine invertebrates. Scallop larvae exposed to playbacks of seismic pulses showed significant developmental delays and 46% developed body abnormalities. Similar effects were observed in all independent samples exposed to noise while no malformations were found in the control groups (4881 larvae examined). Malformations appeared in the D-veliger larval phase, perhaps due to the cumulative exposure attained by this stage or to a greater vulnerability of D-veliger to sound-mediated physiological or mechanical stress. Such strong impacts suggest that abnormalities and growth delays may also result from lower sound levels or discrete exposures during the D-stage, increasing the potential for routinely-occurring anthropogenic noise sources to affect recruitment of wild scallop larvae in natural stocks. PMID:24088868

  6. SCHOOL OF MARINE SCIENCES Program of Study

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    oceanography; aquaculture; marine biology; marine geology; marine resource development and policy; seafloor; M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Marine Biology; M.S. degree in Marine Policy; Dual M.S. degree in Marine Policy and either Oceanography or Marine Biology; M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Marine Bio

  7. Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind?1•d?1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P<0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P<0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  8. Oil-particle interactions and submergence from crude oil spills in marine and freshwater environments: review of the science and future research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Boufadel, Michael C.; Johnson, Rex; Lee, Kenneth W.; Graan, Thomas P.; Bejarano, Adriana C.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Waterman, David; Capone, Daniel M.; Hayter, Earl; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Dekker, Timothy; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Hassan, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about oil-particle interactions in coastal marine environments, there remains a need for additional science on methods to detect and quantify the presence of OPAs and to understand their effects on containment and recovery of oil spilled under various temperature regimes and in different aquatic habitats including freshwater environments.

  9. The influence of particle size of the dispersed mineral fraction on the settlement of marine and estuarine muds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Martin; Levacher, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    Considering the sedimentation behaviour of suspensions, four states of different sediment-water mixtures are usually distinguished, these being (in increasing concentration) dilute suspensions, concentrated suspensions, fluid muds and mud deposits. As the concentration values delimiting these states vary considerably from one cohesive sediment to another, a procedure for their quantitative determination is proposed here. This paper deals mainly with the effects of hindered settling in interacting concentrated suspensions and of sedimentation in fluid muds. In contrast to the settling velocity of individual particles in a dilute suspension, which must be studied statistically as a stochastic variable denoted W, hindered settling and sedimentation velocities can be described by a scalar denoted V, as solids at any particular level of concentrated suspensions and fluid muds settle at the same velocity. On the basis of settlement tests carried out in this study and published data on organic-rich cohesive sediments, a concentration-dependent empirical law for a permeability coefficient ( k) has been generated for cohesive sediments, using data from ten estuarine and nine marine environments, based on the one-dimensional Kynch theory of sedimentation. Based on the median diameters of the dispersed mineral fraction, the main provenances of the sediments are: fine to very fine clay from tropical marine/estuarine environments, medium clay to very fine silt from estuaries in western France, and fine to coarse silt from marine (harbour) environments in the Normandy region of France. A general trend for the influence of the grain size of the mineral fraction on the permeability coefficient has been established. It is demonstrated that the concentrations delimiting the different states of sediment-water mixtures can also be related to the grain size of the mineral fraction. Thus, hindered settling and sedimentation processes of muds, similar to the marine and estuarine cohesive sediments considered in this paper, can be studied as generic problems parameterized through a defined median diameter of the dispersed mineral fraction. Results for Loire estuary sediments are presented separately, based on specific tests to analyse the influence of experimental conditions on settlement. Moreover, the concentration values delimiting the different sediment-water mixture states have been largely established for this estuary.

  10. Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).

  11. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil.

    PubMed

    Estrada, J D; Boeneke, C; Bechtel, P; Sathivel, S

    2011-12-01

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate its characteristics during 1 mo of storage. Unpurified salmon oil (USO) was purified (PSO) and both USO and PSO were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total oxidation, free fatty acids (FFA), and moisture content. A stable emulsion was prepared with 7% PSO, 22% gum arabic, 11% maltodextrin, and 60% water. The emulsion was spray-dried to produce MSO. The MSO was added to strawberry-flavored yogurt (SYMSO) before pasteurization and homogenization, and a control (SY) without MSO was produced. Both yogurts were stored for 1 mo at 4°C and we determined the quality characteristics including acidity (pH), syneresis, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), fatty acid methyl ester composition, color, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Total oxidation (unitless) of USO, PSO, and MSO was calculated to be 20.7±1.26, 10.9±0.1, and 13.4±0.25, respectively. Free fatty acid contents were 1.61±0.19%, 0.59±0.02%, and 0.77±0.02% for USO, PSO, and MSO, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids in MSO and in SYMSO, but neither was detected in SY. Fortification of SY with MSO had no significant effect on yogurt pH or syneresis. A decrease in concentration of lactic acid bacteria was observed during the storage of all yogurts. Thiobarbituric acid values significantly increased as storage time increased and SY had a significantly lighter (higher L*) and less yellow (lower b*) color than SYMSO. Although some slight differences were observed in the color and oxidation of SYMSO compared with SY, the study demonstrated that SY could be fortified with salmon oil. PMID:22118066

  12. Targeting development assistance to meet WSSD goals for large marine ecosystems and small island developing states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred M. Duda

    2005-01-01

    Global commitments agreed in the last two years at Doha, Monterrey, and Johannesburg represent the potential for a political turning point in reversing the degradation of coastal and large marine ecosystems (LMEs). International finance institutions, bilateral donor agencies, international organizations, and governments of the North and South all align their policies and programs if progress is to be made. Since

  13. Particle emissions from a marine engine: chemical composition and aromatic emission profiles under various operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Sippula, O; Stengel, B; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Rabe, R; Orasche, J; Lintelmann, J; Michalke, B; Abbaszade, G; Radischat, C; Gröger, T; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Harndorf, H; Zimmermann, R

    2014-10-01

    The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-speed four-stroke marine engine, operated on both heavy fuel oil (HFO) and distillate fuel (DF), was studied under various operating conditions. PM emission factors for organic matter, elemental carbon (soot), inorganic species and a variety of organic compounds were determined. In addition, the molecular composition of aromatic organic matter was analyzed using a novel coupling of a thermal-optical carbon analyzer with a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) mass spectrometer. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly present in an alkylated form, and the composition of the aromatic organic matter in emissions clearly resembled that of fuel. The emissions of species known to be hazardous to health (PAH, Oxy-PAH, N-PAH, transition metals) were significantly higher from HFO than from DF operation, at all engine loads. In contrast, DF usage generated higher elemental carbon emissions than HFO at typical load points (50% and 75%) for marine operation. Thus, according to this study, the sulfur emission regulations that force the usage of low-sulfur distillate fuels will also substantially decrease the emissions of currently unregulated hazardous species. However, the emissions of soot may even increase if the fuel injection system is optimized for HFO operation. PMID:25202837

  14. Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334-newton (300-lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. The development and in-flight performance are described and summarized of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicated upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling of the Mariner 9 subsystem are discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data. The flight performance of the subsystem was excellent, as were the performance prediction correlations. These correlations are presented.

  15. Recent advances in the research and development of marine antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Abdel-Maksoud, Mohammed S; Oh, Chang-Hyun

    2013-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are a group of natural or semi-synthetic molecules possessing antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, etc. They are considered as promising candidates for treatment of microbial infections and suppression of microbial resistance. The increasing emergence of bacterial resistance has required development of new efficient antibiotics that can be added to the antibacterial armamentarium. The marine world provides a rich source of antimicrobial peptides. That world has not been highly explored yet, and much more effort is required in order to discover new efficient antimicrobial peptides. In the present article, we have reviewed the recent progress in the field of marine antimicrobial peptides from 2009 until the mid of 2012. PMID:23895098

  16. Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed inorganic-organic particles.

    PubMed

    King, Stephanie M; Butcher, Andrew C; Rosenoern, Thomas; Coz, Esther; Lieke, Kirsten I; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Nilsson, E Douglas; Bilde, Merete

    2012-10-01

    Sea spray particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater containing salt and organic matter in a stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a diffuser or by water jet impingement on the seawater surface. Three objectives were addressed in this study. First, CCN activities of NaCl and two types of artificial sea salt containing only inorganic components were measured to establish a baseline for further measurements of mixed organic-inorganic particles. Second, the effect of varying bubble residence time in the bulk seawater solution on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. Finally, CCN activities of particles produced from jet impingement were compared with those produced from diffuser aeration. Analyses indicate a considerable amount of organic enrichment in the jet-produced particles relative to the bulk seawater composition when sodium laurate, an organic surfactant, is present in the seawater. In this case, the production of a thick foam layer during impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not equal. PMID:22809370

  17. Perfluorooctane sulfonate impairs the cardiac development of a marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiansheng; Fang, Chao; Wu, Xinlong; Fan, Jianglin; Dong, Sijun

    2011-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic contaminant and has been widely detected in the sea water. However, toxic effects of PFOS on cardiac development in marine organisms have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the toxicity of PFOS on the cardiac development using Oryzias melastigma embryos. The embryos at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) were continuous exposed to PFOS (1, 4 and 16 mg/L) for various periods, cardiac function and morphology were examined at different developmental stages. The results showed that exposure to 4 and 16 mg/L PFOS resulted in enlarged the sinus venosus (SV)-bulbus arteriosus (BA) distance and altered the heart rate. We further investigated eight heart-development related genes to test the effects of PFOS on molecular level. Seven genes were first cloned in O. melastigma and their temporal expression patterns were assayed. Most of the genes were highly expressed in the 6dpf, which is the critical stage for heart development. Their expression levels upon PFOS exposure were studied. The expressions of GATA4 and NKX2.5 were significantly down-regulated while COX-2, FGF8 and ATPase were significantly up-regulated at 6dpf. Our results showed for the first time that PFOS exposure affected the expression of cardiac development-related genes, development and function of heart in the marine medaka. PMID:21684243

  18. Determination of Chemical Composition of Marine Aerosol Particles and its Effects on Aerosol and Cloud Properties During the 2005 MASE Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Jayne, J.; Alexander, M.; Springston, S.; Wang, J.; Senum, G.; Hubbe, J.; Daum, P.

    2005-12-01

    Marine stratus clouds play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Cloud microphysical properties such as size distribution and liquid water concentration which govern the aerosol indirect radiative effects are influenced in part by chemical composition of the pre-cloud aerosol particles. To investigate the role aerosol particles play in the properties of marine stratus clouds, we measured aerosol and cloud properties on board the DOE G1 aircraft in the marine atmosphere between Point Reyes and Monterey Peninsula, California in the month of July as part of the 2005 Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE, http://www.asp.bnl.gov/MASE/, supported by the DOE Atmospheric Science and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs). Aerosol chemical composition was measured using a PILS-IC and an Aerodyne AMS. The PILS-IC measured sodium, chloride, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, methanesulfonic acid, and format/acetate with a time resolution of 4 minutes and a limit of detection of ca. 0.2 microgram per cubic meter. The AMS measured size-resolved total organic compounds as well as ammonium, nitrate and sulfate at a one-minute time resolution. Other aerosol properties measured included size distribution, light scattering, light absorption and cloud condensation nuclei concentration. Measured cloud properties were cloud droplet size spectrum and liquid water concentration. We will report the chemical composition of aerosol particles and discuss the mechanisms governing their distributions and the relationships between aerosol chemical composition and aerosol and cloud properties.

  19. Development of a marine fish model for studying in vivo molecular responses in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Kong, R Y C; Giesy, J P; Wu, R S S; Chen, E X H; Chiang, M W L; Lim, P L; Yuen, B B H; Yip, B W P; Mok, H O L; Au, D W T

    2008-01-31

    A protocol for fixation and processing of whole adult marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was developed in parallel with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for molecular analysis of in vivo gene and protein responses in fish. Over 200 serial sagittal sections (5microm) can be produced from a single adult medaka to facilitate simultaneous localization and quantification of gene-specific mRNAs and proteins in different tissues and subcellular compartments of a single fish. Stereological analysis (as measured by volume density, V(v)) was used to quantify ISH and IHC signals on tissue sections. Using the telomerase reverse transcriptase (omTERT) gene, omTERT and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins as examples, we demonstrated that it is possible to localize, quantify and correlate their tissue expression profiles in a whole fish system. Using chronic hypoxia (1.8+/-0.2 mgO(2)L(-1) for 3 months) as an environmental stressor, we were able to identify significant alterations in levels of omTERT mRNA, omTERT protein, PCNA (cell proliferation marker) and TUNEL (apoptosis) in livers of hypoxic O. melastigma (p<0.05). Overall, the results suggest that O. melastigma can serve as a model marine fish for assessing multiple in vivo molecular responses to stresses in the marine environment. PMID:18055030

  20. Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. M.; Butcher, A. C.; Rosenoern, T.; Coz, E.; Lieke, K. I.; de Leeuw, G.; Nilsson, E. D.; Bilde, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sea salt particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater in a closed stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. The two-component artificial seawater consisted of salt, either NaCl or sea salt, and one organic compound in deionized water. Several organic molecules representative of oceanic organic matter were investigated. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a porous diffuser or by water jet impingement on the surface of the artificial seawater. The effect of bubble lifetime, which was controlled by varying the depth of the diffuser in the water column, on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. The CCN activities of particles produced from diffuser-generated bubbles were generally governed by the high hygroscopicity of salt, such that activation was indistinguishable from that of salt, except in the case of very low mass ratio of salt to organic matter in the seawater solution. There was, however, a considerable decrease in CCN activity for particles produced from jet impingement on seawater that had a salinity of 10‰ and contained 0.45 mM of sodium laurate, an organic surfactant. The production of a thick foam layer from impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not similar. Accurate conclusions from observed CCN activities of particles from artificial seawater containing organic matter require knowledge of the CCN activity of the inorganic component, especially as a small amount of the inorganic can heavily influence activation. Therefore, the CCN activity of both artificial sea salt and NaCl were measured and compared. Part of the discrepancy observed between the CCN activities of the two salts may be due to morphological differences, which were investigated using electron microscopy.

  1. Development of particle standards for testing explosive detection systems: characterization of the adhesion forces between composition 4 particles and polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Y. Liu; S. H. Yoo; John P. Davies; Garold L. Gresham; Susan F. Hallowell

    1994-01-01

    A method has been developed to study the adhesion of particles on a surface and the gas velocity needed to overcome the adhesion and dislodge the particle from the surface. Experiments have been performed to determine the minimum detachment velocity for particles deposited on a surface by gravitational settling and by finger print transfer. Particles of Arizona road dust and

  2. Particle size distribution of nitrate and sulfate in the marine atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Savoie; J. M. Prospero

    1982-01-01

    Cascade impactor samples were collected at coastal sites on Sal Island, Barbados, and Virginia Key, Miami during 1974 and at two Miami coastal sites on Virginia Key and Key Biscayne during 1981. In all of the samples, the majority of the nitrate mass was found on intermediate size particles and exhibited a mass median diameter (MMD) of about 4 pm.

  3. Fatty acids in the marine atmosphere: Factors governing their concentrations and evaluation of organic films on sea-salt particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochida, Michihiro; Kitamori, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Keisuke

    2002-09-01

    Fatty acids (C14-C32) in the marine boundary layer were measured in aerosols that were collected over the northern North Pacific from October 1996 to June 1997. Concentrations of lower molecular weight (C14-C19) saturated fatty acids (LFAs, 0.8-24 ng m-3) showed a positive correlation with sea-salt concentrations, suggesting that LFAs are released from the ocean surface to the atmosphere with sea-salt particles. The averaged ratios of [LFAs]air/[sea salt] in autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons were 1.8 (±1.3) × 10-4, 2.1 (±1.3) × 10-4, 3.7 (±2.9) × 10-4, and 4.6 (±1.8) × 10-4, respectively. The results indicate the seasonal variation of the sea-to-air flux of LFAs relative to that of sea salt with a maximum in spring to summer. The enhanced LFA flux was consistent with the satellite images of chlorophyll a over the northern North Pacific, which showed high biological productivity from spring to summer. On the basis of the ratios of [LFAs]air/[sea salt], relative humidity, and modeled size distribution of sea-salt particles, the coverage of LFAs on sea-salt particles was estimated to range from 0.3 to 14%. This study suggests that the coverage of fatty acids, together with other film-forming materials, may have a significant effect on the physicochemical properties of aerosols, which may be affected by the high biological productivity in the high latitudinal ocean.

  4. Holographic, particle imaging and data reduction at Spectron Development Laboratores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Trolinger

    1987-01-01

    Spectron has been deeply involved in the development and use of a wide variety of particle and flow diagnostic, electro optical instruments. Holography and imaging systems have played an important role in this work, but the extraction of data from images and holograms have always presented a limit to their use. Systems and techniques were devised to speed up and

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF PHONON-MEDIATED CRYOGENIC PARTICLE DETECTORS WITH

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    DEVELOPMENT OF PHONON-MEDIATED CRYOGENIC PARTICLE DETECTORS WITH ELECTRON AND NUCLEAR RECOIL (background radiation) and nuclear recoil events (dark matter events). These detec- tors with built detectors designed to directly detect interactions with these WIMPs. These detectors are part of a new class

  6. The phase of particle acceleration in the flare development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Švestka

    1970-01-01

    Evidence is given that the particle acceleration in flares is confined to the initial phase of the flare development preceding the Ha flare maximum and lasting for less than 10 min. The impulsive acceleration process is confined to a relatively small limited volume of about 5 × 1027 cm3 in the region of highest magnetic gradient in the flare, and

  7. Development of diamond films for particle detector applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ties Behnke; Alexander Oh; Albrecht Wagner; Wolfram Zeuner; Andrea Bluhm; Claus-Peter Klages; Mario Paul; Lothar Schäfer

    1998-01-01

    The material properties of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond, such as its high resistance against radiation, make diamond an attractive material for development of particle detectors. For such an application the charge collection properties have to be optimised. The paper reviews a study of the dependence of charge collection properties on growth parameters of a microwave plasma CVD process. The

  8. Rapid adaptation of molecular resources from zebrafish and medaka to develop an estuarine/marine model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueping; Li, Li; Wong, Chris Kong Chu; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-05-01

    Many estuary and coastal waters are highly threatened by heavy anthropogenic pollutants. Oryzias melastigma, also called O. dancena, a marine medaka that showed sensitive response to hypoxia and estrogenic endocrine disruptors in previous studies, is becoming a sentinel species for marine ecotoxicology studies. However, the lack of strong molecular foundation and knowledge of early developmental stages hampers its practical applications. Combining our research strength on zebrafish embryos, this study revealed both morphological and molecular (at mRNA and protein levels) development of embryos of this emergent model. Whole mount immunostaining technique specific for O. melastigma was successfully developed based on zebrafish standard protocols. We demonstrated that 17 out of 61 primary antibodies, which were previously tested in zebrafish, showed specific immunoreactivity with O. melastigma. These antibodies clearly illustrated the embryonic development of target tissues (principally neurons) in this medaka. Additionally, partial cDNA fragments of 11 organ-specific marker genes were isolated according to genomic resources of zebrafish, Japanese medaka and other fishes. Of the 11 genes, 8 are widely used as organ markers and their expression patterns were remarkably similar to their homologues in zebrafish and Japanese medaka. The expression profiles of the remaining 3 genes in fish are reported for the first time. These molecular markers (17 antibodies and 11 mRNA probes) can be used as responsive indicators in environmental toxicity evaluation. Moreover, this study brought forward and demonstrated the advantage of transferring techniques and resources from one model to another to hasten the research of interest. PMID:19302835

  9. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): Developing a Common Framework for Marine Data Management on a Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H. M.; Schaap, D.

    2014-12-01

    As marine research becomes increasingly multidisciplinary in its approach there has been a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data. A number of regional initiatives are already addressing this requirement through the establishment of e-infrastructures to improve the discovery and access of marine data. Projects such as Geo-Seas and SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and IMOS in Australia have implemented local infrastructures to facilitate the exchange of standardised marine datasets. However, each of these regional initiatives has been developed to address their own requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale these is a need to develop interoperability solutions that can be implemented across these initiatives.Through a series of workshops attended by the relevant domain specialists, the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project has identified areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures and used these as the foundation for the development of three prototype interoperability solutions addressing: the use of brokering services for the purposes of providing access to the data available in the regional data discovery and access services including via the GEOSS portal the development of interoperability between cruise summary reporting systems in Europe, the USA and Australia for routine harvesting of cruise data for delivery via the Partnership for Observation of Global Oceans (POGO) portal the establishment of a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for selected sensors installed on vessels and in real-time monitoring systems using sensor web enablement (SWE) These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common global approach to the management of marine data which can be promoted to the wider marine research community. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia but which is seeking to expand this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures.

  10. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Ahlborg, Mandy; Bringout, Gael; Debbeler, Christina; Graeser, Matthias; Kaethner, Christian; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Medimagh, Hanne; Stelzner, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs’ response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs’ superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs’ response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle’s MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles’ iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles’ suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number of different theories and technical approaches on the way to the actual implementation of the basic concept of MPI have been seen in the last few years. Research groups around the world are working on different scanner geometries, from closed bore systems to single-sided scanners, and use reconstruction methods that are either based on actual calibration measurements or on theoretical models. This review aims at giving an overview of current developments and future directions in MPI about a decade after its first appearance. PMID:25960650

  11. Elevated nitrogen-containing particles observed in Asian dust aerosol samples collected at the marine boundary layer of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, H.; Park, Y.; Hwang, H.; Kang, S.; Ro, C.-U.

    2009-09-01

    Low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) shows powerful advantages for the characterization of ambient particulate matter in environmental and geological applications. By the application of the low-Z particle EPMA single particle analysis, an overall examination of 1800 coarse and fine particles (aerodynamic diameters: 2.5-10 ?m and 1.0-2.5 ?m, respectively) in six samples collected on 28 April-1 May 2006 in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea was conducted. Three samples (D1, D2, and D3) were collected along the Bohai Bay, Bohai Straits, and Yellow Sea near Korea during an Asian dust storm event while the other three samples (N3, N2, and N1) were collected on non-Asian dust (NAD) days. Based on X-ray spectral and secondary electron image data, 15 different types of particles were identified, in which soil-derived particles were encountered with the largest frequency, followed by (C, N, O)-rich droplets (likely the mixture of organic matter and NH4NO3), particles of marine origin, and carbonaceous, Fe-rich, fly ash, and (C, N, O, S)-rich droplet particles. Results show that during the Asian dust storm event relative abundances of the (C, N, O)-rich droplets and the nitrate-containing secondary soil-derived particles were markedly increased (on average by a factor of 4.5 and 2, respectively in PM2.5-10 fraction and by a factor of 1.9 and 1.5, respectively in PM1.0-2.5 fraction) in the MBL of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, implying that Asian dust aerosols in springtime are an important carrier of gaseous inorganic nitrogen species, especially NOx (or HNO3) and NH3.

  12. Charged Particle Environment Definition for NGST: Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Evans, Steven W.; Hardage, Donna M.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    NGST will operate in a halo orbit about the L2 point, 1.5 million km from the Earth, where the spacecraft will periodically travel through the magnetotail region. There are a number of tools available to calculate the high energy, ionizing radiation particle environment from galactic cosmic rays and from solar disturbances. However, space environment tools are not generally available to provide assessments of charged particle environment and its variations in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail at L2 distances. An engineering-level phenomenology code (LRAD) was therefore developed to facilitate the definition of charged particle environments in the vicinity of the L2 point in support of the NGST program. LRAD contains models tied to satellite measurement data of the solar wind and magnetotail regions. The model provides particle flux and fluence calculations necessary to predict spacecraft charging conditions and the degradation of materials used in the construction of NGST. This paper describes the LRAD environment models for the deep magnetotail (XGSE < -100 Re) and solar wind, and presents predictions of the charged particle environment for NGST.

  13. Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alldredge, Alice L.; Silver, Mary W.

    Macroscopic aggregates of detritus, living organisms and inorganic matter known as marine snow, have significance in the ocean both as unique, partially isolated microenvironments and as transport agents: much of surface-derived matter in the ocean fluxes to the ocean interior and the sea floor as marine snow. As microhabitats, marine snow aggregates contain enriched microbial communities and chemical gradients within which processes of photosynthesis, decomposition, and nutrient regeneration occur at highly elevated levels. Microbial communities associated with marine snow undergo complex successional changes on time scales of hours to days which significantly alter the chemical and biological properties of the particles. Marine snow can be produced either de novo by living plants and animals especially as mucus feeding webs of zooplankton, or by the biologically-enhanced physical aggregation of smaller particles. By the latter pathway, microaggregates, phytoplankton, fecal pellets, organic debris and clay-mineral particles collide by differential settlement or physical shear and adhere by the action of various, biologically-generated, organic compounds. Diatom flocculation is a poorly understood source of marine snow of potential global significance. Rates of snow production and breakdown are not known but are critical to predicting flux and to understanding biological community structure and transformations of matter and energy in the water column. The greatest challenge to the study of marine snow at present is the development of appropriate technology to measure abundances and characteristics of aggregates in situ.

  14. The effect of dynamic operating conditions on nano-particle emissions from a light-duty diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyungmin; Jeong, Yeonhwan

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the nano-sized particle emission characteristics from a small turbocharged common rail diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels. The experiments were conducted under dynamic engine operating conditions, such as steady-state, cold start, and transient conditions. The particle number and size distributions were analyzed with a high resolution PM analyzer. The diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) had an insignificant effect on the reduction in particle number, but particle number emissions were drastically reduced by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) at various steady conditions. Under high speed and load conditions, the particle filtering efficiency was decreased by the partial combustion of trapped particles inside the DPF because of the high exhaust temperature caused by the increased particle number concentration. Retarded fuel injection timing and higher EGR rates led to increased particle number emissions. As the temperature inside the DPF increased from 25 °C to 300 °C, the peak particle number level was reduced by 70% compared to cold start conditions. High levels of nucleation mode particle generation were found in the deceleration phases during the transient tests.

  15. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L W; Hunt, S T; Savage, S F [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, P D; Shepard, A P; Worl, J C [Battelle Seattle Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The following appendices contain the detailed analysis data for the questionnaires and various FDS-1 after action reports submitted to the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Systems' Engineer.

  16. 76 FR 25362 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Butanol Fuel Blend Usage With Marine Outboard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ...enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using butanol fuel blends with marine outboard...which operate on butanol fuel blends. Since the goal...enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using butanol fuel blends within marine...

  17. Observing and simulating soil development using a chronosequence of cold raised marine terraces on Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meij, Marijn; de Kleijn, Christian; Temme, Arnaud; Zwolinski, Zbigniew; Rymer, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    The coasts of Spitsbergen are covered with raised marine beaches, developed under the isostatic rebound after the Last Glacial Maximum. This chronosequence of beaches provides a unique chance to study the speed of soil forming processes in cold and dry Arctic regions. Fieldwork was performed on gravelly marine beaches in the Ebba valley, central Spitsbergen, with ages ranging from 3.000 up to 14.000 years. The soils on 30 random selected locations were described and sampled. Results indicate several soil forming processes, which have a strong dependence on time, but also on landscape setting and vegetation presence. These processes include the accumulation of organic matter, aeolian deposition of sand and weathering and dissolution of the limestone gravel that dominates the parent material. This last process results in translocation of silt through the profile, creating silt caps on remaining limestone gravel, and when enough silt is accumulated, a Bl horizon. The carbonates from the limestone form precipitates under the gravel grains. Results support the notion that even under cold, permafrost conditions, soil formation and particularly weathering can still happen reasonably fast if some water is available. Using an early version of soilscape model LORICA, some of the pedogenic processes are simulated in order to get better insight in their dynamics and distribution in the study area. The model links geomorphic processes such as aeolian deposition, isostatic rebound and erosion to the vertical development of the soil profiles in the area.

  18. Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. PMID:20161971

  19. Non-destructive alpha-particle activation analysis of P, Cl, K and Ca in marine macro-alga samples using synthetic multielement reference material as comparative standard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Iwata; H. Naitoh; N. Suzuki

    1992-01-01

    A Synthetic Reference Material (SyRM) composed with accurately known amounts of 12 elements has been prepared. The elemental composition of the SyRM is closely similar to that of marine macro-algac sample. The elemental composition of the SyRM was regulated by the starting materials used for the synthesis. The SyRM was used as a comparative standard for non-destructive alpha-particle activation analysis

  20. The Effect of Organic Material on Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation - Insights from Microscopic Analysis of Field-Collected, Laboratory Generated, and Marine Biogenic Particles (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation has been shown to play an important role in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Although their importance is widely acknowledged, the actual effects of aerosol particles on heterogeneous ice formation are insufficiently understood. Here, we present laboratory studies investigating the ice nucleation efficiency of organic dominated anthropogenic particles impacted by different degrees of photochemical aging collected in and around Mexico City, particles sampled in Los Angeles, laboratory generated organic particles composed of humic and fulvic acids exposed to O3, and biogenic marine particles. Using the optical microscope (OM) method, heterogeneous ice nucleation by particles deposited on hydrophobically coated substrates via immersion and deposition mode has been determined. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures and corresponding nucleation rates are derived, the latter being discussed in terms of atmospherically relevant ice particle production rates. The physical and chemical characteristics of the field collected particles were determined by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), CCSEM/EDX analysis (computer controlled SEM with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays and STXM/NEXAFS (scanning transmission X-ray microscopy combined with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy). The anthropogenic particles examined nucleate ice heterogeneously at temperatures and relative humidity relevant to cirrus onset conditions observed in the northern hemisphere. Increases in organic content due to photochemical aging did not affect the particles’ IN efficiencies. Solid humic and fulvic acid particles nucleate ice via immersion and deposition modes at atmospherically relevant conditions and a corresponding ice nucleation parameterization is derived. Oxidation by O3, has various effects on the particles’ IN efficiency but no clear relationship between increased particle hydrophilicity due to oxidation and IN efficiency was found. Planktonic diatoms are the first unambiguously identified marine organism which acts as efficient IN in the immersion and deposition modes. These findings can resolve elevated atmospheric IN concentrations observed over surface waters containing phytoplankton. Heterogeneous freezing of micrometer-sized aqueous NaCl droplets containing intact diatoms as well as fragments occurs up to 30 K higher than expected by homogeneous ice nucleation. Nucleation is found to behave stochastically and is independent of diatom surface area and droplet volume. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rates are about one order of magnitude higher than homogeneous ice nucleation making diatoms and/or their fragments competitive IN even at atmospheric updrafts typically dominated by homogeneous ice nucleation. In summary, single particle resolved analytical techniques and the particles-on-substrate approach coupled to OM can provide a very useful tool to improve our understanding of the phase transition of aerosol particles.

  1. Education and Conservation Benefits of Marine Wildlife Tours: Developing Free-Choice Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeppel, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Marine wildlife tours can provide a range of education and conservation benefits for visitors, including emotional (i.e., affective) responses and learning (i.e., cognition). Interpretive programs cover the biology, ecology, and behavior of marine species; best practice guidelines; and human threats to marine areas. The author reviews the…

  2. Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Singh, Nimisha; Richards, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Fragments of antifouling paint and environmental geosolids have been sampled from the island of Malta and analysed for total and bioaccessible metals. Total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were two to three orders of magnitude higher in spent antifouling composites relative to respective values in background soils and road dusts. Paint fragments were visible in geosolids taken from the immediate vicinity of boat maintenance facilities and mass balance calculations, based on Ba as a paint tracer, suggested that the most contaminated soils, road dusts and boatyard dusts contained about 1%, 7% and 9%, respectively, of antifouling particles. Human bioaccessibilities of metals were evaluated in selected samples using a physiologically based extraction technique. Accessibilities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the most contaminated solids were sufficient to be cause for concern for individuals working in the boat repair industry and to the wider, local community. PMID:19231052

  3. A new generation of marine turbine that can harness energy from the sea is being developed by Nautricity,

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Nigel

    A new generation of marine turbine that can harness energy from the sea is being developed to develop the concept of this unique contra rotating tidal turbine (CoRMaT). The first fully functional conventional turbines, the CoRMaT design uses two rotors which turn in opposite directions, making it extremely

  4. BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE, 70(l): 141-153, 2002 A COMPARISON OF THE LIGHT ORGAN DEVELOPMENT OF

    E-print Network

    Ruby, Edward G.

    BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE, 70(l): 141-153, 2002 A COMPARISON OF THE LIGHT ORGAN DEVELOPMENT,Sigurdvon Boletzky andMargaretJ. McFall-Ngai ABSTRACT Light organ development was studied in the sepiolid squid. scolopes light organ, including an extended ciliated ridge at the base of the light organ, as well

  5. Developing an Informational Web Portal for Coastal Data in Ireland: Data Issues in the Marine Irish Digital Atlas

    E-print Network

    Dwyer, Ned

    Developing an Informational Web Portal for Coastal Data in Ireland: Data Issues in the Marine Irish Cork Abstract Data accessibility is a problem for many GIS users. In Ireland, improving accessibility. Introduction In November 2002, Ireland began the process of developing the Irish Spatial Data Infrastructure

  6. Development and characterization of a new tropical marine fish cell line from grouper, Epinephelus coioides susceptible to iridovirus and nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Qin, Q W; Wu, T H; Jia, T L; Hegde, A; Zhang, R Q

    2006-01-01

    The development and characterization of a new tropical marine fish cell line (GS), derived from the spleen of orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides is described. The GS cells grow well in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, and have been subcultured more than 200 times. The optimal growth temperature was 27 degrees C. The GS cell culture consisted of mostly fibroblastic cells. The modal diploid chromosome number was 48. GS cell cultures showed advanced cytopathic effects after infection with a pathogenic grouper iridovirus (Singapore grouper iridovirus, SGIV) or with a grouper nodavirus (Epinephelus tauvina nervous necrosis virus, ETNNV). Analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed a large number of SGIV and ETNNV particles in the cytoplasm of virus-infected cells, respectively, indicative of high sensitivity to these two viruses. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that iridovirus-infected GS cells reacted strongly with monoclonal antibody against the grouper iridovirus. It is suggested that the GS cell line has good potential as a diagnostic tool for isolation and propagation of iridovirus and nodavirus. When the GS cells were transfected with pEGFP vector DNA, significant fluorescent signals were observed suggesting that the GS cell line can be used as a useful tool for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. PMID:16137774

  7. First principles of copepod development help explain global marine diversity patterns.

    PubMed

    Record, Nicholas R; Pershing, Andrew J; Maps, Frédéric

    2012-10-01

    A major goal of modern ecology is to understand macroecological patterns based on their mechanistic underpinnings. The metabolic theory of ecology predicts a monotonic increase of biodiversity with temperature based on the principles of metabolism. For marine copepods, observations have shown that while biodiversity does increase with temperature, the theory's prediction overestimates the slope of this relationship by a factor of two. By relaxing the theory's assumption that size is invariant with respect to temperature, and by incorporating a mechanistic description of copepod development into the theory, we provide an adjusted prediction that agrees with the observed relationship. The addition of development into the theory adds the potential to refine the prediction for a wider range of taxa, to account for discrepancies between prediction and observations, and to describe a wider variety of temperature-richness relationships. PMID:22476710

  8. Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Forsgren, Elisabet; Dupont, Sam; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Amundsen, Trond

    2013-01-01

    As an effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the chemistry of the world's oceans is changing. Understanding how this will affect marine organisms and ecosystems are critical in predicting the impacts of this ongoing ocean acidification. Work on coral reef fishes has revealed dramatic effects of elevated oceanic CO2 on sensory responses and behavior. Such effects may be widespread but have almost exclusively been tested on tropical reef fishes. Here we test the effects elevated CO2 has on the reproduction and early life history stages of a temperate coastal goby with paternal care by allowing goby pairs to reproduce naturally in an aquarium with either elevated (ca 1400 ?atm) CO2 or control seawater (ca 370 ?atm CO2). Elevated CO2 did not affect the occurrence of spawning nor clutch size, but increased embryonic abnormalities and egg loss. Moreover, we found that elevated CO2 significantly affected the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae. Phototaxis is a vision-related fundamental behavior of many marine fishes, but has never before been tested in the context of ocean acidification. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification affects embryonic development and sensory responses in temperate fishes, with potentially important implications for fish recruitment. PMID:24198929

  9. Development of an underwater multispectral fluorescence based oil spill sensor system for the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.M.; Lieberman, S.H. [Naval Command, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This poster describes the development of an underwater optical fluorescence sensor system to detect the presence of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the marine environment. The system is designed for long term continuous underwater operation and will be used primarily to provide real time notification of the occurrence of a petroleum leak or spill at marine facilities. The sensor utilizes broadband UV excitation from a pulsed xenon lamp to generate fluorescence emission in contaminated sea water. It can detect floating product (surface sheen) from below the surface as well as detect dissolved phase PAHs in the water column. Multispectral emission information is used to distinguish between several possible petroleum classes and also to eliminate false positive interference from non-petroleum based fluorophores such as chlorophyll, cleaning detergents, and sea dye. Real time qualitative identification yields an important advantage in terms of rapidly resolving questions of spill origin or in determining an appropriate response. The design uses the optical energy of the UV excitation source to prevent biofouling on the surface of the optical window thereby greatly extending the usable field lifetime of the {open_quotes}deploy and forget{close_quotes} instrument.

  10. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen

    2015-04-01

    Marine research is rapidly moving away from traditional discipline specific science to a wider ecosystem level approach. This more multidisciplinary approach to ocean science requires large amounts of good quality, interoperable data to be readily available for use in an increasing range of new and complex applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are already available throughout the world as a result of e-infrastructures being established at a regional level to manage and deliver marine data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. Establishing a common framework for marine data management on a global scale necessitates that there is interoperability across these existing data infrastructures and active collaboration between the organisations responsible for their management. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project is promoting co-ordination between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures including SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) in Australia, the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach the ODIP project partners are currently working together to develop several prototypes to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities between the individual regional marine data infrastructures. However, many of the issues being addressed by the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform are not specific to marine science. For this reason many of the outcomes of this international collaborative effort are equally relevant and transferable to other domains.

  11. Particle morphological and roughness controls on mineral surface charge development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boily, Jean-François; Kozin, Philipp A.

    2014-09-01

    Effects of mineral particle morphology and roughness on potential determining ion (p.d.i.; H+, OH-) loadings achieved at synthetic lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) surfaces were predominantly investigated by potentiometry and thermodynamic modeling. Nanosized rod- (RL) and lath-shaped (LL) particles exhibiting different proportions of the same predominant crystallographic faces acquired largely comparable pH, ionic strength and counterion (NaCl, NaClO4) dependencies on p.d.i. loadings. These results supported previous claims that faces ideally containing proton silent sites only, are likely populated by additional proton active sites. This concept was supported further by results of roughened LL-like particles (LLR) also showing highly congruent pH-, ionic strength- and composition-dependent p.d.i. loadings with those of LL and RL. These loadings thereby correspond to maximal levels allowed by net attractive and repulsive forces at each solution composition, irrespective of particle morphology. Contrasting equilibration times required to achieve these loadings revealed considerably slower exchange of p.d.i. and electrolyte ions near the point of zero charge in the rough LLR than in the more idealized LL and RL particles. Thermodynamic modeling was used to test various concepts accounting for these results. The model made use of a novel framework capable of isolating electrostatic contributions from different faces, and of accounting for ion-specific double-layer properties within a single crystallographic face. These efforts made use of capacitance values for each electrolyte ions within the framework of a recently developed Variable Capacitance Model. Attempts at modeling all three particle types were used to suggest that the (0 1 0) face contains ?0.9 site nm-2 of proton active sites, a value notably constrained by recently published Na+, Cl-, and ClO4- loadings derived by cryogenic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The model presented in this work thus provides a means to predict p.d.i. loadings on multifaceted mineral particle surfaces, and can therefore be used to constrain further our understanding of mineral/water interface reactivity.

  12. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common framework for marine data management on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick

    2015-04-01

    As marine research becomes increasingly multidisciplinary in its approach there has been a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data. A number of regional initiatives are already addressing this requirement through the establishment of e-infrastructures to improve the discovery and access of marine data. Projects such as SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) in Australia have implemented local infrastructures to facilitate the exchange of standardised marine datasets. However, each of these systems has been developed to address local requirements and created in isolation from those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale there is a need to develop interoperability solutions that can be implemented across these initiatives. Through a series of workshops attended by the relevant domain specialists, the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project has identified areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures and used these as the foundation for the development of three prototype interoperability solutions addressing: 1. the use of brokering services for the purposes of providing access to the data available in the regional data discovery and access services including via the GEOSS portal 2. the development of interoperability between cruise summary reporting systems in Europe, the USA and Australia for routine harvesting of cruise data for delivery via the Partnership for Observation of Global Oceans (POGO) portal 3. the establishment of a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for selected sensors installed on vessels and in real-time monitoring systems using sensor web enablement (SWE) These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common global approach to the management of marine data which can be promoted to the wider marine research community. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia but which is seeking to expand this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures.

  13. Revealing the scale of marine bioinvasions in developing regions: a South African re-assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mead; J. T. Carlton; C. L. Griffiths; M. Rius

    As recently as 2009 the number of introductions recorded for South Africa comprised 22 marine and estuarine species. This\\u000a review aims to reassess the diversity and scale of introduced marine and estuarine species in the region. Accurate taxonomic\\u000a and systematic work, broad review of historical records and new sampling surveys across selected marine habitats conducted\\u000a by a team of local

  14. A Sourcebook of Marine Activities Developed in the Milwaukee Great Lakes Summer Education Program, 1977 and 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Richard E., Ed.

    Twenty-seven activities dealing with the marine environment of the Great Lakes are presented. Designed for junior and senior high school students, these activities develop awareness of the biological, physical, social, economical, and aesthetic dimensions of the Great Lakes. Field trips, films, discussion, and hands-on activities are used to teach…

  15. Types of larval development in marine bottom invertebrates, their distribution and ecological significance: a re-evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Mileikovsky

    1971-01-01

    The distribution of various types of larval development among marine bottom invertebrates has been discussed on the basis of ecological evidence by Thorson (1936, 1946, 1950, 1952) and Mileikovsky (1961b, 1965). The information at hand is reviewed anew in this paper and is re-evaluated in the light of modern pertinent literature. The interrelationships between certain larval types and their distribution

  16. Dietary modulation of some digestive enzymes and Metabolic processes in developing marine fish: Applications to diet formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Zambonino Infante; C. L. Cahu

    2007-01-01

    During these last 20 years, many studies have focussed on the development of the digestive tract in marine fish larvae. Most of the studies aimed at acquiring knowledge on the optimal form of dietary supply for different nutrients, in order to formulate a compound diet able to totally replace live preys in the fish larvae feeding sequence. Consequently, most of the

  17. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    SciTech Connect

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

  18. Engaging Scientists in K-12 Professional Development and Curriculum Development in the Context of Alaska's Large Marine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigman, M.; Anderson, A.; Deans, N. L.; Dublin, R.; Dugan, D.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Warburton, J.

    2012-12-01

    Alaska marine ecosystem-based professional development workshops have proven to be a robust context for engaging scientists from a variety of disciplines in overcoming barriers to communication and collaboration among scientists and educators. Scientists came away from scientist-teacher workshops with effective K-12 outreach strategies as well as a deeper understanding about how to contribute meaningfully to K-12 education. The establishment of the Alaskan Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE-AK) in 2009 was the catalyst for a series of professional development workshops related to the North Pacific Research Board's (NPRB) marine focus areas (Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, and Arctic Ocean) for Integrated Ecosystem Research Programs (IERPs). During 2010-2012, COSEE-AK and NPRB partnered with the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS), and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) to support a five-day professional development workshop focused on each ecosystem. The workshops brought together three types of participants: 1) Alaska-focused marine ecosystem scientists; 2) rural Alaskan teachers living within each ecosystem; and 3) teachers from outside Alaska who had research experiences with scientists in the ecosystem. Over the course of the workshops, we developed a workshop model with four objectives: 1) to increase the science content knowledge of educators and their ability to teach ecosystem science; 2) to provide the scientists an opportunity to have broader impacts from their research on educators and Alaska Native and rural students; 3) to increase the knowledge and skills of educator and scientist participants to provide effective learning experiences for K-12 students; and 4) to facilitate the collaborative development of lesson plans. A total of 28 scientists and 41 educators participated in the three workshops. The success of the workshop for the educators was evaluated by pre- and post-workshop surveys of their perceived increase in content knowledge in specific topics and increased confidence in teaching those topics. The experiences of the scientists were evaluated based on recorded one-on-one interviews. Preliminary results indicate that the Arctic Ocean workshop was the most successful of the three in meeting the workshop objectives for both teacher and scientist participants. The gain in teachers' level of knowledge and confidence was significant for five scientific topics. Scientists reported gains in their understanding of K-12 education, working with teachers, lesson plan design, and how to make their science relevant to Alaska Native students and communities. A comparison of scientists responses from all three workshops indicate that the factors unique to the Arctic Ocean Workshop which contributed to meeting the workshop objectives in terms of scientist engagement were: 1) the sustained involvement of the scientists throughout the workshop, 2) an effective ratio of scientists to teachers (1:1), with flexibility for smaller group work), and 3) the involvement of Alaska Native scientists, educators, and community members in the collaborative work. The lesson plans have been posted to the ARCUS (http://www.polartrec.com) and MBARI (http://www.mbari/earth) websites.

  19. Occurrence of an ultrafine particle mode less than 20 nm in diameter in the marine boundary layer during Arctic summer and autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedensohler, Alfred; Covert, David S.; Swietlicki, Erik.; Aalto, Pasi.; Heintzenberg, Jost.; Leck, Caroline

    1996-04-01

    The International Arctic Ocean Expedition 1991 (IAOE-91) provided a platform to study the occurrence and size distributions of ultrafine particles in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during Arctic summer and autumn. Measurements of both aerosol physics, and gas/particulate chemistry were taken aboard the Swedish icebreaker Oden. Three separate submicron aerosol modes were found: an ultrafine mode (Dp<20nm), the Aitken mode (20100nm). We evaluated correlations between ultrafine particle number concentrations and mean diameter with the entire measured physical, chemical, and meteorological data set. Multivariate statistical methods were then used to make these comparisons. A principal component (PC) analysis indicated that the observed variation in the data could be explained by the influence from several types of air masses. These were characterised by contributions from the open sea or sources from the surrounding continents and islands. A partial least square (PLS) regression of the ultrafine particle concentration was also used. These results implied that the ultrafine particles were produced above or in upper layers of the MBL and mixed downwards. There were also indications that the open sea acted as a source of the precursors for ultrafine particle production. No anti-correlation was found between the ultrafine and accumulation particle number concentrations, thus indicating that the sources were in separate air masses.

  20. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)���¢��������s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9�������°��������2.5�������° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1�������° x 1�������°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 �������µm. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4�������º by 5�������º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between ���¢��������clean marine���¢������� aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses

  1. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linlin; Dong, Wenhong; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs), isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA). PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0) till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. PMID:26058015

  2. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linlin; Dong, Wenhong; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs), isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA). PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0) till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. PMID:26058015

  3. Marine Science in Support for Sustainable Development of the Indian Ocean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbeck, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Indian Ocean rim is home to a significant part of the global population. Its large heat capacity and ocean circulation responds to and regulates seasonal to multi-decadal and long term climate change. In particular the monsoon type circulation regulates rain and drought patterns over India, Africa and Southern Asia. Fishing and more recently resource extraction of energy and materials make the ocean economically important. Global trade and ocean related hazards (such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, ocean de-oxygenation, loss of biodiversity, sea level rise and earth quakes and tsunamis) have important other economic impacts on all societies. On the other hand our current scientific understanding, ability to continually observe changes in the marine environment, model all aspects of the connected ocean system and develop plausible scenarios for the Indian Ocean of the future are still in its infancy. The possibility for a decade long comprehensive Indian Ocean Study in support of providing the information needed for sustainable development of the region is explored.

  4. Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Radford, Andrew N; Simpson, Stephen D; Nedelec, Brendan; Lecchini, David; Mills, Suzanne C

    2014-01-01

    Human activities can create noise pollution and there is increasing international concern about how this may impact wildlife. There is evidence that anthropogenic noise may have detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology in many species but there are few examples of experiments showing how fitness may be directly affected. Here we use a split-brood, counterbalanced, field experiment to investigate the effect of repeated boat-noise playback during early life on the development and survival of a marine invertebrate, the sea hare Stylocheilus striatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia). We found that exposure to boat-noise playback, compared to ambient-noise playback, reduced successful development of embryos by 21% and additionally increased mortality of recently hatched larvae by 22%. Our work, on an understudied but ecologically and socio-economically important taxon, demonstrates that anthropogenic noise can affect individual fitness. Fitness costs early in life have a fundamental influence on population dynamics and resilience, with potential implications for community structure and function. PMID:25080997

  5. Developing an Empirical Model for Predicting Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, R. A.; Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.; Ashley, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are powerful enhancements in the particle flux received at Earth. These events, often related to coronal mass ejections, can be disruptive to ionospheric communications, destructive to satellites, and pose a health risk to astronauts. To develop a useful forecast for the onset time and peak flux of SEP events, we are examining the radio burst, proton, and electron properties associated with the SEPs of the current solar cycle. Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010-2013, we analyzed the 123 decametric-hectometric type II solar radio burst properties, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with SEP properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. Through a principal component and logistic regression analyses, we find that the radio properties alone can be used to predict the occurrence of an SEP event with a false alarm rate of 17%, a probability of detection of 65%, and with 88% of the classifications correct. We also explore the use of the > 2 MeV electron flux to forecast proton peak flux and event onset time, with preliminary results suggesting a correlation between the peak electron and proton flux.

  6. Development of a Testing Platform for Scaled-Laboratory Studies of Marine Hydrokinetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, M. L.; Volpe, M. A.; Riley, D. R.; Krane, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    A small-scale platform for testing model hydrokinetic devices in riverine environments has been developed for the hydraulic flume facility (32 ft long, 4 ft wide, 1.5 ft deep) in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Laboratory (EFM&H) at Bucknell University. This platform is being used to advance development of marine hydrokinetic technologies by providing scaled-laboratory testing in a controlled environment. The results will provide validation of numerical predictions for device effects on the local substrate. Specifically, the flume is being used to model the effect of an underwater turbine on the sediment transport through its wake flow as it converts hydrokinetic energy to power. A test bed has been designed and assembled to hold sediment of varying size and material, where a single model turbine or an array formation, can be rooted within an erodible bed to conduct scour and erosion studies. Additionally, the facility is equipped with contraction inserts to increase the range of flow speeds available for turbine testing. For accurate flow field measurements the testing platform is instrumented with a Sontek Horizon 16 MHz Micro Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) which is used to characterize the mean velocity field of the wake generated by the turbine to correlate the strength of the wake with changes in the sediment bed. Finally, the testing platform includes an HR Wallingford 2D Sediment Bed Profiler with a low-powered laser distance sensor mounted inside a waterproof housing to enable characterization of changes in bed form topology for various turbine performance regimes. The flume is equipped with a track that allows a precision 3D traversing system to position measurement probes along the length, width and depth of the flume. Model turbine performance in terms of torque and power are characterized. This testing platform for laboratory-scaled studies are instrumental in yielding physical measurements of the alteration of sediment caused by variations in flow and wake structures due to the presence of marine hydrokinetic devices. These results will facilitate siting assessment for green energy technologies.

  7. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  8. Development and validation of rapid magnetic particle based extraction protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to control and eradicate transboundary animal diseases, early diagnosis and reaction is essential for the implementation of control activities. Thus, mobile diagnostic units which allow analytical testing close to the site of occurrence could provide valuable support for centralized laboratories. Consequently, the availability of diagnostic tests using mobile amplification and detection technologies has been increasing over the past years. However, methods enabling rapid and simple nucleic acid extraction also under resource-limited settings are still scarce. Methods In the present study rapid extraction protocols based on magnetic particle technology have been developed. For this purpose, the two open extraction platforms KingFisher™ Duo (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and BioSprint® 15 (Qiagen) as well as the fully automated EZ1® advanced XL instrument (Qiagen) were used. All protocols were validated in comparison to standard manual extraction using blood and serum samples from animals infected with Schmallenberg virus or bovine viral diarrhea virus. Results All newly developed protocols allowed a complete extraction within 30 minutes of time. The fully automated EZ1-extraction yielded the highest reproducibility, whereas slightly higher intra- and inter-assay variations were observed using the open platforms. Compared to the manual procedure, the analytical sensitivity of all the rapid protocols was 1 log10 step reduced for extraction from blood samples. For sera a reduced dynamic range could only be observed using the maximally shortened BioSprint 15 protocol. Validation using clinical samples showed an excellent concordance of all the rapid extraction protocols to the standard manual extraction procedure, independent of sample materials and target viruses. Conclusions The results of this study show that the speed-optimized novel extraction protocols allow rapid and simple nucleic acid extractions for a variety of target viruses without significant loss of sensitivity compared to standard procedures. For this reason they represent valuable tools to accelerate magnetic particle based automated extraction. PMID:25086594

  9. Effects of particle shape and mobility on stable armor development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basil Gomez

    1994-01-01

    The relative size and roughness of a stable armor varies with particle shape. For a given imposed shear stress the order of increasing nominal particle diameter is flat, angular, and rounded gravel. The order of increasing surface roughness is flat, rounded, and angular gravel. The mobility of fine flat gravel particles is enhanced by the lower surface roughness of armors

  10. 77 FR 12010 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...Ridgway and Howard, 1979). The deeper and longer dives of some marine...which may be exacerbated by deep, long duration, repetitive...foraging, reproduction, and learning about their environment...recording during its subsequent deep foraging dive. The whale...

  11. 77 FR 49412 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...Ridgway and Howard, 1979). The deeper and longer dives of some marine...which may be exacerbated by deep, long duration, repetitive...foraging, reproduction, and learning about their environment...recording during its subsequent deep foraging dive. The whale...

  12. Development and Bias Assessment of a Method for Targeted Metagenomic Sequencing of Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Batmalle, Cécilia S.; Chiang, Hsin-I; Zhang, Kun; Lomas, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in oligotrophic waters and responsible for a significant percentage of the earth's primary production. Here we developed a method for metagenomic sequencing of sorted Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations using a transposon-based library preparation technique. First, we observed that the cell lysis technique and associated amount of input DNA had an important role in determining the DNA library quality. Second, we found that our transposon-based method provided a more even coverage distribution and matched more sequences of a reference genome than multiple displacement amplification, a commonly used method for metagenomic sequencing. We then demonstrated the method on Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus field populations from the Sargasso Sea and California Current isolated by flow cytometric sorting and found clear environmentally related differences in ecotype distributions and gene abundances. In addition, we saw a significant correspondence between metagenomic libraries sequenced with our technique and regular sequencing of bulk DNA. Our results show that this targeted method is a viable replacement for regular metagenomic approaches and will be useful for identifying the biogeography and genome content of specific marine cyanobacterial populations. PMID:24296495

  13. Marine Biology

    E-print Network

    Zaffino, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    this  door. ”   Marine  Biology   I  joined  the  military  RIVERSIDE   Marine  Biology   A Thesis submitted in partialBiology                                                                                                                        

  14. Development of an ecologic marine classification in the new zealand region.

    PubMed

    Snelder, Ton H; Leathwick, John R; Dey, Katie L; Rowden, Ashley A; Weatherhead, Mark A; Fenwick, Graham D; Francis, Malcolm P; Gorman, Richard M; Grieve, Janet M; Hadfield, Mark G; Hewitt, Judi E; Richardson, Ken M; Uddstrom, Michael J; Zeldis, John R

    2007-01-01

    We describe here the development of an ecosystem classification designed to underpin the conservation management of marine environments in the New Zealand region. The classification was defined using multivariate classification using explicit environmental layers chosen for their role in driving spatial variation in biologic patterns: depth, mean annual solar radiation, winter sea surface temperature, annual amplitude of sea surface temperature, spatial gradient of sea surface temperature, summer sea surface temperature anomaly, mean wave-induced orbital velocity at the seabed, tidal current velocity, and seabed slope. All variables were derived as gridded data layers at a resolution of 1 km. Variables were selected by assessing their degree of correlation with biologic distributions using separate data sets for demersal fish, benthic invertebrates, and chlorophyll-a. We developed a tuning procedure based on the Mantel test to refine the classification's discrimination of variation in biologic character. This was achieved by increasing the weighting of variables that play a dominant role and/or by transforming variables where this increased their correlation with biologic differences. We assessed the classification's ability to discriminate biologic variation using analysis of similarity. This indicated that the discrimination of biologic differences generally increased with increasing classification detail and varied for different taxonomic groups. Advantages of using a numeric approach compared with geographic-based (regionalisation) approaches include better representation of spatial patterns of variation and the ability to apply the classification at widely varying levels of detail. We expect this classification to provide a useful framework for a range of management applications, including providing frameworks for environmental monitoring and reporting and identifying representative areas for conservation. PMID:17123004

  15. Optical techniques for remote and in-situ characterization of particles pertinent to GEOTRACES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Emmanuel; Guidi, Lionel; Richardson, Mary Jo; Stemmann, Lars; Gardner, Wilford; Bishop, James K. B.; Anderson, Robert F.; Sherrell, Robert M.

    2015-04-01

    Field and laboratory characterization of marine particles is laborious and expensive. Proxies of particle properties have been developed that allow researchers to obtain high frequency distributions of such properties in space or time. We focus on optical techniques used to characterize marine particles in-situ, with a focus on GEOTRACES-relevant properties, such as bulk properties including particle mass, cross-sectional area, particle size distribution, particle shape information, and also single particle optical properties, such as individual particle type and size. We also address the use of optical properties of particles to infer particulate organic or inorganic carbon. In addition to optical sensors we review advances in imaging technology and its use to study marine particles in situ. This review addresses commercially available technology and techniques that can be used as a proxy for particle properties and the associated uncertainties with particular focus to open ocean environments, the focus of GEOTRACES.

  16. A global model of the marine ecosystem for long-term simulations: Sensitivity to ocean mixing, buoyancy forcing, particle sinking, and dissolved organic matter cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittner, A.; Oschlies, A.; Giraud, X.; Eby, M.; Simmons, H. L.

    2005-09-01

    A new model of the marine ecosystem coupled into a global Earth System Climate Model suitable for long-term (multimillennial timescale) simulations is presented. The model is based on nitrate as the sole limiting nutrient. Prognostic equations for nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus are solved online in the three-dimensional ocean circulation model component. Experiments with different parameterizations of vertical mixing, including a scheme of tidally driven mixing, changes in buoyancy forcing in the Southern Ocean, different particle sinking velocities, and the inclusion of dissolved organic matter are performed, and the results are compared with observations. The results reemphasize the roles of Southern Ocean freshwater forcing and diapycnal mixing in the low-latitude pycnocline in setting the global deep water circulation and properties. The influence of high mixing in the Southern Ocean as inferred from observations is much more limited. The deep water circulation also has a strong influence on the marine ecosystem and nutrient distributions. We demonstrate that larger values of vertical diffusion lead to a shallower nutricline due to increased upwelling. Export production and nutrient distributions respond sensitively to changes in mixing and to the ratio of particle sinking to remineralization in the upper ocean. The best fits to global measurements of temperature, salinity, deep ocean radiocarbon, mixed layer depth, nutrients, and chlorophyll are obtained for values of vertical mixing in the pycnocline of around 0.2-0.3 × 10-4 m2/s and for e-folding depth for particle remineralization of 100-200 m. A simple parameterization of dissolved organic matter dynamics increases primary production and nutrient concentrations in the upper ocean and improves chlorophyll distributions in the subtropical gyres but has no discernible influence on particulate export fluxes. Remaining model deficiencies are identified, and strategies for future model improvement are outlined.

  17. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C; Kane, Ravi S

    2011-02-01

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. PMID:20886559

  18. Numerical investigation of Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines: methodology development for single turbine and small array simulation, and application to flume and full-scale reference models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi Mozafari, Amir Teymour

    A hierarchy of numerical models, Single Rotating Reference Frame (SRF) and Blade Element Model (BEM), were used for numerical investigation of horizontal axis Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Turbines. In the initial stage the SRF and BEM were used to simulate the performance and turbulent wake of a flume- and a full-scale MHK turbine reference model. A significant level of understanding and confidence was developed in the implementation of numerical models for simulation of a MHK turbine. This was achieved by simulation of the flume-scale turbine experiments and comparison between numerical and experimental results. Then the developed numerical methodology was applied to simulate the performance and wake of the full-scale MHK reference model (DOE Reference Model 1). In the second stage the BEM was used to simulate the experimental study of two different MHK turbine array configurations (i.e. two and three coaxial turbines). After developing a numerical methodology using the experimental comparison to simulate the flow field of a turbine array, this methodology was applied toward array optimization study of a full-scale model with the goal of proposing an optimized MHK turbine configuration with minimal computational cost and time. In the last stage the BEM was used to investigate one of the potential environmental effects of MHK turbine. A general methodological approach was developed and experimentally validated to investigate the effect of MHK turbine wake on the sedimentation process of suspended particles in a tidal channel.

  19. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): supporting the development of a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Arko, Robert; Proctor, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports an ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. The Ocean Data Interoperability (ODIP) project is creating a co-ordination platform to support collaboration between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and also the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts are coming together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first two ODIP workshops. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential interoperability solutions have been identified and work has now begun to implement these solutions within three prototype development tasks which will be outlined as part of this presentation. ODIP is a community led project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies in each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from six European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 (FP7) programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

  20. Development of a hydraulic control mechanism for cyclic pitch marine current turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Schönborn; Matthew Chantzidakis

    2007-01-01

    Tidal power generation by means of marine current farms is potentially a large renewable energy resource which could be harnessed in many coastal waters. Its availability is highly predictable in time, and the technology promises high energy conversion efficiency along with a relatively low impact on sea life due to its relatively small disturbance of natural tidal flows.A series of

  1. Development and application of a fully automatic troubleshooting method for large marine diesel engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Hountalas; A. D. Kouremenos

    1999-01-01

    The diesel engine is the main propulsion system for marine vessels except for a small category using gas or steam turbines. This is the result of its high efficiency, power concentration and reliability that have been improved considerably during the current decade. Despite these advantages, the engineer usually has to overcome great difficulties and mainly operational problems arising during the

  2. Developing Artificial Life Simulations of Marine Biology and Exploring Measures of Complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David White

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and species data from the Scylla reef have been used to undertake research into the relationship that different measures of complexity have on simulations of Marine Biology. Experiments on behavioural, data and scale complexity have examined how these measures affect the results of simulations, especially with regard to accuracy and robustness under changing environmental conditions.

  3. Progress in the development and acquisition of anticancer agents from marine sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Amador; J. Jimeno; L. Paz-Ares; H. Cortes-Funes; M. Hidalgo

    2003-01-01

    represent landmarks in the history of medicine. Almost 60% of drugs approved for cancer treatment are of natural origin. Vincristine, irinotecan, etoposide, taxanes and camptothecines are all examples of plant-derived compounds. Dactinomicine, anthracyclines, mitomycin and bleomycin are anticancer agents derived from microbial sources (1). Although marine compounds are under-represented in current pharmacopoeia, it is anticipated that the aquatic environment will

  4. The Development of the Relationship between Coastal Fisheries and Marine Conservation in the Oder Estuary Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Michaelsen

    In this article the conflicts and common interests of the coastal fishing industry and marine conservation in the Oder estuary region are analysed. The background is the author's diploma thesis about this topic in the year 2005 and a small, recently conducted survey. The 2005 survey showed that there exist many points of contact between the areas of fishery and

  5. Organic and inorganic gaseous chlorine concentrations in relation to the particle size distribution of chloride in the marine aerosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter W. Berg; John W. Winchester

    1977-01-01

    An intensive field sampling program has been carried out over the ocean in which 56 gas samples and 172 aerosol particle samples were analyzed for total organic chlorine and total inorganic chlorine gas and for particulate chlorine as a function of particle size. Sampling was conducted for 13- to 21-hour periods, March 5-14, 1976, 4 km from the north Florida

  6. Capsomer dynamics and stabilization in particles with T=12 quasi-symmetry; the cryoEM reconstructions of the marine bacteriophage SIO-2 and its procapsid

    PubMed Central

    Lander, Gabriel C.; Baudoux, Anne-Claire; Azam, Farooq; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Johnson, John E.

    2012-01-01

    We report the sub nanometer cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) reconstruction of a novel marine siphovirus, the Vibrio phage SIO-2. This phage is lytic for related Vibrio species with significant ecological importance including the broadly antagonistic bacterium Vibrio sp. SWAT3. The three dimensional structure of the 800Å SIO-2, icosahedrally averaged, head of the tailed particle revealed a novel T=12 quasi-symmetry not previously described in a bacteriophage. Two, morphologically distinct, types of auxiliary proteins were also identified; one species bound to the surface of hexamers and the other bound to pentamers. The secondary structure, evident in the electron density, shows that the major capsid protein has the HK97-like fold. The three-dimensional structure of the procapsid form, also presented here, has no “decoration” proteins and reveals a novel capsomer organization due to the constraints of the T=12 symmetry. PMID:22405008

  7. Insight on watershed development along the actively uplifting Mount Lebanon range (Lebanon) from marine and fluvial terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepley, S.; Gomez, F.; Nader, F.

    2005-12-01

    Active uplift in the Mt. Lebanon range results from regional transpression along a ~200-km-long restraining bend within the Dead Sea fault system. Thus, the resultant landscape is characterized by the combined influences of tectonic, eustatic, and climatic controls. Marine terraces in northern Mt. Lebanon range provide significant constraints on regional uplift and, consequently, base level control on watershed development. Detailed geologic mapping reveals at least six coastal terrace levels between the cities of Tripoli and Batroun in northern Lebanon, ranging in elevation from 5 m to 113 m above sea level. The marine terraces are primarily abrasional platforms with little to no sediment cover. However, at certain locations, the terraces comprise of a thick (up to 20 m towards the coast) sedimentary cover that are the result of episodic periods of cut and fill into older Pliocene deposits. The majority of these sediments are well-rounded, cobble-size clasts of limestone cemented by a calcite matrix with occasional clasts of basalt and marine fossils. Travertine formations, fossil remnants, and limestone clasts are available to constrain ages on terrace formations and, in turn, coastal uplift rates. Correlation of terrace heights with Pleistocene sea level variations suggests an average, regional uplift rate of 0.3 m/ka. Fluvial terraces in the northern Mt. Lebanon allow reconstruction of longitudinal profiles that grade into base levels represented by the corresponding marine terraces. Hence, this correlation constrains the ages of fluvial terraces and consequently permits estimates of fluvial erosion. Temporal variations in fluvial transport capacity are suggested by episodic aggradation of massive boulder-size clasts of basalt and dolomite that originate over 20 km upstream. Furthermore, knickpoints in the present-day drainage also appear to correlate with the former base levels. Hence, the retreat of these knickpoints permits assessing the lag time in the response of the fluvial system to base level changes.

  8. Microphysical Analysis of the Development of Ice Particles in Cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P.; Jensen, E. J.; Mace, G. G.; Mitchell, D. L.; Baker, B. A.; Mo, Q.

    2010-12-01

    The DOE ARM Small Particle in Cirrus (SPartICus) field project took place from 4 January through 24 June 2010. The SPEC Learjet was instrumented with state-of-the-art microphysical sensors that have been designed to minimize the effects of large ice particles shattering on probe inlets, which has contaminated results from most previous projects. The instrument complement includes fast FSSP, CDP, CPI, 2D-S, HVPS, CSI and Nevzorov IWC probes, along with air motion sensing. Data were collected in cirrus clouds over the ARM ACRF site near Lamont, Oklahoma, and in cirrus under various locations coincident with CloudSat/Calipso satellite overpasses. One of the scientific goals of SPartICus was to collect a large dataset with statistical relevance that documented the nature and variability of the particle size distribution in cirrus. The SPEC Learjet flew 190 hours in the SpartICus project, Approximately 60 hours of in-cloud data were collected in synoptically-generated cirrus, orographically-generated cirrus and cirrus anvils in Colorado, Kansas, Wyoming, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, South Dakota and North Dakota. A preliminary analysis of this dataset shows that in the mean, concentrations of ice particles were in the tens to hundreds per liter, but that concentrations as high as 10 per cc and as low as 0.1 per liter were occasionally encountered. Both the very low and very high particle concentrations cannot be explained from theories of primary nucleation, which presents a considerable challenge for numerical models. The outlier cases are examined to assess physical reasons for the anomalous measurements. The size distribution and the shape of the size distribution are also important for radiative studies. Large cirrus particles fall out and do not contribute to overall radiative heating that is attributed to cirrus clouds. The shape of the distribution has recently been shown to have a significant effect on effective particle diameter, which is a fundamental parameter in radiative packages used on climate models. SPartICus data are compared with previous measurements in cirrus to demonstrate how the shape of the particle size distribution affects calculation of effective particle diameter.

  9. Modeling Marine Phage Ecology Joseph M. Mahaffy

    E-print Network

    Mahaffy, Joseph M.

    liter sample · Filter water so only phage particles remain · Extract the phage DNA · Randomly breakModeling Marine Phage Ecology Joseph M. Mahaffy Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group Computational/3 #12;Outline · Introduction to Marine Phage · Discuss Biological Experiments · Contig Analysis

  10. Development of marine magnetic vector measurement system using AUV and deep-towed vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, K.; Isezaki, N.; Matsuo, J.; Harada, M.; Kasaya, T.; Nishimura, K.; Baba, H.

    2012-04-01

    Marine magnetic survey is one of useful methods in order to investigate the nature of the oceanic crust. Most of the data are, however, intensity of the geomagnetic field without its direction. Therefore we cannot properly apply a physical formula describing the relation between magnetic field and magnetization to analyses of the data. With this problem, Isezaki (1986) developed a shipboard three-component magnetometer which measures the geomagnetic vector at the sea. On the other hand, geophysical surveys near the seafloor have been more and more necessary in order to show the details of the oceanic crust. For instance, development of seabed resources like hydrothermal deposits needs higher resolution surveys compared with conventional surveys at the sea for accurate estimation of abundance of the resources. From these viewpoints, we have been developing a measurement system of the deep-sea geomagnetic vector using AUV and deep-towed vehicle. The measurement system consists of two 3-axis flux-gate magnetometers, an Overhauser magnetometer, an optical fiber gyro, a main unit (control, communication, recording), and an onboard unit. These devices except for the onboard unit are installed in pressure cases (depth limit: 6000m). Thus this measurement system can measure three components and intensity of the geomagnetic field in the deep-sea. In 2009, the first test of the measurement system was carried out in the Kumano Basin using AUV Urashima and towing vehicle Yokosuka Deep-Tow during the R/V Yokosuka YK09-09 cruise. In this test, we sank a small magnetic target to the seafloor, and examined how the system worked. As a result, we successfully detected magnetic anomaly of the target to confirm the expected performance of that in the sea. In 2010, the measurement system was tested in the Bayonnaise Knoll area both using a titanium towing frame during the R/V Bosei-maru cruise and using AUV Urashima during the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the performance of the system in an actual hydrothermal deposit area for practical applications of that. The Bayonnaise Knoll is a submarine caldera with an outer rim of 2.5-3 km and a floor of 840-920 m, which is located in the Izu-Ogasawara arc. A large hydrothermal deposit, Hakurei deposit lies in the southeast part of the caldera. In the R/V Bosei-maru cruise, we observed three components of magnetic anomalies at depths of 400-570 m along SE-NW and WE tracks across the caldera. In the R/V Yokosuka YK10-17 cruise, we observed three components and intensity of magnetic anomalies at altitudes of 60-100 m around the Hakurei deposit and at depth of 500 m above the caldera. From these tests, we have succeeded in measuring the geomagnetic vector and intensity using the AUV and the deep-towed vehicle, and also have obtained detailed magnetic anomaly in the Hakurei deposit area. We will here present the outlines of the measurement system and the tests in the sea. Note that this study has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT).

  11. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  12. Marine Modeling and Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Centers for Environmental Prediction, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    The Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch (MMAB) of the Environmental Modeling Center is responsible for the development of improved numerical weather and marine prediction modeling systems. These models provide analysis and real-time forecast guidance on marine meteorological, oceanographic, and cryospheric parameters over the global oceans and coastal areas of the US. This site provides access to MMAB modeling tools for ocean waves (including an interactive presentation,) sea ice, marine meteorology, sea surface temperature and more. The site also features a mailing list, bibliography of publications, and information about modeling products still in the experimental and development phases.

  13. Marine Science and Technology in Africa: Present State and Future Development. Synthesis of Unesco/ECA Survey Missions to African Coastal States, 1980. Project RAF/78/024. Unesco Reports in Marine Science, No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Presented is a synthesis of reports designed to assess the development of marine science and technology in African coastal states. This situation is analyzed from a regional (i.e., continent-wide) point of view. Five chapters comprise the report: (1) summary of recommendations, (2) introduction; (3) nation-by-nation descriptions and analyses; (4)…

  14. Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin D. O'Dowd; Jose L. Jimenez; Roya Bahreini; Richard C. Flagan; John H. Seinfeld; Kaarle Hämeri; Liisa Pirjola; Markku Kulmala; S. Gerard Jennings; Thorsten Hoffmann

    2002-01-01

    The formation of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei-from which marine clouds originate-depends ultimately on the availability of new, nanometre-scale particles in the marine boundary layer. Because marine aerosols and clouds scatter incoming radiation and contribute a cooling effect to the Earth's radiation budget, new particle production is important in climate regulation. It has been suggested that sulphuric acid-derived from

  15. Development of a Toxicity Identification Evaluation Protocol Using Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in a Marine Microalga

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Strom; P. J. Ralph; J. L. Stauber

    2009-01-01

    Growth inhibition bioassays with the microalga Nitzschia closterium have recently been applied in marine Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) testing. However, the 48-h test duration can\\u000a result in substantial loss of toxicants over time, which might lead to an underestimation of the sample toxicity. Although\\u000a shorter-term microalgal bioassays can minimize such losses, there are few bioassays available and none are adapted

  16. Development of phoH as a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Dawn B.; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D.; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment. PMID:21926220

  17. Update to ``Reconciliation of coarse mode sea-salt aerosol particle size measurements and parameterizations at a subtropical ocean receptor site'' regarding the use of aerodynamic particle sizers in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2007-02-01

    In the January 2006 issue of Journal of Geophysical Research, Reid et al. presented their findings regarding the sometimes large biases found in the measurement of the size and inferred mass concentration of coarse mode sea-salt particles. This was done on the R/P Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) off of the coast of Oahu, Hawaii, where long fetches of the clean marine environment could be studied. As part of this analysis, data from optical particle counters and TSI aerodynamic particle sizers (APS) (model 3320) were compared to filter mass and chemistry. It was found that a ground-based APS 3320 gave superior performance on measurement of sea-salt properties relative to other size spectrometers when previously published correction factors were used. However, a calibration study of APS instruments by Volckens and Peters (2005) was published while Reid et al. (2006) was in press. Volckens and Peters (2005) found significant differences in counting efficiency between wet and dry particles that included evidence for particle impaction inside the APS's acceleration nozzle. This finding does not impact Reid et al.'s (2006) key results or conclusions. However, it does bear relevance to specific comments made regarding what was suggested as appropriate use of APS-type instruments. It also has bearing on some unexplained anomalous behavior in the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) wing-mounted APS unit. In this short note we briefly review the APS performance bibliography, provide correction factors for size estimates presented in Reid et al. (2006), and discuss how the most current findings impact the study of coarse mode sea salt.

  18. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  19. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  20. Comparative analysis of European wide marine ecosystem shifts: a large-scale approach for developing the basis for ecosystem-based management

    PubMed Central

    Möllmann, Christian; Conversi, Alessandra; Edwards, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Abrupt and rapid ecosystem shifts (where major reorganizations of food-web and community structures occur), commonly termed regime shifts, are changes between contrasting and persisting states of ecosystem structure and function. These shifts have been increasingly reported for exploited marine ecosystems around the world from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic. Understanding the drivers and mechanisms leading to marine ecosystem shifts is crucial in developing adaptive management strategies to achieve sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystems. An international workshop on a comparative approach to analysing these marine ecosystem shifts was held at Hamburg University, Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany on 1–3 November 2010. Twenty-seven scientists from 14 countries attended the meeting, representing specialists from seven marine regions, including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Barents Sea, the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Bay of Biscay and the Scotian Shelf off the Canadian East coast. The goal of the workshop was to conduct the first large-scale comparison of marine ecosystem regime shifts across multiple regional areas, in order to support the development of ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:21270025

  1. Single-ultrafine-particle mass spectrometer development and application 

    E-print Network

    Glagolenko, Stanislav Yurievich

    2004-11-15

    design [Mallina et al., 2000; Phares et al., 2002]. All five instruments employ time-of-flight mass spectrometry for chemical analysis. These ____________________________________ This thesis follows the style and format of Journal... and ambient sulfuric acid particles within a very short period of time. The LAMPAS-2 instrument was used for characterization of aerosol in a rural area during the four week LACE 98 field campaign [Trimborn et al., 2000, 2002]. Ten main classes observed...

  2. Early developments: Particle physics aspects of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays is the birthplace of elementary particle physics. The 1936 Nobel prize was shared between Victor Hess and Carl Anderson. Anderson discovered the positron in a cloud chamber. The positron was predicted by Dirac several years earlier. In subsequent cloud chamber investigations Anderson and Neddermeyer saw the muon, which for some time was considered to be a candidate for the Yukawa particle responsible for nuclear binding. Measurements with nuclear emulsions by Lattes, Powell, Occhialini and Muirhead clarified the situation by the discovery of the charged pions in cosmic rays. The cloud chamber continued to be a powerful instrument in cosmic ray studies. Rochester and Butler found V's, which turned out to be shortlived neutral kaons decaying into a pair of charged pions. Also ?'s, ?'s, and ?'s were found in cosmic rays. But after that accelerators and storage rings took over. The unexpected renaissance of cosmic rays started with the search for solar neutrinos and the observation of the supernova 1987A. Cosmic ray neutrino results were best explained by the assumption of neutrino oscillations opening a view beyond the standard model of elementary particles. After 100 years of cosmic ray research we are again at the beginning of a new era, and cosmic rays may contribute to solve the many open questions, like dark matter and dark energy, by providing energies well beyond those of accelerators.

  3. Marine Organic Aerosols and Their Implication to Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannt, Brett Daniel

    Despite the fact that marine organic aerosols have been hypothesized to affect climate through their impact on cloud microphysical properties, emission parameterizations have only recently been available and have not undergone extensive model evaluation. In a literature review of the chemical and physical characteristics of marine organic aerosols, recent trends indicate that these aerosols are externally-mixed with sea-salt and can influence the size distribution towards larger and more numerous particles. Simulations of the emission of secondary and primary marine organic aerosols are performed using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.7 model, with primary organic aerosols (POA) having a much larger effect on surface aerosol mass concentrations. To develop an improved marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, observations of organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol (OMSSA), chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chl-a]), and 10 meter wind speed (U10) at two coastal sites are used to multivariable size-resolved parameterization that has global emissions of 2.8 to 5.6 Tg C yr-1 whose seasonality is more consistent with observations. These emissions, as well as several previously published marine POA emission parameterizations, are evaluated within the GEOS-Chem modeling framework. From this evaluation, marine POA emissions directly related to [Chl-a] best predicted the seasonality of surface concentrations while no parameterization performed well predicting episodic events. The climate impact of marine organic aerosols is determined by implementation of their emissions into the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with aerosol microphysics. The combination of marine secondary organic aerosols, methane sulfonate, and primary organic aerosol contribute up to 400 ng m -3 in annual average submicron organic aerosol mass concentration. Compared to the simulations without marine organic aerosols, the simulations with externally-mixed marine POA emissions have a 20% increase in the surface cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration near biologically productive ocean regions. The simulations only including secondary marine organic aerosol sources or internally-mixed marine POA emissions did not have large differences in the surface CCN concentration relative to the simulations with marine organic aerosols. Model simulations with and without marine organic aerosol and anthropogenic emissions are compared to determine the impact of marine organic aerosols on the current and preindustrial climate. Marine organic aerosols increase the model-predicted aerosol indirect forcing estimate by ˜0.1 W m -2 mainly due to changes in cloud microphysical properties in the pristine preindustrial climate.

  4. Preferential concentration of particles in a fully developed turbulent square duct flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Winkler; Sarma L. Rani; S. P. Vanka

    2004-01-01

    The preferential concentration of dense particles in a downward, fully developed turbulent square duct flow at Re?=360, based on mean friction velocity and duct width, is studied using large eddy simulations. Due to the low volume fractions involved (maximum volume fraction <10?5), one-way coupled simulations are performed, i.e., two-way coupling and particle–particle collisions are not considered. The continuous and the

  5. Numerical Simulation of Particle Dispersion in a Spatially Developing Mixing Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Luo, Xiaoyu; Luo, Kai H.

    Although there have been several numerical studies on particle dispersion in mixing layers, most of them have been conducted for temporally evolving mixing layers. In this study, numerical simulations of a spatially developing mixing layer are performed to investigate particle dispersion under various conditions. The full compressible Navier--Stokes equations are solved with a high-order compact finite difference scheme, along with high-order time-integration. Accurate non-reflecting boundary conditions for the fluid flow are used, and several methods for introducing particles into the computational domain are tested. The particles are traced using a Lagrangian approach assuming one-way coupling between the continuous and the dispersed phases. The study focuses on the roles of the large-scale vortex structures in particle dispersion at low, medium and high Stokes numbers, which highlights the important effects of interacting vortex structures in nearby regions in the spatially developing mixing layer. The effects of particles with randomly distributed sizes (or Stokes numbers) are also investigated. Both instantaneous flow fields and statistical quantities are analyzed, which reveals essential features of particle dispersion in spatially developing free shear flows, which are different from those observed in temporally developing flows. The inclusion of the gravity not only modifies the overall dispersion patterns, but also enhances stream-crossing by particles.

  6. Development of DMA-Faraday Cup Electrometer system for measurement of submicron aerosol particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu Shimada; Ferry Iskandar; Kikuo Okuyama

    2000-01-01

    A measurement system consisting of a Long Differential Mobility Analyzer (LDMA) and a Faraday Cup Electrometer (FCE) was developed to investigate the performance of the system for measuring the size distribution of submicron airborne particles. The LDMA was designed to have an extended classification zone in order to classify particles up to 1 mum. A new data reduction program was

  7. Mixing state of aerosols and direct observation of carbonaceous and marine coatings on African dust by individual particle analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Deboudt; Pascal Flament; Marie Choël; Alexandre Gloter; Sophie Sobanska; Christian Colliex

    2010-01-01

    The mixing state of aerosols collected at M'Bour, Senegal, during the Special Observing Period conducted in January–February 2006 (SOP-0) of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project (AMMA), was studied by individual particle analysis. The sampling location on the Atlantic coast is particularly adapted for studying the mixing state of tropospheric aerosols since it is (1) located on the path of

  8. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  9. Development of a single-axis ultrasonic levitator and the study of the radial particle oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Sebastian; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Esen, Cemal; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    This work describes the development and analysis of a new single-axis acoustic levitator, which consists of a 38 kHz Langevin-type piezoelectric transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector. The new levitator design allows to significantly reducing the electric power necessary to levitate particles and to stabilize the levitated sample in both radial and axial directions. In this investigation the lateral oscillations of a levitated particle were measured with a single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and an image evaluation technique. The lateral oscillations were measured for different values of particle diameter, particle density and applied electrical power.

  10. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, J.; Kottapalli, A. G. P.; Woo, M. E.; Asadnia, M.; Miao, J.; Lang, J. H.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics.

  11. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION OF A PROTOTYPE COARSE PARTICLE CONCENTRATOR FOR INHALATION TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES. (R825270)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the development and laboratory characterization of a prototype slit nozzle virtual impactor that can be used to concentrate coarse particles. A variety of physical design and flow parameters were evaluated including different acceleration and collection sli...

  13. Development, characterization, and application of a charged particle microbeam for radiobiological research

    E-print Network

    Folkert, Michael R. (Michael Ryan), 1975-

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a charged-particle microbeam for use in radiobiological research at the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (LABA). The purpose of this device is to precisely explore the ...

  14. Towards the prediction of cohesive sediments dynamics: developing acoustic and optical measurements via in situ particle visualization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Rob; Bass, Sarah; Manning, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Cohesive particles in marine and costal waters remain a significant challenge to sediment transport predictions. Given the relevance to water quality, pollution, benthic ecology and coastal engineering our ability to develop process-response models of cohesive sediments is poor. Suspended cohesive particles rarely exist in their primary state but form flocs which are aggregated, heterogeneous assemblages of mineral grains, biogenic debris, bacteria and organic material. Floc formation is thus a function of numerous variables whose inter-related processes are yet to be fully elucidated. This complexity is exacerbated by a lack of suitable data, notably in characterizing floc populations. A floc may constitute over 1 million individual particles and size can range over 4 orders of magnitude within one population. The effective densities are also highly variable, and the settling velocity can therefore span several orders of magnitude (Fennessey et al., 1994; Gibbs, 1985). The challenge is to develop data acquisition techniques that will allow accurate quantification of floc characteristics for the determination of SPM concentration and settling velocities for mass settling flux calculations. Particle size ranges and concentrations are not adequately measurable by physical sampling which break up fragile flocs. Remote methods offer the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of floc particle dynamics. However, the responses of light and sound to floc particles remain uncertain. Differences in derived mass concentrations of flocculated and non-cohesive suspensions occur because OBS measures projected area concentration not mass concentration. Laser interferometry (e.g. LISST) is only applicable in relatively low concentrations, can disturb fragile flocs and requires a smooth size distribution and near-spherical particles (e.g. Wren et al., 2000). Acoustic backscatter methods are limited by a lack of data from floc-dominated environments which has restricted the development of suitable acoustic inversion algorithms. Recent innovations of in situ visualization of floc size and settling velocity using INSSEV (e.g. Fennessey et al. 1994) & LabSFLOC (e.g. Manning and Dyer, 1999) have meant a step-change in our understanding of floc dynamics. Consequently, we are now in a position to make simultaneous measurements of cohesive SPM populations using in situ, remote and physical sampling to aid development of methods that account for the flaws in remote measurements. We present selected data collected in the meso-tidal Tamar Estuary, Devon, UK over several tidal cycles. INSSEV and LabSFLOC data were acquired at multiple heights and complimented by physically sampled SPM later analysed for mass and organic content. A suite of ABS and OBS sensors were used to provide multi-frequency vertical response profiles, and a LISST-XT was positioned at INSSEV height. These measurements were augmented by vertical ADV and ADCP profiles of velocity and regular CTD profiles. Examples are shown that reveal different responses of acoustic and optical methods across the tidal cycle. These differences are compared to changes in floc characteristics, SPM concentration, organic content, floc properties, flow hydrodynamics and water density over the tidal cycle in an attempt to determine the key parameters affecting the way in which sound and light interact with flocs. Ultimately, this information will be used to develop inversion algorithms that will allow the recovery of cohesive sediment mass concentrations using combinations of acoustical and optical instruments without the need for extensive field calibrations. Fennessy, M.J., Dyer, K.R., Huntley, D.A. 1994. INSSEV: an instrument to measure the size and settling velocity of flocs in-situ. Mar. Geol., 117, 107-117. Gibbs, R.J. 1985. Estuarine flocs: their size, settling velocity and density. J. Geophys. Res., 90(C2), 3249-3251. Manning, A.J., Dyer, K.R. 1999. A laboratory examination of floc characteristics with regard to turbulent shearing. Mar. Geol, 160, 147-170. Wren, D.G., Barkall, B.D.

  15. Development of an adhesively bonded beryllium propulsion structure for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, J. H.; Layman, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The design, testing, and fabrication of the support truss structure for the propulsion system of the Mariner 9 spacecraft are described. Support is provided by an 8.9-kg (19.5-lbm) truss assembly consisting of beryllium tubes adhesively bonded to magnesium end fittings. Beryllium was selected for the tubular struts in the truss because of its exceptionally high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Adhesive bonding, rather than riveting, was utilized to join the struts to the end fittings because of the low toughness (high notch sensitivity) of beryllium. Magnesium, used in the end fittings, resulted in a 50% weight saving over aluminum since geometric factors in the fitting design resulted in low stress areas where magnesium's lower density is a benefit.

  16. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist for interdisciplinary integration with best practices in: (i) water-energy nexus infrastructure; (ii) responsible tourism; and (iii) open data innovations.

  17. Norovirus P particle: a subviral nanoparticle for vaccine development against norovirus, rotavirus and influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are important pathogens causing epidemic acute gastroenteritis that affects millions of people worldwide. The protruding (P) domain of the NoV capsid protein, the surface antigen of NoV, forms a 24-mer subviral particle called the P particle that is an excellent candidate vaccine against NoVs. The P particles are easily produced in Escherichia coli, highly stable and highly immunogenic. Each P domain has three surface loops that can be used for foreign antigen presentation, making the P particles a useful platform for vaccine development against other infectious diseases. This article summarizes the discovery, structure, development and applications of the P particles as a vaccine against NoVs, as well as a vaccine platform against rotavirus, influenza virus and possibly other pathogens in the future. PMID:22734641

  18. Plan for utilizing Alcator A for developing actively cooled limiters and particle-pumping methods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.F.

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this plan is: to develop a limiter or limiters (subjected to high heat and particle fluxes at plasma edge) for long pulse operation of tokamak fusion devices; to study the particle removal with the limiters; and to study and develop the methods for protections against disruptions and other abnormal operation, such as run-away electrons and arcing. Alcator A has a peak heat of 5 kW/cm/sup 2/ and high particle flux, and as such is an ideal test facility. Access is adequate for small scale tests.

  19. Development of a non-intrusive particle tracing technique for granular chute flows

    SciTech Connect

    Rosato, A.D.; Dave, R.N.; Fischer, I.S.; Carr, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a non-intrusive particle tracking system to follow the trajectory of an individual particle in three dimensions within a mass of particles is necessary to experimentally validate developing theories of inclined chute granular flows in conjunction with particle dynamics models. An understanding of the exact nature of such flows is of critical importance to a variety of industries concerned with solids handling, as well as in natural geological events. The tracking system, based on the principle of radiosonde'' transmitters coupled to receiving antennae by magnetic induction, is being developed. The radiosonde consists of one or more, orthogonally placed miniature circuits with integral loop antennas, mounted into a sphere of approximately 3/4 in. in diameter. The radiosonde sphere position can be traced during the flow down a chute by analyzing the induced voltage signals in the three or more external orthogonal receiving loop antennas due to the transmitter chips. 22 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Development of nano cerium oxide incorporated aluminium alloy sacrificial anode for marine applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. A. Shibli; S. R. Archana; P. Muhamed Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium–zinc alloy sacrificial anodes are extensively used for cathodic protection. The performance of the sacrificial anodes can be significantly improved by incorporation of microalloying elements in the aluminium matrix. In the present work nano cerium oxide particles of different concentrations, ranging from 0 to 1wt% were incorporated for activating and improving the performance of the anode. The electrochemical test results

  1. UNIVERSITY CURRICULA IN THE MARINE SCIENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FROSCH, ROBERT A.

    REPORTED IS A COMPILATION OF MARINE SCIENCE COURSES OFFERED AT AMERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. THE INFORMATION IS PROVIDED TO ASSIST STUDENTS PLANNING A CAREER IN MARINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. THREE CURRICULUM AREAS ARE INCLUDED--(1) MARINE SCIENCES, (2) OCEAN ENGINEERING, AND (3) MARINE TECHNOLOGY. LISTED FOR EACH COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY ARE…

  2. Physiography of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary and implications about continental margin development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H.D.; Maher, N.M.; Paull, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    Combined EM-300 multibeam bathymetric data and satellite photography reveal the physiography of the continental margin between 35°50? and 37°03?N and from the shoreline west of 122°40? and 122°37?W, which includes Monterey Bay, in a previously unprecedented detail. Patterns in these images clearly reveal the processes that are actively influencing the current geomorphology of the Monterey Bay region, including the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). Our data indicates that seafloor physiography within the MBNMS results from plate margin tectonic deformation, including uplift and erosion along structural lineaments, and from fluid flow. Mass wasting is the dominant process active within the Ascension–Monterey and Sur–Partington submarine canyon systems and along the lower slopes. Meanders, slump dams, and constricted channels within the submarine canyons, especially within Monterey Canyon, slow and interrupt down-canyon sediment transport. We have identified for the first time thin sediment flows, rotational slumps, rills, depressions that may be associated with pipes, and other fluid-induced features we call ‘scallops’ off the Ascension slope, and suggest that fluid flow has sculptured the seafloor morphologies here. These unusual seafloor morphologies are similar to morphologies found in terrestrial areas modified by ground-water flow.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis and SNP Development Can Resolve Population Differentiation of Streblospio benedicti, a Developmentally Dimorphic Marine Annelid

    PubMed Central

    Zakas, Christina; Schult, Nancy; McHugh, Damhnait; Jones, Kenneth L.; Wares, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology is now frequently being used to develop genomic tools for non-model organisms, which are generally important for advancing studies of evolutionary ecology. One such species, the marine annelid Streblospio benedicti, is an ideal system to study the evolutionary consequences of larval life history mode because the species displays a rare offspring dimorphism termed poecilogony, where females can produce either many small offspring or a few large ones. To further develop S. benedicti as a model system for studies of life history evolution, we apply 454 sequencing to characterize the transcriptome for embryos, larvae, and juveniles of this species, for which no genomic resources are currently available. Here we performed a de novo alignment of 336,715 reads generated by a quarter GS-FLX (Roche 454) run, which produced 7,222 contigs. We developed a novel approach for evaluating the site frequency spectrum across the transcriptome to identify potential signatures of selection. We also developed 84 novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for this species that are used to distinguish coastal populations of S. benedicti. We validated the SNPs by genotyping individuals of different developmental modes using the BeadXPress Golden Gate assay (Illumina). This allowed us to evaluate markers that may be associated with life-history mode. PMID:22359608

  4. Vertical distribution and in situ feeding of marine particle-grazers in relation to their food, the microplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Napp, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A cruise was completed to measure the vertical distributions of plant biomass, growth, size and species composition, nutritional content and the zooplankton biomass and species composition. There were no consistent differences in the size spectra of particles between the regions of highest plant biomass and highest growth rates. Species known to be noxious or distasteful to the zooplankton were not members of either assemblage. The nutritional content of the particulate matter was greatest at the plant biomass maximum. Thus there was no evidence that the region of higher plant growth rates was a better place for zooplankton to feed. The diurnal distribution of zooplankton biomass was not consistently related to the vertical distributions of plant biomass, primary productivity, or productivity/chlorophyll. At night, the vertical distribution of zooplankton biomass was consistently related to the vertical distribution of plant biomass. There were species whose vertical distributions were consistently related to either the vertical distribution of plant biomass or productivity/chlorophyll a but not primary productivity, contrary to the observations of others. The total grazing pressure, measured in situ with a new design of grazing chamber and an isotopic carrier which labels the particulate matter day and night, indicated that the daily production of plant carbon was much greater than its rate of removal by the grazers. Thus, it is not necessary for the grazer biomass maximum to be located above the chlorophyll a maximum in order for that feature to persist.

  5. Analysis of the First Genome of a Hyperthermophilic Marine Virus-Like Particle, PAV1, Isolated from Pyrococcus abyssi? †

    PubMed Central

    Geslin, C.; Gaillard, M.; Flament, D.; Rouault, K.; Le Romancer, M.; Prieur, D.; Erauso, G.

    2007-01-01

    Only one virus-like particle (VLP) has been reported from hyperthermophilic Euryarchaeotes. This VLP, named PAV1, is shaped like a lemon and was isolated from a strain of “Pyrococcus abyssi,” a deep-sea isolate. Its genome consists of a double-stranded circular DNA of 18 kb which is also present at a high copy number (60 per chromosome) free within the host cytoplasm but is not integrated into the host chromosome. Here, we report the results of complete analysis of the PAV1 genome. All the 25 predicted genes, except 3, are located on one DNA strand. A transcription map has been made by using a reverse transcription-PCR assay. All the identified open reading frames (ORFs) are transcribed. The most significant similarities relate to four ORFs. ORF 180a shows 31% identity with ORF 181 of the pRT1 plasmid isolated from Pyrococcus sp. strain JT1. ORFs 676 and 678 present similarities with a concanavalin A-like lectin/glucanase domain, which could be involved in the process of host-virus recognition, and ORF 59 presents similarities with the transcriptional regulator CopG. The genome of PAV1 displays unique features at the nucleic and proteinic level, indicating that PAV1 should be attached at least to a novel genus or virus family. PMID:17449623

  6. Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples.

  7. Particle Transport, Deposition and Removal-From Research to Curriculum Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Understanding particle transport, deposition and removal are of crucial importance to many technologies such as microelectronic, imaging and pharmaceutical industries. In addition, solving a number of environmental problems requires a detail understanding of particle transport processes. In the last decade, significant research progress in the areas of particle transport, deposition and removal has been made. In this combined research and curriculum development project a sequence of two new courses on particle transport, deposition and removal and re-entrainment was developed and an existing course was fully revised to bring these new important research findings to seniors and first year graduate students in engineering. The course materials were made available on the web and the course was taught at two campuses simultaneously. A series of short courses were also offered to industries and at universities and research centers in the US and abroad.

  8. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, John P. Y.; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A.; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development. PMID:26132329

  9. Development of improved TRISO-P fuel particle P-PyC coating

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.C.

    1988-04-29

    Low defect fuels are required for the MHTGR to meet tighter fuel performance for this reactor design (Ref. 1). Exposed heavy metal (HM) contamination levels must be reduced to {le} 1E-5 fraction. Particle coating breakage during the fuel compact fabrication process has been shown to be a major source of HM contamination in the final fuel compacts. Excessive forces are experienced by the coated fuel particles during matrix injection, which leads to coating failure. Adding a sacrificial, low Young`s modulus, overcoating of low density PyC in a fluidized particle bed, was shown to greatly increase the crush strength of TRISO coated fuel particles in 1986 studies (Ref. 2). The new TRISO coated fuel particle design was designated the TRISO-P coated fuel particle type. In 1987, the TRISO-P particle type was used to produce low defect fuel compacts for irradiation in the HRB-21 Capsule (Ref. 3). However, the exposed HM contamination levels for that fuel barely met the product specification limit of {le} 1.0E-5. The small margin of safety between product quality and the specification limit dictated that additional process development of the TRISO-P particle design must be conducted. This document discusses the program scope, requirements, documentation and schedule.

  10. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  11. Marine biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. V. Thurman; H. H. Webber

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began

  12. The particles of the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid: How could they influence brain development?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Bachy; Renata Kozyraki; Marion Wassef

    2008-01-01

    During brain development, the embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) allows brain expansion and promotes neuroepithelial cell survival, proliferation or differentiation. Previous analyses of E-CSF content have revealed a high protein concentration and the presence of membranous particles. The role of these particles in the E-CSF remains poorly investigated. In this study we showed that the E-CSF contains at least two pools

  13. Industry and Technology: Keys to Oceanic Development, Volume 2, Panel Reports of the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources, Washington, DC.

    This document is the second of a three-volume series of panel reports compiled by the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources. Contained in this volume are part V, Report of the Panel on Industry and Private Investment, and part VI, Report of the Panel on Marine Engineering and Technology. Major recommendations presented in part V…

  14. Research in particles and fields in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental work in charged particle and magnetic field research is reported. Activities center on plasma generation and acceleration, ATS 1 data processing for evaluation of magnetospheric substorms and micropulsations during magnetic disturbances, and the development of solar wind model using Mariner observations.

  15. Developments in Marine Current Turbine Research at the United States Naval Academy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, K. A.; Luznik, L.

    2013-12-01

    A series of tests have been performed on a 1/25th scale model of a two bladed horizontal axis marine current turbine. The tests were conducted in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine model has a 0.8 m diameter (D) rotor with a NACA 63-618 cross section, which is Reynolds number independent with respect to the lift coefficient in the operating range of Rec ? 4 x 105. Baseline test were conducted to obtain torque, thrust and rotational speed at a range of tip speed ratios (TSR) from 5 < TSR < 11. The power and thrust coefficients for the model turbine match expected results from blade-element-momentum theory. The lift and drag curves for the numerical model were obtained by testing a 2D NACA 63-618 airfoil in a wind tunnel. Additional tests were performed at two rotor depths (1.3D and 2.25D) in the presence of intermediate and deep water waves. The average values for power and thrust coefficient are weakly dependent on turbine depth. The waves yield a small increase in turbine performance which can be explained by Stokes drift velocity. Phase averaged results indicate that the oscillatory wave velocity results in significant variations in measured turbine torque and rotational speed as a function of wave phase. The turbine rotation speed, power, and thrust reach a maximum with the passing of the wave crest and a minimum with the passing of the wave trough. The torque appears dependent on vertical velocity, which lags the horizontal velocity by 90° of wave phase. Variations of the performance parameters are of the same order of magnitude as the average value, especially when the turbine is near the mean free surface and in the presence of high energy waves. These results demonstrate the impact of surface gravity waves on power production and structural loading. Future tests will focus on measuring and modeling the wake of the turbine for unsteady flow conditions. Model Turbine Power Coefficient vs, Tip Speed Ratio

  16. Marine Renewable Energy and Cetaceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Dolman; Mick Green; Mark P. Simmonds

    There is an ongoing development of offshore renewable energy projects worldwide. Marine wind power technology is the most advanced and tidal and wave power projects are creating increasing interest. Marine renewable energy projects to date have been focused in northern Europe, yet developments are also planned and underway in other parts of the world. Whilst these offshore renewable energy developments

  17. Marine Education Society of Australasia, Inc. (MESA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Australian organization supports educators interested in coastal and marine environments, identifies best practices in marine education, provides a forum to facilitate the development of environmental education and interpretation programs, and promotes sustainable use of natural resources through education. Programs include: a national awareness campaign; member training, workshops and conferences; a marine educator online discussion board; teaching ideas and resources. Site offers information sheets on marine topics, audio files, marine-related news, online newsletter, recommended websites.

  18. Marine and Maritime Sector Skills Shortages in the South West of England: Developing Regional Training Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Julian; Meethan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Clustering theory assumes that companies gravitate towards each other on the basis of locally and regionally specific resources and supply chain characteristics, which lead in turn to innovation and high-value economic development. In line with such thinking, UK government policy has devolved certain functions to regional development agencies such…

  19. Development of the Superconducting Detectors for Applications to Particle Physics and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibayashi, Atsuko; Hazumi, Masashi; Ishino, Hirokazu; Kibe, Yoshiaki; Mima, Satoru; Otani, Chiko; Sato, Nobuaki; Watanabe, Hiroki; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro

    Superconducting detectors (SCDs) have been gaining popularity in the field of particle physics and astrophysics in recent years for their capabilities to have high sensitivity and a large number of device arrays in a small compact package. They are recognized as next generation particle and wave detection devices. Our group has been developing superconducting detectors for the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization measurements and for phonon detections in the substrate for other particle physics applications. We have been fabricating both Superconducting Tunnel Junction detectors (STJs) and Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) by utilizing the clean room facility at KEK since 2010. We present the R&D status and summary of the SCDs for the application of particle physics and astrophysics.

  20. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-08-01

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

  1. Development of virus-like particle technology from small highly symmetric to large complex virus-like particle structures.

    PubMed

    Pushko, Peter; Pumpens, Paul; Grens, Elmars

    2013-01-01

    Virus-like particle (VLP) technology is a promising approach for the construction of novel vaccines, diagnostic tools, and gene therapy vectors. Initially, VLPs were primarily derived from non-enveloped icosahedral or helical viruses and proved to be viable vaccine candidates due to their effective presentation of epitopes in a native conformation. VLP technology has also been used to prepare chimeric VLPs decorated with genetically fused or chemically coupled epitope stretches selected from immunologically defined target proteins. However, structural constraints associated with the rigid geometrical architecture of icosahedral or helical VLPs pose challenges for the expression and presentation of large epitopes. Complex VLPs derived from non-symmetric enveloped viruses are increasingly being used to incorporate large epitopes and even full-length foreign proteins. Pleomorphic VLPs derived from influenza or other enveloped viruses can accommodate multiple full-length and/or chimeric proteins that can be rationally designed for multifunctional purposes, including multivalent vaccines. Therefore, a second generation of VLP carriers is represented by complex particles reconstructed from natural or chimeric structural proteins derived from complex enveloped viruses. Further development of safe and efficient VLP nanotechnology may require a rational combination of both approaches. PMID:23594863

  2. Marine Fog Droplets and Salt Nuclei -Part 11.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Alfred H.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Jiusto, James E.

    1981-01-01

    In Past 1 of this fog study, the distribution of water with number and size of drops in some New England marine advection fogs was shown to be related to the distribution of number and size of salt particles found in marine air. It was indicated that in saturated air the calculated amounts of water condensed on the salt particles produced water distributions as a function of drop size much like distributions observed in numerous advection fogs. The results suggest that salt particles play an important role in the initiation and growth of marine fogs.In the present work, photomicrographs of drops and of drop salt nuclei from several New England marine fogs are studied. The results confirm the conclusions of the first study, demonstrating even more clearly the direct relationship of drop weight to nucleus weight. The fog drops must have grown in supersaturated air, because in almost all of them the salt concentrations were below the equilibrium values for saturated air. However, the number and sizes of the salt nuclei in the air and fog support the idea that the fogs probably developed first as moderate haze-droplet fogs in saturated air (i.e., relative humidity 100%). A temperature-mixing ratio diagram is used to explain how saturation may be sustained by mixing, for the time intervals required for these haze-drop fogs to develop.

  3. Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.

    2010-08-01

    The ocean-energy industry is still in its infancy and device developers have provided their own equipment and procedures for testing. Currently, no testing standards exist for ocean energy devices in the United States. Furthermore, as prototype devices move from the test tank to in-water testing, the logistical challenges and costs grow exponentially. Development of a common instrumentation package that can be moved from device to device is one means of reducing testing costs and providing normalized data to the industry as a whole. As a first step, the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has initiated an effort to develop an instrumentation package to provide a tool to allow common measurements across various ocean energy devices. The effort is summarized in this paper. First, we present the current status of ocean energy devices. We then review the experiences of the wind industry in its development of the instrumentation package and discuss how they can be applied in the ocean environment. Next, the challenges that will be addressed in the development of the ocean instrumentation package are discussed. For example, the instrument package must be highly adaptable to fit a large array of devices but still conduct common measurements. Finally, some possible system configurations are outlined followed by input from the industry regarding its measurement needs, lessons learned from prior testing, and other ideas.

  4. Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces - Recent Theoretical and Experimental Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, P. A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the work on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) include: 1) to obtain fundamental understanding of the physics of particle pushing and engulfment, 2) to develop mathematical models to describe the phenomenon, and 3) to perform critical experiments in the microgravity environment of space to provide benchmark data for model validation. Successful completion of this project will yield vital information relevant to a diverse area of terrestrial applications. With PEP being a long term research effort, this report will focus on advances in the theoretical treatment of the solid/liquid interface interaction with an approaching particle, experimental validation of some aspects of the developed models, and the experimental design aspects of future experiments to be performed on board the International Space Station.

  5. Development of fully automated and integrated (''Instamatic'') welding systems for marine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Masubuchi, K.; Gustin, H.L.; Schloerb, D.W.

    1983-05-01

    A two-year research program was conducted at M.I.T. to develop fully automated and integrated welding systems. These systems package many actions involved in welding so that certain prescribed welding jobs can be performed by a person with no welding skill. They have been nicknamed ''instamatic'' welding systems, since they are similar to the easy-to-operate cameras. Following a general discussion on the development of the concept of the ''instamatic'' welding system, discussions are given on two types of systems which have been built and tested: underwater stud welding systems, and those using arc welding processes.

  6. Development of a focused charged particle microbeam for the irradiation of individual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barberet, Ph.; Balana, A.; Incerti, S.; Michelet-Habchi, C.; Moretto, Ph.; Pouthier, Th. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France)

    2005-01-01

    An irradiation facility, able to expose cellular and subcellular targets to a precise number of particles, has been developed at CENBG for applications in radiobiology. The development of this facility was based on an existing horizontal focused microbeam developed in the early 90's for material analysis. The focusing properties of the line allow the delivering of proton or alpha particle beams in the 1-3.5 MeV energy range with a spatial resolution down to about 1 {mu}m under vacuum. For irradiation of living cells, a removable stage has been developed to extract the beam into air while preserving the analytical capabilities of the microbeam line under vacuum. This stage includes a high resolution epifluorescence microscope for online visualization of the cells and a motorized stage for cell positioning. Single particle control is ensured by a fast electrostatic deflector triggered by the signal induced by the particles through a transmission detector just before reaching the target. A dedicated software, based on an object-oriented architecture, has been designed to control the entire experiment. This includes semiautomatic calibration procedures (necessary to achieve the micron precision) and semiautomatic irradiation procedures used for targeting a large number of individual cells. In air irradiation of solid track detectors has permitted us to estimate that 99.5% of the particles are delivered on the target at a distance lower than 5 {mu}m from the beam center when an alpha particles beam is used. The targeting precision of the overall irradiation procedure, which reflects the alignment precision of the beam center with the target center, has been estimated to be within {+-}2 {mu}m. First experiments involving cells in culture have permitted to estimate an irradiation rate of 2000 cells per hour. This article presents the overall experimental facility and the tests performed for its validation for the irradiation of individual cells in their culture medium.

  7. Development of a focused charged particle microbeam for the irradiation of individual cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberet, Ph.; Balana, A.; Incerti, S.; Michelet-Habchi, C.; Moretto, Ph.; Pouthier, Th.

    2005-01-01

    An irradiation facility, able to expose cellular and subcellular targets to a precise number of particles, has been developed at CENBG for applications in radiobiology. The development of this facility was based on an existing horizontal focused microbeam developed in the early 90's for material analysis. The focusing properties of the line allow the delivering of proton or alpha particle beams in the 1-3.5MeV energy range with a spatial resolution down to about 1?m under vacuum. For irradiation of living cells, a removable stage has been developed to extract the beam into air while preserving the analytical capabilities of the microbeam line under vacuum. This stage includes a high resolution epifluorescence microscope for online visualization of the cells and a motorized stage for cell positioning. Single particle control is ensured by a fast electrostatic deflector triggered by the signal induced by the particles through a transmission detector just before reaching the target. A dedicated software, based on an object-oriented architecture, has been designed to control the entire experiment. This includes semiautomatic calibration procedures (necessary to achieve the micron precision) and semiautomatic irradiation procedures used for targeting a large number of individual cells. In air irradiation of solid track detectors has permitted us to estimate that 99.5% of the particles are delivered on the target at a distance lower than 5?m from the beam center when an alpha particles beam is used. The targeting precision of the overall irradiation procedure, which reflects the alignment precision of the beam center with the target center, has been estimated to be within ±2?m. First experiments involving cells in culture have permitted to estimate an irradiation rate of 2000 cells per hour. This article presents the overall experimental facility and the tests performed for its validation for the irradiation of individual cells in their culture medium.

  8. Development of a promising fish model (Oryzias melastigma) for assessing multiple responses to stresses in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Sijun; Kang, Mei; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of contaminants in the marine environment, various experimental organisms have been "taken into labs" by investigators to find the most suitable environmentally relevant models for toxicity testing. The marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, has a number of advantages that make it a prime candidate for these tests. Recently, many studies have been conducted on marine medaka, especially in terms of their physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses after exposure to contaminants and other environmental stressors. This review provides a literature survey highlighting the steady increase of ecotoxicological research on marine medaka, summarizes the advantages of using O. melastigma as a tool for toxicological research, and promotes the utilization of this organism in future studies. PMID:24724087

  9. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1980: Marine Resources Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Reauthorization of the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1980 will extend the coastal program for five years, but reduces authorization levels during that period. Judicial developments covered Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) bidding systems and Beaufort Sea litigation. Administrative activity by DOE and the Department of Interior (DOI) increased in ways that will affect oil and gas operations. 48 references. (DCK)

  10. Development of a sequential extraction method for different forms of phosphorus in marine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen C. Ruttenberg

    1992-01-01

    A sequential extraction method (SEDEX) has been developed to separately quantify five sedi- mentary P reservoirs: loosely sorbed P; ferric iron-bound P, authigenic carbonate fluorapatite + biogenic apatite + CaCO,-associated P; detrital apatite P; and organic P. The SEDEX method successfully separates two of the main categories of authigenic phosphate phases called upon most often as sedimentary sinks for diagenetically

  11. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

    2013-05-20

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  12. SP-100 coated-particle fuel development. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This document is the final report of Phase I of the SP-100 Coated-Particle Fuel Development Program conducted by GA Technologies Inc. for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AT03-82SF11690. The general objective of the study conducted between September and December 1982 was to evaluate coated-particle type fuel as an alternate or backup fuel to the UO/sub 2/ tile-and-fin arrangement currently incorporated into the reference design of the SP-100 reactor core. This report presents and discusses the following topics in the order listed: the need for an alternative fuel for the SP-100 nuclear reactor; an abbreviated description of the reference and coated-particle fuel module concepts; the bases and results of the study and analysis leading to the preliminary design of a coated particle suitable for the SP-100 space power reactor; incorporation of the fuel particles into compacts and heat-pipe-cooled modules; initial efforts and plans to fabricate coated-particle fuel and fuel compacts; the design and performance of the proposed alternative core relative that of the reference fuel; and a summary of critical issues and conclusions consistent with the level of effort and duration of the study.

  13. A challenge to develop a continuous centrifuge for precision particle size fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2007-03-01

    In producing particles, including nanoparticles, of narrow particle size distribution, synthetic methods have been widely used, since considerable amounts of products could rather simply be obtained. On the other hand, such sort of processes have a significant drawback, since applicable range of materials is rather limited. Under such circumstances, we have started to develop a continuous centrifuge for precision particle size fractionation, which could be applied, in principle, to any material, in stark contrast to synthetic processes. Besides, continuous systems could realize not only considerable processing capacity but also the exact particle sizes we want, in contrast to batch systems. Furthermore, since such methodology is based upon principles completely different from those of synthetic processes, it could complement them, by further sharpening the size distribution of the products, for example. We chose liquid phase as separation medium, since it enables high processing capacity and also suppresses the possible aggregation of the particles. At present, there are no continuous particle size fractionation systems in liquid phase applicable to the size range below several micrometers. The designs to widen this range down to submicrometers and further, together with realization of high resolution, are to be discussed.

  14. Development of Encoded Particle-Polymer Arrays for the Accelerated Screening of Antifouling Layers

    PubMed Central

    Kithva, Prakash; Bax, Jacinda; Surawski, Peter P.T.; Montero, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A multiplexed screening methodology for the rapid development of antifouling polymer surfaces is presented. An array of protein resistant polymer layers with high grafting (>100 mg/m2) were polymerized on optically encoded particles. Multiplexed analysis showed a 97% reduction in nonspecific protein adsorption for all polymer layers created. PMID:21773613

  15. Development towards ultra-thin superconducting solenoid magnets for high energy particle detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Yamamoto; Yasuhiro Makida; Ken-Ichi Tanaka; Yoshikuni Doi; Takahiko Kondo; Katsunori Wada; Shin-Ichiro Meguro

    1999-01-01

    Development towards ultra-thin superconducting solenoid magnets for high energy particle detector has been carried out by focusing on aluminum stabilized superconductor mechanically reinforced while keeping electrical resistivity as low as possible. It has been realized by using combined technologies of “micro-alloying” and “cold-work hardening”. Further general efforts to realize transparent solenoids are also discussed.

  16. Representation of particle motion in the auditory midbrain of a developing anuran.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2015-07-01

    In bullfrog tadpoles, a "deaf period" of lessened responsiveness to the pressure component of sounds, evident during the end of the late larval period, has been identified in the auditory midbrain. But coding of underwater particle motion in the vestibular medulla remains stable over all of larval development, with no evidence of a "deaf period." Neural coding of particle motion in the auditory midbrain was assessed to determine if a "deaf period" for this mode of stimulation exists in this brain area in spite of its absence from the vestibular medulla. Recording sites throughout the developing laminar and medial principal nuclei show relatively stable thresholds to z-axis particle motion, up until the "deaf period." Thresholds then begin to increase from this point up through the rest of metamorphic climax, and significantly fewer responsive sites can be located. The representation of particle motion in the auditory midbrain is less robust during later compared to earlier larval stages, overlapping with but also extending beyond the restricted "deaf period" for pressure stimulation. The decreased functional representation of particle motion in the auditory midbrain throughout metamorphic climax may reflect ongoing neural reorganization required to mediate the transition from underwater to amphibious life. PMID:25981910

  17. Development of a parameterization scheme for calculating dry deposition velocity of fine, coarse and giant particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; He, Z.

    2013-12-01

    A parameterization scheme is developed for calculating bulk dry deposition velocity (Vd) of fine (PM2.5-particles having a diameter of ? 2.5 ?m), coarse (PM2.5-10-particles having a diameter of 2.5-10 ?m), and giant (PM10+-particles having a diameter of > 10 ?m) atmospheric particles. The parameterization scheme is developed from an empirical fit of Vd data calculated using the size-resolved Vd scheme of Zhang et~al. (2001) with assumed lognormal size distributions of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10+. In the new scheme, the surface deposition velocity (Vds) is parameterized as a simple linear function of friction velocity (u*) for PM2.5 and as a polynomial function of u* for both PM2.5-10 and PM10+ over all the 26 land use categories (LUCs). An adjustment factor as an exponential function of u* and leaf area index (LAI) is also applied to Vds of PM2.5-10 and PM10+ over nine of the 26 LUCs that have variable LAI. Constant gravitational settling velocities are provided for PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10+. Aerodynamic resistance between a reference height and the surface can be calculated using available analytical formulas from literature. The bulk Vd of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10+ at the reference height can then be calculated by combining the gravitational settling velocity, aerodynamic resistance and the parameterized Vds. The new parameterization scheme agrees reasonably well with the original size-resolved scheme and provides an alternative approach for calculating Vd of fine, coarse and giant particles. Vd of any particle species can be simply estimated using this scheme as long as the mass fraction in fine, coarse and giant particles are known or can be assumed.

  18. The adhesive strategies of cyprids and development of barnacle-resistant marine coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Aldred; Anthony S. Clare

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, approaches to the development of surfaces that perturb settlement and\\/or adhesion by barnacles have diversified substantially. Although, previously, coatings research focussed almost exclusively on biocidal technologies and low modulus, low surface-free-energy ‘fouling-release’ materials, novel strategies to control surface colonisation are now receiving significant attention. It is timely, therefore, to review the current ‘state of knowledge’ regarding

  19. Recent developments in radiometric and mass spectrometry methods for marine radioactivity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Povinec; J. J. La Rosa; S. H. Lee; S. Mulsow; I. Osvath; E. Wyse

    2001-01-01

    The most important recent developments in radiometric techniques have been the operation of high efficiency HPGe detectors with anticosmic or antiCompton shielding often placed underground, ship-board measurements of 234Th using gamma-spectrometry or beta-counting and underwater gamma-spectrometry. In mass spectrometry techniques, the availability of high resolution ICP-MS and applications of AMS for the analysis of long-lived radionuclides have opened doors for

  20. Linking marine biology and biotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocky de Nys; Peter D Steinberg

    2002-01-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of

  1. Measurement of particle accelerations in fully developed turbulence By G REG A. V OTH , A. L A P ORTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALICE M. C RAWFORD; EBERHARD B ODENSCHATZ

    We use silicon strip detectors (originally developed for the CLEO III high-energy particle physics experiment) to measure fluid particle trajectories in turbulence with temporal resolution of up to 70 000 frames per second. This high frame rate al- lows the Kolmogorov time scale of a turbulent water flow to be fully resolved for 140> R> 970. Particle trajectories exhibiting accelerations

  2. Development of uranium reference particles for nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kips, Ruth

    In the oversight of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and as part of the Additional Protocol of the International Atomic Energy Agency, environmental sampling has become an important tool for the detection of non-declared nuclear activities. One extensively developed technique in environmental sampling (ES) makes use of pieces of cotton cloth called swipes to wipe surfaces in and around a nuclear facility. The dust collected on these swipes typically contains micrometer-sized uranium particles with an isotopic composition characteristic for the processes at the inspected facility. Since its implementation in the 1990s, ES has proven to be a very effective tool in the detection of clandestine activities owing to a number of highly sensitive and selective techniques, including secondary ion mass spectrometry and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. However, considering the potential consequences of the analyses, these measurements need to be subjected to a rigorous quality management system. In a continuous effort to improve the accuracy and detection efficiency of the uranium isotope ratio measurements, uranium particle reference materials are being developed by different research groups. It was concluded however, that the existing methods for the production of particulate reference materials generally do not reproduce the particles recovered from swipe samples. For this reason, we developed the aerosol deposition chamber at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements for the production of reference uranium particles that are representative of the particles collected at enrichment facilities. This method is based on the controlled hydrolysis of milligram amounts of uranium hexafluoride with a certified uranium isotopic composition. After optimization of the experimental set-up, the particles produced by the aerosol deposition chamber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The particle morphology and composition were found to be dependent on the relative humidity of the air, the exposure to ultraviolet light and the time elapsed after formation. Possible correlations between the relative amount of fluorine and the age of the particles were investigated. These results were the starting point for the first inter-laboratory measurement evaluation programme (NUSIMEP) on uranium particles.

  3. Development of cardiovascular function in the marine gastropod Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Bitterli, Tabitha S; Rundle, Simon D; Spicer, John I

    2012-07-01

    The molluscan cardiovascular system typically incorporates a transient extracardiac structure, the larval heart, early in development, but the functional importance of this structure is unclear. We documented the ontogeny and regulatory ability of the larval heart in relation to two other circulatory structures, the true heart and the velum, in the intertidal gastropod Littorina obtusata. There was a mismatch between the appearance of the larval heart and the velum. Velar lobes appeared early in development (day 4), but the larval heart did not begin beating until day 13. The beating of the larval heart reached a maximum on day 17 and then decreased until the structure itself disappeared (day 24). The true heart began to beat on day 17. Its rate of beating increased as that of the larval heart decreased, possibly suggesting a gradual shift from a larval heart-driven to a true heart-driven circulation. The true heart was not sensitive to acutely declining P(O(2)) shortly after it began to beat, but increased in activity in response to acutely declining P(O(2)) by day 21. Larval heart responses were similar to those of the true heart, with early insensitivity to declining P(O(2)) (day 13) followed by a response by day 15. Increased velum-driven rotational activity under acutely declining P(O(2)) was greatest in early developmental stages. Together, these findings point to cardiovascular function in L. obtusata larvae being the result of a complex interaction between velum, larval and true heart activities, with the functions of the three structures coinciding but their relative importance changing throughout larval development. PMID:22675194

  4. Bacterial diversity, community structure and function associated with biofilm development in a biological aerated filter in a recirculating marine aquaculture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi-Yan Gao; Yang Xu; Ying Liu; Zhi-Pei Liu

    A biological aerated filter (100 l), filled with bamboo ball media, was set up for treatment of low ammonia-containing recirculating\\u000a water in a marine aquaculture system. Chemical analysis showed that it took 70 days to establish a stable efficiency, at which\\u000a more than 30% of the ammonia was removed. During the biofilm development, bacterial diversity and community structure were\\u000a determined by construction

  5. Connecting to the Standards through Marine Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Marine Sciences Consortium, Fort Hancock. New Jersey Sea Grant Coll. Program.

    Marine and related environmental science topics represent a rich resource of meaningful material for New Jersey's educators as they seek to develop standards-based instructional strategies. By adopting and integrating the marine environment science programs and curriculum materials developed by the Education Program at the New Jersey Marine…

  6. Development of Ecogenomic Sensors for Remote Detection of Marine Microbes, Their Genes and Gene Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholin, C.; Preston, C.; Harris, A.; Birch, J.; Marin, R.; Jensen, S.; Roman, B.; Everlove, C.; Makarewicz, A.; Riot, V.; Hadley, D.; Benett, W.; Dzenitis, J.

    2008-12-01

    An internet search using the phrase "ecogenomic sensor" will return numerous references that speak broadly to the idea of detecting molecular markers indicative of specific organisms, genes or other biomarkers within an environmental context. However, a strict and unified definition of "ecogenomic sensor" is lacking and the phrase may be used for laboratory-based tools and techniques as well as semi or fully autonomous systems that can be deployed outside of laboratory. We are exploring development of an ecogenomic sensor from the perspective of a field-portable device applied towards oceanographic research and water quality monitoring. The device is known as the Environmental Sample Processor, or ESP. The ESP employs wet chemistry molecular analytical techniques to autonomously assess the presence and abundance of specific organisms, their genes and/or metabolites in near real-time. Current detection chemistries rely on low- density DNA probe and protein arrays. This presentation will emphasize results from 2007-8 field trials when the ESP was moored in Monterey Bay, CA, as well as current engineering activities for improving analytical capacity of the instrument. Changes in microbial community structure at the rRNA level were observed remotely in accordance with changing chemical and physical oceanographic conditions. Current developments include incorporation of a reusable solid phase extraction column for purifying nucleic acids and a 4-channel real-time PCR module. Users can configure this system to support a variety of PCR master mixes, primer/probe combinations and control templates. An update on progress towards fielding a PCR- enabled ESP will be given along with an outline of plans for its use in coastal and oligotrophic oceanic regimes.

  7. Development of a marine subtidal epibiotic community in Hong Kong: implications for deployment of artificial reefs.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian-Wen; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Leung, Albert W; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2003-02-01

    A 2-year study was conducted in Hong Kong to examine the effects of substratum, season and length of submersion on the development of a subtidal epibiotic community using four types of settlement panels (concrete, steel, wood and tyre). The season and length of submersion had a strong influence on the total biomass and on community structure while the type of substratum had very little impact on the total biomass or the structure of the epibiotic community. The season of submersion determined the species composition of the newly submerged surfaces. In the spring and summer, tubeworms were the most abundant. In the autumn and winter, barnacles and tunicates dominated. Community succession was not obvious in the first year of submersion as it was intermingled with strong seasonal settlement, growth and death of barnacles and tunicates. In the second year of submersion, green mussels and tunicates settled and grew to occupy most of the panel surfaces, forming an assemblage that was characteristic of climax communities in the local subtidal waters. The results suggest that the type of construction material has limited impact on the development of epibiotic communities on artificial reefs deployed in Hong Kong; the season of submersion may affect community structure in the early successional stage, but not the characteristics of the climax communities. This study indicates that the type of substratum should not be of concern when deploying artificial reefs in the subtidal waters in this region. The design of artificial reefs should focus more on other physical and economical aspects such as durability, flow dynamics, stability, cost, and effects on the ambient environment. PMID:14618687

  8. Australian Institute of Marine Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located near Townsville, North Queensland, AIMS researchers collect and analyze data to improve our understanding of the marine world, and to find science-based management practices that ensure long-term sustainable use and development of marine resources. Site features information on facilities, faculty, current projects, open house and other events, and employment opportunities. Also features the Mariner's Journal, a log from several AIMS research cruises.

  9. Progress and hurdles in the development of influenza virus-like particle vaccines for veterinary use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble infectious virus particles in structure and morphology, have been proposed to provide a new generation of vaccine candidates against various viral infections. As effective immunogens, characterized by high immunogenicity and safety, VLPs have been employed in the development of human influenza vaccines. Recently, several influenza VLP vaccines have been developed for veterinary use and successfully evaluated in swine, canine, duck, and chicken models. These VLP vaccine candidates induced protective immune responses and enabled serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals in conjunction with a diagnostic test. Here, we review the current progress of influenza VLP development as a next-generation vaccine technology in the veterinary field and discuss the challenges and future direction of this technology. PMID:25003086

  10. Developing Supersonic Impactor and Aerodynamic Lens for Separation and Handling of Nano-Sized Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2008-06-30

    A computational model for supersonic flows of compressible gases in an aerodynamic lens with several lenses and in a supersonic/hypersonic impactor was developed. Airflow conditions in the aerodynamic lens were analyzed and contour plots for variation of Mach number, velocity magnitude and pressure field in the lens were evaluated. The nano and micro-particle trajectories in the lens and their focusing and transmission efficiencies were evaluated. The computational model was then applied to design of a aerodynamic lens that could generate focus particle beams while operating under atmospheric conditions. The computational model was also applied to airflow condition in the supersonic/hypersonic impactor. Variations of airflow condition and particle trajectories in the impactor were evaluated. The simulation results could provide understanding of the performance of the supersonic and hypersonic impactors that would be helpful for the design of such systems.

  11. Development of bioadhesive chitosan superporous hydrogel composite particles based intestinal drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Chavda, Hitesh; Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan

    2013-01-01

    Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery. PMID:23984380

  12. Development of Bioadhesive Chitosan Superporous Hydrogel Composite Particles Based Intestinal Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Modhia, Ishan; Mehta, Anant; Patel, Rupal; Patel, Chhagan

    2013-01-01

    Bioadhesive superporous hydrogel composite (SPHC) particles were developed for an intestinal delivery of metoprolol succinate and characterized for density, porosity, swelling, morphology, and bioadhesion studies. Chitosan and HPMC were used as bioadhesive and release retardant polymers, respectively. A 32 full factorial design was applied to optimize the concentration of chitosan and HPMC. The drug loaded bioadhesive SPHC particles were filled in capsule, and the capsule was coated with cellulose acetate phthalate and evaluated for drug content, in vitro drug release, and stability studies. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the drug release profiles were fitted for mathematical models. The prepared system remains bioadhesive up to eight hours in intestine and showed Hixson-Crowell release with anomalous nonfickian type of drug transport. The application of SPHC polymer particles as a biomaterial carrier opens a new insight into bioadhesive drug delivery system and could be a future platform for other molecules for intestinal delivery. PMID:23984380

  13. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: GridPP: development of the UK computing Grid for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grid PP Collaboration; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Lowe, L. S.; Tan, C. L. A.; Watkins, P. M.; Bailey, D. S.; Barrass, T. A.; Brook, N. H.; Croft, R. J. H.; Kelly, M. P.; Mackay, C. K.; Metson, S.; Maroney, O. J. E.; Newbold, D. M.; Wilson, F. F.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Burke, S.; Byrom, R.; Coles, J.; Cornwall, L. A.; Djaoui, A.; Field, L.; Fisher, S. M.; Folkes, G. T.; Geddes, N. I.; Gordon, J. C.; Hicks, S. J. C.; Jensen, J. G.; Johnson, G.; Kant, D.; Kelsey, D. P.; Kuznetsov, G.; Leake, J.; Middleton, R. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Prassas, G.; Saunders, B. J.; Ross, D.; Sansum, R. A.; Shah, T.; Strong, B.; Synge, O.; Tam, R.; Thorpe, M.; Traylen, S.; Wheeler, J. F.; White, N. G. H.; Wilson, A. J.; Antcheva, I.; Artiaga, E.; Beringer, J.; Bird, I. G.; Casey, J.; Cass, A. J.; Chytracek, R.; Gallas Torreira, M. V.; Generowicz, J.; Girone, M.; Govi, G.; Harris, F.; Heikkurinen, M.; Horvath, A.; Knezo, E.; Litmaath, M.; Lubeck, M.; Moscicki, J.; Neilson, I.; Poinsignon, E.; Pokorski, W.; Ribon, A.; Sekera, Z.; Smith, D. H.; Tomlin, W. L.; van Eldik, J. E.; Wojcieszuk, J.; Brochu, F. M.; Das, S.; Harrison, K.; Hayes, M.; Hill, J. C.; Lester, C. G.; Palmer, M. J.; Parker, M. A.; Nelson, M.; Whalley, M. R.; Glover, E. W. N.; Anderson, P.; Clark, P. J.; Earl, A. D.; Holt, A.; Jackson, A.; Joo, B.; Kenway, R. D.; Maynard, C. M.; Perry, J.; Smith, L.; Thorn, S.; Trew, A. S.; Bell, W. H.; Burgon-Lyon, M.; Cameron, D. G.; Doyle, A. T.; Flavell, A.; Hanlon, S. J.; Martin, D. J.; McCance, G.; Millar, A. P.; Nicholson, C.; Paterson, S. K.; Pickford, A.; Soler, P.; Speirs, F.; St. Denis, R.; Thompson, A. S.; Britton, D.; Cameron, W.; Colling, D.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P.; Egede, U.; Georgiou, K.; Lewis, P.; MacEvoy, B.; Marr, S.; Martyniak, J.; Tallini, H.; Wakefield, S.; Walker, R.; Bertram, I. A.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Evans, D.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Jones, R. W. L.; Love, P.; Downing, S.; George, M. P.; Irving, A. C.; McNeile, C.; Sroczynski, Z.; Tobin, M.; Washbrook, A. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Dallison, S.; Fairey, G.; Forti, A.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Jones, M. A. S.; Kaushal, S.; Marshall, R.; McNab, A.; Salih, S.; Werner, J. C.; Bartsch, V.; Cioffi, C.; Gronbech, P.; Harnew, N.; Harris, J. F.; Huffman, B. T.; Leslie, M.; McArthur, I.; Newman, R.; Soroko, A.; Stokes-Rees, I.; Stonjek, S.; Tseng, J.; Waters, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Arter, T. R.; Cordenonsi, R. A.; Datta, A. S.; Hartin, T.; Lloyd, S. L.; Martin, A. J.; Pearce, S. E.; Williams, C. J.; Gardner, M.; George, S.; Green, B. J.; Johal, S.; Rybkine, G.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Hodgson, P.; Robinson, M.; Tovey, D. R.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Allton, C. R.; Armour, W.; Clarke, P.; Mealor, P.; Waters, D.; Waugh, B.; West, B.

    2006-01-01

    The GridPP Collaboration is building a UK computing Grid for particle physics, as part of the international effort towards computing for the Large Hadron Collider. The project, funded by the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), began in September 2001 and completed its first phase 3 years later. GridPP is a collaboration of approximately 100 researchers in 19 UK university particle physics groups, the Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils and CERN, reflecting the strategic importance of the project. In collaboration with other European and US efforts, the first phase of the project demonstrated the feasibility of developing, deploying and operating a Grid-based computing system to meet the UK needs of the Large Hadron Collider experiments. This note describes the work undertaken to achieve this goal.

  14. Development of time-resolved particle image velocimetry for laboratory and microgravity dusty plasma studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Taylor; Konopka, Uwe; Thomas, Edward

    2013-10-01

    For over a decade, particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques have been used to study particle transport, instabilities, and the thermal properties of the microparticle component of dusty plasmas. However, dedicated PIV systems are often limited in their temporal resolution to a few Hertz because of the requirements to synchronize the various hardware components of the system. By using a high-speed camera that can record digital video at over 100 Hz, it becomes possible to make temporally resolved measurements of particle motion in a dusty plasma. This presentation will describe the development of an imaging system that will be used for time-resolved PIV measurements of a dusty plasma. In particular, results will be presented on experiments in which different video frame rates are used to make measurements of the effects of a pulsed perturbation that is applied to a dusty plasma. These perturbation studies will be used to determine the optimum frame rate for PIV. For over a decade, particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques have been used to study particle transport, instabilities, and the thermal properties of the microparticle component of dusty plasmas. However, dedicated PIV systems are often limited in their temporal resolution to a few Hertz because of the requirements to synchronize the various hardware components of the system. By using a high-speed camera that can record digital video at over 100 Hz, it becomes possible to make temporally resolved measurements of particle motion in a dusty plasma. This presentation will describe the development of an imaging system that will be used for time-resolved PIV measurements of a dusty plasma. In particular, results will be presented on experiments in which different video frame rates are used to make measurements of the effects of a pulsed perturbation that is applied to a dusty plasma. These perturbation studies will be used to determine the optimum frame rate for PIV. This work is supported by a grant from the NASA-Jet Propulsion Laboratory: JPL-RSA 1471384.

  15. Particle motion is broadly represented in the vestibular medulla of the bullfrog across larval development.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Flores, Victoria

    2012-04-01

    In their shallow-water habitats, bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles are exposed to both underwater and airborne sources of acoustic stimulation. We probed the representation of underwater particle motion throughout the tadpole's dorsal medulla to determine its spatial extent over larval life. Using neurobiotin-filled micropipettes, we recorded neural activity to z-axis particle motion (frequencies of 40-200 Hz) in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN), and along the dorsal arcuate pathway. Sensitivity was comparable in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei, with estimated thresholds between 0.016 and 12.5 ?m displacement. Neither best responding frequency nor estimated threshold varied significantly over larval stage. Transport of neurobiotin from active recording sites was also stable over development. The DMN responded poorly to z-axis particle motion, but did respond to low-frequency pressure stimulation. These data suggest that particle motion is represented widely and stably in the tadpole's vestibular medulla. This is in marked contrast to the representation of pressure stimulation in the auditory midbrain, where a transient "deaf period" of non-responsiveness and decreased connectivity occurs immediately prior to metamorphic climax. We suggest that, in bullfrogs, sensitivity to particle motion and to pressure follows different developmental trajectories. PMID:22198742

  16. Development of vapor deposited silica sol-gel particles for use as a bioactive materials system.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Katherine L; Holmes, Hallie R; VanWagner, Michael J; Hartman, Natalie J; Rajachar, Rupak M

    2013-06-01

    Silica-based sol-gel and bioglass materials are used in a variety of biomedical applications including the surface modification of orthopedic implants and tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work, a simple system for vapor depositing silica sol-gel nano- and micro-particles onto substrates using nebulizer technology has been developed and characterized. Particle morphology, size distribution, and degradation can easily be controlled through key formulation and manufacturing parameters including water:alkoxide molar ratio, pH, deposition time, and substrate character. These particles can be used as a means to rapidly modify substrate surface properties, including surface hydrophobicity (contact angle changes >15°) and roughness (RMS roughness changes of up to 300 nm), creating unique surface topography. Ions (calcium and phosphate) were successfully incorporated into particles, and induced apatitie-like mineral formation upon exposure to simulated body fluid Preosteoblasts (MC3T3) cultured with these particles showed up to twice the adhesivity within 48 h when compared to controls, potentially indicating an increase in cell proliferation, with the effect likely due to both the modified substrate properties as well as the release of silica ions. This novel method has the potential to be used with implants and tissue engineering materials to influence cell behavior including attachment, proliferation, and differentiation via cell-material interactions to promote osteogenesis. PMID:23585242

  17. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  18. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  19. Elevated nitrogen-containing particles observed in Asian dust aerosol samples collected at the marine boundary layer of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Geng; Y.-M. Park; H.-J. Hwang; S. Kang; C.-U. Ro

    2009-01-01

    Low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) shows powerful advantages for the characterization of ambient particulate matter in environmental and geological applications. By the application of the low-Z particle EPMA single particle analysis, an overall examination of 1800 coarse and fine particles (aerodynamic diameters: 2.5-10 mum and 1.0-2.5 mum, respectively) in six samples collected on 28 April-1 May

  20. Development of Holographic Particle Velocimetry Techniques for Three-Dimensional Vortical Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hui

    The lack of techniques to measure instantaneous velocity vector fields in three-dimensional (3D) space is the primary obstacle to further understanding of vortex dynamics and turbulence phenomena. Holographic Particle Velocimetry (HPV), which can record a 3D flow field laden with tracer particles on holograms using pulsed laser beams and measure the particle displacements, appears to be highly promising to this end. An HPV technique based on in-line holography has been implemented, which is characterized by geometric simplicity and minimal laser requirements. To overcome limitations (such as intrinsic speckle noise and large depth-of-focus) of in-line HPV, an analytical model has been developed which elucidates the nature of the speckle noise, quantifies the signal-to-noise-ratio of particle images as a function of particle field parameters, and suggests ways for further improvements in HPV concepts. Based upon these results, an off-axis HPV system has been developed in which speckle noise is suppressed and depth-of-focus is reduced, but the system complexity increases as well. Improving upon off-axis HPV, two innovative techniques--viz. multibeam, and in-line recording/off-axis viewing (IROV)--have been proposed. Proof-of-concept has been established for the multibeam HPV which utilizes the laser energy efficiently. The IROV technique, which enjoys the geometric simplicity of in-line HPV as well as the low speckle noise and small depth-of-focus of off-axis HPV has been developed and applied to measure an unstable vortex ring (Re = 1360) in water. The instantaneous velocity vector field in a 3D space (21 mm x 40 mm x 11 mm) is obtained at a spatial resolution of 1 mm. The vorticity distribution and circulation as a function of radius from the core center are calculated.

  1. Fluorescent particle tracers for surface hydrology: development of a sensing station for field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capocci, I.; Mocio, G.; Insogna, F.; Tauro, F.; Petroselli, A.; Rapiti, R.; Cipollari, G.; Grimaldi, S.; Porfiri, M.

    2012-04-01

    This work focuses on the development and testing of a sensing station for the detection and tracking of a new class of fluorescent particle tracers for surface hydrology. This tracing methodology is based on the release of microspheres that fluoresce at labeled wavelengths in natural streams. The particles are detected as they transit below a sensing station that comprises a light source and a digital camera. Video feed from the station is then processed to obtain direct flow measurements and stream reach travel times. This novel tracing technology is a low-cost measurement system that can be implemented on a variety of real-world settings, spanning from small scale streams to few centimeters rills in natural hillslopes. In particular, the use of insoluble buoyant particles limits the tracer dispersion from adhesion to natural substrates and thus minimizes the amount of tracing material for experimental measurements. Further, particle enhanced fluorescence allows for non-intrusively detecting the tracer without deploying probes and samplers in the water. The performance of the sensing station is assessed by conducting a large array of experiments under different flow and acquisition conditions. More specifically, experiments are performed for multiple flow velocities, camera acquisition frequencies, light sources, and distances of the sensing station from the flow surface. Particles are deployed in a custom built artificial water channel of adjustable slope to simulate varying flow conditions. A high definition bullet camera is used to detect particles that fluoresce either in green or red and two optical filters, corresponding to the emission wavelengths of the particles, are incorporated in the sensing station. In this implementation, green emission is elicited by using Ultra Violet lights, while white light drives the red emission. Experimental results confirm the versatility and the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Both particle types are found to be easily detected in a wide range of flow conditions. This evidence favors the use of red particles whose controlled fluorescent emission does not require costly Ultra Violet lamps and is rather based on commonly available light sources. Therefore, at a limited cost, powerful white lights can be used in the system and allow for increased fields of view.

  2. Benthic suspension feeders: their paramount role in littoral marine food webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep-Maria Gili; Rafel Coma

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, particular attention has been paid to coupling and energy transfer between benthos and plankton. Because of their abundance, certain benthic suspension feeders have been shown to have a major impact in marine ecosystems. They capture large quantities of particles and might directly regulate primary production and indirectly regulate secondary production in littoral food chains. Suspension feeders develop

  3. 'Hot particles' in the cold light of day: principles for a stakeholder and public engagement architecture relating to historic liabilities in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Rick

    2007-09-01

    This paper discusses issues in stakeholder relations, focusing on the challenges of liabilities management associated with small fragments of irradiated nuclear fuel hereafter termed particles (and sometimes termed 'hot particles' in the public domain, from which this paper gets its title), produced over a number of decades from now ceased operations at Dounreay. It describes key problems confronting the nuclear industry in developing a stakeholder-relations strategy. Drawing upon examples of the stakeholder activity at Dounreay, and using an ecological metaphor, an innovative architecture for stakeholder engagement relating to nuclear issues is outlined. This is based upon the view that the solution of the stakeholder issue must reflect the complexity and connectivity of influences and interests within the stakeholder environment. It is argued that the lay public should be visualised as the stakeholder if an effective stakeholder-relations strategy is to be achieved. The importance of creating trust in a context of scientific uncertainty is highlighted. This will, it is argued, become an increasingly salient issue in the thrust for openness and transparency, two key drivers of nuclear industry public and stakeholder relations, which could make the limits of scientific knowledge and control more widely appreciated, and bring to the fore the role of lay conceptions of perceived risk. PMID:17768312

  4. Design, development and characterization of microfluidic media for continuous size-based separation of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devendra, Raghavendra

    Microfluidics is a growing field of research in separations. Microfluidic technologies offer a greater control over system properties with an efficient performance while providing a potential for integration of several processes into one micro-total-analysis system. While several conventional separation technologies have been miniaturized to micro-scale techniques, there is an effort to develop novel processes that take advantage of the features of micro-scale flows, such as similarities in pore-species dimensions and the ability to tailor the geometric structures of the stationary phase to specific applications. In certain cases, the geometric structure of the pore space drives the separative displacement; the advances in microfabrication allow greater control over the geometry as well as the surface chemistry of the media. It is convenient and possible to integrate the microstructure into main separation channel and design autonomous continuous flow separation systems on a lab-on-achip platform. A promising approach to develop passive and continuous flow microfluidic separation devices is to design periodic arrays of obstacles that cause different species to move in different directions within the device, also known as vector chromatography. The principle of separation of small particles in such periodic microstructures is based on the mobility of particles. The mobility of a particle is based on its size, the geometry of the stationary phase and the viscosity of the suspending phase. In the first part of this thesis, we present a study of diffusive transport in periodic anisotropic systems. We designed and fabricated anisotropic periodicities in microfluidic devices and characterized the mobilities in principal directions by directly measuring the one dimensional diffusivities through experiments. In anisotropic periodic microstructures, the mobility has unequal components, by virtue of which the velocity of the particle does not remain collinear with the direction of the applied force. Furthermore, the mobility ratios in anisotropic periodic microstructures are dependent on the size of the particles. We show that such non-linearities in the mobility function lead to different migratory pathways for differently sized particles. The anisotropy in the local microscopic mobilities translates to anisotropy in macroscopic effective mobilities and can be used - in principle - to separate particles under a small uniform force field. In the second part of this thesis, we discuss separation in the other end of the transport limit. At large Péclet (Pe) numbers, deterministic motion is shown to separate the particles in periodic arrays. Prior studies in this area are not conclusive and the mechanism of separation is unclear. Previous theoretical work and macroscopic experiments in our group have shown that at larger Pe numbers, directional locking is observed in isotropic systems. We investigate gravity-driven deterministic lateral displacement (g-DLD) in the range of moderate to relatively large Pe numbers, in both anisotropic and isotropic media. To our knowledge, this is the first time anyone has reported an extensive study of gravity driven deterministic lateral displacement in microfluidic systems. We present our observations of directional locking and explain them based on hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic interactions between the particles and obstacles leading to irreversible collisions that result in different migratory pathways. We report a method to predict the first critical transition angle for particles based on size and the geometry of the periodic media that can be used for designing microfluidic devices for separating different species. The first critical transition angle also reveals the possibility of using a single column of obstacles to separate a binary mixture of particles. We report experiments demonstrating the separation of particles based on the first critical transition angle using single column of obstacles. Based on the separation of binary mixture, we propose that multiple such single columns of o

  5. A Lorentzian-Function Approximation developed in calculating the charged-particle-induced nonresonant reaction rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. J.

    2007-07-01

    A Lorentzian-Function Approximation (LFA) has been developed in calculating the nonresonant reaction rate of charged-particle-induced reactions. The nonresonant reaction rate and the effective S -factor have been represented in terms of LFA. In the frame of LFA, the nonresonant reaction taken place within the Gamow window can be considered as a “resonance reaction” with a width of ? which is equal to that of 1/ e width (? in a well-known Gaussian-Function Approximation (GFA).

  6. Using ARCHON to Develop Real-World DAI Applications for Electricity Transportation and Particle Accelerator Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Jennings; J. M. Corera; L. Laresgoiti; E. Mamdani; F. Perriollat; P. Skarek; L. Varga

    1995-01-01

    ABSTRACT ARCHON,(ARchitecture for Cooperative Heterogeneous ON-line systems) was Europe’s largest ever project in the area of Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI). It devised a general-purpose architecture, software framework, and methodology,which has been used to support the development,of DAI systems in a number,of real world industrial domains. Two of these applications, electricity transportation management and particle accelerator control, have been run successfully

  7. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  8. Morphological and molecular characterization of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa, including its development in a leech vector

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trypanosomes are ubiquitous blood parasites of marine and freshwater fishes, typically transmitted by aquatic leeches. Phylogenetic studies have been dominated by examples derived from freshwater fishes, with few marine representatives. Furthermore, life cycle studies on marine fish trypanosomes have focused on those of the northern hemisphere. In this investigation, we have examined the life cycle and molecular taxonomy of a marine fish trypanosome from South Africa. Methods To locate trypanosome stages, leeches were removed from fishes captured on the west and south coasts of South Africa, and fish blood films and leech squashes were Giemsa-stained and screened; leeches were also examined histologically. To determine whether trypanosome stages in fishes and leeches were of the same genotype, DNA was extracted from Giemsa-stained fish blood films and leech squashes, and from fish whole blood. Fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified by PCR using trypanosome-specific primers and sequenced. Resulting sequence data were compared with each other and with published trypanosome 18S rDNA sequences, and used for phylogenetic analysis. Results Trypanosomes were detected in blood films from fishes of the families Clinidae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. The flagellates ranged in size and staining properties within the films and across fish hosts. In squashes and histological sections of adult and juvenile leeches, identified as Zeylanicobdella arugamensis, trypanosome developmental stages were predominantly slender epimastigotes. Sequence data showed that trypanosomes derived from fishes were identical, irrespective of whether they were small or large forms; sequences derived largely from leech epimastigotes were also identical to those obtained from fish trypanosomes. Fish and leech trypanosome sequences fell into a marine fish aquatic clade, and aligned most closely with two trypanosome sequences from marine fishes off Norway. Conclusions Combined morphological and molecular methods indicate that the trypanosomes examined here represent a single pleomorphic species, rather than the three species described originally. This species is identified as Trypanosoma nudigobii Fantham, 1919 with the leech Z. arugamensis as its vector, and T. capigobii Fantham, 1919 and T. blenniclini Fantham, 1930 are regarded as junior synonyms of the species. Phylogenetic analysis establishes its affinity with marine fish trypanosomes off Norway. PMID:24460725

  9. Computed and experimental interactions between eddy structure and dispersed particles in developing free shear layers

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Keller, J.O.; Ellzey, J.; Hubbard, G.; Daily, J.W.

    1982-05-20

    We are investigating the interactive process between turbulent flow and dispersed phase particles. We are focusing on the mechanisms that appear to result in a reduction of local turbulent intensity and a corresponding reduction in wall heat transfer and subsequent wall erosion in turbulent solid propellant combustion flow. We apply computational simulations and physical experiments specialized to a developing free shear layer over a rearward facing step and over a parallel splitter plate. The flow configuration evolves in a two-dimensional, steady, combustion and non-combustion turbulent free shear mixing region, with and without particle additives. The computational simulations combine three basic components: gas phase Navier-Stokes solutions, Lagrange particle field solutions and a Monte Carlo technique for the random encounters, forces and accelerations between the two fields. We concentrate here on relatively large sized additive particles (of the order of tens of microns to 100 microns mean diameter). We examine their apparent influence in breaking up the larger, energy bearing eddy structures into smaller structures which are more readily dissipated.

  10. Comparison of methods for developing contaminant-particle size distributions for suspended sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.D.; Burgoa, B.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fontaine, T.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Relationships between contaminant concentration and particle size distribution are required for modeling the transport of contaminated sediment. Standard methods, including the pipette and bottom withdrawal techniques, are unsatisfactory because of the lack of homogeneous separations of each size fraction, which results in uncertainty in the contaminant-particle size relation. In addition, the size fractions produced with these techniques do not contain enough mass for accurate contaminant analyses. To avoid these problems, an alternative method using a settling column and withdrawal times based on Stokes Law has been developed. Tests have been conducted using sediment samples contaminated with Cs-137 from a waste area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The samples were separated into sand, coarse and fine silt, and clay-sized particles. The results for particle size distribution and associated contaminant concentrations were evaluated for the settling column, pipette, and bottom withdrawal methods. The settling column method provides homogeneous size fractions, larger aliquots of sediment for contaminant analysis, and is quicker in some cases and less complicated to perform than the other two methods.

  11. A Plan for Marine Education in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, E. Barbara

    1976-01-01

    The plan for marine education in the elementary and secondary schools of Hawaii as devised by the Hawaii Marine Education Council in 1974 is described. The plan outlines guidelines for the development and dissemination of marine curricular programs (K-12) over the next eight years. (BT)

  12. Marine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, O.

    1981-12-08

    A marine structure is described having a base and a foundation means projecting downwardly from the base for pressing into the sea bed. The foundation comprises a wall system with pile means on both sides of the wall(s).

  13. Marine Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Jersey

    2006-01-01

    In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

  14. Development and Demonstration of a Computational Tool for the Analysis of Particle Vitiation Effects in Hypersonic Propulsion Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Hugh Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the understanding of particle vitiation effects in hypersonic propulsion test facilities, a quasi-one dimensional numerical tool was developed to efficiently model reacting particle-gas flows over a wide range of conditions. Features of this code include gas-phase finite-rate kinetics, a global porous-particle combustion model, mass, momentum and energy interactions between phases, and subsonic and supersonic particle drag and heat transfer models. The basic capabilities of this tool were validated against available data or other validated codes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the code a series of computations were performed for a model hypersonic propulsion test facility and scramjet. Parameters studied were simulated flight Mach number, particle size, particle mass fraction and particle material.

  15. Development and use of radiation detection technology for buried seabed particles.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Jim; Toole, Joe

    2007-09-01

    From the initial 1997 diver-based gamma survey of the seabed sediments offshore of Dounreay, there has been continuous development of instrumentation and techniques. The initial contract surveyed randomly chosen areas, to ascertain if any particles were indeed present, since they had been found on the Dounreay foreshore in previous years. In total 34 particles were located and recovered. The period 1998-2002 saw further diver-based surveys using more sensitive and better designed detection systems. A towed system incorporating the same detectors was also deployed, covering extensive areas of the seabed. Throughout this period a more detailed understanding of particle dispersion emerged. The primary source of particles was identified as the old diffuser, with evidence for a dispersion plume heading north-east. In late 2002, Fathoms selected a gamma spectrometry system for trial and evaluation for possible future subsea deployment. The positive results led to a field trial being awarded by UKAEA for deployment of a stationary platform with a 7.8 cm x 7.8 cm NaI detector on the seabed at various offshore locations. This trial identified particles by their 137Cs photopeak and delivered the explanation for the gamma activity banding in the 'anomalous' zone. This successful trial led in 2004 to a joint Fathoms/UKAEA lab trial of the SAM-935 system of the larger 10 cm x 10 cm x 40 cm NaI crystal, inside a marinising unit. These proved to be fit for purpose and UKAEA tasked Fathoms to deliver in 2004 a tracked remotely operated vehicle (ROV) capable of deploying the larger detectors to allow gamma mapping of seabed sediments, up to a maximum depth of 100 m. Preliminary results of the 2005 ROV work are presented. PMID:17768315

  16. Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Sharissa Gay

    2005-09-01

    Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting PSD data. Finally, the SSA of the three powders was measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods, enabling the PSD to be linked to the SSA for these PETN powders. Consistent characterization of other PETN powders can be performed using the appropriate sample-specific preparation method, so that future studies can accurately identify the effect of changes in the PSD on the SSA and ultimately model EBW performance.

  17. SeaDataNet II - Second phase of developments for the pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2013-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet started on October 2011 for another 4 years with the aim to upgrade the SeaDataNet infrastructure built during previous years. The numbers of the project are quite impressive: 59 institutions from 35 different countries are involved. In particular, 45 data centers are sharing human and financial resources in a common efforts to sustain an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products. The main objective of SeaDataNet II is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via the Pan-European oceanographic fleet and the new observation systems, both in real-time and delayed mode. The infrastructure is based on a semi-distributed system that incorporates and enhance the existing NODCs network. SeaDataNet aims at serving users from science, environmental management, policy making, and economical sectors. Better integrated data systems are vital for these users to achieve improved scientific research and results, to support marine environmental and integrated coastal zone management, to establish indicators of Good Environmental Status for sea basins, and to support offshore industry developments, shipping, fisheries, and other economic activities. The recent EU communication "MARINE KNOWLEDGE 2020 - marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth" states that the creation of marine knowledge begins with observation of the seas and oceans. In addition, directives, policies, science programmes require reporting of the state of the seas and oceans in an integrated pan-European manner: of particular note are INSPIRE, MSFD, WISE-Marine and GMES Marine Core Service. These underpin the importance of a well functioning marine and ocean data management infrastructure. SeaDataNet is now one of the major players in informatics in oceanography and collaborative relationships have been created with other EU and non EU projects. In particular SeaDataNet has recognised roles in the continuous serving of common vocabularies, the provision of tools for data management, as well as giving access to metadata, data sets and data products of importance for society. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users not only background information about SeaDataNet and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools, but also a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, and highlight a number of key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far.

  18. High throughput screening of particle conditioning operations: I. System design and method development.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Aaron; Huffman, Ben; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Sunasara, Khurram; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2015-08-01

    The biotech industry is under increasing pressure to decrease both time to market and development costs. Simultaneously, regulators are expecting increased process understanding. High throughput process development (HTPD) employs small volumes, parallel processing, and high throughput analytics to reduce development costs and speed the development of novel therapeutics. As such, HTPD is increasingly viewed as integral to improving developmental productivity and deepening process understanding. Particle conditioning steps such as precipitation and flocculation may be used to aid the recovery and purification of biological products. In this first part of two articles, we describe an ultra scale-down system (USD) for high throughput particle conditioning (HTPC) composed of off-the-shelf components. The apparatus is comprised of a temperature-controlled microplate with magnetically driven stirrers and integrated with a Tecan liquid handling robot. With this system, 96 individual reaction conditions can be evaluated in parallel, including downstream centrifugal clarification. A comprehensive suite of high throughput analytics enables measurement of product titer, product quality, impurity clearance, clarification efficiency, and particle characterization. HTPC at the 1?mL scale was evaluated with fermentation broth containing a vaccine polysaccharide. The response profile was compared with the Pilot-scale performance of a non-geometrically similar, 3?L reactor. An engineering characterization of the reactors and scale-up context examines theoretical considerations for comparing this USD system with larger scale stirred reactors. In the second paper, we will explore application of this system to industrially relevant vaccines and test different scale-up heuristics. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 1554-1567. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728932

  19. Towards an absolute chronology for the marine environment: the development of a 1000-year record from Arctica islandica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. W. Forsythe; J. D. Scourse; I. Harris; C. A. Richardson; P. Jones; K. Briffa; J. Heinemeier

    2003-01-01

    Time-series of environmental change using geochemical (stable isotope, trace element) proxies from annually-banded marine sclerochronological (coral, mollusc) records have hitherto been constrained to the life span of live-collected individuals or to floating chronologies of approximate age constrained by independent dating methods, notably radiocarbon or uranium-series dating. The construction of a long, absolute, time-series beyond the individual life-span demands statistically significant

  20. Development of a 30kW high temperature solar receiver using small particles as the heat exchanger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Hunt; M. Deiringer; D. B. Evans; L. Hansen; P. G. Hull; D. Paydarfar

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a new type of solar thermal receiver that utilizes concentrated sunlight to heat a gas to high temperature to operate a turboelectric generator or to supply industrial process heat. The Small Particle Heat Exchange Receiver (SPHER) uses a very small mass of ultrafine carbon particles suspended in a gas to absorb sunlight

  1. Marine Biological Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research, education, and training in biology, biomedicine, and ecology. Site features the latest news and research developments from MBL. Explore all the latest research, education information, including graduate admissions and teacher workshops, and a glimpse at MBL history, facilities, and more. Current news and links to all kinds of additional MBL resources are also available.

  2. Marine Protected Areas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Educational resources focusing on understanding of Marine Protected Areas (MPA), their functions, themes and messages. Materials include bibliographies, MPA posters, fact sheets and worksheets. Regional workshops promote MPA issues and concepts. Information exchange options to promote collaboration include: MPA newsletter archives and workshop PowerPoint presentations; announcements for conferences, grants, internships and professional development opportunities.

  3. Alkaloids in marine algae.

    PubMed

    Güven, Kasim Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  4. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Kas?m Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  5. Enabling tablet product development of 5-fluorocytosine through integrated crystal and particle engineering.

    PubMed

    Perumalla, Sathyanarayana Reddy; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2014-04-01

    The antifungal drug, 5-fluorocytosine (FC), is marketed as a capsule (250 or 500 mg strength) instead of the preferred tablet dosage form. Through systematic characterization of solid-state properties, including mechanical properties, we identify tabletability and poor physical stability of FC as the problems that likely have prevented the successful development of a FC tablet product. We then design an FC oxalate 2:1 salt (FCOXA21), based on established relationship between crystal structure and properties, to address these deficient properties. FCOXA21 is subsequently used to develop a direct compression tablet product using predictive and material-sparing powder characterization tools, that is, ring shear cell for powder flowability and compaction simulator for powder tabletability. The initial tablet formulation, which contains 84.5% (wt %) FCOXA21, exhibits excellent tabletability but inadequate flowability. We solve the powder flowability problem through controlling the particle size of FCOXA21. A batch of FCOXA21 tablets (500 mg FC equivalent dose) is then prepared. Finally, systematic evaluation on tablet weight variation, content uniformity, friability, and dissolution using standard methods confirms the commercial manufacturability of FC tablets. Through this work, we have demonstrated the potential of integrated crystal and particle engineering in expediting the development of tablet products of challenging drugs using the economical direct compression process. PMID:24515970

  6. Development of test particle module for impurity generation and transport in BOUT++ framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiaotao; Xu, Xueqiao

    2014-10-01

    Developing the test particle module in BOUT++ framework is the first step to enhance its capability to simulate impurity generation and transport in edge plasmas, which potentially can be extended to efficiently simulate both turbulence and neoclassical physics in realistic geometry. The motion of impurity charged particles are governed by guiding-center (GC) equations in the presence of turbulent electromagnetic fields. The GC equations are the well-known Hamiltonian guiding center equation given by Littlejohn, Boozer, White and others. The Fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm is used to advance the GC equations in time. In order easily to couple with BOUT++ fluid module, the same field aligned coordinates are used except near the region close to X-point. The bilinear interpolation is used to interpolate 3D fluid turbulent electromagnetic fields from grid points to particle positions. The calculated orbits in equilibrium configuration are checked to conserve constants of motion. The various guiding-center orbits in divertor configuration under BOUT++ framework are demonstrated and benchmarked. Then spatial distribution of impurities in edge plasmas from given sources at the divertor plates and at the protection limiters near RF antennas is obtained in given background plasma. This work was performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL LDRD project 12-ERD-022 and the China Natural Science Foundation under Contract No. 11105185.

  7. Development of Thermal Spraying and Coating Techniques by Using Thixotropic Slurries Including Metals and Ceramics Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, S.; Itakura, Y.; Tasaki, S.

    2013-03-01

    Thermal nanoparticles coating and microlines patterning were newly developed as novel technologies to fabricate fine ceramics layers and geometrical intermetallics patterns for mechanical properties modulations of practical alloys substrates. Nanometer sized alumina particles were dispersed into acrylic liquid resins, and the obtained slurries were sputtered by using compressed air jet. The slurry mists could blow into the arc plasma with argon gas spraying. On stainless steels substrates, the fine surface layers with high wear resistance were formed. In cross sectional microstructures of the coated layers, micromater sized cracks or pores were not observed. Subsequently, pure aluminum particles were dispersed into photo solidified acrylic resins, and the slurry was spread on the stainless steel substrates by using a mechanical knife blade. On the substrates, microline patterns with self similar fractal structures were drawn and fixed by using scanning of an ultra violet laser beam. The patterned pure metal particles were heated by the argon arc plasma spray assisting, and the intermetallics or alloys phases with high hardness were created through reaction diffusions. Microstructures in the coated layers and the patterned lines were observed by using a scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Development of new polysilsesquioxane spherical particles as stabilized active ingredients for sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, Stephanie Helene

    Healthy skin is a sign of positive self-worth, attractiveness and vitality. Compromises to this are frequently caused by extended periods of recreation in the sun and in turn exposure to the harmful effects of UV radiation. To maintain strength and integrity, protection of the skin is paramount. This can be achieved by implementing skin-care products which contain sunscreen active ingredients that provide UV protection. Unfortunately, photo-degradation, toxicity, and photo-allergies limit the effectiveness of present day sunscreen ingredients. Currently, this is moderated by physically embedding within inert silica particles, but leaching of the active ingredient can occur, thereby negating protective efforts. Alternatively, this research details the preparation and investigation of bridged silsesquioxane analogues of commercial ingredients which can be chemically grafted to the silica matrix. Studies with bridged salicylate particles detail facile preparation, minimized leaching, and enhanced UV stability over physically encapsulated and pendant salicylate counterparts. In terms of UVB protective ability, the highest maintenance of sun protection factor (SPF) after extended UV exposure was achieved with bridged incorporation, and has been attributed to corollary UV stability. Additionally, bridged salicylate particles can be classified as broad-spectrum, and rate from moderate to good in terms of UVA protective ability. Particles incorporated with a bridged curcuminoid silsesquioxane were also prepared and displayed comparable results. As such, an attractive method for sunscreen isolation and stabilization has been developed to eliminate the problems associated with current sunscreens, all while maintaining the established UV absorbance profiles of the parent compound. To appreciate the technology utilized in this research, a thorough understanding of sol-gel science as it pertains to hybrid organic/silica particles, including methods of organic fragment incorporation and insight on the effect of incorporation method on ingredient leaching and UV stability, is vital. This was afforded by analysis of hybrid fluorescent dansyl particles, prepared by both O/W microemulsion polymerization and a modified Stober process, which detailed that covalent entrapment of bridged dansyl silsesquioxane is the incorporation method of choice to ensure minimized leaching and enhanced UV stability. As such, use of this method can provide exciting applications in fields where stability and retainment of the embedded ingredient is paramount for efficacy.

  9. Development of a Lorentzian-Function Approximation Utilizing in the - Particle-Induced Nonresonant Reaction Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. J.; Li, L.; Hu, J.; Zhang, L. Y.; Xu, S. W.; Yu, X. Q.; Liu, M. L.

    A development has been made for the charged-particle-induced nonresonant reaction-rate equations. The forms of reaction-rate equations for nonresonant and resonant reactions have been united in a frame of Lorentzian-Function Approximation (LFA) mathematically. In the frame of LFA, the nonresonant reaction taken place within the Gamow window can be considered, in form, as a "resonance" reaction with a full width at half maximum (FWHM, ?nr) equal to the 1/e width (?) in a well-known Gaussian-Function Approximation (GFA).

  10. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  11. Senior High School Earth Sciences and Marine Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackenberg, Mary; And Others

    This guide was developed for earth sciences and marine sciences instruction in the senior high schools of Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. The subjects covered are: (1) Earth Science for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (2) Marine Biology I for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (3) Marine Biology II, Advanced, for 11th and 12th graders; (4) Marine…

  12. Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meiyu

    The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed. Several excellent correlations between the minimum time required to produce spherical agglomerates or a final agglomerate diameter and the operating parameters were obtained by using the general linear regression method. In addition, the results provided a basis for size scale up of an agglomeration system. In Part II, the technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultrafine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was produced by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this method in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt. % ash, it was shown that the ash content could be reduced to 6--7 wt. % while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis by using a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w %, air saturation of 5 to 15 psig, and i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w % based on the coal weight. It was also shown that the process of agglomeration can be reversed by subjecting an aqueous suspension of agglomerates to a pressure sufficient to redissolve the microbubbles.

  13. Marine Strategy 20142019 1 Marine Strategy 20142019

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    as marine reserve management, air-sea rescue, fisheries management, marine transport, naval defence, coastal the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization, the Convention on International Civil Aviation

  14. Work Experience: Marine Biology A group of 4 to 6 potential marine biology students will spend one week in the

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    Work Experience: Marine Biology (ID:209) Outline A group of 4 to 6 potential marine biology of studying Marine Biology at Swansea University and develop a general understanding of the different subject will experience marine sampling techniques, both on board the university research vessel and from the shore

  15. Extending the Marine Microcosm Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryswyk, Hal Van; Hall, Eric W.; Petesch, Steven J.; Wiedeman, Alice E.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional range of marine microcosm laboratory experiments is presented as an ideal environment to teach the entire analysis process. The microcosm lab provides student-centered approach with opportunities for collaborative learning and to develop critical communication skills.

  16. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100?km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action. PMID:22869798

  17. Marine antimalarials.

    PubMed

    Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease causing at least 1 million deaths per year, and, unfortunately, the chemical entities available to treat malaria are still too limited. In this review we highlight the contribution of marine chemistry in the field of antimalarial research by reporting the most important results obtained until the beginning of 2009, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries. About 60 secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms have been grouped into three structural types and discussed in terms of their reported antimalarial activities. The major groups of metabolites include isonitrile derivatives, alkaloids and endoperoxide derivatives. The following discussion evidences that antimalarial marine molecules can efficiently integrate the panel of lead compounds isolated from terrestrial sources with new chemical backbones and, sometimes, with unique functional groups. PMID:19597577

  18. Marine Ecomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark W.; Gaylord, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of marine ecomechanics provides an explicit physical framework for exploring interactions among marine organisms and between these organisms and their environments. It exhibits particular utility through its construction of predictive, mechanistic models, a number of which address responses to changing climatic conditions. Examples include predictions of (a) the change in relative abundance of corals as a function of colony morphology, ocean acidity, and storm intensity; (b) the rate of disturbance and patch formation in beds of mussels, a competitive dominant on many intertidal shores; (c) the dispersal and recruitment patterns of giant kelps, an important nearshore foundation species; (d) the effects of turbulence on external fertilization, a widespread method of reproduction in the sea; and (e) the long-term incidence of extreme ecological events. These diverse examples emphasize the breadth of marine ecomechanics. Indeed, its principles can be applied to any ecological system.

  19. Development of a grain boundary pinning model that considers particle size distribution using the phase field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonks, Michael R.; Zhang, Yongfeng; Butterfield, Aaron; Bai, Xian-Ming

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we expand a grain boundary (GB) pinning model that considers a range of different spatial distributions of particles to also account for a distribution of particle sizes. We begin by developing a phase field model that describes GB and pore interactions and verify it by comparing to molecular dynamics simulations. We then develop an analytical pinning model that considers the impact of the particle size distribution, in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the particle radius. The analytical model is verified by comparing to simulation results of our phase field model and those of a simple Monte Carlo model. A significant finding from the model is that the mean value of the resistive pressure decreases with increasing standard deviation of the particle radius.

  20. Using Image Pro Plus Software to Develop Particle Mapping on Genesis Solar Wind Collector Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The continued success of the Genesis mission science team in analyzing solar wind collector array samples is partially based on close collaboration of the JSC curation team with science team members who develop cleaning techniques and those who assess elemental cleanliness at the levels of detection. The goal of this collaboration is to develop a reservoir of solar wind collectors of known cleanliness to be available to investigators. The heart and driving force behind this effort is Genesis mission PI Don Burnett. While JSC contributes characterization, safe clean storage, and benign collector cleaning with ultrapure water (UPW) and UV ozone, Burnett has coordinated more exotic and rigorous cleaning which is contributed by science team members. He also coordinates cleanliness assessment requiring expertise and instruments not available in curation, such as XPS, TRXRF [1,2] and synchrotron TRXRF. JSC participates by optically documenting the particle distributions as cleaning steps progress. Thus, optical document supplements SEM imaging and analysis, and elemental assessment by TRXRF.

  1. Insights into particle cycling from thorium and particle data.

    PubMed

    Lam, Phoebe J; Marchal, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Marine particles are a main vector by which the biological carbon pump in the ocean transfers carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. Marine particles exist in a continuous spectrum of sizes, but they can be functionally grouped into a small, suspended class (which constitutes most of the total particle mass) and a large, sinking class (which contributes most of the particle flux). These two classes are connected by aggregation and disaggregation processes. The interplay of processes that create, aggregate, and destroy marine particles determines the strength and transfer efficiency of the biological pump. Measurements of radiocarbon, barium, and organic biomarkers on suspended and sinking particles have provided qualitative insights into particle dynamics, and measurements of thorium isotopes have provided quantitative estimates of rates. Here, we review what has been learned so far about particle dynamics in the ocean from chemical measurements on suspended and sinking particles. We then discuss future directions for this approach. PMID:25251275

  2. The Irish Seabed Mapping Programme: INFOMAR - Integrated Mapping Survey for the Sustainable Developments of Ireland's Marine Resources. Progress to Date.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchetti, F.; Benetti, S.; Fitzpatrick, F.

    2006-12-01

    During the last six years, the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute of Ireland worked together on the multimillion Irish National Seabed Survey project with the purpose of mapping the Irish marine territory using a suite of remote sensing equipment, from multibeam to seismic, achieving 87% coverage of the marine zone. Ireland was the first country in the world to carry out an extensive mapping project of their extended Exclusive Economic Zone. The Irish National Seabed Survey is now succeeded by the multiyear INFOMAR Programme. INFOMAR will concentrate initially on mapping twenty-six selected priority bays, three sea areas and the fisheries-protection "Biologically Sensitive Area", and then will complete 100% mapping of the remainder of the EEZ. Designed to incorporate all elements of an integrated mapping programme, the key data acquisition will include hydrography, oceanographic, geological and heritage data. These data sets discharge Ireland's obligations under international treaties to which she is signatory and the uses of these data are vast and multipurpose: from management plans for inshore fishing, aquaculture, coastal protection and engineering works, to environmental impact assessments related to licensing activity and support to the evolving needs of integrated coastal zone management. INFOMAR also includes a data management, exchange and integration programme for the establishment of a National Marine Data Discovery and Exchange Service; providing improved dissemination of information to researchers, policy makers, the public and private sector and the adoption of standard operating procedures in data management to facilitate inter-agency data integration. During the first year of activity, INFOMAR carried out an integrated survey from the national research vessel, the RV Celtic Explorer, acquiring hydrographic, geophysical and groundtruthing data from Bantry and Dunmanus Bays, located off the South West coast of Ireland. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and small-vessel mapping surveys have also been carried out, giving detailed bathymetric, topographic and habitat information for the shoaler waters and inshore areas. This presentation will focus both on the general framework and scope of INFOMAR and the initial results and experiences of this year's survey.

  3. Development of the particle inflow gun for DNA delivery to plant cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Finer; Philippe Vain; Mark W. Jones; Michael D. McMullen

    1992-01-01

    Summary A simple and inexpensive particle bombardment device was constructed for delivery of DNA to plant cells. The Particle Inflow Gun (PIG) is based on acceleration of DNA-coated tungsten particles using pressurized helium in combination with a partial vacuum. The particles are accelerated directly in a helium stream rather than being supported by a macrocarrier. Bombardment parameters were partially optimized

  4. Experiments Measuring Particle Deposition from Fully Developed Turbulent Flow in Ventilation Ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Sippola; William W. Nazaroff

    2004-01-01

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2

  5. Development of species-specific hybridization probes for marine luminous bacteria by using in vitro DNA amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Wimpee, C F; Nadeau, T L; Nealson, K H

    1991-01-01

    By using two highly conserved region of the luxA gene as primers, polymerase chain reaction amplification methods were used to prepare species-specific probes against the luciferase gene from four major groups of marine luminous bacteria. Laboratory studies with test strains indicated that three of the four probes cross-reacted with themselves and with one or more of the other species at low stringencies but were specific for members of their own species at high stringencies. The fourth probe, generated from Vibrio harveyi DNA, cross-reacted with DNAs from two closely related species, V. orientalis and V. vulnificus. When nonluminous cultures were tested with the species-specific probes, no false-positive results were observed, even at low stringencies. Two field isolates were correctly identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by using the species-specific hybridization probes at high stringency. A mixed probe (four different hybridization probes) used at low stringency gave positive results with all of the luminous bacteria tested, including the terrestrial species, Xenorhabdus luminescens, and the taxonomically distinct marine bacterial species Shewanella hanedai; minimal cross-hybridization with these species was seen at higher stringencies. Images PMID:1854194

  6. Marine Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barker, William

    Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one lesson within a much larger set hosted by Duke University.

  7. Marine Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barker, William

    Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  8. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  9. Development of position sensitive proportional counters for hot particle detection in laundry and portal monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Schwahn, S.O.; Bennett, T.E.; Misko, D.J. (Shonka Research Associates, Inc., Marietta, GA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes research which demonstrates the use of position sensitive proportional counters in contamination monitoring systems. Both laundry monitoring and portal monitoring systems were developed. The laundry monitor was deployed at a nuclear power plant where it was used to monitor clothing during an outage. Position sensitive proportional counter based contamination monitoring systems were shown to have significant advantages over systems using conventional proportional counters. These advantages include the ability to directly measure the area and quantity of contamination. This capability permits identification of hot particles. These systems are also capable of self calibration via internal check sources. Systems deployed with this technology should benefit from reduced complexity, cost and maintenance. The inherent reduction of background that occurs when the counter is electronically divided into numerous detectors permits operation in high background radiation fields and improves detection limits over conventional technology.

  10. Measurement of fluid velocity development behind a circular cylinder using particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goharzadeh, Afshin; Molki, Arman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a non-intrusive experimental approach for obtaining a two-dimensional velocity distribution around a 22 mm diameter circular cylinder mounted in a water tunnel. Measurements were performed for a constant Reynolds number of 7670 using a commercial standard particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Different flow patterns generated behind the circular cylinder are discussed. Both instantaneous and time-averaged velocity distributions with corresponding streamlines are obtained. Key concepts in fluid mechanics, such as contra-rotating vortices, von Kármán vortex street, and laminar-turbulent flow, are discussed. In addition, brief historical information pertaining to the development of flow measurement techniques—in particular, PIV—is described.

  11. Technology Development for the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA) Suborbital Ultra-High Energy Particle Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth; Gorham, Peter; Furer, Joshua; Miki, Christian

    We describe technology development for the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA), the next generation balloon-borne ultra-high energy (UHE) particle observatory under development for NASA's suborbital super-pressure balloon program in Antarctica. The design is based on a novel application of toroidal reflector optics, utilizing the super-pressure balloon surface to mount an RF reflector and an internal feed-array suspended inside of the balloon, to create an ultra-large radio antenna system with a synoptic view of the Antarctic ice sheet below it. A 1/20 scale model test with an actual inflated balloon is planned for late Spring 2014 at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. A 5.8~meter diameter super-pressure balloon will be pulsed at 3~GHz to test electronics and data acquisition systems. The 1/20 scale model will also be used to investigate deployment of the EVA system. Feed deployment is a semi-autonomous process that proceeds gradually as the volume of the ascending balloon increases. A mathematical model was developed to analyze deployment of the EVA system. Numerical solutions based on the model will be compared with measurements of ascent-like shapes assumed by the physical model during inflation.

  12. 3-D turbulent particle dispersion submodel development. Quarterly progress report No. 1, 5 April--5 July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    The lack of a mathematical description of the interactions of fluid turbulence with other physics-chemical processes is a major obstacle in modeling many industrial program. Turbulent two-phase flow is a phenomenon that is of significant practical importance to coal combustion as well as other disciplines. The interactions of fluid turbulence with the particulate phase has yet to be accurately and efficiently modeled for these industrial applications. On 15 May 1991 work was initiated to cover four major tasks toward the development of a computational submodel for turbulent particle dispersion that would be applicable to coal combustion simulations. Those four tasks are: 1. A critical evaluation of the 2-D Lagrangian particle dispersion submodel, 2. Development of a 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 3. Evaluation of the 3-D submodel for turbulent particle dispersion, 4.Exploration of extensions of the Lagrangian dispersion theory to other applications including chemistry-turbulence interactions.

  13. The effect of non-uniform mass loading on the linear, temporal development of particle-laden shear layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senatore, Giacomo; Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf

    2015-03-01

    The effect of non-uniformity in bulk particle mass loading on the linear development of a particle-laden shear layer is analyzed by means of a stochastic Eulerian-Eulerian model. From the set of governing equations of the two-fluid model, a modified Rayleigh equation is derived that governs the linear growth of a spatially periodic disturbance. Eigenvalues for this Rayleigh equation are determined numerically using proper conditions at the co-flowing gas and particle interface locations. For the first time, it is shown that non-uniform loading of small-inertia particles (Stokes number (St) <0.2) may destabilize the inviscid mixing layer development as compared to the pure-gas flow. The destabilization is triggered by an energy transfer rate that globally flows from the particle phase to the gas phase. For intermediate St (1 < St < 10), a maximum stabilizing effect is computed, while at larger St, two unstable modes may coexist. The growth rate computations from linear stability analysis are verified numerically through simulations based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) model based on the inviscid Euler equations and a point particle model. The growth rates found in numerical experiments using the EL method are in very good agreement with growth rates from the linear stability analysis and validate the destabilizing effect induced by the presence of particles with low St.

  14. Development and characterization of an ion trap mass spectrometer for the on-line chemical analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Kürten; Joachim Curtius; Frank Helleis; Edward R. Lovejoy; Stephan Borrmann

    2007-01-01

    A novel Ion Trap Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (IT-AMS) for atmospheric particles has been developed and characterized. With this instrument the chemical composition of the non-refractory component of aerosol particles can be measured quantitatively. The set-up makes use of the well-characterized inlet and vaporization\\/ionization system of the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). While the AMS uses either a linear quadrupole mass

  15. Development of a three-stage system for the treatment and reclamation of wastewater containing nano-scale particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Yang; C. J. Huang; W. L. Lai; C. C. Chang; C. M. Kao

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane technology cannot be applied for the direct purification of nano-scale particle-containing wastewater due to membrane fouling\\/clogging problems. In this study, a three-stage pre-treatment process was developed to remove nano-scale particles from wastewater prior to further water purification using RO. The proposed pre-treatment system involved chemical coagulation\\/flocculation followed by sand filtration (SF) and ultrafiltration (UF). Backgrinding (BG)

  16. Development of a new on-line aerosol composition analyzer: a particle trap laser desorption mass spectrometer (PT-LDMS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Takegawa; T. Miyakawa; T. Nakamura; Y. Sameshima; M. Takei; Y. Kondo; N. Hirayama

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new analyzer for in-situ measurements of aerosol composition: a particle trap laser desorption mass spectrometer (PT-LDMS). The main components of the instrument include an aerodynamic lens, a particle trap embedded in a thermal processing cell, two quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs), a vacuum chamber incorporating the above components, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (wavelength 10.6 um).

  17. Effects of dose and particle size on activated carbon treatment to sequester polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, John R; Werner, David; Ghosh, Upal; Millward, Rod N; Bridges, Todd S; Luthy, Richard G

    2005-07-01

    Recent laboratory studies show that mixing activated carbon with contaminated sediment reduces the chemical and biological availability of hydrophobic organic contaminants. In this study, we test the effects of varying the activated carbon dose and particle size in reducing the aqueous availability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the uptake of PCBs by two benthic organisms. We mixed PCB- and PAH-contaminated sediment from Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay (CA, USA), for one month with activated carbon, at doses of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4% dry mass basis. We found that increasing the carbon dose increased the effectiveness in reducing PCB bioaccumulation. In 56-d uptake tests with the benthic organisms Neanthes arenaceodentata and Leptocheirus plumulosus, PCB bioaccumulation was reduced by 93 and 90%, respectively, with 3.4% carbon. Increasing the dose also increased the effectiveness in reducing PCB and PAH aqueous concentrations and uptake by semipermeable membrane devices and quiescent flux of PCBs to overlying water. Decreasing activated carbon particle size increased treatment effectiveness in reducing PCB aqueous concentration, and larger-sized activated carbon (400-1,700 microm) was ineffective with a contact period of one month. We invoke a numerical model based on intraparticle diffusion in sediment and activated carbon particles to help interpret our experimental results. This model was useful in explaining the trends for the effect of activated carbon dose and particle size on PCB aqueous concentrations in well-mixed systems. PMID:16050574

  18. Mariners' Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariners' Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

  19. Mariners' Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariner's Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

  20. Marine Sanctuaries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-06-10

    In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will learn about the national marine sanctuaries found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and off the coast of American Samoa. They include breeding and feeding grounds of whales, sea lions, sharks, and sea turtles; significant coral reefs and kelp forest habitats; and the remains of the U.S.S. Monitor, a Civil War ironclad sunk off the coast of North Carolina.

  1. Sub-micrometer salt aerosol production intended for marine cloud brightening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukermans, Armand; Cooper, Gary; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Jain, Sudhanshu; Latham, John; Ormond, Bob

    2014-06-01

    This paper is largely concerned with research focused on, but not restricted to, aspects of Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB), one of several geo-engineering ideas for reducing the amount of sunlight arriving at the Earth's surface, thereby compensating for global warming resulting from fossil-fuel burning. Predominant attention is given to the development of techniques for generating sprays of sub-micrometer salt particles that can enter marine stratocumulus clouds and increase their albedo, thus producing a cooling. Generation of sub-micrometer salt particles by spraying salt solutions at supercritical conditions is described, along with a description of the apparatus used. Log-normal particle size distributions having median diameters of 32 to 286 nm, with GSDs (Geometric Standard Deviations) around 2, were generated by two variations on the technique.

  2. Development of Carbonaceous Particle Size Analyzer Using Laser-induced Incandescence Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikezawa, Satoshi; Wakamatsu, Muneaki; Zimin, Yury L'vovich; Pawlat, Joanna; Ueda, Toshitsugu

    This paper presents a new sensing system for carbonaceous nanoparticle measurement using a laser-induced incandescence (LII) technique. Our research group has improved the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system used for quantitative analysis. Although the basic principles of LIBS quantitative measurements are well understood, several uncertainties remain concerning complete descriptions—especially for particle size measurement. The elemental composition and density of the particles are determined using LIBS, and particle size measurements are accomplished with the help of LII. In the case of the present system, with temporally resolved LII, measurement of soot primary particle sizes is feasible in a combustion process derived from the ratio of emission signals after a laser pulse because the cooling behaviour is characteristic of the particle size. The LII temporal analysis was performed by a streak camera, which was also used for LIBS analysis. The LII technique allows in situ measurement of the average primary particle size of nanoscale soot particles.

  3. Modality in ambient particle size distributions and its potential as a basis for developing air quality regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawska, Lidia; Keogh, Diane U.; Thomas, Stephen B.; Mengersen, Kerrie

    Current ambient air quality standards are mass-based and restricted to PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions. The major contribution to both PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions is from particles belonging to the coarse mode and generated by mechanical processes. These standards are thus unable to effectively control particle concentrations from combustion sources, such as motor vehicles and power plants, which tend to emit very small particles that are almost entirely respirable and in the submicron range, and dominate the nucleation and accumulation modes, which contribute much less to particle mass concentration. The aim of this work was to examine whether PM 1 and PM 10 would be a more effective combination of mass standards than PM 2.5 (dominant in the nucleation and accumulation modes) and PM 10 (dominant in the coarse mode) in controlling combustion-related ambient particles, as well as those originating from mechanical processes. First, a large body of data on particle size distributions in a range of environments in South East Queensland, Australia, was analysed, with an aim of identifying the relation between modality in the distributions and sources of particles belonging to different modes. The analyses included a matrix of the following elements: particle volume and number distributions, type of environment and locations of the modes in the range of PM 1, PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions. Second, with the same aim, 600 published modal location values relating to number, surface area, volume and mass size distributions for a range of environments worldwide were analysed. The analysis identified a clear and distinct separation between the location of the modes for a substantial number of environments worldwide and particle metrics, which suggests that modality in particle size distributions may be a parameter that has potential to be used in the development of PM 1 air quality guidelines and standards. Based on these analyses, implications for choosing different mass standards for airborne particulate matter are discussed in the paper.

  4. Radiation Exposure Analyses Supporting the Development of Solar Particle Event Shielding Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Steven A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Abston, H. Lee; Simon, Hatthew A.; Gallegos, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA has plans for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Outside of LEO, large solar particle events (SPEs), which occur sporadically, can deliver a very large dose in a short amount of time. The relatively low proton energies make SPE shielding practical, and the possibility of the occurrence of a large event drives the need for SPE shielding for all deep space missions. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) RadWorks Storm Shelter Team was charged with developing minimal mass SPE storm shelter concepts for missions beyond LEO. The concepts developed included "wearable" shields, shelters that could be deployed at the onset of an event, and augmentations to the crew quarters. The radiation transport codes, human body models, and vehicle geometry tools contained in the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation In Space (OLTARIS) were used to evaluate the protection provided by each concept within a realistic space habitat and provide the concept designers with shield thickness requirements. Several different SPE models were utilized to examine the dependence of the shield requirements on the event spectrum. This paper describes the radiation analysis methods and the results of these analyses for several of the shielding concepts.

  5. Development of a Neutralization Assay for Nipah Virus Using Pseudotype Particles

    PubMed Central

    Tamin, Azaibi; Harcourt, Brian H.; Lo, Michael K.; Roth, James A.; Wolf, Mike C.; Lee, Benhur; Weingartl, Hana; Audonnet, Jean-Christophe; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are zoonotic paramyxoviruses capable of causing severe disease in humans and animals. These viruses require biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment. Like other paramyxoviruses, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) can be used to detect antibodies to the surface glycoproteins, fusion (F) and attachment (G), and PRNT titers give an indication of protective immunity. Unfortunately, for NiV and HeV, the PRNT must be performed in BSL-4 containment and takes 5–7 days to complete. Thus, we have developed a neutralization assay using VSV pseudotype particles expressing the F and G proteins of NiV (pVSV-NiV-F/G) as target antigens. This rapid assay, which can be performed at BSL-2, was evaluated using serum samples from outbreak investigations and more than 300 serum samples from an experimental NiV vaccination study in swine. The results of the neutralization assays with pVSV-NiV-F/G as antigen showed a good correlation with those of standard PRNT. Therefore, this new method has the potential to be a rapid and cost-effective diagnostic method, especially in locations that lack high containment facilities, and will provide a valuable tool for basic research and vaccine development. PMID:19559943

  6. Development of a neutralization assay for Nipah virus using pseudotype particles.

    PubMed

    Tamin, Azaibi; Harcourt, Brian H; Lo, Michael K; Roth, James A; Wolf, Mike C; Lee, Benhur; Weingartl, Hana; Audonnet, Jean-Christophe; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2009-09-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are zoonotic paramyxoviruses capable of causing severe disease in humans and animals. These viruses require biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment. Like other paramyxoviruses, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) can be used to detect antibodies to the surface glycoproteins, fusion (F) and attachment (G), and PRNT titers give an indication of protective immunity. Unfortunately, for NiV and HeV, the PRNT must be performed in BSL-4 containment and takes several days to complete. Thus, we have developed a neutralization assay using VSV pseudotype particles expressing the F and G proteins of NiV (pVSV-NiV-F/G) as target antigens. This rapid assay, which can be performed at BSL-2, was evaluated using serum samples from outbreak investigations and more than 300 serum samples from an experimental NiV vaccination study in swine. The results of the neutralization assays with pVSV-NiV-F/G as antigen showed a good correlation with those of standard PRNT. Therefore, this new method has the potential to be a rapid and cost-effective diagnostic method, especially in locations that lack high containment facilities, and will provide a valuable tool for basic research and vaccine development. PMID:19559943

  7. Development of a Multi-directional Direct Simple Shear Testing Device for Characterization of the Cyclic Shear Response of Marine Clays 

    E-print Network

    Rutherford, Cassandra Jane

    2012-07-16

    challenges in studying submarine landslides is the lack of information about the properties of these soils. Because offshore soil sampling is expensive, published experimental information on marine clays from offshore is limited. Most marine clay testing... in the research literature is conducted on marine deposits that are now onshore and easily accessible such as Boston Blue Clay (BBC) and San Francisco Young Bay Mud (YBM). However, due to the depositional environment and mechanisms, the stress history...

  8. Development of a subcritical fluid extraction and GC-MS validation method for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine samples.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kai; Feng, Xiaomei; Liu, Kun; Han, Yuqian; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a new procedure for extracting polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a). The extraction procedure was optimized at temperatures varying from 20 to 70°C and pressures ranging from 3 to 15 MPa. The volume of the co-solvent was then optimized using 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) as the subcritical phase. PCBs were characterized by GC-MS using the optimized conditions of 3 MPa, 30°C, and a co-solvent volume of 6 mL. The average yields of PCBs from subcritical fluid extraction of spiked oyster samples were measured and found to be greater than 90%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 10%. Detection limits of this method were in the range of 0.045-0.108 ng/g of dry mass. The method was compared to Soxhlet extraction and then applied for monitoring PCBs in oysters from Qingdao, Shandong, China. PMID:23455072

  9. Development of a 3D Digital Particle Image Thermometry and Velocimetry (3DDPITV) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, David; Rixon, Greg; Dabiri, Dana

    2006-11-01

    A novel 3D Digital Particle Image Thermometry and Velocimetry (3DDPITV) system has been designed and fabricated. By combining 3D Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (3DDPIV) and Digital Particle Image Thermometry (DPIT) into one system, this technique provides simultaneous temperature and velocity data in a volume of ˜1x1x0.5 in^3 using temperature sensitive liquid crystal particles as flow sensors. Two high-intensity xenon flashlamps were used as illumination sources. The imaging system consists of six CCD cameras, three allocated for measuring velocity, based on particle motion, and three for measuring temperature, based on particle color. The cameras were optically aligned using a precision grid and high-resolution translation stages. Temperature calibration was then performed using a precision thermometer and a temperature-controlled bath. Results from proof-of-concept experiments will be presented and discussed.

  10. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. O Pörtner; B Berdal; R Blust; O Brix; A Colosimo; B De Wachter; A Giuliani; T Johansen; T Fischer; R Knust; G Lannig; G Naevdal; A Nedenes; G Nyhammer; F. J Sartoris; I Serendero; P Sirabella; S Thorkildsen; M Zakhartsev

    2001-01-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special

  11. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings VI: An automated spinning water jet apparatus for the high-throughput characterization of fouling-release marine coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane J. Stafslien; James A. Bahr; Justin W. Daniels; Lyndsi Vander Wal; Jonathan Nevins; Jeremy Smith; Kris Schiele; Bret Chisholm

    2007-01-01

    Large numbers of coatings can be generated very quickly using a combinatorial high-throughput approach. Rapid screening assays are typically required to adequately evaluate and down select coating candidates to identify promising compositions. An automated, spinning water jet apparatus was developed to rapidly characterize the adhesion strength of marine organisms to coating surfaces. Coating arrays are cast in multiwell plates and

  12. Web Site on Marine Connecivity Around Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, Scott

    2005-06-01

    The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), with support from the Western Australian Government, has developed an online tool for marine scientists and managers to investigate the largescale patterns of spatial connectivity around Australia that are associated with ocean current transport (,Figure 1). This tool, referred to as the Australian Connectivity Interface, or Aus-ConnIe, is expected to find applications in areas such as tracer dispersion studies (see example by Ridgway and Condie [2004](, larval dispersion and recruitment, and the development of scenarios and preliminary risk assessments for contaminant dispersion in the marine environment. After selecting a region of interest, users can investigate where material carried into that region comes from, or where material originating in that region goes to, over a range of timescales (weeks to months). These connectivity statistics are based on large numbers of particle trajctories (one million at any given time) estimated from satellite altimeter data, coastal tide-gauge data, and winds from meteorological models. Users can save the results in a variety of formats (CSV, Excel, or XML) and, as an option, may save their sessions by first registering.

  13. Marine Iguana

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    No iguana wants to be cooked alive on a hot rock and then served up as dinner for a Galapagos hawk. But it turns out the marine iguanas have a strategy that warns them of the presence of hawks they can’t see. They learned to tune in to a kind of police scanner…the alarm calls of mockingbirds.Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

  14. Diversity and Distribution of Marine Synechococcus: Multiple Gene Phylogenies for Consensus Classification and Development of qPCR Assays for Sensitive Measurement of Clades in the Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Ahlgren, Nathan A.; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Marine Synechococcus is a globally significant genus of cyanobacteria that is comprised of multiple genetic lineages or clades. These clades are thought to represent ecologically distinct units, or ecotypes. Because multiple clades often co-occur together in the oceans, Synechococcus are ideal microbes to explore how closely related bacterial taxa within the same functional guild of organisms co-exist and partition marine habitats. Here we sequenced multiple gene loci from cultured strains to confirm the congruency of clade classifications between the 16S–23S rDNA internally transcribed spacer (ITS), 16S rDNA, narB, ntcA, and rpoC1 loci commonly used in Synechococcus diversity studies. We designed quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays that target the ITS for 10 Synechococcus clades, including four clades, XV, XVI, CRD1, and CRD2, not covered by previous assays employing other loci. Our new qPCR assays are very sensitive and specific, detecting down to tens of cells per ml. Application of these qPCR assays to field samples from the northwest Atlantic showed clear shifts in Synechococcus community composition across a coastal to open-ocean transect. Consistent with previous studies, clades I and IV dominated cold, coastal Synechococcus communities. Clades II and X were abundant at the two warmer, off-shore stations, and at all stations multiple Synechococcus clades co-occurred. qPCR assays developed here provide valuable tools to further explore the dynamics of microbial community structure and the mechanisms of co-existence. PMID:22723796

  15. Design and development of micro-strip stacked module prototypes to measure flying particle directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, J.; Bosi, F.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Profeti, A.; Verdini, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    Experience at high luminosity hadron collider experiments shows that tracking information enhances the trigger rejection capabilities while retaining high efficiency for interesting physics events [F. Palla and G. Parrini, Tracking in the trigger: from the CDF experience to CMS upgrade, 2007. Published in PoS VER-TEX2007:034, 2007]. The design of a tracking based trigger for Super LHC (S-LHC), the already envisaged high luminosity upgrade of the LHC collider, is an extremely challenging task, and requires the identification of high-momentum particle tracks as a part of the Level 1 Trigger. Simulation studies show that this can be achieved by correlating hits on two closely spaced silicon strip sensors. This work focuses on the design and development of micro-strip stacked prototype modules and will also discuss the technical challenges in the construction and the final detector performance. Studies of possible sensor geometries and wire-bonding techniques will be also presented. The prototypes have been built with the silicon sensors and electronics used to equip the present CMS Tracker [CMS Collaboration, The CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, JINST 3:S08004:26-89, 2008]. Correlation of signals collected from sensors are processed off detector. We will present the results of tests performed on the prototype modules in terms of the noise performance of the proposed stack geometry. Preliminary results in terms of signal over noise and tracking performance with cosmic rays will also be shown.

  16. Development, testing and demonstration of a portable submersible miniature particle imaging velocimetry device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritico, H. M.; Cotel, A. J.; Clarke, J. N.

    2007-08-01

    A portable underwater particle image velocimetry (PIV) device has been developed, tested and demonstrated. The underwater PIV uses a 532 nm battery-powered 90 mW continuous laser. The laser beam is pulsed via a camera-synchronized chopper wheel. Images were recorded using a 1 megapixel black and white 10-bit CCD battery-powered camera controlled via a PCMCIA frame grabber card connected to a laptop computer. The system was validated against a standard laboratory PIV for average velocities up to 15 cm s-1 downstream from a 1.6 cm circular cylinder. The average vorticities calculated between the two systems were similar with a maximum difference of 3.6%. The average velocities were also similar with the largest difference occurring at the slowest flow recorded (difference of 0.5 cm s-1), resulting in a 9.4% difference. The maximum eddy size was comparable between the two systems with an average error of 4%. The system was field tested in the Huron River, Michigan downstream from a 1.2 cm diameter submerged limb. Mean velocities and standard deviations were comparable to acoustic Doppler velocimeter data. This paper presents the first published subsurface PIV data from a fluvial environment, demonstrating potential applications for a number of ecological and geomorphological studies.

  17. Development of a pulmonary peptide delivery system using porous nanoparticle-aggregate particles for systemic application.

    PubMed

    Yang, Likai; Luo, Jing; Shi, Sanjun; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Zhirong; Gong, Tao

    2013-07-15

    As a non-invasive administration route, pulmonary peptide delivery for systemic application has shown great promise. However, many barriers exist that prevent effective peptide delivery. The use of porous nanoparticle-aggregate particles (PNAPs) is an excellent option because of their proper aerodynamic size and maximal deposition. However, in most cases, the spray drying heating process for PNAPs has been challenging in regard to maintaining peptide stability and activity. To overcome these issues, we developed a spray freeze-drying method for PNAP preparation. To solve the low entrapment efficiency problem of nanostructured lipid carriers, we used hydrophobic ion pair complexes to increase the lipophilicity of the peptide, thus increasing entrapment efficiency and drug loading. Here, we used a model peptide, octreotide acetate, for PNAP preparation, which has a high entrapment efficiency (>95%) and proper aerodynamic size (~3 ?m). In addition, after intrapulmonary administration, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in a rat preventive hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Our in vivo data showed significantly increased area under the curve and improved plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels for our PNAP intrapulmonary delivery system vs. the clinically used octreotide acetate delivery via subcutaneous injection. Together, PNAPs may have great potential for carrying peptide drugs for pulmonary delivery. PMID:23651645

  18. Advanced laser particle accelerator development at LANL: from fast ignition to radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaillard, Sandrine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, D T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cobble, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, M J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gautier, D C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwan, T J T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montgomery, D S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kluge, Thomas [FZD-GERMANY; Bussmann, Micheal [FZD-GERMANY; Bartal, T [UCSD; Beg, F N [UCSD; Gall, B [UNIV OF MISSOURI; Geissel, M [SNL; Korgan, G [NANOLABZ; Kovaleski, S [UNIV OF MISSOURI; Lockard, T [UNIV OF NEVADA; Malekos, S [NANOLABZ; Schollmeier, M [SNL; Sentoku, Y [UNIV OF NEVADA; Cowan, T E [FZD-GERMANY

    2010-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, SN M detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high current and high energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology in conjunction with our partners at the ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent etliciencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  19. Development of atomic layer deposition-activated microchannel plates for single particle detection at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelikov, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@arradiance.com; Sullivan, Neal; Rouffignac, Philippe de; Li, Huazhi; Narayanamoorthy, Jayasri; Tremsin, Anton S. [Arradiance Inc., 142 North Road, Sudbury, Massachusetts 01776 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is used to nanoengineer functional films inside the pores of microchannel plate (MCP) electron multipliers, enabling a novel MCP manufacturing technology that substantially improves performance and opens novel applications. The authors have developed custom tools and recipes for the growth of conformal films, with optimized conductance and secondary electron emission inside very long channels (?6–20??m diameter and >600??m length, with tens of millions of channels per single MCP) by ALD. The unique ability to tune the characteristics of these ALD films enables their optimization to applications where time-resolved single particle imaging can be performed in extreme conditions, such as high counting rates at cryogenic temperatures. Adhesion of the conductive and emissive nanofilms to the 20??m pore MCP glass substrates and their mechanical stability over a very wide range of temperatures (10–700?K) were confirmed experimentally. Resistance of ALD MCPs was reproducible during multiple cool-down cycles with no film degradation observed. Optimizing resistance of novel MCPs for operation at cryogenic temperature should enable high count rate event detection at temperatures below 20?K.

  20. Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Cowan, T. E.; Gall, B.; Gautier, D. C.; Geissel, M.; Kwan, T. J.; Korgan, G.; Kovaleski, S.; Lockard, T.; Malekos, S.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schollmeier, M.; Sentoku, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity [1] and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser [2]. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  1. Advanced Laser Particle Accelerator Development at LANL: From Fast Ignition to Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Flippo, K. A.; Offermann, D. T.; Cobble, J. A.; Schmitt, M. J.; Gautier, D. C.; Kwan, T. J.; Montgomery, D. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO BOX 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T. E. [ForschungsZentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N. [University of California, San Diego, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., La Jolla, CA 92038 (United States); Gall, B.; Kovaleski, S. [University of Missouri, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Columbia MO 65211 (United States); Geissel, M.; Schollmeier, M. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Korgan, G.; Malekos, S. [Nanolabz, 661 Sierra Rose Dr., Reno, NV 89511 (United States); Lockard, T. [University of Nevada, Physics, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2010-11-04

    Laser-plasma accelerated ion and electron beam sources are an emerging field with vast prospects, and promise many superior applications in a variety of fields such as hadron cancer therapy, compact radioisotope generation, table-top nuclear physics, laboratory astrophysics, nuclear forensics, waste transmutation, Special Nuclear Material (SNM) detection, and inertial fusion energy. LANL is engaged in several projects seeking to develop compact high-current and high-energy ion and electron sources. We are especially interested in two specific applications: ion fast ignition/capsule perturbation and radiation oncology. Laser-to-beam conversion efficiencies of over 10% are needed for practical applications, and we have already shown inherent efficiencies of >5% from flat foils, on Trident using only a 5th of the intensity and energy of the Nova Petawatt laser. With clever target designs, like structured curved cone targets, we have also been able to achieve major ion energy gains, leading to the highest energy laser-accelerated proton beams in the world [3]. These new target designs promise to help usher in the next generation of particle sources realizing the potential of laser-accelerated beams.

  2. Marine pollution: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentukevi?ien?, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  3. Mobile Measurements of Gas and Particle Emissions from Marcellus Shale Gas Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, P. F.; Goetz, J. D.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Fortner, E.; Wormhoudt, J.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C. E.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Production of natural gas in the Marcellus shale is increasing rapidly due to the vast quantities of natural gas stored in the formation. Transient and long-term activities have associated emissions to the atmosphere of methane, volatile organic compounds, NOx, particulates and other species from gas production and transport infrastructure. In the summer of 2012, a team of researchers from Drexel University and Aerodyne Research deployed the Aerodyne mobile laboratory (AML) and measured in-situ concentrations of gas-phase and aerosol chemical components in the main gas producing regions of Pennsylvania, with the overall goal of understanding the impacts to regional ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. State-of-the-art instruments including quantum cascade laser systems, proton transfer mass spectrometry, tunable diode lasers and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer, were used quantify concentrations of pollutants of interest. Chemical species measured include methane, ethane, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, SO2, and many volatile organic compounds, and aerosol size and chemical composition. Tracer-release techniques were employed to link sources with emissions and to quantify emission rates from gas facilities, in order to understand the regional burden of these chemical species from oil and gas development in the Marcellus. Measurements were conducted in two regions of Pennsylvania: the NE region that is predominantly dry gas (95% + methane), and the SW region where wet gas (containing greater than 5% higher hydrocarbons) is found. Regional scale measurements of current levels of air pollutants will be shown and will put into context how further development of the gas resource in one of the largest natural gas fields in the world impacts air quality in a region upwind of the highly urbanized east coast corridor.

  4. Structural studies of bacteriophage Hong Kong 97 Prohead I and development of nano-particle applications

    E-print Network

    Huang, Rick Kuo-Jui

    2010-01-01

    1-2 . Recently, phage-based nano-particles were developedparticles were xx Chapter 1: Introduction to Viruses and Bacteriophages 1A: Assembly and Maturation Pathway of Viruses and Phagesphage Q?, 41 and the rod-shaped plant virus Potato virus X (PVX) 42 . The latter particles

  5. Design and development of an ultrafine particle reflection-time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    E-print Network

    Das, Rishiraj

    2002-01-01

    and characterization of a single-ultrafine-particle mass spectrometer. The instrument aerodynamically size selects fine and ultrafine aerosol particles (size range 20 nm-1 []m), with a constant Stokes number, and focuses them into a vacuum chamber. This is achieved...

  6. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: GridPP: development of the UK computing Grid for particle physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. W. Faulkner; L. S. Lowe; C. L. A. Tan; P. M. Watkins; D. S. Bailey; T. A. Barrass; N. H. Brook; R. J. H. Croft; M. P. Kelly; C. K. Mackay; S. Metson; O. J. E. Maroney; D. M. Newbold; F. F. Wilson; P. R. Hobson; A. Khan; P. Kyberd; J. J. Nebrensky; M. Bly; C. Brew; S. Burke; R. Byrom; J. Coles; L. A. Cornwall; A. Djaoui; L. Field; S. M. Fisher; G. T. Folkes; N. I. Geddes; J. C. Gordon; S. J. C. Hicks; J. G. Jensen; G. Johnson; D P Kelsey; G. Kuznetsov; J. Leake; R. P. Middleton; G. N. Patrick; G. Prassas; B. J. Saunders; D. Ross; R. A. Sansum; T. Shah; B. Strong; O. Synge; R. Tam; M. Thorpe; S. Traylen; J. F. Wheeler; N. G. H. White; A. J. Wilson; I. Antcheva; E. Artiaga; J. Beringer; I. G. Bird; J. Casey; A. J. Cass; R. Chytracek; M. V. Gallas Torreira; J. Generowicz; M. Girone; G. Govi; F. Harris; M. Heikkurinen; A. Horvath; E. Knezo; M. Litmaath; M. Lubeck; J. Moscicki; I. Neilson; E. Poinsignon; W. Pokorski; A. Ribon; Z. Sekera; D. H. Smith; W. L. Tomlin; J. E. van Eldik; J. Wojcieszuk; F. M. Brochu; S. Das; K. Harrison; M. Hayes; J. C. Hill; C. G. Lester; M. J. Palmer; M. A. Parker; M. Nelson; M. R. Whalley; E. W. N. Glover; P. Anderson; P. J. Clark; A. D. Earl; A. Holt; A. Jackson; B. Joo; R. D. Kenway; C. M. Maynard; J. Perry; L. Smith; S. Thorn; A. S. Trew; W. H. Bell; M. Burgon-Lyon; D. G. Cameron; A. T. Doyle; A. Flavell; S. J. Hanlon; D. J. Martin; G. McCance; A. P. Millar; C. Nicholson; S. K. Paterson; A. Pickford; P. Soler; F. Speirs; R. St. Denis; A. S. Thompson; D. Britton; W. Cameron; D. Colling; G. Davies; P. Dornan; U. Egede; K. Georgiou; P. Lewis; B. MacEvoy; S. Marr; J. Martyniak; H. Tallini; S. Wakefield; R. Walker; I. A. Bertram; E. Bouhova-Thacker; D. Evans; R. C. W. Henderson; R. W. L. Jones; P. Love; S. Downing; M. P. George; A. C. Irving; C. McNeile; Z. Sroczynski; M. Tobin; A. J. Washbrook; R. J. Barlow; S. Dallison; G. Fairey; A. Forti; R. E. Hughes-Jones; M. A. S. Jones; S. Kaushal; R. Marshall; A. McNab; S. Salih; J. C. Werner; V. Bartsch; C. Cioffi; P. Gronbech; N. Harnew; J. F. Harris; B. T. Huffman; M. Leslie; I. McArthur; R. Newman; A. Soroko; I. Stokes-Rees; S. Stonjek; J. Tseng; D. Waters; G. Wilkinson; T. R. Arter; R. A. Cordenonsi; A. S. Datta; T. Hartin; S. L. Lloyd; A. J. Martin; S. E. Pearce; C. J. Williams; M. Gardner; S. George; B. J. Green; S. Johal; G. Rybkine; J. A. Strong; P. Teixeira-Dias; P. Hodgson; M. Robinson; D. R. Tovey; N. J. C. Spooner; C. R. Allton; W. Armour; P. Clarke; P. Mealor; B. Waugh

    2006-01-01

    The GridPP Collaboration is building a UK computing Grid for particle physics, as part of the international effort towards computing for the Large Hadron Collider. The project, funded by the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), began in September 2001 and completed its first phase 3 years later. GridPP is a collaboration of approximately 100 researchers in 19

  7. Development and characterization of an electrostatic particle sampling system for the selective collection of trace explosives.

    PubMed

    Beer, Sebastian; Müller, Gerhard; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

    2012-01-30

    Detection of trace explosives residues at people and cargo control points has become a key security challenge. A severe obstacle is that all commercial and military high explosives have low to extremely low vapor pressures which make them very hard to detect. With detectable vapors not being present, explosives detection needs to proceed through a series of sequential steps including particle collection, thermal vapor conversion and vapor detection. The present paper describes the design and test of an electrostatic particle precipitator which allows particle residue to be collected from the environment, the collected particle residue to be separated into high- and low-electron affinity fractions and the high-electron-affinity one to be concentrated onto a small-area collector surface for later vaporization. The selectivity of this particle collection and separation process is demonstrated and a full-chain demonstration of a DNT detection experiment is presented (DNT: di-nitro-toluene). PMID:22284515

  8. Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa (467th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Assamagan, Ketevi (BNL Physics Dept) [BNL Physics Dept

    2011-03-16

    Assamagan presented a talk titled “Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa,” in which he discussed the latest happenings at the LHC and ATLAS, and how African institutes’ participation in research at the LHC relates to the goals of the African School of Physics.

  9. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries (including shape characterization). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, H.P.; Goetz, P.J.; Sharma, A.; Han, W; Bliss, T.C.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) sensor projects was to develop and commercialize a sensor system capable of particle analysis, in terms of size distributions, using concentrated suspensions at high solids concentrations. The early research was focused on application of ultrasonic spectroscopy of inorganic pigment slurries (e.g. titanium dioxide) commonly encountered on paper industry. During the project prototypes were tested in both academic and industrial laboratories. Work also involved successful field tests of the on-line prototype at a pigment manufacturing facility. Pen Kem continued the work at its cost beyond the initial funded period from March `92 to September `94. The first project (DE- FC05-88CE40684), which began in September 1988, culminated in a commercial laboratory instrument, Pen Kem AcoustoPhor {trademark} 8000, put on the market in June 1993. The follow-on project was aimed at investigation of shape and orientation effects on ultrasonic spectroscopy. A new cooperative agreement was awarded in September 1994 (DE-FC05-94CE40005) to develop shape characterization capabilities deemed critical by the clay industry. This follow-on project achieved following successes: A theoretical model was developed to account for the effects of size-dependent aspect ratios of spheroid particles under different orientations on ultrasound attenuation spectra of concentrated slurries. The theoretical model was confirmed by laboratory tests on kaolin slurries. An algorithm was developed to simulate evolution of particle orientation fields in simple squeezing flows.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAGNETIC PARTICLE IMMUNOASSAY FOR POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD MATRICES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed to analyze polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water, milk, fish, and soil samples. The assay was rapid and can be used to analyze fifty samples in about one hour after sample cleanup. The assay has a limit of det...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAGNETIC PARTICLE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE MEASUREMENT OF TRICLOSAN IN WATER AND WASTEWATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sensitive magnetic particle-based immunoassay for triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) was developed. Rabbit antiserum was produced by immunizing the rabbit with 6-(5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy)hexanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The triclosan ligand and horse radis...

  12. Using ARCHON™ to develop real-world DAI applications for electricity transportation management and particle accelerator control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Jennings; J. M. Corera; I. Laresgoiti; E. H. Mamdani; F. Perriollat; P. Skarek; L. Z. Varga

    1996-01-01

    ARCHON™ (ARchitecture for Cooperative Heterogeneous ON-line systems) was Europe's largest ever project in the area of Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI). It devised a general-purpose architecture, software framework, and methodology which has been used to support the development of DAI systems in a number of real world industrial domains. Two of these applications, electricity transportation management and particle accelerator control, have

  13. Chemical Composition of Laboratory Generated Seafoam Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Tyree; O. A. Alexandrova; J. O. Allen

    2005-01-01

    Remote marine aerosols include a significant number of sea-salt particles that may be effective cloud condensation nuclei. For example, O`Dowd and Smith (1993) found that remote marine aerosols in the particle size range 0.1-3.0 mum were dominated by sea-salt particles in the case of moderate-to-high wind speeds. Measurements of the flux of sub-micron sea-salt particles for the same wind speed

  14. Aeolian particles in marine cores as a tool for quantitative high-resolution reconstruction of upwelling favorable winds along coastal Atacama Desert, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Aqueveque, Valentina; Alfaro, Stéphane; Vargas, Gabriel; Rutllant, José A.; Caquineau, Sandrine

    2015-05-01

    Upwelling areas play a major role in ocean biogeochemical cycles and ultimately in global climate, especially in higly productive regions as the South Eastern Pacific. This work is based on the analysis of the aeolian lithic particles accumulated in laminated sediments off Mejillones (23°S) in the eastern boundary Humboldt Current System. It proposes a high-resolution quantitative reconstruction of the upwelling-favorable southerly wind strength in the past ?250 years, comparing its variability with changes in organic carbon export/preserved changes to the sea bottom. The increase of the intensity and variability in fluxes of particles larger than 35 ?m and 100 ?m since the second half of the 19th century and during the 20th century confirms a general strengthening of southerly winds in the region. Spectral analysis on the complete time-series of yearly depositional fluxes indicates that sedimentary variability can be explained by a combination of interannual (ENSO) to decadal (PDO) oscillations similar to the ones yielded by the analysis of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation index. However, when applied separately to the lithic fluxes of the first and last centuries of the time-series, the method shows that relative to the one of the interannual mode of variability, the influence of the decadal mode has increased in the recent period. Based on the presence/absence of particles with sizes larger than 35/100 ?m, each year of the time series is classified as a 'Low wind' (<6 m/s), 'Intermediate wind' (6-8 m/s), or 'Strong wind' (10 to >12 m/s) year. From the AD 1754-1820 period to the AD 1878-1998 one, the proportion of Low and Intermediate wind years decreased from 12% and 74% to 3% and 68%, respectively, whereas the proportion of strong wind years increased from 14% to 29%. For these periods the mean organic carbon also increased 22%, stating the strong relation between export/preservation productivity rate and southerly wind intensity. In the recent period (from AD 1950 on) for which the Oceanic Niño Index is available, the strong wind years (AD 1982, 1983, 1994, and 1997) correspond to large values of this index, suggesting that constructive interferences that result from the interplay between interannual and decadal oscillations modes might explain in part the reinforcement of the winds along the North Chilean coast.

  15. Impact of Ocean Spray on the Dynamics of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Kudryavtsev; V. K. Makin

    The impact of ocean spray on the dynamics of the marine near-surface air boundary layer (MABL) in conditions of very high\\u000a (hurricane) wind speeds is investigated. Toward this end, a model of the MABL in the presence of sea-spume droplets is developed.\\u000a The model is based on the classical theory of the motion of suspended particles in a turbulent flow,

  16. Traffic and nucleation events as main sources of ultrafine particles in high-insolation developed world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, M.; Dall'Osto, M.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Gómez-Moreno, F.; Núñez, L.; Artíñano, B.; Costabile, F.; Gobbi, G. P.; Salimi, F.; Morawska, L.; Sioutas, C.; Querol, X.

    2015-05-01

    Road traffic emissions are often considered the main source of ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter smaller than 100 nm) in urban environments. However, recent studies worldwide have shown that - in high-insolation urban regions at least - new particle formation events can also contribute to UFP. In order to quantify such events we systematically studied three cities located in predominantly sunny environments: Barcelona (Spain), Madrid (Spain) and Brisbane (Australia). Three long-term data sets (1-2 years) of fine and ultrafine particle number size distributions (measured by SMPS, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) were analysed. Compared to total particle number concentrations, aerosol size distributions offer far more information on the type, origin and atmospheric evolution of the particles. By applying k-means clustering analysis, we categorized the collected aerosol size distributions into three main categories: "Traffic" (prevailing 44-63% of the time), "Nucleation" (14-19%) and "Background pollution and Specific cases" (7-22%). Measurements from Rome (Italy) and Los Angeles (USA) were also included to complement the study. The daily variation of the average UFP concentrations for a typical nucleation day at each site revealed a similar pattern for all cities, with three distinct particle bursts. A morning and an evening spike reflected traffic rush hours, whereas a third one at midday showed nucleation events. The photochemically nucleated particles' burst lasted 1-4 h, reaching sizes of 30-40 nm. On average, the occurrence of particle size spectra dominated by nucleation events was 16% of the time, showing the importance of this process as a source of UFP in urban environments exposed to high solar radiation. Nucleation events lasting for 2 h or more occurred on 55% of the days, this extending to > 4 h in 28% of the days, demonstrating that atmospheric conditions in urban environments are not favourable to the growth of photochemically nucleated particles. In summary, although traffic remains the main source of UFP in urban areas, in developed countries with high insolation urban nucleation events are also a main source of UFP. If traffic-related particle concentrations are reduced in the future, nucleation events will likely increase in urban areas, due to the reduced urban condensation sinks.

  17. Marine Biodiversity & Biotechnology

    E-print Network

    Howie, Jim

    Centre for Marine Biodiversity & Biotechnology No one knows how many species live in the sea Biodiversity & Biotechnology. The CMBB was established in 1999 to tackle the challenges of understanding marine biodiversity, unlock the biotechnological potential of marine organisms and understand how marine life can cope

  18. New Developments In Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) For The Study Of Complex Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Fisher, Ross; Shaw, Joseph; Jefferson, Robert; Cianciosa, Mark [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Williams, Jeremiah [Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, OH 45501 (United States)

    2011-11-29

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a fluid measurement technique in which the average displacement of small groups of particles is made by comparing a pair of images that are separated in time by an interval {Delta}t. For over a decade, a several variations of the PIV technique, e.g., two-dimensional, stereoscopic, and tomographic PIV, have been used to characterize particle transport, instabilities, and the thermal properties of complex plasmas. This paper describes the basic principles involved in the PIV analysis technique and discusses potential future applications of PIV to the study of complex plasmas.

  19. Emitted High Energy Light Particle Data Base Development Using a Thermodynamic Coalescence Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsalan, M. P.; Townsend, L. W.

    2013-03-01

    In many applications, double-differential (energy and angle) secondary light particle production cross sections must be known for ion energies from tens of MeV/nucleon to tens of GeV/nucleon. Incorporating high energy light particle spectral and angular distribution cross section databases in the transport codes enable them to transport nearly any radiation field, in three dimensions, that humans and instruments might be exposed to in space, near accelerators or during charged particle radiotherapy. In this work a thermodynamics coalescence model is used to estimate the coalescence and emitting source radii for both symmetric and asymmetric heavy ion collision systems.

  20. Development of laser diagnostics for in situ measurements of entrained particles in recovery boilers.

    SciTech Connect

    Holve, Donald J. (Process Metrix LLC, San Ramon, CA); Shaddix, Christopher R.

    2004-03-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, two different laser diagnostic techniques have been implemented in pulp mill recovery boilers to provide important information on entrained particles. One technique, based on single-particle scattering of a low-power, continuous-wave (cw) laser source, measures the velocity, concentration, and size distribution of particles within the furnace flow, over a predetermined range of particle sizes. For application to recovery boilers, this technique was designed to measure the range of particle sizes known as intermediate size particles (ISPs), roughly from 2-100 {micro}m in diameter. The other diagnostic technique, known as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), uses a pulsed, high-power laser beam to create a localized plasma spark in the flow, allowing the measurement of the elemental composition of the entrained particles. This technique is most sensitive for particles less than 10 {micro}m in diameter. Implementing these laser diagnostic techniques in recovery boilers proved to be challenging. For the particle scattering measurement, the use of a narrow aperture for measurement of the forward scattered light was postulated and later confirmed to be effective in minimizing background signals associated with the dense sodium fume in the boilers. For the LIBS measurement, a new water-jacketed optics probe was implemented to allow for measurements with an insertion depth of up to two meters in the furnace. Fume particle deposition on the exposed optics at the end of the LIBS probe was problematic but improved with a redesign of the probe geometry and purge flow. Both diagnostic techniques were employed at two representative recovery boilers. The particle scattering diagnostic demonstrated similar trends in mean ISP concentration, ISP size distribution, and temporal variation of ISP concentration at the two boilers. The LIBS measurements showed the presence of a number of major chemical components as well as trace metal elements in the entrained particles.

  1. Development of a 30-kW high temperature solar receiver using small particles as the heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, A. J.; Deiringer, M.; Evans, D. B.; Hansen, L.; Hull, P. G.; Paydarfar, D.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a new type of solar thermal receiver that utilizes concentrated sunlight to heat a gas to high temperature to operate a turboelectric generator or to supply industrial process heat. The Small Particle Heat Exchange Receiver (SPHER) uses a very small mass of ultrafine carbon particles suspended in a gas to absorb sunlight and transfer the heat to the gas. The concentrated sunlight, provided by a parabolic dish or system of mirrors, passes through a window into a chamber containing the absorbing suspension. Because the energies are very small, they are not significantly affected by gravitational or inertial forces; they are effectively part of the gas.

  2. Development of a Peltier-based chilled-mirror hygrometer and cloud particle counter for balloon-borne TTL observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugidachi, T.; Arai, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Shimizu, K.; Ibata, K.; Kanai, Y.; Okumura, S.; Sagara, K.; Hayashi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Dehydration processes in the TTL determines the amount of water vapor entering the stratosphere. 'In-situ' measurements of water vapor and cloud particles in the TTL are still a technical challenge, and the observational evidence of dehydration is still limited. Accumulation of the observational data is thus necessary to improve the understanding of the TTL dehydration and transport processes. In this study, we have developed a hygrometer and cloud particle counter for balloon-born TTL observations. A Peltier-based digitally-controlled chilled-mirror hygrometer has been developed to measure atmospheric water vapor accurately. The developed sensor is environmentally-friendly and ease-to-handle in nature because this sensor does not use a cryogenic material to cool the mirror. In January of 2012 and 2013, we have conducted some flight tests at Biak, Indonesia (1.18°S, 136.11°E) under the Soundings of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) project to evaluate the performances of this sensor. The results of simultaneous measurements with the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) showed that the frost point temperature from the developed sensor is consistent with that from CFH within ~0.5 K in the whole troposphere. In the stratosphere, however, it was found that the controller, which keeps the frost layer on the mirror constant, needs to be further improved. A cloud particle counter has also been developed to measure cloud-particle number density, size distribution, and the particle phase (i.e. liquid water or ice). It is a low-cost and light-weighted (~200 g) particle counter based on a pollen sensor to be used in an air purifier. This sensor consists of a light-emitting part (linearly-polarized light by laser diode) and two light-receiving parts (one detects scattering light directly, while the other detects scattering lights through a polarization plate to estimate the degree of polarization by particles). It is considered that the counts, magnitude of the scattered signals, and the degree of polarization correspond to the particle number density, size, and the phase, respectively. We have conducted some test flights in Japan and in Indonesia between November 2012 and April 2013. The results showed that this sensor can detect cirrus clouds (ice particles) in the TTL and lower tropospheric clouds (liquid water droplets), and discriminate the phase of the particle. However, there are still some problems concerning the measurements of particle size and number density. We need further adjustments of the optical detector part to measure the wide range of number density that the sensor encounters during a tropospheric flight, and further calibration by laboratory experiments to estimate the particle size from the magnitude of the detected signals.

  3. Aggregate breakdown and surface seal development influenced by rain intensity, slope gradient and soil particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand Sajjadi, S.; Mahmoodabadi, M.

    2015-03-01

    Aggregate breakdown is an important process which controls infiltration rate (IR) and the availability of fine materials necessary for structural sealing under rainfall. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different slope gradients, rain intensities and particle size distributions on aggregate breakdown and IR to describe the formation of surface seal. To address this issue, 60 experiments were carried out in a 35 × 30 × 10 cm detachment tray using a rainfall simulator. By sieving a sandy loam soil, two sub-samples with different maximum aggregate sizes of 2 mm (Dmax2 mm) and 4.75 mm (Dmax4.75 mm) were prepared. The soils were exposed to two different rain intensities (57 and 80 mm h-1) on several slopes (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) each at three replicates. The result showed that for all slope gradients and rain intensities, the most fraction percentages in soils Dmax2 and Dmax4.75 mm were in the finest size classes of 0.02 and 0.043 mm, respectively. The soil containing finer aggregates exhibited higher transportability of pre-detached material than the soil containing larger aggregates. Also, IR increased with increasing slope gradient, rain intensity and aggregate size under unsteady state conditions because of less development of surface seal. However, under steady state conditions, no significant relationship was found between slope and IR. The findings of this study revealed the importance of rain intensity, slope steepness and soil aggregate size on aggregate breakdown and seal formation, which can control infiltration rate and the consequent runoff and erosion rates.

  4. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-01-01

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, marine and hydrokinetic technologies could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One

  5. Marine Science Activities for Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Dennis; And Others

    These marine education materials are based on the approach that students learn best when given a multisensory experience. The activities are intended to develop such experiences for the visually impaired child. Activities are intended to supplement an upper-elementary science curriculum or be the basis of a unit on marine biology. The guide is…

  6. A Marine Platforms Ontology: Experiences and Lessons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Bermudez; John Graybeal; Robert Arko

    2006-01-01

    The community-centered creation of ontologies is an essential process to increase semantic interoperation across disciplines. The Marine Metadata Interoperability Project (MMI) is keenly aware of the need for such ontologies to advance the sophisticated interaction of research communities and their data systems. This paper presents the creation of a marine platforms ontology, fostered by MMI and jointly developed by a

  7. A conceptual framework for marine agronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Santelices

    1999-01-01

    Between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, several generations of phycologists in Hawaii and the Philippines, associated with M. S. Doty, contributed to developing a new approach, and to advance concepts in marine agronomy. This study reviews the approach and the main concepts contributed. Integrating these contributions with others, a basic conceptual framework for marine agronomy is presented.

  8. Marine Transportation Implications of the Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2010-12-01

    Marine access is increasing throughout the Arctic Ocean and the 'Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge' may have implications for governance and marine use in the region. Arctic marine transportation is increasing due to natural resource developemnt, increasing Arctic marine tourism, expanded Arctic marine research, and a general linkage of the Arctic to the gloabl economy. The Arctic Council recognized these changes with the release of the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of 2009. This key study (AMSA)can be viewed as a baseline assessment (using the 2004 AMSA database), a strategic guide for a host of stakeholders and actors, and as a policy document of the Arctic Council. The outcomes of AMSA of direct relevance to the Ice Refuge are within AMSA's 17 recommendations provided under three themes: Enhancing Arctic Marine Safety, Protecting Arctic People and the Environment, and Building the Arctic Marine Infrastructure. Selected recommendations of importance to the Ice Refuge include: a mandatory polar navigation code; identifying areas of heightened ecological and cultural significance; potential designation of special Arctic marine areas; enhancing the tracking and monitoring of Arctic marine traffic; improving circumpolar environmental response capacity; developing an Arctic search and rescue agreement; and, assessing the effects of marine transportation on marine mammals. A review will be made of the AMSA outcomes and how they can influence the governance, marine use, and future protection of this unique Arctic marine environment.

  9. Development of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TRISO-coated particle fuel chemistry model

    E-print Network

    Diecker, Jane T

    2005-01-01

    The first portion of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the chemical environment in a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor TRISO fuel particle. Fission product inventory versus burnup is calculated. Based on those ...

  10. Marine Ornithology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whether one has a love of great seabirds or just an interest in the lives of these magnificent creatures, the website of the journal Marine Ornithology is well worth a visit. Started in 1976 by John Cooper, the journal is operated by an editorial board, under the direction of the Pacific Seabird Group, along with other related organizations. Visitors who may wish to contribute a piece to this peer-reviewed journal may want to take a look at their submission requirements and then proceed to the contents of the most recent issue. Some of the more recent articles in the latest issue deal with such topics as parasites and diseases of the auks and aspects of the breeding biology of the Gentoo penguin. For those looking for back issues, the full-text of every past issue dating back to 1988 is also available on the site.

  11. New developments in cold spray based on higher gas and particle temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Schmidt; F. Gaertner; H. Kreye

    2006-01-01

    In cold spraying, bonding is associated with shear instabilities caused by high strain rate deformation during the impact.\\u000a It is well known that bonding occurs when the impact velocity of an impacting particle exceeds a critical value. This critical\\u000a velocity depends not only on the type of spray material, but also on the powder quality, the particle size, and the

  12. Development of an ash particle deposition model considering build-up and removal mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kjell Strandstroem; Christian Muellera; Mikko Hupa [Abo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Abo (Finland)

    2007-12-15

    Slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces in power boilers fired with fossil fuels and fuel mixtures has a significant influence on boiler efficiency and availability. Mathematical modelling has long been considered a suitable method to assist boiler operators to determine optimized operating conditions for an existing furnace. The ultimate goal in ash deposition prediction is hereby the determination of the total amount of material deposited and hence the determination of the total reduction in efficiency. Depending on the fuels fired the total deposited mass is a combination of ash particle deposition and ash particle erosion due to non-sticky particles. The novel ash particle deposition model presented in this work considers deposition of sticky ash particles, cleansing of deposit by non-sticky sand particles and sticking of sand due to contact with sticky ash. The steady-state modelling results for the total amount of ash deposited on the deposition probe of an entrained flow reactor presented in this work agree well with the experimental data. Only at very high fractions of sand added as non-sticky material, a significant influence of the sand on the overall mass deposited was found. Since the model considers sticking of non-sticking sand due to contact with sticky ash, the fraction of sand deposited on the probe was especially studied. Using a correction factor to consider the influence of operating time on the steady-state simulations led to good agreement between simulations and experimental data. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  13. A Cascade Model for Particle Concentration and Enstrophy in Fully Developed Turbulence with Mass Loading Feedback

    E-print Network

    Robert C. Hogan; Jeffrey N. Cuzzi

    2007-04-13

    A cascade model is described based on multiplier distributions determined from 3D direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent particle laden flows, which include two-way coupling between the phases at global mass loadings equal to unity. The governing Eulerian equations are solved using pseudo-spectral methods on up to 512**3 computional grid points. DNS results for particle concentration and enstrophy at Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers in the range 34 - 170 were used to directly determine multiplier distributions (PDFs) on spatial scales 3 times the Kolmogorov length scale. The width of the PDFs, which is a measure of intermittency, decreases with increasing mass loading within the local region where the multipliers are measured. The functional form of this dependence is not sensitive to Reynolds numbers in the range considered. A partition correlation probability is included in the cascade model to account for the observed spatial anticorrelation between particle concentration and enstrophy. Joint probability distribution functions of concentration and enstrophy generated using the cascade model are shown to be in excellent agreement with those derived directly from our 3D simulations. Probabilities predicted by the cascade model are presented at Reynolds numbers well beyond what is achievable by direct simulation. These results clearly indicate that particle mass loading significantly reduces the probabilities of high particle concentration and enstrophy relative to those resulting from unloaded runs. Particle mass density appears to reach a limit at around 100 times the gas density. This approach has promise for significant computational savings in certain applications.

  14. The Sea Grant Institute for Marine Educators: Introducing Teachers to Marine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, E. Barbara

    Discussed are experiences of the Curriculum Research and Development Group at the College of Education, University of Hawaii, in developing and testing the Sea Grant Institute for Marine Educators, an in-service program for elementary and secondary teachers. The program is designed as a first step in achieving "marine literacy" among teachers.…

  15. ESTIMATION OF TOXICITY TO MARINE SPECIES WITH STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY MODELS DEVELOPED TO ESTIMATE TOXICITY TO FRESHWATER FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structure-activity models which were developed to estimate toxicity of chemicals to freshwater fish were tested for use with an estuarine fish (Cyprinodon variegatus) and mysids (Mysidopsis bahia). Significant linear and polunomial relationships that correlated well existed betwe...

  16. Marine and Estuarine Ecology. Man and the Gulf of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Bobby N.; And Others

    "Man and the Gulf of Mexico (MGM)" is a marine science curriculum developed to meet the marine science needs of tenth through twelfth grade students in Mississippi and Alabama schools. This MGM unit, which focuses on marine and estuarine ecology, is divided into six sections. The first section contains unit objectives, discussions of the estuarine…

  17. Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity and inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hougaard, Karin S; Jensen, Keld A; Nordly, Pernille; Taxvig, Camilla; Vogel, Ulla; Saber, Anne T; Wallin, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    Background Results from epidemiological studies indicate that particulate air pollution constitutes a hazard for human health. Recent studies suggest that diesel exhaust possesses endocrine activity and therefore may affect reproductive outcome. This study in mice aimed to investigate whether exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST 2975) would affect gestation, postnatal development, activity, learning and memory, and biomarkers of transplacental toxicity. Pregnant mice (C57BL/6; BomTac) were exposed to 19 mg/m3 DEP (~1·106 particles/cm3; mass median diameter ? 240 nm) on gestational days 9–19, for 1 h/day. Results Gestational parameters were similar in control and diesel groups. Shortly after birth, body weights of DEP offspring were slightly lower than in controls. This difference increased during lactation, so by weaning the DEP exposed offspring weighed significantly less than the control progeny. Only slight effects of exposure were observed on cognitive function in female DEP offspring and on biomarkers of exposure to particles or genotoxic substances. Conclusion In utero exposure to DEP decreased weight gain during lactation. Cognitive function and levels of biomarkers of exposure to particles or to genotoxic substances were generally similar in exposed and control offspring. The particle size and chemical composition of the DEP and differences in exposure methods (fresh, whole exhaust versus aged, resuspended DEP) may play a significant role on the biological effects observed in this compared to other studies. PMID:18331653

  18. Observed aerosol effects on marine cloud nucleation and supersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Lynn M.; Sorooshian, Armin; Seinfeld, John H.; Albrecht, Bruce A.; Nenes, Athanasios; Leaitch, W. Richard; Macdonald, Anne Marie; Ahlm, Lars; Chen, Yi-Chun; Coggon, Matthew; Corrigan, Ashley; Craven, Jill S.; Flagan, Richard C.; Frossard, Amanda A.; Hawkins, Lelia N.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Jung, Eunsil; Lin, Jack J.; Metcalf, Andrew R.; Modini, Robin; Mülmenstädt, Johannes; Roberts, Greg C.; Shingler, Taylor; Song, Siwon; Wang, Zhen; Wonaschütz, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Aerosol particles in the marine boundary layer include primary organic and salt particles from sea spray and combustion-derived particles from ships and coastal cities. These particle types serve as nuclei for marine cloud droplet activation, although the particles that activate depend on the particle size and composition as well as the supersaturation that results from cloud updraft velocities. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (EPEACE) 2011 was a targeted aircraft campaign to assess how different particle types nucleate cloud droplets. As part of E-PEACE 2011, we studied the role of marine particles as cloud droplet nuclei and used emitted particle sources to separate particle-induced feedbacks from dynamical variability. The emitted particle sources included shipboard smoke-generated particles with 0.05-1 ?m diameters (which produced tracks measured by satellite and had drop composition characteristic of organic smoke) and combustion particles from container ships with 0.05-0.2 ?m diameters (which were measured in a variety of conditions with droplets containing both organic and sulfate components) [1]. Three central aspects of the collaborative E-PEACE results are: (1) the size and chemical composition of the emitted smoke particles compared to ship-track-forming cargo ship emissions as well as background marine particles, with particular attention to the role of organic particles, (2) the characteristics of cloud track formation for smoke and cargo ships, as well as the role of multi-layered low clouds, and (3) the implications of these findings for quantifying aerosol indirect effects. For comparison with the E-PEACE results, the preliminary results of the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets (SOLEDAD) 2012 provided evidence of the cloud-nucleating roles of both marine organic particles and coastal urban pollution, with simultaneous measurements of the effective supersaturations of the clouds in the California coastal region.

  19. USGS - Coastal and Marine Geology Program Internet Map Server

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS

    This site from the USGS features marine geology resources, including the Coastal and Marine Map Server, the Gloria Mapping Program and data, and the Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Each of these resources presents data, maps, and publications. For example, the GLORIA system was developed specifically to map the morphology and texture of seafloor features in the deep ocean, while the Coastal and Marine Geology program features an interactive map server to view and create maps using available CMGP data sets.

  20. Development of titanium oxide layer containing nanocrystalline zirconia particles with tetragonal structure: Structural and biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ki Ryong; Kim, Yeon Sung; Kim, Gye Won; Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Dong Hyuk

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the microstructural, mechanical and biological properties of oxide layers containing tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) particles on pure titanium produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. For this purpose, PEO processes were carried out at an AC current density of 200mA/cm(2) for 180s in potassium pyrophosphate (K4P2O7) electrolytes with and without t-ZrO2 powder. Structural investigations using transmission electron microscopy exhibited that the present nanocrystalline oxide layer evidenced the successful incorporation of a myriad of t-ZrO2 particles working as an intermediate medium to reinforce the adhesion strength between the substrate and oxide layer. Regarding biomimetic apatite formation, the t-ZrO2 particles uniformly spread were of considerable importance in triggering the nucleation and growth of biomimetic apatite on the surface of the oxide layer immersed in a simulated body fluid solution. The growth and proliferation rates of the osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cultured on the oxide layer with t-ZrO2 particles were higher than that without t-ZrO2 particles due to the higher roughness providing the better sites for the filopodia extension and interlocking. PMID:25956745

  1. The isotopic composition of ammonium in marine rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, K.; Hastings, M. G.; Peters, A.; Sigman, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) to the atmosphere and its subsequent deposition have increased tenfold since preindustrial times. The impacts of increased N deposition to terrestrial and coastal systems are well studied; however, the implications for open ocean N biogeochemistry remain uncertain. Both anthropogenic and natural processes impact the amount and form of N deposition to remote marine environments. Although clear increases in nitrate deposition have been detected as a result of increased anthropogenic emissions of N oxides, large uncertainties in both regional and global budgets of ammonia emissions and deposition remain, especially with regard to the sign and magnitude of the ammonia air-sea flux. Identifying the sources of N deposition to the open ocean is critical for addressing potential biogeochemical impacts: If the N deposition is terrestrial in origin, it represents an external input to the system, and if anthropogenic, an increasing one; If the N originates from the ocean, it is a recycling within the marine environment. To investigate the sources of atmospheric N deposition to the ocean and the cycling of N between the lower atmosphere and surface ocean, two years of event-based rainwater samples were collected on the island of Bermuda. Bermuda is located in the western North Atlantic and experiences seasonal changes in transport that allow for the study of both anthropogenic- and marine-influenced air masses. Samples were analyzed for major ion concentrations and N isotope ratios of ammonium; NOAA HYSPLIT was used to determine air mass history for each event. To test the hypothesis that ocean emissions of ammonia could represent the dominant source of ammonium measured in marine rainwater, a steady-state box model was developed for the concentrations and isotopic composition of aqueous ammonia/ammonium in seawater and ammonia gas and ammonium particles in the atmosphere. At Bermuda, rainwater deriving from air masses that originate over North America has a clear anthropogenic signature, with higher concentrations of sulfate and nitrate and lower average ?15N and higher average ?18O than when air masses originate over the ocean indicating changes in both source and atmospheric chemistry associated with increased anthropogenic inputs. By contrast, the ?15N and concentration of ammonium in rainwater are much less variable throughout the year and do not vary significantly as a function of air mass history (5.9 ± 3.2 ?M, -4.9 ± 3.0 ‰, and 6.0 ± 4.2 ?M, -6.4 ± 2.6 ‰ in rainwater from marine and North American air masses, respectively). This finding suggests that unlike nitrate, there is a consistent source of ammonium to marine rainwater that is not dependent on air mass history. In the model, the isotopic composition of atmospheric ammonia gas and ammonium particles are sensitive to wind speed, marine boundary layer height, ammonia gas concentration, and the isotope effect of gas-to-particle conversion. At higher wind speeds in the model, the air-sea flux of ammonia reaches equilibrium which leads to higher, and more realistic concentrations and ?15N of ammonia gas and ammonium particles. The measured ?15N in rainwater ammonium and the model results indicate that the open ocean is the dominant source of ammonium to marine rainwater throughout the year.

  2. Case Study: The Dolphins of Tangalooma Case study contained in textbook: Marine Tourism: Development, Impacts and Management (1998).

    E-print Network

    1998-01-01

    : Development, Impacts and Management (1998). Mark Orams Centre for Tourism Research Massey University Albany, Australia. Since 1992 a group of wild bottlenose dolphins have been regular visitors to the beach adjacent in shallow water beside the resort 's pier. This opportunity has been promoted as an attraction and it has

  3. Marine Biology Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Marine Biology Web, created by veteran marine biologist Dr. Jeff Levinton of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, is a great educational resource for both curious students and prospective marine biologists. The Becoming a Marine Biologist page gives students frank advice, and a realistic sense of what marine biology is and what marine biologists do. This website contains a sizeable list of hyperlinked marine labs, institutes, graduate programs, and undergraduate programs. A nice list of marine biology-related internships and courses are included as well. The website also features the useful MBREFâ??-A Reference Source for Marine Biology Student Research. The site even links to a system that allows visitors â??to obtain tidal predictions computed by CO-OPS for more than 3000 water level stations.â?

  4. Stochastic models of Lagrangian acceleration of fluid particle in developed turbulence

    E-print Network

    A. K. Aringazin; M. I. Mazhitov

    2005-07-27

    Modeling statistical properties of motion of a Lagrangian particle advected by a high-Reynolds-number flow is of much practical interest and complement traditional studies of turbulence made in Eulerian framework. The strong and nonlocal character of Lagrangian particle coupling due to pressure effects makes the main obstacle to derive turbulence statistics from the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation; motion of a single fluid-particle is strongly correlated to that of the other particles. Recent breakthrough Lagrangian experiments with high resolution of Kolmogorov scale have motivated growing interest to acceleration of a fluid particle. Experimental stationary statistics of Lagrangian acceleration conditioned on Lagrangian velocity reveals essential dependence of the acceleration variance upon the velocity. This is confirmed by direct numerical simulations. Lagrangian intermittency is considerably stronger than the Eulerian one. Statistics of Lagrangian acceleration depends on Reynolds number. In this review we present description of new simple models of Lagrangian acceleration that enable data analysis and some advance in phenomenological study of the Lagrangian single-particle dynamics. Simple Lagrangian stochastic modeling by Langevin-type dynamical equations is one the widely used tools. The models are aimed particularly to describe the observed highly non-Gaussian conditional and unconditional acceleration distributions. Stochastic one-dimensional toy models capture main features of the observed stationary statistics of acceleration. We review various models and focus in a more detail on the model which has some deductive support from the Navier-Stokes equation. Comparative analysis on the basis of the experimental data and direct numerical simulations is made.

  5. Developing Antimatter Containment Technology: Modeling Charged Particle Oscillations in a Penning-Malmberg Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Martin, J. J.; Pearson, J. B.; Lewis, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA MSFC Propulsion Research Center (PRC) is conducting a research activity examining the storage of low energy antiprotons. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is an electromagnetic system (Penning-Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Tesla superconductor, a high voltage confinement electrode system, and an ultra high vacuum test section; designed with an ultimate goal of maintaining charged particles with a half-life of 18 days. Currently, this system is being experimentally evaluated using normal matter ions which are cheap to produce and relatively easy to handle and provide a good indication of overall trap behavior, with the exception of assessing annihilation losses. Computational particle-in-cell plasma modeling using the XOOPIC code is supplementing the experiments. Differing electrode voltage configurations are employed to contain charged particles, typically using flat, modified flat and harmonic potential wells. Ion cloud oscillation frequencies are obtained experimentally by amplification of signals induced on the electrodes by the particle motions. XOOPIC simulations show that for given electrode voltage configurations, the calculated charged particle oscillation frequencies are close to experimental measurements. As a two-dimensional axisymmetric code, XOOPIC cannot model azimuthal plasma variations, such as those induced by radio-frequency (RF) modulation of the central quadrupole electrode in experiments designed to enhance ion cloud containment. However, XOOPIC can model analytically varying electric potential boundary conditions and particle velocity initial conditions. Application of these conditions produces ion cloud axial and radial oscillation frequency modes of interest in achieving the goal of optimizing HiPAT for reliable containment of antiprotons.

  6. Near-infrared light scattering by particles in coastal waters

    E-print Network

    Babin, Marcel

    Near-infrared light scattering by particles in coastal waters David Doxaran* , Marcel Babin. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and oceanic waters as related: We report the first measurements of the scattering coefficient of natural marine particles, which

  7. Development of enteric submicron particle formulation of papain for oral delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manu; Sharma, Vinay; Panda, Amulya K; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2011-01-01

    Background Particulate systems have received increasing attention for oral delivery of biomolecules. The objective of the present study was to prepare submicron particulate formulations of papain for pH-dependent site-specific release using pH-sensitive polymers. Methods Enteric submicron particle formulations of papain were prepared by w/o/w emulsion solvent evaporation using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP), Eudragit L100, and Eudragit S100, to avoid gastric inactivation of papain. Results Smaller internal and external aqueous phase volumes provided maximum encapsulation efficiency (75.58%–82.35%), the smallest particle size (665.6–692.4 nm), and 25%–30% loss of enzyme activity. Release studies in 0.1 N HCl confirmed the gastroresistance of the formulations. The anionic submicron particles aggregated in 0.1 N HCl (ie, gastric pH 1.2) due to protonation of carboxylic groups in the enteric polymer. Aggregates < 500 ?m size would not impede gastric emptying. However, at pH > 5.0 (duodenal pH), the submicron particles showed deaggregation due to restoration of surface charge. HPMCP submicron particles facilitated almost complete release of papain within 30 minutes at pH 6.0, while Eudragit L100 and Eudragit S100 particles released 88.82% and 53.00% of papain at pH 6.8 and pH 7.4, respectively, according to the Korsmeyer–Peppas equation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that the structural integrity of the enzyme was maintained during encapsulation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed entrapment of the enzyme, with powder x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicating an amorphous character, and scanning electron microscopy showing that the submicron particles had a spherical shape. Conclusion In simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions, the HPMCP, Eudragit L100, and Eudragit S100 submicron particles showed good digestion of paneer and milk protein, and could serve as potential carriers for oral enzyme delivery. Stability studies indicated that formulations with approximately 6% overage would ensure a two-year shelf-life at room temperature. PMID:22114474

  8. Marine Wave Model Matrix

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2006-05-16

    The Marine Wave Model Matrix provides information on the formulation of wave models developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and other modeling centers, including how these models forecast the generation, propagation, and dissipation of ocean waves using NWP model forecasts for winds and near-surface temperature and stability. Additionally, information is provided on data assimilation, post-processing of data, and verfication of wave models currently in operation. Within the post-processing pages are links to forecast output both in graphical and raw form, including links for data downloads. Links to COMET training on wave processes are also provided.

  9. Vertical profiling of marine aerosol, dust and their mixtures utilizing the synergy of sunphotometer and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekeri, Alexandra; Amiridis, Vassilis; Lopatin, Anton; Marinou, Eleni; Engelman, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Wandinger, Ulla; Ansmann, Albert; Solomos, Stavros; Dubovik, Oleg; Schüttemeyer, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Current and future lidar products from space missions (CALIPSO, ADM-Aeolus, EarthCARE) aim to improve our understanding of atmospheric dynamics and aerosol/cloud interactions on global scale. However, the lidar instruments onboard these three missions (CALIOP, ALADIN, ATLID) are different systems, operating at different wavelengths and providing different sets of measured parameters. In order to spectrally homogenize the datasets, aerosol/cloud-type-dependent spectral conversion factors are needed to be applied to all lidar-related properties (extinction, backscatter and depolarization), based on the aerosol/cloud classification of the space-borne observations. The well-established European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) offers the unique opportunity to support such an effort. However, EARLINET database suffers from lack of information for specific aerosol types such as marine and mixed dust/marine cases. Unfortunately, these types are not observed in EARLINET's core stations, since the stations are mostly located at continental sites and are influenced by urban pollution. Moreover, the lidar systems near the coastlines suffer from the inability to measure at the first few hundred meters (500-1000 m) due to their technical design, which results in an incomplete laser/telescope overlap region. Towards the study of marine and marine-dust aerosol mixtures we organized the experimental campaign of "Characterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust And Marine origin" (CHARADMexp), on June 20 to July 10, at Finokalia, Grete, Greece. Our aim was to derive optical, microphysical and chemical properties of the marine component and its mixtures with dust, employing sophisticated instrumentation installed on the site of Finokalia ACTRIS station, where only marine and dust particles are present 95% of the time. Specifically, aerosol characterization was established by the "Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data" (GARRLiC), a technique that combines ground-based lidar and sunphotometer measurements, developed in the frame of ACTRIS. Our results for cases of marine-only, dust-only and mixtures of marine and dust retrievals provide an evaluation of the algorithm capabilities for marine environments, producing vertical profiles of physical and optical properties of marine and dust particles.

  10. Toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in the marine environment: model organisms and molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Matranga, Valeria; Corsi, Ilaria

    2012-05-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have been produced by nano-biotech companies in recent decades to generate innovative goods in various fields, including agriculture, electronics, biomedicine, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The nano-scale size of the particles can confer novel and significantly improved physical, chemical and biological properties to scientific phenomena and processes. As their applications to science and technology expand, the need to understand the putative noxious effects of ENPs on humans and ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. ENPs are emerging as a new class of pollutants with eco-toxicological impacts on marine ecosystems because the particles can end up in waterways and reach the sea. Recent laboratory studies in invertebrates and fishes suggest that exposure to ENPs could have harmful effects. Because there is not much data available for gauging the effects of ENPs on marine wildlife, the ultimate ecotoxicological impacts of chronic exposure to ENPs should be investigated further using laboratory tests and field studies. We propose the use of model organisms to understand the molecular pathways involved in the mechanisms that may be affected by exposure to ENPs. Sensitive and innovative molecular methods will provide information regarding the hazards of ENPs that may exist in the marine environment. Model organisms that have not been conventionally used for risk assessment and the development of eco-toxicogenomic approaches will result in an improved understanding of the mechanistic modes of action of contaminating ENPs in the marine environment. PMID:22391237

  11. Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station - a new Baltic Sea ICOS-site for sea-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Lauri; Laurila, Tuomas; Mäkelä, Timo; Hatakka, Juha; Purokoski, Tero; Hietala, Riikka; Roine, Tuomo; Jämsen, Pertti; Kielosto, Sami; Asmi, Eija; Lonka, Harry; Alenius, Pekka; Drebs, Achim; Seppälä, Jukka; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric research has developed a concept of focused, multidisciplinary, automated observation platforms with continuous high time resolution observations. This approach containing state-of-the-art equipment has enabled research on physical, chemical and biological processes and seasonal variability and showed up new, previously unknown phenomena. New technical and engineering solutions allowing, such approach is also state-of-the-art in marine research through projects like US Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO), JERICO-NEXT and Japanese DONET. At the Baltic Sea, on Island of Utö (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E), Finnish Meteorological Institute has observed meteorology since 1881, marine parameters since 1900 and a diversity of atmospheric chemical and physical variables since 1980. Recent years the stations has also been upgraded with aerosol observations, and together with Finnish Environment Institute, on marine observations. The current and observations under construction at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station (en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/uto. Marine observations: surface waves, ice-cover radar, temperature and salinity and oxygen at different depths, chlorophyll, cyanobacteria, underwater flows, turbidity, pCO2 and nutrients. Atmospheric observations: T, WS, WD, visibility, cloud height, boundary layer wind profiles and turbulence, weather and underwater camera, aerosol particle size distributions, aerosol light scattering and absorption, SO2, NOx, CO, O3, CO2, CH4, sea-atmosphere CO2- and heat fluxes. In our presentation, we present for the first time some 100 years of climate relevant atmospheric and marine observations from Utö.

  12. Design and development of an ultrafine particle reflection-time-of-flight mass spectrometer 

    E-print Network

    Das, Rishiraj

    2002-01-01

    through the orifice. Thus v. gas velocity at thc oritice plane, in L'quation 11. 28 is sonic. This dc(ines the Stokes number at the orifice. Experiments conducted on similar inlets (pharos et al. 2002) have shoivn that dynamic particle focusing occurs...

  13. Development of a Kilo-Hertz Particle Image Velocimetry System Using LED's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crafton, Jim; Goss, Larry; Estevadeordal, Jordie

    2007-11-01

    PARTICLE SHADOW VELOCIMETRY (PSV) is a velocity measurement technique similar to PIV. PSV utilizes low-power pulsed light sources, such as an LED, to measure the displacement of seed particles in a flow. This is accomplished by imaging the extinction of light by the particles in the flow rather than the scattering, thus the power requirements of the lighting are significantly reduced. Data analysis involves cross-correlation of images at known time intervals to determine velocity. The use of LEDs' as a light source provides several advantages, among these are repetitive pulses in a single frame for particle tracking, the use of color to eliminate the need for cross-correlation cameras, and a significant reduction in equipment cost relative to lasers. Volumetric illumination eliminates the strong reflections from surfaces that often saturates the camera near the surface in traditional PIV thus allowing measurements to be made as close as 10-micrometers to a surface. This method is most applicable to liquid flows, near surfaces, and for small fields of view. Results are presented for several flows including kHz data in valves and artificial hearts.

  14. The study and development of an active scattering particle size spectrometer for space environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knollenberg, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The work is reported on laser operation in a vacuum, and the theoretical response of active scattering particle spectrometers (ASPS). The theoretical considerations connected with the thermal, interferometric and electrical problems that influence laser operation under vacuum conditions are discussed along with the scattering signal pulses with high frequency ripple content which were observed while operating the ASPS.

  15. A review of particle swarm optimization. Part I: background and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alec Banks; Jonathan Vincent; Chukwudi Anyakoha

    2007-01-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), in its present form, has been in existence for roughly a decade, with formative research in related domains (such as social modelling, computer graphics, simulation and animation of natural swarms or flocks) for some years before that; a relatively short time compared with some of the other natural computing paradigms such as artificial neural networks and

  16. Development of a novel delta E-E particle identification telescope readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Qingtai

    In order to understand the space weather, we need to know not only the magnetic and electric field environment around the earth, but also the distribution and behavior in the space of energetic particles. Various instruments have been sent into space to retrieve information about the particle composition, energy, density and velocity from the low earth orbit (LEO) to interplanetary space. Here we will present a novel compact instrument design which can detect the three dimensional distribution of energetic electrons and different ion species in space. Solid state detectors using the principle of a ?E-E telescope are used to measure energy and composition of energetic particles. When an energetic particle passes through a two-detector stack, it will deposit a fraction of its energy in each detector depending on its intrinsic energy and the type of the particle. Particle energy and composition information can be extracted from the relationship between the energies deposited in these two detectors. A novel, compact pin-hole ?E-E telescope is described in this dissertation. This instrument is able to measure the fluxes, energies and pitch angles of energetic electrons from 30keV to 300keV and also, the fluxes of major ion species over the energy range from 75keV to tens of MeV can be determined. This design has been named as the Loss Cone Imager (LCI) and is being fabricated for the Air Force DSX (Demonstration and Science Experiment) mission. The LCI has two types of sensor packages: RSH (Rotating Sensor Head) and HST (High Sensitive Telescope). A new charge sensitive pre-amplifier for use with high capacitance detectors has been designed for the LCI. Noise analysis and optimization of energy resolution are described. Integrated electronic circuits are used for generating analog signals from each telescope. These signals will be processed into the digital data and will be sent to the ground for further scientific analysis. Monte Carlo simulation (GEANT4) has been used to simulate the detector stack response to incident energetic particles. The simulation results are used to optimize the instrument design. The readout electronic circuits presented in the dissertation for the LCI have been assembled and tested in our lab. All the circuit designs and simulations are original works by the author. The test results are presented in this dissertation.

  17. Development and calibration of differential mobility analyzer for 20 to 80 nm particles under low pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Mun, Ji Hun; Cho, Dae Guen; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jae Boong; Kang, Sang Woo; Yun, Ju Young; Shin, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Tae Sung

    2011-07-01

    The vienna-type differential mobility analyzer (DMA) was developed for the measurement of wide-range nm-sized particles under low-pressure conditions (2.9-8 kPa) with the faraday cup electrometer (FCE). The length, inner and outer diameter of DMA are calculated as a function of flow rate, applied voltage, pressure, and particle diameter to avoide breakdown in DMA. The algorithm for the diffusion transfer function of the DMA was successfully developed and verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results. The DMA was calibrated via the tandem DMA (TDMA) method which using two DMA in parallel. The inversion algorithm was applied to the size distribution obtained from the current of the FCE. The calibration experiment was performed with 1% NaCl particles under atmospheric and low-pressure conditions. The calibration result showed that the development of the DMA was successful as it was able to measure 20- to 80-nm paricles under low-pressure conditions with various flow rates (0.1-0.5 l/min). PMID:22121701

  18. Size-resolved particulate water-soluble organic compounds in the urban, mountain and marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Kawamura, K.; Xie, M.; Hu, S.; Zhou, B.; Li, J.; Cao, J.; An, Z.

    2010-07-01

    Primary (i.e., sugars and sugar alcohols) and secondary water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) (i.e., dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids) were characterised on a molecular level in size-segregated aerosols from the urban and mountain atmosphere of China and from the marine atmosphere in the outflow region of East Asia. Levoglucosan is the most abundant WSOCs in the urban and mountain atmosphere, whose accumulated concentrations in all stages are 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those of marine aerosols. In contrast, malic, succinic and phthalic acids are dominant in the marine aerosols, which are 3-6 times more abundant than levoglucosan. This suggests that a continuous formation of secondary organic aerosols is occurring in the marine atmosphere during the long-range transport of air mass from inland China to the North Pacific. Sugars and sugar-alcohols, except for levoglucosan, gave a bimodal size distribution in the urban and mountain areas, peaking at 0.7-1.1 ?m and >3.3 ?m, and a unimodal distribution in the marine region, peaking at >3.3 ?m. In contrast, levoglucosan and all the secondary WSOCs, except for benzoic and azelaic acids, showed a unimodal size distribution with a peak at 0.7-1.1 ?m. Geometric mean diameters (GMDs) of the WSOCs in fine particles (<2.1 ?m) at the urban site are larger in winter than in spring, due to an enhanced coagulation effect under the development of an inversion layer. However, GMDs of levoglucosan and most of the secondary WSOCs in the coarse mode are larger in the mountain and marine air and smaller in the urban air. This is most likely caused by an enhanced hygroscopic growth due to the high humidity of the mountain and marine atmosphere.

  19. Marine Program Annual Report 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Marine Program.

    This report describes the activities of a program designed to develop the information and systems necessary for managing the Continental Shelf and Coastal Zone of Northern New England. Ten research areas or projects are discussed: aquaculture, biology and ecology, coastal oceanography, buoy systems studies, man in the sea, marine platforms and…

  20. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE’s Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database provides up-to-date information on marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, both in the U.S. and around the world. The database includes wave, tidal, current, and ocean thermal energy, and contains information on the various energy conversion technologies, companies active in the field, and development of projects in the water. Depending on the needs of the user, the database can present a snapshot of projects in a given region, assess the progress of a certain technology type, or provide a comprehensive view of the entire marine and hydrokinetic energy industry. Results are displayed as a list of technologies, companies, or projects. Data can be filtered by a number of criteria, including country/region, technology type, generation capacity, and technology or project stage. The database was updated in 2009 to include ocean thermal energy technologies, companies, and projects.

  1. Further development of a hybrid particle-continuum method for transitional hypersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoff, Ashley M.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2014-12-01

    The use of hybrid particle-continuum methods for simulating hypersonic flows at transitional Knudsen numbers offers gains in both numerical efficiency and physical accuracy relative to widely used continuum and kinetic theory-based approaches alone. This article presents a detailed evaluation of the accuracy of the Modular Particle-Continuum (MPC) method relative to simulation results obtained using the DSMC method. A number of modifications are proposed and implemented to improve the consistency between the MPC method and DSMC, and to reduce observed errors. Although the accuracy of the MPC method in terms of various macroscopic fluid properties of interest is improved substantially, challenges remain for obtaining MPC hybrid results that are accurate to within ±5% of a full DSMC simulation.

  2. Updating the Vision for Marine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, E. Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to update the content, philosophical stance, and pedagogy of marine education to reflect recent advances in these areas. Cites some developments in oceanography and ocean engineering. Proposes ways teachers can learn about and utilize this knowledge. (RT)

  3. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  4. Feasibility of Plasma Spraying in Developing MMC Coatings: Modeling the Heating of Coated Powder Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marios D. Demetriou; Adrienne S. Lavine; Nasr M. Ghoniem

    2002-01-01

    Coated powder particles composed of a ceramic core and a metallic coating are being considered for plasma spray applications. The goal of using these powders is to produce particulate-reinforced metal-matrix composite coatings. In this work, the feasibility of plasma spray processing in producing these composite coatings is evaluated. A numerical model is presented to analyze the in-flight thermal behavior and

  5. Development and preclinical evaluation of an alphavirus replicon particle vaccine for cytomegalovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Reap; John Morris; Sergey A. Dryga; Maureen Maughan; Todd Talarico; Robert E. Esch; Sarah Negri; Bruce Burnett; Andrew Graham; Robert A. Olmsted; Jeffrey D. Chulay

    2007-01-01

    We used a replication-incompetent, single-cycle, alphavirus replicon vector system to produce virus-like replicon particles (VRP) expressing the extracellular domain of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B or a pp65\\/IE1 fusion protein. Efficient production methods were scaled to produce pilot lots and clinical lots of each alphavirus replicon vaccine component. The vaccine induced high-titered antibody responses in mice and rabbits, as measured

  6. GaN detector development for particle and X-ray detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Owens; A. Barnes; R. A. Farley; M. Germain; P. J. Sellin

    We report on preliminary alpha particle and X-ray measurements on a number of prototype GaN PIN diodes. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential use of GAN based radiation detectors for radiation hard, high temperature, solar blind space applications. The devices have a planar structure consisting of a 2?m epitaxial GaN layer grown on a highly doped

  7. Development of a chronic sublethal bioassay for evaluating contaminated sediment with the marine polychaete worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M.; Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B. (Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Development of a chronic sublethal sediment bioassay with the polychaete Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata is described. The sublethal test end point was estimated individual somatic growth rate. The test was initiated with two-to three-week-old post-emergent juvenile worms and continued for 28 d. The potential bias due to selected nontreatment factors on polychaete survival and growth was evaluated. For example, grain size has no significant effect, whereas the number of worms placed in each exposure vessel was critical. Direct transfer from 30[per thousand] seawater to salinites [<=] 15[per thousand] had a highly significant and adverse effect on survival and growth. Both survival and growth of juvenile worms may be adversely affected if test conditions involve exposures to [>=] 0.7 mg/L un-ionized ammonia or [>=] 5 mg/L hydrogen sulfide. Survival of juvenile worms to concentrations of the reference toxicant, cadmium chloride, approximating the 96-h LC50 (5 mg/L) was used as a quality control measure. Results are expressed in control chart format analogous to methods used in analytical chemistry.

  8. Marine corrosion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, A.J.

    1985-04-24

    This report is a review of marine corrosion of metals and alloys which is to be included in the new Handbook of Ocean Engineering, to be published by Academic Press in 1985. The report describes marine environments, the types of marine corrosion encountered, cathodic protection and alloys used in marine applications. Emphasis is placed on describing the types of corrosion generally found and the preventative measures employed.

  9. Marine Conservation Biology Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCBI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCBI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

  10. Naval Architecture Marine Engineering

    E-print Network

    Eustice, Ryan

    Naval Architecture Marine Engineering Graduate Program Brochure 2014-2015 The University of Michigan #12;Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering More than 70% of our planet is covered by water environment. In the Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering (NA&ME), at the University

  11. Naval Architecture Marine Engineering

    E-print Network

    Eustice, Ryan

    Naval Architecture Marine Engineering Graduate Program Brochure 2011-2012 The University of Michigan #12;Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering More than 70% of our planet is covered by water environment. In the Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering (NA&ME), at the University

  12. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  13. Marine Conservation Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

  14. Development and Assessment of Oil-in-Water Emulsions for Encapsulation of Reactive Iron Particles for Subsurface Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, N. D.; Taghavy, A.; Ramsburg, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reactive iron particles hold promise for use in the destruction of contaminants in the subsurface environment. Application of these nano- to submicron-scale particles, however, may be limited by poor subsurface transport and non-uniform distribution of the reactive material. Delivery issues are particularly important when evaluating the efficacy of iron-based technologies for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. Current approaches for the delivery of reactive iron particles within DNAPL source zones are hindered by particle agglomeration, flow bypassing, and presence of non-target reactions. Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may overcome these limitations. Development of kinetically-stable, iron-laden, oil-in-water emulsions commenced by identifying surfactant-based coatings to increase the stability of commercially-available iron particles within non-polar organic phases (e.g., soy oil). A phase inversion technique was employed to disperse approximately 10% wt of the iron-laden, organic phase within a continuous aqueous phase containing nonionic emulsifiers. Emulsions were designed to ensure emulsifier proportions yielded hydrophilic-lipophilic balances affiliated with oil-in-water emulsions. Micrographs of the oil-in-water emulsions suggest that the average diameter of the oil droplets is approximately one micrometer. The presence of iron within oil droplets was confirmed in the micrographs and supported by an absence of iron agglomeration within the continuous phase. Bulk characteristics of each emulsion (density and viscosity) were used in conjunction with interfacial tension measurements in total trapping number analyses to assess the propensity of these emulsions to mobilize an entrapped trichloroethene (TCE)-DNAPL. Results suggest that the emulsions described herein should not cause significant mobilization of entrapped TCE-DNAPL in fine-to-medium grain sandy media. Column experiments are being conducted to evaluate the transport of these emulsions through sandy media. Preliminary results from experiments with iron-free emulsions suggest conductivity reductions occurring during emulsion flushing are not the result of extensive pore-clogging but rather are due to viscosity changes (emulsion viscosities range from 2 to 10 cP). Current efforts are focused on assessing and comparing both transport and reaction of commercially available iron particles and iron-laden emulsions within sandy porous media.

  15. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    developing management approaches for designing offshore marine conservation areas. KEY WORDS: Seabird (penguins) were responsible for over 54% of the overall food consumption. Seabird foraging distribution maps

  16. Lagrangian analysis of mixing and transport of water masses in the marine bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.; Ponomarev, V. I.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.; Fayman, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Lagrangian approach to studying the mixing and transport of a passive admixture in marine bays and gulfs based on the methods of a theory of dynamic systems is developed. This approach is employed to investigate the lateral mixing and transport of waters in the Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea, using a velocity field of the predictive numerical hydrodynamic circulation model of a synoptic scale. It is shown that the Lagrangian characteristics, such as the maximum accumulated Lyapunov exponent, the time of particle stay in the bay, particle relative displacements, and the number of cyclonic and anticyclonic rotations, allow us to describe the movement of water masses, the character of mixing, and chaos in the Bay. In integrating the advection equations forward and backward in time, maps showing a number of particle arrivals to different regions of the Bay make it possible to establish corridors through which particles leave and enter the Bay.

  17. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of a NaI(Tl) detector for in situ radioactivity measurements in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Li, Changkai; Liu, Dongyan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Yan

    2015-04-01

    To develop in situ NaI(Tl) detector for radioactivity measurement in the marine environment, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code was utilized to simulate the measurement of NaI(Tl) detector immersed in seawater, taking into account the material and geometry of the detector, and the interactions between the photons with the atoms of the seawater and the detector. The simulation results of the marine detection efficiency and distance were deduced and analyzed. In order to test their reliability, the field measurement was made at open sea and the experimental value of the marine detection efficiency was deduced and seems to be in good agreement with the simulated one. The minimum detectable activity for (137)Cs in the seawater of NaI(Tl) detector developed was determined mathematically at last. The simulation method and results in the paper can be used for the better design and quantitative calculation of in situ NaI(Tl) detector for radioactivity measurement in the marine environment, and also for some applications such as the installation on the marine monitoring platform and the quantitative analysis of radionuclides. PMID:25635669

  19. Development of a land-use regression model for ultrafine particles in Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Yao, Xiaohong; Reali, Christopher; Sun, Tim; Evans, Greg J.

    2015-06-01

    This study applies land-use regression (LUR) to characterize the spatial distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP) in a large city. Particle number (PN) concentrations were measured in residential areas around Toronto, Canada, between June and August 2008. A combination of fixed and mobile monitoring was used to assess spatial gradients between and within communities. The fixed monitoring locations included a central site, two downtown sites, and four residential sites located 6-15 km from the downtown core. The mobile data included average PN concentrations collected on 112 road segments from 10 study routes that were repeated on three separate days. The mobile data was used to create the land-use regression model while the fixed sites were used for validation purposes. The predictor variables that best described the spatial variation of PN concentration (R2 = 0.72, validated R2 = 0.68) included population density within 300 m, total resource and industrial area within 1000 m, total residential area within 3000 m, and major roadway and highway length within 3000 m. The LUR model successfully predicted the afternoon peak PN concentration (slope = 0.96, R2 = 0.86) but over-predicted the 24-h average PN concentration (slope = 1.28, R2 = 0.72) measured at seven fixed monitoring sites.

  20. GaN detector development for particle and X-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alan; Barnes, A.; Farley, R. A.; Germain, M.; Sellin, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    We report on preliminary alpha particle and X-ray measurements on a number of prototype GaN PIN diodes. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential use of GAN based radiation detectors for radiation hard, high temperature, solar blind space applications. The devices have a planar structure consisting of a 2 ?m epitaxial GaN layer grown on a highly doped n-type AlxGa1-xN nucleation layer, which in turn is deposited on a p-type 4H-SiC substrate. Au ohmic contacts were applied to the top of the GaN layer and the bottom of the substrate. A number of different sized devices were tested with contact diameters ranging from 0.4 mm to 0.7 mm. All devices showed good diode behaviour with reverse leakage currents in the tens to hundreds of micro-amp range. C-V measurements showed that the GaN layers were fully depleted for biases >20 V. When exposed to a 5.5 MeV alpha particle source, the devices showed a spectroscopic response with energy resolutions of ?25% FWHM at room temperature (RT) and 10 V bias and 20% FWHM at -50 °C. These values are consistent with the previous measurements. No response to 60 keV photons could be measured.

  1. Particle Size Distributions following Condensational Growth in Continuous Flow Aerosol Reactors as Derived from Residence Time Distributions: Theoretical Development and Application to Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikinori Kuwata; Scot T. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Condensational growth in continuous flow reactors, such as continuously mixed flow reactors (CMFRs) and flow tube reactors, is widely employed in the field of aerosol science and technology to produce particles for industrial use and scientific research. The development of analytical equations for the number-diameter distribution n(d) of the particles in the outflow from these reactors is advantageous both for

  2. Particle Size Distributions following Condensational Growth in Continuous Flow Aerosol Reactors as Derived from Residence Time Distributions: Theoretical Development and Application to Secondary Organic Aerosol by

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikinori Kuwata; Scot T. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Condensational growth in continuous flow reactors, such as continuously mixed flow reactors (CMFRs) and flow tube reactors, is widely employed in the field of aerosol science and technology to produce particles for industrial use and scientific research. The development of analytical equations for the number-diameter distribution n(d) of the particles in the outflow from these reactors is advantageous both for

  3. Integrating ocean acoustic propagation models and marine mammal auditory models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haw-Jye Shyu; Roger Hillson

    2002-01-01

    In responding to concerns about the potential impact of active sonar systems on marine mammals, the US Navy has initiated a research and development program to study the effects of sound on the marine environment (EMSE). As part of the ESME effort, the Naval Research Laboratory is developing a workbench for integrating the diverse software modules under development by other

  4. Development of a new rectangular NaI(Tl) scintillator and spectroscopy of low-energy charged particles.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Kitamura, Hisashi; Hazama, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Standard NaI(Tl) scintillators have only one optical window and are housed in airtight protective enclosures to protect against hygroscopicity from moisture in the air. For these reasons, NaI(Tl) scintillators are unsuitable for the collection of scintillation photons or for the detection of low-energy (<1 MeV) charged particles. To overcome these disadvantages, a rectangular NaI(Tl) scintillator has been newly developed. In this paper, we estimate the photon response of this new scintillator. The energy resolution was DeltaE (Full Width at Half Maximum)=7.5+/-0.2% for 662 keV gamma rays from a (137)Cs standard source. The number of photoelectrons was 3,686 for the photoelectric peak. Good energy resolution and photon collection were therefore confirmed for this specialized form of NaI(Tl) scintillator. The ability of this scintillator to detect low-energy particles was confirmed by successful measurement of low-energy charged particles (250-700 keV region) from a (137)Cs thin film radioisotope source. PMID:20113078

  5. Development and characterization of an ion trap mass spectrometer for the on-line chemical analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürten, Andreas; Curtius, Joachim; Helleis, Frank; Lovejoy, Edward R.; Borrmann, Stephan

    2007-08-01

    A novel Ion Trap Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (IT-AMS) for atmospheric particles has been developed and characterized. With this instrument the chemical composition of the non-refractory component of aerosol particles can be measured quantitatively. The set-up makes use of the well-characterized inlet and vaporization/ionization system of the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). While the AMS uses either a linear quadrupole mass filter (Q-AMS) or a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS) as the mass analyzer, the IT-AMS utilizes a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap. The main advantages of an ion trap are the possibility of performing MSn-experiments as well as ion/molecule reaction studies. The mass analyzer has been built in-house together with major components of the electronics. The IT-AMS is operated under full PC control and can be used as a field instrument due to its compact size. A detailed description of the set-up is presented. Experiments show that a mass resolving power larger than 1500 can be reached. This value is high enough to separate different organic species at m/z 43. Calibrations with laboratory-generated aerosol particles indicate a linear relationship between signal response and aerosol mass concentration. These studies, together with estimates of the detection limits for particulate sulfate (0.65 [mu]g/m3) and nitrate (0.16 [mu]g/m3) demonstrate the suitability of the IT-AMS to measure atmospheric aerosol particles. An inter-comparison between the IT-AMS and a Q-AMS for nitrate in urban air yields good agreement. For laboratory-generated polystyrene latex particles a MS/MS-study using collision-induced dissociation (CID) with a daughter/parent ion yield of more than 60% has been performed. In the future, similar MS/MS-studies can be conducted for atmospheric particles and for the study of secondary aerosol formation in smog chamber experiments.

  6. Development of a He- and He0 beam source for alpha particle measurement in a burning plasma.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N; Sasao, M; Terai, K; Okamoto, A; Kitajima, S; Yamaoka, H; Wada, M

    2012-02-01

    Proof of principle experiments of neutral helium beam production for alpha particle diagnostics was carried out on a test stand. Negative helium ions were produced in the Li charge exchange cell, in which stable and long time operation was possible. He(-) beam was accelerated to 157 keV. Finally, He(0) beam was successfully produced after the flight in the drift-tube through the auto-electron-detachment process from He(-) to He(0). A neutral beam detector using a pyroelectric device was also developed to measure He(0) beam intensity. The metastable component in the neutral helium beam was found to be less than 2%. PMID:22380272

  7. Particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  8. Developing the options for managing marine pests: specificity trials on the parasitic castrator, Sacculina carcini, against the European crab, Carcinus maenas, and related species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E Thresher; M Werner; J. T Høeg; I Svane; H Glenner; N. E Murphy; C Wittwer

    2000-01-01

    The impacts of introduced marine pests are becoming increasingly apparent, prompting interest in the possibility of their biological control. We undertook laboratory and field experiments on host selection of one potential control agent (the endoparasitic barnacle, Sacculina carcini) against its natural host (the widely invasive European shore crab, Carcinus maenas) and several confamilial and more distantly related crustaceans. For comparison,

  9. Canadian Hydrographic Conference April 14-17, 2014 St. John's N&L Development of a fusion adaptive algorithm for marine debris detection

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    threaten navigation, natural resources, or human safety. Almost any natural disaster such as Super Storm. Then, the core engine manages the fusion of a set of statistically- and physically-based algorithms in the surveyed environment, targeting marine debris (modeled as objects of about 1-m size). The project

  10. Developing a robust tephrochronological framework for Late Quaternary marine records in the Southern Adriatic Sea: new data from core station SA03-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, I. P.; Trincardi, F.; Lowe, J. J.; Bourne, A. J.; MacLeod, A.; Abbott, P. M.; Andersen, N.; Asioli, A.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lane, C. S.; Oh, Y. A.; Satow, C. S.; Staff, R. A.; Wulf, S.

    2015-06-01

    Tephra layers are assuming an increasingly important role in the dating and correlation of Late Quaternary marine sequences. Here we demonstrate their potential by reporting a new study of the sediment sequence of marine core SA03-11, recovered from the Southern Adriatic Sea, which spans the last c. 39 ka. A total of 28 discrete tephra layers are reported from this sequence, 10 of which are visible in the core and a further 18 are non-visible cryptotephra layers. These have been analysed using more than 1400 WDS-EPMA measurements of glass chemistry and results have been compared with published chemical measurements obtained from relevant proximal and distal sites which preserve eruptive material dating to within the same time interval. The data show that a high proportion of the layers originate from the Campi Flegrei volcanic field but more distinctive layers are sourced from Vesuvius, the Aeolian Islands and Vulcano, and these provide key marker horizons. The results show that the sequence extends in time to the Campanian Ignimbrite at the base, that a number of the layers have robust age estimates that permit a better constrained age-depth model to be constructed for the sequence, and that the potential exists for importing terrestrially-based age estimates into marine contexts, thereby circumventing problems of incorporating reservoir uncertainties associated with marine radiocarbon dates. The WDS-EPMA dataset generated here also provides important new data that constrain key Late Quaternary tephra layers in the central Mediterranean region.

  11. A Case Management and Family Support Handbook: Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of Marin City Families First, an Early Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald; And Others

    Families First, an early intervention program implemented in Marin City, California, was designed to integrate and coordinate the provision of a wide range of services to families of children in a low-income, mostly African-American community, from the third trimester of pregnancy to 8 years of age. The program is intended to enhance the…

  12. Novel approaches toward the development of Hall sensor-based magnetometric devices for charged particle accelerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inessa Bolshakova; Roman Holyaka; Claude Leroy

    2002-01-01

    A solution to the improvement of the operation stability of Hall sensor-based magnetometric devices is presented. This solution is found through the development of a intelligent measurement system for magnetic field monitoring based on test algorithms for stabilization of transducing parameters. The basic element of the developed measurement system is a functionally integrated magnetometric transducer, which combines a radiation hard

  13. Development and characterization of promoterless helper RNAs for the production of alphavirus replicon particle.

    PubMed

    Kamrud, K I; Alterson, K; Custer, M; Dudek, J; Goodman, C; Owens, G; Smith, J F

    2010-07-01

    Alphavirus-based replicon systems are frequently used as preclinical vectors and as antigen discovery tools, and they have recently been assessed in clinical vaccine trials. Typically, alphavirus replicon RNAs are delivered within virus-like replicon particles (VRP) that are produced following transfection of replicon RNA and two helper RNAs into permissive cells in vitro. The non-structural proteins expressed from the replicon RNA amplify the replicon RNA in cis and the helper RNAs in trans, the latter providing the viral structural proteins necessary to package the replicon RNA into VRP. Current helper RNA designs incorporate the alphavirus 26S promoter to direct the transcription of high levels of structural gene mRNAs. We demonstrate here that the 26S promoter is not required on helper RNAs to produce VRP and propose that such promoterless helper RNAs, by design, reduce the probability of generating replication-competent virus that may otherwise result from RNA recombination. PMID:20181749

  14. Development of an RF Conditioning System for Charged-Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Howlader, Mostofa [ORNL; Shajedul Hasan, Dr. S. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

    2008-01-01

    Charged-particle accelerators use various vacuum windows on their accelerating radio-frequency (RF) cavities to throughput very high RF power. Before being placed on the cavities, the windows should be cleaned, baked, and fully RF conditioned to prevent a poor vacuum from outgassing, as well as other forms of contamination. An example is the coaxial fundamental power coupler (FPC) with an annular alumina ceramic window for each of the 81 superconducting RF cavities in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linear accelerator. The FPCs needed to be tested up to 650-kW peak in a traveling wave and 2.6 MW with standing wave peaks in 1.3 and 60 pulses/s at 805 MHz. In this paper, an Experimental-Physics-and-Industrial-Control-System-based RF conditioning system for the SNS RF test facility is presented. This paper summarizes the hardware and software design strategies, provides the results obtained, and describes the future research scope.

  15. Minor in Marine Biology Minor in Marine Biology

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Minor in Marine Biology Minor in Marine Biology General Goals of the Minor in Marine Biology About who choose the Minor in Marine Biology will learn about the biology, evolution and ecology of organisms that inhabit these environments and the ecological processes linking them. Marine biology draws

  16. MArinE Biology School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences

    E-print Network

    Hartman, Chris

    MArinE Biology School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Graduate Program in Marine Sciences Requirements for Degrees: MS: 30 credits; PhD: 18 thesis credits The marine biology graduate program focuses on the ecology, physiology and biochemistry/molecular biology of marine organisms. Students may pursue either

  17. FABRIC FILTRATION WITH INTEGRAL PARTICLE CHARGING AND COLLECTION IN A COMBINED ELECTRIC AND FLOW FIELD. PART 2. DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of a mathematical engineering design model to predict the nonuniform deposition of particulate matter and the relative pressure drop, compared to conventional filtration, of fabric filtration with integral particle charging and collection. For ...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-COMPARTMENT MICROFILTRATION DEVICE FOR PARTICLE FRACTIONATION

    E-print Network

    Zahn, Jeffrey

    -aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) [1]. This approach was previously used and developed to separate plasma from whole blood. KEYWORDS Microfluidic, Cell Separation, Hydrodynamics, Blood Analysis, Size Separation INTRODUCTION Cell diagnostic analysis or therapeutic applications. Blood analyses, in particular, requires the separation

  19. Developing Concrete Recycling Strategies by Utilization of Nano-SiO 2 Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hosseini; A. Booshehrian; A. Madari

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, applying sustainable development strategies in designation and production of various products has attracted specific\\u000a attention. In order to consider ecological sustainable development for a product, reducing its environmental impacts should\\u000a be observed. Concrete technology and its products are not exceptions, and therefore, the same has been a concern for concrete\\u000a industry. Alongside, concrete recycling is one of the measures

  20. Diffusion-limited retention of porous particles at density interfaces

    E-print Network

    Kindler, Kolja

    Downward carbon flux in the ocean is largely governed by particle settling. Most marine particles settle at low Reynolds numbers and are highly porous, yet the fluid dynamics of this regime have remained unexplored. We ...

  1. Nucleation and growth of todorokite from birnessite: Implications for trace-metal cycling in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Amy L.; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L.

    2014-11-01

    The phyllomanganate birnessite is the main Mn-bearing phase in oxic marine sediments, and through coupled sorption and redox exerts a strong control on the oceanic concentration of micronutrient trace metals. However, under diagenesis and mild hydrothermal conditions, birnessite undergoes transformation to the tectomanganate todorokite. The mechanistic details of this transformation are important for the speciation and mobility of metals sequestered by birnessite, and are necessary in order to quantify the role of marine sediments in global trace element cycles. Here we transform a synthetic, poorly crystalline, hexagonal birnessite, analogous to marine birnessite, into todorokite under a mild reflux procedure, developed to mimic marine diagenesis and mild hydrothermal conditions. We characterize our birnessite and reflux products as a time series, employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). We provide new insight into the crystallization pathway and mechanism of todorokite formation from birnessite under conditions analogous to those found in marine diagenetic and hydrothermal settings. Specifically we propose a new four-stage process for the transformation of birnessite to todorokite, beginning with todorokite nucleation, then crystal growth from solution to form todorokite primary particles, followed by their self-assembly and oriented growth via oriented attachment to form crystalline todorokite laths, culminating in traditional crystal ripening. We suggest that, contrary to current understanding, trace metals like Ni might retard the transformation of birnessite to todorokite and be released to marine sedimentary pore-waters during this diagenetic process, thus potentially providing a benthic flux of these micronutrients to seawater.

  2. Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrument study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Mariner Jupiter/Saturn infrared instrumentation conceptual design study was conducted to determine the physical and operational characteristics of the instruments needed to satisfy the experiment science requirements. The design of the instruments is based on using as many proven concepts as possible. Many design features are taken from current developments such as the Mariner, Pioneer 10, Viking Orbiter radiometers, and Nimbus D spectrometer. Calibration techniques and error analysis for the instrument system are discussed.

  3. The development of a containment vessel and Dewar for the particle astrophysics magnet facility (ASTROMAG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The ASTROMAG facility is the heart of a large charged particle detection and resolution system. ASTROMAG utilizes a superconducting magnet consisting of a large superconducting magnet coil with a stored magnetic energy of approximately 15 MJ. The active coil will have a mass of 1200 kg. This magnet will be cooled by a cryostat using a liquid helium Dewar for storage. The cryostat will have a series of gas-cooled shields with an external guard vacuum shield and an internal Dewar. The magnet and cryostat will be designed for shuttle or Delta launch and will be designed to withstand the internal pressure of expanded helium under full quench conditions when venting is prevented. The external guard vacuum shell is required to maintain a vacuum for Earth based testing and for cold launch of the cryostat and magnet. The magnet is designed to operate at 4.4 K with a peak field of 7.0 tesla. The superconducting material within the magnet is niobium titanium in a conductive matrix.

  4. Marine Animal Tracking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-Ph.D. Program,

    Students are introduced to the ideas and implications of animal tracking, which is useful within scientific and commercial industries. For instance, when planning coastal area development, it is important to take into consideration animal presence and movement. Students are engaged in an activity to monitor animal foraging behavior on a spatial scale by working in groups to track each others' movements as they travel a pre-determined course. They record their results individually and collaboratively in an attempt to understand animal movement regarding foraging behavior. Students also engage in a creative design activity, focusing on how they would design a tag for a marine animal of their choice. To conclude, students are questioned about data interpretation and how spatial information is important in relation to commercial, conservation and scientific research decisions.

  5. Development of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer for Size and Composition Analysis of Submicron Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Jayne; Danna C. Leard; Paul Davidovits; Kenneth A. Smith; Charles E. Kolb; Douglas R. Worsnop

    2000-01-01

    The importance of atmospheric aerosols in regulating the Earth's climate and their potential detrimental impact on air quality and human health has stimulated the need for instrumentation which can provide real-time analysis of size resolved aerosol, mass, and chemical composition. We describe here an ( ) aerosol mass spectrometer AMS which has been developed in response to these aerosol sampling

  6. DEVELOPING FLUORESCENT LATEX MICRO-PARTICLE IMMUNOASSAY FOR DETECTION OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL ENTEROTOXIN B (SEB)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) is a highly heat resistant enteric toxin with a potential as a bio-threat agent. A sensitive method for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins is needed for food safety and food defense monitoring. Our research objectives were to develop a competitive flu...

  7. Development of a non-intrusive particle tracing technique for granular chute flows. Progress report for second quarter, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rosato, A.D.; Dave, R.N.; Fischer, I.S.; Carr, W.N.

    1992-07-01

    The development of a non-intrusive particle tracking system to follow the trajectory of an individual particle in three dimensions within a mass of particles is necessary to experimentally validate developing theories of inclined chute granular flows in conjunction with particle dynamics models. An understanding of the exact nature of such flows is of critical importance to a variety of industries concerned with solids handling, as well as in natural geological events. The tracking system, based on the principle of ``radiosonde`` transmitters coupled to receiving antennae by magnetic induction, is being developed. The radiosonde consists of one or more, orthogonally placed miniature circuits with integral loop antennas, mounted into a sphere of approximately 3/4 in. in diameter. The radiosonde sphere position can be traced during the flow down a chute by analyzing the induced voltage signals in the three or more external orthogonal receiving loop antennas due to the transmitter chips. 22 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Development and Validation of a Fast and Optimized Screening Method for Enhanced Production of Secondary Metabolites Using the Marine Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Strain LF580 Producing Anti-Cancer Active Scopularide A and B

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Annemarie; Paun, Linda; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Kempken, Frank; Labes, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds from marine fungi are an excellent source for the discovery and development of new drug leads. The distinct activity profiles of the two cyclodepsipeptides scopularide A and B against cancer cell lines set their marine producer strain Scopulariopsis brevicaulis LF580 into the focus of the EU project MARINE FUNGI. One of the main goals was the development of a sustainable biotechnological production process for these compounds. The secondary metabolite production of strain LF580 was optimized by random mutagenesis employing UV radiation. For a fast and reliable detection of the intracellular secondary metabolite production level, a miniaturized bioactivity-independent screening method was developed, as the random mutagenesis yielded a large number of mutants to be analysed quantitatively and none of the existing hyphenated bioassay-dependent screening systems could be applied. The method includes decreased cultivation volume, a fast extraction procedure as well as an optimized LC-MS analysis. We show that deviation could be specifically reduced at each step of the process: The measuring deviation during the analysis could be minimized to 5% and technical deviation occurring in the downstream part to 10–15%. Biological variation during the cultivation process still has the major influence on the overall variation. However, the approach led to a 10-fold reduction of time and similar effects on costs and effort compared to standard reference screening methods. The method was applied to screen the UV-mutants library of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis LF580. For validation purposes, the occurring variations in the miniaturized scale were compared to those in the classical Erlenmeyer flask scale. This proof of concept was performed using the wild type strain and 23 randomly selected mutant strains. One specific mutant strain with an enhanced production behavior could be obtained. PMID:25079364

  9. Discovery Collection: Marine Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Breslof

    Marine Animals is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Marine Animals includes photographs of 20 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Marine Animals Discovery Collection in the classroom.

  10. National Marine Fisheries Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NMFS is the federal agency responsible for the stewardship of the nation's living marine resources and their habitat. NOAA Fisheries is responsible for the management, conservation and protection of living marine resources within the United States' Exclusive Economic Zone (water three to 200 mile offshore). Site includes information on the organization of NMFS and features information on many marine science topics, including aquaculture, bycatch, legislation, permits, strandings, and grants.

  11. Sea Grant Marine Careers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This excellent site introduces careers in marine biology, oceanography (biological, chemical, physical, geological), ocean engineering, related fields like marine educator, fisherman. Profiles of professionals in each discipline demonstrate the diversity of people working in marine science. Valuable advice from experts on how to prepare. Career Outlook and Salaries describe what to expect for positions in academia, industry, government and other arenas. Helpful FAQ section; Resources and Links list job search information, internships and more.

  12. Sustained UK marine observations. Where have we been? Where are we now? Where are we going?

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Nicholas J. P.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction traces the earliest interaction of ancient humans with their marine environment, through marine explorations in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, to the development of early marine science in the Enlightenment. This sets the scene for how marine observations developed in the modern era and explains the status of today's marine observation networks. The paper concludes with an assessment of the future needs and constraints of sustained marine observation networks and suggests the lessons from a long history might be the key to the future. PMID:25157193

  13. Applications of satellite and marine geodesy to operations in the ocean environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fubara, D. M.; Mourad, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for marine and satellite geodesy technology are assessed with emphasis on the development of marine geodesy. Various programs and missions for identification of the satellite geodesy technology applicable to marine geodesy are analyzed along with national and international marine programs to identify the roles of satellite/marine geodesy techniques for meeting the objectives of the programs and other objectives of national interest effectively. The case for marine geodesy is developed based on the extraction of requirements documented by authoritative technical industrial people, professional geodesists, government agency personnel, and applicable technology reports.

  14. Chasing the Treasures of the Sea – Bacterial Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Bacterial marine natural products are an important source of novel lead structures for drug discovery. The cytotoxic properties of many of these secondary metabolites are of particular interest for the development of new anti-cancer agents. Tremendous advances in marine molecular biology, genome sequencing, and bioinformatics have paved the way to fully exploit the biomedical potential of marine bacterial products. In addition, unique biosynthetic enzymes discovered from bacteria from the sea have begun to emerge as powerful biocatalysts in medicinal chemistry and total synthesis. The increasingly interdisciplinary field of marine natural product chemistry thus strongly impacts future developments in medicine, chemistry, and biology. PMID:19481972

  15. An integrated development facility for the calibration of low-energy charged particle flight instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, A. P.; Reynolds, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A system was developed for the calibration and development of thermal ion instrumentation. The system provides an extended beam with usable current rates, approx. 1 pA/sq cm, at beam energies as low as 1 eV, with much higher values available with increasing energy. A tandem electrostatic and variable geometry magnetic mirror configuration within the ion source optimizes the use of the ionizing electrons. The system is integrated under microcomputer control to allow automatic control and monitoring of the beam energy and composition and the mass and angle-dependent response of the instrument under test. The system is pumped by a combination of carbon vane and cryogenic sorption roughing pumps and ion and liquid helium operating pumps.

  16. Development of copper matrix composite reinforced with FeAl particles produced by combustion synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Azem; M. Nechiche; K. Taibi

    2011-01-01

    This work focuses on the synthesis of FeAl intermetallic compound by combustion synthesis (SHS process) and its inclusion as dispersoids in a copper matrix to develop a metal matrix composite (MMC) by sintering. In the first step, FeAl compound was produced by the sintering of Fe–50at.%Al at 1100°C. Then, after grinding and mixing with copper powder, it was sintered in

  17. Development of ultrathin, dimensionally stable composites for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) elementary particle detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Thompson; W. O. Miller; J. H. Gieske

    1992-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Division, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories and Programmed Composites, is advancing the development of thin-walled, high modulus short-fiber compression-molded composite materials fabrication. In this paper, we investigate component uniformity, structural integrity, thermal conductivity, and radiation resistance; discuss the scanning-electron microscopic inspection of the graphite fiber distribution and orientation, and

  18. Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

    E-print Network

    Eustice, Ryan

    Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Undergraduate Program The University of Michigan #12;2 The Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Educational Objectives The Educational Objectives knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering within naval architecture and marine engineering

  19. Development of ultrathin, dimensionally stable composites for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) elementary particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.C.; Miller, W.O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Gieske, J.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Division, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories and Programmed Composites, is advancing the development of thin-walled, high modulus short-fiber compression-molded composite materials fabrication. In this paper, we investigate component uniformity, structural integrity, thermal conductivity, and radiation resistance; discuss the scanning-electron microscopic inspection of the graphite fiber distribution and orientation, and describe the process used in selecting the reinforcement fiber length and modulus and for choosing the hydrophobic, cyanate-ester resin.

  20. Development of ultrathin, dimensionally stable composites for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) elementary particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.C.; Miller, W.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gieske, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Division, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories and Programmed Composites, is advancing the development of thin-walled, high modulus short-fiber compression-molded composite materials fabrication. In this paper, we investigate component uniformity, structural integrity, thermal conductivity, and radiation resistance; discuss the scanning-electron microscopic inspection of the graphite fiber distribution and orientation, and describe the process used in selecting the reinforcement fiber length and modulus and for choosing the hydrophobic, cyanate-ester resin.

  1. Development of ultra thin, dimensionally stable composites for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) elementary particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.C.; Miller, W.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gieske, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Division, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories and Programmed Composites, is advancing the development of thin-walled, high modulus short-fiber compression-molded composite materials fabrication. In this paper, the authors investigate component uniformity, structural integrity, thermal conductivity, and radiation resistance; discuss the scanning-electron microscopic inspection of the graphite fiber distribution and orientation; and describe the process used in selecting the reinforcement fiber length and modulus and for choosing the hydrophobic, cyanate-ester resin.

  2. New developments in the experimental data for charged particle production of medical radioisotopes

    E-print Network

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present work is to give a review of developments achieved experimentally in the field of nuclear data for medically important radioisotopes in the last three years. The availability and precision of production related nuclear data is continuously improved mainly experimentally. This review emphasizes a couple of larger fields: the Mo/Tc generator problem and the generator isotopes in general, heavy alpha-emitters and the rare-earth elements. Other results in the field of medical radioisotope production are also listed.

  3. Marine biodiversity conservation based on integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)—A case study in Quanzhou Bay, Fujian, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Bin; Huang Hao; Yu Weiwei; Zheng Senlin; Wang Jinkeng; Jiang Jinlong

    2009-01-01

    Marine biodiversity conservation is a common issue in the world. Due to rapid economic development in coastal area in China, marine biodiversity conservation faces great pressure. In this paper, the idea of the integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) was applied as a framework in marine biodiversity conservation. At first, the relationship between integrated coastal zone management and the marine biodiversity

  4. Development of submicron particle size classification and collection techniques for nuclear facility off-gas streams. [Diffusion battery and electrofluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Hohorst, F.A.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1981-02-01

    High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are an essential part of nuclear facility off-gas cleanup systems. However, HEPA-rated sampling filters are not the most appropriate samplers for the particle penetrating off-gas cleanup systems. Previous work at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) estimated perhaps 5% of the radioactivity that challenged sampling filters penetrated them in the form of submicron particles - typically less than 0.2 microns. Accordingly, to evaluate these penetrating aerosols more fully, a suitable robust monitoring system for size differentiation and measurement of submicron particles was developed. A literature survey revealed that the diffusion battery was the best choice for particle size classification and that the electrofluidized bed was the best method for particle collection in ICPP off-gas streams. This report describes the laboratory study and in-plant demonstration of these two techniques.

  5. Development of an Interaction Assay between Single-Stranded Nucleic Acids Trapped with Silica Particles and Fluorescent Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, T.; Maeda, R.

    2012-01-01

    Biopolymers are easily denatured by heating, a change in pH or chemical substances when they are immobilized on a substrate. To prevent denaturation of biopolymers, we developed a method to trap a polynucleotide on a substrate by hydrogen bonding using silica particles with surfaces modified by aminoalkyl chains ([A-AM silane]/SiO2). [A-AM silane]/SiO2 was synthesized by silane coupling reaction of N-2-(aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (A-AM silane) with SiO2 particles with a diameter of 5 ?m at 100 °C for 20 min. The surface chemical structure of [A-AM silane]/SiO2 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations. The surface of the silica particles was modified with A-AM silane and primary amine groups were formed. [A-AM silane]/SiO2 was trapped with single-stranded nucleic acids [(Poly-X; X = A (adenine), G (guanine) and C (cytosine)] in PBS solution at 37 °C for 1 h. The single-stranded nucleic acids were trapped on the surface of the [A-AM silane]/SiO2 by hydrogen bonding to form conjugated materials. The resulting complexes were further conjugated by derivatives of acridine orange (AO) as fluorescent labels under the same conditions to form [AO:Poly-X:A-AM silane]/SiO2 complexes. Changes in the fluorescence intensity of these complexes originating from interactions between the single-stranded nucleic acid and aromatic compounds were also evaluated. The change in intensity displayed the order [AO: Poly-G: A-AM silane]/SiO2 > [AO:Poly-A:A-AM silane]/SiO2 >> [AO:Poly-C:A-AM silane]/SiO2. This suggests that the single-stranded nucleic acids conjugated with aminoalkyl chains on the surfaces of SiO2 particles and the change in fluorescence intensity reflected the molecular interaction between AO and the nucleic-acid base in a polynucleotide. PMID:24955635

  6. Particle Interaction in Stratified Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardekani, Arezoo; Doostmohammadi, Amin

    2012-11-01

    Hydrodynamics of many industrial and environmental systems is characterized by settling of suspended particles, interacting with each other and the surrounding fluid. Sedimentation of pollutants in the air and settling of marine snow particles in the ocean play an important role in several atmospheric and marine environmental processes. Hydrodynamics of these systems is markedly affected by the presence of vertical density variations that ubiquitously occurs due to temperature or salinity gradients in a fluid column. Despite the widespread implications of settling in stratified media, the fundamental mechanisms of particle interaction are not known to characterize the microstructure of stratified particulate systems. In a homogeneous fluid, a three-stage process, called ``drafting, kissing, and tumbling'', governs pair interaction of particles settling in tandem and explains the nonlinear behavior of particles in a particulate system. The pressure wake of the leading particle attracts the trailing particle. Upon collision of the particles, an unstable elongated body is formed and tumbles due to inertial effects. In a viscoelastic fluid, the elongated body settling along its long axis is stable and leads to chaining of the particles (drafting, kissing, and chaining). Our recent computational results reveal the role of density stratification on pair particle interaction. We use direct numerical simulations to fully resolve the particle-particle interaction in stratified fluids. The vital role of diffusivity of the stratified agent and the relative importance of inertial and buoyancy forces are investigated. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1066545.

  7. Observations of marine aerosol by a shipborne multiwavelength lidar over the Yellow Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangjun; Du, Libin; Li, Xianxin; Meng, Xiangqian; Chen, Chao; Qu, Junle; Wang, Xiufen; Liu, Xingtao; Kabanov, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol particles are important both because they affect atmospheric processes and, after deposition to the sea surface, because they affect processes in sea water. Aerosols have a strong impact on climate both due to scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation (direct effect) and through their effects on cloud properties and associated cloud albedo (first indirect effect) and precipitation (second indirect effect). A shipborne multiwavelength Mie/Raman/Polarization aerosol lidar developed for marine aerosol is presented. The shipborne aerosol lidar (SAL) is able to measure aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficient as well as depolarization in the altitude range 0 to 20 km. The instrument is installed in a 2 m*2 m*2 m container. Preliminary results of investigation of marine aerosol properties on the basis of multiwavelength lidar onboard the Xiangyanghong Number 8 Research ship on the Yellow Sea and Jiaozhou Bay of China are presented.

  8. Development and application of a high speed digital data acquisition technique to study steam bubble collapse using particle image velocimetry 

    E-print Network

    Schmidl, William Daniel

    1992-01-01

    cameras for Jata acqu&sit?n &s desirable to simplify and exped&te the datn, analys&s pro?ess A teihn&que &vas developed &vlu?h &vill ineasure flu&d veloc&t&es with PI?' techn&ql&es us&ng t&vo suc?e~s&ve d&g&t:&I images and t&vo &l&fferent frannng rates... Ilerzktrch. 1'lid ) This stuJy &vill iise ?ne inethod of fluv; visuahzati ~n. Particle Hnage s elo& imetry I PI% ). to examine steam bubble collapse (one small part nf the boiling pru?ess). The system ivluch was assembled to capture the data is & apable...

  9. Development of new mineral oil-based antifoams containing size-controlled hydrophobic silica particles for gloss paints.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kiyokazu; Ishizuka, Motoyoshi; Shimabayashi, Katsuomi; Ando, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Water-based architectural paints commonly contain either mineral oil-based or silicone-based antifoams. Mineral oil-based antifoams generally reduce the gloss of paint films; thus, silicone-based antifoams are mainly used in the field of architectural paints. The relationship between the antifoaming performance and the particle size of hydrophobic silica for mineral oil-based antifoams was investigated and a novel mineral oil-based antifoam that provided a glossy surface to the paint films equivalent to the surface obtained with silicone-based antifoams and with excellent antifoaming performance compared to silicone-based antifoams was developed. The novel mineral oil-based antifoam exhibits better performance than silicon-based antifoam, and thus the former is a perfect alternative to the latter for use in architectural paints. PMID:25452267

  10. Progress in development of silica aerogel for particle- and nuclear-physics experiments at J-PARC

    E-print Network

    Tabata, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the advancement in hydrophobic silica aerogel development for use as Cherenkov radiators and muonium production targets. These devices are scheduled for use in several particle- and nuclear-physics experiments that are planned in the near future at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. Our conventional method to produce aerogel tiles with an intermediate index of refraction of approximately 1.05 is extended so that we can now produce aerogel tiles with lower indices of refraction (i.e., 1.03-1.04) and higher indices of refraction (i.e., 1.075-1.08); each with excellent transparency. A new production method, called pin drying, was optimized to produce larger area aerogels consistently with an ultrahigh index of refraction (>1.10). In addition, for use as a thermal-muonium-emitting material at room temperature, dedicated low-density aerogels were fabricated using the conventional method.

  11. Shower development of particles with momenta from 1 to 10 GeV in the CALICE Scintillator-Tungsten HCAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Blaising, J.-J.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Lam, C. B.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J. G. R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Feege, N.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-01-01

    Lepton colliders are considered as options to complement and to extend the physics programme at the Large Hadron Collider. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an e+e- collider under development aiming at centre-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. For experiments at CLIC, a hadron sampling calorimeter with tungsten absorber is proposed. Such a calorimeter provides sufficient depth to contain high-energy showers, while allowing a compact size for the surrounding solenoid. A fine-grained calorimeter prototype with tungsten absorber plates and scintillator tiles read out by silicon photomultipliers was built and exposed to particle beams at CERN. Results obtained with electrons, pions and protons of momenta up to 10 GeV are presented in terms of energy resolution and shower shape studies. The results are compared with several GEANT4 simulation models in order to assess the reliability of the Monte Carlo predictions relevant for a future experiment at CLIC.

  12. Polymer Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Masayoshi

    In this special volume on polymer particles, recent trends and developments in the synthesis of nano- to micron-sized polymer particles by radical polymerization (Emulsion, Miniemulsion, Microemulsion, and Dispersion Polymerizations) of vinyl monomers in environmentally friendly heterogeneous aqueous and supercritical carbon dioxide fluid media are reviewed by prominent worldwide researchers. In addition to the important challenges and possibilities with regards to design and preparation of functionalized polymer particles of controlled size, the topics described are of great current interest due to the increased awareness of environmental issues.

  13. Marine Natural Products: A Way to New Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of marine natural products (low molecular weight bioregulators) is a rapidly developing scientific field at the intersection of biology and chemistry. Investigations aimed at detecting, identifying, and understanding the structure of marine natural products have led to the discovery of 20,000 new substances, including those characterized by an extremely high physiological activity. Some results and prospects of works aimed at creating new drugs on the basis of marine natural products are discussed herein. PMID:22649599

  14. Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors with digital pixel dedicated to future particle physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Wang, T.; Pham, H.; Hu-Guo, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Two prototypes of CMOS pixel sensor with in-pixel analog to digital conversion have been developed in a 0.18 ?m CIS process. The first design integrates a discriminator into each pixel within an area of 22 × 33 ?m2 in order to meet the requirements of the ALICE inner tracking system (ALICE-ITS) upgrade. The second design features 3-bit charge encoding inside a 35 × 35 ?m2 pixel which is motivated by the specifications of the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (ILD-VXD). This work aims to validate the concept of in-pixel digitization which offers higher readout speed, lower power consumption and less dead zone compared with the column-level charge encoding.

  15. Development of a bioaerosol single particle detector (BIO IN) for the fast ice nucleus chamber FINCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, U.; Reimann, B.; Nillius, B.; Jaenicke, R.; Bingemer, H.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we present the setup and first tests of our new BIO IN detector. This detector is designed to classify atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) for their biological content. Biological material is identified via its auto-fluorescence (intrinsic fluorescence) after irradiation with UV radiation. Ice nuclei are key substances for precipitation development via the Bergeron-Findeisen process. The level of scientific knowledge regarding origin and climatology (temporal and spatial distribution) of IN is very low. Some biological material is known to be active as IN even at relatively high temperatures of up to -2°C (e.g. pseudomonas syringae bacteria). These biological IN could have a strong influence on the formation of clouds and precipitation. We have designed the new BIO IN sensor to analyze the abundance of IN of biological origin. The instrument will be flown on one of the first missions of the new German research aircraft ''HALO'' (High Altitude and LOng Range).

  16. Model implementation of marine organc aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Meskhidze, N.

    2012-12-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increase in research concerning organic aerosol emissions from the ocean. Global sources of ocean-emitted organic aerosols have been shown to be comparable in magnitude to primary organic aerosols (POA) emitted from combustion processes and are sometimes found in concentrations more typical of organic aerosols in urban areas. Due to their potential importance to air quality and climate, several attempts have been made to better quantify the emission rate of marine organics. In this work, we present results from two modeling studies in which marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented. The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) climate model was used to determine the impact of marine organic aerosols on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), and shortwave cloud forcing. The global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem was used to evaluate the ability of the latest version of all currently available marine (POA) emission schemes to predict the observed surface concentrations ranging in temporal resolution from hourly to seasonally. Using CAM5, the greatest impact on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), and shortwave cloud forcing was found to occur when marine POA was externally-mixed (added as additional mass and number) with sea-salt. Simulations including marine POA emissions internally-mixed with sea-salt did not have any significant changes in CCN concentration, CDNC, or shortwave cloud forcing. Using the GEOS-Chem model, global marine POA emission rates were found to range from 0.1 to 11.9 Tg/yr with a top-down estimate of 6.3 Tg/yr. Compared to observations, the marine POA emission scheme based solely [chl a] was able to best simulate the seasonality of surface organic aerosol concentrations at two coastal sites. The schemes calculating an organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol frequently had emissions rates that were too high in the winter and too low in the summer. Comparison with hourly observed concentrations revealed that none of the marine POA emissions parameterizations were able to represent short term variability in concentrations. These studies suggest that 1) understanding the emission processes and physiochemical characteristics of marine POA is important as marine organic aerosols could play considerable role in model-predicted climate; 2) more work is needed for development of parameterizations grounded in physical processes controlling marine organic aerosol emissions.

  17. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  18. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Technique Development for Laboratory Measurement of Fracture Flow Inside a Pressure Vessel Using Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe recent progress made in developing neutron imaging based particle imaging velocimetry techniques for visualizing and quantifying flow structure through a high pressure flow cell with high temperature capability (up to 350 degrees C). This experimental capability has great potential for improving the understanding of flow through fractured systems in applications such as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, flow structure measurement can be used to develop and validate single phase flow models used for simulation, experimentally identify critical transition regions and their dependence on fracture features such as surface roughness, and study multiphase fluid behavior within fractured systems. The developed method involves the controlled injection of a high contrast fluid into a water flow stream to produce droplets that can be tracked using neutron radiography. A description of the experimental setup will be provided along with an overview of the algorithms used to automatically track droplets and relate them to the velocity gradient in the flow stream. Experimental results will be reported along with volume of fluids based simulation techniques used to model observed flow.

  19. Development and beyond: Strategy for long-term maintenance of an online laser diffraction particle size method in a spray drying manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Medendorp, Joseph; Bric, John; Connelly, Greg; Tolton, Kelly; Warman, Martin

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this manuscript is to present the intended use and long-term maintenance strategy of an online laser diffraction particle size method used for process control in a spray drying process. A Malvern Insitec was used for online particle size measurements and a Malvern Mastersizer was used for offline particle size measurements. The two methods were developed in parallel with the Mastersizer serving as the reference method. Despite extensive method development across a range of particle sizes, the two instruments demonstrated different sensitivities to material and process changes over the product lifecycle. This paper will describe the procedure used to ensure consistent alignment of the two methods, thus allowing for continued use of online real-time laser diffraction as a surrogate for the offline system over the product lifecycle. PMID:25958139

  20. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions and Their Impact on Radionuclide Transport: Development of efficient particle-tracking methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaram, Harihar [University of Colorado, Boulder; Brutz, Michael [University of Colorado, Boulder; Klein, Dylan R [University of Colorado, Boulder; Mallikamas, Wasin [University of Colorado, Boulder

    2014-09-18

    Matrix Diffusion and Adsorption within a rock matrix are important mechanisms for retarding transport of radionuclides in fractured rock. Due to computational limitations and difficulties in characterizing complex subsurface systems, diffusive exchange between a fracture network and surrounding rock matrix is often modeled using simplified conceptual representations. There is significant uncertainty in “effective” parameters used in these models, such as the “effective matrix diffusivity”. Often, these parameters are estimated by fitting sparse breakthrough data, and estimated values fall outside meaningful ranges, because simplified interpretive models do not consider complex three-dimensional flow. There is limited understanding of the relationship between the effective parameters and rock mass characteristics including network structure and matrix properties. There is also evidence for an apparent scale-dependence in “effective matrix diffusion” coefficients. These observations raise questions on whether fracture-matrix interaction parameters estimated from small-scale tracer tests can be used for predicting radionuclide fate and transport at the scale of DOE field sites. High-resolution three-dimensional Discrete-Fracture-Network-Matrix (DFNM) models based on well-defined local scale transport equations can help to address some of these questions. Due to tremendous advances in computational technology over the last 10 years, DFNM modeling in relatively large domains is now feasible. The overarching objective of our research is to use DFNM modeling to improve fundamental understanding of how effective parameters in conceptual models are related to fracture network structure and matrix properties. An advanced three-dimensional DFNM model is being developed, which combines upscaled particle-tracking algorithms for fracture-matrix interaction and a parallel fracture-network flow simulator. The particle-tracking algorithms allow complexity in flow fields at different scales, and track transport across fracture-matrix interfaces based on rigorous local approximations to the transport equations. This modeling approach can incorporate aperture variability, multi-scale preferential flow and matrix heterogeneity. We developed efficient particle-tracking methods for handling matrix diffusion and adsorption on fracture walls and demonstrated their efficiency for use within the context of large-scale complex fracture network models with variability in apertures across a network of fractures and within individual fractures.