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Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding oro-facial injuries and oro-facial protective devices among physical instructors in Bangalore  

PubMed Central

Background: Sports specific dental injuries are seen to occur frequently among children and young athletes. Dental injury is a distressing event often causing psychological as well as physical problems. The risk of children getting dental injuries during sports activities can be minimized by using a mouth guard and other oro-facial protective devices. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of physical instructors in Bangalore, regarding oro-facial injuries and orofacial protective devices. Material & Methods: A self-completion questionnaire was sent to 50 physical instructors of schools, sports academies and gymnasiums situated in the South of Bangalore city. The questionnaire sought information about the knowledge of the incidence of oro-facial injuries, common sports causing oro-facial injuries and oro-facial protective devices and their role in the prevention of injuries. The data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The population under study comprised of 92 males and 8 females. About 38% of oro-facial injuries were reported by physical instructors in the previous year. Physical instructors had knowledge regarding oro-facial protective devices like mouth guards (54%) and helmet (40%). The attitude and practice regarding the usage of mouth guards was found to be minimal. Conclusion: The physical instructors had knowledge especially through the media on the protective effectiveness of mouth guards in reducing the oro facial injuries. Despite their awareness, only 4% of them recommended the mandatory use of the mouth guards. Majority of them could not recommend its usage as they were unaware of its availability and the reason for not using the mouth is its improper fitting. How to cite the article: Neeraja G, Bharadwaj S, Shah K, Subramaniam P. Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding oro-facial injuries and oro-facial protective devices among physical instructors in Bangalore. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):1-6.

Neeraja, G; Bharadwaj, Srivats; Shah, Kinjal; Subramaniam, Priya



July 14, 2006: Consortium for Functional Glycomics, Pamela Marino

Paulson 2004 06/21/04 1 05/12/04 Consortium for Functional Glycomics Pamela A. Marino, Program Director Paulson 2004 06/21/04 2 05/12/04 Consortium for Functional Glycomics Define paradigms by which protein-carbohydrate


Value of screening for oro-pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To determine whether oro-pharyngeal colonisation by Chlamydia trachomatis occurs in patients at risk of genital chlamydia infection; to determine whether screening pharyngeal specimens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) increases detection of C trachomatis compared with isolation and the immune dot blot test; and to correlate the detection of C trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx with a history of oro-genital contact. METHODS--Thirteen homosexuals and 11 heterosexuals were included in the study. Urogenital and pharyngeal specimens were tested for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae using standard clinical diagnostic procedures. Two different PCR methodologies were also used to detect C trachomatis in the pharyngeal specimens. Results were correlated with the mode of sexual practice. RESULTS--Oro-genital sexual contact was practised by 64.9% (72/111) of heterosexuals in addition to penetrative penovaginal intercourse. Additionally, 62.1% (77/124) of all patients did not use any form of barrier protection. Of those who admitted to oro-genital sexual contact, 17.6% of patients with a genital chlamydial infection and 36.4% of those with genital gonorrhoea also had asymptomatic pharyngeal colonisation. C trachomatis was detected in three of 124 (2.4%) pharyngeal specimens by PCR which were reported as negative by chlamydial culture; one was positive by the immune dot blot test. CONCLUSION--The majority of patients practised unprotected oro-genital contact and significant pharyngeal colonisation by C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae occurred if genital infection was present. Despite the use of PCR in a population at high risk of sexually transmitted disease, the prevalence of chlamydia in the pharynx was very low. This indicates that transmission of C trachomatis to the oro-pharynx does not pose a serious health risk and that screening of patients for oro-pharyngeal C trachomatis is not worthwhile.

Jebakumar, S P; Storey, C; Lusher, M; Nelson, J; Goorney, B; Haye, K R



Primary calvarial bone grafting in oro-ocular clefts.  


Oro-ocular clefts were classified by Tessier as 3-11 or 4-10 facial clefts. These rare clefts require both bony and soft tissue correction and present a significant challenge to the innovative skill of the craniofacial surgeon. A review of three male children with oro-ocular clefts and their management (including surgical planning and operative treatment) is presented. We would propose that the use of calvarial bone grafting as part of the primary closure is regarded as desirable based on our experience. PMID:19464971

O'Sullivan, J B; Earley, M J



Oro-facial-digital syndrome type 1: a case report.  


Oro-Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS) is a generic term for group of apparently distinctive genetic diseases that affect the development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. One of these is OFDS type I (OFDS-I) which has rarely been reported in Asian countries. This is the case report of a 13 year old patient with OFDS type I who reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, with the complaint of discolored upper front teeth. PMID:24739916

Dhull, Kanika Singh; Acharya, Sonu; Mohanty, Mamta; Dhull, Rachita Singh; Panda, Swagatika



OROS® hydromorphone in chronic pain management: when drug delivery technology matches clinical needs.  


The osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system (OROS®) is an innovative drug delivery technology that uses osmotic pressure as the driving force to deliver pharmacotherapies in many therapeutic areas. In chronic pain management requiring long-term therapy, pharmaceutical technologies that ensure the controlled release of analgesic medications are imperative. In addition, once-daily formulations ensure better patient compliance to prescribed therapies. Hydromorphone was the first opioid to be formulated as a once-daily preparation using OROS® technology. The purpose of this review is to discuss the application of OROS® technology in the field of chronic pain management and to examine clinical trial results for OROS® Hydromorphone. OROS® hydromorphone ensures the constant delivery of hydromorphone over a 24-hour period, and its pharmacokinetic profile is only minimally affected by food and alcohol. Dose-conversion studies have shown that patients with chronic pain can be easily switched from previous opioid therapies to OROS® hydromorphone without a loss of pain control. These studies support the clinical utility of the 5:1 ratio used for the conversion of oral morphine to oral OROS® hydromorphone. Furthermore, once-daily OROS® hydromorphone has been shown to be effective in patients with chronic cancer and non-cancer pain, and it provides similar pain relief to SR morphine and ER oxycodone. In chronic pain management, OROS® products can result in more stable drug concentrations, reduced dosing frequency and an improved safety profile. PMID:21102402

Coluzzi, F; Mattia, C



A possible cranio-oro-facial phenotype in Cockayne syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Cockayne Syndrome CS (Type A – CSA; or CS Type I OMIM #216400) (Type B – CSB; or CS Type II OMIM #133540) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disease caused by defects in DNA repair characterized by progressive cachectic dwarfism, progressive intellectual disability with cerebral leukodystrophy, microcephaly, progressive pigmentary retinopathy, sensorineural deafness photosensitivity and possibly orofacial and dental anomalies. Methods We studied the cranio-oro-facial status of a group of 17 CS patients from 15 families participating in the National Hospital Program for Clinical Research (PHRC) 2005 « Clinical and molecular study of Cockayne syndrome ». All patients were examined by two investigators using the Diagnosing Dental Defects Database (D[4]/phenodent) record form. Results Various oro-facial and dental anomalies were found: retrognathia; micrognathia; high- arched narrow palate; tooth crowding; hypodontia (missing permanent lateral incisor, second premolars or molars), screwdriver shaped incisors, microdontia, radiculomegaly, and enamel hypoplasia. Eruption was usually normal. Dental caries was associated with enamel defects, a high sugar/carbohydrate soft food diet, poor oral hygiene and dry mouth. Cephalometric analysis revealed mid-face hypoplasia, a small retroposed mandible and hypo-development of the skull. Conclusion CS patients may have associated oro-dental features, some of which may be more frequent in CS children – some of them being described for the first time in this paper (agenesis of second permanent molars and radiculomegaly). The high susceptibility to rampant caries is related to a combination of factors as well as enamel developmental defects. Specific attention to these anomalies may contribute to diagnosis and help plan management.



Oro-genital lichen planus: report of two cases.  


Lichen planus is a common mucocutaneous disease. However, lichen planus with concomitant oral and genital involvement is a rare condition that requires multidisciplinary intervention for appropriate diagnosis. In this study, we reported two cases of oro-genital lichen planus in a man and a woman. Analyses of oral and genital lesions were clinically and histopathologically compatible with lichen planus. This description highlights the importance of patients presenting oral lichen planus be routinely required to undergo further medical examination in order to investigate putative genital mucosal involvement. These lesions have the potential to progress to neoplasia. Therefore, medical and dentistry professionals should be aware of this condition. PMID:18248925

Minicucci, Eliana M; Weber, Silke A T; Stolf, Hamilton O; Ribeiro, Daniel A



The Oro Grande, New Mexico, chondrite and its lithic inclusion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oro Grande, New Mexico, U.S.A., chondrite was found in 1971. Electron microprobe analyses and microscopic examination show the following mineralogy: olivine (Fa 19.3 mole %), orthopyroxene (Fs 16.2 mole %), diopside, feldspar (An 13.6 mole %), chlorapatite, whitlockite, kamacite, taenite, troilite, chromite, and an iron-bearing terrestrial weathering product. A bulk chemical analysis of the meteorite shows the following results (weight %): Fe 0.84, Ni 1.46, Co 0.07, FeS 3.62, SiO2 34.18, TiO2 0.14, Al2O3 1.83, Cr2O3 0.55, Fe2O3 21.25, FeO 9.13, MnO 0.31, MgO 21.52, CaO 1.72, Na2O 0.70, K2O 0.08, P2O5 0.25, H2O(+) 2.14, H2O(-) 0.40, C 0.22, sum 100.41. On the basis of composition and texture the Oro Grande meteorite is classified as an H5 chondrite.

Fodor, R. V.; Keil, K.; Jarosewich, E.



Risk factors for onset of chronic oro-facial pain - Results of the North Cheshire oro-facial pain prospective population study  

PubMed Central

Due to the cross-sectional nature of previous studies, whether mechanical factors predict the onset of Chronic oro-facial pain remains unclear. Aims of the current study were to test the hypotheses that self-reported mechanical factors would predict onset of Chronic oro-facial pain and that any observed relationship would be independent of the confounding effects of psychosocial factors and reporting of other unexplained symptoms. About 1735 subjects who had completed a baseline questionnaire were assessed at 2 year follow-up for the presence of Chronic oro-facial pain, psychosocial factors (anxiety and depression, illness behaviour, life stressors and reporting of somatic symptoms), mechanical dysfunction (facial trauma, grinding, phantom bite and missing teeth) and reporting of other unexplained symptoms (chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue). About 1329 subjects returned completed questionnaires (adjusted response rate 87%). About 56 (5%) reported new episodes of Chronic oro-facial pain at follow-up. Univariate analyses showed that age, gender, reporting of other unexplained symptoms, psychosocial factors and two self-report mechanical factors predicted the onset of Chronic oro-facial pain. However multivariate analysis showed that mechanical factors did not independently predict onset. The strongest predictors were health anxiety (Relative Risk (RR) 2.8, 95% CI 1.3–6.2), chronic widespread pain (RR 4.0 95% C.I. 2.2–7.4) and age (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.7). The findings from this prospective study support the hypothesis that psychosocial factors are markers for onset of Chronic oro-facial pain. The efficacy of early psychological management of Chronic oro-facial pain to address these factors should be a priority for future investigations.

Aggarwal, Vishal R.; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Farragher, Tracey M.; McBeth, John



Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn



Non-Speech Oro-Motor Exercise Use in Acquired Dysarthria Management: Regimes and Rationales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are described in speech and language therapy manuals and are thought to be much used in acquired dysarthria intervention, though there is no robust evidence of an influence on speech outcome. Opinions differ as to whether, and for which dysarthria presentations, NSOMExs are appropriate. Aims:…

Mackenzie, Catherine; Muir, Margaret; Allen, Carolyn



Risk factors for cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx in Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of worldwide levels, Cuba has an intermediate incidence of cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx. We studied 200 cases of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, of whom 57 women (median age = 64) and 200 hospital controls, frequency matched with cases by age and sex, in relation to smoking and drinking history, intake of 25

L Fernandez Garrote; R Herrero; R M Ortiz Reyes; S Vaccarella; J Lence Anta; L Ferbeye; N Muñoz; S Franceschi



Allotment Gardens of Cagayan de Oro: Their Contribution to Food Security and Urban Environmental Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six so-called allotment gardens have been established in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines, by converting idle lots to facilitate the legal access of almost 70 urban poor families to land for food production. Surveys show that 25 % of the allotment gardeners' produce is consumed by themselves, 7 % is given away to relatives and friends while 68 % is

Robert J. Holmer; Axel W. Drescher


Plant regeneration from calli of melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. ‘Amarillo Oro’)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus cultures from cotyledon and hypocotyl explants of a Spanish cultivar of melon (‘Amarillo Oro’) have been tested for their growth and morphogenic capacity on a series of media with different concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin). Melon tissues were able to undergo morphogenesis both via organogenesis and embryogenesis, depending on culture conditions and explant source. Shoot buds

V. Moreno; M. Garcia-Sogo; I. Granell; B. Garcia-Sogo; L. A. Roig



Randomized, Controlled Trial of OROS Methylphenidate Once a Day in Children With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. A new once-a-day methyl- phenidate (MPH) formulation, Concerta (methylpheni- date HCl) extended-release tablets (OROS MPH), has been developed. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of OROS MPH in a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial. Methods. Children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactiv- ity disorder (ADHD; n 282), all subtypes, ages 6 to 12 years, were randomized to placebo (n 90),

Mark L. Wolraich; Laurence L. Greenhill; William Pelham; James Swanson; Timothy Wilens; Donna Palumbo; Marc Atkins; Keith McBurnett; Oscar Bukstein; Gerald August


Oro-facio-dental findings of rubinstein-taybi syndrome as a useful diagnostic feature.  


Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS) is a rare multiple congenital syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features, mental and growth retardation, broad thumbs and great toes. This case report describes the oro-dental manifestations, as well as, orthodontic evaluation of a 9-year-old male patient who had RTS. The remarkable oro-dental features were talon-like cingulum on maxillary central incisors, unerupted supernumerary teeth. Cone-beam computerized tomography was taken in order to identify his skeletal anomalies, bilateral cross-bite and a narrow maxilla were diagnosed. Dental treatments were completed under i.v sedation due to the patient's inability to cooperate during dental treatment. Perioparetive and postoperative courses were uneventful. Following dental treatments, orthodontic therapy was initiated with a fixed rapid maxillary expansion appliance. PMID:24596795

Tirali, R Ebru; Sar, Cagla; Cehreli, Burcak



Development of the Chinese version of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale among Chinese-speaking patients. The original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with the international standards to develop a Chinese version (OES-C). Unlike the original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale, the version employed in this study used a 5-point Likert scale with items rated from unsatisfactory to most satisfactory. Psychometric evaluation included the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The reliability of the OES-C was determined through internal consistency and test-retest methods. The validity of OES-C was analysed by content validity, discriminative validity, construct validity and convergent validity. The corrected item-total correlation coefficients of the OES-C ranged from 0·859 to 0·910. The inter-item correlation coefficients between each two of the eight items of the OES-C ranged from 0·766 to 0·922. The values of ICC ranged from 0·79 (95% CI = 0·54-0·98) to 0·93 (95% CI = 0·87-0·99), indicating an excellent agreement. Construct validity was proved by the presence of one-factor structure that accounted for 83·507% of the variance and fitted well into the model. Convergent validity was confirmed by the association between OES-C scores and self-reported oral aesthetics and three questions from the Oral Health Impact Profile related to aesthetics (correlation coefficients ranged from -0·830 to -0·702, P < 0·001). OES-C scores discriminated aesthetically impaired patients from healthy controls. This study provides preliminary evidence concerning the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The results show that the OES-C may be a useful tool for assessment of oro-facial esthetics in China. PMID:23829233

Zhao, Y; He, S L



Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of commercial melon ( Cucumis melo L., cv. Amarillo Oro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotyledon explants of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L., cv. Amarillo Oro) seedlings were co-cultivated with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 that contained the binary vector plasmid pBI121.1. The T-DNA region of this binary vector contains the Nopaline synthase\\/neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) chimeric gene for kanamycin resistance and the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S\\/ß-glucuronidase (GUS) chimeric gene. After infection, the cotyledon pieces were

M. P. Vallés; J. M. Lasa



Assessment of cognitive domains during treatment with OROS methylphenidate in adolescents with ADHD.  


Aim: To psychometrically assess cognitive domains in adolescents with ADHD during long-term open treatment with robust dosing of extended-release methylphenidate (OROS MPH). Methods: Data were derived from a prospective clinical study of adolescent ADHD, employing the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), before and after up to one year of treatment with OROS MPH. In the absence of placebo control, a similar age and gender group of youth without ADHD served as comparators. Results: During the course of treatment with OROS MPH, ADHD youth's performance significantly improved across multiple CANTAB tasks, including spatial working memory, rapid visual processing, verbal recognition memory, set shifting, and inhibition/vigilance. ADHD subjects' scores in several CANTAB tasks, including spatial working memory, planning, and set shifting, were significantly more impaired at baseline compared to the non-ADHD comparison group; these significant differences were no longer seen at endpoint. Conclusions: Statistically significant improvements in multiple cognitive domains were observed in a sample of adolescents with ADHD over the course of 12 months of robust treatment with extended-release methylphenidate. Rigorous, monitored stimulant treatment may be associated with objectively determined cognitive benefits; however, practice effects in this open trial cannot be ruled out. Further study on this important topic is warranted. PMID:23639146

Hammerness, Paul; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Meller, Benjamin; Biederman, Joseph



Clinical applications of oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy in the study of dysphagia  

PubMed Central

Summary The diagnostic approach to patients with dysphagia is well established and relies mainly on videofluoroscopy and endoscopy. Oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy permits both a functional and a semi-quantitative study of the various stages of swallowing. Moreover, by means of this investigation, it is possible to estimate the amount of inhaled bolus. Oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy with 99mTc-nanocolloid has been found to be easy to use, economical, well tolerated and, supplying precise indications regarding the extent of the swallowing disorder, then permits a better clinical definition of the patient. The limitations of swallowing scintigraphy are: poor definition in visualizing anatomic structures and low specificity when used as the only diagnostic test. Scintigraphy plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of dysphagia, and its use, together with other diagnostic techniques, increases diagnostic accuracy. In this study, the role of oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy has been analysed in patients with post-surgical, neurological and oesophageal dysphagia.

Fattori, B; Grosso, M; Ursino, F; Matteucci, F; Mancini, V; Rizza, E; Mattone, V; Mariani, G; Nacci, A



Clinical applications of oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy in the study of dysphagia.  


The diagnostic approach to patients with dysphagia is well established and relies mainly on videofluoroscopy and endoscopy. Oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy permits both a functional and a semi-quantitative study of the various stages of swallowing. Moreover, by means of this investigation, it is possible to estimate the amount of inhaled bolus. Oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy with 99mTc-nanocolloid has been found to be easy to use, economical, well tolerated and, supplying precise indications regarding the extent of the swallowing disorder, then permits a better clinical definition of the patient. The limitations of swallowing scintigraphy are: poor definition in visualizing anatomic structures and low specificity when used as the only diagnostic test. Scintigraphy plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of dysphagia, and its use, together with other diagnostic techniques, increases diagnostic accuracy. In this study, the role of oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy has been analysed in patients with post-surgical, neurological and oesophageal dysphagia. PMID:17957850

Fattori, B; Grosso, M; Ursino, F; Matteucci, F; Mancini, V; Rizza, E; Mattone, V; Mariani, G; Nacci, A



Reconstruction of complex oro-facial defects using the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap.  


Oro-facial defects require reconstruction that provides suitable colour match and texture. Moreover inner and outer cheek lining and bulk are key considerations. In cases of severe oro-facial infections concomitant mandibular abnormality, for example trismus, can mandate the need for tissue to obturate mandibular defects. We assessed the use of the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap (MSA) in non-oncological patients with such defects. Twenty two consecutive patients were included in this case series. All patients were survivors of Cancrum Oris (NOMA). Demographic details, nutritional status and co-morbidities were recorded. Defects were classified according to the tissues destroyed; cheek, mandible, oral cavity, lip(s), nose and eye(s). Simultaneous procedures carried out were recorded. The surgical anatomy of the MSA is described. All patients had composite defects of the cheek and oral cavity plus another local anatomical structure. Adjunct procedures such as trismus release were carried out in 18/22 patients. Four patients required a return to theatre. There was no trismus recurrence observed. No flap losses were incurred. The MSA is a robust flap with minimal incidence of major complications. The MSA negates the need for microsurgical tissue transfer. Furthermore the MSA provides adequate bulk to obturate these defects. Future applications of the MSA may include complex oro-facial oncological defects. PMID:24209385

Saleh, D B; Fourie, L; Mizen, K D



Periventricular neuronal heterotopia, oro-facio-digital anomalies, and microphthalmia. A new syndrome?  


Congenital malformations involving the face, oral cavity, and digits are the main findings in the oro-facio-digital (OFD) syndromes. Various eye anomalies and central nervous system involvement have also been reported in this condition. Here we report on a Brazilian boy with features belonging to the clinical spectrum of the OFD syndromes. He also had additional findings of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), asymmetric limb involvement, and microphthalmia. This unusual pattern of anomalies has not been reported previously and appears to be unique. PMID:16155422

Castro, Carlos H B C; Freitas, Patrícia Z; Antoneli, Melissa Z; Santiago, Giselda; Ribeiro, Lucilene A; Richieri-Costa, Antonio



Academic, Behavioral, and Cognitive Effects of OROS® Methylphenidate on Older Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess the effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) on a variety of measures evaluating academic performance, cognition, and social behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study enrolled 78 children aged 9–12 years with ADHD who responded to OROS MPH. After determining individualized OROS MPH dosing (18–54?mg/day), 71 subjects received blinded treatment (OROS MPH or placebo then vice versa) on each of 2 laboratory school days, separated by 1 week. Primary efficacy was measured by Permanent Product Measure of Performance at 4 hours after study drug administration. Results Treatment with OROS MPH resulted in statistically significant improvement in Permanent Product Measure of Performance and Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham scores, measures of response time, and of working memory compared to placebo. Other measures did not meet all pre-established criteria for significance (maintenance of the overall type I error rate at 5%). Adverse events were consistent with previous reports of stimulant medications used in the management of ADHD. There were no discontinuations due to adverse events, and no serious adverse events or deaths. Conclusions OROS MPH dosed to reduce core symptoms of ADHD to within the normal range also improved performance on a variety of academic tasks in school-aged children compared to placebo. Adverse effects reported were consistent with prior studies. Clinical Trial Registry Information Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Evaluating the Academic, Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Concerta on Older Children with ADHD, URL:, unique identifier: NCT00799409.

Wigal, Sharon B.; Wigal, Tim; Schuck, Sabrina; Brams, Matthew; Williamson, David; Armstrong, Robert B.



Karst and mixing-zone porosity in the Amposta Marino field, offshore Spain  

SciTech Connect

The offshore Amposta Marino field, located southeast of the Ebro delta, produces from the karstified Lower Cretaceous Montsia Limestone. The field is a buried-hill structure overlain by marine clastic sediments. During drowning, the buried hill was surrounded by sea water and thus represents the typical setting in which mixing-zone corrosion is a major porosity-creating process in modern carbonates (e.g., Yucatan Peninsula, Bahamas). Mixing-zone corrosion in a clastal setting differs from freshwater karstification in that it creates an essentially horizontal zone of well-connected matrix and cave porosity. This high-porosity zone is best developed on the flanks of a structure and, ideally, has a rim-like distribution. On 3-D seismic, the authors recognize a subhorizontal reflector that cuts across the gently dipping Amposta structure. This reflector was proven by seismic-to-well matching to represent a highly porous interval. Mapping of this reflector showed that it occurs somewhat discontinuously around the western margin of the structure and fairly continuously around the eastern margin, forming a clear rim feature around the flanks of the buried hill.

Wigley, P.L.; Bouvier, J.D.; Dawans, J.M. (Koninklijke/Shell Exploratie and Produktie Laboratorium, Rijswijk (Netherlands))



Effects of MPH-OROS on the Organizational, Time Management, and Planning Behaviors of Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study was done to evaluate the effects of methylphenidate-osmotic-release oral systems (MPH-OROS) on the organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show significant improvements on the OTMP of children with ADHD in…

Abikoff, Howard; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Gallagher, Richard; Zambenedetti, Maurizio; Seyffert, Michael; Boorady, Roy; McCarthy, John



A Randomized, Single-Blind, Substitution Study of OROS Methylphenidate (Concerta) in ADHD Adults Receiving Immediate Release Methylphenidate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adults with ADHD receiving immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). Method: Participants were outpatient adults with ADHD who were stable on IR-MPH-administered TID. Participants…

Spencer, Thomas J.; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig B. H.; Hammerness, Paul; Doyle, Robert; Aleardi, Megan; Kotarski, Meghan; Williams, Courtney G.; Biederman, Joseph



Processing capabilties for the elimination of contaminated metal scrapyards at DOE\\/ORO-managed sites. [Metal smelting facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capabilities exist for reducing all the contaminated nickel, aluminum, and copper scrap to ingot form by smelting. Processing these metals at existing facilities could be completed in about 5 or 6 years. However, these metals represent only about 20% of the total metal inventories currently on hand at the DOE\\/ORO-managed sites. No provisions have been made for the ferrous scrap.

J. E. Mack; L. C. Williams



Dentists' Preferences for Diagnosis, Management and Referral of Chronic Oro-Facial Pain: Results from a National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To explore the diagnosis, treatment and referral patterns of chronic oro-facial pain patients by generalist primary care dentists (GDPs) in the UK. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a non-stratified random sample of 500 GDPs who were selected from the General Dental Council register. A self-complete postal questionnaire…

Aggarwal, Vishal R.; Joughin, Amy; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Appelbe, Priscilla; Tickle, Martin



78 FR 32240 - Notice of Inent (NOI) To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Oro Verde Solar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...development of the Oro Verde Solar Project (OVSP) on Edwards AFB. The OVSP is a solar photovoltaic (PV) facility...Los Angeles Department of Power and Water (LADWP) Barren...development of a 450 Megawatt solar PV project on up to...



Evaluation of oro-facial function in young subjects with temporomandibular disorders.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate bite force (BF) and oro-facial functions at different dentition phases (initial-mixed, intermediate-mixed, final-mixed and permanent dentition) in children and adolescents diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The sample was selected from four public schools in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 289 participants recruited, aged 8-14 years old, 46 were placed into the TMD group. TMD was diagnosed using Axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (2011). Oro-facial functions were evaluated using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S), which involves both an interview and a clinical examination. BF was measured using a digital gnathodynamometer. Age and body mass index (BMI) were also considered. The data were analysed by the following tests: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t-test, Spearman and Pearson coefficients, Qui-square test, Fisher's exact or binomial test, as indicated. Moreover, univariate and multivariable logistic regression were applied. For the TMD group, scores associated with NOT-S interview and NOT-S total were higher than for the control group (P = 0·033 and P = 0·0062, respectively). No differences in BF between genders or groups (P > 0·05) were detected. Variables included in the multivariate logistic regression were BMI and NOT-S total. Based on this analysis, NOT-S total was associated with TMDs. Reported sensory function was the specific domain within NOT-S interview that established the significant difference between the groups (P = 0·021). The TMD group also had a greater number of alterations in the face-at-rest domain of the NOT-S exam (P = 0·007). Concluding, it did not detect an association between TMDs and either dentition phase or BF. Instead, BF correlated with age and BMI. Oro-facial dysfunction was associated with TMD in the studied sample, but this association may be bidirectional, requiring further researches. PMID:24661101

Kobayashi, F Y; Gavião, M B D; Montes, A B M; Marquezin, M C S; Castelo, P M



Oro-vaginal-vulvar lichen planus: report of two new cases.  


Atrophic-erosive lichen planus with oral and genital involvement is a rare condition and is often difficult to diagnose. Patients seldom report genital symptoms to the dentist and dentists do not generally investigate about genital lesions. Delays in diagnosis may cause complications and affect the quality of life. We report the clinical and histopathological features of two new cases of oro-vaginal-vulvar lichen planus and review current treatment options for this condition. Genital lichen planus should be suspected in case of atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus. A thorough multidisciplinary medical management and active early treatment are necessary to improve symptoms and prevent genital sequelae. This might also be a relevant prevention strategy for the risk of squamous cell carcinoma, although data to fully support this statement still need investigation. PMID:15653012

Petruzzi, Massimo; De Benedittis, Michele; Carriero, Carmine; Giardina, Carmela; Parisi, Giuseppe; Serpico, Rosario



Assessment of the environmental changes in Oro Lake, Mali, using MSS images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental changes around the Oro Lake (Mali) which, with other lakes (Fati, Faguibine, Tele), represents an important hydrological resource of the Inland Delta of the Niger river, have been assessed by means of Landsat MSS imagery analysis. After data calibration and atmospheric correction, different color composites, band ratios and image differences were selected. Subsequently, the spectral features of the principal morphological units were analyzed using the satellite data, and were compared with the morphological characteristics detected and mapped in 1957 by Tricart from field work and aerial photographs. The morphological changes highlighted by satellite data therefore represent an interesting update of the old map in a region in which it is very difficult and expensive to perform ground surveys.

Alessandro, Valeria; Carla, Roberto



Team approach concept in management of oro-facial clefts: a survey of Nigerian practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background Cleft palate craniofacial teams have evolved across the globe in the last 20 years in compliance with the interdisciplinary concept of management of oro-facial clefts. An interdisciplinary care allows a coordinated treatment protocol for the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate oro-facial cleft care in Nigeria with particular emphasis on the compliance of the practitioners to the team approach concept. Methods A snapshot survey was conducted among specialists that attended the Pan African Congress on Cleft Lip and Palate, at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nigeria in February 2007. Result Sixty three respondents successfully completed and returned the questionnaire for analysis. Mean age of respondents was 43.5 years and the range was 38–62 years. Male to female ratio was 2.7:1. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons and Plastic Surgeons constituted the majority of respondents (38.1% and 22.2%) respectively. Only 47.6% (n = 30) of the specialists belonged to cleft teams. Majority of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons and Plastic Surgeons belonged to cleft teams (70% and 63.3% respectively) while speech pathologists and orthodontists were less represented (20% and 36.7% respectively) in teams. Conclusion Findings from this study suggests that interdisciplinary care for the cleft patient does not appear to have been fully embraced in Nigeria. This may be a result of several reasons ranging from non availability of the requisite specialists, the relatively young age of cleft care practice in this part of the world to the poor state of infrastructure.

Akinmoladun, Victor I; Obimakinde, Obitade S



Association of naso-Oro-pharyngeal structures with the sleep architecture in suspected obstructive sleep apnea.  


The study was conducted to find out the association of various naso-oro-pharyngeal structures with sleep macro-architecture in suspected obstructive sleep apnea subjects. Study included 51 subjects with suspected obstructive sleep apnea. Subjects with possible central apnea and those consuming any substance that can affect sleep architecture were excluded. Level I polysomnography was performed after thorough physical examination. Overnight study was scored in 30 s epochs to find out the polysomnographic variables. Surgical treatment was offered wherever indicated. Subjects with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were manually titrated on CPAP with the polysomnogram. SPSS v 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. We did not find any difference in the sleep architecture between genders. Sleep Efficiency was better in subjects with dental overjet, dental attrition, high tongue base, macroglossia, lesser oral cavity volume, edematous uvula, increased submental fat, hypertrophied facial muscles and Mallampatti grade III-IV. Shorter Sleep Latency was seen in subjects with tender TMJ and Mallampatti Gr III-IV. REM latency was shorter in subjects with high tongue base, macroglossia and hypertrophied muscles of mastication. Increased REM was observed in subjects with high tongue base, edematous uvula and tender TMJ. Enlarged tonsils had reversed effect with poor sleep efficiency, increased REM latency and decreased REM. CPAP therapy (N = 20) lessened awake time, decreased N2 and increased REM. Oro-pharyngeal structures affect the sleep architecture in suspected OSA subjects. Nasal structures do not affect the sleep architecture in these subjects and enlarged tonsils have opposite effect. Sleep architecture changes on the titration night with CPAP. PMID:24533364

Singhal, Pawan; Gupta, Ravi; Sharma, Rajanish; Mishra, Prakash



A pilot study: differential effects of methylphenidate-OROS on working memory and attention functions in children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder with and without behavioural comorbidities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effects of methylphenidate-OROS (MPH-OROS) on working memory (WM) and attention functions in children with\\u000a attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to investigate whether there is a differential effect in ADHD children\\u000a with (ADHD+) and without (ADHD?) behavioural comorbidities. Participants included a clinic referred sample of 12 stimulant\\u000a naïve school-aged children with a diagnosis of combined ADHD according to

Belén Rubio; Sergio Hernández; Emilio Verche; Raquel Martín; Pedro González-Pérez



Development, characterization and performance evaluation of oro-dispersible tablet containing aceclofenac hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin binary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of aceclofenac (ACF) and to formulate oro dispersible\\u000a tablet (ODT) of the taste-masked drug. Taste masking was done by complexing aceclofenac with Hydroxypropyl-?-Cyclodextrin\\u000a (HP?CD) by different methods. Phase solubility studies indicated complex with possible stoichiometry of 1:1 and a stability\\u000a constant of 221.11 M?1. The complexes were characterized by

Nikhil KasliwalJeetendra; Jeetendra Singh Negi


Tongue flap repair of oro-nasal fistulae in cleft palate patients. A review of 20 patients.  


At University College Hospital, between 1980 and 1985, sixty patients with cleft lip and palate deformity underwent transpalatal maxillary advancement for the correction of mid-face hypoplasia. One third of these patients subsequently required closure of oro-nasal fistulae and we present the results of these twenty cases where anteriorly based dorsal tongue flaps were used. Seventeen were successful and the causes of three failures are discussed. PMID:2768480

Coghlan, K; O'Regan, B; Carter, J



Formulation and evaluation of microsphere based oro dispersible tablets of itopride hcl  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the present work is to mask the intensely bitter taste of Itopride HCl and to formulate an Oro dispersible tablet (ODT) of the taste-masked drug by incorporation of microspheres in the tablets for use in specific populations viz. pediatrics, geriatrics and patients experiencing difficulty in swallowing. Methods With this objective in mind, microspheres loaded with Itopride HCl were prepared by solvent evaporation method using acetone as solvent for pH-sensitive polymer, Eudragit EPO and light liquid paraffin as the encapsulating medium. The prepared microspheres were characterized with regard to yield, drug content, flow properties, particle size and size distribution, surface features, in vitro drug release and taste. The ODTs so prepared from these microspheres were evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, moisture uptake, in vitro dispersion, in vitro disintegration, in vitro drug release and stability. Results The average size of microspheres was found to be satisfactory in terms of the size and size distribution. Microspheres prepared were of a regular spherical shape. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of microspheres in different pH media showed that microspheres having drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 produced a retarding effect in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8) and were further used for formulation into ODTs after addition of suitable amounts of excipients such as superdisintegrant, diluent, sweetener and flavor of directly compressible grade. Conclusions Effective taste-masking was achieved for Itopride HCl by way of preparation of microspheres and ODTs of acceptable characteristics.



Late Holocene Sediment Study From Santa María del Oro Crater Lake, Nayarit, México, Using Environmental Magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lake is located near the Pacific coast of Mexico, at the western end of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. It is a deep lake (ca. 65 m) with steep sides and only a small bay (Agua Caliente) has shallower water (ca. 12 m). Four parallel cores between 4 and 9 m long were recovered in March 2002 from this shallower area. Sediments are characterized by alternated laminations (few millimeters to 2 cm) of sand, brown silt, green silt, reddish silt, ochre silt, and peat. The 14-C dated sequence spans the last ca. 2,600 yrs. Given this age, it is possible that each set of laminations represent annual sedimentation cycles. The record is a potential high- resolution archive of environmental and climatic variability for western Mexico for late Holocene. Magnetic measurements of susceptibility along the cores show a high variability in the concentration of magnetic mineralogy. Different magnetic and non-magnetic properties show two sets of facies in relation to its magnetic mineralogy; one group composed by sand, brown silt, green silt and peat has the magnetite and Ti-magnetite as the principal magnetic phase; the second group, composed by reddish and ochre silt, has a low Ti magnetite component and siderite, as the principal paramagnetic component. The effects of climatic variations such as the drought occurred in the archeological Classic period (100 - 900 dC), the Medieval Warm Period (950 - 1350 dC), the Little Ice Age (1400 - 1800 dC), and the droughts over the last 700 years, documented in sites along central Mexico, are recognized in the magnetic mineralogy of Santa Maria del Oro.

Vazquez, G.; Ortega, B.; Rodriguez, A.



Effect of OROS Methylphenidate on Encopresis in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.  


Abstract Objectives: Although encopresis shows a high rate of comorbidity in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the etiologic origin of this relationship and the effect of ADHD drugs on encopresis are unclear. In this chart review, we explored the effect of OROS long-acting methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on encopresis in children with ADHD. We also evaluated the relationship between the clinical variables of ADHD and encopresis. Methods: The sample consisted of 21 children and adolescents (20 boys and 1 girl) with encopresis and coexisting ADHD 7-15 years of age. Their clinical characteristics and baseline (visit 1) and end of the second months' (visit 2) Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) subscores were recorded. Retrospective clinician determinations were made using the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity subscale (CGI-S) for encopresis severity and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement subscale (CGI-I) for encopresis response. Results: According to the CGI-I, 14 subjects (71.4?%) showed much or very much improvement in their encopresis at the second visit. All of the CPRS scores showed a significant reduction during the second visit. No association was found between the CGI-I score and the changes in any of the CPRS scores. Baseline oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) scores were correlated with the CGI-S score; however, no association was found between core ADHD symptom severity and the CGI-S score. With regard to the encopresis outcome, the baseline CD score was negatively correlated with the CGI-I score, and the baseline ODD score was prone to show a negative correlation with the CGI-I score. Conclusions: These results suggest that coexisting behavioral problems may be a vulnerability factor based on the severity of encopresis, and that MPH treatment may have a positive effect on encopresis in children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:24168715

Y?lmaz, Sava?; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Hergüner, Sabri



Two new oro-cervical radiographic indexes for chronological age estimation: a pilot study on an Italian population.  


Chronological age (CA) plays a fundamental role in forensic dentistry (i.e. personal identification and evaluation of imputability). Even though several studies outlined the association between biological and chronological age, there is still great variability in the estimates. The aim of this study was to determine the possible correlation between biological and CA age through the use of two new radiographic indexes (Oro-Cervical Radiographic Simplified Score - OCRSS and Oro-Cervical Radiographic Simplified Score Without Wisdom Teeth - OCRSSWWT) that are based on the oro-cervical area. Sixty Italian Caucasian individuals were divided into 3 groups according to their CA: Group 1: CAG 1 = 8-14 yr; Group 2: CAG 2 = 14-18 yr; Group 3: CAG 3 = 18-25 yr; panorexes and standardised cephalograms were evaluated according Demirjian's Method for dental age calculation (DM), Cervical Vertebral Maturation method for skeletal age calculation (CVMS) and Third Molar Development for age estimation (TMD). The stages of each method were simplified in order to generate OCRSS, which summarized the simplified scores of the three methods, and OCRSSWWT, which summarized the simplified DM and CVMS scores. There was a significant correlation between OCRSS and CAGs (Slope = 0.954, p < 0.001, R-squared = 0.79) and between OCRSSWWT and CAGs (Slope = 0.863, p < 0.001, R-squared = 0.776). Even though the indexes, especially OCRSS, appear to be highly reliable, growth variability among individuals can deeply influence the anatomical changes from childhood to adulthood. A multi-disciplinary approach that considers many different biomarkers could help make radiological age determination more reliable when it is used to predict CA. PMID:24112337

Lajolo, Carlo; Giuliani, Michele; Cordaro, Massimo; Marigo, Luca; Marcelli, Antonio; Fiorillo, Fabio; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Oliva, Antonio



Contrast of hemispheric lateralization for oro-facial movements between learned attention-getting sounds and species-typical vocalizations in chimpanzees: Extension in a second colony  

PubMed Central

Studies involving oro-facial asymmetries in nonhuman primates have largely demonstrated a right hemispheric dominance for communicative signals and conveyance of emotional information. A recent study on chimpanzee reported the first evidence of significant left-hemispheric dominance when using attention-getting sounds and rightward bias for species-typical vocalizations (Losin, Russell, Freeman, Meguerditchian, Hopkins & Fitch, 2008). The current study sought to extend the findings from Losin et al. (2008) with additional oro-facial assessment in a new colony of chimpanzees. When combining the two populations, the results indicated a consistent leftward bias for attention-getting sounds and a right lateralization for species-typical vocalizations. Collectively, the results suggest that both voluntary- controlled oro-facial and gestural communication might share the same left-hemispheric specialization and might have coevolved into a single integrated system present in a common hominid ancestor.

Wallez, Catherine; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.



OROS-methylphenidate efficacy on specific executive functioning deficits in adults with ADHD: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study.  


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to impaired executive functioning (EF). This is the first study to objectively investigate the effects of a long-acting methylphenidate on neurocognitive test performance of adults with ADHD. Twenty-two adults with ADHD participated in a 6-weeks study examining the effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-mph) on continuous performance tests (CPTs; objective measures), and on the self-reported ADHD rating scale (subjective measure) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. OROS-mph significantly improved reaction time variability (RTV), commission errors (CE) and d-prime (DP) as compared to baseline (Cohen's d>.50), but did not affect hit reaction time (HRT) or omission errors (OE). Compared to placebo, OROS-mph only significantly influenced RTV on one of two CPTs (p<.050). Linear regression analyses showed predictive ability of more beneficial OROS-mph effects in ADHD patients with higher EF severity (RTV: ?=.670, t=2.097, p=.042; omission errors (OE): ?=-.098, t=-4.759, p<.001), and with more severe ADHD symptoms (RTV: F=6.363, p=.019; HRT: F=3.914, p=.061). Side effects rates were substantially but non-significantly greater for OROS-mph compared to placebo (77% vs. 46%, p=.063). OROS-mph effects indicated RTV as the most sensitive parameter for measuring both neuropsychological and behavioral deficits in adults with ADHD. These findings suggest RTV as an endophenotypic parameter for ADHD symptomatology, and propose CPTs as an objective method for monitoring methylphenidate titration. PMID:24508533

Bron, Tannetje I; Bijlenga, Denise; Boonstra, A Marije; Breuk, Minda; Pardoen, Willem F H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra



A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial to Evaluate the Quality of Life in Adults with ADHD Treated with Long-Acting Methylphenidate (OROS MPH): Concerta Quality of Life (CONQoL) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The available literature provides few studies on the effectiveness of methylphenidate in improving quality of life in individuals with ADHD. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Methyphenidate OROS formulation (OROS MPH) through QoL in adults with ADHD. Method: A 12-week, multicenter, open-label trial involving 60 patients was used. The…

Mattos, Paulo; Rodrigues Louza, Mario; Fernandes Palmini, Andre Luis; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Lopes Rocha, Fabio



Risk factors for cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx in Cuba  

PubMed Central

In terms of worldwide levels, Cuba has an intermediate incidence of cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx. We studied 200 cases of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, of whom 57 women (median age = 64) and 200 hospital controls, frequency matched with cases by age and sex, in relation to smoking and drinking history, intake of 25 foods or food groups, indicators of oral hygiene and sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from unconditional multiple logistic regressions and adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, education, and smoking and drinking habits. In the multivariate model, high educational level and white-collar occupation, but not white race, were associated with halving of oral cancer risk. Smoking ?30 cigarettes per day showed an OR of 20.8 (95% CI: 8.9–48.3), similar to smoking ?4 cigars daily (OR = 20.5). Drinking ? 70 alcoholic drinks per week showed an OR of 5.7 (95% CI: 1.8–18.5). Hard liquors were by far the largest source of alcohol. Increased risk was associated with the highest tertile of intake for maize (OR = 1.9), meat (OR = 2.2) and ham and salami (OR = 2.0), whereas high fruit intake was associated with significantly decreased risk (OR = 0.4). Among indicators of dental care, number of missing teeth and poor general oral condition at oral inspection showed ORs of 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Number of sexual partners, marriages or contacts with prostitutes, practice of oral sex and history of various sexually transmitted diseases, including genital warts, were not associated with oral cancer risk. 82% of oral cancer cases in Cuba were attributable to tobacco smoking, 19% to smoking cigars or pipe only. The fractions attributable to alcohol drinking (7%) and low fruit intake (11%) were more modest. Thus, decreases in cigarette and cigar smoking are at present the key to oral cancer prevention in Cuba. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign

Garrote, L Fernandez; Herrero, R; Reyes, R M Ortiz; Vaccarella, S; Anta, J Lence; Ferbeye, L; Munoz, N; Franceschi, S



Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumatic oro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children.  


Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with unpredictably recurring seizure. Uncontrolled attacks can put patients at risk of suffering oro-facial trauma. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) provide satisfactory control of seizures in most of the patients with epilepsy. However use of AED has been found to cause many side effects inclusive of side effects in the oral cavity also. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted on 150 epileptic children, who were on anti epileptic medication for one year. Results: Gingival over growth was seen as common side effect of the AED drugs. Lip and cheek biting were the most common soft tissue injury, while tooth fracture was the most common hard tissue dental injury. Conclusion: General physicians, physicians & dentists should be well aware of the potential side effects of AED. A Dentist should be well versed and trained to manage oro-facial injuries in the emergency department. How to cite the article: Ghafoor PA, Rafeeq M, Dubey A. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumaticoro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):126-8. PMID:24876713

Ghafoor, P A Fazal; Rafeeq, Mohammed; Dubey, Alok



Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumatic oro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children  

PubMed Central

Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with unpredictably recurring seizure. Uncontrolled attacks can put patients at risk of suffering oro-facial trauma. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) provide satisfactory control of seizures in most of the patients with epilepsy. However use of AED has been found to cause many side effects inclusive of side effects in the oral cavity also. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted on 150 epileptic children, who were on anti epileptic medication for one year. Results: Gingival over growth was seen as common side effect of the AED drugs. Lip and cheek biting were the most common soft tissue injury, while tooth fracture was the most common hard tissue dental injury. Conclusion: General physicians, physicians & dentists should be well aware of the potential side effects of AED. A Dentist should be well versed and trained to manage oro-facial injuries in the emergency department. How to cite the article: Ghafoor PA, Rafeeq M, Dubey A. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumaticoro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):126-8.

Ghafoor, P A Fazal; Rafeeq, Mohammed; Dubey, Alok



Parental perceived benefits of OROS-methylphenidate treatment for the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and for parents themselves.  


Given the shortage of studies on parental perceived benefits of OROS-methylphenidate treatment in Asian populations, we assessed parental response to OROS-methylphenidate treatment of Korean children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in relation to children's academic performance and behavioral symptoms as well as parental rearing stress and depressive symptoms.We enrolled 132 medication-naïve children with ADHD into a multicenter, open-label, 12-week trial of OROS-MPH. The outcome measures were the ADHD rating scale-IV (ADHD-RS), the comprehensive attention test and academic performance rating scale, and the clinical global impression (CGI)-severity/improvement instrument (for the children) and Beck depression inventory and parenting stress index (for their parents).We found parent-perceived improvements in children's ADHD-related behavioral symptoms and academic function and their parents' depressive symptoms and parenting stress. Investigator-rated ADHD symptoms and subjects' neuropsychological function were also improved (p<0.001).Parents of Korean children with ADHD perceive that OROS-methylphenidate treatment improves their children's academic function and behavior as well as their own child-rearing stress and emotional state. These findings must be interpreted with caution, due to a non-comparative open-label trial. PMID:23364873

Kim, J-W; Park, S; Kim, B-N; Shin, M-S; Cho, S-C; Kim, J-H; Son, J-W; Shin, Y-M; Chung, U-S; Han, D-H



Contrast of Hemispheric Lateralization for Oro-Facial Movements between Learned Attention-Getting Sounds and Species-Typical Vocalizations in Chimpanzees: Extension in a Second Colony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies involving oro-facial asymmetries in nonhuman primates have largely demonstrated a right hemispheric dominance for communicative signals and conveyance of emotional information. A recent study on chimpanzee reported the first evidence of significant left-hemispheric dominance when using attention-getting sounds and rightward bias for…

Wallez, Catherine; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.



An Analysis of Patient Adherence to Treatment during a 1-Year, Open-Label Study of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Treatment adherence is an important aspect of ADHD symptom management, but there are many factors that may influence adherence. Method: This analysis assessed adherence to OROS methylphenidate during a 1-year, open-label study in children. Adherence was defined as the number of days medication was taken divided by the number of days in…

Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Zimmerman, Brenda



A randomized study to demonstrate noninferiority of once-daily OROS(®) hydromorphone with twice-daily sustained-release oxycodone for moderate to severe chronic noncancer pain.  


This was a randomized, open-label, comparative, parallel group study designed to demonstrate the noninferiority of once-daily OROS(®) hydromorphone compared with twice-daily sustained-release (SR) oxycodone in subjects with chronic noncancer pain severe enough to require continuous opioid therapy. The core phase (24 weeks) consisted of titration and maintenance periods. This was followed by an optional extension phase (28 weeks), which collected data used to assess long-term safety and efficacy outcomes. Five hundred four subjects were randomized between the 2 treatment groups. The primary efficacy analysis showed that OROS hydromorphone was noninferior to SR oxycodone (P = 0.011) as measured by change in Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) pain severity subscore "pain right now." The treatment difference with respect to change in BPI pain severity subscore "pain right now" was 0.29 (95% confidence interval: -0.27 to 0.84). The equianalgesic doses were 16 mg OROS hydromorphone and 40 mg SR oxycodone (median values). Secondary outcomes included other BPI scale items, the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Indices, and quality of life measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Both treatment groups showed improvements in the main secondary efficacy endpoints. No statistically significant differences were shown between the treatment groups, except for the scores for somnolence (MOS sleep subscale) and physical functioning (SF-36), which both had a statistically significant difference between treatments groups in favor of OROS hydromorphone. Both study medications had equivalent and acceptable safety profiles. The results of this open-label study showed that once-daily OROS hydromorphone is a safe and well-tolerated treatment for chronic pain and as efficacious as twice-daily SR oxycodone. PMID:20384968

Binsfeld, Heinrich; Szczepanski, Leszek; Waechter, Sandra; Richarz, Ute; Sabatowski, Rainer



A population based study of Helicobacter pylori infection in a European country: the San Marino Study. Relations with gastrointestinal diseases.  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori is present worldwide but few large population studies exist on the epidemiology of the infection. A random cross sectional study was performed of H pylori infection in the adult population of San Marino, a European country with high gastric cancer rate, to assess its prevalence and to evaluate its relations with gastrointestinal disease. In 2237 subjects (77% of the initial sample) H pylori IgG antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. A questionnaire including questions about occupation, place of birth, and smoking was given to all subjects. Dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer in the subjects, relatives, and partners as well as use of drug, dental treatment/prostheses, and gastrointestinal endoscopies, were evaluated by multivariate analysis. H pylori prevalence was of 51%, increased with age from 23% (20-29 years) to 68% (> or = 70 years), and was higher among manual workers. H pylori was independently associated with ulcer (OR = 1.63, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.16 to 2.27), H2 antagonists (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.10), and benzodiazepines (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.42), dental prostheses (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.49), gastroscopy in the past five years (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.14), peptic ulcer in siblings (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.12), gastric cancer in father (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.52). The association of seropositivity with history of ulcer, gastric cancer in family, gastroscopy, and H2 antagonists suggests that H pylori is an epidemiological key factor in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases in this area.

Gasbarrini, G; Pretolani, S; Bonvicini, F; Gatto, M R; Tonelli, E; Megraud, F; Mayo, K; Ghironzi, G; Giulianelli, G; Grassi, M



Sustained safety and efficacy of once-daily hydromorphone extended-release (OROS® hydromorphone ER) compared with twice-daily oxycodone controlled-release over 52 weeks in patients with moderate to severe chronic noncancer pain.  


Once-daily hydromorphone extended-release (OROS(®) hydromorphone ER) and oxycodone controlled-release (CR) are semisynthetic, ER opioid analgesics with established efficacy. An open-label, randomized, 24-week, parallel group, flexible-dose study demonstrated noninferiority of OROS hydromorphone ER vs. twice-daily oxycodone CR in patients with chronic noncancer pain. In total, 112 patients were enrolled in a 28-week, open-label extension study; 60 patients received OROS hydromorphone ER and 52 received oxycodone CR. The primary efficacy measure was the change from baseline to Weeks 38 and 52 in Brief Pain Inventory item "pain right now." Global assessments of efficacy, dosing convenience, and tolerability were secondary endpoints. Mean change in "pain right now" from baseline to Week 38 was -3.0 (OROS hydromorphone ER) vs. -2.8 (oxycodone CR), and from baseline to Week 52 was -2.9 vs. -2.8; these changes were similar to the changes in the core phase (-2.1 vs. -2.1). Similar improvements were demonstrated for secondary assessments, including pain, pain interference, and quality of life. At Week 52, global assessment of efficacy was rated as "very good" or "good" by the majority of patients (OROS hydromorphone ER, 91.7%; oxycodone CR, 86.5%). More patients in the OROS hydromorphone ER group (35.0% vs. 21.2%) assessed mode of drug intake as "very convenient." The majority of patients receiving OROS hydromorphone ER (88.3%) and oxycodone CR (88.5%) rated tolerability as "good" or "very good" at Week 52; few patients discontinued treatment because of an adverse event (1.6% vs. 0.4%, respectively). The effectiveness of OROS hydromorphone ER and oxycodone CR was maintained through 1 year. PMID:22510252

Richarz, Ute; Waechter, Sandra; Sabatowski, Rainer; Szczepanski, Leszek; Binsfeld, Heinrich



Norepinephrine transporter -3081(A/T) and alpha-2A-adrenergic receptor MspI polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular side effects of OROS-methylphenidate treatment.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between norepinephrine genes and cardiovascular side effects of the Osmotic Controlled-Release Oral Delivery System-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in Korean children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One hundred and one children with ADHD (8.7 ± 1.7 years) were recruited from child psychiatric centers at six university hospitals in South Korea. All participants were drug-naive ADHD children treated with OROS-MPH for 12 weeks. During the treatment period the investigators titrated the OROS-MPH dosage on the basis of symptom severity and side effects. Resting heart rate (HR), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were examined before and after treatment. The percentage change score (post-treatment - pretreatment/pretreatment × 100) of each parameter was calculated. Genotyping of SLC6A2 -3081(A/T) and G1287A, and alpha-2A-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) MspI and DraI polymorphisms was performed. Clinically significant changes were not found in cardiovascular monitoring during the course of treatment. An increase of HR after OROS-MPH treatment was found to be statistically significant (t = 3.54, p = 0.001). Changes in SBP and DBP were not significant and no specific change was found in the ECGs. However, an additive regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between SLC6A2 -3081(A/T) and percentage change in HR post-treatment (p = 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, dosage of MPH and response and baseline pulse rate. Children with ADHD having the T/T genotype of SLC6A2 showed a 12.5% increase in HR compared to baseline, whereas children with the A/T or A/A genotype showed a 3.5% and 2.5% increase after OROS-MPH treatment, respectively. There was also a significant association between the ADRA2A MspI genotype and percentage change of DBP post-treatment after controlling for age, gender, dosage of MPH and response and baseline DBP (p = 0.009). Children with ADHD having the C/C genotype of ADRA2A MspI showed an 18.5% increase in DBP compared to baseline, but children with the G/G or G/C genotype showed a 0.2% decrease after OROS-MPH treatment. The overall cardiovascular effects of OROS-MPH were modest. However, our findings show a positive association between norepinephrine-related gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular response induced by MPH in Korean children with ADHD. Consideration must be given to such children or adults with specific norepinephrine-related genotypes, especially if they show significant changes in HR or DBP after OROS-MPH administration. PMID:21628343

Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cummins, Tarrant D R; Kim, Jae-Won; Bellgrove, Mark A



Comparative acute efficacy and tolerability of OROS and immediate release formulations of methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of IR MPH administered three times daily to those of once daily OROS-MPH. METHODS: Subjects were outpatient adults satisfying full diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV ADHD between 19 and 60 years of age. Data from two independently conducted 6-week placebo controlled, randomized clinical trials of IR-MPH (tid)

Joseph Biederman; Eric O Mick; Craig Surman; Robert Doyle; Paul Hammerness; Evan Michel; Jessica Martin; Thomas J Spencer



Movement of water through the thick unsaturated zone underlying Oro Grande and Sheep Creek Washes in the western Mojave Desert, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Previous studies indicate that a small quantity of recharge occurs from infiltration of streamflow in intermittent streams\\u000a in the upper Mojave River basin, in the western Mojave Desert, near Victorville, California. Chloride, tritium, and stable\\u000a isotope data collected in the unsaturated zone between 1994 and 1998 from boreholes drilled in Oro Grande and Sheep Creek\\u000a Washes indicate that infiltration

John A. Izbicki; John Radyk; Robert L. Michel



Dose Conversion and Titration with a Novel, Once-Daily, OROS ® Osmotic Technology, Extended-Release Hydromorphone Formulation in the Treatment of Chronic Malignant or Nonmalignant Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this open-label, repeated-dose, single-treatment, multicenter study was to evaluate the outcomes associated with a standardized conversion from prior opioid therapy to a novel, once-daily, OROS® osmotic technology, extended-release (ER) hydromorphone formulation in an outpatient population with chronic malignant or nonmalignant pain. The study period was divided into 3 phases: the prior opioid stabilization phase (?3 days), the

Mark Palangio; Donald W Northfelt; Russell K Portenoy; Daniel Brookoff; Ralph T Doyle; Bruce E Dornseif; Michael C Damask



Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO`s Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: FY 1994--FY 2001. Environmental Restoration Program, September 1993 Revision  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO`s Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project. FY 1994--FY 2001 is the third in a series of documents that report current estimates of the waste volumes expected to be generated as a result of Environmental Restoration activities at Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), sites. Considered in the scope of this document are volumes of waste expected to be generated as a result of remedial action and decontamination and decommissioning activities taking place at these sites. Sites contributing to the total estimates make up the DOE-ORO Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the off-site contaminated areas adjacent to the Oak Ridge facilities (collectively referred to as the Oak Ridge Reservation Off-Site area). Estimates are available for the entire fife of all waste generating activities. This document summarizes waste estimates forecasted for the 8-year period of FY 1994-FY 2001. Updates with varying degrees of change are expected throughout the refinement of restoration strategies currently in progress at each of the sites. Waste forecast data are relatively fluid, and this document represents remediation plans only as reported through September 1993.

Not Available



Vulvovaginal candida in a young sexually active population: prevalence and association with oro-genital sex and frequent pain at intercourse  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candida among sexually active adolescents. To determine past and present symptoms, including pain at intercourse and potential behavioural risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods: At an adolescent centre, 219 sexually active women who underwent genital examination, also completed a questionnaire on a history of genital symptoms and infections, sexual and hygiene habits, and the use of contraceptives. Symptoms and clinical signs were registered. Vaginal samples were analysed for candida species and urine for Chlamydia trachomatis. Results: Candida culture was positive in 42% of the women and only 15% were asymptomatic. A history of recurrent candidiasis was given by 22%. Frequent pain at intercourse was reported by 24% and frequent oro-genital sex by 42% of the women. Frequent pain at intercourse was significantly associated with both the growth of candida and a history of recurrent candidiasis. Oro-genital sex was an independent risk factor for the growth of candida. Conclusion: In sexually active adolescents, who underwent genital examination, candida cultures were positive in 42%. The habit of frequent oro-genital sex was associated with the growth of candida. Pain at intercourse was associated with the growth of candida and recurrent candidiasis.

Rylander, E; Berglund, A; Krassny, C; Petrini, B



The clinical impact of switching attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients from OROS®-MPH to Novo-MPH ER-C®: A paediatric practice review  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: In Canada, novo-methylphenidate extended-release capsules (Novo-MPH ER-C, Novopharm Limited, Canada) was approved as being bioequivalent to a current first-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), CONCERTA (OROS-MPH, Janssen Inc, Canada). The present practice review was undertaken to determine whether bioequivalence of these products translates into therapeutic equivalence. METHODS: The present study was a retrospective, single-centre, observational review of consecutive paediatric ADHD patients prescribed OROS-MPH during a seven-month period. RESULTS: Of the 53 patients who had been switched to the bioequivalent product, 87% destabilized and 43% indicated a shorter duration of effect. In comparison, of those who never tried the second entry medication, only 26% destabilized. Qualitative data indicated differences with regard to side effects, efficacy and duration of effect. CONCLUSIONS: The present retrospective study indicated that Novo-MPH ER-C is not therapeutically equivalent to OROS-MPH. Once an individual with ADHD is effectively managed, disruption of their treatment should be avoided.

van Stralen, Judy PM



A review of the oro-dento-facial characteristics of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (familial dysautonomia).  


The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunction of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III, known as familial dysautonomia or Riley-Day syndrome, was first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include dental trauma; dental and soft tissue self-mutilation; normal dental age; normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth; smaller tooth size; different and disproportional tooth components; normal alveolar bone height; small jaws, mild crowding, and malocclusions. These persons have craniofacial morphology that is different from accepted norms but they resemble norms of their ethnic origin. The subjects can have gray, pale, shiny faces with an asymmetric suffering expression; frontal bossing, with eventual hypertelorism and narrow lips; a low-caries rate; drooling, and hypersalivation. They can have changes in salivary composition and content, which influences plaque and calculus and increases the risk of gingival and periodontal diseases. They also have difficulty in controlling oral muscles; a progressive decrease in number of tongue fungiform papillae, accompanied by lack of taste buds; and specific dysgeusia, but a normal sense of smell. PMID:22229594

Mass, Eliyahu



[A review of the oro-dento-facial characteristics of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (familial dysautonomia)].  


The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunction of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type Ill, known as familial dysautonomia or Riley-Day syndrome, was first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include dental trauma; dental and soft tissue self-mutilation; normal dental age; normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth; smaller tooth size; different and disproportional tooth components; normal alveolar bone height; small jaws, mild crowding, and malocclusions. These persons have craniofacial morphology that is different from accepted norms but they resemble norms of their ethnic origin. The subjects can have gray, pale, shiny faces with an asymmetric suffering expression; frontal bossing, with eventual hypertelorism and narrow lips; a low caries rate; drooling, and hypersalivation. They can have changes in salivary composition and content, which influences plaque and calculus and increases the risk of gingival and periodontal diseases. They also have difficulty in controlling oral muscles; a progressive decrease in number of tongue fungiform papillae, accompanied by lack of taste buds; and specific dysgeusia, but a normal sense of smell. PMID:23697298

Mass, E



Waste generation forecast for DOE-ORO`s Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: FY 1995-FY 2002, September 1994 revision  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive waste-forecasting task was initiated in FY 1991 to provide a consistent, documented estimate of the volumes of waste expected to be generated as a result of U.S. Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) Environmental Restoration (ER) OR-1 Project activities. Continual changes in the scope and schedules for remedial action (RA) and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities have required that an integrated data base system be developed that can be easily revised to keep pace with changes and provide appropriate tabular and graphical output. The output can then be analyzed and used to drive planning assumptions for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. The results of this forecasting effort and a description of the data base developed to support it are provided herein. The initial waste-generation forecast results were compiled in November 1991. Since the initial forecast report, the forecast data have been revised annually. This report reflects revisions as of September 1994.

Not Available



Processing capabilties for the elimination of contaminated metal scrapyards at DOE/ORO-managed sites. [Metal smelting facility  

SciTech Connect

Capabilities exist for reducing all the contaminated nickel, aluminum, and copper scrap to ingot form by smelting. Processing these metals at existing facilities could be completed in about 5 or 6 years. However, these metals represent only about 20% of the total metal inventories currently on hand at the DOE/ORO-managed sites. No provisions have been made for the ferrous scrap. Most of the ferrous scrap is unclassified and does not require secured storage. Also, the potential resale value of the ferrous scrap at about $100 per ton is very low in comparison. Consequently, this scrap has been allowed to accumulate. With several modifications and equipment additions, the induction melter at PGDP could begin processing ferrous scrap after its commitment to nickel and aluminum. The PGDP smelter is a retrofit installation, and annual throughput capabilities are limited. Processing of the existing ferrous scrap inventories would not be completed until the FY 1995-2000 time frame. An alternative proposal has been the installation of induction melters at the other two enrichment facilities. Conceptual design of a generic metal smelting facility is under way. The design study includes capital and operating costs for scrap preparation through ingot storage at an annual throughput of 10,000 tons per year. Facility design includes an induction melter with the capability of melting both ferrous and nonferrous metals. After three years of operation with scrapyard feed, the smelter would have excess capacity to support on-site decontamination and decomissioning projects or upgrading programs. The metal smelting facility has been proposed for FY 1984 line item funding with start-up operations in FY 1986.

Mack, J.E.; Williams, L.C.



Effectiveness and gastrointestinal tolerability during conversion and titration with once-daily OROS(R) hydromorphone extended release in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone extended-release tablets (OROS hydromorphone ER) during dose conversion and titration. Patients and methods A total of 459 opioid-tolerant adults with chronic moderate to severe low back pain participated in an open-label, 2- to 4-week conversion/titration phase of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal trial, conducted at 70 centers in the United States. Patients were converted to once-daily OROS hydromorphone ER at 75% of the equianalgesic dose of their prior total daily opioid dose (5:1 conversion ratio), and titrated as frequently as every 3 days to a maximum dose of 64 mg/day. The primary outcome measure was change in pain intensity numeric rating scale; additional assessments included the Patient Global Assessment and the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire scores. Safety assessments were performed at each visit and consisted of recording and monitoring all adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. Results Mean (standard deviation) final daily dose of OROS hydromorphone ER was 37.5 (17.8) mg. Mean (standard error of the mean [SEM]) numeric rating scale scores decreased from 6.6 (0.1) at screening to 4.3 (0.1) at the final titration visit (mean [SEM] change, ?2.3 [0.1], representing a 34.8% reduction). Mean (SEM) change in Patient Global Assessment was ?0.6 (0.1), and mean change (SEM) in the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire was ?2.8 (0.3). Patients achieving a stable dose showed greater improvement than patients who discontinued during titration for each of these measures (P < 0.001). Almost 80% of patients achieving a stable dose (213/268) had a ?30% reduction in pain. Commonly reported AEs were constipation (15.4%), nausea (11.9%), somnolence (8.7%), headache (7.8%), and vomiting (6.5%); 13.0% discontinued from the study due to AEs. Conclusion The majority of opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain were successfully converted to effective doses of OROS hydromorphone ER within 2 to 4 weeks.

Hale, Martin E; Nalamachu, Srinivas R; Khan, Arif; Kutch, Michael



A randomized, double-blind comparison of OROS® hydromorphone and controlled-release morphine for the control of chronic cancer pain  

PubMed Central

Background Long-acting opioid formulations are advocated for maintaining pain control in chronic cancer pain. OROS® hydromorphone is a sustained-release formulation of hydromorphone that requires dosing once daily to maintain therapeutic concentrations. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the clinical equivalence of immediate-release and sustained-release formulations of hydromorphone and morphine for chronic cancer pain. Methods 200 patients with cancer pain (requiring ? 540 mg/d of oral morphine) participated in this double-blind, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomized to receive hydromorphone or morphine (immediate-release for 2–9 days, sustained-release for 10–15 days). Efficacy was assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), investigator and patient global evaluations, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. The primary endpoint was the 'worst pain in the past 24 hours' item of the BPI, in both the immediate-release and sustained-release study phases, with treatments deemed equivalent if the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the between-group differences at endpoint were between -1.5 and 1.5. No equivalence limits were defined for secondary endpoints. Results Least-squares mean differences (95% CI) between groups were 0.2 (-0.4, 0.9) in the immediate-release phase and -0.8 (-1.6, -0.01) in the sustained-release phase (intent-to-treat population), indicating that the immediate-release formulations met the pre-specified equivalence criteria, but that the lower limit of the 95% CI (-1.6) was outside the boundary (-1.5) for the sustained-release formulations. BPI 'pain now PM' was significantly lower with OROS® hydromorphone compared with controlled-release morphine (least-squares mean difference [95% CI], -0.77 [-1.49, -0.05]; p = 0.0372). Scores for other secondary efficacy variables were similar between the two sustained-release treatments. At endpoint, > 70% of investigators and patients rated both treatments as good to excellent. The safety profiles of hydromorphone and morphine were similar and typical of opioid analgesics. Conclusion Equivalence was demonstrated for immediate-release formulations of hydromorphone and morphine, but not for the sustained-release formulations of OROS® hydromorphone and controlled-release morphine. The direction of the mean difference between the treatments (-0.8) and the out-of-range lower limit of the 95% CI (-1.6) were in favor of OROS® hydromorphone. Trial registration NCT0041054

Hanna, Magdi; Thipphawong, John



Late Holocene Multiproxy Record (Palynology, Stable Isotope and Multi-Element Geochemistry) of Lake Santa Maria del Oro, Western Mesoamerica.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the palynological, stable isotope and major element (ITRAX X-Ray fluorescence) data from a 850-cm sediment sequence from the deepest part of lake Santa María del Oro (SMO) in order to document changes in the climatic and limnological conditions and in the vegetation for the last ca. 5000 yr. SMO is a crater lake of (750 m asl, 2 km diam.) located in a tropical sub-humid climate (1250 mm/yr, average annual temperature 21° C) at the transition between the temperate central Mexican highlands and the arid northern regions. Tropical deciduous forests which loose their leaves for 8 months in a year and the tropical oak forests are the main plant communities in the lake catchments. The western part of Mesoamerica is the cradle of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays ) agriculture; this region is probably one of the two centers of maize domestication based on the presence of one of its closets wild relative teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis ). Chronology was established with 8 AMS radiocarbon dates. Sediments are finely laminated, with some intervals dominated by black and brown clayey silt and others by brown clayey silt and calcareous silt. In some levels, laminae are characterized by silts and fine sands. Authigenic carbonate laminations are formed during the summer season, when the highest temperatures are reached in the area. Throughout the pollen analysis, teosinte pollen and maize pollen was recorded. The major element concentration (Ca and Ti) in the bulk sediments was analyzed by ITRAX multi-element scanner and the isotopic data (?13C and ?18O) in authigenic carbonates by mass spectrometer. Ca and Ti ITRAX intensities were calibrated to mass % by using the linear relationship between ITRAX intensity and mass % obtained through conventional XRF analysis. Preliminary pollen data of SMO sediments indicates abundant pollen of teosinte from ca. 2000 to 100 BC and maize presence at ca. 1300 BC and ca. 900 BC along with high charcoal particle concentrations, suggesting early agricultural activity in the area, being the first record of maize in the western region of Mesoamerica. The phases with higher concentration of Ti are identified as periods of higher inflow into the lake basin (BC 1700-1400, 0- AD 200, AD 900 and AD 1800-1900). Phases of higher evaporative conditions are identify at ca. BC 700, BC 400, AD 400-800 and AD 1900-2003 based on Ca high values and enriched ?18O and ?13C. There exists a negative relationship between Ca and Ti. Evidence of changes in climatic conditions is inferred from the data.

Lozano, S.; Caballero, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Roy, P.; Sosa, S.



Oro-mandibular dystonia  

PubMed Central

Dystonia is an involuntary, repetitive, sustained (tonic), or spasmodic (rapid or clonic) muscle contraction. The spectrum of dystonias can involve various regions of the body. Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) can involve the masticatory, lower facial and the tongue muscles which may results in trismus, bruxism, involuntary jaw opening or closure and involuntary tongue movement. Here, we report a case of OMD in a 68 year old man.

Gandhi, Yazad R.



A New Zebrafish Model of Oro-Intestinal Pathogen Colonization Reveals a Key Role for Adhesion in Protection by Probiotic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The beneficial contribution of commensal bacteria to host health and homeostasis led to the concept that exogenous non-pathogenic bacteria called probiotics could be used to limit disease caused by pathogens. However, despite recent progress using gnotobiotic mammal and invertebrate models, mechanisms underlying protection afforded by commensal and probiotic bacteria against pathogens remain poorly understood. Here we developed a zebrafish model of controlled co-infection in which germ-free zebrafish raised on axenic living protozoa enabled the study of interactions between host and commensal and pathogenic bacteria. We screened enteric fish pathogens and identified Edwardsiella ictaluri as a virulent strain inducing a strong inflammatory response and rapid mortality in zebrafish larvae infected by the natural oro-intestinal route. Using mortality induced by infection as a phenotypic read-out, we pre-colonized zebrafish larvae with 37 potential probiotic bacterial strains and screened for survival upon E. ictaluri infection. We identified 3 robustly protective strains, including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 2 Escherichia coli strains. We showed that the observed protective effect of E. coli was not correlated with a reduced host inflammatory response, nor with the release of biocidal molecules by protective bacteria, but rather with the presence of specific adhesion factors such as F pili that promote the emergence of probiotic bacteria in zebrafish larvae. Our study therefore provides new insights into the molecular events underlying the probiotic effect and constitutes a potentially high-throughput in vivo approach to the study of the molecular basis of pathogen exclusion in a relevant model of vertebrate oro-intestinal infection.

Begaud, Evelyne; Herbomel, Philippe; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Ghigo, Jean-Marc



The restart of meteorological observations in the 19th century in Lisbon: the contribution of Marino Miguel FRANZINI (1779-1861)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the early meteorological observations of the 1770s to the 1790s in continental Portugal (including a 5 year daily series by J. Velho), there were hardly any until 1815. In December 1815, a meteorological station was set up in Lisbon by Marino Miguel Franzini (1779-1861), an engineer who was also actively involved in Politics (liberal party). Following the tradition of the 18th century enlightenment movement, he took a keen interest in Nature and Sciences, particularly in the "influence" of weather and climate on health and agriculture. Franzini started his observations by request of a physician who sought to understand the reasons why the maximum mortality occurred on the summer months, unlike in northern countries of Europe where maximum mortality occurred in winter (as it happens nowadays in Portugal). The deterministic background of the two scientists is clear. Franzini was a member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (founded in 1799) and had contact with foreign Academies and foreign scientists. His instruments were carefully constructed and described, including graduation scales, and stations' location was indicated. Data from two years observations (several meteorological variables) was published in the Academy of Sciences Memoirs. From 1818 until 1826 and from 1835 until 1856 data was divulged in journals and newspapers, such as the "Journal of Medical Sciences", together with data on necrology in some of Lisbon parishes (illustrating the interest of physicians on weather); meteorological data and information about agriculture was also published in the "Lisbon Gazette". Unfortunately, there are hardly any daily data, as Franzini grouped his records according to weather types, as will be explained. Franzini's series will be presented in our talk. The gap between 1826 and 1835 was due to the political activities in which Franzini was involved: the civil war (liberals against absolutist) disruptedscientific research in Portugal. Official meteorological observations began in Lisbon,in December 1854, in a site not far away from Franzini's station. The long series of Lisbon includes the 1835-54 Franzini's series.

Alcoforado, Maria-Joao; Nunes, Fatima



Evaluation of oro-coecal transit time: a comparison of the lactose-[13C, 15N]ureide 13CO2- and the lactulose H2-breath test in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The lactulose H2-breath test is the most widely used non-invasive approach for evaluation of oro-coecal transit time (OCTT). In the present study, doubly-labelled lactose-[13C, 15N]ureide (DLLU) was synthesized to investigate the OCTT in comparison to the conventional lactulose H2-breath test. Additionally, the bacterial breakdown rate (BBR) and rate of elimination and the metabolic pathways of the cleavage products of

KD Wutzke; WE Heine; C Plath; P Leitzmann; M Radke; C Mohr; I Richter; HU Gülzow; D Hobusch



A new point-of-care portable immunosensor for non-invasive assessment of oro-ileal transit time by oral fluid tauroursodeoxycholate measurement after its oral load.  


A non-invasive test for oro-ileal transit time (OITT) evaluation was developed, based on the measurement of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) oral fluid concentration profile after its oral administration. Exploiting the fact that TUDCA is actively absorbed only in the ileum, OITT is measured as the time corresponding to TUDCA maximum oral fluid concentration (tmax). To measure oral fluid TUDCA concentration in a point-of-care setting, an ultrasensitive portable immunosensor was developed, based on a competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CL-EIA), using immobilized anti-TUDCA antibody and an ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)-peroxidase conjugate as tracer, detected by enhanced chemiluminescence employing a portable charge-coupled device (CCD)-based device. The test was validated in 24 healthy subjects before and after treatment with Loperamide, a drug that increases OITT. The developed CL-EIA was accurate and precise, with a LLOQ of 50 pmol L(-1). The measured OITT for healthy subjects (291 ± 50 min) was fairly well correlated with OITT values obtained by measuring TUDCA in serum (r=0.89). An increased OITT was observed in all the studied subjects after Loperamide treatment. The CL immunosensor can be employed directly in gastroenterology and paediatric units and it can thus represent a new non-invasive simple test for OITT evaluation in a point-of-care setting, with improved diagnostic utility. PMID:23587552

Simoni, Patrizia; Magliulo, Maria; Mirasoli, Mara; Vestito, Amanda; Festi, Davide; Roda, Giulia; Colecchia, Antonio; Roda, Aldo



Data from a thick unsaturated zone underlying Oro Grande and Sheep Creek washes in the western part of the Mojave Desert, near Victorville, San Bernardino County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents data on the physical properties of unsaturated alluvial deposits and on the chemical and isotopic composition of soil water and soil gas collected at 12 monitoring sites in the western part of the Mojave Desert, near Victorville, California. Sites were installed using the ODEX air-hammer method. Seven sites were located in the active channels of Oro Grande and Sheep Creek Washes. The remaining five sites were located away from the active washes. Most sites were drilled to a depth of about 100 feet below land surface; two sites were drilled to the water table almost 650 feet below land surface. Drilling procedures, lithologic and geophysical data, and site construction and instrumentation are described. Core material was analyzed for water content, bulk density, water potential, particle size, and water retention. The chemical composition of leachate from almost 1,000 subsamples of cores and cuttings was determined. Water extracted from selected subsamples of cores was analyzed for tritium and the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. Water from suction-cup lysimeters and soil-gas samples also were analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition. In addition, data on the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk precipitation from five sites and on ground water from two water-table wells are reported.

Izbicki, John A.; Clark, Dennis A.; Pimental, Maria I.; Land, Michael T.; Radyk, John C.; Michel, Robert L.



Oro-Gustatory Perception of Dietary Lipids and Calcium Signaling in Taste Bud Cells Are Altered in Nutritionally Obesity-Prone Psammomys obesus  

PubMed Central

Since the increasing prevalence of obesity is one of the major health problems of the modern era, understanding the mechanisms of oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. We have conducted the present study on Psammomys obesus, the rodent desert gerbil which is a unique polygenic natural animal model of obesity. Our results show that obese animals exhibit a strong preference for lipid solutions in a two-bottle test. Interestingly, the expression of CD36, a lipido-receptor, in taste buds cells (TBC), isolated from circumvallate papillae, was decreased at mRNA level, but remained unaltered at protein level, in obese animals. We further studied the effects of linoleic acid (LA), a long-chain fatty acid, on the increases in free intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentrations, [Ca2+]i, in the TBC of P. obesus. LA induced increases in [Ca2+]i, largely via CD36, from intracellular pool, followed by the opening of store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) channels in the TBC of these animals. The action of this fatty acid on the increases in [Ca2+]i was higher in obese animals than that in controls. However, the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, studied also by employing thapsigargin, was lower in TBC of obese animals than control rodents. In this study, we show, for the first time, that increased lipid intake and altered Ca2+ signaling in TBC are associated with obesity in Psammomys obesus.

Bitam, Arezki; Sadou, Hassimi; Koceir, Elhadj Ahmed; Khan, Naim Akhtar



Nam Con Son Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.



Crater-lake Santa Maria del Oro as a Pristine Reference for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP' s) and Heavy Metals Content in Environmental Investigations in Western Mexico (Project Conacyt-Semarnat 2002-C01-0463, in Progress).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santa Maria del Oro Lake ( SMO) (21.37° N, 104.57° W; 750 m a.s.l.) is a quaternary crater-lake located at western Mexico in the natural border between two geological provinces: the plio-quaternary Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the oligo-miocenic silicic volcanic province Sierra Madre Occidental. SMO, a tropical freshwater lake, is a warm-monomictic lake having a diameter of ca. 2 km and a mean depth at the depocenter of ca. 60 m, where three benthos cores were recovered. Contents of POP' s, total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and heavy metals were analyzed. Geochemistry and mineralogy also were studied in shallow sediments which corresponded to the decade of 50-60's, otherwise the beginning of industrial development of central Mexico; which is considered the possible source of emission of POP' s and heavy metals. Dioxin, furan, plaguicides and PCB' s contents were analyzed by a GC-MS applying USEPA methods. In the first 40 cm (n= 20) of the sedimentary column ( SC) the absence of POP' s was evidenced, applying a method detection limit ( MDL) of 5 ? g/ml for dioxin, furan and PCB' s. For plaguicides like chlordane and toxaphene the MDL was 0.5 ? g/ml and for plaguicides like DDT, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlore and mirex the MDL was 5 ? g/ml. The MDL for HCB was 1 ? g/ml. The average (n= 30) for TIC, TOC and total carbon (TC) for the first 40 cm of the SC is as follows: TIC 2.4 %, TOC 3.7 % and TC 6.12 %. The average (n= 20) content (in ppm) of heavy metals for the first 20 cm of the SC is as follows: As 5.97, Cr 27.54, Cu 16.31, Ni 12.29, Pb 21.35 and Zn 82.46. These contents are roughly similar to the clarke of these metals in volcanic rocks. After the criteria of severe effect level ( SEL) of heavy metal in sediments, the content of these metals is below SEL levels. These results permit us to conclude that the sediments of SMO can be considered in unaffected state with respect to antropogenic contamination like POP' s and heavy metals. Consequently, Santa Maria del Oro Lake can be considered as a pristine reference in paleo-ecological and environmental investigations in western Mexico.

Zarate-Del Valle, P. F.; Gomez-Hermosillo, C. M.; Venegas-Garcia, D. J.



A Phase IIIb, Multicentre, Randomised, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of OROS Hydromorphone in Subjects with Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Pain Induced by Osteoarthritis of the Hip or the Knee  

PubMed Central

Background. Opioid analgesics are included in treatment guidelines for the symptomatic management of osteoarthritis (OA). Starting with a low dose of opioid and slowly titrating to a higher dose may help avoid intolerable side effects. Methods. Subjects aged ?40 years, with moderate to severe pain induced by OA of the hip or knee not adequately controlled by previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol treatment, were enrolled. Subjects received OROS hydromorphone 4?mg or placebo once-daily. The dose was titrated every 3-4 days in case of unsatisfactory pain control during the 4-week titration phase. A 12 week maintenance phase followed. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in “pain on average” measured on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) scale from baseline to the end of the maintenance phase. Results. 139 subjects received OROS hydromorphone and 149 subjects received placebo. All efficacy endpoints showed similar improvements from baseline to end of study in the 2 groups. The safety results were consistent with the safety profile of OROS hydromorphone. Conclusion.The study did not meet the primary endpoint; although many subjects' pain was not adequately controlled at inclusion, their pain may have improved with continued paracetamol or NSAID treatment.

Vojtassak, Jozef; Vojtassak, Jozef; Jacobs, Adam; Rynn, Leonie; Waechter, Sandra; Richarz, Ute



A preliminary combined geochemical and rock-magnetic study of tailings of non-magnetic ores from Tlalpujahua-El Oro mining districts, Michoacán and Estado de México States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining activities in Mexico have been continuously developed since 1550. Since then several thousands of million tons of waste produced as a result of the mining activity have been accumulated and scattered throughout the territory. These wastes can contain minerals with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, which show a distribution and mobility in the environment according to the chemical species in which are hosted. The Tlalpujahua - El Oro mining district (TOMD) concentrates an impressive number of mines and historical tailings. Due to their in-slope hydrographic position, the mining activities increase the risk of generating anthropogenic effluent that could contribute with a certain amount of mine-water with high contents of PTEs. Although magnetic methods have been widely applied to pollution studies of regions with high anthropogenic impact, its application to tailings is scarce in spite of the several studies that document the environmental effects as a result of the mining waste. We present the results obtained by combined geochemical and rock-magnetic studies in these tailings. Similarly to the traditional EPTs vs SiO2 diagrams, EPTs vs Fe show good linear (inverse) correlation with most of these health-risk elements. Fe concentrations determined magnetically from room-temperature susceptibility measurements agrees with those obtained by traditionally geochemical methods.

Morales, J.; Hernández-Bernal, M.; Corona-Chávez, P.



El Futuro de los Recursos Pesqueros Marinos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If we do not act soon, many marine fish species will disappear. To address this potential catastrophe, we need to reduce overfishing, destructive fishing practices, and ecosystem pollution. The English version is found at

J. Emmett Duffy (Virginia Institute of Marine Science;)



¡Truco Con Agua!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

En esta actividad los aprendices aprenderán un truco de magia donde la magia es la presión del aire. Los participantes tomarán un vaso de agua medio lleno y lo taparán con un pedazo de plástico o cartón. Sosteniendo la tarjeta contra el vaso, lo voltearán boca abajo y cuando quiten la mano debajo del vaso, ¡abracadabra! no se caerá el agua. En la tira cómica, Mateo explica a los aprendices que la presión que hace el aire en todas las direcciones es la que sostiene la tarjeta.

Science, Lawrence H.



Un Juego de Gravedad con Reconocimiento de Voz para Niños con Problemas de Lenguaje  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo presentamos un juego electrónico (Gravedad) con reconocimiento de voz para estimular a niños en edad escolar con problemas del lenguaje dislalia. Se presenta las características y elementos del juego electrónico, así como su integración con el sistema de reconocimiento de voz y los resultados de unas pruebas de usabilidad. El juego de Gravedad se desarrolló utilizando el

Carlos Miranda-Palm; Reyna Camal-U; José Cen-Magaña; Cinhtia Gonzalez-Segura; Sergio Gonzalez-Segura; Michel García; Lizzie Narvaez-Díaz


Opciones de cirugía para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno

Folleto para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno que pueden operarse con cirugía. Esta guía explica los tipos de cirugía de seno, como la operación para preservar el seno y la mastectomía, y ayuda a las mujeres a decidir cuál cirugía es la mejor opción para ellas.


Opciones de cirugía para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno

E-book para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno que pueden operarse con cirugía. Esta guía explica los tipos de cirugía de seno, como la operación para preservar el seno y la mastectomía, y ayuda a las mujeres a decidir cuál cirugía es la mejor opción para ellas.


Genetic polymorphism of CON 1 and CON 2 salivary proteins detected by immunologic and concanavalin a reactions on nitrocellulose with linkage of CON 1 and CON 2 genes to the SPC (salivary protein gene complex)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new genetic protein polymorphisms (CON 1 and CON 2) were identified in parotid saliva. Genetic polymorphisms of salivary CON 1 (concanavalin A) and CON 2 proteins are determined by autosomal inheritance of one expressed (dominant) and one unexpressed (recessive) allele for each gene. Autosomal inheritance is supported by studies in 26 families including 105 children for CON 1 and

Edwin A. Azen; Pao-Lo Yu



The Pros & Cons of Environmental Debates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preparation and format of debates that deal with environmental issues are presented. The educational pros and cons of such debates are discussed. A list of 30 suggested environmental debate topics and a reproducible debate evaluation form are provided. (KR)

Zipko, Stephen J.



Capire la volatilità con il modello binomiale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questo lavoro si propone di illustrare i concetti basilari dell'arbitrage pricing degli strumenti finanziari derivati mediante semplici modelli a tempo discreto che non richiedono nozioni di calcolo differenziale. In particolare si analizzano le proprietà statistiche dei prezzi e dei ritorni finanziari (valore atteso, varianza, deviazione standard) con riferimento alle distribuzioni \\

Luca Erzegovesi



InterCon Travel Health Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. After experiencing high growth, the company confronts several operational challenges. As a responsive measure, management considers developing an IT system. The system must go through the formal capital investment evaluation process, which requires estimation of costs and benefits and uses the NPV method.

Michael A. Goldstein



InterCon Travel Health: Case B  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.



Google Scholar: the pros and the cons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To identify the pros and the cons of Google Scholar. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Chronicles the recent history of the Google Scholar search engine from its inception in November 2004 and critiques it with regard to its merits and demerits. Findings – Feels that there are massive content omissions presently but that, with future changes in its structure, Google Scholar

Péter Jacsó



Aspectos relacionados con la sexualidad y la reproducción (PDQ®)

Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de los factores que pueden afectar el funcionamiento sexual de las personas con cáncer. Se discuten además temas sobre la fecundidad relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer.


Aspectos relacionados con la sexualidad y la reproducción (PDQ®)

Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de los factores que podrían afectar el funcionamiento sexual de las personas con cáncer. Se discuten además temás sobre la fertilidad relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer.


Experimental and Computational Studies of Carbonyl Diazide (CON6) as a Precursor to Diazirinone (CON2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intrigued by the reported 2005 synthesis of diazirinone (1), we carried out further experimental and theoretical studies aimed at the detailed matrix-isolation and millimeter-wave spectroscopic characterizations of 1. Diazirinone (1) is a peculiar isoconjugate of two very stable molecules and may be of astrochemical interest. Unfortunately, the original reported methods of diazirinone (1) generation did not yield this species, rather its decomposition products. Inspired by a more recent gas phase pyrolysis of CON6 (2) to yield CON2 (1), we proposed a new method of generating CON6 (2) in solution as a precursor of diazirinone (1). This new synthesis may allow us to generate larger quantities of both CON6 and CON2 for investigation by millimeter-wave spectroscopy. We are able to safely generate carbonyl diazide (2) in sufficient yield from the reaction of triphosgene (3) and tetrabutylammonium azide in diethyl ether. This has allowed us to obtain both matrix-isolation and gas phase IR spectra of carbonyl diazide (2). After purification, it has a gas-phase lifetime that allows samples to be useable for up to several weeks. However, it is a shock-sensitive material that must be handled with care to prevent violent decomposition. In order to provide better mechanistic insight into the decomposition of carbonyl diazide (2) to diazirinone (1), we have engaged in a DFT and ab initio computational study. We have found a pathway between the two species via the triplet acylnitrene, CON4, and an oxaziridine CON2 species, but not at sufficiently low energies to allow for the trapping and detection of diazirinone (1). Preliminary millimeter-wave spectra have been obtained from several synthesized and purified samples of CON6 (2). However, the assignment of the spectra lines has been unexpectedly problematic. We have placed several CON6 (2) samples, confirmed by IR spectroscopy at the time of sample loading, into our instrument and obtained two different sets of rotational lines. This rotational puzzle will be investigated further with a significantly upgraded millimeter-wave spectrometer.

Esselman, Brian J.; Amberger, Brent K.; Nolan, Alex M.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, R. J.



Energy Star program benefits Con Edison  

SciTech Connect

Impressed with savings in energy costs achieved after upgrading the lighting and air conditioning systems at its Manhattan headquarters, Home Box Office (HBO) wanted to do more, James Flock, vice president for computer and office systems, contacted Con Edison Co. of New York in March 1991 to determine what the company could do to save money by reducing energy consumed by personal computers. Arthur Kressner, Con Edison Research and Development manager contacted industry organizations and manufacturers for advice, but was told only to shut off computers at night and on weekends. Kressner arranged a series of meetings with IBM and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to discuss the issue, then approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was designing a program to promote the introduction and use of energy-efficient office equipment. In 1992, the EPA announced the Energy Star program for PCs, enabling manufacturers to display the Energy Star logo on machines meeting program criteria, including the ability to enter a sleep mode in which neither the computer nor monitor consume more than 30 W or electricity. Industry experts estimate national energy consumption by office equipment could double by the year 2000, but Energy Star equipment is expected to improve efficiency and help maintain electric loads.




Web Spoofing: An Internet Con Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Safe Internet Programming group at the Princeton University Department of Computer Science in 1996 published a paper on the practice known as "web spoofing," through which an attacker intervenes between an end-user browsing the Web and real Web sites. The attacker sets up a shadow copy of the Web, and as users request pages from sites they will receive pages from the attacker's site instead. This process also enables attackers to gather data (possibly credit card numbers, etc.) submitted through bogus web forms. The nine-page paper describes how the con game works and suggests remedies. The article is available in PostScript, compressed PostScript, Microsoft Word, and zipped Microsoft Word format. Unfortunately, it is not available online as HTML.

Balfanz, Dirk ..; Dean, Drew.; Felten, Edward W.; Wallach, Dan S.



Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing.

Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin



Pros and cons of phage therapy  

PubMed Central

Many publications list advantages and disadvantages associated with phage therapy, which is the use of bacterial viruses to combat populations of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this commentary is to discuss many of those issues in a single location. In terms of “Pros,” for example, phages can be bactericidal, can increase in number over the course of treatment, tend to only minimally disrupt normal flora, are equally effective against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, often are easily discovered, seem to be capable of disrupting bacterial biofilms, and can have low inherent toxicities. In addition to these assets, we consider aspects of phage therapy that can contribute to its safety, economics, or convenience, but in ways that are perhaps less essential to the phage potential to combat bacteria. For example, autonomous phage transfer between animals during veterinary application could provide convenience or economic advantages by decreasing the need for repeated phage application, but is not necessarily crucial to therapeutic success. We also consider possible disadvantages to phage use as antibacterial agents. These “Cons,” however, tend to be relatively minor.

Loc-Carrillo, Catherine



Tratamiento cognitivo-conductual para niños mexicanos con fobia social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participaron 17 niños, entre 7 y 12 años, con fobia social asignados aleatoriamente a 3 condiciones: (a) niños bajo el protocolo Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social (IAFS; Olivares, 2005), (b) el mismo protocolo a los niños e información a sus padres sobre el trastorno, y (c) lista de espera. En evaluaciones de pretest, postest, 3 y 6 meses después,

Flor Gil-Bernal; Laura Hernández-Guzmán



RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center  

SciTech Connect

This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Schempf, H. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blair, L.M. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)



Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year?s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ?PittCon 2012? ( As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...


Using the ConSAT: A Memo to Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is how teachers can use the Concept Structuring Analysis Technique (ConSAT) as a diagnostic, learning, and assessment task in teaching science. In essence, ConSAT assists students in organizing concepts on paper so that they may link what they already know to what they have to learn. The technique thus applies the philosophical notion of…

Champagne, Audrey B.; Klopfer, Leopold E.


Pro/con a precessional geodynamo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a common belief, often expressed explicitly, that precession is incapable of energizing a geodynamo, a la Loper. We will present a critique of Loper’s 1975 paper and briefly discuss the common practice and belief that the geodynamo must be energized by thermal and/or compositional driven convection (motion). We note here that there is no observational evidence for existence of thermal or compositional convection within the liquid core or for growth of the solid core. Although there has been considerable success in adapting data in thermal/compositional models to yield near realistic solutions, that does not constitute a proof that those models apply to the Earth. There is absolute observational evidence for mantle precession, an Earth feature that is unique, along with the Earth’s magnetic field, among the terrestrial planets. We argue that great difficulty experienced in analysis and computation of precessional flow is a major explanation for its absence in current models of the geodynamo.

Vanyo, J.



Crystal structure of a lectin from Canavalia maritima (ConM) in complex with trehalose and maltose reveals relevant mutation in ConA-like lectins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structure of Canavalia maritima lectin (ConM) complexed with trehalose and maltose revealed relevant point mutations in ConA-like lectins. ConM with the disaccharides and other ConA-like lectins complexed with carbohydrates demonstrated significant differences in the position of H-bonds. The main difference in the ConM structure is the replacement of Pro202 by Ser202, a residue that promotes the approximation of

Plínio Delatorre; Bruno A. M. Rocha; Carlos A. A. Gadelha; Tatiane Santi-Gadelha; João B. Cajazeiras; Emmanuel P. Souza; Kyria S. Nascimento; Valder N. Freire; Alexandre H. Sampaio; Walter F. Azevedo; Benildo S. Cavada



Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Libro sobre el control del dolor en pacientes con cáncer. Cubre los métodos y medicinas, así como los efectos físicos y emocionales del dolor. Es una adaptación cultural para el público de habla hispana del libro en inglés Pain Control.


La gestione perioperatoria del paziente con insufficienza cardiaca cronica  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a L’elevata morbidità e mortalità perioperatoria dei pazienti con insufficienza cardiaca cronica o CHF (chronic heart failure) potranno certamente essere ridotte nei prossimi anni migliorando le capacità diagnostiche degli anestesisti e dei chirurghi\\u000a e la qualità delle loro strategie di trattamento. (Precisiamo che in questo capitolo la sigla CHF viene usata con riferimento\\u000a alla tuttora accettata definizione di “Chronic Heart Failure”;

Biagio Allaria


ConChat: a context-aware chat program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ConChat is a context-aware chat program that enriches electronic communication by providing contextual information and resolving potential semantic conflicts between users.ConChat uses contextual information to improve electronic communication. Using contextual cues, users can infer during a conversation what the other person is doing and what is happening in his or her immediate surroundings. For example, if a user learns that

A. Ranganathan; R. H. Campbell; A. Ravi; A. Mahajan



Nodular fasciitis of the oro-facial region.  


Nodular fasciitis is a benign proliferative spindle-cell lesion that presents as a rapidly growing mass frequently being mistaken for a sarcoma. A rare presentation and treatment of nodular fasciitis in the cheek of an 8-year-old boy is described here. He came with a chief complaint of swelling in the left cheek since 1 month which rapidly increased to the size of a marble, over a period of 1 month. Surgical excision of the lesion was planned under general anesthesia following which the surgical site was closed with resorbable sutures. Based on the history, clinical picture, and histopathological examination, the lesion was diagnosed as nodular fasciitis. Although infrequent in both children and the oral mucosa, nodular fasciitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of facial tumors in infants and young children. PMID:22629057

Subramaniam, Priya; Balakrishna, Ramdas; Mahendra, P; Gilhotra, K



Oro-dental findings in Bardet-Biedl syndrome.  


The Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a human genetic disorder with an array of clinical features affecting many body systems. BBS is a pleiotropic disorder with mostly monogenic causes. It is also considered a primary ciliopathy syndrome. It is characterised by obesity, pigmentary retinopathy, polydactyly, mental deficiency and hypogonadism and recently a sixth feature, renal disease, has also been described. Since none of the diverse symptoms of BBS by itself is diagnostic of the disorder and many of the symptoms only become apparent over time, diagnosis of the BBS is often delayed until about 9 years of age when visual problems first appear. PMID:22604765

Majumdar, Utpal; Arya, Gaurav; Singh, Santosh; Pillai, Ajay; Nair, Preeti P



Immunomodulatory effect of Tylophora indica on Con A induced lymphoproliferation.  


Our preliminary studies with tylophora alkaloids had shown that they inhibit cellular immune responses like contact sensitivity to dinitro-flurobenzene and delayed hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells, in vivo. Investigations were hence carried out to determine the cellular targets of tylophora alkaloids in in vitro systems. Con A induced proliferation of splenocytes was used as a model system to study the effect of the alkaloids on cellular immune responses. The alkaloid mixture was found to inhibit proliferation of splenocytes at higher concentrations and augment the same at lower concentrations. Both macrophages and T cells were found to be vulnerable to tylophora alkaloids. The alkaloid mixture suppressed IL-2 production in Con A stimulated splenocytes at the inhibitory or higher concentrations and enhanced production at the lower concentrations. IL-1 production by activated macrophages on the contrary was doubled in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of tylophora. These studies indicate that tylophora alkaloids have a concentration dependent biphasic effect on Con A induced mitogenesis. At lower concentrations they augment Con A induced lymphoproliferation by enhancing IL-2 production. Inhibition of proliferation at higher concentrations of the alkaloid is due to inhibition of IL-2 production and activation of macrophages, which have a cytostatic effect. PMID:11824517

Ganguly, T; Badheka, L P; Sainis, K B



Cómo hacer las gestiones con su plan de salud

Hay formas de saber si su plan de salud cubre los costos de atención médica de rutina durante un estudio clínico. Esta información puede servirle para saber con quién comunicarse para solicitar ayuda, preguntas que puede hacer y la información que debe recoger y guardar si decide participar en un estudio clínico.


Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y ? =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.


ConNexus to awarenex: extending awareness to mobile users  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the use of awareness information to facilitate communication by developing a series of prototypes. The ConNexus prototype integrates awareness information, instant messaging, and other communication channels in an interface that runs on a desktop computer. The Awarenex prototype extends that functionality to wireless handheld devices, such as a Palm. A speech interface also enables callers to make use

John C. Tang; Nicole Yankelovich; James Begole; Max Van Kleek; Francis C. Li; Janak R. Bhalodia



Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

Savich, Carl



LunGradCon: The Lunar Graduate Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Members of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) initiated the Lunar Graduate Conference (LunGradCon), modeled after the highly successful Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon). The purpose of this conference is to enhance the professional development of graduate students and early postdoctoral researchers by providing an opportunity to present and discuss scientific research in an environment of their peers. For the first two years, LunGradCon has been held as a one-day conference in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Science Institue's (NLSI) Lunar Science Forum at the NASA Ames Research Center. Activities include an invited overview talk on each of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's three main research areas (OF the Moon, ON the Moon, and FROM the Moon), submitted oral presentations from graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, and networking opportunities with established member of the lunar science community and the NLSI. In each of the first two years of LunGradCon, there have been 20-25 attendees, with about 15 of those presenting submitted talks. Each speaker received feedback forms from the other participants in order to improve on their presentation techniques. Participants also provided feedback on the conference as a whole in order to evaluate the content and provide suggestions for improvement in following years. Overall, the feedback has been extremely positive. This talk will summarize the achievements of past LunGradCons and plans for expansion of the conference to ensure a long-term positive impact on the early careers of future lunar, planetary and space science researchers.

Dove, A.; Poppe, A.; Neish, C.; Fagan, A.; Fuqua, H.; Kramer, G. Y.; Horanyi, M.



Runtime Verification for Generic Classes with ConGu 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though generics became quite popular in mainstream object-oriented (OO) languages, approaches for checking at runtime the conformance of such programs against formal specifications still lack appropriate support. In order to overcome this limitation within ConGu, a tool-based approach we have been developing to support runtime conformance checking of Java programs against algebraic specifications, we recently proposed a notion of refinement mapping that allows to define correspondences between parametric specifications and generic classes. Based on such mappings, we also put forward a notion of conformance between the two concepts. In this paper we present how the new notion of conformance is supported by version 2 of the ConGu tool.

Crispim, Pedro; Lopes, Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vasco T.


The Pros and Cons of RFID in Supply Chain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the pros and cons of using Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) in Supply Chain Management (SCM). While RFID has a greater number of benefits than its predecessor, the bar code, it currently comes at a price that many businesses still consider prohibitive. On the one hand, RFID is advantageous because it does not require line-of-sight scanning, it acts to

Katina Michael; Luke Mccathie



Métodos con información genética para abordar la complejidad del cáncer de pulmón

Se estima que 220 000 personas recibieron un diagnóstico de alguna forma de cáncer de pulmón en 2010. Es la principal causa de muertes relacionadas con el cáncer, con más de 157 000 muertes previstas en 2010.


Effect of different fixatives on Con A surface receptors of mouse peritoneal macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, or osmium tetroxide fixation on the number of labeled Con A surface receptors on mouse peritoneal macrophages were compared. Gold-labeled Con A receptors were found to be isolatedly arranged and evenly distributed on cell surfaces independent of the fixative used. Only cells preincubated with Con A and subsequently fixed by osmium tetroxide showed arrangement of

Th. Peschke; L. Wollweber; A. Gabert; K. Augsten; R. Stracke



Probabilidad de colisión de cometas periódicos con partículas interplanetarias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presentan resultados sobre la probabilidad de colisión de cometas de corto período con la población de partículas interplanetarias presentes en la región del cinturón de asteroides. Se encuentra que este proceso colisional afecta la evolución física de los cometas de manera no despreciable y puede ser el responsable de variaciones de brillo de tipo ``outburst". Se presentan resultados para algunos cometas en particular y se obtiene un límite inferior para el tamaño de los núcleos en función de la distribución de radios del cinturón de asteroides.

Gil Hutton, R.


Molecular diagnostics: Molecular Med Tri-Con 2013.  


The 20th annual Molecular Med Tri-Con conference, sponsored by Cambridge Health Institute (MA, USA), consisted of over 250 presentations within five parallel 'channels': 'Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Clinical, Informatics and Cancer', along with five preliminary symposia, 15 short courses, a plenary keynote session entitled 'Personalized Oncology - Fulfilling the Promise for Today's Patients' and a keynote panel entitled, 'Emerging Technologies and Industry Perspectives'. Over 3000 individuals from academia, clinical laboratories and industry were in attendance. This article will focus on the Keynote Session of 'Molecular Diagnostics' track within the Diagnostics Channel. PMID:23895123

Klein, Roger D



Endoscopic scoring systems for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.  


Endoscopy plays a pivotal role for diagnosis and assessment of disease activity and extent in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. International guidelines recommend the use of endoscopic scoring systems for evaluation of the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatments. Ideal scoring systems are easy to use, reproducible, reliable, responsive to changes, and validated in different clinical settings in order to guide therapeutic strategies. However, currently available endoscopic scoring systems often appear as complex for routine endoscopy and suffer from insufficient interobserver agreement and lack of formal validation which often limit their use in clinical trials. Here, we describe the role of endoscopic scoring systems in inflammatory bowel diseases focusing on pros and cons in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging and mucosal healing. PMID:24650249

Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bisschops, Raf; Neumann, Helmut



RoboCon: Operator interface for robotic applications  

SciTech Connect

Carnegie Mellon U. and ORNL`s Robotics and Process Systems Division are developing a state-of-the-art robot operator control station (RoboCon) with standardized hardware and software control interfaces to be adaptable to a variety of remote and robotic equipment currently funded by DOE`s Office of Science & Technology Robotics Technology Development Program. The human operation and telerobotic and supervisory control of sophisticated and remote and robotic systems is a complex, tiring, and non-intuitive activity. Since decontamination & decommissioning, selective equipment removal, mixed waste operations, and in-tank cleanup are going to be a major future activity in DOE environmental restoration and waste management cleanup agenda, it seems necessary to utilize an operator control station and interface which maximizes operator comfort and productivity.

Schempf, H.; Warwick, J.; Fung, M.; Chemel, B.; Blackwell, M.



IMPACT: integrated multiprogram platform for analyses in ConTest.  


In this paper, we introduce a new Graphical User Interface that estimates evolutionary rates on protein sequences by assessing changes in biochemical constraints. We describe IMPACT, a platform-independent (tested in Linux, Windows, and MacOS), easy to install software written in Java. IMPACT integrates the use of a built-in multiple sequence alignment editor, with programs that perform phylogenetic and protein structure analyses (ConTest, PhyML, ATV, and Jmol) allowing the user to quickly and efficiently perform evolutionary analyses on protein sequences, including the detection of selection (negative and positive) signatures at the amino acid scale, which can provide fundamental insight about species evolution and ecological fitness. IMPACT provides the user with a working platform that combines a number of bioinformatics tools and utilities in one place, transferring information directly among the various programs and therefore increasing the overall performance of evolutionary analyses on proteins. PMID:21414966

Maldonado, Emanuel; Dutheil, Julien Y; da Fonseca, Rute R; Vasconcelos, Vítor; Antunes, Agostinho



Pros, cons, and costs of INFUSE in spinal surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: INFUSE (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 [rh-BMP-2]; Medtronic, Memphis, TN, USA) is approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) only for use with the lumbar tapered fusion device (LT Cage; Medtronic) to perform single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusions (ALIF: L2-S1 levels). INFUSE, however, is widely utilized in an “off-label” capacity for anterior and/or posterior cervical, thoracic, and lumbar surgery. Nevertheless, Medicare and other insurance companies, are now increasingly denying reimbursement (average cost of a “large” INFUSE to the hospital without overhead $5000-6000) to hospitals for INFUSE when utilized “off-label”. Methods: This commentary looks at several representative studies citing the cons associated with utilizing INFUSE in spinal surgery, contraindications, complications, and cost factors. Results: There are multiple cons of utilizing INFUSE in an “off-label” capacity for spinal surgery. Direct contraindications include pregnancy, allergy to titanium, allergy to bovine type I collagen or rhBMP-2, infection, tumor, liver or kidney disease, immunosuppression (e.g., lupus, HIV/AIDS); contraindications are also seen in those receiving radiation, chemotherapy, or steroids. Reported complications include exuberant/ectopic bone formation, paralysis (cord, nerve damage), dural tears, bowel–bladder and sexual dysfunction, respiratory failure, inflammation of adjacent tissues, fetal developmental complications, scar, excessive bleeding, and even death. Complications are so prevalent in the anterior cervical spine, that many surgeons no longer use it in this region. Similarly, INFUSE complications and indications for posterior lumbar interbody fusions (PLIFs) and transforaminal interbody lumbar fusions (TLIFs) should also be reexamined. Conclusions: More surgeons need to question the safety, efficacy, and appropriate “off-label” use of INFUSE in all spine surgeries.

Epstein, Nancy E.



Con A conjugated to Europium(III) cryptate as a new histological tool for prostate cancer investigation using confocal microscopy.  


Abstract Lectins are carbohydrate recognition proteins that can be used as probes to reveal the glycosylation state of cells. They frequently have been used for diagnostic and prognostic cancer studies. For fluorescence based analysis, lectins commonly are conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (Con A-FITC); however, this molecule loses its fluorescence quickly. We conjugated Europium cryptate to Con A (Con A-cryp-Eu) for use as a histochemical luminescent probe to recognize glucose/mannose residues in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma tissues, and used confocal microscopy instead of commercial Con A-FITC. Tissues were treated with Evans blue to suppress intrinsic tissue fluorescence before incubation with Con A-cryp-Eu or Con A-FITC. Con A-cryp-Eu exhibited hemagglutinating activity. Con A-cryp-Eu showed the same binding pattern as Con A-FITC in prostate stroma and gland cells. Staining was strong in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma tissues. Con A-cryp-Eu probe stained glucose/mannose residues in prostatic carcinoma more intensely than Con A-FITC. Furthermore, staining with Con A-cryp-Eu showed greater fluorescence intensity than Con A-FITC and the emission of Con A-cryp-Eu was more stable than the Con A-FITC for seven days under the same storage conditions. Maintenance of the luminescent properties and the binding pattern of Con A-cryp-Eu favor its use as an auxiliary histochemistry probe for prostatic tissue studies. PMID:24160413

Rêgo, Mjbm; Silva, Lpbg; Medeiros, Jkg; Figueiredo, Rcbq; Alves-Júnior, S; Beltrão, Eic



Development of new series of aluminium solid capacitors with organic semiconductive electrolyte (OS-CON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have researched tetrecyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) complex salts, developed a new series of organic semiconductive electrolytes (OS-CONs) such as chip-type OS-CONs, and improved our original facilities for mass-production of OS-CONs during the ten years since mass-production was begun. Results of this research and development are presented in this paper. Various new applications of OS-CONs have been developed which fully utilize their properties. This paper also introduces some of these new applications.

Niwa, Shinichi; Taketani, Yutaka


Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis. Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis. Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or 'PittCon' (\\/). This time it was called 'Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis' to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus remained on exhaled breath diagnostics. As reported last year in the Journal of Breath Research, PittCon continues to

Joachim D. Pleil



Immune cascades in human intervertebral disc: the pros and cons  

PubMed Central

The unique structural hallmark of the intervertebral disc has made its central composition, the nucleus pulposus (NP), excluded from the immunologic tolerance. Consequently, the intervertebral disc is identified as an immune-privileged organ. Traditionally, local detrimental immune activities caused by NP at the lesion sites of the disc are noted as a significant factor contributing to disc degeneration. However, given the beneficial activities of immune cells in other immune-privileged sites on basis of current evidence, the degenerate disc might need the assistance of a subpopulation of immune cells to restore its structure and lessen inflammation. In addition, the beneficial impact of immune cells can be seen in the absorption of the herniated NP, which is an important factor causes the mechanical compression of nerve roots. Consequently, a modulated immune network in degenerate disc is essential for the restoration of this immune-privileged organ. Until now, the understandings of immune response in disc degeneration still rest on the harmful aspect. Further studies are needed to explore its beneficial influence. Accordingly, there are no absolutely the pros and cons in terms of immune reactions caused by NP.

Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Xu-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Gao, Yang; Samartzis, Dino; Wang, Hai-Qiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing



Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar



A National Look at Postmodernism's Pros and Cons in Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to take a look at the pros and cons of postmodernism. It is imperative for administrators to closely examine educational theories and practices prior to instituting changes. The ability to read and digest challenging material keeps one informed and prepared to lead effectively. This paper will list the pros and cons

Townsell, Rhodena



La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en Espa?a: estudio europeo POMONA-II  

PubMed Central

Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población.

Martinez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutierrez-Colosia, Mencia Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramon; Martorell, Almudena; Gonzalez-Gordon, Rodrigo G.; Merida-Gutierrez, M. Reyes; Angel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodriguez, Alicia; Garcia-Gutierrez, Juan C.; Perez-Vicente, Amado; Garcia-Ibanez, Jose; Aguilera-Ines, Francisco



Resistencia a la flexión de vigas laminadas con tres especies de madera tropical mexicana  

Microsoft Academic Search

La madera aserrada tiene un comportamiento estructural adecuado; sin embargo, hay factores que influyen negativamente en su uso; tales como, los defectos anatómicos, la escasez de piezas grandes y la extracción de volúmenes insuficientes. Para subsanar estas limitaciones, se puede considerar como alternativa la fabricación de vigas laminadas, las cuales se forman con láminas de madera pegadas con algún tipo

Artículo de Investigación; Omar Araujo Molina; Miguel Cerón Cardeña; Mario Chan Martín; Manuel Azueta García



Antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS): emergence of teicoplanin-non-susceptible CoNS strains with inducible resistance to vancomycin.  


Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have become increasingly recognized as important agents of nosocomial infection. One of the characteristics of CoNS is their resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. CoNS strains (n?=?745) isolated from a university teaching hospital in China between 2004 and 2009 were tested for antibiotic resistance. The antibiotics were placed into three categories based on resistance levels of the CoNS strains to these antibiotics: high resistance (resistance rate >70?%), including penicillin G, oxacillin and erythromycin; medium resistance (resistance rate between 30 and 70?%), including tetracycline, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol; and low resistance (resistance rate <30?%), including rifampicin, ceftizoxime and gentamicin. We also found that the prevalence of strains non-susceptible to teicoplanin increased from 4.5 to 6.7?% between 2008 and 2009. A one-step vancomycin agar selection experiment and subsequent population analysis revealed potentially vancomycin-resistant subpopulations that have been selected from the teicoplanin-non-susceptible strains. Vigilant surveillance of nosocomial isolates of CoNS is needed to determine their resistance to glycopeptides. PMID:21799199

Ma, Xiao Xue; Wang, En Hua; Liu, Yong; Luo, En Jie



Bioquimioterapia ambulatoria con cisplatino, dacarbacina, interleucina-2 e interferón-alfa en pacientes con melanoma avanzado. Estudio multicéntrico en 44 pacientes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen\\u000a Fundamento  Se ha descrito una importante actividad (50% de respuestas objetivas) con un pequeño número de supervivientes en los ensayos\\u000a clínicos de quimioinmunoterapia (QIT) para el melanoma diseminado. En la mayoría, la hospitalización era un requerimiento\\u000a habitual.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objetivos  Valorar la posibilidad de administración ambulatoria completa de la QIT dentro de un ensayo fase II multicéntrico con cisplatino+dacarbacina\\u000a (DTIC) en un día,

Elena Filipovich Vegas; José Ignacio Mayordomo Cámara; José Anadrés Meana García; Manuel Valladares Ayerbes; Jesús Florián Jericó; Juan José Bretón García; Remedios Blanco Guerrero; Dolores Isla Casado; Carmen Santander Lobera; Raquel Andrés Conejero; Bartolomeu Massuti Sureda; Alejandro Tres Sánchez



Mapping the (Con)textual Plight of Man: The Temporal and Spatial Logics of Postmodem Masculinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

My thesis, Mapping the (Con)textual Plight of Man: The Temporal and Spatial Logics of Post modern Masculinity brings together a number of Marxist and Post-Structuralist theorists in order to make sense of the notion of \\

Jason Demers



Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado con cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción con el campo gravitatorio y con la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende con ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste con la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 ?m y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.

Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.



Microsoft Academic Search

To date, at least five experiments which could be classified as Active SETI, or METI (Messaging to Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) have been conducted from Planet Earth: the well-known Arecibo Message of 1974, two Cosmic Call transmissions from Evpatoria, the Teen-Age Message to the Stars also transmitted from Evpatoria, and the paradigm- altering Invitation to ETI, being quasi-transmitted continuously via the Internet.



Microsoft Academic Search

La valutazione d'impatto dei programmi di aiuto alle imprese con specifico target territoriale è un tema che ha interessato recenti sviluppi metodologici della letteratura statistico-economica internazionale e che ha registrato un crescente interesse anche in ambito italiano. L'assenza di dati di natura sperimentale per questo tipo di interventi espone al rischio di distorsione le stime d'impatto ottenibili con ciascuna delle

Daniele Bondonio


Análisis comparativo de 3 regímenes de tratamiento en niños con linfoma de Burkitt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  De enero de 1980 a junio de 1996 se trataron en nuestra institución un total de 86 pacientes con linfoma de Burkitt. El presente\\u000a estudio es una revisión retrospectiva en el que se comparan las complicaciones y los resultados de sobrevida utilizando 3\\u000a esquemas de tratamiento distintos.\\u000a \\u000a Se trataron 46 pacientes en el régimen 1, 26 con el régimen 2,

Rocío Cárdenas Cardós; Roberto Rivera Luna; Roxana Martínez Agreda; Carlos Calderón Elvir; Amparo Plata García



Quimioterapia de alta dosis prolonga en forma significativa la supervivencia en pacientes con leucemia mieloide aguda

Los resultados preliminares de un estudio clínico grande con asignación al azar de pacientes de 16 a 60 años de edad con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA), un cáncer de la sangre y de la médula ósea, que no había sido tratada anteriormente, muestran que los pacientes que recibieron una alta dosis de daunorrubicina, un fármaco de quimioterapia disponible comercialmente, durante la terapia inicial vivieron más que los pacientes que recibieron una dosis normal del mismo fármaco.


Navegaçao conceitual em ambientes de gestao do conhecimento usando NavCon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents conceptual navigation and NavCon, an architecture that implements this navigation in World-Wide Web pages. NavCon architecture makes use of ontology as metadata to contextualize user's search for information. Conceptual navigation is a technique to browse Web sites within a context. Context filters relevant retrieved information. Context also drives user's navigation through paths that meet his needs. Based

José Renato V. Dantas; Pedro Porfírio M. Farias



Pros and cons: prospective predictors of marijuana use on a college campus.  


Marijuana use on college campuses is prevalent and associated with high rates of abuse and dependence. The Marijuana Decisional Balance (MDB) scales measure perceived pros and cons toward marijuana use. Evidence supports reliability and concurrent validity of these scales, but the predictive validity has not yet been assessed. The current study evaluated the prospective predictive validity of pros and cons scales for marijuana use, as well as explored predictive validity for marijuana problem indicators. Secondary analyses included test-retest reliability and internal consistency, to provide additional evidence of psychometric properties. A total of 149 college students (57% recent marijuana users, 77% lifetime users) participated in a baseline survey, then completed a second survey one month later. All provided data on marijuana pros and cons, as well as use status in the past month. Users at each time point reported on use frequency, problems, and disorder symptoms. In the month between assessments, 55% of the students used marijuana. Both pros and cons subscales prospectively predicted use status in the subsequent month, but not use frequency. Pros prospectively predicted marijuana problems and dependence symptoms at follow-up, and remained a significant predictor of later dependence symptoms even after controlling for baseline dependence symptoms. In contrast, pros only marginally predicted abuse. Cons did not predict problems, abuse, or dependence symptoms. Pros and cons showed strong test-retest reliability (rs = 0.80-0.85) and internal consistency (alphas = 0.92-0.95). In a college sample, pros and cons of marijuana use demonstrated stability over one month, and prospectively predicted use. Pros may also have utility in predicting problems and dependence potential on college campuses. PMID:22985053

Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B



Concomitant administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in female dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico.  


Mexico serves as a global model for advances in rabies prevention and control in dogs. The Mexican Ministry of Health (MMH) annual application of approximately 16 million doses of parenteral rabies vaccine has resulted in significant reductions in canine rabies during the past 20 years. One collateral parameter of rabies programs is dog population management. Enhanced public awareness is critical to reinforce responsible pet ownership. Surgical spaying and neutering remain important to prevent reproduction, but are impractical for achieving dog population management goals. GonaCon™, an anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, was initially tested in captive female dogs on the Navajo Nation, 2008. The MMH led this international collaborative study on an improved formulation of GonaCon™ in captive dogs with local representatives in Hidalgo, Mexico in 2011. This study contained 20 bitches assigned to Group A (6 control), Group B (7 GonaCon™), and Group C (7 GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine). Vaccines were delivered IM. Animals were placed under observation and evaluated during the 61-day trial. Clinically, all dogs behaved normally. No limping or prostration was observed, in spite of minor muscle atrophy post-mortem in the left hind leg of dogs that received GonaCon™. Two dogs that began the study pregnant give birth to healthy pups. Dogs that received a GonaCon™ injection had macro and microscopic lesions consistent with prior findings, but the adverse injection effects were less frequent and lower in intensity. Both vaccines were immunogenic based on significant increases in rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and anti-GnRH antibodies in treatment Groups B and C. Simultaneous administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in Group C did not affect immunogenicity. Progesterone was suppressed significantly in comparison to controls. Future studies that monitor fertility through multiple breeding cycles represent a research need to determine the value of integrating this vaccine into dog rabies management. PMID:23871822

Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Verónica; Canales-Vargas, Erick J; Gress-Ortega, Luis R; Miller, Lowell A; Rupprecht, Charles E; Bender, Scott C; García-Reyna, Patricia; Ocampo-López, Juan; Slate, Dennis



Virulence, Speciation and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Ocular Coagualase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS)  

PubMed Central

Background: Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are common inhabitants of human skin and mucous membranes. With the emergence of these organisms as prominent pathogens in patients with ocular infections, investigation has intensified in an effort to identify important virulence factors and to inform new approaches to treatment and prevention. Aim: To isolate CoNS from ocular specimens; to study the possible virulence factors; speciation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) which were isolated from ocular complications; antibiotic susceptibility testing of ocular CoNS. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected from the target patients who attended the Microbiology Laboratory of a tertiary care eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state, India. The isolates were subjected to tube and slide coagulase tests for the identification of CoNS. All the isolates were subjected to screening for lipase and protease activities. Screening for other virulence factors viz., slime production on Congo red agar medium and haemagglutination assay with use of 96-well microtitre plates. These isolates were identified upto species level by performing biochemical tests such as phosphatase test, arginine test, maltose and trehalose fermentation tests and novobiocin sensitivity test. The isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility studies, based on the revised standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI). Results: During the one year of study, among the total 260 individuals who were screened, 100 isolates of CoNS were obtained. Lipolytic activity was seen in all the isolates, whereas 38 isolates showed a positive result for protease. A total of 63 isolates showed slime production. Of 100 isolates, 30 isolates were analyzed for haemagglutination, where 4 isolates showed the capacity to agglutinate the erythrocytes. The results of the biochemical analysis revealed that of the 100 isolates of CoNS, 43% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. The other isolates were identified as S. xylosus (n=8), S. captis (n=16), S. haemolyticus (n=10), S. saccharolyticus (n=2), S. hominis (n=5), S. saprophyticus (n=6) and S. intermedius (n=1). On the other hand, 9 isolates were not identified. In the antibiotic susceptibility analysis, it was found that most of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, amikacin and linczolid and resistant to cefatoxime, oxacillin, bacitracin and nalidixic acid. Conclusion: S. epidermidis was found to be predominant in causing the ocular complications. Slime production, heamagglutination, protease and lipase activities could be the putative virulence factors of CoNS. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of CoNS against antibacterial agents revealed maximum resistance to beta lactam groups, and the resistance was found to be higher to oxacillin, and lowest to vancomycin.

Priya, Ravindran; Mythili, Arumugam; Singh, Yendremban Randhir Babu; Sreekumar, Haridas; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Panneerselvam, Kanesan



Virulence, Speciation and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Ocular Coagualase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS).  


Background: Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are common inhabitants of human skin and mucous membranes. With the emergence of these organisms as prominent pathogens in patients with ocular infections, investigation has intensified in an effort to identify important virulence factors and to inform new approaches to treatment and prevention. Aim: To isolate CoNS from ocular specimens; to study the possible virulence factors; speciation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) which were isolated from ocular complications; antibiotic susceptibility testing of ocular CoNS. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected from the target patients who attended the Microbiology Laboratory of a tertiary care eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state, India. The isolates were subjected to tube and slide coagulase tests for the identification of CoNS. All the isolates were subjected to screening for lipase and protease activities. Screening for other virulence factors viz., slime production on Congo red agar medium and haemagglutination assay with use of 96-well microtitre plates. These isolates were identified upto species level by performing biochemical tests such as phosphatase test, arginine test, maltose and trehalose fermentation tests and novobiocin sensitivity test. The isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility studies, based on the revised standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI). Results: During the one year of study, among the total 260 individuals who were screened, 100 isolates of CoNS were obtained. Lipolytic activity was seen in all the isolates, whereas 38 isolates showed a positive result for protease. A total of 63 isolates showed slime production. Of 100 isolates, 30 isolates were analyzed for haemagglutination, where 4 isolates showed the capacity to agglutinate the erythrocytes. The results of the biochemical analysis revealed that of the 100 isolates of CoNS, 43% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. The other isolates were identified as S. xylosus (n=8), S. captis (n=16), S. haemolyticus (n=10), S. saccharolyticus (n=2), S. hominis (n=5), S. saprophyticus (n=6) and S. intermedius (n=1). On the other hand, 9 isolates were not identified. In the antibiotic susceptibility analysis, it was found that most of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, amikacin and linczolid and resistant to cefatoxime, oxacillin, bacitracin and nalidixic acid. Conclusion: S. epidermidis was found to be predominant in causing the ocular complications. Slime production, heamagglutination, protease and lipase activities could be the putative virulence factors of CoNS. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of CoNS against antibacterial agents revealed maximum resistance to beta lactam groups, and the resistance was found to be higher to oxacillin, and lowest to vancomycin. PMID:24995181

Priya, Ravindran; Mythili, Arumugam; Singh, Yendremban Randhir Babu; Sreekumar, Haridas; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Panneerselvam, Kanesan; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian



ConA-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of ConA-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to ConA. Thus, binding between ConA and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the ConA-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled ConA to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.

Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard



ConSole: using modularity of Contact maps to locate Solenoid domains in protein structures  

PubMed Central

Background Periodic proteins, characterized by the presence of multiple repeats of short motifs, form an interesting and seldom-studied group. Due to often extreme divergence in sequence, detection and analysis of such motifs is performed more reliably on the structural level. Yet, few algorithms have been developed for the detection and analysis of structures of periodic proteins. Results ConSole recognizes modularity in protein contact maps, allowing for precise identification of repeats in solenoid protein structures, an important subgroup of periodic proteins. Tests on benchmarks show that ConSole has higher recognition accuracy as compared to Raphael, the only other publicly available solenoid structure detection tool. As a next step of ConSole analysis, we show how detection of solenoid repeats in structures can be used to improve sequence recognition of these motifs and to detect subtle irregularities of repeat lengths in three solenoid protein families. Conclusions The ConSole algorithm provides a fast and accurate tool to recognize solenoid protein structures as a whole and to identify individual solenoid repeat units from a structure. ConSole is available as a web-based, interactive server and is available for download at



Observations on the use of GonaCon in captive female elk (Cervus elaphus).  


Overabundant populations of elk (Cervus elaphus) are a significant concern in some areas of the western United States because of potential ecologic damage and spread of brucellosis to domestic livestock. Brucella abortus is transmitted among elk through direct contact with aborted fetuses, placentas and associated fluids, or postpartum discharge of infected animals. Because transmission of brucellosis is dependent on pregnancy, contraception of cows could be used for both disease and population management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine (GonaCon) in female elk. In September 2004, cows were given a single immunization of either 1,000 microg (n = 12) or 2,000 microg (n = 10) of GonaCon and compared with a group of adjuvant-treated controls (n = 15). In November 2004, 2005, and 2006, cows were grouped with bulls for the breeding season. Blood samples were taken in February 2005 and March 2006 and 2007 for pregnancy testing, progesterone assays, and antibody titers. For cows given 1,000 microg GonaCon the percentages that were infertile for 2005, 2006, and 2007 were 86%, 90%, and 100%, respectively, compared with 90%, 100%, and 100% for cows given 2,000 microg GonaCon. Rates of infertility for control cows were 23%, 28%, and 0% (P<0.0001). The results indicated that either dose of GonaCon prevented pregnancy of elk cows for at least 3 yr. We concluded that GonaCon use for population management of elk warrants consideration as part of a strategy to control brucellosis. PMID:19204347

Killian, Gary; Kreeger, Terry J; Rhyan, Jack; Fagerstone, Kathleen; Miller, Lowell



GeConT 2: gene context analysis for orthologous proteins, conserved domains and metabolic pathways  

PubMed Central

The Gene Context Tool (GeConT) allows users to visualize the genomic context of a gene or a group of genes and their orthologous relationships within fully sequenced bacterial genomes. The new version of the server incorporates information from the COG, Pfam and KEGG databases, allowing users to have an integrated graphical representation of the function of genes at multiple levels, their phylogenetic distribution and their genomic context. The sequence of any of the genes can be easily retrieved, as well as the 5? or 3? regulatory regions, greatly facilitating further types of analysis. GeConT 2 is available at:

Martinez-Guerrero, C. E.; Ciria, R.; Abreu-Goodger, C.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G.; Merino, E.



Con_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of Con_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because Con_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells.

Huan-Yao Lei; Ching-An Peng; Ming-Jer Tang; Kit Reindhart; Harold H. Szu



Cost-of-Living Adjustments in Teacher Contracts: Pros and Cons. ERS Information Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication summarizes the history of cost-of-living (COL) adjustment clauses in salary contracts in private industry and the teaching profession, and then discusses the pros and cons of including COL clauses in teacher contracts. The merits of COL clauses are examined from the viewpoints of both employees and employers. Included are a number…

Sullivan, Joan P.


Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.

S. J. Landau; P. D. Sisterna; H. Vucetich



Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.

Landau, S. J.; Sisterna, P. D.; Vucetich, H.


A Qualitative Approach to Upward Evaluation of Leadership Performance: Pros and Cons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a qualitative upward evaluation of the leadership performance of library managers. Follow-up studies were conducted, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of the qualitative approach to upward appraisal. The authors discuss pros and cons to guide others who might use this methodology for upward appraisals in the…

Turrentine, Cathryn G.; Lener, Edward F.; Young, Michelle L.; Kok, Victoria T.



An Alternative Hemostatic Dressing: Comparison of CELOX, HemCon, and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Uncontrolled hemorrhage remains a leading cause of traumatic death. Several topical adjunct agents have been shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage, and two, chitosan wafer dressing (HemCon (HC)) and zeolite powder dressing (QuikClot (QC)), are being utilized regularly on the battlefield. However, recent literature reviews have concluded that no ideal topical agent exists. The authors compared a new

Buddy G. Kozen; Sara J. Kircher; Jose Henao; Fermin S. Godinez; Andrew S. Johnson


Outsource or in-house facilities management: The pros and cons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the merits of outsourcing facilities management remains relevant. This paper attempts to determine a clear distinction between out tasking and outsourcing, and then to provide a model to explain the advantages (pros) and disadvantages (cons) of this strategy by analysing the wants of both the client and supplier. Finally, it offers some guidance to assist with remedying

Neil Usher



El cáncer según su ubicación en el cuerpo: Relacionado con el sida

In English En español In English En español El cáncer según su ubicación en el cuerpo: Relacionado con el sida Para buscar un tipo de cáncer, seleccione su ubicación en el cuerpo — Aparato locomotor Aparato respiratorio y tórax Cabeza y cuello



Microsoft Academic Search

Con este trabajo pretendemos analizar como se lleva a cabo el diseño de periféricos de DSP utilizando uno de los nuevos entornos de diseño de alto nivel: System Generator for DSP. Así, en este documento el objetivo es mostrar por un lado las características del entorno de diseño y las herramientas utilizadas y por otro la metodología de diseño e

J. Viejo; E. Ostua; M. J. Bellido; J. Juan; A. Millan; P. Ruiz-de-Clavijo; D. Guerrero


Immunostimulatory activity of ConBr: a focus on splenocyte proliferation and proliferative cytokine secretion.  


Lectins constitute a class of glycoproteins, which are capable of selectively and reversibly binding to carbohydrates, distinguishing small structural differences in complex oligosaccharides. Studies have shown that the binding of lectins to cell-surface carbohydrates can lead to various effects such as cellular proliferation, histamine release and cytokine production. Canavalia brasiliensis lectin (ConBr) is a (D-mannose) D-glucose lectin. In this study, murine splenocytes were cultured to determine the effect of ConBr on cell proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) release and cytokine secretion. In addition, cellular viability assays were performed to evaluate any mitogenic activity induced by this lectin. ConBr significantly increased cell proliferation with minimal cell damage. This lectin was able to induce an increased production of cytokines such as IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-? and a decreased production of IL- 10. The release of NO was also observed. The results of this study indicate that ConBr could potentially be used as an immunomodulator. PMID:22009293

de Oliveira Silva, Flávio; das Neves Santos, Priscila; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; de Sousa Cavada, Benildo; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Cajazeiras, João Batista; Almeida, Alysson Chaves; Pereira, Valéria Alves Rêgo; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Este artículo propone el diseño de un sistema de adquisición de datos con componentes digitales y analógicos microelectrónicos reconfigurables, como son el FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) y el FPAA (Field Programmable Analog Array), para monitorear y analizar la contaminación por ruido ambiental. Este prototipo obtiene los datos del ruido de una zona vial (zona centro de una ciudad)

A. Castillo Atoche; J. Vázquez Castillo; V. Sanchez Huerta; P. Del Río Dawn


Somatic Chromosomes of Eight Mammals from Con Son Island, South Vietnam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Somatic chromosomes of mammals from Con Son Island, Republic of (South) Vietnam were: Suncus murinus murinus, 2n=40; Tupaia glis dissimilis, 2n=60; Macaca fascicularis condorensis, 2n=42; Rattus berdmorei magnus, 2n=40; R. exulans subsp., 2n=42; R. nivive...

J. F. Duncan P. F. D. Van Peenen P. F. Ryan




Microsoft Academic Search

Sommario Nel presente studio è proposta l'analisi sperimentale, mediante ultrasuoni, del contatto tra un indentatore cilindrico piano a bordi raccordati ed un piano, problema per il quale è stata recentemente proposta una soluzione analitica mai validata sperimentalmente. Per ciascun accoppiamento è stata valutata la riflessione dall'interfaccia, che è noto essere in relazione con lo stato di contatto. I risultati sperimentali

B. Leban; M. Pau; A. Baldi; F. Ginesu


Electronic structure and reactivity of the CNO/NCO/CON isomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been calculated for the lowest electronic states of NCO, CNO and CON isomers, using internally contracted Multi Reference Configuration Interaction (MRCI) and Coupled-Clusters RCCSD(T) ab initio methods. For the low lying doublet and quartet excited states of the three isomers, the N-CO, O-CN, C-NO and C-ON collinear dissociation paths were mapped by the Complete Active Space SCF (CASSCF) approach and the energy variations with the bending coordinate have been explored. Several regions of conical intersections have been located and the spin-orbit interactions between states of different spin symmetry have been evaluated in the region of intersections of these states. The analysis of the PESs allows one to identify the main interactions governing the reactivity of the lowest electronic states. The NCO and CNO isomers have stable X2? electronic ground states, for CON the X2? ground state is separated from the dissociative [CO + N] asymptote by a barrier of 0.11 eV and crosses the dissociative 4? - state close to its minimum. At their equilibrium ground state geometries the spin-orbit interactions ASO between the two electronic components of the X2? states were calculated to be -95.6, -109.6 and -57.1 cm-1 for NCO, CNO and CON, respectively. The predissociation of the vibrational levels of the A2?+ and B2? states of NCO has been explained.

Yazidi, O.; Gritli, H.; Chambaud, G.


Simulation of Command and Control in the Conflict Model (ConMod).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Conflict Model (ConMod) is an analytic computer model for simulating military conflict at the corps and echelons above corps levels. The model addresses operational concepts of air and ground forces engaged in deep, rear, and close combat. The model s...

Y. H. Chiu C. D. Jones G. D. Kreis S. C. Simonson S. M. Strange



Oro-Dental Health Status and Salivary Characteristics in Children with Chronic Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Children suffering from decreased renal function may demand unique considerations regarding special oral and dental conditions they are encountered to. It is mentioned that renal function deterioration may affect the hard or soft tissues of the mouth. Having knowledge about the high prevalence of dental defects, calculus, gingival hyperplasia, modified salivary composition and tissue responses to the dental plaque may aid the physician and the dentist to help nurture the patient with chronic renal failure through the crisis, with an aesthetically satisfying and functioning dentition.

Seraj, B.; Ahmadi, R.; Ramezani, N.; Mashayekhi, A.; Ahmadi, M.



Laser therapy in the management of dental and oro-facial trauma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a clinical presentation demonstrating the efficacy of laser therapy in the treatment of patients presenting with trauma to both the hard and soft tissue in the orofacial region. The use of laser therapy aids the management of these cases where the patients often present with anxiety and a low pain threshold. The outcomes in these cases indicate good patient acceptance of the treatment, enhanced repair and tissue response suggesting that this form of treatment can be indicated for these patients. A combination of hard and soft lasers are used for the comprehensive dental management and treatment of these cases. The lasers used are a 810nm diode and an Er.CrYSGG.

Darbar, Arun A.



Monosynaptic premotor circuit tracing reveals neural substrates for oro-motor coordination  

PubMed Central

Feeding behaviors require intricately coordinated activation among the muscles of the jaw, tongue, and face, but the neural anatomical substrates underlying such coordination remain unclear. In this study, we investigate whether the premotor circuitry of jaw and tongue motoneurons contain elements for coordination. Using a modified monosynaptic rabies virus-based transsynaptic tracing strategy, we systematically mapped premotor neurons for the jaw-closing masseter muscle and the tongue-protruding genioglossus muscle. The maps revealed that the two groups of premotor neurons are distributed in regions implicated in rhythmogenesis, descending motor control, and sensory feedback. Importantly, we discovered several premotor connection configurations that are ideally suited for coordinating bilaterally symmetric jaw movements, and for enabling co-activation of specific jaw, tongue, and facial muscles. Our findings suggest that shared premotor neurons that form specific multi-target connections with selected motoneurons are a simple and general solution to the problem of orofacial coordination. DOI:

Stanek, Edward; Cheng, Steven; Takatoh, Jun; Han, Bao-Xia; Wang, Fan



Rolipram, a selective c-AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor suppresses oro-facial dyskinetic movements in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since striatal dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity in the etiology of tardive dyskinesia has been suggested and dopamine D2 receptors are known to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity resulting in a decrease of cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cAMP) levels, we hypothesized that an increase in cAMP levels ameliorates the condition. In the present study, 21-day haloperidol treatment (1.5 mg\\/kg I.P.) in rats resulted

Hajime Sasaki; Kenji Hashimoto; Yohko Maeda; Toshiya Inada; Yoshie Kitao; Susumu Fukui; Masaomi Iyo



Comparison of Two Multimetal Resistant Bacterial Strains: Enterobacter sp. YSU and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ORO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge, TN, which manufactured nuclear weapons during World War II and the Cold War, contaminated East\\u000a Fork Poplar Creek with heavy metals. The multimetal resistant bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Oak Ridge strain O2 (S. maltophilia O2), was isolated from East Fork Poplar Creek. Sequence analysis of 16s rDNA suggested that our working strain of S.

Andrew Holmes; Anubhav Vinayak; Cherise Benton; Aaron Esbenshade; Carlisle Heinselman; Daniel Frankland; Samatha Kulkarni; Adrienne Kurtanich; Jonathan Caguiat




Microsoft Academic Search

The Philippines is classified among the world's fastest urbanizing countries. Urban areas grew by 5 percent annually between 1980 and 2000. At present, more than half of the population is already living in urban areas. Cities are likely to become more important to the country's economic growth, but such growth is being achieved at a high social and environmental cost.

Robert J. Holmer; Merlito T. Clavejo; Stefan Dongus; Axel Drescher


Comparison of two multimetal resistant bacterial strains: Enterobacter sp. YSU and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ORO2.  


The Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge, TN, which manufactured nuclear weapons during World War II and the Cold War, contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek with heavy metals. The multimetal resistant bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Oak Ridge strain O2 (S. maltophilia O2), was isolated from East Fork Poplar Creek. Sequence analysis of 16s rDNA suggested that our working strain of S. maltophilia O2 was a strain of Enterobacter. Phylogenetic tree analysis and biochemical tests confirmed that it belonged to an Enterobacter species. This new strain was named Enterobacter sp. YSU. Using a modified R3A growth medium, R3A-Tris, the Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Au(III), Cr(VI), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV) MICs for a confirmed strain of S. maltophilia O2 were 0.24, 0.33, 5, 5, 0.25, 7, 0.03, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, compared to 0.07, 0.24, 0.8, 3, 0.05, 0.4, 0.08, 14, and 40 mM, respectively, for Enterobacter sp. YSU. Although S. maltophilia O2 was generally more metal resistant than Enterobacter sp. YSU, in comparison to Escherichia coli strain HB101, Enterobacter sp. YSU was resistant to Hg(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Au(III), Ag(I), As(III), and Se(IV). By studying metal resistances in these two strains, it may be possible to understand what makes one microorganism more metal resistant than another microorganism. This work also provided benchmark MICs that can be used to evaluate the metal resistance properties of other bacterial isolates from East Fork Poplar Creek and other metal contaminated sites. PMID:19688378

Holmes, Andrew; Vinayak, Anubhav; Benton, Cherise; Esbenshade, Aaron; Heinselman, Carlisle; Frankland, Daniel; Kulkarni, Samatha; Kurtanich, Adrienne; Caguiat, Jonathan



Speech and oro-motor function in children with developmental coordination disorder: a pilot study.  


The protracted maturation and development of speech articulation underlies the complexity of the skill, and suggests it may be an area susceptible to a general deficit in motor control. Recent research suggests a high co-occurrence between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and disordered speech production. Despite this there has been no systematic investigation of speech motor control in children with DCD. We conducted a pilot study which looked at speech motor control in a group of children with DCD (N=5) and a group typically developing (TD) children (N=5). Movements of the upper and lower lip were recorded during non-verbal movements, single words, syllable sequences, and sentence repetition. In the baseline conditions (normal talking speed or an isolated utterance) children with DCD demonstrated a typical pattern of movement, albeit a slower and shorter movement. In contrast, when task complexity was increased the children with DCD showed an atypical pattern of movement. It was concluded that children with DCD demonstrate inferior motor control for complex speech gestures, suggesting that the motor deficit in DCD may indeed be a more generalized phenomenon affecting the speech motor system. PMID:20554070

Ho, A K; Wilmut, K



Liquorice Health Check, Oro-Dental Implications, and a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Liquorice has an active substance, Glycyrrhizin which inhibits the conversion of precursor cortisol to cortisone by inhibiting the enzyme 11-betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. When imbibed, liquorice acts like hyperaldosteronism which presents with typical symptoms including high blood pressure, low blood potassium, and muscle pain and weakness. This article appraises physiological and pharmacological effects on health of liquorice, critiques products containing liquorice, describes a typical case report of liquorice-induced hypertension, and appraises oral effects from consumption of liquorice products.

Touyz, Louis Z. G.



Crack and cook: A simple and quick process for elimination of concanavalin A (Con A) from Canavalia seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most nutritionally important antinutritional factor in the Canavalia seeds is Concanavalin A (Con A) which takes at least 3h of cooking at 96°C to inactivate. The effect of breaking the seeds into smaller pieces before cooking on the Con A content was investigated. Whole seeds of Canavalia ensiformis (jackbean) and Canavalia ensiformis seeds that were broken into smaller pieces

A. B. I Udedibie; C. R Carlini



76 FR 54533 - Pipeline Safety: Issuance of Draft Decision on GexCon US, Inc. Petition for Approval of Flame...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Draft Decision on GexCon US, Inc. Petition for Approval of Flame Acceleration Simulator AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...Draft Decision on GexCon US, Inc.'s petition for approval of Flame Acceleration Simulator (FLACS). The Draft Decision is...



ConBr, a lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds, protects against quinolinic acid-induced seizures in mice.  


Lectins are proteins capable of reversible binding to carbohydrates or glycoconjugates. In the central nervous system of mammals, lectins with affinity for mannose/glucose or galactose can modulate cellular communication. ConBr, a lectin isolated from the seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis, previously showed antidepressant effect in the forced swimming test in mice, with involvement of the monoaminergic system. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of ConBr against quinolinic acid (QA), a well-known NMDA agonist that produces severe neurotoxicity when administered in vivo. ConBr (10 ?g/site) administered via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) showed a neuroprotective activity against seizures induced by QA (36.8 nmol/site; i.c.v.) when administered 15 min prior to QA, with a percentage of protection around 50%. ConBr was also able to significantly decrease the severity of the seizures but without changes in the latency of the first convulsion or the duration of the seizures. This effect was dependent on the structural integrity of the ConBr protein and its binding capacity to oligosaccharides residues. ConA, a lectin with high similarity to ConBr, did not reverse the QA-induced seizures. Moreover, ConBr was able to protect against hippocampal cell death caused by QA, which was measured by propidium iodide incorporation. QA caused activation of JNK2 and improved the phosphorylation of Ser831 and 845 on the AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit, and both of these effects were counteracted by ConBr. Our data suggest that the lectin ConBr may exert a modulatory action on NMDA receptors, which inhibits its activity in response to QA. PMID:21948344

Russi, Michael A; Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; Rieger, Débora K; Costa, Ana Paula; Lopes, Mark W; Cunha, Rodrigo M S; Teixeira, Edson H; Nascimento, Kyria S; Cavada, Benildo S; Tasca, Carla I; Leal, Rodrigo B



Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael



Disfrute del sol con cuidado -- Cualquier persona puede padecer cáncer de piel

Está bien pasar algún tiempo en el sol, pero usted debe saber que las personas de piel más oscura –incluso muchos hispanos o latinos– tienen riesgo de padecer cáncer de piel. Siempre que pueda, evite exponerse al sol, especialmente entre las 10 a.m. y las 4 p.m., cuando los rayos del sol son más fuertes. Si trabaja o juega al aire libre, cúbrase y protéjase la piel con prendas de vestir, sombreros, lentes, filtros solares.


The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

I-ConFIRM (The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies) was formed in 2013 to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer. The Consortium is comprised of international investigators and clinicians who have ongoing or completed studies relating to kidney cancer. In its initial phase, the Consortium will undertake research projects that pool existing data across studies as well as developing other collaborative research projects.


Disfrute del sol con cuidado -- Cualquier persona puede padecer cáncer de piel

Está bien pasar algún tiempo al aire libre, pero usted debe saber que las personas de piel más oscura –incluso muchos hispanos o latinos– tienen riesgo de padecer cáncer de piel. Siempre que pueda, evite exponerse al sol, especialmente entre las 10 a.m. y las 4 p.m., cuando los rayos del sol son más fuertes. Si trabaja o juega al aire libre, cúbrase y protéjase la piel con prendas de vestir, sombreros, lentes, filtros solares.


Pro/con debate: Is etomidate safe in hemodynamically unstable critically ill patients?  

PubMed Central

Etomidate is an induction agent known for its smooth intubating conditions and cardiovascular stability. Studies, however, have shown that a single dose of etomidate can result in a prolonged adrenal insufficiency. The impact of this in patients with sepsis has been a matter for debate. This review presents a pro/con case for using etomidate in hemodynamically unstable critically ill patients and provides guidance for alternative induction techniques and when the use of etomidate might be justified despite these concerns.



Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.


Mound-ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report  

SciTech Connect

A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP{sup SM} process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks.




Con_A-carbone nanotube conjugate with short wave near-infrared laser ablation for tumor therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-beam Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con_A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of Con_A can eradicate the established malign tumor, because Con_A can induce tumor cell autophagic, cell-programmed death, as well as activate the effector T cells. Combined, in this paper, with the absorption exceeding the Carbon NanoTube (CNT) band-gap (?bg=~1/CNT diameter) with an active short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1.2~1.5 micron wavelengths), which happened to be translucent to the irradiation upon animal skin, similar to that used in hospital fingertip-clamped Pulse Oxymetry. Once the Con_ACNT is guided to hepatoma cells, it is bonded and internalized into the mitochondria (MC) compartment, the cellular energy factory. Con_A has the higher specificity for tumor cells useful for targeting because of the abnormal glycosylation on tumor cells. When CNT hitch hike with Con_A, they can t together like a laser-denotable chemical missile surgically targeting at the tumor cells precisely by Con_A-guidance. We switch on SWIR laser, when the Con_A-CNT conjugated complex has been bonded and internalized to MC of malign cells and already commenced cellular programmed death. Thus, it might appear to casual readers that we have initiated an overkill, chemical drugged autophage followed with physical laser ablation, but what if we can eradicate hepatoma totally if no blue print is left behind inadvertently in case of a partial failure. We conclude that using Con_A-CNT conjugated complex targeting specifically at malign tumor cells is a novel targeted-laser-radiation therapy for tumors in mice.

Lei, Huan-Yao; Peng, Ching-An; Tang, Ming-Jer; Reindhart, Kit; Szu, Harold H.



Correlación entre la estructura de bandas y las propiedades físicas de óxidos cerámicos de estructura perovskita con metales de transición (I): Propiedades de conducción electrónica  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se revisa los principales modelos teóricos, que pretenden dar una explicación sobre las propiedades de con- ducción electrónica de óxidos cerámicos con estructura perovskita, que incluyen en la posición B metales de transición del primer período (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn), en conexión con su estructura de bandas y el carácter de sus electrones más externos, así como



Effect of GonaCon™ vaccine on black-tailed prairie dogs: immune response and health effects.  


Management of prairie dogs in the past has included poisoning, fumigants, barriers, and relocation. Because of the diverse attitudes related to prairie dog management, nonlethal methods that allow the existence of prairie dogs but help minimize damage related to population growth need to be developed. GonaCon™ is an immunocontraceptive vaccine that elicits antibodies to native GnRH; this prevents the secretion of reproductive hormones necessary for sperm and oocyte production. Prairie dogs were vaccinated with 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mL of the GonaCon™ emulsion intramuscularly in the upper thigh containing 100, 200, or 400 ?g GnRH conjugate, respectively. Control animals were vaccinated with 0.4 mL saline emulsion in the upper thigh. Blood samples (?1 mL) were taken from the femoral vein once pretreatment and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 15 months post-vaccination. Age (adult or juvenile) did not affect immune response to GonaCon™. Antibody titers were higher in the 200 and 400 ?L GonaCon™ groups than in the 100 ?L group, and there was no difference between the 200 and 400 ?L GonaCon™ groups. No adverse effects of GonaCon™ were noted on weight or blood chemistry parameters during the study. GonaCon™ will likely contracept prairie dogs for ?1 year in the field using either 200 or 400 ?g conjugate. GonaCon™ could be incorporated into management plans to help maintain prairie dog populations while reducing habitat degradation due to overpopulation. PMID:21055491

Yoder, Christi A; Miller, Lowell A



Extenso estudio realizado en muchos centros demuestra que hay una precisión comparable de la colonoscopia virtual con la colonoscopia convencional

Según los resultados del Estudio Nacional de Colografía de Tomografía Computarizada de la American College of Radiology Imaging Network, ACRIN, la colografía de tomografía computarizada, también conocida como colonoscopia virtual, es comparable a la colonoscopia convencional en su capacidad para detectar con precisión cáncer y pólipos precancerosos y podría servir como examen selectivo inicial de detección de cáncer colorrectal. La colonoscopia convencional usa un tubo largo, flexible, con cámara, para ver el revestimiento del colon.


Nitrogen-detected CAN and CON experiments as alternative experiments for main chain NMR resonance assignments  

PubMed Central

Heteronuclear direct-detection experiments, which utilize the slower relaxation properties of low ? nuclei, such as 13C have recently been proposed for sequence-specific assignment and structural analyses of large, unstructured, and/or paramagnetic proteins. Here we present two novel 15N direct-detection experiments. The CAN experiment sequentially connects amide 15N resonances using 13C? chemical shift matching, and the CON experiment connects the preceding 13C? nuclei. When starting from the same carbon polarization, the intensities of nitrogen signals detected in the CAN or CON experiments would be expected four times lower than those of carbon resonances observed in the corresponding 13C-detecting experiment, NCA-DIPAP or NCO-IPAP (Bermel et al. 2006b; Takeuchi et al. 2008). However, the disadvantage due to the lower ? is counteracted by the slower 15N transverse relaxation during detection, the possibility for more efficient decoupling in both dimensions, and relaxation optimized properties of the pulse sequences. As a result, the median S/N in the 15N observe CAN experiment is 16% higher than in the 13C observe NCA-DIPAP experiment. In addition, significantly higher sensitivity was observed for those residues that are hard to detect in the NCA-DIPAP experiment, such as Gly, Ser and residues with high-field C? resonances. Both CAN and CON experiments are able to detect Pro resonances that would not be observed in conventional proton-detected experiments. In addition, those experiments are free from problems of incomplete deuterium-to-proton back exchange in amide positions of perdeuterated proteins expressed in D2O. Thus, these features and the superior resolution of 15N-detected experiments provide an attractive alternative for main chain assignments. The experiments are demonstrated with the small model protein GB1 at conditions simulating a 150 kDa protein, and the 52 kDa glutathione S-transferase dimer, GST.

Takeuchi, Koh; Heffron, Gregory; Sun, Zhen-Yu J.; Frueh, Dominique P.



Zebrafish con/disp1 reveals multiple spatiotemporal requirements for Hedgehog-signaling in craniofacial development  

PubMed Central

Background The vertebrate head skeleton is derived largely from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). Genetic studies in zebrafish and mice have established that the Hedgehog (Hh)-signaling pathway plays a critical role in craniofacial development, partly due to the pathway's role in CNCC development. Disruption of the Hh-signaling pathway in humans can lead to the spectral disorder of Holoprosencephaly (HPE), which is often characterized by a variety of craniofacial defects including midline facial clefting and cyclopia [1,2]. Previous work has uncovered a role for Hh-signaling in zebrafish dorsal neurocranium patterning and chondrogenesis, however Hh-signaling mutants have not been described with respect to the ventral pharyngeal arch (PA) skeleton. Lipid-modified Hh-ligands require the transmembrane-spanning receptor Dispatched 1 (Disp1) for proper secretion from Hh-synthesizing cells to the extracellular field where they act on target cells. Here we study chameleon mutants, lacking a functional disp1(con/disp1). Results con/disp1 mutants display reduced and dysmorphic mandibular and hyoid arch cartilages and lack all ceratobranchial cartilage elements. CNCC specification and migration into the PA primorida occurs normally in con/disp1 mutants, however disp1 is necessary for post-migratory CNCC patterning and differentiation. We show that disp1 is required for post-migratory CNCC to become properly patterned within the first arch, while the gene is dispensable for CNCC condensation and patterning in more posterior arches. Upon residing in well-formed pharyngeal epithelium, neural crest condensations in the posterior PA fail to maintain expression of two transcription factors essential for chondrogenesis, sox9a and dlx2a, yet continue to robustly express other neural crest markers. Histology reveals that posterior arch residing-CNCC differentiate into fibrous-connective tissue, rather than becoming chondrocytes. Treatments with Cyclopamine, to inhibit Hh-signaling at different developmental stages, show that Hh-signaling is required during gastrulation for normal patterning of CNCC in the first PA, and then during the late pharyngula stage, to promote CNCC chondrogenesis within the posterior arches. Further, loss of disp1 disrupted normal expression of bapx1 and gdf5, markers of jaw joint patterning, thus resulting in jaw joint defects in con/disp1 mutant animals. Conclusion This study reveals novel requirements for Hh-signaling in the zebrafish PA skeleton and highlights the functional diversity and differential sensitivity of craniofacial tissues to Hh-signaling throughout the face, a finding that may help to explain the spectrum of human facial phenotypes characteristic of HPE.



A theoretical study of the rovibronic spectra of CNO, NCO and CON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variational calculations of the rovibronic spectra of the three isomers NCO, CNO and CON in their X2? electronic ground state have been performed. The calculations were done in an attempt to calibrate a computed ab initio potential, based on the complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) approach, against experimental vibrational data. Comparison with experiment for the NCO isomer indicates that the theoretical potential is a little flat. It is shown that minor changes to the quadratic force field parameters lead to a substantial improvement in the accuracy.

Persson, B. Joakim; Roos, Björn O.; Carter, Stuart



Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones de cooperación y conflicto entre una compañia minera y las comunidades, los Nuevos Movimientos Sociales y los tres niveles de gobierno involucrados. La compañia Minera inició operaciones para una mina a cielo abierto de oro y plata con el apoyo de oficiales de los gobiernos locales, estatales y federal. Los habitantes

José G. Vargas-Hernández



Reliability of knee extension and flexion measurements using the Con-Trex isokinetic dynamometer.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of isokinetic and isometric assessments of the knee extensor and the flexor muscle function using the Con-Trex isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty healthy subjects (15 males, 15 females) were tested and retested 7 days later for maximal strength (isokinetic peak torque, work, power and angle of peak torque as well as isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development) and fatigue (per cent loss and linear slope of torque and work across a series of 20 contractions). For both the knee extensor and the flexor muscle groups, all strength data - except angle of peak torque - demonstrated moderate-to-high reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) higher than 0.86. The highest reliability was observed for concentric peak torque of the knee extensor muscles (ICC = 0.99). Test-retest reliability of fatigue variables was moderate for the knee extensor (ICC range 0.84-0.89) and insufficient-to-moderate for the knee flexor muscles (ICC range 0.78-0.81). The more reliable index of muscle fatigue was the linear slope of the decline in work output. These findings establish the reliability of isokinetic and isometric measurements using the Con-Trex machine. PMID:17944656

Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Bizzini, Mario; Desbrosses, Kevin; Babault, Nicolas; Munzinger, Urs



Preparation of stimulus responsive multiple emulsions by membrane emulsification using con a as biochemical sensor.  


In this work, a novel strategy for the controlled fabrication of biomolecular stimulus responsive water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion using the membrane emulsification process was investigated. The emulsions interface was functionalized with a biomolecule able to function as a receptor for a target compound. The interaction between the biomolecular receptor and target stimulus activated the release of bioactive molecules contained within the structured emulsion. A glucose sensitive emulsion was investigated as a model study case. Concanavalin A (Con A) was used as the biomolecular glucose sensor. Various physicochemical strategies for stimulus responsive materials formulation are available in literature, but the preparation of biomolecule-responsive emulsions has been explored for the first time in this paper. The development of novel drug delivery systems requires advanced and highly precise techniques to obtain their particular properties and targeting requirements. The present study has proven the flexibility and suitability of membrane emulsification for the preparation of stable and functional multiple emulsions containing Con A as interfacial biomolecular receptor able to activate the release of a bioactive molecule as a consequence of interaction with the glucose target molecule. The influence of emulsion interfacial composition and membrane emulsification operating conditions on droplets stability and functional properties have been investigated. The release of the bioactive molecule as a function of glucose stimulus and its concentration has been demonstrated. PMID:21404264

Piacentini, Emma; Drioli, Enrico; Giorno, Lidietta



Antiviral and antitumor effects of a human interferon analog, IFN-alpha Con 1, assessed in hamsters.  


An analog of human alpha-and beta-interferons (IFN-alpha and -beta) (generally consisting of the most frequently observed amino acid residue at each position in the molecule) has pronounced antiviral and antiproliferative activity in human and hamster cells. Intraperitoneal administration of this analog (designated IFN-alpha Con 1) to hamsters at 10(6) to 10(8) U/kg resulted in proportional increases in plasma concentrations through 6 h of monitoring. IFN-alpha Con 1 at these doses effectively limited encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infections of hamsters. A natural human IFN-alpha preparation was also active against virus infections in hamsters. The antitumor activity of IFN-alpha Con 1 and natural human IFN-alpha was assessed in hamsters inoculated with lethal TBD932 lymphosarcoma. Various IFN treatment schedules resulted in prolonged survival following tumor challenge. IFN-alpha Con 1 administered at 10(5) to 10(6) U/hamster daily for 9-12 days following tumor challenge was effective in delaying tumor development, as was a natural human IFN-alpha preparation. The efficacies of combined IFN and cyclophosphamide therapies were determined. Unlike the natural human subtype IFN-alpha A, IFN-alpha Con 1 did not diminish the efficacy of cyclophosphamide (2.5 mg/hamster for 3 days) against the lymphosarcoma. However, an ineffective dose of cyclophosphamide (0.05 mg/hamster for 3 days) when combined with IFN-alpha Con 1 treatment showed enhanced antitumor activity. Combinations of cimetidine (16 mg/hamster for 4 days) and IFN-alpha Con 1 treatment did not prolong survival in this model system. PMID:3021874

Altrock, B W; Fagin, K D; Hockman, H R; Fish, E N; Goldstein, L; Chang, D; Duker, K; Stebbing, N



Multi-wall carbon nanotube-polyaniline biosensor based on lectin-carbohydrate affinity for ultrasensitive detection of Con A.  


In this paper, a novel method for detecting concanavalin A (Con A) was developed based on lectin-carbohydrate biospecific interactions. Multi-wall carbon nanotube-polyaniline (MWNT-PANI) nanocomposites, synthesized by in situ polymerization, were chosen to immobilize d-glucose through the Schiff-base reaction. The immobilized D-glucose showed high binding sensitivity and excellent selectivity to its target lectin, Con A. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were applied to characterize the assembly process of the modified electrode. Due to the high affinity of Con A for D-glucose and high stability of the propounded sensing platform, the fabricated biosensor achieved ultrasensitive detection of Con A with good sensitivity, acceptable reproducibility and stability. The changes of response current were proportional to the Con A concentrations from 3.3 pM to 9.3 nM, with a detection limit of 1.0 pM. Therefore, the combination of MWNT-PANI nanocomposites and the special binding force between lectin and carbohydrate provides an efficient and promising platform for the fabrication of bioelectrochemical devices. PMID:22387041

Hu, Fangxin; Chen, Shihong; Wang, Chengyan; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun; Wang, Cun



Considerations on Characteristic Periods of Adriatic Sea Level Oscillations . Considerazioni Sui Periodi Caratteristici Delle Oxcillazioni Del Livello Marino in Adriatico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristic periods of the Adriatic sea basin were determined using an existing numerical model. Results are compared with those obtained by analysis of the sea-level time series. The differences can be explained by taking into account the duration...

S. Palmieri C. Finizio



Evaluación de los ácidos grasos n-3 de 18 especies de pescados marinos mexicanos como alimentos funcionales  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. n-3 fatty acid evaluation in eighteen Mexican ma- rine fishes as functional food. The objective of the present work was to characterize the n-3 fatty acid composition of eighteen spe- cies of Mexican marine fishes and to evaluate their potential as func- tional food. Total lipids and fatty acid (FA) compositions were ob- tained of the edible portion of

Castro-González MI; Ojeda VA


Bioenergetics and diving activity of internesting leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Costa Rica.  


Physiology, environment and life history demands interact to influence marine turtle bioenergetics and activity. However, metabolism and diving behavior of free-swimming marine turtles have not been measured simultaneously. Using doubly labeled water, we obtained the first field metabolic rates (FMRs; 0.20-0.74 W kg(-1)) and water fluxes (16-30% TBW day(-1), where TBW=total body water) for free-ranging marine turtles and combined these data with dive information from electronic archival tags to investigate the bioenergetics and diving activity of reproductive adult female leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea. Mean dive durations (7.8+/-2.4 min (+/-1 s.d.), bottom times (2.7+/-0.8 min), and percentage of time spent in water temperatures (Tw) < or =24 degrees C (9.5+/-5.7%) increased with increasing mean maximum dive depths (22.6+/-7.1 m; all P< or =0.001). The FMRs increased with longer mean dive durations, bottom times and surface intervals and increased time spent in Tw< or =24 degrees C (all r2> or =0.99). This suggests that low FMRs and activity levels, combined with shuttling between different water temperatures, could allow leatherbacks to avoid overheating while in warm tropical waters. Additionally, internesting leatherback dive durations were consistently shorter than aerobic dive limits calculated from our FMRs (11.7-44.3 min). Our results indicate that internesting female leatherbacks maintained low FMRs and activity levels, thereby spending relatively little energy while active at sea. Future studies should incorporate data on metabolic rate, dive patterns, water temperatures, and body temperatures to develop further the relationship between physiological and life history demands and marine turtle bioenergetics and activity. PMID:16215215

Wallace, Bryan P; Williams, Cassondra L; Paladino, Frank V; Morreale, Stephen J; Lindstrom, R Todd; Spotila, James R



Pros and cons of healthcare information technology implementation: the pros win.  


Countless studies and investigations have been performed siding either for or against the implementation of technology in the healthcare setting. This article presents both sides of this debate, with an obvious conclusion that the pros of this debate win. The practice of information technology in the medical domain lags behind its knowledge and discovery by at least 7 years. The key to closing this gap is to show, through various studies, how information technology systems provide decision support to users at the point in time when decisions are needed. What the reader will obtain from this article is that the pros for information technology implementation in healthcare settings weigh much more and have a greater effect than the cons. PMID:17149039

Maffei, Roxana



A new look at the infrared spectrum of the weakly bound CO-N2 complex.  


A broad-band (2135-2165 cm(-1)) infrared spectrum of the CO-N2 van der Waals complex is obtained, using a tunable quantum cascade laser to probe a pulsed supersonic expansion from a slit jet source. Analysis of the spectrum results in the characterization of four new 'stacks' of rotational levels for CO-orthoN2 (all in the v(CO) = 1 upper state) and five new stacks for CO-paraN2 (three in the upper state and two in the vCO = 0 lower state). This considerably expands our knowledge of a rather fundamental weakly bound complex and should lead to improved determinations of the intermolecular forces governing interactions between the carbon monoxide and nitrogen molecules. PMID:24090526

Rezaei, Mojtaba; Michaelian, K H; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N; McKellar, A R W



Nonlinear optical effects in amorphous-like SiCON films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have found that IR bicolor coherent poling of the SiCON films with the pulsed IR 200 ps laser pulses causes sufficiently high values of the second-order optical susceptibilities. The dependence of the second-order susceptibility versus the fundamental power density as well as versus the time of the optical poling and writing/fundamental beam ratios indicate on substantial role of the N / C ratio. Maximally achieved value of the second-order optical susceptibility was equal to about 9 pm / V. In the case of our films we have shown that optimal incident angle of the writing beam with respect to the sample's surface for the achievement of optimal grating is equal to about 67°. Optimal ratio between the fundamental and writing beams was equal about 30. The grating is destroyed during the 10 min after the interruption of optical treatment.

Kityk, I. V.; Mandracci, P.



Con-A-CNT (Carbon Nanotube) Conjugate with Short Wave Near-Infrared (SWIR) Laser Ablation for Tumor Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the characteristics of T cell mitogen called lectin protein from the jack-bean Canavalia ensiformis Concanavalin A (Con-A) with dual activities, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation, we have shown it has a therapeutic effect on hepatoma. Injection of C...

C. Peng H. Lei H. Szu M. Tang



Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.



Microsoft Academic Search

Japón quedó devastado al concluir la Segunda Guerra Mundial. En ese entonces, una de las vías que encontró para salir de la crisis en que había quedado inmerso, fue dedicarse por completo a la recuperación económica. Para ello, en 1951, firma el Tratado de Seguridad con los EE.UU., a partir de la Doctrina Yoshida, que consistía, en la concentración de

Yunyslka González Vaguéz



In vivo normobaric oxygen exposure depresses spleen cell in vitro Con A response. Effects of 2-mercaptoethanol and peritoneal cells.  

PubMed Central

Normobaric O2 exposure decreased spleen cell (SC) response to T cell mitogen Con A. 3H-TdR incorporation of SC from O2 exposed mice (O2SC) compared to those of control mice (Air SC) decreased significantly after 72 and 87 h O2 exposure. The dose response kinetics to Con A were identical in O2SC or Air SC. Increasing SC number did not restore the response to Con A and the depressed hyperoxic effect was not related to suppressor cells in the spleen of O2 exposed mice. Response of O2SC to Con A was restored by the thiol compound 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), and the degree of restoration by 2-ME, was inversely proportional to the depressed response. Addition of intact peritoneal cells (PC) induced restoration within the same range as 2-ME. Restoration of the mitogenic response by 2-ME involved antioxidant properties and suggested that macrophages were functionally injured by O2 exposure. In cases where mitogen response was highly depressed, restoration was only partial; in these conditions in vivo O2 injury probably involved both macrophages and splenic T cells. The mechanisms of O2 toxicity have been discussed in terms of free radical generation under hyperoxic conditions.

Gougerot-Pocidalo, M A; Fay, M; Pocidalo, J J



Treatment of plutonium contaminated soil/sediment from the Mound site using the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process  

SciTech Connect

The removal and/or treatment of contaminated soil is a major problem facing the US DOE. The EG&G Mound Applied Technologies site in Miamisburg, Ohio, has an estimated 1.5 million cubic feet of soils from past disposal and waste burial practices awaiting remediation from plutonium contamination. This amount includes sediment from the Miami-Erie Canal that was contaminated in 1969 following a pipe- rupture accident. Conventional soil washing techniques that use particle separation would generate too large a waste volume to be economically feasible. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed for the cleanup. The ACT*DE*CON process was developed by SELENTEC for washing soils to selectively dissolve and remove heavy metals and radionuclides. ACT*DE*CON chemically dissolves and removes heavy metals and radionuclides from soils and sediments into an aqueous medium. The ACT*DE*CON process uses oxidative carbonate/chelant chemistry to dissolve the contaminant from the sediment and hold the contaminant in solution. The objective of recent work was to document the proves conditions necessary to achieve the Mound-site and regulatory-cleanup goals using the ACT*DE*CON technology.

Negri, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Swift, N.A. [SELENTEC, Atlanta, GA (United States); North, J.P. [Rust Remedial Service, Inc., Anderson, SC (United States)



[Emission spectrum of liquid CO-N2 mixture at shock compression].  


Driving a copper projectile to impact a cryo-target made of aluminous alloy at the speed of 2.21 km x s(-1) with a two stage light gas gun, a proper one dimensional shockwave with a speed of 18.76 km x s(-1) was generated and directly acted on a uniform liquid in target, which was condensed by proportional gaseous carbon monoxide and nitrogen. At the measurement of Hugoniots, the full linear spectrum entirely dissociated with the plasma under the shock pressure of 33.5 GPa was caught by the use of intensified charge coupled device and accurate spectrographic technology. From the analysis of the spectrum, the authors know that the transient spectrograph with six channels can be used to measure and record the course of shock compression-irradiancy reliably, and the emitted spectral lines of shock compressed products indicated that the thermal dissociation and phase transition had occurred in homogeneous liquid of CO-N2. Furthermore, comparing the spectral intensity of lower central wavelength with that of higher, the fact of stronger intensity of 488 nm also validates that changes from "optic thin" to "optic thick" exist indeed in dense hydrocarbon liquid acted on by shock pressure. PMID:19626860

Sun, Yue; Yi, Peng-Fei; Chen, Xian-Meng; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Zheng, Xue-Ping; Xue, Xue-Dong



Pro/con ethics debate: is nonheart-beating organ donation ethically acceptable?  


This pro/con debate explores the ethical issues surrounding nonheart-beating organ donation (NHBD), a source of considerable controversy. It is estimated that NHBD can increase the number of organs available for transplant by 25% at a time of great need. However, should NHBD be ethically acceptable? In support of NHBD, it may be acceptable practice if there is a separation of the rationale to withdraw life support/to withhold cardiopulmonary resuscitation from the decision to recover organs, if no conflicts of interest exist, if a waiting time precluding spontaneous return of circulation is included, and if NHBD conforms to a standardized protocol. Against NHBD, there are questions regarding the ambiguity and cultural perspectives of death, regarding whether a separation of rationale between withdrawal and donation is sufficient to preclude conflicts of interest, and regarding whether variable protocols arise that subordinate the patient to the goal of donation. Such concerns suggest NHBD may damage the trust in patient-physician relationships and may adversely affect organ donation rates. PMID:12133176

Whetstine, Leslie; Bowman, Kerry; Hawryluck, Laura



Pros and cons of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients  

PubMed Central

Before the introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy, a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status represented an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplant (SOT). The advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy in 1996 largely contributed to the increased demand for SOT in HIV-positive individuals due to increased patients’ life expectancy associated with the increasing prevalence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nowadays, liver failure represents a frequent cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population mainly due to coinfection with hepatitis viruses sharing the same way of transmission. Thus, liver transplantation (LT) represents a reasonable approach in HIV patients with stable infection and ESLD. Available data presently supports with good evidence the practice of LT in the HIV-positive population. Thus, the issue is no longer “whether it is correct to transplant HIV-infected patients”, but “who are the patients who can be safely transplanted” and “when is the best time to perform LT”. Indeed, the benefits of LT in HIV-infected patients, especially in terms of mid- and long-term patient and graft survivals, are strictly related to the patients’ selection and to the correct timing for transplantation, especially when hepatitis C virus coinfection is present. Aim of this article is to review the pros and cons of LT in the cohort of HIV infected recipients.

Baccarani, Umberto; Righi, Elda; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Pasqualucci, Alberto; Bassetti, Matteo; Risaliti, Andrea



Ground and lowest-lying electronic states of CoN. A multiconfigurational study.  


The lowest-lying X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II electronic states of CoN have been investigated at the ab initio MRCI and MS-CASPT2 levels, with extended atomic basis sets and inclusion of scalar relativistic effects. Among the singlet states, the A1Phi and B1II states have been described for the first time. Potential energy curves, excitation energies, spectroscopic constants, and bonding character for all states are reported. Comparison with other early transition-metal nitrides (ScN, TiN, VN, and CrN), isoelectronic (NiC) and isovalent (RhN and IrN) species has been made, besides analyzing the B1II <=> X1+ electronic transition in terms of Franck-Condon factors, Einstein coefficients, and radiative lifetimes. At both levels of theory, the following energetic order has been obtained: X1Sigma+, a3Phi, b3II, c5Delta, A1Phi, and B1II, with good agreement with experimental results. In contrast, previous DFT and MRCI calculations predicted the ground state to be the 5Delta state. PMID:17181357

Gobbo, João Paulo; Borin, Antonio Carlos



Structural and magnetic properties of N doped Fe_mCon superlattices: First principles calculations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic alloys and multilayers have been widely investigated because of their potential for magnetic device applications. In this, materials exhibiting high magnetization as well as good soft magnetic properties are desirable. We investigated the magnetic and structural properties of Fe_mCon superlattices with various compositions via first principles local density full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method^(1) calculations. For the 25% Co composition which showed the maximum magnetic moments, we inserted N atoms to make (Fe_3Co)_4N_2, in order to examine the possible magnetic enhancement by N, which has drawn much attention since the first report (in 1972) of a giant magnetic moment for the quasi-stable ?-Fe_16N_2. The structural optimization was fully accomplished by total energy and atomic force calculations. Despite the lattice expansion due to the N insertion, the magnetic moment of (Fe_3Co)_4N2 was found to be reduced from the value of the Fe_3Co superlattice by the strong hybridization of N with Fe and Co. (1) E. Wimmer, H. Krakauer, M. Weinert and A. J. Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 864 (1981).

Kim, Miyoung; Freeman, A. J.



Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relaci?n con Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3  

PubMed Central

Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó con el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención.

Perez-Jimenez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.



Thromboprophylaxis in carriers of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) without previous thrombosis: "Pros" and "Cons".  


The presence of anti-phospholipid (aPL) is necessary but not sufficient to induce a thrombotic event. The "second hit" hypothesis suggested that an additional trigger may be needed to develop a vascular event in aPL carriers. In this article, pro and con of primary thromboprophylaxis in aPL carriers is deeply discussed, concluding that univocal data are not available, due to conflicting results of available clinical trials. However, in clinical practice the primary thromboprophylaxis is not indicated in all unselected asymptomatic aPL carriers, and the best strategy begin with the assessment of the peculiar risk profile of the subject. Thus, it is mandatory to eliminate modifiable prothrombotic risk factors (i.e. smoking, oral contraceptive), to treat the irreversible risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes) and to introduce an aggressive prophylaxis with subcutaneous LMWH in high-risk situations (i.e. surgical procedures with prolonged immobilization). A different evaluation should be addressed to aPL carriers with a concomitant autoimmune disease that are considered as an additional pro-thrombotic risk factor. Similarly, concomitant positivity for more than one anti-phospholipid test confer a stronger risk of developing the thrombotic manifestations. Specific trials with larger cohorts of patients are needed to better clarify this issue. PMID:22036825

Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Chighizola, Cecilia; Finazzi, Guido; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Valesini, Guido



Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics for First-Episode Schizophrenia: The Pros and Cons  

PubMed Central

Clinical and psychosocial deterioration associated with schizophrenia occurs within the first few years following the onset of the illness. Therefore, to improve the long-term prognosis, it is important to provide schizophrenia patients with intensive treatment following their first episode. Relapse is highly associated with partial medication adherence or nonadherence in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics compared with oral antipsychotics are more effective for medication adherence and relapse prevention. Moreover, some clinical guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia suggested that LAI antipsychotics should be considered when patients are nonadherent “at any stage.” Decreased compliance is a common cause of relapse during the initial stages of the disease. Therefore, LAI antipsychotics should be highly considered when treating patients with first-episode schizophrenia. In the present paper, clinical trial data and current guidelines on the use of LAI antipsychotics for first-episode schizophrenia are discussed as well as the pros and cons of this treatment option.

Kim, Borah; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Yang, Yen Kuang; Park, Jong-Il; Chung, Young-Chul



Strains arising by seismic events in the SIRGAS-CON network region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate surface strains related to seismic events and their relationship with pre- and post-seismic events in Latin America, by analyzing the variation of estimated earth coordinates supplied by a geodetic network called SIRGAS-CON. Based on data provided by the USGS for the period 2000-2011, and after the Global Congruency test, we selected four events associated with unstable geodetic network points. The resulting strains were estimated based on the finite element method using networks of points considered unstable connected to neighboring points using the Delaunay triangulation. It was possible to determine the strains along with the resulting guidelines for pre- and post-seismic, considering each triangular lattice formed for analysis as a homogeneous solid body. The calculation of strains and verification of the results allowed to analyze the interactions between lithospheric plates from the contraction and extension directions between points located in different plates. Despite the association between seismic events and the strain of geodetic network, some events of magnitude greater than 5.8 Mw were excluded because it does not show (provide) the surface strain, which is located at great depths. It was confirmed that events of greater magnitude provide increased surface strain rate when compared with other similar depths.

Marotta, G. S.; França, G. S.; Monico, J. F. G.; Fuck, R. A.



Vibrational relaxation of CO(n = 1) in collisions with He  

SciTech Connect

We present a full ab initio study of vibrational relaxation of CO(n = 1) in collisions with /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He. The vibrational coordinate dependence of the interaction potential is calculated directly. Dynamical calculations are performed within the IOS and the CS approximation. The IOS cross sections agree very well with the corresponding CS results for both He isotopes, however, the ratio IOS/CS shows a different energy behavior for /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He, respectively. The CS rates for /sup 3/He agree extremely well with the experimental relaxation rates. Although only the reduced mass is changed for /sup 4/He the agreement with experiment is less favorable in this case. It is explicitly demonstrated that the often used procedure to extract the vibrational coordinate dependence of the interaction potential from a dumbbell fit of the rigid-rotor surface is wrong for He--CO. For /sup 3/He the corresponding cross sections are 3--10 times smaller than those obtained form the ab initio potential although the vibrationally elastic parts of the interaction potential are identical.

Schinke, R.; Diercksen, G.H.F.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: Introducción: Con entrenamiento adecuado, los estudiantes de medicina pueden convertirse en lí- deres de opinión con futura injerencia sobre las políticas de salud, así como ayudar al público a en- tender las consecuencias de los embarazos indeseados y del aborto. El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido examinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre métodos anticonceptivos (MAC) previos al inicio

Guillermo Horacio; Cáceres Pallavidino; Echevarría Avellaneda; Domingo José Pomares


40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of the Day Nui Con Voi Metamorphic Complex, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The garnet bearing gneiss within the Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) Metamorphic Complex along the Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in North Vietnam, recorded a long tectonothermal history since the Indosinian orogeny. In-situ 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of biotite inclusions within garnet porphyroblasts and matrix biotites, combining with microstructural and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, deciphered the timing and duration of thermal events. Biotites from two matrix fabrics from different deformation events show approximately similar 40Ar/39Ar age ranges in 19-24Ma, depending grain size. These matrix biotite ages are best interpreted to record a rapid cooling event associating with the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ. Whereas, all biotite inclusions exhibit age zoning patterns with 40Ar/39Ar ages gradually increase from 17 Ma to more than 28 Ma according to their diffusion pathways. These age variations may have resultant from a combination effect of argon retention by garnet shielding, which provides a best recorder to the metamorphic event, and argon diffusion loss along the deformed cracks during the shearing event of the RRSZ. Diffusion modeling of these age zoning indicated that the total duration of argon diffusion loss may have lasted for nearly 9 Myr and argon diffusion may have occurred sometime around 24.5Ma. These results are generally in good agreement with previous interpretation, but provide better resolution of 40Ar/39Ar age data for deciphering the history of thermal event in the DNCV Metamorphic Complex and the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ in Vietnam, as well.

Wu, C.; Lo, C.; Yeh, M.; Chung, S.; Lee, T.



Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs  

PubMed Central

Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs.

Epstein, Nancy E.



(Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy.  


Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. PMID:24841985

Yong, Keir X X; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M D; Warren, Jason D; Crutch, Sebastian J



Do Patient-perceived Pros and Cons of Opioids Predict Sustained Higher-Dose Use?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Chronic opioid therapy (COT) is associated with various adverse outcomes, especially at higher doses, yet little is known about predictors of sustained higher-dose COT. This study aimed to ascertain, among higher-dose COT patients, the association of patient-perceived pros and cons of opioids with continued higher-dose use 1 year later. Methods Patients (N = 1229) in 2 large health plans prescribed ? 50 mg morphine-equivalent dose (MED) per day for chronic non-cancer pain completed a survey assessing opioid benefits and harms. The Prescribed Opioid Difficulties Scale questionnaire assessed psychosocial problems, concerns, benefits, and side effects related to opioid use. Logistic regression models estimated the associations of the reported benefits and problems with higher-dose continuation (? 50 mg MED/d) versus dose reduction (< 50 mg MED/d) 1 year later. Results Over 80% of participants continued higher-dose opioid use at 1 year, regardless of reported problems, concerns, side effects, pain reduction, or perceived helpfulness. Higher scores on the Prescribed Opioid Difficulties Scale Problems subscale (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval, 0.68–0.92) and Concerns subscale (odds ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.90) were negatively associated with higher-dose use 1 year later. Other baseline measures (opioid helpfulness, reduction in pain, number of side effects, and side effect bothersomeness) were not significantly associated with continued higher-dose use. Discussion The large majority of patients continued using higher-dose opioids regardless of baseline characteristics. These findings suggest the difficulty of reducing opioid dose among chronic higher-dose opioid users.

Thielke, Stephen M.; Turner, Judith A.; Shortreed, Susan M.; Saunders, Kathleen; LeResche, Linda; Campbell, Cynthia I.; Weisner, Constance C.; Korff, Michael V.



Strain Rate into South American Plate by SIRGAS-CON Geodetic Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study were investigated the surface strain rates computed from the direction variations and velocity values estimated from the coordinates of the continuous monitoring geodetic network called SIRGAS-CON. That investigation was done using points located in the South American plate. The determination of the strain rate was based on the Finite Element method using points defined by Delaunay triangulation (sub-networks). Each one of sub-networks was considered as an homogeneous solid body. Using these methods was possible to separate the strain from the plate movement. The results showed that there are differences of strain rate along the South American plate. From the results were suggest that near to the west board of the plate, the strain is more significant, as expected, because this region is near to one area where Nazca Plate subduct South American Plate. It was detected that the contraction region founded in this area coincides whit the region where occurs most of earthquakes of greater magnitude. Far from the board, there are some areas with anomalies of significant strain of extension and contraction that can be originated by differences of stress aligned with different geological composites. By the results, It may be concluded that large surface movements occur in regions with more heterogeneous geological structures and multiple event of rupture, that large earthquakes arising from large tectonic activity into South American Plate are concentrated in areas with contraction strain rates predominantly oriented towards northeast-southwest, that significant amounts of elastic strain can be accumulated over geological structures away from fault plate boundary and that the behavior of contractions and extensions are similar to that found by different researches involving geophysical studies. Dilation and principal components of strain rate

Marotta, G. S.; Franca, G. S.; Monico, J. G.; Fuck, R. A.



Strain rate of the South American lithospheric plate by SIRGAS-CON geodetic observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiyear solution of the SIRGAS-CON network was used to estimate the strain rates of the earth surface from the changing directions of the velocity vectors of 140 geodetic points located in the South American plate. The strain rate was determined by the finite element method using Delaunay triangulation points that formed sub-networks; each sub-network was considered a solid and homogeneous body. The results showed that strain rates vary along the South American plate and are more significant on the western portion of the plate, as expected, since this region is close to the subduction zone of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. After using Euler vectors to infer Nazca plate movement and to orient the velocity vectors of the South American plate, it was possible to estimate the convergence and accommodation rates of the Nazca and South American plates, respectively. Strain rate estimates permitted determination of predominant contraction and/or extension regions and to establish that contraction regions coincide with locations with most of the high magnitude seismic events. Some areas with extension and contraction strains were found to the east within the stable South American plate, which may result from different stresses associated with different geological characteristics. These results suggest that major movements detected on the surface near the Nazca plate occur in regions with more heterogeneous geological structures and multiple rupture events. Most seismic events in the South American plate are concentrated in areas with predominant contraction strain rates oriented northeast-southwest; significant amounts of elastic strain can be accumulated on geological structures away from the plate boundary faults; and, behavior of contractions and extensions is similar to what has been found in seismological studies.

Marotta, Giuliano Sant'Anna; França, George Sand; Galera Monico, João Francisco; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Oswaldo de Araújo Filho, José



Structural analysis of ConBr reveals molecular correlation between the carbohydrate recognition domain and endothelial NO synthase activation.  


Diocleinae lectins are highly homologous in their primary structure which features metal binding sites and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Differences in the biological activity of legume lectins have been widely investigated using hemagglutination inhibition assays, isothermal titration microcalorimetry and co-crystallization with mono- and oligosaccharides. Here we report a new lectin crystal structure (ConBr) extracted from seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis, predict dimannoside binding by docking, identify the ?-aminobutyric acid (Abu) binding pocket and compare the CRD of ConBr to that of homologous lectins. Based on the hypothesis that the carbohydrate affinity of lectins depends on CRD configuration, the relationship between tridimensional structure and endothelial NO synthase activation was used to clarify differences in biological activity. Our study established a correlation between the position of CRD amino acid side chains and the stimulation of NO release from endothelium. PMID:21530490

Bezerra, Eduardo Henrique Salviano; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Bezerra, Gustavo de Arruda; Moura, Tales Rocha de; Bezerra, Maria Júlia Barbosa; Benevides, Raquel Guimarães; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Delatorre, Plínio; Cavada, Benildo Sousa



ConReg-R: Extrapolative recalibration of the empirical distribution of p-values to improve false discovery rate estimates  

PubMed Central

Background False discovery rate (FDR) control is commonly accepted as the most appropriate error control in multiple hypothesis testing problems. The accuracy of FDR estimation depends on the accuracy of the estimation of p-values from each test and validity of the underlying assumptions of the distribution. However, in many practical testing problems such as in genomics, the p-values could be under-estimated or over-estimated for many known or unknown reasons. Consequently, FDR estimation would then be influenced and lose its veracity. Results We propose a new extrapolative method called Constrained Regression Recalibration (ConReg-R) to recalibrate the empirical p-values by modeling their distribution to improve the FDR estimates. Our ConReg-R method is based on the observation that accurately estimated p-values from true null hypotheses follow uniform distribution and the observed distribution of p-values is indeed a mixture of distributions of p-values from true null hypotheses and true alternative hypotheses. Hence, ConReg-R recalibrates the observed p-values so that they exhibit the properties of an ideal empirical p-value distribution. The proportion of true null hypotheses (?0) and FDR are estimated after the recalibration. Conclusions ConReg-R provides an efficient way to improve the FDR estimates. It only requires the p-values from the tests and avoids permutation of the original test data. We demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves FDR estimation on several gene expression datasets obtained from microarray and RNA-seq experiments. Reviewers The manuscript was reviewed by Prof. Vladimir Kuznetsov, Prof. Philippe Broet, and Prof. Hongfang Liu (nominated by Prof. Yuriy Gusev).



Genotyping the HFE gene by melting point analysis with the LightCycler system: Pros and cons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assay that combines rapid-cycle PCR with allele-specific fluorescent probe melting profiles performed on the Roche Diagnostics LightCycler is commonly employed for genotyping the HFE gene.We report three illustrative cases of the pros and cons of this method. In two cases, atypical melting curves allows the identification of new DNA substitutions in the HFE gene, whereas, in the third case,

V. Bach; M. J. Barceló; A. Altés; A. Remacha; J. Félez; M. Baiget



Immunoreactivity for Thymosin Beta 4 and Thymosin Beta 10 in the Adult Rat Oro-Gastro-Intestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Thymosin beta 4 (T?4) and thymosin beta 10 (T?10) are two members of the ?-thymosin family, involved in multiple cellular activities in different organs in multiple animal species. Here we report the expression pattern of T?4 and T?10 in rat tissues, in the gut and in annexed glands. The two peptide were differently expressed: T?4 was absent in salivary glands whereas T?10 was expressed in parotid and in submandibular glands. T?4 was mildly expressed in the tongue and in the esophagus, where T?10 was absent. A similar expression was found in the stomach, ileum and colon mucosa. In pancreas T?4 reactivity was restricted to the Langerhans islet cells; T?4 was also detected in the exocrine cells. Both peptide were not expressed in liver cells. When the rat expression pattern in rat organs was compared to reactivity for T?4 and T?10 in humans, marked differences were found. Our data clearly indicate a species-specific expression of T?4 and T?10, characterized by the actual unpredictability of the expression of these peptides in different cells and tissues. The common high expression of T?4 in mast cells, both in humans and in rats, represents one of the few similarities between these two species.

Nemolato, S; Ekstrom, J.; Cabras, T.; Gerosa, C.; Fanni, D.; Di Felice, E.; Locci, A.; Messana, I.; Castagnola, M.; Faa, G.



CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration



Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons): Undergraduate Education Through Interdisciplinary, Team-Based, Real-World Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attitude, Skills, Knowledge (ASK) -- In this order, these are fundamental characteristics of scientific innovators. Through first-hand practice in using science to unpack and solve complex real-world problems, students can become self-motivated scientific leaders. This presentation describes the pedagogy of a recently developed interdisciplinary undergraduate science education program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst focused on addressing global challenges with scientific solutions. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons) is an overarching concentration program that supplements the curricula provided within each student's chosen major. iCons is a platform for students to perform student-led research in interdisciplinary collaborative teams. With a schedule of one course per year over four years, the cohort of students move through case studies, analysis of real-world problems, development of potential solutions, integrative communication, laboratory practice, and capstone research projects. In this presentation, a track emphasizing renewable energy science is used to illustrate the iCons pedagogical methods. This includes discussion of a third-year laboratory course in renewable energy that is educationally scaffolded: beginning with a boot camp in laboratory techniques and culminating with student-designed research projects. Among other objectives, this course emphasizes the practice of using reflection and redesign, as a means of generating better solutions and embedding learning for the long term.

Tuominen, Mark



Deformation sequences of the Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic belt, northern Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation of structure, microstructure and metamorphic assemblages is of fundamental importance to the understanding of the complex tectonic history and kinematics of the Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic belt in Vietnam along the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone as it provides constraints on the relative timing of the deformation, kinematics and metamorphism. High-grade metamorphic rocks of amphibolite faces showed consistent deformation sequences of three folding events followed by one brittle deformation through all four cross sections from Lao Cai to Viet Tri indicated the DNCV belt experienced similar deformation condition throughout its length. The first deformation event, D1, produced up-right folds (locally preserved) with sub-vertical, NE-SW striking axial planes with dextral sense of shear probably formed during the early phase of the lowermost Triassic Indosinian orogeny. Followed by this compressional event is a gravitational collapsing event, D2, which is the major deformation and metamorphic event characterized by kyanite grade metamorphism and large scale horizontal folds with NW-SE (320) striking sub-horizontal axial pane showing sinsistral sense of shear most likely formed during the Oligocene-Miocene SE extrusion of Indochina peninsula. The 3rd folding event, D3, is a post-metamorphism doming event with NW-SE (310) striking sub-vertical axial plane that folded/tilted the once sub-horizontal D2 axial planes into shallowly (<30 degrees) NE dipping on the NE limb, and SW dipping on the SW limb possibly due to left-lateral movement of the N-S trending Xian Shui He fault system in Mid-Miocene. The outward decreasing of the metamorphic grade from kyanite to garnet then biotite indicated the D3 occurred post metamorphism. Reactivation of the sub-horizontal D2 fold axial planes showed dextral sense of shear possibly due to Late Miocene-Pliocene right-lateral movement of the ASRR shear zone. This right lateral movement continuously deformed the DNCV with brittle fractures such as joints and normal faults (D4) striking NE-SW to E-W and NW-SE.

Yeh, M. W.; Lee, T. Y.; Lo, C. H.; Chung, S. L.; Lan, C. Y.; Lee, J. C.; Lin, T. S.; Lin, Y. J.



La implementación de acuerdos comerciales preferenciales en América Latina: Las experiencias de CH, CR, ES, PE en la implementación de las disposiciones sobre acceso a mercados en el marco de los tratados de libre comercio con Estados Unidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio abordará los desafíos y dificultades asociadas con la implementación y administración de las disposiciones sobre acceso a mercados, con especial énfasis en aquellas relacionadas con aduanas y facilitación del comercio. El análisis se realizará para los Tratados de Libre Comercio de Chile - EE.UU; Perú - EE.UU y para el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Estados Unidos, Centroamérica

Juan Luis Zuñiga; Brian Rankin Staples



Antidepressant-like effect of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) lectin in mice: Evidence for the involvement of the glutamatergic system.  


Lectins recognize and reversibly bind to carbohydrates attached to proteins and lipids modulating a variety of signaling pathways. We previously showed that ConBr, a lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds, produced an antidepressant-like effect in mice by modulating the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, ConBr blocked hippocampal neurotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid in vivo and by glutamate in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective activity of ConBr via glutamatergic system modulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like action displayed by ConBr in the forced swimming test (FST). With the aim of verifying the involvement of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr (10?g/site, i.c.v.), an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pretreatment with either NMDA (0.1pmol/site) or d-serine (30?g/site) was carried out. The results show that both treatments blocked the effect of ConBr. Furthermore, the coadministration of subeffective doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.001mg/kg, i.p.) or ketamine (0.1mg/kg, i.p.; NMDA receptor antagonist) and ConBr (0.1?g/site, i.c.v.) caused a synergistic reduction in immobility time. In order to verify the dependence of the l-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway, on the effect of ConBr in the FST, a pretreatment with the NO precursor, l-arginine (750mg/kg, i.p.), or the PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil (5mg/kg, i.p.), was performed. Both drugs abolished the antidepressant-like action of ConBr. Finally, the administration of subeffective doses of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 30pmol/site, i.c.v.) and ConBr (0.1?g/site, i.c.v.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. Taken together, the results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of ConBr in the FST involves NMDA receptor inhibition and reduction in NO and cGMP synthesis. PMID:24650588

Rieger, Débora K; Costa, Ana Paula; Budni, Josiane; Moretti, Morgana; Barbosa, Sabrina Giovana Rocha; Nascimento, Kyria S; Teixeira, Edson H; Cavada, Benildo S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Leal, Rodrigo B



hI-con1, a factor VII-IgGFc chimeric protein targeting tissue factor for immunotherapy of uterine serous papillary carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Uterine serous papillary adenocarcinoma (USPC) is a highly aggressive variant of endometrial cancer. Human immuno- conjugate molecule (hI-con1) is an antibody-like molecule targeted against tissue factor (TF), composed of two human Factor VII (fVII) as the targeting domain, fused to human immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 Fc as an effector domain. We evaluated hI-con1 potential activity against primary chemotherapy-resistant USPC cell lines

E Cocco; Z Hu; C E Richter; S Bellone; F Casagrande; M Bellone; P Todeschini; G Krikun; D-A Silasi; M Azodi; P E Schwartz; T J Rutherford; N Buza; S Pecorelli; C J Lockwood; A D Santin



No adverse effects of simultaneous vaccination with the immunocontraceptive GonaCon and a commercial rabies vaccine on rabies virus neutralizing antibody production in dogs.  


Parenteral vaccination campaigns are integral to the elimination of canine rabies. To maximize herd immunity in dogs, immunocontraception provided at the time of rabies vaccination should reduce fecundity and dog abundance. GonaCon has been used successfully as an immunocontraceptive in a variety of mammals, and by inference, the dog would be an ideal candidate for testing. As an initial step in evaluating a combination-vaccination program, we assessed the effects of GonaCon on rabies virus neutralizing antibody production in dogs after administration of a veterinary rabies vaccine. Eighteen feral/free ranging dogs were included in this initial study: six were given GonaCon only, six were given rabies vaccination only, and six received GonaCon and rabies vaccination. Antibody levels were evaluated over 82 days. The use of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon did not affect the ability of dogs to seroconvert in response to the rabies vaccine. Thus, GonaCon provides a potential immunocontraceptive for use in combination with rabies vaccine to increase herd immunity and address dog population over abundance to better manage rabies. PMID:19925955

Bender, Scott C; Bergman, David L; Wenning, Krista M; Miller, Lowell A; Slate, Dennis; Jackson, Felix R; Rupprecht, Charles E



Lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds (ConBr) is a valuable biotechnological tool to stimulate the growth of Rhizobium tropici in vitro.  


To study the interactions between a Rhizobium tropici strain and lectins isolated from the seeds of Canavalia ensiformis (ConA) and Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr), a lectin fluorescence assay was performed. In addition, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the two lectins on bacterial growth. Both lectins were found to bind to R. tropici cells, but the interactions were inhibited by D-mannose. Interestingly, only ConBr stimulated bacterial growth in proportion to the concentrations used (15.6-500 ?g/mL), and the bacterial growth stimulation was inhibited by D-mannose as well. Structure/Function analyses by bioinformatics were carried out to evaluate the volume and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) configuration of ConA and ConBr. The difference of spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may indicate the variation between biological activities of both lectins. The results suggest that ConBr could be a promising tool for studies focusing on the interactions between rhizobia and host plants. PMID:22565477

de Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Cunha, Claudio Oliveira; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Mercante, Fabio Martins; do Nascimento Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; de Sousa, Giselly Soares; Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires



Aryl hydrocarbon receptor plays protective roles in ConA-induced hepatic injury by both suppressing IFN-? expression and inducing IL-22.  


The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated nuclear transcription factor, is known to mediate the toxic and carcinogenic effects of various environmental pollutants, while AhR has been shown to protect animals from various types of tissue injury. ConA-induced hepatitis is known as a mouse model of acute liver injury. Here, we found a protective role of AhR in ConA-induced hepatitis. AhR is induced in the liver during ConA-induced hepatitis, and Ahr (-/-) mice were highly sensitive to this model. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicate that Ahr (-/-) hematopoietic cells are responsible for hypersensitivity to ConA-induced hepatitis. We found that IFN-? from invariant NKT cells was up-regulated and IL-22 from innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) was abolished in Ahr (-/-) mice. In addition, IL-22 production was still observed in Rag2 (-/-) mice but it was severely reduced in Ahr (-/-) Rag2 (-/-) mice. ConA-induced IL-22 production was also dependent on retinoic acid-related orphan receptor ?t. These results show that AhR has crucial protective roles in ConA-induced liver injury via promoting IL-22 production from ILCs and suppressing IFN-? expression from NKT cells. PMID:24150244

Abe, Hiromi; Kimura, Akihiro; Tsuruta, Sanae; Fukaya, Tomohiro; Sakaguchi, Ryota; Morita, Rimpei; Sekiya, Takashi; Shichita, Takashi; Chayama, Kazuaki; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Akihiko



Influence of parameter values and variances and algorithm architecture in ConsExpo model on modeled exposures.  


This study evaluated the influence of parameter values and variances and model architecture on modeled exposures, and identified important data gaps that influence lack-of-knowledge-related uncertainty, using Consexpo 4.1 as an illustrative case study. Understanding the influential determinants in exposure estimates enables more informed and appropriate use of this model and the resulting exposure estimates. In exploring the influence of parameter placement in an algorithm and of the values and variances chosen to characterize the parameters within ConsExpo, "sensitive" and "important" parameters were identified: product amount, weight fraction, exposure duration, exposure time, and ventilation rate were deemed "important," or "always sensitive." With this awareness, exposure assessors can strategically focus on acquiring the most robust estimates for these parameters. ConsExpo relies predominantly on three algorithms to assess the default scenarios: inhalation vapors evaporation equation using the Langmuir mass transfer, the dermal instant application with diffusion through the skin, and the oral ingestion by direct uptake algorithm. These algorithms, which do not necessarily render health conservative estimates, account for 87, 89 and 59% of the inhalation, dermal and oral default scenario assessments,respectively, according them greater influence relative to the less frequently used algorithms. Default data provided in ConsExpo may be useful to initiate assessments, but are insufficient for determining exposure acceptability or setting policy, as parameters defined by highly uncertain values produce biased estimates that may not be health conservative. Furthermore, this lack-of-knowledge uncertainty makes the magnitude of this bias uncertain. Significant data gaps persist for product amount, exposure time, and exposure duration. These "important" parameters exert influence in requiring broad values and variances to account for their uncertainty. Prioritizing them for research will not only help fill a large and influential knowledge gap, but also lead to more accurate assessments and thus refine the studies informing policy decisions. PMID:24283337

Arnold, Susan F; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy



Comparison of hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium and nanocrystalline silicon for multijunction solar cells: pros, cons, and status  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium (a-SiGe:H) and hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) for use in the bottom cell of a multijunction structure. In our laboratory, an initial active-area cell efficiency of 14.6% has been achieved in both a-Si:H\\/a-SiGe:H\\/a-SiGe:H and a-Si:H\\/a-SiGe:H\\/nc-Si:H triple-junction structures. Their light-soaked stabilized efficiencies are also similar. Pros, cons, issues, and status for using these

Jeffrey Yang; Baojie Yan; Guozhen Yue; Subhendu Guha




Microsoft Academic Search

sos, con predominio en varones (OR=1.46; IC=1.12-1.91; p=0.03). Actividad física semanal: 3.9 ± 2.9 hs. mayor en varones (p<0.001). Horas de sedentarismo: 3.2 ± 1.9. Antecedentes: obesidad materna 282 (13.3%), paterna 311 (14.7%), en ambos 116 (6.6%). Consumo regular de comidas grasas: 1711 (80.9%). PAS: 107.8 ± 13.6; PAD: 66.9 ± 11.5; PAM: 80.5 ± 10.1. Hipertensos 64 (3%) a




Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

Bagri, Durgadas S.



Suspicion of acute appendicitis in the third trimester of pregnancy: pros and cons of a laparoscopic procedure.  


The presentation of acute appendicitis during pregnancy may cause diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty. Delay in diagnosis may lead to increased maternal and fetal risk. Therefore, an aggressive surgical approach is mandatory, even though this may result in an increased number of appendectomies for normal appendices. Diagnostic laparoscopy, followed by laparoscopic appendectomy in case of inflammation, seems a logical strategy. We present the case of a 36-week pregnant woman who presented with suspicion of acute appendicitis. The pro and cons of a laparoscopic approach in the third trimester of pregnancy are discussed as is its safety by reviewing the literature. PMID:21985728

Donkervoort, S C; Boerma, D



P- T- t paths and post-metamorphic exhumation of the Day Nui Con Voi shear zone in Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Day Nui Con Voi belt in Vietnam is the southeasternmost part of the Red River shear zone in Asia. It is a narrow high-grade metamorphic core complex consisting of garnet-sillimanite-biotite gneisses, mylonite bands, amphibolite layers and migmatites. Geothermobarometric study of the complex revealed that the peak metamorphism took place under amphibolite-facies conditions of 690 -60 +30°C and 0.65±0.15 GPa and the subsequent mylonitization occurred under greenschist-facies conditions of ˜480°C and under 0.3 GPa. Fifteen synkinematic hornblende and biotite separates from gneisses, amphibolites and mylonites were dated with the K/Ar method. Hornblende separates from the Day Nui Con Voi give K-Ar ages of 26.4-28.5 Ma, and the biotite separates do give 24.5-24.7 Ma. Combination of thermobarometric and geochronological data yields the cooling history of 500°C at 28 Ma and 300°C at 24 Ma with a cooling rate of 70-110°C Ma -1, and 23 km post-metamorphic exhumation of the core complex. The first 16 km exhumation from the peak of metamorphism (at probably 31 Ma) to 28 Ma was triggered by the left-lateral strike-slip displacement of the Red River shear zone.

Nam, Tran Ngoc; Toriumi, Mitsuhiro; Itaya, Tetsumaru



Dissection of the intracellular pathways in hepatocytes suggests a role for Jun kinase and IFN regulatory factor-1 in Con A-induced liver failure.  


Con A administration results in dose-dependent immune-mediated liver injury. Cytokines are important to determine the outcome of liver failure in this model, and especially TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma directly contribute to hepatocyte damage. The intracellular pathways of these two cytokines, which eventually result in tissue destruction, are not well defined. Here we used anti-IFN-gamma Abs and adenoviral vectors that express molecules inhibiting distinct TNF-alpha-dependent pathways in hepatocytes to better understand the relevance of specific intracellular signaling cascades for Con A-induced liver failure. We show that activation of TNF-alpha- and IFN-gamma-dependent intracellular pathways occurs prior to the influx of immune-activated cells into the liver and that anti-TNF-alpha and anti-IFN-gamma neutralizing Abs cannot block infiltration of these cells. Blocking experiments with Abs and adenoviral vectors showed that NF-kappaB activation and the Fas-associated death domain protein/caspase 8 cascade in hepatocytes during Con A-induced liver failure have no impact on tissue injury. Additionally, STAT1 activation alone after Con A injection in liver cells does not result in liver damage. In contrast, IFN-gamma-dependent expression of IFN regulatory factor-1 and TNF-alpha-dependent activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in liver cells correlates with liver cell damage after Con A injection. Therefore, our experiments indicate that 11418690 PMID:11418690

Streetz, K; Fregien, B; Plümpe, J; Körber, K; Kubicka, S; Sass, G; Bischoff, S C; Manns, M P; Tiegs, G; Trautwein, C



Methane activation by cobalt cluster cations, Co(n)+ (n = 2-16): reaction mechanisms and thermochemistry of cluster-CH(x) (x = 0-3) complexes.  


The kinetic energy dependences of the reactions of Co(n)(+) (n = 2-16) with CD(4) are studied in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer over the energy range of 0-10 eV. The main products are hydride formation, Co(n)D(+), dehydrogenation to form Co(n)CD(2)(+), and double dehydrogenation yielding Co(n)C(+). These primary products decompose to form secondary and higher order products, Co(n)CD(+), Co(n-1)D(+), Co(n-1)C(+), Co(n-1)CD(+), and Co(n-1)CD(2)(+) at higher energies. Adduct formation of Co(n)CD(4)(+) is also observed for the largest cluster cations, n > or = 10. In general, the efficiencies of the single and double dehydrogenation processes increase with cluster size, although the hexamer cation shows a reduced reactivity compared to its neighbors. All reactions exhibit thresholds, and cross sections for the various primary and secondary reactions are analyzed to yield reaction thresholds from which bond energies for cobalt cluster cations to D, C, CD, CD(2), and CD(3) are determined. The relative magnitudes of these bond energies are consistent with simple bond order considerations. Bond energies for larger clusters rapidly reach relatively constant values, which are used to estimate the chemisorption energies of the C, CD, CD(2), and CD(3) molecular fragments to cobalt surfaces. PMID:19206975

Citir, Murat; Liu, Fuyi; Armentrout, P B



Ground-state magnetic properties of CoN clusters on Pd(111): Spin moments, orbital moments, and magnetic anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground-state spin moments , orbital moments , and magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of CoN clusters deposited on the Pd(111) surface are determined in the framework of a self-consistent, real-space tight-binding method. Two-dimensional CoN/Pd(111) with N<~13 show remarkably large total magnetic moments per Co atom Mz=(2+)/N=(2.4 2.7)?B, which are the result of three physically distinct effects. The first and leading contribution comes, as expected, from the local spin moments at the Co atoms i=1-N [2Co?1.7?B]. Second, significant spin moments are induced at the Pd atoms i>N close to the Co-Pd interface, which amount to about 20% of Mz [2Pd=(0.2 0.3)?B]. Finally, remarkably enhanced orbital magnetic moments are found that are responsible for approximately 20% of Mz. In the case of Co atoms, Co?(0.3 0.5)?B is almost a factor of 3 larger than the Co-bulk orbital moment, while in Pd atoms Pd=(0.02 0.04)?B represents about 10% of the total local moment ?iz=2+. The dependence of the orbital moments on the orientation of the magnetization with respect to the cluster structure is quantified. These results and the associated MAEs are analyzed from a local point of view. One- and two-dimensional (2D) CoN are considered in order to investigate the structural dependence of the magnetic behavior. The role of the cluster-surface interactions is discussed by comparison with free cluster calculations. In particular, we observe that the lowest-energy magnetization direction (easy axis) changes from in-plane to off-plane upon deposition of 2D CoN on Pd(111). Cluster-substrate hybridizations are therefore crucial for the magnetoanisotropic behavior of magnetic islands deposited on metallic substrates.

Félix-Medina, R.; Dorantes-Dávila, J.; Pastor, G. M.



[Intracranial hypertension related to sedation with sevoflurane using the AnaConDa(®) device in a patient with severe traumatic brain injury].  


Sedation in neurocritical patients remains a challenge as there is no drug that meets all the requirements. Since the appearance of the AnaConDa(®) device, and according to the latest recommendations, sevoflurane has become an alternative for patients with brain injury. The use of AnaConDa(®) produces an increase in the anatomical dead space that leads to a decrease in alveolar ventilation. If the decrease in the alveolar ventilation is not offset by an increase in minute volume, there will be an increase in PaCO2. We report the case of a patient with severe traumatic brain injury who suffered an increase in intracranial pressure as a result of increased PaCO2 after starting sedation with the AnaConDa(®) device. PMID:22920835

Ferrando, C; Carbonell, J A; Aguilar, G; Badenes, R; Belda, F J



Intraspecific alkaloid variation in ladybird eggs and its effects on con- and hetero-specific intraguild predators.  


Egg predation and cannibalism are common phenomena in predatory ladybirds despite the presence of defensive alkaloids. Consumption of heterospecific eggs negatively affects survivorship and development; however, intraspecific variation in quantities of alkaloids and post-ingestion responses to con- and hetero-specific alkaloids, are not well understood. We examined variation in the quantity of alkaloids in eggs of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coccinella septempunctata L., and Hippodamia convergens (Guérin) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and show a link between heterospecific alkaloids and their toxicity and/or costs by feeding high and low alkaloid eggs to first instar H. axyridis and C. septempunctata. The repeatability of alkaloid measurements in eggs in an egg cluster was high; however, the amount of alkaloids varied significantly between egg clutches within and among females. This variation affected egg consumption by C. septempunctata when fed H. axyridis eggs. Harmonia axyridis accumulated their own alkaloid by cannibalism and synthesized it de novo, but C. septempunctata lost some portion of the consumed conspecific alkaloids. Both species lost most of the consumed heterospecific alkaloids, but C. septempunctata died within 3 days. Most H. axyridis survived to the second instar, but C. septempunctata alkaloids led to a significant reduction in weight gain compared to an aphid control. In addition, ingestion of high alkaloid C. septempunctata extended development of H. axyridis compared to the aphid control or conspecific eggs. Harmonia axyridis had greater abilities to process ingested con- and hetero-specific alkaloids compared with C. septempunctata, which may, in part, explain their interspecific interactions in nature. PMID:20049478

Kajita, Yukie; Obrycki, J J; Sloggett, J J; Haynes, K F



Lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) protects hippocampal slices against glutamate neurotoxicity in a manner dependent of PI3K/Akt pathway.  


The excitotoxicity induced by excessive activation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission pathway is involved in several neuropathologies. In this sense, molecules that prevent the release of glutamate or the excessive activation of its receptors can be useful in preventing the neuronal cell death observed in these diseases. Lectins are proteins capable of reversible binding to the carbohydrates in glycoconjugates, and some have been used in the study and purification of glutamate receptors. ConBr is a mannose/glucose-binding lectin purified from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of ConBr against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Hippocampal slices were isolated from adult male mice and incubated for 6h in Krebs saline/DMEM buffer alone (control), in the presence of glutamate or glutamate plus ConBr. The phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK1/2, p38(MAPK) and JNK1/2/3 was evaluated with western blotting. The results indicate that glutamate provoked a reduction in the hippocampal slice viability (-25%), diminished the phosphorylation of Akt and augmented p38(MAPK) and ERK1 phosphorylation. No changes were observed in the phosphorylation of JNK1/2/3 or ERK2. Notably, ConBr, through a mechanism dependent on carbohydrate interaction, prevented the reduction of cell viability and Akt phosphorylation induced by glutamate. Furthermore, in the presence of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, ConBr was unable to reverse glutamate neurotoxicity. Taken together, our data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of ConBr against glutamate neurotoxicity requires oligosaccharide interaction and is dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:23454192

Jacques, Amanda V; Rieger, Débora K; Maestri, Mariana; Lopes, Mark W; Peres, Tanara V; Gonçalves, Filipe M; Pedro, Daniela Z; Tasca, Carla I; López, Manuela G; Egea, Javier; Nascimento, Kyria S; Cavada, Benildo S; Leal, Rodrigo B



Elevated cyclic AMP suppresses ConA-induced MT1-MMP expression in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that induction of MMP-2 activation by Concanavalin A (ConA) in MDA-MB-231human breast cancer cells\\u000a involves both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms, and that the continuous presence of ConA is required for\\u000a MMP-2 activation (Yu et al. Cancer Res, 55, 3272-7, 1995).In an effort to identify signal transduction pathways which may\\u000a either contribute to or modulate this mechanism,we

Ming Yu; Hiroshi Sato; Motoharu Seiki; Sarah Spiegel; Erik W. Thompson



Aortic surface coat scanning electron-microscopic modifications after short-term hypercholesterolic diet, visualized in rabbits by con A-haemocyanin reaction.  


Modifications of the aortic endothelial surface coat have been visualized at SEM with the use of the Con A-haemocyanin method. After fifteen days of an atherogenic diet, a strong increase of the reactive coat was evident in areas near the orifice of the collateral branches. In other areas, the reaction appeared to be intensely diminished. PMID:901615

Weber, G; Fabbrini, P; Resi, L; Toti, P



Evaluación de estimadores no paramétricos de la riqueza de especies. Un ejemplo con aves en áreas verdes de la ciudad de Puebla, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el desempeño de estimadores no paramétricos de la riqueza de especies con datos reales. Durante la temporada de cría de 2003 censamos las comunidades de aves en dos áreas verdes de la ciudad de Puebla (México), y obtuvimos las corres¬pondientes curvas de rarefacción, que fueron ajustadas a dos funciones de acumulación de especies no asintóticas y

J. A. González Oreja; A. A. De la Fuente-Díaz-Ordaz; L. Hernández-Santín; D. Buzo-Franco; C. Bonache-Regidor



BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Influence of collisions of the second kind on the electron energy balance and lasing characteristics of CON2 mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for the electron energy distribution function and of a system of rate equations for the populations of the vibrational levels of the carbon monoxide and nitrogen molecules is used to study the influence of collisions of electrons with vibrationally excited molecules on the electron energy balance and characteristics of lasing of CO-N2

R. Sh Islamov; Yu B. Konev; Igor'V. Kochetov; A. K. Kurnosov



Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material.  


4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6×2×3 mm(3)) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV). PMID:23624038

Dinakaran, Paul M; Kalainathan, S



Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at S?o Paulo city, Brasil  

PubMed Central

In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

d'Azevedo, P.A.; Secchi, C.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Sales, T.; Silva, F.M.; Tranchesi, R.; Pignatari, A.C.C.



Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package.  


Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein-ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography. PMID:24816093

Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Plumley, Joshua A; Martin, Roger I; Merz, Kenneth M; Westerhoff, Lance M



A Journal Pro/Con Forum: Why Third-Party Recruiters Do or Don't Fit in with Placement Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents opinions of two college placement officers and two representatives from business on third-party employment services. Discusses pros and cons. Includes a sample of a third-party job-vacancy announcement, a list of issues to explore when dealing with third-party recruiters, and two universities' notices to third-party employment services.…

Roberts, Jeff; And Others




Microsoft Academic Search

Se desarrolló una celda simple de vidrio cerrada de forma cilíndrica, para aplicación en detección optoacústica, que es iluminada transversalmente con 32 LEDs azules distribuidos uniformemente a lo largo del tubo. Se forzó la excitación del segundo modo longitudinal iluminando en un semiciclo la zona central, comprendida entre los nodos de la onda estacionaria. Asimismo, durante el otro semiciclo, se

G. D. Santiago; A. L. Peuriot; F. González; V. B. Slezak; M. G. González


Fluoroalcohols induced unfolding of Succinylated Con A: native like beta-structure in partially folded intermediate and alpha-helix in molten globule like state.  


Concanavalin A (Con A) exists in dimeric state at pH 5. In concentration range 20-60% (v/v) 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) and 2-40% (v/v) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), Con A at pH 5.0 shows visible aggregation. However, when succinyl Con A was used, no aggregation was observed in the entire concentration range of fluoroalcohols (0-90% v/v TFE and HFIP) and resulted in stable alpha-helix formation. Temperature-induced concentration-dependent aggregation in Con A was also found to be prevented/reduced in succinylated form. Possible role of electrostatic repulsion among residues in the prevention of hydrophobically driven aggregation has been discussed. Results indicate that succinylation of a protein resulted in greater stability (in both beta-sheet and alpha-helical forms) against alcohol-induced and temperature-induced concentration-dependent aggregation and this observation may play significant role in amyloid-forming proteins. Effect of TFE and HFIP on the conformation of a dimeric protein, Succinylated Con A, has been investigated by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence emission spectroscopy, binding of hydrophobic dye ANS (8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid). Far UV-CD, a probe for secondary structure shows loss of native secondary structure in the presence of low concentration of both the alcohols, TFE (10% v/v) and HFIP (4% v/v). Upon addition of higher concentration of these alcohols, Succinylated Con A exhibited transformation from beta-sheet to alpha-helical structure. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence studies, ANS binding and near UV-CD experiments indicate the protein is more expanded, have more exposed hydrophobic surfaces and highly disrupted tertiary structure at 60% (v/v) TFE and 30% (v/v) HFIP concentrations. Taken together, these results it might be concluded that TFE and HFIP induce two intermediate states at their low and high concentrations in Succinyl Con A. PMID:16970906

Fatima, Sadaf; Ahmad, Basir; Khan, Rizwan Hasan



Analysis of cancer risk and BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence in the kConFab familial breast cancer resource  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab) is a multidisciplinary, collaborative framework for the investigation of familial breast cancer. Based in Australia, the primary aim of kConFab is to facilitate high-quality research by amassing a large and comprehensive resource of epidemiological and clinical data with biospecimens from individuals at high risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer, and from their close relatives. Methods Epidemiological, family history and lifestyle data, as well as biospecimens, are collected from multiple-case breast cancer families ascertained through family cancer clinics in Australia and New Zealand. We used the Tyrer-Cuzick algorithms to assess the prospective risk of breast cancer in women in the kConFab cohort who were unaffected with breast cancer at the time of enrolment in the study. Results Of kConFab's first 822 families, 518 families had multiple cases of female breast cancer alone, 239 had cases of female breast and ovarian cancer, 37 had cases of female and male breast cancer, and 14 had both ovarian cancer as well as male and female breast cancer. Data are currently held for 11,422 people and germline DNAs for 7,389. Among the 812 families with at least one germline sample collected, the mean number of germline DNA samples collected per family is nine. Of the 747 families that have undergone some form of mutation screening, 229 (31%) carry a pathogenic or splice-site mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Germline DNAs and data are stored from 773 proven carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA1 mutations. kConFab's fresh tissue bank includes 253 specimens of breast or ovarian tissue – both normal and malignant – including 126 from carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Conclusion These kConFab resources are available to researchers anywhere in the world, who may apply to kConFab for biospecimens and data for use in ethically approved, peer-reviewed projects. A high calculated risk from the Tyrer-Cuzick algorithms correlated closely with the subsequent occurrence of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation positive families, but this was less evident in families in which no pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation has been detected.

Mann, Graham J; Thorne, Heather; Balleine, Rosemary L; Butow, Phyllis N; Clarke, Christine L; Edkins, Edward; Evans, Gerda M; Fereday, Sian; Haan, Eric; Gattas, Michael; Giles, Graham G; Goldblatt, Jack; Hopper, John L; Kirk, Judy; Leary, Jennifer A; Lindeman, Geoffrey; Niedermayr, Eveline; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Picken, Sandra; Pupo, Gulietta M; Saunders, Christobel; Scott, Clare L; Spurdle, Amanda B; Suthers, Graeme; Tucker, Kathy; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia



V?4 ?? T cell-derived IL-17A negatively regulates NKT cell function in Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis.  


Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis is a well-known animal model for acute liver failure. However, the role of ?? T cells in this model is undefined. In this report, using TCR ?(-/-) mice, we demonstrated a protective role of ?? T cells in Con A-induced hepatitis model. TCR ?(-/-) mice showed significantly decreased levels of IL-17A and IL-17F in the Con A-treated liver tissue, and reconstitution of TCR ?(-/-) mice with wild-type (Wt), but not IL-17A(-/-), ?? T cells significantly reduced hepatitis, strongly suggesting a critical role of IL-17A in mediating the protective effect of ?? T cells. Interestingly, only V?4, but not V?1, ?? T cells exerted such a protective effect. Furthermore, depletion of NKT cells in TCR ?(-/-) mice completely abolished hepatitis, and NKT cells from Con A-challenged liver tissues of TCR ?(-/-) mice expressed significantly higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokine IFN-? than those from Wt mice, indicating that ?? T cells protected hepatitis through targeting NKT cells. Finally, abnormal capacity of IFN-? production by NKT cells of TCR ?(-/-) mice could only be downregulated by transferring Wt, but not IL-17(-/-), V?4 ?? T cells, confirming an essential role of V?4-derived IL-17A in regulating the function of NKT cells. In summary, our report thus demonstrated a novel function of V?4 ?? T cells in mediating a protective effect against Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis through negatively regulating function of NKT cells in an IL-17A-dependent manner, and transferring V?4 ?? T cells may provide a novel therapeutic approach for this devastating liver disease. PMID:21987663

Zhao, Na; Hao, Jianlei; Ni, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Liang, Ruifang; Cao, Guangchao; Zhao, Yapu; Wang, Puyue; Zhao, Liqing; Tian, Zhigang; Flavell, Richard; Hong, Zhangyong; Han, Jihong; Yao, Zhi; Wu, Zhenzhou; Yin, Zhinan



The Temporal and Spatial Quantification of Holocene Sediment Dynamics for Reconstructing Soil Erosion: Pros, Cons and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early beginning of farming, humans have a strong impact on the landscape, on its land cover and therefore on the sediment dynamics. It is assumed that an increase of farming activity is documented by truncated soil profiles due to soil erosion on the slopes and deposition of the eroded material as colluvium and alluvium at foot-slope positions and in floodplains of rivers. In this respect, these sediment archives play a major role in reconstructing human induced soil erosion and in establishing catchment wide quantitative sediment budgets. However, the response of sediment archives to an external impact like the human impact on the landscape or climate events is not homogeneous within a catchment, but might be variable in time and space. This is well known and considered in the geomorphological concept of sediment cascade systems and therefore needs to be included as a basic idea in studies on past soil erosion and its driving factors, using sediment archives. However, the identification of representative sediment archives within a catchment and especially their temporal quantification is challenging. In this presentation I will discuss the importance of sediment archives for reconstruction past soil erosion, the significance of these archives for identifying possible causes of sediment redistribution and the pros, cons and challenges, which are involved.

Fuchs, Markus



Virgin Caenorhabditis remanei females are attracted to a coital pheromone released by con-specific copulating males.  


The gonochoristic soil nematode Caenorhabditis remanei strictly requires copulation for species propagation. Males of this species are sexually promiscuous with females of other species; therefore, we asked in this study whether virgin C. remanei females display evidence of mate choice. We digitally recorded and measured the locomotor behaviors of one or more virgin females in the presence of a single male on a 5 mm diameter mating lawn. We observed that initially only the male modifies his locomotor trajectory to another animal on the mating lawn; the virgin females showed no locomotor bias toward the mate-searching male. However, once a male started to copulate, females in the vicinity altered their movement trajectories toward the copulating couple. Newly inseminated females are refractive to the coital signal, but partially regain their attraction to copulating males after 24 h. We found only copulating males with an intact gonad can attract females, and that the coital signal can be broadcasted at least 1.5 mm through the air. Unlike males, which are also attracted to hetero-specific females, virgin C. remanei females will only crawl toward a copulating con-specific male. We suggest that Caenorhabditis females use the coital signal as a pheromone to identify a vigorous male of their own species. PMID:24058874

Markert, Mathew; García, Luis René



A review of safety, efficacy, pros and cons, and issues of puerperal tubal sterilization--an update.  


This review focuses on the safety, efficacy, pros and cons of tubal sterilization procedures performed during the puerperium period while the woman is still in hospital. Findings from four previous reviews are synthesized, and the results published in more recent literature are evaluated. The review finds that tubal sterilization performed while the woman is still on the delivery table, or during a woman's early puerperium while she remains hospitalized, is operationally easy and medically safe, and does not adversely affect lactation. However, reported pregnancy rates are generally higher in puerperal tubal sterilization than in interval sterilization, especially when the mechanical tubal occlusion technique is used. The Pomeroy method, and its modifications via minilaparotomy, is highly recommendable. On the other hand, electrocoagulation via laparoscopy is associated with high efficacy, but a potentially increased risk of complications and difficulties in tubal reversal. Tubal sterilizations can be easily and safely performed at cesarean delivery in selected cases. Tubal sterilization performed during puerperium has a number of advantages over short-acting contraceptive methods, which require strict compliance, for postpartum use. However, candidates for puerperal tubal sterilization need to be carefully screened and counseled, since post-sterilization regret is more likely to occur. Unsettled issues for puerperal tubal sterilization and a number of practical problems that need to be addressed before initiation of a puerperal tubal sterilization program in a maternity clinic/hospital are discussed. PMID:8533623

Chi, I C; Petta, C A; McPheeters, M



Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael



Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: The pros and cons of two different approaches.  


Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational. PMID:24794738

Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène



Palaeozoic nonmarine firmground ichnofaunas: Evidence from the permian of the Paganzo basin [Icnofaunas paleozoicas en sustratos firmes no marinos: Evidencias del pe??rmico de la cuenca Paganzo  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meniscate striated traces are recorded from Permian fluvial deposits of the La Colina Formation (Paganzo Group) at Los Colorados de Patqui??a (La Rioja Province). These structures are characterized by their remarkable well developed striations, oblique to the margins of unbranched and unwalled traces. Taxonomic assessment of these structures must await clarification of the actual nature of the ichnogenus Scoyenia and its relationship with Taenidium. They are interpreted as arthropod feeding structures (fodinichnia). Meniscate striated traces characterize firm substrates and crosscut a softground ichnofauna ascribed to the Scoyenia ichnofacies. Trace makers probably colonized the desiccated margins of a floodplain water body. A review of the ichnologic record of nonmarine firmgrounds shows the widespread establishment of trace fossils in cohesive sediments during the Mesozoic and only an incipient development during the Palaeozoic. The Palaeozoic examples undoubtely ascribed to invertebrates are known from the Permian and seem to record the displacement of organisms in the interface of a firm substrate, rather than burrowing activities within the cohesive sediment.

Buatois, L. A.; Mangano, M. G.; Acenolaza, F. G.



Supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy: con.  


Advocates of supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) consider several theoretical advantages for this procedure. Despite the potential advantages of the supine PCNL, the majority of urologists have remained reluctant to perform this technique. This reluctance may be related to successful outcomes of prone PCNL and technical difficulties associated with supine PCNL. Feasibility of supine PCNL has been shown in different series and the current evidence, although limited and not fully organized, implies the application of this technique for patients with simple stones who are at high anesthesiological risk. However, there is no convincing evidence to support performing supine PCNL in morbidly obese patients and those with complex and multiple stones. Further randomized clinical trials of large sample size and high methodological quality are required to recommend extensive application of supine PCNL as an alternative to prone PCNL. PMID:22090043

Lashay, Alireza; Amini, Erfan; Ahanian, Ali; Ozhand, Ardalan; Nikkar, Mohammad Masoud; Sharifi, Seyed Hossein Hosseini




The authors also gratefully acknowledge the copy editing assistance of Leslie Alter, MPH and Steve Brown. The Ethical Force Program’s initiative on patient-centered communication is funded in part by the American Medical Association Foundation, The California Endowment, the Commonwealth Fund and the Connecticut Health Foundation.


The Classics, Con Brio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always ex-students of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…

Hansen, James



Circumcision: Pros and cons  

PubMed Central

Circumcision is possibly the most frequently performed elective surgical procedure in men. It can simply be described as the excision of the preputium. There have been several studies about the association between circumcision and urinary tract infections (UTI). Many studies have demonstrated that the frequency of UTI increase in uncircumcised males, especially in the first year of life. This review discusses the embryology of the preputium, epidemiology, indications, complications and benefits of circumcision, as well as operation and anesthesiology techniques. It especially examines the association between UTI and circumcision and the importance of circumcision in congenital urinary system anomalies. In addition, this review examines the associations between circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and the protective role of circumcision on penile cancer.

Burgu, Berk; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Tangal, Semih; Soygur, Tarkan



Neo-Conned University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Censorship, says Australian political theorist John Keane (1991), can "echo within us, take up residence within ourselves, spying on us, a private amanuensis who reminds us never to go too far... It makes us zip our lips, tremble and think twice" (p. 39). It can also make us sick. The author states that this is her argument here: that,…

Jones, Andee



The Protective Effect of Intrasplenic Transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 Gene-Modified Fetal Hepatocytes on ConA-Induced Hepatitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. Aim To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Methods Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-?, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Results Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-?, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-?B p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Conclusions Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease.

Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping



Long-term fertility control in female cats with GonaCon™, a GnRH immunocontraceptive.  


The uncontrolled reproduction of free-roaming feral cats contributes to overpopulation and associated concerns regarding their welfare and impact on public health and the environment. Nonsurgical fertility control that could be administered to feral cats in the field would be a powerful tool for cat population control. The objective was to test the efficacy and duration of activity of a single-dose GnRH immunocontraceptive vaccine (GonaCon™) on the fertility of adult female laboratory cats. Vaccinated cats (n = 15) received a single injection of vaccine containing a GnRH-KLH conjugate (200 ?g) emulsified in a mycobacterial and oil adjuvant on study Day 0. Sham-treated cats (n = 5) received a single injection containing all vaccine components except the GnRH-KLH conjugate. A breeding trial started on study Day 120. Vaccinated cats had a longer time to conception (median 39.7 mo) compared to sham-treated cats (4.4 mo; P < 0.001). A total of 93% of vaccinated cats remained infertile for the first year following vaccination, whereas 73, 53, and 40% were infertile for 2, 3, and 4 y, respectively. At study termination (5 y after a single GnRH vaccine was administered), four cats (27%) remained infertile. The GnRH antibody titers declined more rapidly in short-term responding cats with < 2 y of infertility (n = 4), compared to long-term responding cats that experienced fertility control for >2 y (n = 11) (P < 0.05). Non-painful but persistent late-onset granulomatous injection site masses appeared 2 y after initial vaccination in five cats. We concluded that GnRH immunocontraception is an ideal candidate for further development for feral cat control. PMID:21835455

Levy, Julie K; Friary, John A; Miller, Lowell A; Tucker, Sylvia J; Fagerstone, Kathleen A



[Preliminary data on the different endothelial reaction to Con A at different levels of the arterial tree in rabbits and in Cynomolgus monkeys].  


Delayed appearance of atherosclerotic lesions in cerebral arteries has been observed not only in man but also in monkeys and rabbits submitted to atherogenic diets. Previous observations of ours had shown a Con A positive reaction ("glycocalyx" or "surface coat") at the luminal surface and in the plasmalemmal vesicles of aortic endothelial cells of rabbits an other laboratory animals. The "surface coat" is now reputed the site of lipoproteinlipase activity whose importance in atherogenesis has recently been stressed. In our present observations, the endothelial cells Con A reactivity after Bernhard and Avrameas which was not previously studied in the cerebral arteries of rabbits and monkeys has resulted always lacking in this arterial district. Those observations may help explaining delayed appearance of atherosclerotic lesions in cerebral arteries. PMID:7337739

Weber, G; Fabbrini, P; Resi, L



Optimization of an in vitro assay which measures the proliferation of duck T lymphocytes from peripheral blood in response to stimulation with PHA and ConA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro proliferative responses of duck PBMCs purified from Ficoll-Paqut: density gradients to the mitogens PHA and ConA show a great deal of duck-to-duck variation. Better responses were consistently obtained by using nylon wool fractionation to increase the proportion of duck T lymphocytes in PBMC preparations and then culturing these preparations with homologous monocytes, purified from PBMC preparations by

Edward M. Bertram; Allison R. Jilbert; Ieva Kotlarski



A shock tube study of high temperature reaction of CON2OH2 mixtures and its application to CO2 gasdynamic laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the gasdynamic laser (GDL), a conventional pressure-driven shock tube equipped with a nozzle apparatus was used. Kinetic study of CO2 formation in a CO-N2O-H2 system behind a reflected shock wave was carried out by measuring the 4.25 micron emission of CO2. Then, population inversions of the vibrational level of CO2 in an expanding flow of mixtures

H. Miyama; N. Fujii; N. Takeishi; T. Tokuda; N. Sakatsume



Li storage and impedance spectroscopy studies on Co3O4, CoO, and CoN for Li-ion batteries.  


The compounds, CoN, CoO, and Co3O4 were prepared in the form of nano-rod/particles and we investigated the Li-cycling properties, and their use as an anode material. The urea combustion method, nitridation, and carbothermal reduction methods were adopted to prepare Co3O4, CoN, and CoO, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface and density methods were used to characterise the materials. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed and galvanostatic cycling tests were also conducted up to 60-70 cycles. The observed reversible capacity of all compounds is of the increasing order CoO, Co3O4, CoN and all compounds showed negligible capacity fading. CoO allows for Li2O and Co metal to form during the discharge cycle, allowing for a high theoretical capacity of 715 mA h g(-1). Co3O4 allows for 4 Li2O and 3Co to form, and has a theoretical capacity of 890 mAhg(-1). CoN is the best anode material of the three because the nitrogen allows for Li3N and Co to form, resulting in an even higher theoretical capacity of 1100 mAhg(-1) due to the Li3N and Co metal formation. Irrespective of morphology the charge profiles of all three compounds showed a major plateaux ~2.0 V vs. Li and potential values are almost unchanged irrespective of crystal structure. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed to understand variation resistance and capacitance values. PMID:24325322

Reddy, M V; Prithvi, Gundlapalli; Loh, Kian Ping; Chowdari, B V R



A review of the practice of sedation with inhalational anaesthetics in the intensive care unit with the AnaConDa® device  

PubMed Central

The intensive care unit (ICU) environment is often perceived to be hostile and frightening by patients due to unfamiliar surroundings coupled with presence of numerous personnel, monitors and other equipments as well as a loss of perception of time. Mechanical ventilation and multiple painful procedures that often need to be carried out in these critically ill patients add to their overall anxiety. Sedation is therefore required not only to allay the stress and anxiety, but also to allow for mechanical ventilation and other invasive therapeutic and diagnostic procedures to be performed. The conventional intravenous sedative agents used in ICUs suffer from problems of over sedation, tachyphylaxis, drug accumulation, organ specific elimination and often lead to patient agitation on withdrawal. All this tend to prolong the ventilatory as well as ICU and hospital discharge time, which increase the risk for infection and add to the overall increase in morbidity, mortality and hospital costs. In 2005, the anaesthetic conserving device (AnaConDa®) was marketed for ICU sedation with volatile anaesthetic agents. A number of trials have shown the effectiveness of using volatile anaesthetic agents for ICU sedation with the AnaConDa device. Compared with intravenous sedatives, use of volatile anaesthetic agents have resulted in shorter wake up and extubation time, lesser duration of mechanical ventilation and faster discharge from hospitals. This review shall focus on the benefits, technical pre-requisites and status of sedation with volatile anaesthetic agents in ICUs with the AnaConDa® device.

Misra, Satyajeet; Koshy, Thomas



Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from <1 to 400 ng g-1 wet tissue. PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, DDT and its degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154 > PBDE-153. Concentrations in tissues and in sediments increased moving downstream from Skamania, WA to Columbia City, OR to Longview, WA. Preliminary biomarker results indicate that fish at the downstream sites experience greater stress relative to the upstream site based on gonad, kidney, spleen, and liver histopathology. These results support the hypothesis that contaminant concentrations in the environment correlate to bioaccumulation in the foodweb.

Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.



A methodological approach to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 7th March 2005, prolonged rainfalls combined with snowfalls activated a wide complex rock slide-earth flow that partly destroyed the village of Cavallerizzo at Cerzeto (Calabria, Southern Italy). Superposed tectonic units made of Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks, overlain by Miocene-Quaternary clastic terrains, crop out in the study area. The main scarp of the landslide developed by a recent normal fault, striking N-S along the western margin of the Crati graben and extended ca. 25 km. In its lower part, the phenomenon evolved in two main earth-flow bodies that extended along minor drainages and then merged along the S. Nicola torrent. The sector affected by the instability actually belongs to a large-scale slope movement: the 2005 activation was in fact only a paroxysmal episode of a long history of slope deformations, noticed in the area since the XVIII century. Warning signs had been recorded for weeks before the collapse, and the threatened area had been put under monitoring by CNR-IRPI. When the movement accelerated, people had already been alerted and evacuated (329 out of 581 inhabitants of Cerzeto were sheltered in nearby villages), thus neither victims nor injured were recorded. As a whole, 124 buildings were severely damaged or destroyed, the main road was interrupted. Immediately after the 7th March 2005 event, the national Department for Civil Protection decided to evaluate the feasibility of delocalizing Cavallerizzo to another site. At this purpose, CNR-IRPI was asked to analysing the "geological suitability" of 3 different sites (Pianette, Amatine, and Colombra), pre-selected by the same Municipality of Cerzeto in accordance to the Civil Protection; the results of the study were completed in early Summer 2005. Between October 2007 and December 2011, a new settlement was realized by the Italian Government, and the houses were delivered to people once living at Cavallerizzo. In the last years, the socio-economic effects of the delocalization of Cavallerizzo have been analysed within the frame of a PhD thesis by one of the authors. The present study focuses on the Cavallerizzo case study to discuss a methodological approach useful to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages, aiming at properly considering socio-economic effects in addition to technical issues.

Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.



In vitro and in vivo binding of snowdrop ( Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) and jackbean ( Canavalia ensiformis; Con A) lectins within tomato moth ( Lacanobia oleracea) larvae; mechanisms of insecticidal action  

Microsoft Academic Search

When fed in semi-artificial diet the lectins from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis: GNA: mannose-specific) and jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis: Con A: specific for glucose and mannose) were shown to accumulate in vivo in the guts, malpighian tubules and haemolymph of Lacanobia oleracea (tomato moth) larvae. Con A, but not GNA, also accumulated in the fat bodies of lectin-fed larvae. The presence of

Elaine Fitches; Stephen D Woodhouse; John P Edwards; John A Gatehouse



The beliefs about pros and cons of drinking and intention to change among hazardous and moderate alcohol users: a population-based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background: Fundamental to supporting hazardous alcohol users are the rationales for reducing alcohol intake highlighted by the users themselves. This study analyses the relative importance of beliefs about pros and cons of drinking in relation to having an intention to reduce intake among both hazardous and moderate alcohol users. Methods: Intention to change was assessed in a representative sample of Stockholm’s population (n = 4278, response rate 56.5%). Alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test measure. A decisional balance inventory was used to examine various beliefs about the pros and cons of drinking, which covered affect changes, social gains and losses, and possible adverse effects. Independent correlations were determined by logistic regression using a backward exclusion procedure (P > 0.05). Results: Higher ratings of importance were generally related to intent, whether or not the contrast was with having no intent or already having made a reduction. This was especially true for hazardous users. Only two beliefs were independently correlated with change among hazardous users: ‘Drinking could get me addicted’ and ‘Drinking makes me more relaxed/less tense’ (pseudo-R2 < 0.1). Among moderate users, there was no uniform pattern in the relationships. Conclusions: Unexpectedly, hazardous users with an intent to change rated pro arguments as more important than those with no intent to change. Of the investigated pros and cons, only a few were independently related to intention to change drinking behaviour. These arguments provide interesting topics in consultations. Little support was found for any rational decision making behind the intention to reduce alcohol intake.

Helgason, Asgeir R.; Ahacic, Kozma



Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Protects Mice From ConA-Induced Hepatitis via Inhibiting NF-?B and IFN-?\\/STAT1 Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, the main pharmacologically active component\\u000a of Salvia miltiorrhiza. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of STS on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis (CIH) in mice, an\\u000a experimental model of immune-mediated liver injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  C57BL\\/6 mice pretreated with STS released much less alanine transaminase into plasma in

Yan Xu; Dechun Feng; Ying Wang; Shuting Lin; Lingyun Xu



Deficiency of Con A-induced suppressor cell activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Thai adults naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.  


Con A-pretreated mononuclear (MNC) cells from Thai adults with naturally acquired P. falciparum or P. vivax malaria were significantly less effective in suppressing the responsiveness of autologous or normal allogeneic responder cells to mitogenic lectins or allogenic stimulator cells than pretreated cells from healthy donors. Serial studies of three patients demonstrated that reduced suppressor cell activity was present early in malaria infection but returned to normal soon after treatment. These studies demonstrate that the loss of T cells previously observed in patients with malaria, in part may functionally represent a loss of suppressor T cells. PMID:6226919

Gilbreath, M J; MacDermott, R P; Pavanand, K; Phisphumvithi, P; Kongchareon, S; Wimonwattrawatee, T



Tissue factor expression in ovarian cancer: implications for immunotherapy with hI-con1, a factor VII-IgGF c chimeric protein targeting tissue factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the expression of tissue factor (TF) in ovarian cancer (EOC) and the potential of hI-con1, an antibody-like molecule\\u000a targeting TF, as a novel form of therapy against chemotherapy-resistant ovarian disease. We studied the expression of TF in\\u000a 88 EOC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the levels of membrane-bound-complement-regulatory-proteins\\u000a CD46, CD55 and CD59 in primary EOC cell

Emiliano Cocco; Joyce Varughese; Natalia Buza; Stefania Bellone; Ken-Yu Lin; Marta Bellone; Paola Todeschini; Dan-Arin Silasi; Masoud Azodi; Peter E. Schwartz; Thomas J. Rutherford; Luisa Carrara; Renata Tassi; Sergio Pecorelli; Charles J. Lockwood; Alessandro D. Santin


Funcion del "Vulgo" en la Preception Dramatica de la Edad de Oro (The Function of the "Masses" in the Didactic Drama of the [Spanish] Golden Age).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concept of the masses, or populace, conveyed a positive connotation in both Biblical and Renaissance literature. During Spain's Golden Age (seventeenth century) writers, especially didactic dramatists, tended to register negative and prejudiced attitudes toward the common folk and to regard them as "masa inculta" or uncultured masses. Primarily,…

Porqueras Mayo, A.; Sanchez Escribano, F.



Corrosion bajo tension y dealeado del cobre-oro en atmosfera de iodo. (Stress corrosion cracking and dealloying of copper-gold alloy in iodine vapor).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of copper-gold alloy in iodine vapor was studied and the results were analyzed under the scope of the surface mobility stress corrosion cracking mechanism. The copper-gold alloy undergoes stress corrosion cr...

M. F. Galvez G. L. Bianchi J. R. Galvele



Hazardous and mixed waste generation at the DOE/ORO installations operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. , during calendar years 1987 and 1988  

SciTech Connect

A program was known as the Hazardous Waste Development, Demonstration, and Disposal (HAZWDDD) Program and was formed to address several waste management issues with the main objective being to ensure that all Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) needs for hazardous and mixed waste were identified and planned for properly. A data base was developed and maintained which contained information concerning all hazardous and mixed waste generated, stored, treated, and/or disposed at the five Energy Systems instal-lations during CY 1987. This document presents an update of the HAZWDDD data base for CY 1988. Summaries and figures concerning the data are presented in the body of the report, and a breakdown of the individual waste streams is presented in Appendix A. All five installations produce purely hazardous and mixed waste. The gaseous diffusion plants and Y-12 produce mixed waste contaminated primarily with uranium isotopes, while the mixed waste generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is contaminated with various radioisotopes. Generation rates of both hazardous and mixed waste are reported, and inventories of mixed waste are discussed. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

DePaoli, S.M.; Rivera, A.L.; Eisenhower, B.M.



The deep circumflex iliac artery perforator flap (DCIAP)--a reconstructive option for the large composite oro-mandibular cutaneous defect.  


The deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap is often used for mandibular reconstruction but it is bulky and causes additional donor-site morbidity because of the inclusion of an "obligatory internal oblique muscle". Large composite segmental mandibular resections that consist of floor of mouth, subtotal tongue, and adjacent facial skin are a challenge in terms of reconstruction. They often require 2 free flaps or a free scapular flap and both have disadvantages. The deep circumflex iliac artery perforator (DCIAP) flap with a cutaneous component overcomes the disadvantages. We describe reconstructions with DCIAP flaps in 3 patients with large mandibular composite segmental defects. We report our experience of the flap and discuss some of the difficulties we encountered and the points we learned perioperatively. PMID:23891263

Bisase, Brian; Sloane, James; Coombes, Darryl M; Norris, Paul M



Repeat-dose steady-state pharmacokinetic evaluation of once-daily hydromorphone extended-release (OROS® hydromorphone ER) in patients with chronic pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the steady-state pharmacokinetic profile of hydromorphone extended-release (ER) in patients with chronic pain taking concomitant medications. Methods This open-label repeat-dose study enrolled 22 patients (mean age, 51.4 years; 81.8% female). All patients were receiving at least one concomitant medication; 86.4% were receiving at least two concomitant medications and 81.8% were receiving at least three. Patients receiving a stable dose of an opioid were converted to hydromorphone ER at a 5:1 ratio (morphine equivalent:hydromorphone). The dose was titrated to adequate analgesia over 3–14 days and stabilized between 8–48 mg. Oral morphine immediate-release was permitted for breakthrough pain. Area under the concentration–time curve from 0–24 hours (AUC0–24), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), trough plasma concentration (Cmin), average plasma concentration (Cavg), and degree of fluctuation (100 × [(Cmax ? Cmin) ÷ Cavg]) were calculated based on data from 14 patients. Results Dose-normalized to 16 mg, mean pharmacokinetic parameter values were: AUC0–24, 41.1 ng · h/mL; Cmax, 2.6 ng/mL; Cmin, 1.1 ng/mL; Cavg, 1.7 ng/mL; and the degree of fluctuation was 99.6%. The pharmacokinetic profile of hydromorphone ER was linear and consistent with dose proportionality. Mean pain intensity difference scores showed statistically significant improvement from 2–21 hours after dosing. Sixteen (72.7%) patients reported at least one adverse event (AE). The most common were constipation (31.8%), headache (22.7%), and vomiting (13.6%). One patient discontinued treatment due to vomiting. No deaths, serious AEs, or unexpected AEs occurred. Conclusion These findings replicate and extend the steady-state pharmacokinetic profile of hydromorphone ER, previously characterized in healthy volunteers, to a population of chronic pain patients taking numerous concomitant medications.

Vandenbossche, Joris; Richarz, Ute; Richards, Henry M



Neurotrophin 3 genotype and emotional adverse effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  


Neurotrophin 3 (NTF3) has been studied in relation to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders as well as psychostimulant action. We hypothesized that the risk of an emotional side effect to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment may be associated with NTF3 genotypes. Ninety-six medication-naïve children with ADHD (mean age 8.70, standard deviation 1.41 years, 79 males) were genotyped and treated with MPH. At baseline, which was prior to MPH treatment, and after two weeks of medication, investigators asked children and their parents or caregivers about adverse events using a symptom rating scale. ADHD subjects with the A/A genotype at the NTF3 rs6332 polymorphism showed the highest 'Emotionality' and 'Over-focus/euphoria' factor scores, followed by those with the G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype (p=0.042 and p=0.045, respectively). ADHD subjects with the A/A genotype at the NTF3 rs6332 polymorphism showed the highest 'Proneness to crying' and 'Nail biting' item scores, followed by those with the G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype (p=0.047 and p=0.017, respectively). These data provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in the NTF3 gene is related to susceptibility to emotional side effects in response to MPH treatment in Korean children with ADHD. PMID:23471121

Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Son, Jung-Woo; Shin, Yun-Mi; Chung, Un-Sun; Han, Doug-Hyun



Guided ion-beam studies of the reactions of Co(n)+ (n=2-20) with O2: cobalt cluster-oxide and -dioxide bond energies.  


The kinetic-energy dependence for the reactions of Co(n)+ (n=2-20) with O2 is measured as a function of kinetic energy over a range of 0 to 10 eV in a guided ion-beam tandem mass spectrometer. A variety of Co(m)+, Co(m)O+, and Co(m)O2+ (m < or = n) product ions is observed, with the dioxide cluster ions dominating the products for all larger clusters. Reaction efficiencies of Co(n)+ cations with O2 are near unity for all but the dimer. Bond dissociation energies for both cobalt cluster oxides and dioxides are derived from threshold analysis of the energy dependence of the endothermic reactions using several different methods. These values show little dependence on cluster size for clusters larger than three atoms. The trends in this thermochemistry and the stabilities of oxygenated cobalt clusters are discussed. The bond energies of Co(n)+-O for larger clusters are found to be very close to the value for desorption of atomic oxygen from bulk-phase cobalt. Rate constants for O2 chemisorption on the cationic clusters are compared with results from previous work on cationic, anionic, and neutral cobalt clusters. PMID:16122305

Liu, Fuyi; Li, Feng-Xia; Armentrout, P B



A wireless, remote-query and high sensitivity Escherichia coli O157: H7 biosensor based on the recognition action of Con A  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli O157: H7 is detected using a remote-query (wireless, passive) magnetoelastic sensor platform to which a 1 µm-thick layer of Bayhydrol 110 and then a layer of functionalized mannose is applied. The multivalent binding of lectin concanavalin A (Con A) to the E. coli surface O-antigen and mannose favors the strong adhesion of E. coli to the mannose modified magnetoelastic sensor; E. coli is rigidly and strongly attached on the mannose-modified sensor through Con A, which works as a bridge to bind to the E. coli surface O-antigen and mannose modified sensor surface. As E. coli is bound to the sensor its resonance frequency shifts, enabling quantification of E. coli concentration with a limit of detection of 60 cells/mL and a linear logarithmic response range of 6.0×101 to 6.1×109 cells/mL. The analysis can be directly conducted without incubation, and completed in 3 h or less.

Lu, Qingzhu; Lin, Hailan; Ge, Shutian; Luo, Shenglian; Cai, Qingyun; Grimes, Craig A.



Synsedimentary deformation of Pleistocene glaciolacustrine deposits in the Albese con Cassano Area (Southern Alps, Northern Italy), and possible implications for paleoseismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and interpret the well exposed soft-sediment deformations preserved in a Mid-Pleistocene proglacial sequence outcropping at Albese con Cassano, near Como (Southern Alps, N Italy). The observed deformations affect six distinct stratigraphic intervals within the same depositional sequence. The stratigraphy of this sequence, the geomorphic setting, and the careful geological mapping of the area clearly show that these deformations are not the result of glaciotectonics or cryoturbation, but are due to six separate events of synsedimentary liquefaction. In particular, the 3 basal deformed units include sand and gravel volcanoes that formed at the bottom of a proglacial lake. We examined several hypothesis of possible causative mechanism for the formation of these features. Taking into account all the information available on the local geology and sedimentary environment, it is possible to assess that the liquefaction features at Albese con Cassano had a coseismic origin. To our knowledge, this would be the first report of similar evidence of paleoseismicity in the Lombardia Southern Alps. Also, there is no record of historical liquefaction triggered by seismic events in an area of ca. 70 km of radius near Albese con Cassano, including the town of Como, the large metropolitan area of Milano and most of W Lombardia, that is one of the largest industrial districts in Europe. Therefore, the interpretation of the observed deformations can have critical impact for understanding the current seismicity level in the region, and mitigating the associated risk. In this paper we show that this interpretation is not a simple process. Liquefaction features must be treated with caution in order to derive suitable information for seismic hazard characterization, even if their coseismic origin has been definitely proved. It is necessary to understand the amount of seismic shaking (for instance, in terms of local macroseismic intensity) that can have produced that specific feature at that specific site, the location of the causative seismic event (epicenter and focal depth), and eventually its size (in terms of epicentral intensity and/or earthquake magnitude). In the case of Albese con Cassano, the implications in terms of seismic hazard of the observed possible earthquake paleoliquefactions can only be assessed through the definition of several scenarios, taking into account: a) different thresholds of shaking for triggering the described synsedimentary structures, and b) different seismotectonic frameworks related to the Mid-Pleistocene to Holocene evolution of the S Alps, including seismicity induced by isostatic glacial rebound. We conclude that it is worth checking these scenarios in the field with further paleoseismological research on other possible evidence of past earthquakes. There are no unequivocal sedimentological indicators of paleoseismicity, however, when carefully interpreted within the proper local seismotectonic context and compared with other earthquake-induced features, soft-sediment deformations can offer information of critical value for seismic hazard assessment.

Chunga, Kervin; Livio, Franz; Michetti, Alessandro M.; Serva, Leonello



The role of intracellular high-mobility group box 1 in the early activation of Kupffer cells and the development of Con A-induced acute liver failure.  


Acute liver failure (ALF) is a highly complex syndrome characterized by devastating activation of early activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ALF. However, the factors regulating KC early activation are virtually unexplored. The aim of present study was to determine the role of the intracellular high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in modulating the early activation of KCs during ALF. The intravenous injection of Concanavalin A (Con A) was used to establish a mouse model of ALF. The dynamic pro-inflammatory properties and MHC II expression of KCs were measured by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. HMGB1 expression in KCs was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The immunofluorescence was implemented to determine the relocation of HMGB1 in KCs, and the siRNA against HMGB1 was utilized to assess the impact of HMGB1 on KC pro-inflammatory properties. The peak of pro-inflammatory cytokines production and MHC II expression in KCs appeared at the early stage of ALF. The up-regulation of HMGB1 expression and the translocation of HMGB1 in KCs were in parallel with the early activation of KCs. The blockade of intracellular HMGB1 expression caused by siRNA significantly inhibited the production of KC-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines, and led to a down-regulation of MAP kinase activation in KCs. The self-derived HMGB1 is an "early alarmin" of KC activation during Con A-induced ALF. HMGB1 might be a potential target for cell-specific strategy in ALF. PMID:23706499

Yang, Qiao; Liu, Yanning; Shi, Yu; Zheng, Min; He, Jiliang; Chen, Zhi



Intracellular free zinc up-regulates IFN-? and T-bet essential for Th1 differentiation in Con-A stimulated HUT-78 cells  

PubMed Central

Zinc deficiency impairs cellular immunity. Up-regulation of mRNA levels of IFN-?, IL-12R?2, and T-bet are essential for Th1 differentiation. We hypothesized that zinc increases Th1 differentiation via up-regulation of IFN-? and T-bet expression. To test this hypothesis, we used zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient HUT-78 cells (a Th0 cell line) under different condition of stimulation in this study. We also used TPEN, a zinc-specific chelator, to decrease the bioavailability of zinc in the cells. We measured intracellular free zinc, cytokines, and the mRNAs of T-bet, IFN-?, and IL-12R?2. In this study, we show that in zinc-sufficient HUT-78 cells (a Th0 cell line), mRNA levels of IFN-?, IL-12R?2, and T-bet in PMA/PHA-stimulated cells were increased in comparison to zinc-deficient cells. Although intracellular free zinc was increased slightly in PMA/PHA-stimulated cells, Con-A-stimulated cells in 5 ?M zinc medium showed a greater sustained increase in intracellular free zinc in comparison to cells incubated in 1 ?M zinc. The cells pre-incubated with TPEN showed decreased mRNA levels of IFN-? and T-bet mRNAs in comparison to cells without TPEN incubation. We conclude that stimulation of cells by Con-A via TCR, release intracellular free zinc which functions as a signal molecule for generation of IFN-? and T-bet, and IL-12Rb?2 mRNAs required for Th1 cell differentiation. These results suggest that zinc increase Th1 cell differentiation by up-regulation of IFN-? and T-bet, and IL-12Rb?2 mRNAs.

Bao, Bin; Prasad, Ananda S.; Beck, Frances WJ; Bao, Ginny W.; Singh, Tapinder; Ali, Shadan; Sarkar, Fazlul H.



78 FR 63978 - Proposed CERCLA Settlements Relating to the Truckers Warehouse Site in Passaic, Passaic County...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Past Response Costs (``Agreements'') pursuant to Section 122(h)(1) of CERCLA, with (1) RJS Corp.; (2) Your Factory Warehouse, Inc., Douglas Marino and Mark Marino; and (3) A&S Corporation and Marie Andre (``Settling...



7 CFR 319.37-2 - Prohibited articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Zealand, Norway, Peru, Republic of South Africa, Russia, San Marino...Zealand, Norway, Peru, Republic of South Africa, Russia, San Marino...Zealand, Norway, Peru, Republic of South Africa, Russia, San...



L'esperienza piemontese su oltre 200.000 gravidanze sottoposte a test di screening prenatale per la sindrome di Down dal 1990 al 2008: risultati con Tritest, Test integrato, Test combinato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differenti marcatori e differenti associazioni di marcatori sono stati proposti dalla fine degli anni '80 per fornire un efficiente screening prenatale alle donne di tutte le età allo scopo di ottenere una stima più accurata del rischio individuale di sindrome di Down. In Piemonte i test di screening sono stati offerti dal 1990 con crescenti livelli di adesione. Le caratteristiche

Daniela C. Dall; Carla Bollati; Elisabetta Muccinelli; Franco Altare; Enza Pavanello; Varvara Guaraldo; Guglielmo Bracco; Annarita Filippo; Daniela Fortina; Elsa Viora; Simona Bastonero; Giuseppe Errante; Andrea Sciarrone; Marco Pagliano; Elena Gullino; Maria Grazia Alemanno; Simona Sdei; Roberto Scali; Pietro Gaglioti; Tullia Todros



Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigación trata de examinar si las empresas con distinto nivel de intensidad exportadora se diferencian respecto de los elementos competitivos que sustentan su competitividad en el mercado exterior, así como respecto de las estrategias de marketing que implementan en su actividad comercial internacional. Para ello, se examina una muestra de pymes pertenecientes a un clúster agroindustrial competitivo a nivel

David Jiménez Castillo; José Luis Ruiz Real; Manuel Sánchez Pérez



Contenido de hierro y cinc en la semilla y su respuesta al nivel de fertilización con fósforo en 40 variedades de fríjol colombianas Seed iron and zinc content and their response to phosphorus fertilization in 40 Colombian bean varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

El mejoramiento del fríjol en Colombia ha producido un amplio número de variedades para diferentes zonas agroecológicas y con diferentes rangos de adaptación. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron determinar la calidad nutricional del fríjol en Colombia en cuanto al contenido de hierro y cinc en el grano y entender cómo los niveles de fertilización del suelo alta y baja

Carolina Astudillo; Matthew W. Blair



Los estudios de las dietas alimenticias bajas en grasa, altas en fibra y ricas en frutas y vegetales no revelan efecto alguno en la formación de nuevos pólipos colorrectales en personas con antecedentes de pólipos precancerosos

Dos nuevos estudios sobre el impacto nutricional en personas con alto riesgo de desarrollar cáncer colorrectal no mostraron evidencia de que la dieta afecta la formación de pólipos colorectales precancerosos (pólipos adenomatosos o adenomas) en personas a las que ya se les extrajo un pólipo.



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar las relaciones existentes entre algunas de las actividades forestales actualmente desarrolladas en Forestal Bosques del Plata S.A. y el sistema de información geográfica (SIG) vigente. Con el uso de nuevas tecnologías y capacitación del personal se han desarrollado proyectos de estudios de plantación establecida, instalación de parcelas permanentes, fichas de rodal y

R. Trujillo; R. Pezzutti; S. Schmidt; F. Rodríguez


Antiviral usage for H1N1 treatment: pros, cons and an argument for broader prescribing guidelines in the United States.  


Current CDC guidelines for antiviral treatment of people with influenza like illness (ILI) effectively discourage treatment of people with no underlying medical conditions unless they exhibit severe symptoms, such as evidence of lower respiratory tract infection or clinical deterioration. This guidance is unlike that provided by some other countries, which allow for treatment of most moderately symptomatic individuals. We examine evidence for benefits of antiviral usage for influenza treatment, including its relation to severe outcomes for the current pandemic H1N1 strain. We also discuss some of the potential cons of antiviral usage. In the current situation in the US, with an elevated and evidently growing burden of influenza hospitalizations and mortality, a high percentage of individuals infected with influenza (with almost all of those carrying the H1N1pdm strain) among those who exhibit ILI and get tested for influenza virus, very low levels of antiviral resistance and little time left for antiviral resistance to take off before large quantities of vaccine become available, we think it is worthwhile to consider a revision to the current antiviral usage recommendations, such that physicians would be encouraged to consider prescribing antivirals to individuals with moderate to severe symptoms who present for treatment.Note: Very recently CDC has adopted clarifications for its antiviral usage guidelines: PMID:20029660

Goldstein, Edward; Lipsitch, Marc



The pros and cons of routine central compartment neck dissection for clinically nodal negative (cN0) papillary thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Metastatic disease to regional lymph nodes (LNs) is common in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). LN dissection is increasingly performed as part of the surgical management of PTC. The role of prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND) in PTC is unclear. There is limited evidence to support a routine pCND in clinical setting for nodal negative (cN0) PTC. The aim of this review was to examine the pros and cons of prophylactic neck dissection in cN0 PTC. In summary, the advantages of pCND are: removal of the central LNs that potentially harbor micro-metastases, more accurate staging of disease in order to plan more individualized management, reducing the need for re-operation to remove the metastatic LNs which have developed later and possible improvement in overall survival. The disadvantages are: an extensive surgery but lack of evidence of survival benefit, higher incidence of complications with little impact on local recurrence rate, possibility of over treating in cN0 patients and it does not sound like a cost effective approach in the management of small thyroid cancer. Considering low frequency of permanent morbidity, some authors believe that prophylactic neck dissection is safe in experienced hands even though its prognostic benefit has yet to be demonstrated.

Chan, Ai Chen; Wong, Kai Pun



Entrenamiento con el traje espacial  

NASA Video Gallery

Después de 10 paseos espaciales, el astronauta de la NASA Michael López- Alegría sabe bastante de trajes espaciales. En este video, López Alegría comparte su experiencia acerca del uso y el entrena...


Galaxias con núcleo doble. III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed new spectroscopic and photometric observations of late type galaxies with double nuclei and without previous studies. The subsample, constituted by double nuclei galaxies without tidal tails, was selected from the Double Nuclei Galaxies Preliminary Catalog (Gimeno, Díaz & Carranza 1999) and the observations were performed at Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station. We report and discuss specially the results for ESO 416-G06, ESO 381-IG23 and Fairal 58. In all cases the secondary nucleus presents bluer color indexes than the main nucleus and also larger H? equivalent widths. These objects follow the trend of smaller radial velocity differences when smaller are the separations between both nuclei; this correlation was observed in previous works (e.g. Gimeno, Díaz & Carranza 1998). The general picture is consistent with the scenario of star formation enhanced by the capture of a minor or satellite galaxy.

Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.


Believing Others: Pros and Cons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In open environments there is no central control over agent behaviors. On the contrary, agents in such systems can be assumed to be primarily driven by self interests. Un- der the assumption that agents remain in the system for sig- nificant time periods, or that the agent composition changes only slowly, we have previously presented a prescriptive strategy for promoting

Sandip Sen; Anish Biswas; Sandip Debnath



Cabergoline treatment in acromegaly: cons.  


Many options are available for the treatment of acromegaly, including surgery, radiotherapy, and medical treatment. Cabergoline (CAB), a dopamine agonist with high affinity for dopamine receptor type 2, has been used both in monotherapy and in conjunction with somatostatin analogs (SSAs). Although it is administered orally and has a relatively lower-cost in comparison with SSAs, few studies have demonstrated its usefulness, there is a lack of randomized-controlled trials and other drugs (SSAs and pegvisomant) with more data in the literature are available; these issues are the main drawbacks of adopting CAB for the treatment of acromegaly. PMID:24504766

Kasuki, Leandro; Vieira Neto, Leonardo; Gadelha, Mônica R



I-ConFIRM Membership

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational


A method for transforming a full computation of the effects of a complex-explosion scenario to a simple computation by ConWep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a large amount of explosive that is stored inside a structure explodes, a blast wave is generated. The strength of the blast depends on both the explosive (type and weight) and the properties of the storing structure, since part of the blast energy is needed to destroy the structure. If one is to determine the dynamic load (e.g., pressure and impulse) that is exerted by the blast on a neighboring structure, he needs to conduct a full numerical simulation with a validated numerical code. If the amount of the stored explosive changes while the storing structure remains the same a new full hydrodynamic computation is required. In the present study, we present a method by which, for a given structure inside which explosive is stored, only a few full hydrodynamic computations with different amounts of explosive are required in order to obtain the resulted blast wave load on a neighboring structure that is located at different distances from the exploding structure for any amount of explosive between the minimal and the maximal amounts that were used in the full hydrodynamic computations. By means of the proposed method, the problem, which as mentioned above needs a full hydrodynamic computation, is replaced by an equivalent problem of the explosion of a bare hemispherical charge. The equivalent problem can be solved by means of an empirical model such as ConWep, which is very simple to apply. The solution of the equivalent problem results in identical peak pressure and peak impulse at close and far ranges from the explosion source and very similar pressure and impulse profiles at far ranges. The proposed method is demonstrated by an explanatory example in which the effect of an explosion inside an ammunition magazine on the surroundings is studied.

Ostraich, B.; Sadot, O.; Levintant, O.; Anteby, I.; Ben-Dor, G.



Efecto de la fertilización sobre la calidad de la papa para procesamiento en dos suelos antioqueños con propiedades ándicas Effects of fertilization on the industrial quality of potato in two antioquian Andisol soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de tres niveles de NPK a la siembra (500, 1.500 y 3.000 kg·ha -1 ) en combinación con Ca (0, 2, 3 y 7 meq·100g -1 ), Mg (0; 0,7; 1,4 y 3,0 meq·100g -1 ), B (0; 0,5; 1,0 y 2,0 ppm) y S (0, 10, 20 y 40 ppm) sobre el

José M. Cotes



Structural evolution of the Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic complex: Implications on the development of the Red River Shear Zone, Northern Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic complex in North Vietnam is the southernmost high-grade metamorphic zone along the NW-SE trending Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in Indochina. The RRSZ was considered as a classical large-scale continental strike-slip fault that had played a significant role in the continental extrusion of Southeast Asia since the collision of India and Eurasia. Earlier ideas determined the RRSZ as a steep shear zone that penetrated the entire lithosphere. Both metamorphism and structures within rocks along the DNCV metamorphic complex have been previously thought to be formed syn-tectonically by left-lateral shearing of the RRSZ during the Oligocene-Miocene continental escape tectonics. However, our meso- and microstructural re-examination of this region shows that these metamorphic rocks were formed during earlier tectonic episodes unrelated to strike-slip shearing. High angle to near orthogonal overprinting fabrics indicated that this region recorded three episodes of ductile deformation followed by brittle faulting events with different intensity spanning from the Triassic to the Tertiary. D 1 is preserved as NW-SE striking upright folds under garnet grade regional metamorphism during the Triassic Indosinian orogeny as South China block amalgamated with the Indochina block. The large-scale horizontal D 2 folds with a dominant top to N-NW bottom to S-SW sense of shear, and sub-horizontal fold axial planes suggest that the DNCV metamorphic complex remained at midcrustal depths since the Indosinian orogeny. The youngest ductile deformation event, D 3, refolded D 2 recumbent folds into a dome, and uplifted the DNCV as lower-temperature fabrics, S 3, indicated. Steep mylonite zones with left-lateral kinematic indicators and brittle faulting were developed on both limbs of the dome along the steep Song Hong and Song Chay faults during left-lateral movement of the RRSZ. Our new spatial, temporal and kinematic correlations of metamorphic fabrics within the DNCV metamorphic complex support the suggestion that the RRSZ developed after regional metamorphism and remained purely a crustal fault. The complicated deformation history recorded within the DNCV metamorphic complex provides an alternative interpretation and suggests that crustal scale strike-slip faults (such as the RRSZ) need not root from the mantle.

Yeh, Meng-Wan; Lee, Tung-Yi; Lo, Ching-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lan, Ching-Ying; Anh, Tran Tuan



Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint. 6. Conduct soil and water conservation research according to the importance and urgency of policies. 7. Implement the international cooperation, technology communication, talent cultivation, and integrated education and promotion.

Huang, Wen-Cheng



Comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica Coral communities and reefs of Ballena Marine National Park, Pacific coast of Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coral communities and reefs at Ballena Marine National Park, on the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica, were studied using three 10-m long transects per site, parallel to the coast, with 1-m2 quadrants. A total of 15 species of corals (11 hermatypic and 4 ahermatypic) were found, which when added to previous reports for the park makes a total

Juan José Alvarado; Jorge Cortés; Cindy Fernández; Jaime Nivia


Estudio de la distribucion de plutonio en el ecosistema marino de Palomares despues de una descarga accidental de un aerosol de transuranidos. (Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontamining operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the sorroundings and into Med...

L. Gasco Sanchez



Estudio de la distribucion de plutinio en el ecosistema marino de Palomares despues de una descarga accidental de un aerosol de transuranidos. (Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontaminating operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the surroundings and into M...

C. Gasco



Guided ion-beam studies of the kinetic-energy-dependent reactions of Co(n)+ (n = 2-16) with D2: cobalt cluster-deuteride bond energies.  


The kinetic-energy-dependent cross sections for the reactions of Co(n)+ (n = 2-16) with D2 are measured as a function of kinetic energy over a range of 0-8 eV in a guided ion-beam tandem mass spectrometer. The observed products are Co(n) D+ for all clusters and Co(n)D2+ for n = 4,5,9-16. Reactions for the formation of Co(n)D+ (n = 2-16) and Co9D2+ are observed to exhibit thresholds, whereas cross sections for the formation of Co(n)D2+ (n = 4,5,10-16) exhibit exothermic reaction behavior. The Co(n)+-D bond energies as a function of cluster size are derived from the threshold analysis of the kinetic-energy dependence of the endothermic reactions and are compared to previously determined metal-metal bond energies, D0(Co(n)+-Co). The bond energies of Co(n)+-D generally increase as the cluster size increases, and roughly parallel those for Co(n)+-Co for clusters n > or = 4. These trends are explained in terms of electronic and geometric structures for the Co(n)+ clusters. The bond energies of Co(n)+-D for larger clusters (n > or = 10) are found to be very close to the value for chemisorption of atomic hydrogen on bulk-phase cobalt. The rate constants for D2 chemisorption on the cationic clusters are compared with the results from previous work on cationic and neutral cobalt clusters. PMID:16161586

Liu, Fuyi; Armentrout, P B



Optimisation of oil red O staining permits combination with immunofluorescence and automated quantification of lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to develop a stain permitting automated quantification of myocellular lipid depositions in skeletal muscle sections together with immunolocalisation of other myocellular constituents by fluorescence microscopy. Lipid droplets were detected in skeletal muscle by oil red O (ORO). Conventional ORO was modified to diminish background staining, prevent crystallisation of ORO and to optimise lipid

René Koopman; Gert Schaart; Matthijs K. Hesselink



Phase II study of induction chemotherapy with TPF followed by radioimmunotherapy with Cetuximab and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in combination with a carbon ion boost for locally advanced tumours of the oro-, hypopharynx and larynx - TPF-C-HIT  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term locoregional control in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) remains challenging. While recent years have seen various approaches to improve outcome by intensification of treatment schedules through introduction of novel induction and combination chemotherapy regimen and altered fractionation regimen, patient tolerance to higher treatment intensities is limited by accompanying side-effects. Combined radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab as well as modern radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and carbon ion therapy (C12) are able to limit toxicity while maintaining treatment effects. In order to achieve maximum efficacy with yet acceptable toxicity, this sequential phase II trial combines induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF) followed by radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. We expect this approach to result in increased cure rates with yet manageable accompanying toxicity. Methods/design The TPF-C-HIT trial is a prospective, mono-centric, open-label, non-randomized phase II trial evaluating efficacy and toxicity of the combined treatment with IMRT/carbon ion boost and weekly cetuximab in 50 patients with histologically proven locally advanced SCCHN following TPF induction chemotherapy. Patients receive 24 GyE carbon ions (8 fractions) and 50 Gy IMRT (2.0 Gy/fraction) in combination with weekly cetuximab throughout radiotherapy. Primary endpoint is locoregional control at 12 months, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, acute and late radiation effects as well as any adverse events of the treatment as well as quality of life (QoL) analyses. Discussion The primary objective of TPF-C-HIT is to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of cetuximab in combination with combined IMRT/carbon ion therapy following TPF induction in locally advanced SCCHN. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT01245985 ( EudraCT number: 2009 - 016489- 10



Data from a Thick Unsaturated Zone Underlying Two Artificial Recharge Sites along Oro Grande Wash in the Western Part of the Mojave Desert, near Victorville, San Bernardino County, California, 2001-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents data on the physical and hydraulic properties of unsaturated alluvial deposits and on the chemical and isotopic composition of water collected at two recharge sites in the western part of the Mojave Desert, near Victorville, California, from 2001 to 2006. Unsaturated-zone monitoring sites were installed adjacent to the two recharge ponds using the ODEX air-hammer and air rotary method to depths of about 460 feet and 269 feet below land surface. Each of the two unsaturated-zone monitoring sites included a water-table well, matric-potential sensors, and suction-cup lysimeters installed in a single bore hole. Drilling procedures, lithologic and geophysical data, and site construction and instrumentation are described. Core material was analyzed for water content, bulk density, water potential, particle size, and water retention. The chemical composition of leachate from almost 400 samples of cores and cuttings was determined. Water from suction-cup lysimeters also was analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition. In addition, data on the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater from the two water-table wells are reported along with chemical and isotopic composition of the surface water in the recharge ponds.

Clark, Dennis A.; Izbicki, John A.; Johnson, Russell D.; Land, Michael T.



EFECTO DE LA SINCRONIZACIÓN DEL ESTRO CON PROSTAGLANDINA-f2 VS CIDR + 500 UI DE eCG EN OVEJAS BERGAMACIA DURANTE EL INICIO DE LA FASE LUTEAL Effect of Estrus Synchronization with Prostaglandins-F2 Vs CIDR + 500 IU of eCG in Bergamacia Ewes During Early Luteal Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of es- trous synchronization with PGF CIDR + 500 IU of eCG on interval to estrus, ovulation and steroidal hormones plasma concentrations during early luteal phase in sheep. Fourteen ewes were treated, distributed in two groups: Group 1 (Con- trol), synchronized with two injections of prostaglandin-F (PG), given 9 days apart, and

Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez; María Inés; Lênz Souza; Ana María; Loaiza Echeverri


Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el que presenta mas deficiencias en el desarrollo de las competencias. El investigador recomienda disenar e implantar un curriculo basado en competencias y proveer formacion en didactica y procesos de aprendizaje a los profesores.

Rivera Pacheco, Andres


Communicating Genetic Risk: Pros, Cons, and Counsel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing com- passionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the



Hester Prynne as Role Model: Pro & Con.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McWalters denies DeSalvo's previous claim (see EJ 209 302) that "The Scarlet Letter" harms students through its message of repressed sexuality; he suggests that the book does not condemn sexuality. DeSalvo replies that "The Scarlet Letter" is presented to students in a harmful way; she again calls for the use of literature that celebrates…

McWalters, John B.; DeSalvo, Louise



The pros and cons of phytoestrogens  

PubMed Central

Phytoestrogens are plant derived compounds found in a wide variety of foods, most notably soy. A litany of health benefits including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms, are frequently attributed to phytoestrogens but many are also considered endocrine disruptors, indicating that they have the potential to cause adverse health effects as well. Consequently, the question of whether or not phytoestrogens are beneficial or harmful to human health remains unresolved. The answer is likely complex and may depend on age, health status, and even the presence or absence of specific gut microflora. Clarity on this issue is needed because global consumption is rapidly increasing. Phytoestrogens are present in numerous dietary supplements and widely marketed as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Soy infant formula now constitutes up to a third of the US market, and soy protein is now added to many processed foods. As weak estrogen agonists/antagonists with molecular and cellular properties similar to synthetic endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol A (BPA), the phytoestrogens provide a useful model to comprehensively investigate the biological impact of endocrine disruptors in general. This review weighs the evidence for and against the purported health benefits and adverse effects of phytoestrogens.

Patisaul, Heather B.; Jefferson, Wendy



How they put the “con” in consulting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Takes a cynical but realistic look at some of the harsher realities of management consulting. Management consultants are experts at making a good impression and at selling their own services. However, this expertise is not always matched by the same level of technical skill. All too often, management consultants make suggestion for the sake of being seen to do something.

Brian Bloch



Incentives for organ donation: pros and cons.  


Altruism still remains the main principle of organ donation worldwide. However, since the current practices has not met the demand for organs, new strategies should be found to encourage organ donation. Implementation of financial incentives in transplantation is a matter of debate among experts in the fields of transplantation, ethics, law, and economics. It should be acknowledged that donors incur many expenses while participating in the transplant process, which seems unfair. Various forms of incentives have been suggested and are currently used worldwide. This article describes current attitudes toward incentives for in transplantation used in different countries, arguing in favor as well as against them. PMID:22841275

Chkhotua, A



Roofing with Urethane: Pro and Con.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gerald Scott's favorable evaluation of the foamed polyurethane roofing system is based on experiences with 55 buildings at Texas A & M. Michael Kinzer, an architect at Colorado State University, disagrees and claims that the system is difficult to install and maintain, and the cost prohibitive. (MLF)

Kinzer, Michael; Scott, Gerald P.E.



Los premiados con el nobel de economía, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como docente en economía quiero hacer un breve y atrevido comentario. a raíz del otorgamiento del Premio Nobel de Economía 1993 a los profesores Douglas C. North y Robert W. Fogel de las Universidades de Washington (Sant Louis) y Chicago respectivamente, por sus investigaciones en el área de la Historia Económica. La primera opinión expresada por el profesor Douglas al

Hugo Silva S



Una “discussione in rete” con Stanley Wilder  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 4th January 2005 the USA Information Literacy community is shocked by the Stanley Wilder's article “Information Literacy Makes all the Wrong Assumptions” published on The Chronicle of Higher Education. The article strongly criticises against Information Literacy and academic libraries. As a reaction, an intense debate immediately arises within the USA Information Literacy community through the ILI-L discussion list. The

Basile Carla



Trustless Grid Computing in ConCert  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that fundamental to the establishment of a grid computing framework where all (not just large organizations) are able to eectiv ely tap into the resources available on the global network is the establishment of trust between grid application developers and resource donors. Resource donors must be able to trust that their security, safety, and privacy policies will be

Bor-yuh Evan Chang; Karl Crary; Margaret Delap; Robert Harper; Jason Liszka; Tom Murphy Vii; Frank Pfenning



Functional Grid Programming with ConCert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid computing has become increasingly popular with the growth of the Internet, especially in large-scale scientic computation. Computational Grids are characterized by their scale, their heterogeneity, and their unreliability, mak- ing the creation of Grid software quite a challenge. Security concerns make the deployment of Grid infrastructure simi- larly daunting. We argue that functional programming techniques, both well-known and new,

Tom Murphy VII



ML grid programming with ConCert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid computing has become increasingly popular with the growth of the Internet, especially in large-scale scientific computation. Computational Grids are characterized by their scale, their hetero- geneity, and their unreliability, making the creation of Grid soft- ware quite a challenge. Security concerns make the deployment of Grid infrastructure similarly daunting. We argue that functional programming techniques, both well- known and

Tom Murphy Vii



Pros, Cons to Dissolving Lung Clots  


... busting drugs, said Giri, an assistant professor of clinical medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. A ... Giri, M.D., M.P.H., assistant professor, clinical medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Joshua Beckman, M.D., ...


Pros and Cons of Biological Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter will briefly review the positive aspects of biological control and will highlight a few examples. It will further\\u000a review negative aspects of biological control introductions. One of the examples where biological control led to detrimental\\u000a environmental effects was the introduction of the ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis, and this case will be outlined in more detail. This example will also

Dirk Babendreier



Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate bone maturation in obese children and to compare the findings from the Venezuelan atlas of bone maturation and the international atlas of Greulich.Pyle. Methods: The data of 30 obese children aged between 1 and 12 years, including weight, height, sex, chronological age, bone age and socioeconomic level were collected, in a cross-sectional study. To evaluate the bone

OBESIDAD Nolis Camacho-Camargo; Janett Velásquez-Guillén; Mariela Paoli-Valeri; Rosanna Cicchetti-Uzcátegui; Jorge Alvarado-Colmenares; Justo Santiago-Peña


McLuhan: Pro and Con.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-one critical essays on the ideas and works of Marshall McLuhan are offered in this review. In the course of the essays, McLuhan is characterized alternately as a genius, an extrapolator, and an oracle; a defender of the choice of choicelessness; a generalizer who rearranges, misinterprets, and misreads the facts to support his theses; an…

Rosenthal, Raymond, Ed.


The Big Con: China's Historical Sabotage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On June 4, 1989, the Chinese military, under orders from the highest levels of government, violently crushed peaceful civilian demonstrations in Beijing, most symbolically in and around Tiananmen Square. In the end, the Chinese government claimed that the death toll was approximately 200, but the Chinese Red Cross reported 2,000 to 3,000 deaths.…

Terrence Cheng



Catálogo de galaxias con núcleo doble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through systematic inspection of the publications in extragalactic astronomy and galaxy catalogs, we compiled a first list of spiral galaxies with double or multiple nucleus, confirmed and candidates (about 150 objects). This list includes, in its preliminar form, basic data on each object (Names, Coordinates, Redshift, Abs.Mag.B, Major and Minor Axes, Nuclei Separation, IR Properties, Comments, etc.) and for nuclei with apparent separations larger than 1'', it seems complete up to z = 0.0015. This allows us to analize the possible correlations between the geometric and photometric parameters of the double nuclei and the host galaxies, some of which are important, e.g.: nuclei separation vs. absolute magnitude and vs. host galaxy diameter; star formation rate vs. nuclei separation. We also find common global infrared an optical photometric properties that are beeing analized in order to check the validity of some models of galaxies captures and mergers. A subsample of southern objects included in this catalog is beeing observed at Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station and, up to date, we have performed BVRI photometry and spectroscopy of twelve double or multiple nuclei galaxies.

Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.


The Pros and Cons of Butterfly Barbells  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years butterfly barbells have been used actively as investment strategies. Such barbells are constructed in order to obtain a yield pick-up and at the same time to be risk neutral against a change in the slope of the yield curve and\\/or a parallel shift in the yield curve. However, empirically the yield curve may change in an unanticipated

Michael Christensen



[Legalization of drugs--pro and con].  


This article deals with various opinions and assertions regarding drug legalization. Societal and clinical implication regarding the effect of decrease or increase in the use of psyhoactive substances, on public health, violence and criminal activities have been pointed out. The relation between legal and illegal drugs has been considered. Special attention has been paid to arguments on legalization and decriminalization of marihuana and possible consequences on the risk group-children and adolescents. Experiences from USA and some European countries have been presented. Having in mind the specific situation in BiH, the author of article gives her own view and suggest the introduction of harm reduction strategy into BiH drug policy, without changing the legal drug status. PMID:11769432

Marjanovi?-Cengi?, S



[Centralization in obstetrics: pros and cons].  


Possible advantages and disadvantages of a general centralization of German obstetric facilities are analysed in the study. The need for centralization of risk cases, especially premature births (regionalization) is pointed out. Centralization appears appropriate, since every fifth maternity unit in Germany (19.78%) has 300 or fewer deliveries per year. This one fifth of perinatal clinics accounts for 6.3% of all deliveries (N = 49450). There are appreciable differences between the old and new federal states (Bundesländer): in the recently acceded federal states, 48.7% of all perinatal clinics have deliveries of 300 and less per year. This group of perinatal clinics accounts for 29% of all deliveries in the new federal states. We have carried out a survey of the mother's attitude to centralization: out of 416 patients in the Detmold women's hospital whose mean age was 29.0 +/- 4.2 years, 90.4% were not in favor of general centralization of obstetrics. 43% were also against a centralization of risk cases (regionalization). 75% of the women surveyed objected to centralized obstetrics because of the 'possible absence of the family', the 'possible absence of students and trainees' (44.9%), the 'unfamiliarity with staff and premises' (41.8%) and 'fear of anonymity' (44.5%). The majority of all women (84.1%) did not want to have a drive more than 20 km to an obstetrics center. Fear of 'delivery in a taxi'(78.6%), the 'fear that the husband will come too late to the delivery' (65.4%) and that the 'overall course of the delivery might not be adequate for reasons of time'. The presence of a pediatrics department in conjunction with the perinatal clinic was rated very positively (93%). It is concluded from the data and further juridical considerations that centralization of risk cases (regionalization) is indispensable in the near future and that somewhat more further into the future decentralization should be carried out by closing obstetrics departments with substantially less than 350 deliveries per year. Attention is drawn to some consequences of such a structural reform which will probably have to be initiated by the German Association of Gynecologists and Obstetricians. PMID:8681127

Roemer, V M; Ramb, S



The Pros and Cons of Petroleum Agreements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mineral agreements expert discusses the options open to tribes, from the most standard lease form to arrangements as yet untried by Indian Nations. Discussion covers 18 basic provisions for inclusion in agreements, tax considerations, and basic forms of petroleum agreements (leases, joint ventures, production sharing, and service contracts).…

Lipton, Charles J.



Mujer con astenia: panarteritis nodosa microvascular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Según la Sociedad Española de Reumatología (SER) la incidencia de Panarteritis nodosa (PAN) microscópica es de 2 casos por millón de habitantes. Si hacemos cálculos en el total de la población española serían 92 casos. Es una patología no muy frecuente ni conocida. Presenta inicialmente síntomas generales inespecíficos (60-70 % de los casos), como fiebre, malestar, astenia, anorexia, pérdida de

Eva Pablos Herrero; Victòria Sabaté Cintas; Anna Fabra Noguera




Microsoft Academic Search

band would play for shows and dances. Although Jack and the other band members promised to take good care of young Ron, the under-age musician admits to hearing lots of dirty jokes, which he thoroughly enjoyed With his father, being a fine musician himself, playing old time fiddle music, Ron was fortunate to be exposed to all the talent of



I-ConFIRM Steering Committee

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational


Nanoparticles: Health Effects--Pros and Cons  

PubMed Central

With the advent of nanotechnology, the prospects for using engineered nanomaterials with diameters of < 100 nm in industrial applications, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy, and other areas have progressed rapidly. The potential for nanoparticles (NPs) in these areas is infinite, with novel new applications constantly being explored. The possible toxic health effects of these NPs associated with human exposure are unknown. Many fine particles generally considered “nuisance dusts” are likely to acquire unique surface properties when engineered to nanosize and may exhibit toxic biological effects. Consequently, the nuisance dust may be transported to distant sites and could induce adverse health effects. In addition the beneficial uses of NPs in drug delivery, cancer treatment, and gene therapy may cause unintentional human exposure. Because of our lack of knowledge about the health effects associated with NP exposure, we have an ethical duty to take precautionary measures regarding their use. In this review we highlight the possible toxic human health effects that can result from exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) generated by anthropogenic activities and their cardiopulmonary outcomes. The comparability of engineered NPs to UFPs suggests that the human health effects are likely to be similar. Therefore, it is prudent to elucidate their toxicologic effect to minimize occupational and environmental exposure. Highlighting the human health outcomes caused by UFPs is not intended to give a lesser importance to either the unprecedented technologic and industrial rewards of the nanotechnology or their beneficial human uses.

Gwinn, Maureen R.; Vallyathan, Val



Weighing the Pros and Cons of TAP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Headlines offer a plethora of opinions and arguments both for and against proposed and newly implemented teacher evaluation systems all over the United States. Hardly anyone balks at the idea of evaluating teachers, but many question whether these new evaluation systems really improve teaching and learning. The author's experience with the new…

Pieczura, Michelle



Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.  


Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L



Polarimetría de estrellas con discos de ``escombros''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present optical polarimetric measurements of a set of ˜100 solar-type stars with and without debris disks. The selection of these objects were based on the presence of excesses in the spectral energy distributions. This sample is complemented with a group of stars from the northern hemisphere with similar characteristics. A statistical comparison of the stars with and without disk shows no significant differences in the observed polarizations. However, we identified a subset of objects (<10 % of the whole sample) with polarizations above the median that not follow the Law of Serkowsky. These polarizations might be due to the presence of disks. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

García, L.; Gómez, M.


Open Admissions: The Pros and Cons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council for Basic Education sponsored an all-day symposium on open admissions in 1971. This booklet contains the full text of the addresses given on that occasion, as well as the major part of the discussion among the panelists and answers to questions from the audience. The aim of the symposium was not only to provide information about…

Barzun, Jacques; And Others


Endoscopist-Directed Propofol: Pros and Cons  

PubMed Central

Concerns about the safety of endoscopist-directed propofol (EDP) have been voiced that propofol should be given only by healthcare professionals trained in the administration of general anesthesia. Here we discuss the safety and drawbacks of EDP for routine endoscopic procedures. Currently, both diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy are well tolerated and accepted by both patients and endoscopists due to the application of sedation in most clinics worldwide. Accordingly, propofol use is increasing in many countries. It is crucial for endoscopists to be very familiar with the use of propofol or a combination of drugs. However, the controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an anesthesiologist continues. Until now, there have been no randomized control trials comparing sedation induced by propofol administered by an endoscopist or by an anesthesiologist. It might be difficult to perform this kind of study. For the convenience and safety of sedative endoscopy, it would be important that EDP be generally applied to endoscopic procedures, and for more safety, an anesthesiologist may automatically take care of particular patients at high risk of suffering from propofol side effects.

Kim, Eun Hye



A "Con Law" Casualty or Victory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 11th Circuit Court upheld a Georgia district's termination of an exemplary teacher who refused an immediate drug test after a police dog sniffed out a marijuana cigarette in her unlocked car. This case illustrates application of zero-tolerance policies to teachers and other personnel despite employees' signed contracts. (MLH)

Zirkel, Perry A.




Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO Scopo del lavoro è stato determinare l'effetto dell 'insilato di mais rispetto al fieno, come principal e componente della dieta, sul tenore azotato urinario. Secondo u n piano sperimentale a cross over 2x2, 14 bovine di razza Frisona (212±99 gg. lattazione e 26.7±5.9 kg latte\\/ d) sono state alimentate con due diete isoenergetic he, isoproteiche e isofibrose. Dopo tre


niVeLeS de ReSiStenCia a dRoGaS antitUbeRCULoSaS en PaCienteS Con CoinFeCCiÓn ViH \\/ tUbeRCULoSiS, LiMa, 1998-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSUMen Objetivos: Determinar los niveles de resistencia a drogas antituberculosas de primera línea en muestras clínicas de pacientesconcoinfecciónporelvirusdelainmunodeficienciahumanaytuberculosis?(VIH-TB)?encincohospitalesde? Lima en el periodo 1998-2000. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo que incluyó las muestras de cultivos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis de pacientes con coinfección VIH-TB, a los que se realizó las pruebas de sensibilidad por el método de las proporciones para isoniacida (H),

Luis Asencios S; Lucy Vásquez C; Elena Leo H; Neyda Quispe T; Luz Huaroto V; César Cabezas S



Microsoft Academic Search

The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurologic-based polygenetic disorder affecting some 3-6% of school-age children. Both its chronic character and its basic symptomathology (the attention deficit and the binomial hyperactivity-impulsiveness) have a large influence upon behaviour, academic performance and social relationships, which might lead to the development of associated disorders such as the Oppositional Defiant Disorder, the Conduct

Isabel Orjales Villar


Comment on the paper "Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material" by P.M. Dinakaran, S. Kalainathan [Spectrochim. Acta A 111 (2013) 123-130].  


We argue that (trans)-4-chloro-4'-nitrostilbene is not a new organic nonlinear optical material as claimed by Dinakaran and Kalainathan [P.M. Dinakaran, S. Kalainathan, Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-Chloro 4-Nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material, Spectrochim. Acta A 111 (2013) 123-130], but instead a well-known compound whose synthesis, spectral data, single crystal structure and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency are well documented in the literature. The title paper is completely erroneous. PMID:24152596

Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Dhuri, Sunder N; Nadkarni, V S



Health Care Costs of Adults Treated for Attention-Defi cit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder Who Received Alternative Drug Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

(greater than 99.96th percentile, 1 each for OROS-MPH and atomoxetine) accounted for $47 (30%) of the $156 cost difference between OROS-MPH and MAS-XR and $11 (5%) of the $226 cost difference between OROS-MPH and atomoxetine, and the medical diagnoses for the highest-cost claims for these 2 outlier patients were unrelated to ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for patient characteristics including substance

Eric Q. Wu; Howard G. Birnbaum; Huabin F. Zhang; Jasmina I. Ivanova; Elaine Yang; David Mallet



Antithrombotic activities of oroxylin A in vitro and in vivo.  


Here, the anticoagulant activities of oroxylin A (OroA), a major component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, were examined by monitoring activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), and the activities of cell-based thrombin and activated factor X (FXa). Furthermore, the effects of OroA on the expressions of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) were tested in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with OroA resulted in prolonged aPTT and PT and inhibition of the activities of thrombin and FXa, and OroA inhibited production of thrombin and FXa in HUVECs. And OroA inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. In accordance with these anticoagulant activities, OroA elicited anticoagulant effects in mouse. In addition, treatment of OroA resulted in the inhibition of TNF-?-induced production of PAI-1, and treatment with OroA resulted in the significant reduction of the PAI-1 to t-PA ratio. Collectively, OroA possess antithrombotic activities and offer bases for development of a novel anticoagulant. PMID:23963976

Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, In-Chul; Bae, Jong-Sup



Biochemical characterization of the eelgrass Zostera marina at its southern distribution limit in the North Pacific [Caracterizacio??n bioqui??mica del pasto marino Zostera marina en el li??mite sur de su distribucio??n en el Paci??fico Norte  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eelgrass Zostera marina L. is distributed along the Baja California Peninsula (Mexico) where it is exposed to a wide range of irradiances and temperatures that could promote changes in its biochemical composition. Consequently, the objective of this study was to characterize the variations in the levels of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, ash and calories in the shoots of Z. marina from the north (San Quintin) and south (Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio lagoons) of the peninsula. Temperature in the southern lagoons was 5-6??C higher than in the northern lagoon; likewise, in situ irradiance was two-fold greater in the south than in the north. As a result of the lower irradiance levels, the concentration of chlorophyll in the shoots of Z. marina was twice as high (1.7 mg gWW-1) in the northern lagoon than in the southern ones (0.8 mg gWW-1). Similar to chlorophyll levels, the concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the shoots was greater in the northern lagoon than in the southern ones, suggesting that the high levels of chlorophyll are enough to compensate for the low irradiance levels and to maintain a positive carbon balance at San Quintin. On the other hand, the levels of proteins in the shoots from the north of the peninsula were slightly lower than those from the southern populations. In general, these results suggest that the different environmental conditions to which Z. marina is exposed along the peninsula impact its biochemical composition.

Cabello-Pasini, A.; Muniz-Salazar, R.; Ward, D. H.



Diagnosis of Oropouche Virus Infection Using a Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oropouche (ORO) virus is an emerging infectious agent that has caused numerous outbreaks of an acute febrile (dengue-like) illness among humans in Brazil, Peru, and Panama. Diagnosis of ORO virus infection is based mainly on serology. Two different antigens, hamster serum antigen (HSA) and Vero cell lysate antigen (VCLA), are currently used in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) in Brazil and Peru,




Atomoxetine and Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD: The Efficacy, Tolerability and Effects on Executive Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to compare the safety, efficacy, tolerability, and the effects of atomoxetine and OROS-MPH on executive functions in children with ADHD. This study was an open-label study that only included two medication groups. Children were randomized to open-label atomoxetine or OROS-MPH for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were…

Yildiz, Ozlem; Sismanlar, Sahika G.; Memik, Nursu Cakin; Karakaya, Isik; Agaoglu, Belma



Right Hemisphere Dominance for Emotion Processing in Baboons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asymmetries of emotional facial expressions in humans offer reliable indexes to infer brain lateralization and mostly revealed right hemisphere dominance. Studies concerned with oro-facial asymmetries in nonhuman primates largely showed a left-sided asymmetry in chimpanzees, marmosets and macaques. The presence of asymmetrical oro-facial…

Wallez, Catherine; Vauclair, Jacques



Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone



Variaciones del factor de crecimiento hepatocitario y carga viral del VHC con hemodiálisis. Comparación con terapia con el sistema de recirculación de adsorbentes moleculares (MARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsThere is evidence that hemodialysis can decrease HCV viral load. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is stimulated by hemodialysis, reaching a peak 15 minutes after the beginning of the hemodialysis session. This factor has been reported to have a possible protective effect against the development of chronic HCV-related liver diseases. MARS therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in patients with a

Guillermina Barril-Cuadrado; Javier Bartolomé-Nebreda; Paz Ruiz-Álvarez; Paloma Sanz-García; Juan Antonio Traver-Aguilar; Rafael Selgas-Gutiérrez; Vicente Carreño-García



61 FR 12714 - Export Administration Regulation; Simplification of Export Administration Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Italy (includes San Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway...Hungary India Ireland, Republic of Italy Japan Korea, Republic of Liechtenstein Luxembourg...where takes place). [[Page 12827



Operación IceBridge: Explorando la Antártida  

NASA Video Gallery

Operación IceBridge es una misión aérea de la NASA dedicada a estudiar cambios en el hielo marino y terrestre en ambos polos del planeta. En octubre y noviembre de 2012, IceBridge completó su cuart...


Astro Camp Counselors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barbara Marino (left), Stennis Space Center education technology specialist, shows Astro Camp Counselor Beverly Fitzsimmons a LEGO model during a teambuilding exercise May 29 at SSC's North Gate computer lab as a part of the counselors' `new hire' orientation.



15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome & Principe, Samoa, San Marino,...



15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Rwanda Saint Kitts & Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome & Principe Saudi...



Pros and Cons of Partnering: A VCampus Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the growth of online courses in higher education and outsourcing for online course development focuses on the work of VCampus, an application service provider that develops online instruction for corporations and academic institutions. Discusses partnering arrangements; merging goals; intellectual property rights; marketing plans;…

Stallings, Dees



Pros and cons of antioxidant use during radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation therapy is one of the major treatment modalities in the management of human cancer. While impressive progress like more accurate dosimetry and more precise methods of radiation targeting to tumor tissue has been made, the value of radiation therapy in tumor control may have reached a plateau. At present, two opposing hypotheses regarding the use of antioxidants during radiation

K. N Prasad; W. C Cole; B Kumar; K Che Prasad



An Interim Pricing Strategy for ConRail, February, 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study analyses the merits for the various types of short term price increases in terms of general rate increases, commodity increases, terminal surcharges, and region surcharges. An estimate of the traffic diversion under each arrangement is presented...



Anisotropic interface magnetoresistances in Pt(111)\\/Con\\/Pt(111)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown in terms of a fully relativistic spin-polarized ab initio-type approach that in Pt\\/Co\\/Pt trilayers two types of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) have to be distinguished: an in-plane and an out-of-plane AMR. The obtained results, namely the magnetic field dependence as well as the thickness dependence of both AMR types are in very good agreement with a very recent

A. Kobs; S. Heße; H. P. Oepen; P. Weinberger



Teaching patient assessment: the pros & cons of clinical rounds.  


The first step in the nursing process is assessment. Facility with patient assessment skills precludes planning, implementing and evaluating patient care. Teaching patient assessment is time consuming and potentially anxiety-provoking. Classroom lectures and practice labs are not enough if students are to learn how to assess patients with pathophysiological responses. We found that clinical rounds on select patientw was a most important adjunct. Coordinating and conducting clinical rounds presents many problems but faculty and students are in complete agreement that the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages. We are hoping that others can "go to school" on some of our experiences as we will continue to do so. PMID:14229

Jackson, B S; Mantle, D D



The pros and cons of evidence-based surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been proposed as a new paradigm of practising medicine. However, an unproductive polarisation\\u000a between supporters and opponents can make its unbiased assessment difficult. This review gives an overview of the arguments\\u000a and discusses their surgeon-specific importance. Discussion: As EBM claims a position in the centre of medicine, it borders with other highly debated topics as,

Stefan Sauerland; Rolf Lefering; Edmund A. M. Neugebauer



Pros and Cons of ID vs. 3D Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in computing capability have led to tremendous improvements in 3D modeling. Entire active regions are being simulated in what might be described as a first principles way, in which plasma heating is treated self consistently rather than through the specification of heating functions. There are limitations to this approach, however, as actual heating mechanisms on the Sun involve spatial scales orders of magnitude smaller than what these simulations can resolve. Other simulations begin to resolve these scales, but they only treat a tiny volume and do not include the all important coupling with larger scales or with other parts of the atmosphere, and so cannot be readily compared with observations. Finally, ID hydrodynamic models capture the field-aligned evolution of the plasma extremely well and are ideally suited for data comparison, but they treat the heating in a totally ad hoc manner. All of these approaches have important contributions to make, but we must be aware of their limitations. I will highlight some of the strengths. and weaknesses of each.

Klimchuk, James A.




Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Malnutrition in pregnant teenagers and the relation with lower weight Introduction: The pregnancy in the adolescence is one of the most relevant problems in reproductive health in the world; around of 15 million of teenagers give birth each year; numbers to belong to the all of births. In previous studies, was investigated the relation between the evaluation nutritional of

Martín Fidel Romano; Pedro Federico Contte; Belén Guadalupe Barboza; Juan Manuel Romero Benitez


Anthologies in the College Curriculum: A Pro and Con Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three papers collected in this document present opinions for and against the use of anthologies in introductory writing and literature classes at community colleges. The first paper, "College Students Must Read Book-Length Works," by Dallas E. Dillon, proposes that students, even non-traditional community college students, should be pushed to…

Dillon, Dallas E.; Piro, Vince; Nicoll-Johnson, Mark


Making your database available through Wikipedia: the pros and cons.  


Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, is the most famous wiki in use today. It contains over 3.7 million pages of content; with many pages written on scientific subject matters that include peer-reviewed citations, yet are written in an accessible manner and generally reflect the consensus opinion of the community. In this, the 19th Annual Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research, there are 11 articles that describe the use of a wiki in relation to a biological database. In this commentary, we discuss how biological databases can be integrated with Wikipedia, thereby utilising the pre-existing infrastructure, tools and above all, large community of authors (or Wikipedians). The limitations to the content that can be included in Wikipedia are highlighted, with examples drawn from articles found in this issue and other wiki-based resources, indicating why other wiki solutions are necessary. We discuss the merits of using open wikis, like Wikipedia, versus other models, with particular reference to potential vandalism. Finally, we raise the question about the future role of dedicated database biocurators in context of the thousands of crowdsourced, community annotations that are now being stored in wikis. PMID:22144683

Finn, Robert D; Gardner, Paul P; Bateman, Alex




Microsoft Academic Search

Adenoid cystic carcinoma with heavy bone destruction. Case report. The adenoid cystic carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms of salivary gland origin. Approximately 50% is located in minor salivary glands, with preference on the palate, others in parotid and submandibular glands. It is more frequent between the fifth and seventh decades of life, rarely appears before 20

Orlando Yoris; Ligia Pérez Castro; Jonny Armas; Campo E. Pérez


Diagnóstico diferencial inmunomorfológico de las lesiones quísticas maxilares con queratinización  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesMaxillary cystic lesions with keratinization are controversial lesions that are clinically relevant due to the prognostic implication of the so-called keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT). The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of immunohistochemistry in the identification of KOTs.

Beatriz Vera-Sirera; Julia Guarín; Cecilia López-Valdivia; Enrique Jiménez; Francisco Vera-Sempere



Microsoft Academic Search

Modern consumers are interested in healthy food to ensure healthy ageing, with the aim of ensuring a healthy ageing. Research expects industry level achievement for fortified fruit as an alternative. This study assesses the useful life time cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fortified with vitamin E using the technique of vacuum impregnation (IV), depending on the colour, texture and stability



etrica del equilibrio en un juego con restricciones de entorno  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a study of the Nash equilibrium in a geometric game is performed. The two players are represented by two points in the plane and their pay-o is the number of points they get from a nite subset of the plane. The two players have a restriction in their positions in the plane by

Abellanas Oar; Rodrigo Hitos; Equilibrio de Nash


Computer Networks and Advanced Communications: Weighing the Pros and Cons  

Microsoft Academic Search

One main method for optimizing computer usage is networking. However, for those who are contemplating a change from stand-alone computers to a network system, investigation of actual networks in use presents a paradox: network systems can be highly productive and beneficial, but they can create many complex, frustrating problems. The issue becomes a question of whether the benefits of networking

W. L. Koederitz; B. S. Macon



Dying in dignity: the pros and cons of assisted suicide.  


This paper describes the historical background and the current situation regarding the practice of assisted suicide in The Netherlands. It outlines and discusses what is considered to be the 'golden standard' of conduct for doctors and other health professionals in this area, it describes experiences with the application of this standard and discusses some of the major pitfalls involved. It also describes the results of several empirical studies on the attitudes of the general public, and the nature and magnitude of the practice of assisted suicide in the country. It is concluded that although perfect application of the 'Dutch Protocol' encourages and supports careful and responsible professional conduct regarding assisted suicide and provides satisfactory safeguards both for the patients involved, (potential) survivors and society as a whole, there are many cases where the desired perfection is far from feasible, hence assistance with suicide remains very hazardous. It is also concluded, however, that health care policy makers, as well as professionals, should confront the issue of assisted suicide, since, as the historical development in The Netherlands has shown, repression and denial implicates the worst of all possible scenarios, and does not contribute at all to the primordial goals of a humane health care system: the alleviation of suffering and the prevention of premature death. PMID:9179959

Diekstra, R F



Pros and cons of the ambulatory surgery center joint venture.  


If a physician group has determined that it has a realistic patient base to establish an ambulatory surgery center, it may be beneficial to consider a partner to share the costs and risks of this new joint venture. Joint ventures can be a benefit or liability in the establishment of an ambulatory surgery center. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of a hospital physician-group joint venture. PMID:18061764

Giannini, Deborah



Pros and cons of proposed interventions to promote healthy eating.  


The increased prevalence and costs associated with the obesity epidemic have made preventive efforts a public health priority. Public health has historically relied on a series of targeted regulations, taxes, and education efforts to curb epidemics, and will rely on similar strategies to combat obesity. We argue that interventions targeted at youth are relatively easy to justify on economic grounds due to the additional protections that this group requires, but that justification for government interventions aimed at curbing obesity among adults requires additional evidence that private markets are not functioning properly. We then present seven proposed intervention strategies to promote healthy eating, and use an economic framework to discuss the relative merits of the interventions. This evaluation will allow policymakers to make more informed decisions concerning the relative merits of these strategies in combating the obesity epidemic. PMID:15450627

Finkelstein, Eric; French, Simone; Variyam, Jayachandran N; Haines, Pamela S



Supplementary Screening Sonography in Mammographically Dense Breast: Pros and Cons  

PubMed Central

Sonography is an attractive supplement to mammography in breast cancer screening because it is relatively inexpensive, requires no contrast-medium injection, is well tolerated by patients, and is widely available for equipment as compared with MRI. Sonography has been especially valuable for women with mammographically dense breast because it has consistently been able to detect a substantial number of cancers at an early stage. Despite these findings, breast sonography has known limitations as a screening tool; operator-dependence, the shortage of skilled operators, the inability to detect microcalcifications, and substantially higher false-positive rates than mammography. Further study of screening sonography is still ongoing and is expected to help establish the role of screening sonography.

Youk, Ji Hyun



Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

Segraves, Robert Taylor



La quimioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Publicación para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo quimioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la quimioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


PPAR? and Oxidative Stress: Con(?) Catenating NRF2 and FOXO  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome-proliferator activator receptor ? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor of central importance in energy homeostasis and inflammation. Recent experimental pieces of evidence demonstrate that PPAR? is implicated in the oxidative stress response, an imbalance between antithetic prooxidation and antioxidation forces that may lead the cell to apoptotic or necrotic death. In this delicate and intricate game of equilibrium, PPAR? stands out as a central player devoted to the quenching and containment of the damage and to foster cell survival. However, PPAR? does not act alone: indeed the nuclear receptor is at the point of interconnection of various pathways, such as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), Wnt/?-catenin, and forkhead box proteins O (FOXO) pathways. Here we reviewed the role of PPAR? in response to oxidative stress and its interaction with other signaling pathways implicated in this process, an interaction that emerged as a potential new therapeutic target for several oxidative-related diseases.

Polvani, Simone; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea



Astrobiological Aspects of Mars and Human Presence: Pros and Cons  

PubMed Central

After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated.

Horneck, G



Tratamiento de linfomas cutáneos de células T con bexaroteno  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe choice of treatment in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) depends on the clinical stage of the disease and the patient's general condition. To date, there is no curative treatment for this disease, and the objective is to control the symptoms and prevent the disease from progressing. Bexarotene is an X receptor-specific retinoid with anti-tumor activity. Its use as treatment for

Olatz Lasa; Rosa Izu; Elvira Acebo; Patricia Eguino; José L. Díaz-Pérez




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The difficulties which Secondary School and University students encounter when looking at cell samples through the microscope are explored in this paper. Students were asked to draw what they expected to see, and later to draw what they did see while performing a Laboratory activity in a classroom situation. The drawings are analysed and categorised. Some of the causes



The Prose of Blogging (and a Few Cons, Too)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Blogging for the sake of blogging is fine, but what is the value added?" That's a question educational blogging advocates are now coming around to answer, and the value they're finding may seem preposterous to those who associate blogging with barely literate loudmouths and cyber predators. Can this often belligerent wasteland of poor punctuation…

Ramaswami, Rama



Síndrome metabólico en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the presence of metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adolescent population. Design: Clinical study. Setting: Endocrinology service. Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Participants: Adolescents. Interventions: We studied 195 adolescents between 10 to 19 year-old. Inclusion criteria was that they should be overweight or obese. We used the reference population of Must et al. with the following diagnosis

Jaime Pajuelo; Ivonne Bernui; Violeta Nolberto; Alberto Peña; Luis Zevillanos


Resistencia a la insulina en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the presence of insulin resistance (IR) in a group of overweight and obese adolescents. Materials and Methods: One hundred 10 to 28 year-old children were studied, (77% females); 67% were overweight and the remaining obese. Overweight and obesity were determined by Must et al. criteria: overweight between 85 and 95 percentile and obesity overt the 95 percentile.

Jaime Pajuelo; Rosa Pando; María Leyva; Karina Hernández; Rocío Infantes



Pseudoaneurisma iatrogénico de la arteria femoral superficial con clavo PFNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionIatrogenic lesions of the superficial femoral artery are a severe but infrequent complication. The internal rotation and adduction of the affected limb during fracture reduction may cause the overdrilling of the locking mechanism of the intramedullary nail to damage the arterial endothelium.

F. E. Navarrete; J. L. Longares



Pro/con ethics debate: when is dead really dead?  


Contemporary intensive care unit (ICU) medicine has complicated the issue of what constitutes death in a life support environment. Not only is the distinction between sapient life and prolongation of vital signs blurred but the concept of death itself has been made more complex. The demand for organs to facilitate transplantation promotes a strong incentive to define clinical death in a manner that most effectively supplies that demand. We consider the problem of defining death in the ICU as a function of viable organ availability for transplantation. PMID:16356234

Whetstine, Leslie; Streat, Stephen; Darwin, Mike; Crippen, David



Revisión del tratamiento en pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflamatory and demyelinative disease which affects central nervous system myelin. The most characteristic clinic in MS is its variability, with signs and symptoms depending on the localitation of the injuries which can appear in all neuroaxis. Today there isn’t a healing therapy in MS. Thats why physiotherapy acquires an important value to maintain and\\/or improve

A. I. Macías Jiménez; R. Cano de la Cuerda



Fotometria di PHEMU con webcam e camera digitale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report on photometry of mutual phenomena of the Galilean satellites, performed during the PHEMU 2003 international campaign. For the first time, the opportunity to obtain scientifically relevant light curves using commercial webcams and digital cameras is demonstrated. All the 20 light curves are analysed to determine the times of minimum and the flux drops. The times of minimum in many cases show considerable deviations from the expected theoretical central instants. A test for detecting volcanic activity on Io's surface was tried.

Spampinato, Salvo; Cammarata, Saverio; Lo Savio, Emilio; Marino, Giuseppe; Salvaggio, Fabio



Vivienda Flotante Construida con Ferrocemento (Floating Habitations Constructed with Ferrocement).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explores the possibility of constructing floating homes to solve the problem of people who live in zones of frequent inundation but who refuse to move. Ferrocement is to be used because it is easily made, doesn't require special knowledge, and ...

F. C. Troll J. F. Farbiarz C. L. Naranjo



Espectroscopía, fotometría y fotopolarimetría de quasars con variabilidad violenta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the preliminary results of coordinated observing campaigns for studying luminous extragalactic objects with important photometric variability detected in hours. These campaigns are centered now in the study of quasars with very strong continuum, originated in sincrotron radiation (blazars). In order to have a good observational frame to evaluate the different models that explain this kind of activity, we have performed simultaneous observations of the evolution of optical photometric and polarimetric continuum properties in several objects. The simultaneous observations were performed at Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station (BVRI photometry and moderate resolution spectroscopy) and CASLEO (photopolarimetry UBVRI, Pian et al. 1999): high quality data with good time sampling were obtained during two five nights runs in 1998 and 1999. These were the main results obtained in 1998 about the blazar PKS 2155-304: The object is in a stage of high luminosity that seems to go on further in 1999. We observed a local minimum in the luminosity in all bands at JD 2451051.7, three hours later than a minimum in linear polarization, almost when the polarization is reaching a local maximum. The interpretation of this event will be discussed when we finish the 1999 data analysis. Several spectra were obtained in the optical range 4700 to 7900 Å, showing the blazar typical continuum F? ? ??, with ? ? -0.8 during this observing run. The only previous redshift data on this object, the most studied southern blazar, was obtained by Falomo et al. (1993) with low resolution spectra taken at the NTT (ESO). Using this preliminary value we identified absortion lines of the host elliptical galaxy, in several of our higher resolution spectra with much larger exposure times. We could confirm and improve in one order of magnitude the redshift determination, z = 0.1158±0.0002, and the distance to PKS 2155-304 is ?460 Mpc (h=0.75).

Díaz, R. J.; Pian, E.; Gimeno, G.; Palazzi, E.; Tommasi, L.; Carranza, G.


Medición de placas fotográficas con CCD: Aplicaciones Astrométricas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a methodology for the astrometric measurement of photographic plates. In order to achieve this goal CCD images are taken with the camera at Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station, which has 1024x1024 19?m square pixels, 16 bits digital resolution. The plate is back-illuminated with diffuse light and a photographic objective of 80mm focal length f/5.6 is employed for the formation of images. Every frame covers an area approximately 30mm side, equivalent to 30'. The segmentation and centering of stellar images was performed with the software SExtractor that gives positions of every one of the three exposures of stars in CdC plates from Córdoba. By means of our own software triple exposures are identified and the three positions are averaged in one. The positions obtained in this way were compared with the ones obtained in a similar manner from a previous digitization of the same plate performed with MAMA. No evidence of Kostinsky effect is found in this comparison, but a noticeable radial distortion produced by the optical system. After modeling and correcting the distortion, the reduction to celestial coordinates was performed by means of the block-adjustment technique, using Tycho-2 as reference catalog. The residuals of the adjustment are between 0".12 and 0".20, while differences with Tycho-2 suggest that the error of the positions is between 3" and 0".5. This accuracy can be improved with a better correction of the observed distortion, and maybe with the selection of the best astrometric quality Tycho-2 stars.

Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.


Specialization in High School Sports. The Pros and Cons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguments for and against high school sport specialization, where student athletes limit their athletic participation to one sport which they practice, train for, and compete in for the entire school year, are presented. Discussed are: performance improvement, greater recognition, fewer injuries, burnout, less attention to other sports, increased…

Hill, Grant M.; Hansen, Gary F.



La radioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

E-book para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo radioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la radioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


Mujer de 90 años con dolor torácico pleurítico  

Microsoft Academic Search

El signo de Chilaiditi es una alteración anatómica que consiste en la interposición de una parte de colon generalmente el derecho entre hígado y diafragma. No es un cuadro frecuente y predomina sobre todo en varones mayores de 65 años.

Inmaculada Burgos Remacha; Julio Navaz Tejero; Juan Fernando Fernandez Moyano



Multi-model or Post-processing: Pros and Cons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-processing of hydrologic model output can be viewed as an extension of the hydrologic model itself, such as in the case of under-dispersive hydrologic ensemble forecasts, where post-processing of the ensemble dispersion can implicitly account for missing scales of hydrologic variability or mis-representation of physical processes. In this study we compare and contrast two approaches for accounting for and minimizing sources of hydrologic modeling error under an operational forecast setting: hydrologic multi-modeling or conditional post-processing of a single hydrologic model. Our approach includes the following steps. First, we utilize FUSE (Framework for Understanding Structural Errors) to construct the multi-model ensemble. Second, we post-process single-model and multi-model simulations using quantile regression, an under-utilized but powerful statistical tool that optimally fits different quantiles of a probability distribution function. Third, we introduce a post-processing methodology for performing model selection that generates ensemble forecasts with an informative ensemble skill and spread relationship. To do this we conditionally select different historic scenarios for model development, and explore what states of the hydrologic system inform this selection process. Finally, we make direct comparisons between the multi-model and post-processing approaches, gauging the performance of each at providing credible probabilistic forecasts during different hydrologic conditions and forecast lead-times.

Hopson, T. M.; Clark, M. P.; Slater, A.



El cáncer entre las minorías con VIH y sida

Cancer and HIV/AIDS has always been “a tale of two diseases,” according to researchers at the NCI. Infection with HIV not only weakens the immune system, leading to AIDS and increasing the risk of opportunistic infections, but also increases the risk of several types of cancer. This Spanish-language Lifelines articles explains how HIV/AIDS affects cancer risk.


Communication Technology: Pros and Cons of Constant Connection to Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the relationship between employees' attitudes related to communication technology (CT) flexibility, communication technology (CT) use, work-to-life conflict and work satisfaction. Based on data obtained from 193 employees, CT flexibility predicted more CT use. Further, CT use was associated not only with increased work satisfaction,…

Diaz, Ismael; Chiaburu, Dan S.; Zimmerman, Ryan D.; Boswell, Wendy R.



Astrobiological aspects of Mars and human presence: pros and cons.  


After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with regard to planetary protection issues. Therefore, before planning any human exploratory mission, the critical issues concerning human health and wellbeing as well as protection of Mars in its pristine condition need to be investigated. PMID:19048093

Horneck, G



Hernioplastia con técnica de prolene hernia system. Experiencia institucional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: The use of tension-free techniques has dem- onstrated the effectiveness in inguinal hernias. The most com- mon are mesh plug and Lichtenstein patch. Recently, the Prolene Hernia System (PHS) has been introduced, with the advantage of a low rate of recurrence, prompt recovery to daily activities, and a short learning curve in the technique, making this procedure easy

Daniel Suárez-Flores; Luis Manuel Oropeza-Navarrete



On k-con-Critically n-Connected Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove that every n-connected graph G of sufficiently large order contains a connected graph H on four vertices such that G?V(H) is (n?3)-connected. This had been conjectured in Mader (High connectivity keeping sets in n-connected graphs, Combinatorica, to appear). Furthermore, we prove upper bounds for the order of all n-connected graphs of criticality 3, 4, and 5.

Wolfgang Mader



Ecografia con mezzo di contrasto nelle patologie gastroenteriche  

Microsoft Academic Search

I mezzi di contrasto per ecografia, come già ampiamente argomentato, sono costituiti da microbolle delle dimensioni di 3–5\\u000a µm che, iniettate in bolo, aumentano il segnale ultrasonografico proveniente dal letto vascolare o capillare, e forniscono\\u000a un’adeguata rappresentazione del flusso ematico del microcircolo di un tessuto o di un organo (ecoangiografia perfusionale).\\u000a Poiché questi composti non si distribuiscono nei liquidi tissutali

Giovanni Maconi; Cristina Bezzio; Gabriele Bianchi Porro


Lysosomal multienzyme complex: pros and cons of working together.  


The ubiquitous distribution of lysosomes and their heterogeneous protein composition reflects the versatility of these organelles in maintaining cell homeostasis and their importance in tissue differentiation and remodeling. In lysosomes, the degradation of complex, macromolecular substrates requires the synergistic action of multiple hydrolases that usually work in a stepwise fashion. This catalytic machinery explains the existence of lysosomal enzyme complexes that can be dynamically assembled and disassembled to efficiently and quickly adapt to the pool of substrates to be processed or degraded, adding extra tiers to the regulation of the individual protein components. An example of such a complex is the one composed of three hydrolases that are ubiquitously but differentially expressed: the serine carboxypeptidase, protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA), the sialidase, neuraminidase-1 (NEU1), and the glycosidase ?-galactosidase (?-GAL). Next to this 'core' complex, the existence of sub-complexes, which may contain additional components, and function at the cell surface or extracellularly, suggests as yet unexplored functions of these enzymes. Here we review how studies of basic biological processes in the mouse models of three lysosomal storage disorders, galactosialidosis, sialidosis, and GM1-gangliosidosis, revealed new and unexpected roles for the three respective affected enzymes, Ppca, Neu1, and ?-Gal, that go beyond their canonical degradative activities. These findings have broadened our perspective on their functions and may pave the way for the development of new therapies for these lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:24337808

Bonten, Erik J; Annunziata, Ida; d'Azzo, Alessandra



ConStruct: Improved construction of RNA consensus structures  

PubMed Central

Background Aligning homologous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) correctly in terms of sequence and structure is an unresolved problem, due to both mathematical complexity and imperfect scoring functions. High quality alignments, however, are a prerequisite for most consensus structure prediction approaches, homology searches, and tools for phylogeny inference. Automatically created ncRNA alignments often need manual corrections, yet this manual refinement is tedious and error-prone. Results We present an extended version of CONSTRUCT, a semi-automatic, graphical tool suitable for creating RNA alignments correct in terms of both consensus sequence and consensus structure. To this purpose CONSTRUCT combines sequence alignment, thermodynamic data and various measures of covariation. One important feature is that the user is guided during the alignment correction step by a consensus dotplot, which displays all thermodynamically optimal base pairs and the corresponding covariation. Once the initial alignment is corrected, optimal and suboptimal secondary structures as well as tertiary interaction can be predicted. We demonstrate CONSTRUCT's ability to guide the user in correcting an initial alignment, and show an example for optimal secondary consensus structure prediction on very hard to align SECIS elements. Moreover we use CONSTRUCT to predict tertiary interactions from sequences of the internal ribosome entry site of CrP-like viruses. In addition we show that alignments specifically designed for benchmarking can be easily be optimized using CONSTRUCT, although they share very little sequence identity. Conclusion CONSTRUCT's graphical interface allows for an easy alignment correction based on and guided by predicted and known structural constraints. It combines several algorithms for prediction of secondary consensus structure and even tertiary interactions. The CONSTRUCT package can be downloaded from the URL listed in the Availability and requirements section of this article.

Wilm, Andreas; Linnenbrink, Kornelia; Steger, Gerhard



Second generation of dopamine agonists: pros and cons.  


Dopamine agonists (DAGs) were first used in patients with moderate or advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). At that time, it was thought that DAGs could replace levodopa (LD) with fewer side effects. However, it soon became clear that while they could not replace LD, they did allow reduction of the dose of LD and diminished its side effects. Since the use of DAGs reduces response fluctuations as well as dyskinesias, there is a tendency to introduce them in the first stages of the disease, trying to delay motor fluctuations. While many DAGs have been developed, only four have been marketed and are used extensively for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: apomorphine, bromocriptine, lisuride and pergolide. In the present chapter, following a review of the "old" DAGs, the experience with three new promising DAGs is reported: cabergoline, ropinirole and pramipexole. PMID:8748628

Rabey, J M



Intermolecular interactions in molecular systems: pros and cons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For applications as diverse as molecular electronics and nonlinear optics, organic molecular systems have long been vaunted as ideal candidates due to their low cost and the tailorability of their physical properties through well explored organic chemistry. Indeed, examples of porphyrins and systematically structured oligomers show how the properties of these systems can be finely tuned leading to simple structure-property relationships. In most cases, however, these finely tuned properties are lost in the solid state, and even at moderate concentrations in solution, as illustrated for the liquid crystal forming materials, hexabenzocoronenes. Not only are structure property relationships lost, but the optical properties, in particular fluorescence efficiency, are greatly suppressed. In polymers, which are structurally less defined, such aggregration effects can be both interchain and intrachain and have been seen to depend on the backbone isomerism. Raman spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable probe of the purity of the backbone isomerisation and thus of the inhibition of interchain interaction. The use of nanospacers has been also explored for the local inhibition of intermolecular interaction. In particular, carbon nanotubes are shown to selectively interact with organic polymers in order to reduce the polymer-polymer interaction and so enhance fluorescence in the solid state. Minimisation of the interaction between molecules in order to preserve the as designed properties is a further challenge to molecular science. In fullerenes in the solid state, however, it appears that interaction between excited state species enhances both the electronic and optical properties of the material. The insulating, weakly optically active crystalline material becomes highly fluorescent and highly conducting under high intensity illumination. The origin of the nonlinear process is proposed to be an optically induced insulator to metal transition as a result of the increased interaction of neighbouring excited states. It is proposed that while in many molecular systems intermolecular can be detrimental, they do potentially offer a further design parameter to the molecular scientist.

Byrne, Hugh J.



Ovarian Stem Cells--the Pros and Cons  

PubMed Central

The potential for postnatal de novo oogenesis in mammals and in humans has become very controversial in the fields of reproductive science and biology. Historically, it has been thought that females of most mammalian species lose the ability to produce oocytes at birth. A contemporary understanding of stem cell biology together with novel experimental methods has challenged the model of a prenatal fixed ovarian primordial follicle pool that declines with age. Researchers have suggested replenishment of post-natal oocytes by germ-line stem cells (GSCs). According to this theory, GSCs produce oocytes and primordial follicles throughout the lifetime of the adult female. This review describes recent approaches supporting the revolutionary idea of de novo oogenesis in mammals and humans of reproductive-age and provides counter arguments from opponents of this novel and innovative concept.

Evron, Ayelet; Blumenfeld, Zeev



Learners or Participants? The Pros and Cons of "Lifelong Learning"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas adult education used to be the preferred concept for those studying adult music-making, there is now an increasing trend away from this and towards lifelong learning. Uncritically adopting government lifelong learning discourses, however, blurs the line between educational ideals and political ones. Although there may be merit in the…

Mantie, Roger



Two Year College Faculty Problems: Master Contracts, Pros and Cons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principal papers presented at this conference were as follows: (1) "We've Come a Long Way, Baby" by Thomas F. Stark, (2) "Hey! Who Runs This Show?" by Clair T. Blikre, and (3) "Bargaining Allows Teachers to Teach!" by Ralph Chesebrough. The background, purposes and activities of the Iron Range Institute are described. The appendix, Career…

Morgan, Don A., Ed.


Broadening the DebateThe Pros and Cons of Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization has become an increasingly controversial topic, and the growing number of protests around the world has focused more attention on the basic assumptions of globalization and its effects. The purpose of this literature review is to broaden the boundaries of the debate on globalization and increase our understanding of its influence beyond the economic sphere. The winners and losers

Joyce S. Osland



Neutron Assay System for Con?nement Vessel Disposition  

SciTech Connect

Waste will be removed from confinement vessels remaining from 1970s-era experiments. Los Alamos has 9+ spherical confinement vessels remaining from experiments. Each vessel contains {approx} 500 lbs of radioactive debris such as actinide metals and oxides, metals, powdered silica, graphite, and wires and hardware. In order to dispose of the vessels, debris and contamination must be removed. Neutron assay system was designed to assay vessels before and after cleanout. System requirements are: (1) Modular and moveable; (2) Capable of detecting {approx}100g {sup 239}Pu equivalent in a 2-inch thick steel sphere with 6 foot diameter; and (3) Capable of safeguards-quality assays. Initial design parameters arethe use of 4-atm {sup 3}He tubes with length of 6 feet, and {sup 3}He tubes embedded in polyethelene for moderation. This paper describes the calibration of the Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) and quantification of its uncertainties. Assay uncertainty depends on five factors: (1) Statistical uncertainty in the assay measurement; (2) Statistical uncertainty in the background measurement; (3) Statistical uncertainty in the isotopics determination - This should be much smaller than the other uncertainties; (4) Systematic uncertainty due to position bias; and (5) Systematic uncertainty due to fluctuations in cosmic ray spallation. This one can be virtually eliminated by performing the background measurement with an empty vessel - but that may not be possible. We used modeling and experiments to quantify the systematic uncertainties. The calibration assumes a uniform distribution of material, but reality will be different. MCNPX modeling was used to quantify the positional bias. The model was benchmarked to build confidence in its results. Material at top of vessel is 44% greater than amount assayed, according to singles. Material near 19-tube detector is 38% less than amount assayed, according to singles. Cosmic ray spallation contributes significantly to the background. Comparing rates with and without a vessel showed that spallation adds an average of 27.27 singles/s and 5.45 doubles/s to background. Errors in the background rates were estimated at 20%.

Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Jose I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Astronomia solare e ottica con il foro stenopeico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of the Sun with pinholes was started in Florence's Cathedral in 1475, and in Ulugh Beg observatory in Samarcand in 1424-29, well before the invention of the telescope, for measuring the solar position and the variation of the obliquity of the Earth's axis. Later, with Kepler, pinholes' telescopes were used to follow the solar spots when the telescopes made by Galileo were not available. The use of pinholes in positional solar astrometry continued successfully up to 1800 in some great Italian and French Churches. Nowadays by using pinholes it is possible to show the principles of positional astronomy and imaging to students with instruments very easy to be built at almost no cost. The concepts of focal length, best focus, angular resolution, atmospheric seeing and atmospheric transmittance can be verified with such simple devices. Such pinhole telescopes have been built by primary-school students at the Astronomical Observatory dedicated to the Pope astronomer Sylvester II, located in Bukowiec, Poland, which is at its third year of activity. The largest solar spots have been observed clearly with these instruments, demonstrating the principles discussed in this presentation. The light cast by one of this devices with 70 m of focal length and 1 cm of diameter has permitted to repeat the experiences on the diffraction of the light, made in 1648 by the Jesuits Riccioli and Grimaldi.

Sigismondi, Costantino


Pros and cons of swimming in a noisy environment.  


The problem of optimal microscopic swimming in a noisy environment is analyzed. A simplified model in which propulsion is generated by the relative motion of three spheres connected by immaterial links has been considered. We show that an optimized noisy microswimmer requires less power for propulsion (on average) than an optimal noiseless counterpart migrating with identical mean velocity and swimming stroke amplitude. We also show that noise can be used to overcome some of the limitations of the scallop theorem and have a swimmer that is able to propel itself with control over just one degree of freedom. PMID:24730818

Olla, Piero




Microsoft Academic Search

I lisimetri sono nati originariamente per la conduzione di studi sul bilancio idrico delle colture legati sia alla calibrazione e validazione delle equazioni di stima dell'ET0 sia alla determinazione dei coefficienti colturali (kc) necessari per trasformare i valori di ET0 in valori di ETM. In termini generali un lisimetro è un blocco di terreno inserito in un apposito contenitore e

Tommaso Maggiore; Luigi Mariani; Simone Parisi; Gabriele Cola


A (Con)text for New Discourse as Semiotic Praxis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary art requires that art and cultural educators reposition encounters with artefacts, images and performances into a context for new discourses. Whereas digital media and other aspects of visual popular culture predominate the frames of reference of school-age children, their context (codes) of reference, in large part, do not contain…

Fulkova, Marie; Tipton, Teresa M.



Con: If "Experts" Know So Much, Hire Them as Superintendents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that outside management auditors would be "snoops," that using them would indicate a school board's lack of trust and promote divisiveness among employees, and that management audits are based on the false ideas that schools can be run like businesses and that boards do not know their responsibilities. (RW)

Krajewski, Robert J.




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A5: 'Structure Types. Part 5: Space Groups (173) P63 - (166) R-3m' of Volume 43 'Crystal Structures of Inorganic Compounds' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

Villars, P.; Cenzual, K.; Daams, J.; Gladyshevskii, R.; Shcherban, O.; Dubenskyy, V.; Melnichenko-Koblyuk, N.; Pavlyuk, O.; Savysyuk, I.; Stoyko, S.; Sysa, L.


Pros and cons in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

I propose a new term, ‘galactic organism with distinct intelligence’, for the extraterrestrial forms, with which humans can make contact. This is because, among the three existing terms: (a) ‘the search for extraterrestrial intelligence#x02019; ‘excludes biology and is inelegant#x02019; (b) ‘extraterrestrial#x02019; does not distinguish between the micro-organisms and highly-evolved intelligent life-forms; and (c) 'unidentified flying object' projects a sense of

S. Sri Kantha



Pros and cons in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.  


I propose a new term, 'galactic organism with distinct intelligence', for the extraterrestrial forms, with which humans can make contact. This is because, among the three existing terms: (a) 'the search for extraterrestrial intelligence' 'excludes biology and is inelegant'; (b) 'extraterrestrial' does not distinguish between the micro-organisms and highly-evolved intelligent life-forms; and (c) 'unidentified flying object' projects a sense of mysticism. On the presence of galactic organisms with distinct intelligence, scientists belong to three camps. Astronomers, physicists and some biochemists belong to the believers group. Evolutionists are in the doubters category. The third camp is represented by the 'uncommitted'. Approaches for contacting galactic organisms with distinct intelligence would take three steps. These are: (a) radioastronomical observations in the galaxy and interstellar space for the presence of organic matter; (b) initiating radio contact and listening to any transmitted message, as set out by the search for extraterrestrial intelligence program, and (c) landing instruments and humans in the galaxy. PMID:8676752

Kantha, S S



The pros and cons of plant estrogens for menopause.  


Concerns pertaining to the risk of estrogen exposure through HT have prompted an increase in the use of natural alternatives. Phytoestrogens may provide postmenopausal women with a practical alternative and many women have already begun to utilize phytoestrogen supplements. However, research regarding the efficacy of phytoestrogens as a hormone therapy alternative has been previously pessimistic or questionable at best. This review scrutinizes the most current research regarding the efficacy of three types of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, lignans and coumestans, and their specific effect on the reduction of climacteric symptoms, specifically vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy, insomnia and osteoporosis. A discussion of the research pertaining to the relative safety of each phytoestrogen in terms of breast and endometrial health is also included. Overall, current research demonstrates that phytoestrogens are effective in reducing the intensity of hot flushes, and some phytoestrogen combinations result in a decreased frequency. Certain phytoestrogens have also been shown to decrease vaginal atrophy, improve sleep and cognition, and positively affect bone health. Even though initial research was generally unconvincing, the more recent evidence reviewed here is rather positive. In terms of safety and reports of adverse reactions, trials have not shown an increase in breast cancer risk or increase in endometrial hyperplasia following phytoestrogen use, but trials explicitly designed to find neoplasia have not been reported. Moreover, unlike hormone therapy, lignans may not increase clotting risk in postmenopausal women, thus supplements may serve as a treatment option for patients who have contraindications to hormone therapy. Phytoestrogens may provide a safe and partially effective alternative to HT. However, because research regarding phytoestrogens is relatively new, pharmaco-vigilence is still required, as these products are not yet FDA-approved. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Phytoestrogens'. PMID:23270754

Bedell, Sarah; Nachtigall, Margaret; Naftolin, Frederick



Estado evolutivo de estrellas con fenómeno B[e  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The B[e] phenomenon is related to certain peculiar features observed in the spectrum of some B stars, which are mainly linked to the physical conditions of their circumstellar medium. As these stars are embedded in dense and optically thick circumstellar media, the determination of the spectral type and luminosity class of the central objects is quite difficult. As a consequence, their evolutionary stage and distances present huge uncertainties. In this work we study 4 B[e] stars and discuss their stellar fundamental parameters and evolutionary stages using the BCD spectrophotometric system. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Aidelman, Y. J.; Cidale, L.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Kraus, M.


Creación de una cafetería con servicio especializado de \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first hour at the morning or to join your friends after a meal, there is no doubt that drinking a coffee is quite a pleasure. Now the market offers several opportunities that allow the people to meet in someplace and drink a delicious coffee. The difference in this coffee shop is that this service is only by drive-thru, so

Estefania Dejo


Logística inversa, un enfoque con responsabilidad social empresarial  

Microsoft Academic Search

resumen el presente artículo tiene como objetivo realizar un análisis de la relación entre la logística inversa y la responsabilidad social como estrategia para reducir los impactos en el medio ambiente y aumentar los beneficios sociales y la seguridad en los empleados, clientes y comunidad. para alcanzar los objetivos, se consideran los temas de logística inversa y responsabilidad social desde

Rodrigo Andrés Gómez Montoya; Alexander Alberto Correa Espinal; Laura Sofía Vásquez Herrera




Microsoft Academic Search

In this study was evaluated the corrosion resistance of nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, ASTM-F1586 and Böhler-P558, plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating. The layers were characterized by SEM and DRX. The corrosion resistance was evaluated using tests of potential open circuit and cyclical polarization in Ringer solution to 37°C. The layers present lamelar morphology and pores. In the electrochemical tests was observed that



Utilidad de la terapia intracoronaria con células progenitoras en pacientes con miocardiopatía dilatada: ¿puente o alternativa al trasplante cardiaco?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and objectivesSome paediatric publications have recently raised the value of intracoronary therapy with autologous bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (APCs) in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and heart failure. We describe the usefulness of this treatment in two infants with severe DCM and heart failure, who had been transferred to our hospital for cardiac transplant evaluation.

J. Rivas; J. J. Menéndez; R. Arrieta; J. Alves; M. P. Romero; L. García-Guereta; R. Álvarez-Doforno; M. Parrón; A. González; F. Ruza; F. Gutiérrez-Larraya




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN La crisis generalizada a que nos vemos abocados parece obedecer en g ran parte a las múltiples deficiencias que presenta por un lado el sistema educativo y por otro la teoría económica, esto se refleja en el comportamiento del sistema económico sometido a la aplicación de políticas que pretenden dar solución a problemas de una gran complejidad. Una alternativa



Sorcion de cobalto radiactivo con sepiolita y con erionita. (Sorption of radioactive cobalt with sepiolite and erionite.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

sup 60 Co present in aqueous solutions may be sorbed in clays or zeolites. If the solids are suspended in aqueous solutions, the cations of the solids may be exchanged with (sup 60) Co (sup 2+) ions present in the solutions. Natural aluminosilicate are us...

G. Bonifacio



Análisis retrospectivo de casos con diagnóstico de necrosis cerebrocortical y su relación con herpesvirus bovino tipo 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

fue entre 1979-1984, principalmente en primavera, no existiendo diferencias (P >0,05) en las tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad entre grupos etarios, sexo, raza, sistemas de producción y regiones. Amaurosis (48%), ptialismo (42%), torneo (40%), ataxia (36%) y bruxismo (37%) fueron los síntomas más observados. Las lesiones estuvieron distribuidas en corteza anterior y posterior (90,6%) y diencéfalo (36,5%). Meningitis y manguitos




EPA Science Inventory

Inhaled particle deposition sites must be identified to effectively treat human airway diseases. e have determined distribution patterns of a selected aeroallergen, ragweed pollen, among human extrathoracic (ET: .e., oro-nasopharyngeal) regions and the lung. A predictive model va...


Ground testing, with a four mass torsion pendulum facility, of an optical-read-out for the LISA gravitational reference sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years the Lisa group in Napoli has developed an Optical Read-Out (ORO) system based on optical levers as an auxiliary and backup readout for the Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS) of LISA. Bench-top measurements, with a rigid set-up have successfully proven that the ORO fits the requirements for sensitivity both in translational and rotational DOFs, exceeding the capacitive sensor performance in a wide range of frequencies. Last year an ORO system designed in Napoli in collaboration with the Trento LISA group, has been installed, as an auxiliary readout system, on the four mass torsion pendulum developed in Trento. In this paper we report on the testing of this ORO device and its performances in comparison with the capacitive one; we also outline further improvements and their advantages for the torsion pendulum facility performances.

Cavalleri, A.; Ciani, G.; DeRosa, R.; Di Fiore, L.; Dolesi, R.; Garufi, F.; Hueller, M.; Nicolodi, D.; La Rana, A.; Milano, L.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wass, P. J.; Weber, W. J.



Dental and periodontal disturbances due to magnesium deficit.  


Experimental results in female rats with marginal magnesium deficiency a and clinical results in over 100 female tetanic patients suggest the deleterious influence of magnesium on oro-facial tissues. PMID:2640907