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Sample records for maritime antarctica soils

  1. Soil-landform-plant communities relationships of a periglacial landscape at Potter Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelking, E. L.; Schaefer, C. E. R.; Fernandes Filho, E. I.; de Andrade, A. M.; Spielmann, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated studies on the interplay between soils, periglacial geomorphology and plant communities are crucial for the understanding of climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica, one of the most sensitive areas to global warming. Knowledge on physical environmental factors that influence plant communities can greatly benefit studies on monitoring climate change in Maritime Antarctica, where new ice-free areas are being constantly exposed, allowing plant growth and organic carbon inputs. The relationship between topography, plant communities and soils was investigated in Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. We mapped the occurrence and distribution of plant communities and identified soil-landform-vegetation relationships. The vegetation map was obtained by classification of a Quickbird image, coupled with detailed landform and characterization of 18 soil profiles. The sub-formations were identified and classified, and we also determined the total elemental composition of lichens, mosses and grasses. Plant communities at Potter Peninsula occupy 23% of the ice-free area, at different landscape positions, showing decreasing diversity and biomass from the coastal zone to inland areas where sub-desert conditions prevail. There is a clear dependency between landform and vegetated soils. Soils with greater moisture or poorly drained, and acid to neutral pH, are favourable for mosses subformations. Saline, organic-matter rich ornithogenic soils of former penguin rookeries have greater biomass and diversity, with mixed associations of mosses and grasses, while stable felseenmeers and flat rocky cryoplanation surfaces are the preferred sites for Usnea and Himantormia lugubris lichens, at the highest surface. Lichens subformations cover the largest vegetated area, showing varying associations with mosses.

  2. Soil-landform-plant-community relationships of a periglacial landscape on Potter Peninsula, maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelking, E. L.; Schaefer, C. E. R.; Fernandes Filho, E. I.; de Andrade, A. M.; Spielmann, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Integrated studies on the interplay between soils, periglacial geomorphology and plant communities are crucial for the understanding of climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica, one of the most sensitive areas to global warming. Knowledge on physical environmental factors that influence plant communities can greatly benefit studies on the monitoring of climate change in maritime Antarctica, where new ice-free areas are being constantly exposed, allowing plant growth and organic carbon inputs. The relationship between topography, plant communities and soils was investigated on Potter Peninsula, King George Island, maritime Antarctica. We mapped the occurrence and distribution of plant communities and identified soil-landform-vegetation relationships. The vegetation map was obtained by classification of a QuickBird image, coupled with detailed landform and characterization of 18 soil profiles. The sub-formations were identified and classified, and we also determined the total elemental composition of lichens, mosses and grasses. Plant communities on Potter Peninsula occupy 23% of the ice-free area, at different landscape positions, showing decreasing diversity and biomass from the coastal zone to inland areas where sub-desert conditions prevail. There is a clear dependency between landform and vegetated soils. Soils that have greater moisture or are poorly drained, and with acid to neutral pH, are favourable for moss sub-formations. Saline, organic-matter-rich ornithogenic soils of former penguin rookeries have greater biomass and diversity, with mixed associations of mosses and grasses, while stable felsenmeers and flat rocky cryoplanation surfaces are the preferred sites for Usnea and Himantormia lugubris lichens at the highest surface. Lichens sub-formations cover the largest vegetated area, showing varying associations with mosses.

  3. Plant and bird presence strongly influences the microbial communities in soils of Admiralty Bay, Maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Lia C R S; Yeargeau, Etienne; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Piccolo, Marisa C; Peixoto, Raquel S; Greer, Charles W; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing relatively large changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen) and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies), Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific. PMID:23840411

  4. Soils and landforms from Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Roberto F. M.; Schaefer, Carlos E. G. R.; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Simas, Felipe N. B.; Haus, Nick W.; Serrano, Enrique; Bockheim, James G.

    2014-11-01

    Fildes Peninsula (F.P.) and Ardley Island (A.I.) are among the first ice-free areas in Maritime Antarctica. Since the last glacial retreat in this part of Antarctica (8000 to 5000 years BP), the landscape in these areas evolved under paraglacial to periglacial conditions, with pedogenesis marked by cryogenic processes. We carried out a detailed soil and geomorphology survey, with full morphological and analytical description for both areas; forty-eight soil profiles representing different landforms were sampled, analyzed and classified according to the U.S. Soil Taxonomy and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Soils are mostly turbic, moderately developed, with podzolization and strong phosphatization (chemical weathering of rock minerals and formation of amorphous Al and Fe minerals) in former ornithogenic sites while in areas with poor vegetation show typical features of cryogenic weathering. Nivation, solifluction, cryoturbation, frost weathering, ablation and surface erosion are widespread. The most represented landform system by surface in Fildes Peninsula is the periglacial one, and 15 different periglacial landforms types have been identified and mapped. These features occupy about 30% of the land surface, in which patterned ground and stone fields are the most common landforms. Other significant landforms as protalus lobes, rock glaciers or debris lobes indicate the extensive presence of permafrost. Soil variability was high, in terms of morphological, physical and chemical properties, due to varying lithic contributions and mixing of different rocks, as well as to different degrees of faunal influence. Three soil taxonomy orders were identified, whereas thirty four individual pedons were differentiated. Fildes Peninsula experiences a south-north gradient from periglacial to paraglacial conditions, and apparently younger soils and landforms are located close to the Collins Glacier. Arenosols/Entisols and Cryosols/Gelisols (frequently

  5. Diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities in the Fildes Region (maritime Antarctica) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fang; Wang, En Tao; He, Jian Feng; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bo Tao; Liu, Jie; Ran, Xiang Bin; Zang, Jia Ye

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in four different soils (human-, penguin-, seal-colony impacted soils and pristine soil) in the Fildes Region (King George Island, Antarctica) using 454 pyrosequencing with bacterial-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were abundant phyla in almost all the soil samples. The four types of soils were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community structure. Thermotogae, Cyanobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Chlorobi obviously varied in their abundance among the 4 soil types. Considering all the samples together, members of the genera Gaiella, Chloracidobacterium, Nitrospira, Polaromonas, Gemmatimonas, Sphingomonas, and Chthoniobacter were found to predominate, whereas members of the genera Chamaesiphon, Herbaspirillum, Hirschia, Nevskia, Nitrosococcus, Rhodococcus, Rhodomicrobium, and Xanthomonas varied obviously in their abundance among the four soil types. Distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.01), phosphate phosphorus (p < 0.01), organic carbon (p < 0.05), and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05) were the most significant factors that correlated with the community distribution of soil bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the soil bacterial communities in human-, penguin-, and seal- colony impacted soils from ice-free areas in maritime Antarctica using high-throughput pyrosequencing. PMID:26579095

  6. Diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities in the Fildes Region (maritime Antarctica) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Neng Fei; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fang; Wang, En Tao; He, Jian Feng; Ding, Hui; Zhang, Bo Tao; Liu, Jie; Ran, Xiang Bin; Zang, Jia Ye

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in four different soils (human-, penguin-, seal-colony impacted soils and pristine soil) in the Fildes Region (King George Island, Antarctica) using 454 pyrosequencing with bacterial-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were abundant phyla in almost all the soil samples. The four types of soils were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community structure. Thermotogae, Cyanobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Chlorobi obviously varied in their abundance among the 4 soil types. Considering all the samples together, members of the genera Gaiella, Chloracidobacterium, Nitrospira, Polaromonas, Gemmatimonas, Sphingomonas, and Chthoniobacter were found to predominate, whereas members of the genera Chamaesiphon, Herbaspirillum, Hirschia, Nevskia, Nitrosococcus, Rhodococcus, Rhodomicrobium, and Xanthomonas varied obviously in their abundance among the four soil types. Distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.01), phosphate phosphorus (p < 0.01), organic carbon (p < 0.05), and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05) were the most significant factors that correlated with the community distribution of soil bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the soil bacterial communities in human-, penguin-, and seal- colony impacted soils from ice-free areas in maritime Antarctica using high-throughput pyrosequencing. PMID:26579095

  7. CO(2) and N(2)O emissions in a soil chronosequence at a glacier retreat zone in Maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Thomazini, A; Mendonça, E S; Teixeira, D B; Almeida, I C C; La Scala, N; Canellas, L P; Spokas, K A; Milori, D M B P; Turbay, C V G; Fernandes, R B A; Schaefer, C E G R

    2015-07-15

    Studies of C cycle alterations are extremely important to identify changes due to climate change, especially in the polar ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine patterns of soil CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, and (ii) evaluate the quantity and quality of soil organic matter across a glacier retreat chronosequence in the Maritime Antarctica. Field measurements were carried out during January and February 2010 (summer season) along a retreating zone of the White Eagle Glacier, at King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. Soil samples (0-10cm) were collected along a 500-m transect at regular intervals to determine changes in soil organic matter. Field CO2-C emission measurements and soil temperature were carried out at regular intervals. In addition, greenhouse gas production potentials were assessed through 100days laboratory incubations. Soils exposed for a longer time tended to have greater concentrations of soluble salts and possess sandier textures. Total organic C (3.59gkg(-1)), total N (2.31gkg(-1)) and labile C (1.83gkg(-1)) tended to be lower near the glacier front compared with sites away from it, which is correlated with decreasing degree of humification of the soil organic matter with exposure time. Soil CO2-C emissions tended to increase with distance from the glacier front. On average, the presence of vegetation increased CO2-C emissions by 440%, or the equivalent of 0.633g of CO2-C m(-2)h(-1). Results suggest that newly exposed landsurfaces undergo soil formation with increasing labile C input from vegetation, accompanied by increasing soil CO2-C emissions. Despite the importance of exposure time on CO2-C production and emissions, there was no similar trend in soil N2O-N production potentials as a function of glacial retreat. For N2O, instead, the maximum production occurred in sites with the first stages of vegetation growth. PMID:25855094

  8. Geospatial variability of soil CO2-C exchange in the main terrestrial ecosystems of Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Thomazini, A; Francelino, M R; Pereira, A B; Schünemann, A L; Mendonça, E S; Almeida, P H A; Schaefer, C E G R

    2016-08-15

    Soils and vegetation play an important role in the carbon exchange in Maritime Antarctica but little is known on the spatial variability of carbon processes in Antarctic terrestrial environments. The objective of the current study was to investigate (i) the soil development and (ii) spatial variability of ecosystem respiration (ER), net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), soil temperature (ST) and soil moisture (SM) under four distinct vegetation types and a bare soil in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, as follows: site 1: moss-turf community; site 2: moss-carpet community; site 3: phanerogamic antarctic community; site 4: moss-carpet community (predominantly colonized by Sanionia uncinata); site 5: bare soil. Soils were sampled at different layers. A regular 40-point (5×8 m) grid, with a minimum separation distance of 1m, was installed at each site to quantify the spatial variability of carbon exchange, soil moisture and temperature. Vegetation characteristics showed closer relation with soil development across the studied sites. ER reached 2.26μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1) in site 3, where ST was higher (7.53°C). A greater sink effect was revealed in site 4 (net uptake of 1.54μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1)) associated with higher SM (0.32m(3)m(-3)). Spherical models were fitted to describe all experimental semivariograms. Results indicate that ST and SM are directly related to the spatial variability of CO2 exchange. Heterogeneous vegetation patches showed smaller range values. Overall, poorly drained terrestrial ecosystems act as CO2 sink. Conversely, where ER is more pronounced, they are associated with intense soil carbon mineralization. The formations of new ice-free areas, depending on the local soil drainage condition, have an important effect on CO2 exchange. With increasing ice/snow melting, and resulting widespread waterlogging, increasing CO2 sink in terrestrial ecosystems is expected for Maritime Antarctica. PMID:27110991

  9. Soil characteristics and fallout and environmental radionuclides on different geomorphological features in Elephant Island for assessing environmental changes in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, Ana; Serrano, Enrique; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Gaspar, Leticia; Mink, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    Soils in ice-free areas of Elephant Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula region) have been forming since the last deglaciation in an Antarctic maritime climate that is warmer and more humid than in interior Antarctica. The studied ice-free areas correspond mostly to coastal promontories and the underlain materials are composed of metamorphic rocks. A soil survey was carried out in the largest ice-free areas at the western coast of the island at Stinker Point and Lindsey Cape, as a part of a broader study on soils and geomorphology in maritime Antarctica. A soil sampling campaign was undertaken with the aim of characterizing soils developed on different geomorphic features and to investigate the processes involved in their development following the glacial retreat, that started in the area probably later than 4000 yr BP. Study sites have glacial deposits and raised marine surfaces and they include areas with different mosses and lichens coverage. Profiles were located at altitudes ranging from 30 to 90 m a.s.l. at Stinker Point and at 140 m a.s.l. at Lindsey Cape. A total of 8 soil profiles of variable depths were sampled at depth increment intervals of 5 cm until rock outcrop (15-30 cm). Distinctive geomorphic features have been described at the study sites to assess the extent of the relationship between soil characteristics and geomorphology. The main soil properties analysed were: pH, electrical conductivity, carbonate content, bulk density, soil texture and soil fertility indicators (organic matter and soil organic carbon content, nitrogen, available phosphorous and potassium). Analyses of stable elements and activities of fallout (FRN's) and environmental radionuclides (ERN's) were also performed in the interval samples. The studied Cryosols are stony with no clear horizon differentiation and the soil texture is mostly silty loam. The soils have in general low contents of organic matter (0.3-2.7 %), carbon (0.16 - 1.6 %) and nitrogen (< 0

  10. Soil processes in recently deglaciated environments in Maritime Antarctica: a study case from Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Quijano, Laura; Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Many ice-free environments in the northern Antarctic Peninsula are undergoing rapid and substantial environmental changes in response to reent climate trends. This is the case of Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands), where the glacier retreat recorded during the second half of the XX century, has exposed 17% of this small peninsula (1.16 km2). Glacier retreat has exposed new ice-free land surface in the northern part of Elephant Point: a moraine extending from the western to the eastern coastlines and a relatively flat proglacial surface. Besides, a sequence of present-day beach, Holocece marine terraces and bedrock plateaus are also distributed in the southern margin of the peninsula. Periglacial processes are widespread in all the peninsula, but the type and characteristics of soils depen on the timing of glacier retreat. In this research we aim to assess how the glacier retreat affects the recently formed soils. Ten sites were sampled along a transect crossing different geomorphological units (beach, raised beaches, moraine, proglacial environment), following the direction of glacier retreat. To this purpose the upper part of selected soil profiles was sectioned in 3 cm depth interval increments to examine main soil properties, grain size distribution, soil organic carbon and pH. Besides, elemental composition and patterns of fallout (FRNs) and environmental radionuclides (ERNs) were analysed to assess if soil profile characteristics within the active layer are affected by glacier retreat. The results obtained confirm the potential for using geomorphological, edaphic and geochemical data to derive information for assessing the influence of different stages of glacier retreat in the study soils.

  11. Eocene paleosols of King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinola, Diogo; Portes, Raquel; Schaefer, Carlos; Kühn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Red layers between lava flows on King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, were formed during the Eocene, which was one of the warmest periods on Earth in the Cenozoic. Our hypothesis is that these red layers are paleosols formed in periods of little or no volcanic activity. Therefore, our main objective was to identify the main pedogenic properties and features to distinguish these from diagenetic features formed after the lava emplacement. Additionally, we compared our results with volcanic soils formed under different climates to find the best present analogue. The macromorphological features indicate a pedogenic origin, because of the occurrence of well-defined horizons based on colour and structure. Micromorphological analyses showed that most important pedogenic features are the presence of biological channels, plant residues, anisotropic b-fabric, neoformed and illuvial clay and distinct soil microstructure. Although the paleosols are not strongly weathered, the geochemical data also support the pedogenic origin despite of diagenetic features as the partial induration of the profiles and zeolites filling nearly all voids in the horizons in contact with the overlying lava flow, indicating circulation of hydrothermal fluids. The macromorphological and micromorphological features of these paleosols are similar to the soils formed under seasonal climates. Thus, these paleosol features do not correspond to the other proxies (e.g. sediment, plant fossils), which indicate a wet, non-seasonal climate, as in Valdivian Forest, Chile, during the Eocene in King George Island

  12. CO2 and N2O emissions in a soil chronosequence at a glacier retreat zone in Maritime Antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polar regions represents a large carbon (C) sequestration reservoir in the world. Studies of alterations in C cycle are extremely important to identify changes due to climate change, especially among polar environments. The objectives of this study were to examine (i) patterns of soil CO2-C emission...

  13. Hydrogeochemistry of sulfate-affected landscapes in Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, José João L. L.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Abrahão, Walter Antônio P.; de Mello, Jaime Wilson V.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; da Silva, Juscimar; Francelino, Márcio R.

    2012-06-01

    Keller Peninsula, located in King George Island, has a typical Maritime Antarctica climatic regime, with higher temperatures and rainfall than other areas in Continental Antarctica. The main outcropping rocks are pyritized andesites, volcaniclastics and basalts. Recent pedological investigation indicated that the presence of sulfides in Keller Peninsula accelerates the weathering process. The aim of this work was the determination of the geochemical background in water channels following geomorphological gradients in Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica. We delimited and mapped all catchments in Keller Peninsula using GIS techniques and field observations. Water samples were analyzed for twenty-nine elements by ICP-OES and IEC, after the proper treatments. Eight catchments were identified as sulfide-affected, although water pH was nearly neutral. The ionic concentration in solution was high, both in non-affected and sulfide-affected catchments, with a trend of greater values in the latter, and changing downslope. Concentration values are above the range of other hydrogeochemical studies from elsewhere in Antarctica. The values of molar ratio HCO3-:(Ca + Mg)2 + and Na+:Cl- indicated the absence of carbonate-bearing rocks. Local precipitation of evaporites, as gypsum and epsomite was confirmed by the Ca2 +:SO42 - and Mg2 +:SO42 - molar ratios. The high ionic concentration in sulfide-affected areas illustrates the role of sulfate soil formation in this part of Antarctica.

  14. Extracellular enzymes produced by microorganisms isolated from maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Loperena, Lyliam; Soria, Verónica; Varela, Hermosinda; Lupo, Sandra; Bergalli, Alejandro; Guigou, Mairan; Pellegrino, Andrés; Bernardo, Angela; Calviño, Ana; Rivas, Federico; Batista, Silvia

    2012-05-01

    Antarctic environments can sustain a great diversity of well-adapted microorganisms known as psychrophiles or psychrotrophs. The potential of these microorganisms as a resource of enzymes able to maintain their activity and stability at low temperature for technological applications has stimulated interest in exploration and isolation of microbes from this extreme environment. Enzymes produced by these organisms have a considerable potential for technological applications because they are known to have higher enzymatic activities at lower temperatures than their mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. A total of 518 Antarctic microorganisms, were isolated during Antarctic expeditions organized by the Instituto Antártico Uruguayo. Samples of particules suspended in air, ice, sea and freshwater, soil, sediment, bird and marine animal faeces, dead animals, algae, plants, rocks and microbial mats were collected from different sites in maritime Antarctica. We report enzymatic activities present in 161 microorganisms (120 bacteria, 31 yeasts and 10 filamentous fungi) isolated from these locations. Enzymatic performance was evaluated at 4 and 20°C. Most of yeasts and bacteria grew better at 20°C than at 4°C, however the opposite was observed with the fungi. Amylase, lipase and protease activities were frequently found in bacterial strains. Yeasts and fungal isolates typically exhibited lipase, celullase and gelatinase activities. Bacterial isolates with highest enzymatic activities were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Pseudomonas spp., Psychrobacter sp., Arthrobacter spp., Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp. Yeasts and fungal strains, with multiple enzymatic activities, belonged to Cryptococcus victoriae, Trichosporon pullulans and Geomyces pannorum. PMID:22806048

  15. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae), Maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Amosova, Alexandra V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Twardovska, Maryana O; Zoshchuk, Svyatoslav A; Andreev, Igor O; Badaeva, Ekaterina D; Kunakh, Viktor A; Muravenko, Olga V

    2015-01-01

    Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae) (2n = 26) is one of the two vascular plants adapted to the harshest environment of the Antarctic. Although the species is a valuable model for study of environmental stress tolerance in plants, its karyotype is still poorly investigated. We firstly conducted a comprehensive molecular cytogenetic analysis of D. antarctica collected on four islands of the Maritime Antarctic. D. antarctica karyotypes were studied by Giemsa C- and DAPI/C-banding, Ag-NOR staining, multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization with repeated DNA probes (pTa71, pTa794, telomere repeats, pSc119.2, pAs1) and the GAA simple sequence repeat probe. We also performed sequential rapid in situ hybridization with genomic DNA of D. caespitosa. Two chromosome pairs bearing transcriptionally active 45S rDNA loci and five pairs with 5S rDNA sites were detected. A weak intercalary site of telomere repeats was revealed on the largest chromosome in addition to telomere hybridization signals at terminal positions. This fact confirms indirectly the hypothesis that chromosome fusion might have been the cause of the unusual for cereals chromosome number in this species. Based on patterns of distribution of the examined molecular cytogenetic markers, all chromosomes in karyotypes were identified, and chromosome idiograms of D. antarctica were constructed. B chromosomes were found in most karyotypes of plants from Darboux Island. A mixoploid plant with mainly triploid cells bearing a Robertsonian rearrangement was detected among typical diploid specimens from Great Jalour Island. The karyotype variability found in D. antarctica is probably an expression of genome instability induced by environmental stress factors. The differences in C-banding patterns and in chromosome distribution of rDNA loci as well as homologous highly repeated DNA sequences detected between genomes of D. antarctica and its related species D. caespitosa indicate that genome reorganization involving

  16. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae), Maritime Antarctic

    PubMed Central

    Amosova, Alexandra V.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Samatadze, Tatiana E.; Twardovska, Maryana O.; Zoshchuk, Svyatoslav A.; Andreev, Igor O.; Badaeva, Ekaterina D.; Kunakh, Viktor A.; Muravenko, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae) (2n = 26) is one of the two vascular plants adapted to the harshest environment of the Antarctic. Although the species is a valuable model for study of environmental stress tolerance in plants, its karyotype is still poorly investigated. We firstly conducted a comprehensive molecular cytogenetic analysis of D. antarctica collected on four islands of the Maritime Antarctic. D. antarctica karyotypes were studied by Giemsa C- and DAPI/C-banding, Ag-NOR staining, multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization with repeated DNA probes (pTa71, pTa794, telomere repeats, pSc119.2, pAs1) and the GAA simple sequence repeat probe. We also performed sequential rapid in situ hybridization with genomic DNA of D. caespitosa. Two chromosome pairs bearing transcriptionally active 45S rDNA loci and five pairs with 5S rDNA sites were detected. A weak intercalary site of telomere repeats was revealed on the largest chromosome in addition to telomere hybridization signals at terminal positions. This fact confirms indirectly the hypothesis that chromosome fusion might have been the cause of the unusual for cereals chromosome number in this species. Based on patterns of distribution of the examined molecular cytogenetic markers, all chromosomes in karyotypes were identified, and chromosome idiograms of D. antarctica were constructed. B chromosomes were found in most karyotypes of plants from Darboux Island. A mixoploid plant with mainly triploid cells bearing a Robertsonian rearrangement was detected among typical diploid specimens from Great Jalour Island. The karyotype variability found in D. antarctica is probably an expression of genome instability induced by environmental stress factors. The differences in C-banding patterns and in chromosome distribution of rDNA loci as well as homologous highly repeated DNA sequences detected between genomes of D. antarctica and its related species D. caespitosa indicate that genome reorganization involving

  17. Marine animals significantly increase tundra N2O and CH4 emissions in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Renbin; Liu, Yashu; Xu, Hua; Ma, Dawei; Jiang, Shan

    2013-12-01

    studies on greenhouse gas emissions from animals concentrated on domestic animals, with limited data available from wild animals. The number of marine animals is potentially large in coastal Antarctica. In this paper, N2O and CH4 emissions were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony, a skua colony, the adjacent animal-lacking tundra, and background tundra sites to test the effects of marine animals on their fluxes in maritime Antarctica. Extremely high N2O emissions occurred in the penguin puddles (mean 392 µg N2O m-2 h-1) and seal wallows (mean 579 µg N2O m-2 h-1). The N2O emissions from animal colony tundra (13-57 µg N2O m-2 h-1) are much higher than those from the animal-lacking tundra, whereas the background tundra showed negligible N2O fluxes. Penguin puddles and seal wallows were stronger CH4 emitters than animal colony tundra soils, while animal-lacking tundra soils were strong CH4 sinks. Overall high N2O and CH4 emissions were modulated by soil physical and chemical processes associated with marine animal activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients NH4+-N and NO3--N, total nitrogen, and total organic carbon from marine animal excreta, animal tramp, and high soil water-filled pore space. Laboratory incubation experiments further confirmed that penguin and seal colony soils produced much higher N2O and CH4 emissions than animal-lacking tundra soils. Our results indicate that marine animal colonies are the hot spots for N2O and CH4 emissions in maritime Antarctica, and even at the global scale, and current climate warming will further increase their emissions.

  18. Soil formation in Seymour Island, Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Katia Karoline Delpupo; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Simas, Felipe Nogueira Bello; Spinola, Diogo Noses; de Paula, Mayara Daher

    2014-11-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula marks the climatic transition between Maritime and Continental Antarctica. Ice-free areas at the western side of the Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica) have been increasingly studied in the last 10 years whereas soils on the eastern coast have been relatively less studied. The objective of the present study is to analyze the properties of soils developed on Seymour Island, in the Weddell sea sector, eastern coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, in order to identify the main factors and processes involved in soil formation under semi-polar desert conditions in this part of Antarctica. Twenty-one pedons were described, sampled and analyzed for their physical, chemical and mineralogical attributes. Most of the soils were classified as Gelisols and Cryosols by the Soil Taxonomy and WRB/FAO, respectively. Three soil groups were found: immature alkaline soils on sandstones and siltstones, acid sulfate and ornithogenic soils. Soils have little cryoturbation and are all affected by salinization with natric and salic characters. Acid sulfate soils are the most weathered soils in Seymour Island. Due to the dry climate, phosphatization is still incipient with P-rich ornithogenic layers with little interaction with the mineral substrate. The Soil Taxonomy and WRB/FAO systems lack adequate classification criteria to classify all soils developed in transitional areas that are affected by a combination of salinization, sulfurization and phosphatization.

  19. Summertime CO2 fluxes and ecosystem respiration from marine animal colony tundra in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Renbin; Bao, Tao; Wang, Qing; Xu, Hua; Liu, Yashu

    2014-12-01

    Net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (ER) were investigated at penguin, seal and skua colony tundra and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra sites in maritime Antarctica. Net CO2 fluxes showed a large difference between marine animal colonies and animal-lacking tundra sites. The mean NEE from penguin, seal and skua colony tundra sites ranged from -37.2 to 5.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, whereas animal-lacking tundra sites experienced a larger net gain of CO2 with the mean flux range from -85.6 to -23.9 mg CO2 m-2 h-1. Ecosystem respiration rates at penguin colony tundra sites (mean 201.3 ± 31.4 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those at penguin-lacking tundra sites (64.0-87.1 mg CO2 m-2 h-1). The gross photosynthesis (Pg) showed a consistent trend to ER with the highest mean Pg (219.7 ± 34.5 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) at penguin colony tundra sites. When all the data were combined from different types of tundra ecosystems, summertime tundra NEE showed a weak or strong positive correlation with air temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature or precipitation. The NEE from marine animal colony and animal-lacking tundra was significantly positively correlated (P < 0.001) with soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) contents and C:N ratios. The ER showed a significant exponential correlation (P < 0.01) with mean 0-15 cm soil temperature, and much higher Q10 value (9.97) was obtained compared with other terrestrial ecosystems, indicating greater temperature sensitivity of tundra ecosystem respiration. Our results indicate that marine animals and the deposition of their excreta might have an important effect on tundra CO2 exchanges and ecosystem respiration, and current climate warming will further decrease tundra CO2 sink in maritime Antarctica.

  20. Organic carbon stocks in permafrost-affected soils from Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simas, F.N.B.; Schaefer, C.E.G.R.; Mendonça, E.S.; Silva, I.R.; Santana, R.M.; Ribeiro, A.S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent works show that organic matter accumulation in some soils from coastal Antarctica is higher than previously expected. The objective of the present work was to estimate the organic C stocks for soils from maritime Antarctica. Cryosols from subpolar desert landscapes presented the lowest organic C stocks. Ornithogenic soils are the most important C reservoirs in terrestrial ecosystems in this part of Antarctica. Although these soils correspond to only 2.5 % of the ice-free areas at Admiralty Bay, they contain approximately 20 % of the estimated C stock. Most of the organic C in the studied soils is stored in the active layer but in some cases the C is also stored in the permafrost.

  1. Active-layer thermal monitoring on the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R. F. M.; Schaefer, C. E. G. R.; Simas, F. M. B.; Francelino, M. R.; Fernandes-Filho, E. I.; Lyra, G. B.; Bockheim, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    International attention to climate change phenomena has grown in the last decade; the active layer and permafrost are of great importance in understanding processes and future trends due to their role in energy flux regulation. The objective of this paper is to present active-layer temperature data for one Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring South hemisphere (CALM-S) site located on the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, maritime Antarctica over an 57-month period (2008-2012). The monitoring site was installed during the summer of 2008 and consists of thermistors (accuracy of ±0.2 °C), arranged vertically with probes at different depths, recording data at hourly intervals in a high-capacity data logger. A series of statistical analyses was performed to describe the soil temperature time series, including a linear fit in order to identify global trends, and a series of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models was tested in order to define the best fit for the data. The affects of weather on the thermal regime of the active layer have been identified, providing insights into the influence of climate change on permafrost. The active-layer thermal regime in the studied period was typical of periglacial environments, with extreme variation in surface during the summer resulting in frequent freeze and thaw cycles. The active-layer thickness (ALT) over the studied period shows a degree of variability related to different annual weather conditions, reaching a maximum of 117.5 cm in 2009. The ARIMA model could describe the data adequately and is an important tool for more conclusive analysis and predictions when longer data sets are available. Despite the variability when comparing temperature readings and ACT over the studied period, no trend can be identified.

  2. Active layer thermal monitoring at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R. F. M.; Schaefer, C. E. G. R.; Simas, F. N. B.; Francelino M., R.; Fernandes-Filho, E. I.; Lyra, G. B.; Bockheim, J. G.

    2014-07-01

    International attention to the climate change phenomena has grown in the last decade; the active layer and permafrost are of great importance in understanding processes and future trends due to their role in energy flux regulation. The objective of the this paper is to present active layer temperature data for one CALM-S site located at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica over an fifth seven month period (2008-2012). The monitoring site was installed during the summer of 2008 and consists of thermistors (accuracy of ± 0.2 °C), arranged vertically with probes at different depths, recording data at hourly intervals in a~high capacity data logger. A series of statistical analysis were performed to describe the soil temperature time series, including a linear fit in order to identify global trend and a series of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were tested in order to define the best fit for the data. The controls of weather on the thermal regime of the active layer have been identified, providing insights about the influence of climate chance over the permafrost. The active layer thermal regime in the studied period was typical of periglacial environment, with extreme variation at the surface during summer resulting in frequent freeze and thaw cycles. The active layer thickness (ALT) over the studied period showed variability related to different annual weather conditions, reaching a maximum of 117.5 cm in 2009. The ARIMA model was considered appropriate to treat the dataset, enabling more conclusive analysis and predictions when longer data sets are available. Despite the variability when comparing temperature readings and active layer thickness over the studied period, no warming trend was detected.

  3. Relationship between soil fungal diversity and temperature in the maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsham, Kevin K.; Hopkins, David W.; Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Rushton, Steven P.; O'Donnell, Anthony G.; Dennis, Paul G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil fungi have pivotal ecological roles as decomposers, pathogens and symbionts. Alterations to their diversity arising from climate change could have substantial effects on ecosystems, particularly those undergoing rapid warming that contain few species. Here, we report a study using pyrosequencing to assess fungal diversity in 29 soils sampled from a 1,650 km climatic gradient through the maritime Antarctic, the most rapidly warming region in the Southern Hemisphere. Using a `space-for-time’ substitution approach, we show that soil fungal diversity is higher in warmer habitats, with increases of 4.7 (observed) and 11.3 (predicted) fungal taxa per degree Celsius rise in surface temperature along the transect. Among 22 predictor variables, air temperature was the strongest and most consistent predictor of diversity. We propose that the current rapid warming in the maritime Antarctic (0.34 °C per decade) will facilitate the colonization of soil by a wider diversity of fungi than at present, with data from regression models suggesting 20-27% increases in fungal species richness in the southernmost soils by 2100. Such increases in diversity, which provide a sentinel for changes at lower latitudes, are likely to have substantial effects on nutrient cycling and, ultimately, productivity in the species-poor soils of maritime Antarctica.

  4. Phylotype diversity in a benthic cyanobacterial mat community on King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Callejas, Cecilia; Gill, Paul R; Catalán, Ana I; Azziz, Gastón; Castro-Sowinski, Susana; Batista, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Cyanobacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene diversity was examined in a benthic mat on Fildes Peninsula of King George Island (62º09'54.4''S, 58º57'20.9''W), maritime Antarctica. Environmental DNA was isolated from the mat, a clone library of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments was prepared, and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was done to assign clones to seven groups. Low cyanobacterial diversity in the mat was suggested in that 83% of the clones were represented by one ARDRA group. DNA sequences from this group had high similarity with 16S rRNA genes of Tychonema bourrellyi and T. bornetii isolates, whose geographic origins were southern Norway and Northern Ireland. Cyanobacterial morphotypes corresponding to Tychonema have not been reported in Antarctica, however, this morphotype was previously found at Ward Hunt Lake (83ºN), and in western Europe (52ºN). DNA sequences of three of the ARDRA groups had highest similarity with 16S rDNA sequences of the Tychonema group accounting for 9.4% of the clones. Sequences of the remaining three groups (7.6%) had highest similarity with 16S rRNA genes of uncultured cyanobacteria clones from benthic mats of Lake Fryxell and fresh meltwater on the McMurdo Ice Shelf. PMID:25187150

  5. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg(-1)) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica. PMID:25394572

  6. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg−1) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica. PMID:25394572

  7. Ecophysiological properties of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and yeasts dominating in phytocenoses of Galindez Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Romanovskaya, Victoria; Gladka, Galina; Gouliamova, Dilnora; Tomova, Iva; Stoilova-Disheva, Margarita; Tashyrev, Oleksandr

    2014-04-01

    Antarctic plants are stable specific microenvironments for microbial colonization that are still less explored. In this study, we investigated cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and yeasts dominating in plant samples collected from different terrestrial biotopes near Ukrainian Antarctic Base on Galindez Island, maritime Antarctica. Phylogenetic analysis revealed affiliation of the bacterial isolates to genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Brevundimonas, Sporosarcina, Dermacoccus, Microbacterium, Rothia and Frondihabitans, and the yeast isolates to genera Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus, Leucosporidiella, Candida and Exophiala. Some ecophysiological properties of isolated strains were determined that are important in response to different stresses such as psychro- and halotolerance, UV-resistance and production of hydrolytic enzymes. The majority of isolates (88 %) was found to be psychrotolerant; all are halotolerant. Significant differences in survival subsequent to UV-C radiation were observed among the isolates, as measured by culturable counts. For the bacterial isolates, lethal doses in the range 80-600 J m⁻² were determined, and for the yeast isolates--in the range 300-1,000 J m⁻². Dermacoccus profundi U9 and Candida davisiana U6 were found as most UV resistant among the bacterial and yeast isolates, respectively. Producers of caseinase, gelatinase, β-glucosidase, and cellulase were detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of UV resistant strain D. profundi, and Frondihabitans strain from Antarctica, and on detection of cellulase activity in Antarctic yeast strain C. davisiana. The results obtained contribute to clarifying adaptation strategies of Antarctic microbiota and its possible role in functional stability of Antarctic biocenoses. Stress tolerant strains were detected that are valuable for ecological and applied studies. PMID:24277323

  8. Prokaryotic Community in Lacustrine Sediments of Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Gugliandolo, Concetta; Michaud, Luigi; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Lentini, Valeria; Rochera, Carlos; Camacho, Antonio; Maugeri, Teresa Luciana

    2016-02-01

    Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica), the largest seasonally ice-free region of the Maritime Antarctica, holds a large number of lakes, ponds, and streams. The prokaryotic structure and bacterial diversity in sediment samples collected during the 2008-2009 austral summer from five inland lakes, two coastal lakes, and an estuarine site were analyzed by Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) and 16S rRNA 454 tag pyrosequencing techniques, respectively. Differently from inland lakes, which range around the oligotrophic status, coastal lakes are eutrophic environments, enriched by nutrient inputs from marine animals. Although the prokaryotic abundances (estimated as DAPI stained cells) in sediment samples were quite similar among inland and coastal lakes, Bacteria always far dominated over Archaea. Despite the phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of sequences were affiliated to a few taxonomic groups, mainly referred to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, their relative abundances greatly differed from each site. Differences in bacterial composition showed that lacustrine sediments were more phyla rich than the estuarine sediment. Proteobacterial classes in lacustrine samples were dominated by Betaproteobacteria (followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria), while in the estuarine sample, they were mainly related to Gammaproteobacteria (followed by Deltaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria). Higher number of sequences of Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes were observed in sediments of inland lakes compared to those of coastal lakes, whereas Chloroflexi were relatively more abundant in the sediments of coastal eutrophic lakes. As demonstrated by the great number of dominant bacterial genera, bacterial diversity was higher in the sediments of inland lakes than that in coastal lakes

  9. Soils of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupachev, A. V.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2013-10-01

    Soils of Marie Byrd Land-one of the remotest and difficultly accessible regions of Antarctica-were investigated in the area of the mothballed Russkaya station located to the south of 74° S. Despite the extremely severe wind regime (the average wind velocity is 13 m/s, and the maximum wind velocity is up to 60 m/s), the projective cover of vegetation in the area of the station averages 25-40% and reaches 60-80% in some places. The phenomena of physical weathering of the bedrock-exfoliation, stone pavements, residual rocks exposed by wind (hoodoos), and others-are clearly manifested. In most of the described soils, normal organic and organomineral horizons are absent. The soil profiles represent the mixture of the residues of mosses and lichens and the gravelly eluvium. The fine earth material is blown out of the surface horizons by strong winds; its residual accumulation takes place in the middle and lower parts of the profiles. The classification position of these soils is open to argument; they are close to Petrozems and Lithozems. Most of the profiles are underlain by the massive or slightly disintegrated bedrock with dry permafrost at a depth of 20 to 50 cm. Soils with dry permafrost comprise about 75% of the surveyed area. In separate loci in the depressions of the local mesorelief and on gentle slopes, the soils with clearly expressed cryoturbation features are developed; their profiles are underlain by the ice-rich permafrost and compose about 15% of the surveyed area. Anthropogenically disturbed soils and soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other pollutants occupy about 10% of the surveyed area.

  10. Active layer thermal regime at different vegetation covers at Lions Rump, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Ivan C. C.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Fernandes, Raphael B. A.; Pereira, Thiago T. C.; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Pereira, Antônio Batista

    2014-11-01

    Climate change impacts the biotic and abiotic components of polar ecosystems, affecting the stability of permafrost, active layer thickness, vegetation, and soil. This paper describes the active layer thermal regimes of two adjacent shallow boreholes, under the same soil but with two different vegetations. The study is location in Lions Rump, at King George Island, Maritime Antarctic, one of the most sensitive regions to climate change, located near the climatic limit of Antarctic permafrost. Both sites are a Turbic Cambic Cryosol formed on andesitic basalt, one under moss vegetation (Andreaea gainii, at 85 m a.s.l.) and another under lichen (Usnea sp., at 86 m a.s.l.), located 10 m apart. Ground temperature at same depths (10, 30 and 80 cm), water content at 80 cm depth and air temperature were recorded hourly between March 2009 and February 2011. The two sites showed significant differences in mean annual ground temperature for all depths. The lichen site showed a higher soil temperature amplitude compared to the moss site, with ground surface (10 cm) showing the highest daily temperature in January 2011 (7.3 °C) and the lowest daily temperature in August (- 16.5 °C). The soil temperature at the lichen site closely followed the air temperature trend. The moss site showed a higher water content at the bottommost layer, consistent with the water-saturated, low landscape position. The observed thermal buffering effect under mosses is primarily associated with higher moisture onsite, but a longer duration of the snowpack (not monitored) may also have influenced the results. Active layer thickness was approximately 150 cm at low-lying moss site, and 120 cm at well-drained lichen site. This allows to classify these soils as Cryosols (WRB) or Gelisols (Soil Taxonomy), with evident turbic features.

  11. Sedimentary regimes at Potter Cove, King George Island, maritime Antarctica - from source to sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monien, Donata; Monien, Patrick; Brünjes, Robert M.; Widmer, Tatjana; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Increased particle run-off due to recently retreated ice masses along the Antarctic margins may play an important role in fertilizing the high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll regions of the Southern Ocean. At Potter Cove, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, small melt water streams at the south-eastern shoreline (Potter Peninsula) discharge up to 1,500 mg L-1 (av. 110 mg L-1) of suspended particle matter (SPM) per day into the coastal water body during the summer seasons. Apart from potential light limitation of plankton growth by the suspension load, the particle run-off affects benthic feeders, possibly changes the depositional regime and the preservation of chemical proxies in the outlet zones, and exports trace elements offshore. In Potter Cove's water column, the average particle size is low, and extreme turbidity events are restricted to the upper five to seven meters. High particle loads are often associated with low salinities, most probably induced by increased onshore precipitation. Sediment traps installed in the inner and outer cove at 5 and 20 m water depth suggest mass accumulation rates of 0.83 and 0.58 g cm-2 yr-1, and 0.13 and 0.11 g cm-2 yr-1 (considering 183 days of sedimentation), respectively. 210Pb measurements of short sediment cores reveal recent sediment accumulation rates of approximately 0.1 to 0.6 g cm-2 yr-1. The SPM sampled in the melt water streams and plumes is chemically different to surface sediments deposited in Potter Cove. Chemical characteristics suggest a significant impact of particle sorting: SPM and outer cove sediments are more clayey, whereas inner cove sediments contain more heavy minerals. Generally, sediment deposits in Potter Cove exhibit coarser grain sizes and are mainly derived from Barton Peninsula (northern shoreline), whereas the SPM consists of more fine-grained material originating from Potter Peninsula eluviations. Sequential leaching of the SPM by ascorbic acid showed that approximately 0.5 to 2% of the total

  12. Molecular evolution and variability of ITS1 -ITS2 in populations of Deschampsia antarctica from two regions of the maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, R. A.; Kozeretska, I. A.; Kyryachenko, S. S.; Andreev, I. O.; Maidanyuk, D. N.; Parnikoza, I. Yu.; Kunakh, V. A.

    2010-12-01

    Only two vascular plants, Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae) and Colobanthus quitensis Kunth. Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae), inhabit the Antarctic. To clarify the taxonomic position, phylogeographic origin, genetic heterogeneity, and population dynamics of D. antarctica, we comparatively analyzed the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences for several populations from two geographically distant regions of the maritime Antarctic (the South Shetland Islands and the Argentine archipelago). All accessions of D. antarctica formed a strongly supported clade in the phylogenetic dendrograms constructed. Despite the high degree of sequence similarity at ITS1 -ITS2 (97%-100%), the populations of D. antarctica in Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Islands and Antarctic can be discriminated at the molecular level. Our data indicate that the majority of D. antarctica populations originated from South America. Different populations may have invaded Antarctic at different times. Genetically distinct plants may coexist within the same or adjacent populations on Antarctic islands.

  13. Permafrost and snow monitoring at Rothera Point (Adelaide Island, Maritime Antarctica): Implications for rock weathering in cryotic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmin, Mauro; Worland, M. Roger; Baio, Fabio; Convey, Peter

    2014-11-01

    In February 2009 a new permafrost borehole was installed close to the British Antarctic Survey Station at Rothera Point, Adelaide Island (67.57195°S 68.12068°W). The borehole is situated at 31 m asl on a granodiorite knob with scattered lichen cover. The spatial variability of snow cover and of ground surface temperature (GST) is characterised through the monitoring of snow depth on 5 stakes positioned around the borehole and with thermistors placed at three different rock surfaces (A, B and C). The borehole temperature is measured by 18 thermistors placed at different depths between 0.3 and 30 m. Snow persistence is very variable both spatially and temporally with snow free days per year ranging from 13 and more than 300, and maximum snow depths varying between 0.03 and 1.42 m. This variability is the main cause of high variability in GST, that ranged between - 3.7 and - 1.5 °C. The net effect of the snow cover is a cooling of the surface. Mean annual GST, mean summer GST, and the degree days of thawing and the n-factor of thawing were always much lower at sensor A where snow persistence and depth were greater than in the other sensor locations. At sensor A the potential freeze-thaw events were negligible (0-3) and the thermal stress was at least 40% less than in the other sensor locations. The zero curtain effect at the rock surface occurred only at surface A, favouring chemical weathering over mechanical action. The active layer thickness (ALT) ranged between 0.76 and 1.40 m. ALT was directly proportional to the mean air temperature in summer, and inversely proportional to the maximum snow depth in autumn. ALT temporal variability was greater than reported at other sites at similar latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, or with the similar mean annual air temperature in Maritime Antarctica, because vegetation and a soil organic horizon are absent at the study site. Zero annual amplitude in temperature was observed at about 16 m depth, where the mean annual

  14. Rich bacterial assemblages from Maritime Antarctica (Potter Cove, South Shetlands) reveal several kinds of endemic and undescribed phylotypes.

    PubMed

    Landone Vescovo, Ignacio A; Golemba, Marcelo D; Di Lello, Federico A; Culasso, Andrés C A; Levin, Gustavo; Ruberto, Lucas; Mac Cormack, Walter P; López, José L

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial richness in maritime Antarctica has been poorly described to date. Phylogenetic affiliation of seawater free-living microbial assemblages was studied from three locations near the Argentinean Jubany Station during two Antarctic summers. Sixty 16S RNA cloned sequences were phylogenetically affiliated to Alphaproteobacteria (30/60 clones), Gammaproteobacteria(19/60 clones), Betaproteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacteriia-Bacteroides (CFB), which were (2/60) and (3/60) respectively. Furthermore, six out of 60 clones could not be classified. Both, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, showed several endemic and previously undescribed sequences. Moreover, the absence of Cyanobacteria sequences in our samples is remarkable. In conclusion, we are reporting a rich sequence assemblage composed of widely divergent isolates among themselves and distant from the most closely related sequences currently deposited in data banks. PMID:25444131

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of a Southern Maritime Antarctic Soil

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, David A.; Newsham, Kevin K.; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Krsek, Martin; Laskaris, Paris; Hodson, Andy; Wellington, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Our current understanding of Antarctic soils is derived from direct culture on selective media, biodiversity studies based on clone library construction and analysis, quantitative PCR amplification of specific gene sequences and the application of generic microarrays for microbial community analysis. Here, we investigated the biodiversity and functional potential of a soil community at Mars Oasis on Alexander Island in the southern Maritime Antarctic, by applying 454 pyrosequencing technology to a metagenomic library constructed from soil genomic DNA. The results suggest that the commonly cited range of phylotypes used in clone library construction and analysis of 78–730 OTUs (de-replicated to 30–140) provides low coverage of the major groups present (∼5%). The vast majority of functional genes (>77%) were for structure, carbohydrate metabolism, and DNA/RNA processing and modification. This study suggests that prokaryotic diversity in Antarctic terrestrial environments appears to be limited at the generic level, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria being common. Cyanobacteria were surprisingly under-represented at 3.4% of sequences, although ∼1% of the genes identified were involved in CO2 fixation. At the sequence level there appeared to be much greater heterogeneity, and this might be due to high divergence within the relatively restricted lineages which have successfully colonized Antarctic terrestrial environments. PMID:23227023

  16. Summertime N2O, CH4 and CO2 exchanges from a tundra marsh and an upland tundra in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Renbin; Ma, Dawei; Xu, Hua

    2014-02-01

    This study provides the first concurrent measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from a tundra marsh and an upland tundra in maritime Antarctica over the summers of 2007/2008 and 2011/2012. Tundra N2O and CH4 fluxes showed large spatial variations depending on local hydrological regimes. N2O sinks generally occurred at waterlogged marsh sites (-3.0 to 27.5 μg N2O m-2 h-1) whereas relatively dry and mesic sites presented weak or strong N2O sources (2.2-41.6 μg N2O m-2 h-1). Upland tundra sites showed negligible N2O emissions due to low soil TN and NH4+-N contents. Dry/upland tundra sites showed weak to strong CH4 uptake (-4.5 to -85.8 μg CH4 m-2 h-1). The waterlogged sites showed weak to strong CH4 emissions (29.8 μg CH4 m-2 h-1-2.4 mg CH4 m-2 h-1). Both tundra marsh and upland tundra experienced a large net CO2 uptake with the greatest mean CO2 uptake rate (-92.1 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) at dry marsh sites. Mean ecosystem respiration (ER) ranged between 82.5 ± 13.2 and 174.9 ± 25.7 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 at all the sites, and showed a strong exponential correlation (P < 0.001) with 0-10 cm soil temperature. Gross photosynthesis (Pg) was more than two times higher in tundra marsh than in upland tundra due to the difference of vegetation coverage. N2O flux showed a strong negative correlation (P < 0.01) with 0-10 cm soil temperature at the marsh sites, and significant or weak positive correlations with total daily radiation (TDR) and sunlight time (ST). No significant correlation was obtained between CH4 fluxes and environmental variables at tundra marsh and upland tundra sites. There was a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between NEE and 0-10 cm mean soil temperature, total daily radiation. Our results indicated that the lowering of water table significantly increased N2O emissions and CH4 consumption, but decreased C loss from the tundra marsh. In the future, the combination of climate warming and frequent precipitation

  17. Response of pioneer soil microalgal colonists to environmental change in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wynn-Williams, D D

    1996-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of climate change in Antarctica, especially elevated temperature and ultraviolet B (UVB) flux within the ozone "hole." Its origins are debatable, but the effects on ice recession, water availability, and summer growth conditions are demonstrable. Light-dependent, temperature-sensitive, fast-growing organisms respond to these physical and biogeographical changes. Microalgae (cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae), which are pioneer colonists of Antarctic mineral fellfield soils, are therefore highly suitable biological indicators of such changes. In frost-heaved soil polygons containing naturally sorted fine mineral particles, microalgal growth is restricted to a shallow zone of light penetration. By virtue of this light requirement, microalgae are exposed to extreme seasonal fluctuations in temperature (air and black-body radiation), photosynthetically active radiation, UV radiation, and desiccation. Dominance of conspicuous autofluorescent indicator species with distinctive morphology allowed quantification of responses using epifluorescence microscopy, and image analysis of undisturbed, unstained communities. However, the physical changes in climate, although significant in the long term, are gradual. The changes were therefore amplified experimentally by enclosing the communities at a fellfield site on Signy Island, maritime Antarctica, in cloches (small greenhouses). These were made of polystyrene of either UV transparent or UV opaque acrylic plastic, with or without walls. During a 6-year period, statistically significant changes were observed in microalgal colonization of the soil surface and in the morphology of filamentous populations. Evidence of community succession correlated with measured changes in local environment was found. Results from Signy Island and at continental sites on Alexander Island suggested that rates of microalgal colonization and community development might change significantly during current climate changes

  18. Active layer thermal monitoring at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Roberto; Schaefer, Carlos; Simas, Felipe; Pregesbauer, Michael; Bockheim, James

    2013-04-01

    International attention on the climate change phenomena has grown in the last decade, intense modelling of climate scenarios were carried out by scientific investigations searching the sources and trends of these changes. The cryosphere and its energy flux became the focus of many investigations, being recognised as a key element for the understanding of future trends. The active layer and permafrost are key components of the terrestrial cryosphere due to their role in energy flux regulation and high sensitivity to climate change (Kane et al., 2001; Smith and Brown, 2009). Compared with other regions of the globe, our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially in relation to its thermal state and evolution, its physical properties, links to pedogenesis, hydrology, geomorphic dynamics and response to global change (Bockheim, 1995, Bockheim et al., 2008). The active layer monitoring site was installed in the summer of 2008, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) arranged in a vertical array (Turbic Eutric Cryosol 600 m asl, 10.5 cm, 32.5 cm, 67.5 cm and 83.5 cm). King George Island experiences a cold moist maritime climate characterized by mean annual air temperatures of -2°C and mean summer air temperatures above 0°C for up to four months (Rakusa-Suszczewski et al., 1993, Wen et al., 1994). Ferron et al., (2004) found great variability when analysing data from 1947 to1995 and identified cycles of 5.3 years of colder conditions followed by 9.6 years of warmer conditions. All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from March 1st 2008 until November 30th 2012. Meteorological data for Fildes was obtained from the near by stations. We calculated the thawing days, freezing days; thawing degree days and freezing degree days; all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). The active lawyer thickness was calculated as the 0 °C depth by extrapolating the thermal gradient from the two

  19. Soils of the Galindez Island, Argentine archipelago, Western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Parnikoza, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is a part of Antarctica which is characterized by increased soil diversity, caused by specific of parent materials and diversity of non-vascular and vascular plants. Soils of Galindez Island have been investigated during the 18-th Ukranian Antarctic Expedition 2013/14. This Island situated in Argentine archipelago (coastal part of Antarctic Peninsula). Soils of Galindez Island presented by following types: Leptosols, Lithosols, Histic Lithosols and Leptosols and some Gleyic soils, located in lowlands and coastal parts. An average solum profile thickness is 3-19 cm which result from the small depth of debris's, underplayed by massive crystallic rocks. The permafrost layer is located within the massive rock, but not in coarse friable parent material. The soils with bird influence are widely spread both in coastal and central part of Island. In the coastal parts we can find typical Ornithosols in the penguin rockeries areas. The main aim of our investigation was characterization of soils formed under vegetation, exactly under Deschampsia antarctica Desv. localities. Argentine Islands is the central part of D. antarctica spreading area in region of Antarctic peninsula. Probably, these islands colonized by hairgrass mainly due to ornitogenic activity. So, coastal population appearance related with Larus dominicanus nest areas and feeding activity. Thus, we found typical post ornithogenic soils here. This kind of soils we also observed in population of hairgrass of Galindez mainland where it was connected with the other Antarctic bird - Catharacta maccormicki activity. Thus, the soil diversity and soil geochemistry of the Galindez Island are closely related to the activity of birds. The spatial pattern of soils, their chemistry and organic matter quality is discussed in relation with distribution of bird nesting and feeding activity.

  20. Polyphasic characterization of 10 selected ecologically relevant filamentous cyanobacterial strains from the South Shetland Islands, Maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Jancusova, Miroslava; Kovacik, Lubomir; Pereira, Antonio Batista; Dusinsky, Roman; Wilmotte, Annick

    2016-07-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 10 Antarctic cyanobacterial strains of the order Oscillatoriales isolated from King George and Deception Islands, South Shetland Islands were studied by a polyphasic approach (morphology, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences). The studied taxa are characteristic of coastal Antarctic biotopes, where they form distinct populations and ecologically delimited communities. They were isolated from terrestrial habitats: microbial mats in seepages; crusts on soil, rocks, bones and mosses; mud, sometimes close to bird colonies; and from guano. Based on major phenotypic features, the strains were divided into four distinct morphotypes: Leptolyngbya borchgrevinkii (A), Leptolyngbya frigida (B), Microcoleus sp. (C) and Wilmottia murrayi (D). This morphological identification was in agreement with the phylogenetic relationships. For the first time, the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a strain corresponding to the L. borchgrevinkii morphotype was determined. Morphotype B is most related to sequences assigned to L. frigida isolated from microbial mats of coastal lakes in East Antarctica. Morphotype C belongs to a cluster including strains with morphotypes corresponding to Microcoleus attenuatus, Microcoleus favosus and Microcoleus sp., which are from Antarctica and other continents. Morphotype D is grouped with sequences assigned to W. murrayi mostly isolated from Antarctica. PMID:27162184

  1. Particle-size distribution in soils of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E. V.

    2010-03-01

    The particle-size distribution in soils sampled near Russian polar stations in West Antarctica has been studied. It is shown that the soils of the Subantarctic zone (the Bellingshausen Station on King George Island) are characterized by a higher content of silt and clay in the fine earth fraction and by a higher content of the fine earth fraction in comparison with the soils of the proper Antarctic tundra barrens near the Lenin-gradskaya Station and the Antarctic cold desert near the Russkaya Station. In the latter soils, the content of rock fragments is higher than that in the soils of the Antarctic tundra barrens. In the soils of the tundra barrens, a considerable accumulation of fine earth may take place in large cavities (hollows) on the stony bedrock surface. Desert pavements are formed in both types of Antarctic landscapes.

  2. Airborne bacterial populations above desert soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Bottos, Eric M; Woo, Anthony C; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Pointing, Stephen B; Cary, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria are assumed to disperse widely via aerosolized transport due to their small size and resilience. The question of microbial endemicity in isolated populations is directly related to the level of airborne exogenous inputs, yet this has proven hard to identify. The ice-free terrestrial ecosystem of Antarctica, a geographically and climatically isolated continent, was used to interrogate microbial bio-aerosols in relation to the surrounding ecology and climate. High-throughput sequencing of bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was combined with analyses of climate patterns during an austral summer. In general terms, the aerosols were dominated by Firmicutes, whereas surrounding soils supported Actinobacteria-dominated communities. The most abundant taxa were also common to aerosols from other continents, suggesting that a distinct bio-aerosol community is widely dispersed. No evidence for significant marine input to bioaerosols was found at this maritime valley site, instead local influence was largely from nearby volcanic sources. Back trajectory analysis revealed transport of incoming regional air masses across the Antarctic Plateau, and this is envisaged as a strong selective force. It is postulated that local soil microbial dispersal occurs largely via stochastic mobilization of mineral soil particulates. PMID:24121801

  3. Isolation and characterization of halotolerant Streptomyces radiopugnans from Antarctica soil.

    PubMed

    Bhave, S V; Shanbhag, P V; Sonawane, S K; Parab, R R; Mahajan, G B

    2013-05-01

    An actinomycete wild strain PM0626271 (= MTCC 5447), producing novel antibacterial compounds, was isolated from soil collected from Antarctica. The taxonomic status of the isolate was established by polyphasic approach. Scanning electron microscopy observations and the presence of LL-Diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall hydrolysate confirmed the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence showed highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces radiopugnans (99%). The phylogenetic tree constructed using near complete 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolate and closely related strains revealed that although the isolate fell within the S. radiopugnans gene subclade, it was allocated a different branch in the phylogenetic tree, separating it from the majority of the radiopugnans strains. Similar to type strain, S. radiopugnans R97(T) , the Antarctica isolate displayed thermo tolerance as well as resistance to (60) Co gamma radiation, up to the dose of 15 kGy. However, media and salt tolerance studies revealed that, unlike the type strain, this isolate needed higher salinity for its growth. This is the first report of S. radiopugnans isolated from the Antarctica region. The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Streptomyces radiopugnans MTCC 5447 is JQ723477. PMID:23384241

  4. Weathering and genesis of Soils from Ellsworth Mountains, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoline Delpupo Souza, Katia; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Monari, Julia; Machado, Vania

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on Antarctic soils from the Ellsworth Mountains (EM) are patchy comparatively with Dry Valleys soils from the Transantartic Mountains, and could help understand the genesis of cryogenic soils under extreme dry, cold desert conditions. The EM are a slightly arcuate 350-km-long north-northwest-trending mountain chain is bordered on the west by the polar plateau of West Antarctica and on the east by Ronne Ice Shelf. The range is as much as 90 km wide and constitutes one of the largest areas of exposed bedrock in West Antarctica. The stratigraphic succession in the EM includes strata from Cambriam to Permian in age. The objective of this study is to analyze the properties of soils from EM in order to identify the main factors and processes involved in soil formation under cold desert conditions in Antarctica. The sampling design aimed to represent the different geological substrates (marble-clast conglomerate, graywacke, argillite, conglomerate, black shale, marble and quartzite) as well as altitudinal levels and landforms within the same substrate. We characterized soils from EM regarding their morphological, physics and chemical properties. Soil samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieves. After removal of water soluble salts, the samples were submitted to chemical and physical analyses such as: pH in water, potential acidity (H + Al), exchangeable bases, total organic carbon, electric conductivity, soil texture and color. The soils classify, for the most part, in weathering stages 1 to 2. Only in the upper parts of ridges were there traces of soils at weathering stage 3. This indicates that much of the present icefree topography has been overridden by ice within the last few hundred thousand years. Cryoturbation is a widespread phenomenon in this area resulting in intense cryoclastic weathering and patterned ground, forming sorted circles, stripes and gelifluxion lobes. The soil show low horizontation, discrete patches of salt on the surface, and

  5. Byers Peninsula: A reference site for coastal, terrestrial and limnetic ecosystem studies in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Rochera, C.; Velázquez, D.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the development of an international and multidisciplinary project funded by the Spanish Polar Programme on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetlands). The project adopted Byers Peninsula as an international reference site for coastal and terrestrial (including inland waters) research within the framework of the International Polar Year initiative. Over 30 scientists from 12 countries and 26 institutions participated in the field work, and many others participated in the processing of the samples. The main themes investigated were: Holocene changes in climate, using both lacustrine sediment cores and palaeo-nests of penguins; limnology of the lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands; microbiology of microbial mats, ecology of microbial food webs and viral effects on aquatic ecosystems; ornithology, with investigations on a Gentoo penguin rookery ( Pygoscelis papua) as well as the flying ornithofauna; biocomplexity and life cycles of species from different taxonomic groups; analysis of a complete watershed unit from a landscape perspective; and human impacts, specifically the effect of trampling on soil characteristics and biota. Byers Peninsula offers many features as an international reference site given it is one of the largest ice-free areas in the Antarctic Peninsula region, it has a variety of different landscape units, and it hosts diverse aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, the Byers Peninsula is a hotspot for Antarctic biodiversity, and because of its high level of environmental protection, it has been very little affected by human activities. Finally, the proximity to the Spanish polar installations on Livingston Island and the experience derived from previous expeditions to the site make it logistically feasible as a site for ongoing monitoring and research.

  6. Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Twilight in Antarctica, February 24, 2000 . Nearly 15 times every 24 hours, the Terra spacecraft, traveling southward, crosses from ... D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley ...

  7. Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.

    2008-01-01

    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Heterotrophic bacteria in soils of Larsemann Oasis of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churilin, Nikita; Soina, Vera

    2015-04-01

    The study of diversity and functional state of microorganisms in subsurface rocks layers, their participation in the biochemical weathering and formation of organic horizons of soils is important for understanding ecology and microorganisms in Antarctic soils. The study of cultured forms of microorganisms and their potential viability is still relevant to characterize the physiological state, biological activity and resilience of microorganisms involved in the initial soil formation. Improvement of isolation techniques of viable bacteria from the extreme habitats has a particular importance for rising the efficiency of environmental monitoring. The aim of the study was to investigate the viable heterotrophic bacteria involved in the formation of soils from wet valleys Larsemann Oasis, which is one of the warmest ice-free space of East Antarctica. Soil samples were taken from the intermountain humid valleys, where silt-gravelly substrates formed moss, algae, lichen cover. We used nutrient solutions (trypticase soy, R2A and glucose-peptone) to isolate cultured bacteria and study their morphological types in the light microscope. The total number of microorganisms was determined by fluorescent microscopy with acridine orange. SEM was used for morphological studies of bacterial communities in situ. To activate the growth processes we added into nutrient solutions various regulatory metabolites that have dose-dependence and operate at the community level. Physiological and functional conditions were determined by the duration of the lag phase and specific growth rate of bacterial communities in nutrient solutions containing various organic substrates. Soils form under protection of «stone pavement» and organisms leave the surface, so the forming organo-mineral horizon occurs inside of rock, thus the microprofile can form on both sides of the organic horizons. UV radiation, lack of moisture and strong wind are main limiting factors for microorganisms' growth in

  9. Enumeration of Thermophilic Heterotrophs in Geothermally Heated Soils from Mount Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, J. Andrew; Daniel, Roy M.

    1988-01-01

    Soil samples with temperatures up to 64°C were collected from Mount Erebus, an active volcano located on Ross Island, Antarctica. Acridine orange direct counts and most probable number counts of soil samples stored at 4°C for 2 months showed a wide variation in the number of thermophilic microorganisms in different soils. Organisms similar to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, Bacillus schlegelii, and Bacillus acidocaldarius, as well as neutrophilic Bacillus strains, were isolated. PMID:16347573

  10. Enumeration of thermophilic heterotrophs in geothermally heated soils from mount erebus, ross island, antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J A; Daniel, R M

    1988-02-01

    Soil samples with temperatures up to 64 degrees C were collected from Mount Erebus, an active volcano located on Ross Island, Antarctica. Acridine orange direct counts and most probable number counts of soil samples stored at 4 degrees C for 2 months showed a wide variation in the number of thermophilic microorganisms in different soils. Organisms similar to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, Bacillus schlegelii, and Bacillus acidocaldarius, as well as neutrophilic Bacillus strains, were isolated. PMID:16347573

  11. Long-term persistence and leaching of Escherichia coli in temperate maritime soils.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Fiona P; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Kramers, Gaelene; Grant, Jim; Richards, Karl G

    2010-03-01

    Enteropathogen contamination of groundwater, including potable water sources, is a global concern. The spreading on land of animal slurries and manures, which can contain a broad range of pathogenic microorganisms, is considered a major contributor to this contamination. Some of the pathogenic microorganisms applied to soil have been observed to leach through the soil into groundwater, which poses a risk to public health. There is a critical need, therefore, for characterization of pathogen movement through the vadose zone for assessment of the risk to groundwater quality due to agricultural activities. A lysimeter experiment was performed to investigate the effect of soil type and condition on the fate and transport of potential bacterial pathogens, using Escherichia coli as a marker, in four Irish soils (n = 9). Cattle slurry (34 tonnes per ha) was spread on intact soil monoliths (depth, 1 m; diameter, 0.6 m) in the spring and summer. No effect of treatment or the initial soil moisture on the E. coli that leached from the soil was observed. Leaching of E. coli was observed predominantly from one soil type (average, 1.11 +/- 0.77 CFU ml(-1)), a poorly drained Luvic Stagnosol, under natural rainfall conditions, and preferential flow was an important transport mechanism. E. coli was found to have persisted in control soils for more than 9 years, indicating that autochthonous E. coli populations are capable of becoming naturalized in the low-temperature environments of temperate maritime soils and that they can move through soil. This may compromise the use of E. coli as an indicator of fecal pollution of waters in these regions. PMID:20038692

  12. Dioszegia antarctica sp. nov. and Dioszegia cryoxerica sp. nov., psychrophilic basidiomycetous yeasts from polar desert soils in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Russell J.; Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Barrett, A.; Iszard, M.; Fonseca, A.

    2010-01-01

    During a survey of the culturable soil fungal population in samples collected in Taylor Valley, South Victoria Land, Antarctica, 13 basidiomycetous yeast strains with orange-coloured colonies were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial LSU rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains belong to the Dioszegia clade of the Tremellales (Tremellomycetes, Agaricomycotina), but did not correspond to any of the hitherto recognized species. Two novel species, Dioszegia antarctica sp. nov. (type strain ANT-03-116T =CBS 10920T =PYCC 5970T) and Dioszegia cryoxerica sp. nov. (type strain ANT-03-071T =CBS 10919T =PYCC 5967T), are described to accommodate ten and three of these strains, respectively. Analysis of ITS sequences demonstrated intrastrain sequence heterogeneity in D. cryoxerica. The latter species is also notable for producing true hyphae with clamp connections and haustoria. However, no sexual structures were observed. The two novel species can be considered obligate psychrophiles, since they failed to grow above 20 °C and grew best between 10 and 15 °C.

  13. The sources and composition of humus in some soils of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E. V.

    2010-05-01

    Original data on humus-forming substances and their elemental and biochemical compositions in Antarctic soils are discussed. Mosses, lichens, algae, remains of higher vascular plants, and penguin guano of two types differ considerably in their chemical compositions. This leads to significant differences in the formation of humic substances in plant materials themselves in the course of their transformation. However, no significant differences in the composition of humus in the fine earth of soils developing under different humus-forming materials have been revealed, which may be related to the extremely low rates of humification. Significant differences between the soils of Antarctic landscapes proper and the soils of the Subantarctic King George Island are only observed in the humus enrichment with nitrogen. The soils of Antarctica are low-humus soils with the humate-fulvate or fulvate types of humus.

  14. Phosphatase activity in Antarctica soil samples as a biosignature of extant life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shuji; Itoh, Yuki; Takano, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Microbial activities have been detected in such extreme terrestrial environments as deep lithosphere, a submarine hydrothermal systems, stratosphere, and Antarctica. Microorganisms have adapted to such harsh environments by evolving their biomolecules. Some of these biomolecules such as enzymes might have different characteristics from those of organisms in ordinary environments. Many biosignatures (or biomarkers) have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments. A number of techniques are proposed to evaluate biological activities in extreme environments including cultivation methods, assay of metabolism, and analysis of bioorganic compounds like amino acids and DNA. Enzyme activities are useful signature of extant life in extreme environments. Among many enzymes, phosphatase could be a good indicator of biological activities, since phosphate esters are essential for all the living terrestrial organisms. In addition, alkaline phosphatase is known as a typical zinc-containing metalloenzyme and quite stable in environments. We analyzed phosphatase activities in Antarctica soil samples to see whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. In addition, we characterized phosphatases extracted from the Antarctica soil samples, and compared with those obtained from other types of environments. Antarctica surface environments are quite severe environments for life since it is extremely cold and dry and exposed to strong UV and cosmic rays. We tried to evaluate biological activities in Antarctica by measuring phosphatase activities. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are measured spectrophotometrically after mixing the powdered sample and p-nitrophenyl phosphate solution (pH 6.5 for ACP, pH 8.0 for ALP). ALP was characterized after extraction from soils with

  15. Chemical characterization of microbial-dominated soil organic matter in the Garwood Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Simpson, André J.; Gregorich, Edward G.; Elberling, Bo; Hopkins, David W.; Sparrow, Ashley D.; Novis, Philip M.; Greenfield, Lawrence G.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2010-11-01

    Despite its harsh environmental conditions, terrestrial Antarctica contains a relatively large microbial biomass. Natural abundance carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures of organic materials in the dry valleys indicate mixed provenance of the soil organic matter (SOM) with varying proportions of contributions from lichens, mosses, lake-derived algae and cyanobacteria. Here we employed two complementary analytical techniques, biomarker measurements by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and solution-state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to provide further information at a molecular-level about the composition and possible source of SOM in the Garwood Valley, Antarctica. The predominance of branched alkanes and short-chain lipids in the solvent extracts indicates that the primary contribution to the SOM was microbial-derived. Chemical structures in the NaOH extracts from soils were also dominated by amide, peptides, and a CH 3-dominating aliphatic region that were characteristic of microbial signatures. Furthermore, the SOM in the Garwood Valley contained compounds that were different from those in the cyanobacteria-dominated mat from a nearby lake (including monoethyl alkanes and enriched side-chain protons). This observation suggests that easily degradable carbon sources from the nearby lake did not dominate the SOM, which is consistent with a fast turnover of the mat-derived organic matter found in the valley. This study highlights the important role of native soil microbes in the carbon transformation and biogeochemistry in terrestrial Antarctica.

  16. [Diversity and viability of prokaryotes in primitive soils of the larsemann oasis (East Antarctica)].

    PubMed

    Kudinova, A G; Lysak, L V; Lapygina, E V; Soina, V S; Mergelov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and viability of prokaryotic communities in the primitive organomineral soils of East Antarctica have been studied; it has been shown that the total number of bacteria is smaller than and the viability of bacteria is similar to that in soils of the temperate zone. The prokaryotic communities are characterized by the occurrence of a major part of cells in filterable forms, which is higher than the analogous parameter for the temperate soils. The method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the distribution of the main taxons is similar to that in the temperate soils: the portion of the domain Archaea is smaller than that of the domain Bacteria; the total content of Gram-negative bacteria (the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Planctomycetes) is higher than that of Gram-positive bacteria (Actinobacteria). Within the phylum Proteobacteria, a significant variation of three proteobacterial classes has been noted along the profiles of the soils studied. PMID:26021154

  17. Distribution and abundance of fungi in the soils of Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Rodriguez, R.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of culturable fungi in Taylor Valley, Antarctica was assessed in terms of soil habitat. Soil transects throughout the valley revealed differential habitat utilization between filamentous and non-filamentous (yeast and yeast-like) fungi. In addition, there were significant differences in species distribution patterns with respect to soil pH, moisture, distance from marine coastline, carbon, chlorophyll a, salinity, elevation and solar inputs. Filamentous fungal abundance is most closely associated with habitats having higher pH, and soil moistures. These close associations were not found with yeast and yeast-like fungi demonstrating that yeast and yeast-like fungi utilize a broader range of habitat. An intensive survey of the Victoria Land is necessary to gain a better understanding of their role in soil functioning and nutrient cycling processes. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of water-soluble ions in soils from the dry valleys of Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bustin, R.

    1981-01-01

    The soil chemistry of the dry valleys of Antarctica was studied. These valleys furnish a terrestrial analog for the surface of Mars. The abundance of the water-soluble ions magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium chloride, and nitrate in soil samples was determined. All samples examined contained water-soluble salts reflecting the aridity of the area. Movement of salts to low-lying areas was verified. Upward ionic migration was evident in all core samples. Of all cations observed, sodium showed the greatest degree of migration.

  19. Geochemical markers of soil anthropogenic contaminants in polar scientific stations nearby (Antarctica, King George Island).

    PubMed

    Prus, Wojciech; Fabiańska, Monika J; Łabno, Radosław

    2015-06-15

    The organic contamination of Antarctic soils and terrestrial sediments from nearby of five polar scientific stations on King George Island (Antarctica) was investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to find composition of dichloromethane extracts of soil and terrestrial sediments. The presence of geochemical markers, such as n-alkanes, steranes, pentacyclic triterpenoids, and alkyl PAHs, their distribution types, and values of their ratios indicates the predominating source of organic fossil fuels and products of their refining rather than from the natural Antarctic environment. Fossil fuel-originated compounds well survived in conditions of Antarctic climate over long times thus enabling to characterize geochemical features of source fossil fuel identified as petroleum expelled from kerogen II of algal/bacterial origins deposited in sub-oxic conditions and being in the middle of catagenesis. Both microbial activity and water leaching play an important role in degradation of terrestrial oil spills in the Antarctica climate, and petroleum alteration occurs lowly over long periods of time. Synthetic anthropogenic compounds found in terrestrial Antarctica sediments included diisopropylnaphthalenes, products of their sulfonates degradation in paper combustion, and organophosporus compounds used as retardants and plasticizers. PMID:25770449

  20. Soil Microorganisms of the McMurdo Sound Area, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, William L.; Boyd, Josephine W.

    1963-01-01

    A study of soil microorganisms of Ross Island and the adjacent mainland was carried out during the brief austral summer of 1961-1962. In some cases, seasonal changes in microbial numbers were observed, although microorganisms could not be detected in some soils. Bacterial species common to temperate regions were isolated from a number of different samples. Thermophilic bacteria were present in some of the soils, and a significant portion of the bacterial population was capable of growth at 2 C. The soil microflora were capable of carrying out certain reactions of the nitrogen cycle at a very slow rate. In addition to temperature, other environmental factors which might influence growth and metabolic activity were discussed. PMID:14014701

  1. Diversity and bioprospection of fungal community present in oligotrophic soil of continental Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Valéria M; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Santiago, Iara F; Figueredo, Hebert M; Vitoreli, Gislaine A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Barbosa, Emerson C; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Junior, Policarpo A S; Murta, Silvane M F; Romanha, Alvaro J; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Cantrell, Charles L; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O; Ali, Abbas; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-05-01

    We surveyed the diversity and capability of producing bioactive compounds from a cultivable fungal community isolated from oligotrophic soil of continental Antarctica. A total of 115 fungal isolates were obtained and identified in 11 taxa of Aspergillus, Debaryomyces, Cladosporium, Pseudogymnoascus, Penicillium and Hypocreales. The fungal community showed low diversity and richness, and high dominance indices. The extracts of Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium allii-sativi, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium rubens possess antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antitumoral, herbicidal and antiprotozoal activities. Bioactive extracts were examined using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and detected the presence of secondary metabolites with chemical shifts. Our results show that the fungi present in cold-oligotrophic soil from Antarctica included few dominant species, which may have important implications for understanding eukaryotic survival in cold-arid oligotrophic soils. We hypothesize that detailed further investigations may provide a greater understanding of the evolution of Antarctic fungi and their relationships with other organisms described in that region. Additionally, different wild pristine bioactive fungal isolates found in continental Antarctic soil may represent a unique source to discover prototype molecules for use in drug and biopesticide discovery studies. PMID:25809294

  2. Chemistry and Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Graff, T. G.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; Zent, A. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) comprise the largest ice-free region of Antarctica. Precipitation almost always occurs as snow, relative humidity is frequently low, and mean annual temperatures are about -20 C. The ADV soils have previously been categorized into three soil moisture regimes: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous, based on elevation and climate influences. The subxerous regime is predominately a coastal zone soil, and has the highest average temperature and precipitation, while the ultraxerous regime occurs at high elevation (>1000 m) and have very low temperature and precipitation. The amounts and types of salts present in the soils vary between regions. The nature, origin and significance of salts in the ADV have been previously investigated. Substantial work has focused on soil formation in the ADVs, however, little work has focused on the mineralogy of secondary alteration phases. The dominant weathering process in the ADV region is physical weathering, however, chemical weathering has been well documented. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy, including the alteration mineralogy, of soils from two sites, a subxerous soil in Taylor Valley, and an ultraxerous soil in University Valley. The style of aqueous alteration in the ADVs may have implications for pedogenic processes on Mars.

  3. Anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons in soils and vegetation from the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Cabrerizo, Ana; Tejedo, Pablo; Dachs, Jordi; Benayas, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Two Antarctic expeditions (in 2009 and 2011) were carried out to assess the local and remote anthropogenic sources of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as potential biogenic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, biomarkers such as phytane (Ph) and pristane (Pr), and the aliphatic unresolved complex mixture (UCM), were analysed in soil and vegetation samples collected at Deception, Livingston, Barrientos and Penguin Islands (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Overall, the patterns of n-alkanes in lichens, mosses and grass were dominated by odd-over-even carbon number alkanes. Mosses and vascular plants showed high abundances of n-C21 to n-C35, while lichens also showed high abundances of n-C17 and n-C19. The lipid content was an important factor controlling the concentrations of n-alkanes in Antarctic vegetation (r(2)=0.28-0.53, p-level<0.05). n-C12 to n-C35 n-alkanes were analysed in soils with a predominance of odd C number n-alkanes (n-C25, n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), especially in the background soils not influenced by anthropogenic sources. The large values for the carbon predominance index (CPI) and the correlations between odd alkanes and some PAHs suggest the potential biogenic sources of these hydrocarbons in Antarctica. Unresolved complex mixture and CPI values ~1 detected at soils collected at intertidal areas and within the perimeter of Juan Carlos research station, further supported the evidence that even a small settlement (20 persons during the austral summer) can affect the loading of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearby soils. Nevertheless, the assessment of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18 ratios showed that hydrocarbon degradation is occurring in these soils. PMID:27450242

  4. Distribution of glacial deposits, soils, and permafrost in Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bockheim, J.G.; Prentice, M.L.; McLeod, M.

    2008-01-01

    We provide a map of lower and central Taylor Valley, Antarctica, that shows deposits from Taylor Glacier, local alpine glaciers, and grounded ice in the Ross Embayment. From our electronic database, which includes 153 sites from the coast 50 km upvalley to Pearse Valley, we show the distribution of permafrost type and soil subgroups according to Soil Taxonomy. Soils in eastern Taylor Valley are of late Pleistocene age, cryoturbated due to the presence of ground ice or ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, and classified as Glacic and Typic Haploturbels. In central Taylor Valley, soils are dominantly Typic Anhyorthels of mid-Pleistocene age that have dry-frozen permafrost within the upper 70 cm. Salt-enriched soils (Salic Anhyorthels and Petrosalic Anhyorthels) are of limited extent in Taylor Valley and occur primarily on drifts of early Pleistocene and Pliocene age. Soils are less developed in Taylor Valley than in nearby Wright Valley, because of lesser salt input from atmospheric deposition and salt weathering. Ice-cemented permafrost is ubiquitous on Ross Sea, pre-Ross Sea, and Bonney drifts that occur within 28 km of the McMurdo coast. In contrast, dry-frozen permafrost is prevalent on older (???115 ky) surfaces to the west. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  5. Water Dynamics, Ice Stability, and Salts in Victoria Valley Soils, Antarctica: An Instructive Analog for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.

    2006-12-01

    Typical of many hyper arid soils of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, soils in Victoria Valley contain ~10% ice (at 0.3 m depth) and ~0.4% salt, mostly calcium and sodium sulfates and chlorides, making them excellent analogs to Martian soils. Vapor diffusion models designed to investigate ground ice dynamics on Mars are not entirely satisfactory because they lead to the unrealistic expectation that soils in Antarctica should be ice free within a 1000 years of being saturated with ice, and yet even ancient soils characteristically contain abundant ice near the surface. Validation of these diffusion models has been limited because of the paucity of field based climate and soil climate data. Moreover the models ignore the significant effects of snow cover, surface melt water and salts on vapor fluxes. To better understand the presence and stability of the shallow subsurface ice we are exploring the effect of snow cover and salts on vapor fluxes. Ice stability was investigated using high-resolution climate and soil temperature data from 2002 to 2005. According to the vapor diffusion model ice sublimates at an average rate of 0.22 mm a-1, corresponding to an ice recession of ~1.3 mm a-1 for soil with 10% ice content. Some of the water vapor is transported to the atmosphere; however, some water vapor accumulates at depth in the soil. Furthermore, snow cover during the summer may substantially reduce annual ice loss. Stable isotopes (δ18O & δD) in ice along a 1.6m vertical soil profile reveal a deuterium excess (-13 to -77 ‰) with the greatest enrichment of heavy isotopes at the top of the ice cement and decreasing with depth to form a concave-down profile. This isotopic profile was interpreted using a quantitative model of H2O transport in perennially frozen soil, including the advection-dispersion of heavy isotope- enriched surface water into the ice-cement. It suggests an average infiltration rate of 0.7 mm a-1 of brine if 2.5% of the H2O present is unfrozen, a

  6. Bacterial succession in Antarctic soils of two glacier forefields on Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Bajerski, Felizitas; Wagner, Dirk

    2013-07-01

    Antarctic glacier forefields are extreme environments and pioneer sites for ecological succession. Increasing temperatures due to global warming lead to enhanced deglaciation processes in cold-affected habitats, and new terrain is becoming exposed to soil formation and microbial colonization. However, only little is known about the impact of environmental changes on microbial communities and how they develop in connection to shifting habitat characteristics. In this study, using a combination of molecular and geochemical analysis, we determine the structure and development of bacterial communities depending on soil parameters in two different glacier forefields on Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate that deglaciation-dependent habitat formation, resulting in a gradient in soil moisture, pH and conductivity, leads to an orderly bacterial succession for some groups, for example Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Deltaproteobacteria in a transect representing 'classical' glacier forefields. A variable bacterial distribution and different composed communities were revealed according to soil heterogeneity in a slightly 'matured' glacier forefield transect, where Gemmatimonadetes, Flavobacteria, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria occur depending on water availability and soil depth. Actinobacteria are dominant in both sites with dominance connected to certain trace elements in the glacier forefields. PMID:23480659

  7. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  8. The Soil Geochemistry in the Beardmore Glacier Region, Antarctica: Implications for Terrestrial Ecosystem History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. B.; Deuerling, K.; Welch, K. A.; Welch, S. A.; Michalski, G.; Walters, W. W.; Nielsen, U.; Wall, D. H.; Hogg, I.; Adams, B. J.

    2016-05-01

    Although most models suggest continental Antarctica was covered by ice during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) it has been speculated that endemic species of soil invertebrates could have survived the Pleistocene at high elevation habitats protruding above the ice sheets. We analyzed a series of soil samples from different elevations at three locations along the Beardmore Glacier in the Transantarctic Mountains (in order of increasing elevation): Ebony Ridge (ER), Cloudmaker (CM), and Meyer Desert (MD). Geochemical analyses show the MD soils, which were exposed during the LGM, were the least weathered compared to lower elevations, and also had the highest total dissolved solids (TDS). MD soils are dominated by nitrate salts (NO3/Cl ratios >10) that can be observed in SEM images. High δ17O and δ18O values of the nitrate indicate that its source is solely of atmospheric origin. It is suggested that nitrate concentrations in the soil may be utilized to determine a relative “wetting age” to better assess invertebrate habitat suitability. The highest elevation sites at MD have been exposed and accumulating salts for the longest times, and because of the salt accumulations, they were not suitable as invertebrate refugia during the LGM.

  9. The Soil Geochemistry in the Beardmore Glacier Region, Antarctica: Implications for Terrestrial Ecosystem History

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, W. B.; Deuerling, K.; Welch, K. A.; Welch, S. A.; Michalski, G.; Walters, W. W.; Nielsen, U.; Wall, D. H.; Hogg, I.; Adams, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Although most models suggest continental Antarctica was covered by ice during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) it has been speculated that endemic species of soil invertebrates could have survived the Pleistocene at high elevation habitats protruding above the ice sheets. We analyzed a series of soil samples from different elevations at three locations along the Beardmore Glacier in the Transantarctic Mountains (in order of increasing elevation): Ebony Ridge (ER), Cloudmaker (CM), and Meyer Desert (MD). Geochemical analyses show the MD soils, which were exposed during the LGM, were the least weathered compared to lower elevations, and also had the highest total dissolved solids (TDS). MD soils are dominated by nitrate salts (NO3/Cl ratios >10) that can be observed in SEM images. High δ17O and δ18O values of the nitrate indicate that its source is solely of atmospheric origin. It is suggested that nitrate concentrations in the soil may be utilized to determine a relative “wetting age” to better assess invertebrate habitat suitability. The highest elevation sites at MD have been exposed and accumulating salts for the longest times, and because of the salt accumulations, they were not suitable as invertebrate refugia during the LGM. PMID:27189430

  10. The Soil Geochemistry in the Beardmore Glacier Region, Antarctica: Implications for Terrestrial Ecosystem History.

    PubMed

    Lyons, W B; Deuerling, K; Welch, K A; Welch, S A; Michalski, G; Walters, W W; Nielsen, U; Wall, D H; Hogg, I; Adams, B J

    2016-01-01

    Although most models suggest continental Antarctica was covered by ice during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) it has been speculated that endemic species of soil invertebrates could have survived the Pleistocene at high elevation habitats protruding above the ice sheets. We analyzed a series of soil samples from different elevations at three locations along the Beardmore Glacier in the Transantarctic Mountains (in order of increasing elevation): Ebony Ridge (ER), Cloudmaker (CM), and Meyer Desert (MD). Geochemical analyses show the MD soils, which were exposed during the LGM, were the least weathered compared to lower elevations, and also had the highest total dissolved solids (TDS). MD soils are dominated by nitrate salts (NO3/Cl ratios >10) that can be observed in SEM images. High δ(17)O and δ(18)O values of the nitrate indicate that its source is solely of atmospheric origin. It is suggested that nitrate concentrations in the soil may be utilized to determine a relative "wetting age" to better assess invertebrate habitat suitability. The highest elevation sites at MD have been exposed and accumulating salts for the longest times, and because of the salt accumulations, they were not suitable as invertebrate refugia during the LGM. PMID:27189430

  11. Soil Geochemical Control Over Nematode Populations in Bull Pass, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poage, M. A.; Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Wall, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys occupy the largest ice-free region of Antarctica and are characterized by climatic conditions among the most extreme on Earth. Despite the harsh environmental conditions, some soils of the dry valleys host simple low-diversity ecosystems dominated by microbes and several taxa of metazoans, predominantly nematodes. Distributions, abundance, and diversity of these biota appear to be related to the highly variable soil geochemistry (pH, conductivity, nitrate, sulfate, chloride) of the dry valleys. Bull Pass is a glacially carved valley within the dry valleys. An ancient lake margin near the valley floor creates a continuous gradient spanning the full range of geochemical parameters found across the entire McMurdo Dry Valleys system. This unique setting provides the opportunity to systematically investigate the soil geochemical control on local biodiversity and establish, on the spatial scale of hundreds of meters, correlations between nematode populations and individual geochemical parameters that have application at the regional scale. We measured soil geochemistry and nematode population data from a 1500-meter transect across this ancient lake margin. There were significant negative correlations between live nematode abundance and concentrations of soil nitrate, sulfate and chloride as well as total soil salinity, consistent with recent laboratory experiments showing strong salinity inhibition of nematode survival. A logistical regression analysis based on a compilation of published datasets from across the dry valleys was designed to calculate the probably of live nematode populations occurring given a particular soil chemistry, using the dataset from the Bull Pass transect as a case study to field-test the model. Small-scale chemical and biological gradients can provide insights on the distribution of soil biota at much larger regional scales.

  12. Distribution and interaction patterns of bacterial communities in an ornithogenic soil of Seymour Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Rampelotto, Pabulo Henrique; Barboza, Anthony Diego Muller; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Triplett, Eric W; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G R; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig

    2015-04-01

    Next-generation, culture-independent sequencing offers an excellent opportunity to examine network interactions among different microbial species. In this study, soil bacterial communities from a penguin rookery site at Seymour Island were analyzed for abundance, structure, diversity, and interaction networks to identify interaction patterns among the various taxa at three soil depths. The analysis revealed the presence of eight phyla distributed in different proportions among the surface layer (0-8 cm), middle layer (20-25 cm), and bottom (35-40 cm). The bottom layer presented the highest values of bacterial richness, diversity, and evenness when compared to surface and middle layers. The network analysis revealed the existence of a unique pattern of interactions in which the soil microbial network formed a clustered topology, rather than a modular structure as is usually found in biological communities. In addition, specific taxa were identified as important players in microbial community structure. Furthermore, simulation analyses indicated that the loss of potential keystone groups of microorganisms might alter the patterns of interactions within the microbial community. These findings provide new insights for assessing the consequences of environmental disturbances at the whole-community level in Antarctica. PMID:25342537

  13. Richness and bioactivity of culturable soil fungi from the Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhuang; Li, Liyuan; Che, Qian; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of penicillin, fungi have been an important source of bioactive natural products. However, as a specific resource, the bioactive potentiality and specificity of fungal metabolites from the Antarctic region have had little attention. In this paper, we investigated the diversity patterns and biological activities of cultivable fungi isolated from soil samples in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. Fungal communities showed low abundance and diversity; a total of 150 cultivable fungi were isolated from eight soil samples. After being dereplicated by morphological characteristics and chemical fingerprints, 47 fungal isolates were identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing. We confirmed that these isolates belonged to at least 11 different genera and clustered into nine groups corresponding to taxonomic orders in the phylogenetic analysis. Using two different fermentation conditions, 94 crude extracts acquired from the abovementioned different metabolite characteristic isolates were screened by bioactivity assay and 18 isolates produced biologically active compounds. Compared with HPLC-DAD-UV fingerprint analysis of culture extracts and standard compounds, two bioactive components secalonic acid and chetracins were identified. Our research suggests that the abundance and diversity of Antarctic cultivable fungal communities exhibit unique ecological characteristics and potential producers of novel natural bioactive products. PMID:27142030

  14. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (<2 mm), soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil. PMID:18604588

  15. Maritime Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravennes, Jean

    1922-01-01

    This report presents some studies of maritime aviation which cover the following principal points: employment of landplanes on maritime aerial warfare; their adaption to peculiar requirements of the Navy; and the establishment of a method of aerial pursuit and bombardment, likewise adapted to military aviation over land.

  16. Microbial biodiversity of thermophilic communities in hot mineral soils of Tramway Ridge, Mount Erebus, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Soo, Rochelle M; Wood, Susanna A; Grzymski, Joseph J; McDonald, Ian R; Cary, S Craig

    2009-03-01

    Tramway Ridge, located near the summit of Mount Erebus in Antarctica, is probably the most remote geothermal soil habitat on Earth. Steam fumaroles maintain moist, hot soil environments creating extreme local physicochemical differentials. In this study a culture-independent approach combining automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and a 16S rRNA gene library was used to characterize soil microbial (Bacterial and Archaeal) diversity along intense physicochemical gradients. Statistical analysis of ARISA data showed a clear delineation between bacterial community structure at sites close to fumaroles and all other sites. Temperature and pH were identified as the primary drivers of this demarcation. A clone library constructed from a high-temperature site led to the identification of 18 novel bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). All 16S rRNA gene sequences were deep branching and distantly (85-93%) related to other environmental clones. Five of the signatures branched with an unknown group between candidate division OP10 and Chloroflexi. Within this clade, sequence similarity was low, suggesting it contains several yet-to-be described bacterial groups. Five archaeal OTUs were obtained and exhibited high levels of sequence similarity (95-97%) with Crenarchaeota sourced from deep-subsurface environments on two distant continents. The novel bacterial assemblage coupled with the unique archaeal affinities reinvigorates the hypotheses that Tramway Ridge organisms are relics of archaic microbial lineages specifically adapted to survive in this harsh environment and that this site may provide a portal to the deep-subsurface biosphere. PMID:19278453

  17. Phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmavathiamma, P. K.; Li, L. Y.

    2009-04-01

    This research addressed the phytoremediation of roadside soils subjected to multi-component metal solutions. A typical right of way for roads in Canada is around 30 m, and at least 33% of that land in the right of way is unpaved and can support animal life. Thus, land associated with 12,000 km of roads in the province of British Columbia and millions of kilometres around the world represent a substantial quantity of wildlife habitat where metal contamination needs to be remediated. Phytostabilisation, requires least maintenance among different phytoremediation techniques, and it could be a feasible and practical method of remediating in roadside soils along highways and for improving highway runoff drainage. The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the above-ground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  18. Sediment and Soil Profiles of Taylor and Wright Valleys, Antarctica, as Analogs for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, P. A.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Koeberl, C.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-12-01

    E. K. et al. (1983) JGR 88, A912-A928. [2] Bishop J. L. et al. (1996) GCA 60,765-785. [3] Bishop J. L. et al. (2001) GCA 65:2875-2897. [4] Englert P. et al. (2012) 43rd LPSC abs. #1743. [5] Lee Y.I., Lim H,S. & Yoon H.I. (2004) GCA 68, 4319 - 4333. [6] Krissek, L. A. & Kyle, P. R. (2000) Terra Antarctica, 7, 589-597. [7] Roser B.P. & Pyne A.R. (1989) DSIR Bulletin 245, 175-184. Figure 2. CIA vs. molar Al2O3/TiO2 ratio for ADV soils and sediments (circles) compared to Barton Peninsula soils (squares). Source rock data (triangles) are given for comparison. Source rock geochemistry adapted from [7]; see also [6].

  19. Appraisal of SMOS soil moisture at a catchment scale in a temperate maritime climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Han, Dawei; Rico Ramirez, Miguel A.; Islam, Tanvir

    2013-08-01

    Soil moisture is one of the important variables in hydrological modelling, which is now possible to be measured with remote sensing. This study is an attempt to evaluate the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite derived soil moisture for hydrological applications at a catchment scale. The Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD) derived from a Probability Distribution Model is used as a benchmark for all comparisons. Three approaches are used for the evaluation of SMOS soil moisture. The first approach is based on ROSETTA pedotransfer functions (PTFs), while second and the third are based on linear/non-linear and seasonal algorithms particularly for growing and non-growing seasons respectively. The field capacity and permanent wilting point estimated from the simulated Water Retention Curve (WRC) through ROSETTA are used for the transformation of SMOS data into SMD. The growing seasons used in this study belong to the months from March to November, while the non-growing seasons comprise of months from December to February. The highest performance is given by a combined growing and non-growing season algorithms with the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies (NSEs) of 0.75 and RMSE = 0.01 m3/m3 followed by the linear and non-linear algorithms (NSE = 0.40-0.42; RMSE = 0.02 m3/m3). The worst performance is revealed by the PTFs indicating that it should be used with caution for direct coarse scale SMOS applications (NSE = -24.98 to -40.23) and need more treatments regarding the spatial and depth wise mismatch. The overall analysis reveals that SMOS soil moisture is of reasonable quality in estimating Soil Moisture Deficit at a catchment level with a local adjustment algorithm combining growing and non-growing seasons.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from penguin guanos and ornithogenic soils in coastal Antarctica: Effects of freezing-thawing cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Renbin; Liu, Yashu; Ma, Erdeng; Sun, Jianjun; Xu, Hua; Sun, Liguang

    In coastal Antarctica, freezing and thawing influence many physical, chemical and biological processes for ice-free tundra ecosystems, including the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study, penguin guanos and ornithogenic soil cores were collected from four penguin colonies and one seal colony in coastal Antarctica, and experimentally subjected to three freezing-thawing cycles (FTCs) under ambient air and under N 2. We investigated the effects of FTCs on the emissions of three GHGs including nitrous oxide (N 2O), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and methane (CH 4). The GHG emission rates were extremely low in frozen penguin guanos or ornithogenic soils. However, there was a fast increase in the emission rates of three GHGs following thawing. During FTCs, cumulative N 2O emissions from ornithogenic soils were greatly higher than those from penguin guanos under ambient air or under N 2. The highest N 2O cumulative emission of 138.24 μg N 2O-N kg -1 was observed from seal colony soils. Cumulative CO 2 and CH 4 emissions from penguin guanos were one to three orders of magnitude higher than those from ornithogenic soils. The highest cumulative CO 2 (433.0 mgCO 2-C kg -1) and CH 4 (2.9 mgCH 4-C kg -1) emissions occurred in emperor penguin guanos. Penguin guano was a stronger emitter for CH 4 and CO 2 while ornithogenic soil was a stronger emitter for N 2O during FTCs. CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes had a correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) and soil/guano moisture (M c) in penguin guanos and ornithogenic soils. The specific CO 2-C production rate (CO 2-C/TOC) indicated that the bioavailability of TOC was markedly larger in penguin guanos than in ornithogenic soils during FTCs. This study showed that FTC-released organic C and N from sea animal excreta may play a significant role in FTC-related GHG emissions, which may account for a large proportion of annual fluxes from tundra ecosystems in coastal Antarctica.

  1. Bacterial communities in the soils of cryptogamic barrens of East Antarctica (the Larsemann Hills and Thala Hills oases)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinova, A. G.; Lysak, L. V.; Soina, V. S.; Mergelov, N. S.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Shorkunov, I. G.

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial communities from the soils of cryptogamic barrens in the Thala Hills and Larsemann Hills oases of East Antarctica were examined. The total number of bacteria in the studied soils was no higher than 108 cells per gram of soil, which is an order of magnitude lower than the values typically found in the soils of temperate regions. The portion of viable cells reached 60% and more, which attests to the high tolerance of the bacteria to the impact of adverse environmental factors. The maximum values of the total number and viability of the bacteria were found in the fine earth material immediately under the stony pavement. For the first time, the high content of the filterable forms of bacteria (FFB) was found. In some of the samples, their portion reaches 70-80% of the total number of bacterial cells. Data on the high numbers and viability of the bacterial cells and on the phylogenetic and morphological diversity of FFB allow us to attribute the latter to the pool of bacterial cells ensuring their preservation under unfavorable environmental conditions. The concentrations and total pools of bacterial biomass in the studied soils are much lower than those in the zonal soils of temperate regions. Bacterial communities in the studied soils combine the high tolerance toward the adverse environmental factors (as seen from the high portion of viable cells, the formation of the nanoforms of bacteria, and the participation of bacteria in the subaerial biofilms) with the low total number and biomass of the bacterial cells

  2. Diversity and bioprospection of fungal community present in oligotrophic soil of continental Antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity of fungal communities from different substrates in Antarctica were studied and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. A one hundred and one fungal isolates were identified by molecular analysis in 35 different fungal taxa from 20 genera. Pseudogymnoascus sp. 3, Pseudogymnoasc...

  3. Field Performance of Nine Soil Water Content Sensors on a Sandy Loam Soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Lien; Xing, Zisheng; Rees, Herb W.; Meng, Fanrui; Monteith, John; Stevens, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada) using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r2 of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917), and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r2 of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region. PMID:22291570

  4. Field performance of nine soil water content sensors on a sandy loam soil in new brunswick, maritime region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chow, Lien; Xing, Zisheng; Rees, Herb W; Meng, Fanrui; Monteith, John; Stevens, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada) using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r(2) of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917), and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r(2) of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region. PMID:22291570

  5. Chemical weathering and diagenesis of a cold desert soil from Wright Valley, Antarctica - An analog of Martian weathering processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Mckay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Weathering, diagenesis, and chemical alteration of a soil profile from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica are investigated as an analog to soil development within the Martian regolith. Soil samples from a soil pit one meter deep on Prospect Mesa, Wright Valley, are examined for their major element concentrations, water-soluble cations and anions, carbon, sulfur, and water concentrations, and related petrographic characteristics of weathering in a cold, dry environment. A petrographic study of the samples suggests that most silicate mineral and lithic fragments exhibit some degree of alteration. Chemical alteration occurs both in samples above and within the permanently frozen zone. The concentrations of water-soluble cations, for example, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and anions, Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), are found to decrease significantly from the surface to the permanently frozen zone, suggesting a major movement of water-soluble species. It is also found that enrichments in secondary mineral abundances correlate with the water soluble ion concentrations. The formation of zeolites is seen throughout the soil column; these, it is thought, may be reservoirs for volatile storage within the regolith.

  6. Chemical Weathering of Soils from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica: a Terrestrial Analog of Martian Weathering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Martian soil subjected to chemical weathering processes could contain the following likely constituents: (1) fresh primary silicate material; (2) partially altered primary silicates; (3) secondary minerals, possibly including clay minerals, evaporites, carbonates, sulfates, hydrates, and zeolites; and (4) altered volcanic glass or impact glass. The soil may also include palogonite and other alteration products and secondary minerals. It is unlikely therefore that an equilibrium assemblage of minerals would be present. From the detailed study of the soils from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, it is obvious that the complex processes in operation produce major changes in the parent materials, depending upon where the constituents reside and the degree to which weathering and diagenesis operates. It is clear that natural near surface environments, even in very cold and dry regions, may produce extremely complex soils. Extreme caution must be taken when interpreting the results and drawing conclusions, especially about possible processes operating in regoliths in cold, arid environments similar to those of the Dry Valleys or Mars.

  7. Abundance, Distribution and Cycling of Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in University Valley (McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica) Permafrost Soils with Differing Ground Thermal and Moisture Conditions: Analogue to C-N Cycle on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, B. F.; Lacelle, D. L.; Davila, A. D.; Pollard, W. P.; McKay, C. P. M.

    2016-05-01

    High elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are key Mars analogue sites. Our investigation focuses on the link between ground ice origin, distribution and cycling of organic carbon and nitrogen in University Valley, and its soil habitability.

  8. X-ray Amorphous Phases in Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Quinn, J. E.; Graff, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument onboard the Mars Curiosity rover has detected abundant amounts (approx. 25-30 wt. %) of X-ray amorphous materials in a windblown deposit (Rocknest) and in a sedimentary mudstone (Cumberland and John Klein) in Gale crater. On Earth, X-ray amorphous components are common in soils and sediments, but usually not as abundant as detected in Gale crater. One hypothesis for the abundant X-ray amorphous materials on Mars is limited interaction of liquid water with surface materials, kinetically inhibiting maturation to more crystalline phases. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy of soils formed in the Antarctica Dry Valleys, one of the driest locations on Earth. Two soils were characterized from different elevations, including a low elevation, coastal, subxerous soil in Taylor Valley and a high elevation, ultraxerous soil in University Valley. A variety of techniques were used to characterize materials from each soil horizon, including Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data. For Taylor Valley soil, the X-ray amorphous component ranged from about 4 wt. % in the upper horizon to as high as 15 wt. % in the lowest horizon just above the permafrost layer. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the presence of short-range ordered (SRO) smectite was the most likely candidate for the X-ray amorphous materials in the Taylor Valley soils. The SRO smectite is likely an aqueous alteration product of mica inherited from granitic materials during glaciation of Taylor Valley. The drier University Valley soil had lower X-ray amorphous contents of about 5 wt. % througout the profile. The X-ray amorphous materials in University Valley are attributed to nanoparticles of TiO2 and possibly amorphous SiO2. The high abundance of X-ray amorphous materials in Taylor Valley is surprising for one of the driest places on Earth. These materials may have been physically and chemical altered during

  9. X-Ray Amorphous Phases in Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Insight into Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Golden, D. C.; Quinn, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument onboard the Mars Curiosity rover has detected abundant amounts (approx. 25-30 weight percentage) of X-ray amorphous materials in a windblown deposit (Rocknest) and in a sedimentary mudstone (Cumberland and John Klein) in Gale crater, Mars. On Earth, X-ray amorphous components are common in soils and sediments, but usually not as abundant as detected in Gale crater. One hypothesis for the abundant X-ray amorphous materials on Mars is limited interaction of liquid water with surface materials, kinetically inhibiting maturation to more crystalline phases. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemistry and mineralogy of soils formed in the Antarctica Dry Valleys, one of the driest locations on Earth. Two soils were characterized from different elevations, including a low elevation, coastal, subxerous soil in Taylor Valley and a high elevation, ultraxerous soil in University Valley. A variety of techniques were used to characterize materials from each soil horizon, including Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data. For Taylor Valley soil, the X-ray amorphous component ranged from about 4 weight percentage in the upper horizon to as high as 15 weight percentage in the lowest horizon just above the permafrost layer. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the presence of short-range ordered (SRO) smectite was the most likely candidate for the X-ray amorphous materials in the Taylor Valley soils. The SRO smectite is likely an aqueous alteration product of mica inherited from granitic materials during glaciation of Taylor Valley. The drier University Valley soils had lower X-ray amorphous contents of about 5 weight percentage in the lowest horizon. The X-ray amorphous materials in University Valley are attributed to nanoparticles of TiO2 and possibly amorphous SiO2. The high abundance of X-ray amorphous materials in Taylor Valley is surprising for one of the driest places on Earth. These materials

  10. Low-Temperature, Aqueous Alteration of Soil in Wright Valley, Antarctica, Compared with Aqueous Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are possibly one of the best analogs on Earth of the environment at the surface of Mars. Many types of research have been focused on the Dry Valleys, partly because of the potential application to Mars, and also because of the importance of the Dry Valleys in understanding the characteristics and development of terrestrial polar deserts. In 1983, we published a detailed study of weathering products and soil chemistry in a soil pit at Prospect Mesa, Wright Valley, as a possible analog to Mars. Much more is now known about Mars, so we are re-examining that earlier work and comparing it with newer martian data. The Mars information most pertinent to this work includes (A) the strong evidence for recent aqueous activity on Mars, along with more recent evidence for present-day, near-surface water ice on Mars; and (B) the identification of meteorites from Mars and the subsequent, definitive proof that low temperature, aqueous weathering has occurred in these meteorites prior to their ejection from Mars.

  11. Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Pedogenic Processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; Zent, A. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs) located in the Transantarctic Mountains are the coldest and driest locations on Earth. The mean annual air temperature is -20 C or less and the ADVs receive 100mm or less of precipitation annually in the form of snow. The cold and dry climate in the ADVs is one of the best terrestrial analogs for the climatic conditions on Mars [2]. The soils in the ADVs have been categorized into three soil moisture zones: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous. The subxerous zone is a coastal region in which soils have ice-cemented permafrost relatively close to the surface. Moisture is available in relatively large amounts and soil temperatures are above freezing throughout the soil profile (above ice permafrost) in summer months. The xerous zone, the most widespread of the three zones, is an inland region with a climate midway between the subxerous and ultraxerous. The soils from this zone have dry permafrost at moderate depths (30-75cm) but have sufficient water in the upper soil horizons to allow leaching of soluble materials. The ultraxerous zone is a high elevation zone, where both temperature and precipitation amounts are very low resulting in dry permafrost throughout the soil profile. The three moisture regime regions are similar to the three microclimatic zones (coastal thaw, inland mixed, stable upland) defined by Marchant and Head.

  12. Bioremediation of experimental petroleum spills on mineral soils in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry, E. )

    1993-01-01

    The effect of nutrient and water enhancement on the biodegradation of petroleum was tested in Antarctic mineral soils. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied in solution, with or without gum xanthan or plastic covers, to sites artificially contaminated with distillate. The effectiveness of these procedures was assessed by measuring changes in total petroleum hydrocarbons; heptadecane/pristane and octadecane/phytane ratios; in concentrations of major hydrocarbon components and in microbial numbers and activity. Significantly lower hydrocarbon concentration were recorded after one year in soils treated with fertilizer solutions, but only in the surface 3 cm. These soils also showed lowered heptadecane/pristane and octadecane/phytane ratios and had the highest levels of microbial activity relative to other plots. Soils treated with gum xanthan or covered with plastic had the highest residual hydrocarbon levels. Both treatments inhibited evaporative loss of hydrocarbon, and there were indications that gum xanthan was utilized by the microbiota as an alternative carbon source to distillate. Higher temperatures were recorded under the plastic but no stimulation of biodegradation was detected. Estimated numbers of metabolically active bacteria were in the range 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 8] g[sup [minus]1] dry weight of soil, with an estimated biomass of 0.03 to 0.26 mg g[sup [minus]1] soil. Estimated numbers of amoebae were in the range 10[sup 6] 10[sup 7] g[sup [minus]1] soil (biomass of 2 to 4 mg g[sup [minus]1]). The highest populations were recorded in fertilized, contaminated soils, the only soils where petroleum degradation was demonstrated. 23 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Fate of a broad spectrum of perfluorinated compounds in soils and biota from Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Tavano, Máximo Sebastián; Alonso, Bruno; Koremblit, Gabriel; Barceló, Damià

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds was investigated in biota and environmental samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego, which were collected during a sampling campaign carried out along February and March 2010. 61 samples were analysed including fish, superficial soils, guano, algae, dung and tissues of Papua penguin by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of PFCs were ranging from 0.10 to 240 ng/g for most of the samples except for penguin dung, which presented levels between 95 and 603 ng/g for perfluorooctane sulfonate, and guano samples from Ushuaia, with concentration levels of 1190-2480 ng/g of perfluorohexanoic acid. PFCs acids presented, in general, the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctanesulfonate was the most frequently found compound. The present study provides a significant amount of results, which globally supports the previous studies, related to the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns of PFCs. PMID:22325444

  14. Maritime Cultural Landscapes, Maritimity and Quasi Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, David Berg

    2010-10-01

    Does the concept of maritime cultural landscapes bridge a division between land and sea, or does it maintain a gap that perhaps doesn’t even exist? This paper discusses maritime and maritime cultural landscapes as phenomena in the light of Actor Network Theory, where maritimity is given attention as a derivation of the modern metaphysics as described by Bruno Latour. The paper makes use of a case study from Norwegian Cultural Heritage Management (CHM), where land and sea archaeologists meet each other in a joint venture project at the island of Smøla, Møre & Romsdal County.

  15. Controls over soil organic matter accumulation and turnover in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Wall, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems of the Antarctic Dry Valleys are among the most inhospitable soil environments on Earth due to extreme climate and severe substrate limitation on soil food webs. These ecosystems are a challenge to understanding controls over carbon (C) cycling since some of the major events controlling organic matter accumulation likely occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum when paleo-lakes deposited sediments over much of the presently exposed surfaces. It remains unclear to what extent dry valley soil ecosystems are fueled by legacy organic matter derived from these ancient sediments vs. rapid cycling of contemporary organic matter inputs. We report a model to evaluate controls over the soil organic C in the dry valleys. The model is based upon determinations of standing pools of soil C and is driven by rate parameters estimated from 120 d incubations conducted over a range of soil temperature and moisture. Theoretical values for parameters describing internal C transformations are used to generate predictions about the distribution of C among slow and rapidly cycling pools. Potential levels of contemporary C inputs are derived from a previously published primary production model for Antarctic cryptobiotic communities. Simulations (100 y) run under average climate conditions indicated initially high rates of C turnover with mean residence times of 20-50 y followed by equilibration of soil organic C at 25% to 80% of initial standing stocks. The model is very sensitive to temperature resulting from the high Q10 values calculated from the 120 d incubations; hence steady state soil C levels are determined largely by regional differences in climate. Sensitivity analyses indicated that steady state C levels are also very responsive to variation in simulated primary production, microbial efficiency, the distribution of C into labile and recalcitrant pools, and soil moisture. Model simulations run under recently observed climate suggest that C dynamics are

  16. Antarctica as a Martian model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, W. V.; Mainzer, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a survey of a variety of environments in the dry valleys of Antarctica, ranging from mountain crests to valley floors. The main purpose of the investigation was the determination of active microbial multiplication in the soil. A series of techniques was employed which permitted the detection of bacterial growth in situ. All evidence points to an active growth of micro-organisms in the Antarctic soil in all locations examined. The measurements were supported by electron micrographs of soil films which showed colonial growth covering soil particles. These findings suggest that Antarctica does not serve as a useful model for the Martian environment in evaluating quarantine standards.

  17. Micromorphological features of the fine earth and skeletal fractions of soils of West Antarctica in the areas of Russian Antarctic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E. V.; Gagarina, E. I.; Sapega, V. F.; Vlasov, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    Micromorphological features of the fine earth and skeletal fractions of soils of West Antarctica forming under different conditions of pedogenesis have been studied in the areas of Russian Antarctic stations. The processes of mineral weathering and alteration of rock fragments are more pronounced in the Subantarctic soils with better developed humification and immobilization of iron compounds under conditions of surface overmoistening. The biogenic accumulative processes in the soils of King George Island result in the appearance of initial forms of humic plasma that have not been detected in the Antarctic soils in the areas of the Russkaya and Leningradskaya stations. Humus films on mineral grains are present in the soils of King George Island, and organic plasmic material is present in the ornithogenic soils under penguin guano on Lindsey Island. High-latitude Antarctic soils may contain surface concentrations of organic matter; rock fragments are covered by iron oxides and soluble salts. The formation of amorphous organic plasma takes place in the ornithogenic soils of Lindsey Island. The microprobe analysis indicates the presence of local concentrations of organic matter and pedogenic compounds not only on the surface of rock fragments but also in the fissures inside them. This analysis has also proved the translocation of guano-derived organic substances inside rock fragments through a system of fissures in the soils of Lindsey Island and the development of a network of pores inside rock fragments in the soils of King George Island.

  18. Characterization of bacterial communities in lithobionts and soil niches from Victoria Valley, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Marc W; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Cary, Stephen C; Cowan, Don A

    2016-04-01

    Here we provide the first exploration of microbial diversity from three distinct Victoria Valley edaphic habitats, namely lithobionts (hypoliths, endoliths) and surface soils. Using a combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing we assess community structure and diversity patterns, respectively. Our analysis revealed that habitat type (endolithic versus hypolithic versus surface soils) significantly influenced bacterial community composition, even though dominant phyla such as Actinobacteria (41% of total reads) were common to all samples. Consistent with previous surveys in other Dry Valley ecosystems, we found that lithobionts were colonized by a few highly dominant phylotypes (such asGemmatimonasandLeptolyngbya). Our analyses also show that soil bacteria were more diverse and evenly distributed than initially expected based on previous evidence. In contrast to total bacteria, the distribution of Cyanobacteria was not strongly influenced by habitat type, although soil- and endolith-specific cyanobacterial lineages were found. The detection of cyanobacterial lineages in these habitats appears to be influenced by the dispersal of aquatic inocula from lacustrine communities or benthic mats which are abundant in Victoria Valley. Together, our results provide insights into the phylogenetic variation and community structure across niche habitats in Victoria Valley. PMID:26946500

  19. Use of Radiolabelled Thymidine and Leucine To Estimate Bacterial Production in Soils from Continental Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Tibbles, B. J.; Harris, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Tritiated thymidine incorporation (TTI) into DNA was used to examine bacterial production in two soil types from the Robertskollen group of nunataks in northwestern Dronning Maud Land, providing the first estimates of bacterial production in soil habitats on the Antarctic continent. Although estimates of bacterial productivity in soils near to bird nests (344 (plusmn) 422 ng of C g [dry weight](sup-1) h(sup-1)) were higher than those for soils from beneath mosses (175 (plusmn) 90 ng of C g [dry weight](sup-1) h(sup-1); measured by TTI at 10(deg)C), these differences were not significant because of patchiness of bacterial activity (P > 0.05). TTI- and [(sup14)C]leucine ([(sup14)C]Leu)-derived estimates of bacterial production were similar when incubations of 3 h were used, although incubations as short as 1 h were sufficient for measurable uptake of radiolabel. Dual-label incorporation of [(sup3)H]thymidine ([(sup3)H]TdR) into DNA and [(sup14)C]Leu into protein indicated that TTI did not reflect bacterial production of in situ assemblages when incubations were longer than 3 h. Isotope dilution analysis indicated that dilution of the specific activity of exogenously supplied [(sup3)H]TdR by de novo synthesis of TdR precursor could be limited by additions of [(sup3)H]TdR at a concentration of 1 nmol per ca. 115 mg of soil. TTI exhibited a psychrotrophic response to variation in temperature, with a temperature optimum of ca. 15(deg)C and a Q(inf10) value for 0 to 10(deg)C of 2.41. PMID:16535246

  20. Microbial Community Responses to Increased Water and Organic Matter in the Arid Soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Heather N; Winter, Ara S; Van Horn, David J; Barrett, John E; Gooseff, Michael N; Schwartz, Egbert; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2016-01-01

    The soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are an extreme polar desert, inhabited exclusively by microscopic taxa. This region is on the threshold of anticipated climate change, with glacial melt, permafrost thaw, and the melting of massive buried ice increasing liquid water availability and mobilizing soil nutrients. Experimental water and organic matter (OM) amendments were applied to investigate how these climate change effects may impact the soil communities. To identify active taxa and their functions, total community RNA transcripts were sequenced and annotated, and amended soils were compared with unamended control soils using differential abundance and expression analyses. Overall, taxonomic diversity declined with amendments of water and OM. The domain Bacteria increased with both amendments while Eukaryota declined from 38% of all taxa in control soils to 8 and 11% in water and OM amended soils, respectively. Among bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria (59%) dominated water-amended soils and Firmicutes (45%) dominated OM amended soils. Three bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes) were primarily responsible for the observed positive functional responses, while eukaryotic taxa experienced the majority (27 of 34) of significant transcript losses. These results indicated that as climate changes in this region, a replacement of endemic taxa adapted to dry, oligotrophic conditions by generalist, copiotrophic taxa is likely. PMID:27486436

  1. Microbial Community Responses to Increased Water and Organic Matter in the Arid Soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Buelow, Heather N.; Winter, Ara S.; Van Horn, David J.; Barrett, John E.; Gooseff, Michael N.; Schwartz, Egbert; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.

    2016-01-01

    The soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are an extreme polar desert, inhabited exclusively by microscopic taxa. This region is on the threshold of anticipated climate change, with glacial melt, permafrost thaw, and the melting of massive buried ice increasing liquid water availability and mobilizing soil nutrients. Experimental water and organic matter (OM) amendments were applied to investigate how these climate change effects may impact the soil communities. To identify active taxa and their functions, total community RNA transcripts were sequenced and annotated, and amended soils were compared with unamended control soils using differential abundance and expression analyses. Overall, taxonomic diversity declined with amendments of water and OM. The domain Bacteria increased with both amendments while Eukaryota declined from 38% of all taxa in control soils to 8 and 11% in water and OM amended soils, respectively. Among bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria (59%) dominated water-amended soils and Firmicutes (45%) dominated OM amended soils. Three bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes) were primarily responsible for the observed positive functional responses, while eukaryotic taxa experienced the majority (27 of 34) of significant transcript losses. These results indicated that as climate changes in this region, a replacement of endemic taxa adapted to dry, oligotrophic conditions by generalist, copiotrophic taxa is likely. PMID:27486436

  2. Post-fire runoff and soil (fertility) losses in long-unburnt vs. repeatedly-burnt Maritime Pine stands, north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Buchspies, Ben; Maia, Paula; Martins, Martinho; Varandas, Daniela; Geissen, Violette; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsem, Coen; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Whilst wildfires are a natural phenomenon in Mediterranean climate regions and a key evolutionary and ecological factor in several of its ecosystems, there are widespread concerns about the resilience of even these fire-adapted ecosystems under present-day fire regimes. The role of repeated wildfires in land degradation, however, has not been extensively studied. The EU-funded CASCADE project addresses this research gap in the study case in Portugal, assessing whether repeated wildfires in Maritime Pine stands lead to land degradation through a gradual process or, instead, through tipping-points in plant-water-soil relationships. In the present study, focus is on the indirect effects of (repeated) wildfires, due to fire-enhanced overland flow generation and the associated losses of sediments, organic matter and nutrients (N and P). Following a large wildfire in early September 2013, affecting roughly 3000 ha in the municipality of Viseu, six Maritime Pine stands were selected within the burnt area. According to the available burnt-area maps, covering the period 1975-2011, three of these sites were unburnt for over 35 years, whereas the other three sites had burnt three more times before 2012. At each of these sites, two pairs of micro-plots of approximately 0.25 m2 were installed as soon as possible after the wildfire, albeit not before the first two post-fire rainfall events, whilst a third pair was installed several weeks later. The first two plot pairs were installed halfway the upper and lower halves of the slope, the third pair in between. The paired-plot design was chosen to compare the hydrological and erosion response for two adjacent patches with contrasting post-fire vegetation recovery processes, i.e. through re-sprouting (by the shrub Pterospartum tridentatum) and by germination. Since the installation of the plots, runoff has been measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on rainfall, and samples taken for laboratory analysis of sediment and

  3. Bacterial community composition in relation to bedrock type and macrobiota in soils from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, Bjorn; Verleyen, Elie; Sweetlove, Maxime; D'hondt, Sofie; Clercx, Pia; Van Ranst, Eric; Peeters, Karolien; Roberts, Stephen; Namsaraev, Zorigto; Wilmotte, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Willems, Anne

    2016-09-01

    Antarctic soils are known to be oligotrophic and of having low buffering capacities. It is expected that this is particularly the case for inland high-altitude regions. We hypothesized that the bedrock type and the presence of macrobiota in these soils enforce a high selective pressure on their bacterial communities. To test this, we analyzed the bacterial community structure in 52 soil samples from the western Sør Rondane Mountains (Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica), using the Illumina MiSeq platform in combination with ARISA fingerprinting. The samples were taken along broad environmental gradients in an area covering nearly 1000 km(2) Ordination and variation partitioning analyses revealed that the total organic carbon content was the most significant variable in structuring the bacterial communities, followed by pH, electric conductivity, bedrock type and the moisture content, while spatial distance was of relatively minor importance. Acidobacteria (Chloracidobacteria) and Actinobacteria (Actinomycetales) dominated gneiss derived mineral soil samples, while Proteobacteria (Sphingomonadaceae), Cyanobacteria, Armatimonadetes and candidate division FBP-dominated soil samples with a high total organic carbon content that were mainly situated on granite derived bedrock. PMID:27402710

  4. Teaching America's Maritime Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzman, Ray

    1977-01-01

    The author recommends that social studies curricula include study of American maritime heritage. He describes aspects of the heritage, such as commercial trade and water sports; suggests topics for mini-units, such as marine careers; and presents an annotated bibliography of 56 resources for teaching about maritime activities. (AV)

  5. Abbreviations in Maritime English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomena that more and more abbreviations occur in maritime English correspondences, the composing laws of the abbreviations in maritime English correspondence are analyzed, and the correct methods to answer the abbreviations are pointed out, and the translation method of abbreviations are summarized in this article, and the…

  6. Ground ice recharge via brine transport in frozen soils of Victoria Valley, Antarctica: Insights from modeling δ 18O and δD profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Birgit; Sletten, Ronald S.; Hallet, Bernard; McTigue, David F.; Steig, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica contain ice and considerable amounts of salt. Ice often occurs at shallow depth throughout the Dry Valleys and other areas of hyperarid permafrost, notably on Mars. This common occurrence of shallow ice is enigmatic; however, since according to published sublimation models it should disappear relatively quickly (at rates of order 0.1 mm a -1) due to vapor loss to the atmosphere. This loss may be offset by recharge from snowmelt infiltrating and freezing in the soil. Herein, we present a first quantitative estimate of this recharge based on measured vertical profiles of δD and δ 18O that reveal considerable detail about the sources and sinks of ice. We model these profiles, taking into account the salt content and a soil temperature record along a 1.6 m depth profile of ˜10 ka old ice-cemented soils in Victoria Valley, Antarctica. The stable isotopes of ice are enriched in heavy isotopes at the top of the ice cement (20 cm depth); both δD and δ 18O values plotted against depth exhibit a concave upward curve. At depth, the isotope composition is similar to that of Lake Victoria and modern meteoric water. The concave shape of the isotope profile is suggestive of downward advection-dispersion of snowmelt water enriched in heavy isotopes into the ice cement. Our advection-dispersion model, coupled with field data, enables us to quantify the advective flux and dispersion of melt water into the ice. The advective velocity and dispersion coefficient depend on the time since advection began and the ice-to-brine ratio; they are, respectively, of the order of 10 -11-10 -10 m s -1 and 10 -12-10 -11 m 2 s -1. These values suggest that over the ˜10 ka time period, a total of 190 mm water infiltrated into the ice-cemented ground. The isotope composition and deuterium excess values of the uppermost ice cement can be modeled from snowmelt water enriched in salts using open system-Rayleigh fractionation. To develop the isotopic

  7. Elsevier's maritime dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Bakr, M.

    1987-01-01

    This is a dictionary for terms relating to maritime activities, and provides the terminology in three international languages. It also provides maritime terminology in Arabic. The dictionary covers the most recent terms used in satellite navigation and telecommunication. Its other topics include: acoustics, insurance, containers, cargo, bulk chemicals, carriage of dangerous goods, chemistry, radiocommunication, economics, electricity, environment, finance, fire protection, fishing vessels, hydrography, legal matters, meteorology, navigation, optics, pollution, radars, satellites, shipbuilding, stability, mechanics, and life-saving appliances.

  8. Soils of wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases (Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergelov, N. S.

    2014-09-01

    The properties and spatial distribution of soils and soil-like bodies in valleys of the coastal Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases—poorly investigated in terms of the soil areas of East Antarctica—are discussed. In contrast to Dry Valleys—large continental oases of Western Antarctica—the studied territory is characterized by the presence of temporarily waterlogged sites in the valleys. It is argued that the deficit of water rather than the low temperature is the major limiting factor for the development of living organisms and the pedogenesis on loose substrates. The moisture gradients in the surface soil horizons explain the spatial distribution of the different soils and biotic complexes within the studied valleys. Despite the permanent water-logging of the deep suprapermafrost horizons of most of the soils in the valleys, no gley features have been identified in them. The soils of the wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills oasis do not contain carbonates. They have a slightly acid or neutral reaction. The organic carbon and nitrogen contents are mainly controlled by the amount of living and dead biomass rather than by the humic substances proper. The larger part of the biomass is concentrated inside the mineral soil matrix rather than on the soil surface. The stresses caused by surface drying, strong winds, and ultraviolet radiation prevent the development of organisms on the surface of the soil and necessitate the search for shelter within the soil fine earth material (endoedaphic niche) or under the gravelly pavement (hypolithic niche). In the absence of higher plants, humified products of their decomposition, and rainwater that can wash the soil profile and upon the low content of silt and clay particles in the soil material, "classical" soil horizons are not developed. The most distinct (and, often, the only diagnosed) products of pedogenesis in these soils are represented by organomineral films on the surface of mineral particles.

  9. Maritime security laboratory for maritime security research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunin, Barry J.; Sutin, Alexander; Bruno, Michael S.

    2007-04-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology has established a new Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) to facilitate advances in methods and technologies relevant to maritime security. MSL is designed to enable system-level experiments and data-driven modeling in the complex environment of an urban tidal estuary. The initial focus of the laboratory is on the threats posed by divers and small craft with hostile intent. The laboratory is, however, evolvable to future threats as yet unidentified. Initially, the laboratory utilizes acoustic, environmental, and video sensors deployed in and around the Hudson River estuary. Experimental data associated with boats and SCUBA divers are collected on a computer deployed on board a boat specifically designed and equipped for these experiments and are remotely transferred to a Visualization Center on campus. Early experiments utilizing this laboratory have gathered data to characterize the relevant parameters of the estuary, acoustic signals produced by divers, and water and air traffic. Hydrophones were deployed to collect data to enable the development of passive acoustic methodologies for maximizing SCUBA diver detection distance. Initial results involving characteristics of the estuary, acoustic signatures of divers, ambient acoustic noise in an urban estuary, and transmission loss of acoustic signals in a wide frequency band are presented. These results can also be used for the characterization of abnormal traffic and improvement of underwater communication in a shallow water estuary.

  10. Marine and maritime uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Activities related to: (1) understanding, controlling, and using the ocean's biological and physical processes for food and energy production and ship design purposes, and (2) providing navigation, communication, and data transmission technological aids which improve efficiency and enhance safety in maritime operations are disclosed.

  11. Maritime Lien Reform Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Young, Don [R-AK-At Large

    2011-03-17

    03/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2838, which became Public Law 112-213 on 12/20/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Soil temperatures and stability of ice-cemented ground in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C.; Mellon, M. T.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1998-01-01

    Year-round temperature measurements at 1600 m elevation during 1994 in the Asgard Range Antarctica, indicate that the mean annual frost point of the ice-cemented ground, 25 cm below the surface, is -21.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C and the mean annual frost point of the atmosphere is -27.5 +/- 1.0 degrees C. The corresponding mean annual temperatures are -24.9 degrees C and -23.3 degrees C. These results imply that there is a net flux of water vapour from the ice to the atmosphere resulting in a recession of the ice-cemented ground by about 0.4-0.6 mm yr-1. The level of the ice-cemented permafrost is about 12 cm below the level of dry permafrost. The summer air temperatures would have to increase about 7 degrees C for thawing temperatures to just reach the top of the subsurface ice. Either subsurface ice at this location is evaporating over time or there are sporadic processes that recharge the ice and maintain equilibrium over long timescales.

  13. Characterizing spatiotemporal dynamics of wetted soils across a polar desert landscape, McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Z. L.; Gooseff, M. N.; Lampkin, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys is a landscape characterized by open expanses of bare soils, alpine and piedmont glaciers, and ice-covered lakes on the valley floors, all underlain by permafrost. There is contemporary evidence of changes to the near-surface hydrology of the Dry Valleys as extensive wet soil patches are being observed extensively throughout the valleys. The availability and movement of water across this landscape may drive important shifts in the interactions among meteorology, hydrology and biogeochemical processes. Wetted soils are generally found adjacent to streams and lakes, but have also been observed far from lake shorelines and channels. The relative contributions of water to the development of wetted zones from glaciers, ablated snow patches and melted permafrost has not been established. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of retrieved near surface soil moisture using high resolution optical data from Quickbird and Wordview satellites to document the occurrence, dimensions, and growth of wet spots during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 austral summers over Taylor Valley. The patterns on the distributed estimates of soil moisture are extracted from the satellite imagery based on an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN utilizes a spectral library of representative surface types and states. The library was derived from measurements of in situ reflectance of soil moisture during the 2011 austral season, using a portable radiometer.

  14. Maritime in transit care.

    PubMed

    Bott, G; Barnard, J; Prior, K

    2015-01-01

    Operation GRITROCK saw the first operational deployment of the Maritime In Transit Care team from the Role 2 (Enhanced) (R2(E)) Medical Treatment Facility, which is able to provide Damage Control Surgery and the limited holding of patients, situated on board RFA ARGUS. Whilst the Medical Emergency Response Team demonstrated the capability of advanced military Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) on Op HERRICK, the need to provide a similar high level of care on contingency operations was recognised. Op GRITROCK allowed for the continued exploration of a maritime capability from an established R2(E) platform whilst providing medical evacuation capability for a significant population at risk distributed over a large Joint Operation Area. Although the patient load during the operation was low, key lessons were learnt and opportunities identified to further develop the newly recognised sub-speciality of PHEC, both medically and logistically, and these will be discussed in this article. PMID:26867404

  15. Antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal activities of fungal communities present in different substrates from Antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antarctica is a pristine and extreme environment that represents a unique opportunity for taxonomic, ecological and biotechnological studies of the microorganisms. In the present work, the fungal communities of rhizosphere soil of Deschampsia antarctica, soil, ornithogenic soil, marine and lake sedi...

  16. Soil water stress affects both cuticular wax content and cuticle-related gene expression in young saplings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cuticle is a hydrophobic barrier located at the aerial surface of all terrestrial plants. Recent studies performed on model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have suggested that the cuticle may be involved in drought stress adaptation, preventing non-stomatal water loss. Although forest trees will face more intense drought stresses (in duration and intensity) with global warming, very few studies on the role of the cuticle in drought stress adaptation in these long-lived organisms have been so far reported. Results This aspect was investigated in a conifer, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), in a factorial design with two genetic units (two half-sib families with different growth rates) and two treatments (irrigated vs non-irrigated), in field conditions. Saplings were grown in an open-sided greenhouse and half were irrigated three times per week for two growing seasons. Needles were sampled three times per year for cuticular wax (composition and content) and transcriptome (of 11 genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis) analysis. Non-irrigated saplings (i) had a higher cuticular wax content than irrigated saplings and (ii) overexpressed most of the genes studied. Both these trends were more marked in the faster growing family. Conclusions The higher cuticular wax content observed in the non-irrigated treatment associated with strong modifications in products from the decarbonylation pathway suggest that cuticular wax may be involved in drought stress adaptation in maritime pine. This study provides also a set of promising candidate genes for future forward genetic studies in conifers. PMID:23815794

  17. 76 FR 67604 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission or FCC) addresses a number of issues pertaining to the Maritime Radio Services that were raised in the Third Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Third FNPRM), and amends its rules accordingly. The decisions adopted by the Commission herein advance the key objectives underlying this proceeding, which are to promote maritime......

  18. Soils of Sub-Antarctic tundras: diversity and basic chemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Vlasov, Dmitry; Mukhametova, Nadezhda

    2014-05-01

    Antarctic peninsula is known as specific part of Antarctica, which is characterizes by humid and relatively warm climate of so-called sub Antarctic (maritime) zone. Annual precipitation and long above zero period provides the possibility of sustainable tundra's ecosystem formation. Therefore, the soil diversity of these tundra landscapes is maximal in the whole Antarctic. Moreover, the thickness of parent material debris's is also highest and achieves a 1 or 2 meters as highest. The presence of higher vascular plants Deshampsia antarctica which is considered as one of the main edificators provides the development of humus accumulation in upper solum. Penguins activity provides an intensive soil fertilization and development of plant communities with increased density. All these factors leads to formation of specific and quite diverse soil cover in sub Antarctic tundra's. These ecosystems are presented by following permafrost affected soils: Leptosols, Lithoosols, Crysols, Gleysols, Peats and Ornhitosols. Also the post Ornhitosols are widely spreaded in subantarcic ecosystems, they forms on the penguin rockeries during the plant succession development, leaching of nutrients and organic matter mineralization. "Amphibious" soils are specific for seasonal lakes, which evaporates in the end if Australian summer. These soils have specific features of bio sediments and soils as well. Soil chemical characteristic as well as organic matter features discussed in comparison with Antacrtic continental soil in presentation.

  19. Bringing Antarctica Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constible, Juanita; Williams, Lauren; Faure, Jaime; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of the amazing creatures of Antarctica, an insect probably does not come to mind. But this unlikely animal, and a scientific expedition to Antarctica, was the foundation for a learning event that created a community of learners spanning kindergarten through sixth grade and extended beyond the classroom. Miami University's Antarctic…

  20. Maritime infrared background clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.

    1996-06-01

    The detection of small targets in maritime infrared surveillance is hampered by the presence of clutter. Sea surface structure, reflection and emission changes related to incident angle variations and surface effects are standard features governing the clutter behavior. Also special effects as sun glint and horizon effects play an important role for clutter. In order to optimize the detection process, quantitative clutter estimates are of use for filter settings. We have recorded a large amount of infrared backgrounds in the last few years, during common NATO trials. A large amount of different meteorological conditions took place during the various experiments. A first set of these data have been analyzed to obtain statistical data that represent the infrared scene. We have derived vertical temperature profiles, vertical fluctuation profiles, horizontal correlation coefficients and temporal correlation functions. In this paper we present the first analysis of these data. We are in the process of obtaining a condensed database of information to regenerate clutter images from bulk meteo parameters, and clutter parameters. The clutter and meteo parameters have been used to simulate various infrared scenes. Examples of this simulation process are shown in the presentation. The simulated images are statistically similar to the original images that were used to derive the parameters. A description of the image- generation is presented. Future expansions of the model are discussed.

  1. Sounding rockets in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, G. C.; Cooper, G. W.; Peterson, N. E.

    1982-01-01

    Sounding rockets are versatile tools for scientists studying the atmospheric region which is located above balloon altitudes but below orbital satellite altitudes. Three NASA Nike-Tomahawk sounding rockets were launched from Siple Station in Antarctica in an upper atmosphere physics experiment in the austral summer of 1980-81. The 110 kg payloads were carried to 200 km apogee altitudes in a coordinated project with Arcas rocket payloads and instrumented balloons. This Siple Station Expedition demonstrated the feasibility of launching large, near 1,000 kg, rocket systems from research stations in Antarctica. The remoteness of research stations in Antarctica and the severe environment are major considerations in planning rocket launching expeditions.

  2. Cryosols Formation and classification in the semiarid Antarctica: the Weddel Sea sector of northern Seymour Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjorup, Davi; Schaefer, Carlos; Francelino, Marcio

    2015-04-01

    The Seymour Island is located in the northern sector of the Weddell Sea zone, at the Antarctic Peninsular area, representing a transitional zone between Maritime and Continental Antarctica, with a subpolar, semiarid climate. The Seymour Island is predominantly composed by marine sedimentary rocks of Cretaceus to Eocene age. The aims of this work were to study the chemical, physical, mineralogical and morphological attributes of a selected, representative toposequence of soils at the northern sector of Seymour Island. Soil formation processes and taxonomical implications were discussed. Nine soil profiles were described, collected and analysed, following a toposequence according to different parent materials and landforms. Samples were subjected to textural analysis, routine chemical analysis, chemical extractions by ammonium oxalate and CBD, as well as X ray diffraction. Permafrost is continuous and widespread, generally at depths of less than 100 cm, so the Gelisols order (Soil Taxonomy), or Cryosols (WRB), are the dominant soils. Cryoturbation and organic matter accumulation were not observed. Soils were separated into two groups: acid-sulphate soils and alkaline soils, unaffected by sulphates. The first are the best developed in the study area, meaning a significant physico-chemical and mineralogical alteration. Low pH and high Al saturation and potential acidity are typical. This accounts for primary mineral dissolution, and its absence in the clay fraction. Secondary minerals are those related to sulphide oxidation: soluble and insoluble sulphates, low crystalline Fe-hydroxides and little crystalline Fe phases. The peculiar yellowish colour of these soils are attributed to the presence of Fe-oxides and Jarosite. The presence of 2:1 clays (smectite and illite) in the Clay fraction despite the acidity is due to low leaching. The alkaline soils, non affected by sulphates do not showed any marked weathering or transformation, with high pH, low potential acidity

  3. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, P.D.; Williams, P.L.; Pride, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Metallic and nonmetallic mineral occurrences are abundant in Antarctica. The most significant known deposits are of iron, copper, and coal. In the Precambrian shield of East Antarctica, for example, iron is present as banded iron-formation and as magnetite in veins, pods, and schist. The largest deposits of iron are in the Prince Charles Mountains, where bodies of banded iron-formation at least as thick as 400 m extend, mostly under the ice for at least 120 km. Widely scattered morainal boulders and outcrops of iron-rich rock suggest that undiscovered iron deposits are also distributed over many other parts of East Antarctica. Gondwana reconstructions suggest that many more mineral deposits occur in Antarctica. However, ice covers nearly 98 percent of the continent, and few of the bedrock areas have even been prospected or geologically, geophysically, or geochemically mapped in detail.

  4. Antarctica: up for grabs

    SciTech Connect

    Shapley, D.

    1982-11-01

    Antarctica is viewed as a special area, requiring meticulous diplomacy to develop international agreements for exploiting its resources. Little exploration has been accomplished, but oil, gas, and marine krill resources are protected by a 14-nation treaty dating from 1961. The treaty fixed national claims on specific territories and launched scientific activities that reflect national interests. Studies of meteorology, climatology, oceanography, upper-atmospheric physics, and territorial biology have revealed Antarctica's resource potential for krill, minerals, and even ice. 4 figures. (DCK)

  5. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

  6. Documenting Maritime Folklife: An Introductory Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David A.

    This booklet has two main purposes: (1) to promote understanding of maritime cultural heritage; and (2) to provide an introduction to the methods for identifying and documenting common maritime traditions. The guide is intended for non-professional researchers and community groups who wish to explore their own maritime cultural heritage. It also…

  7. America's Maritime Heritage: A Frequently Forgotten Treasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, William Ray

    1978-01-01

    Discusses America's maritime heritage and the importance of the maritime enterprise in American history. Reasons for the nation's current ignorance of the contribution of maritime enterprise to the nation's development are discussed, as are some hopeful signs for the future. (BB)

  8. 75 FR 10692 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Communications Commission published in the Federal Register of February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), a document in the..., 2010 (75 FR 5241) to ensure that its rules governing the Maritime Radio Services continue to promote... (75 FR 5241). In rule FR Doc. 2010-2095 published on February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5241), make the...

  9. 75 FR 5241 - Maritime Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... proceeding, published at 72 FR 31192, June 6, 2007. In the MO&O in WT Docket No. 04-257, the Commission... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 80 Maritime Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  10. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  11. Living and Working in Antarctica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Noel

    This source book, designed for 11- to 14-year-old students, seeks to describe what life is like in Antarctica. In spite of extreme weather conditions, people go to Antarctica to work every summer. Some of them stay there during the winter as well. This book seeks to supply answers to such questions as: How do people get to Antarctica? Why do they…

  12. Geographic names of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Board on Geographic Names; Department of the Interior; Burrill, Meredith F.; Bertrand, Kenneth J.; Alberts, Fred G.

    1956-01-01

    The geographic nomenclature of Antarctica was long in need of an overall systematic treatment, objective in approach and based upon thorough examination of all the evidence. The results of such treatment over a period of about three years were presented in Geographical Names of Antarctica, Special Publication No. 86 of the Board on Geographical Names, in May 1947, two supplements to which were issued in 1949 and 1951. The continuing program since that publication has now covered most of the geographic naming in Antarctica. As research has filled in many of the previous gaps in knowledge, a number of names have been modified and minor amendments have been made in the policies. This revised publication brings together the greatly enlarged body of names officially standardized for use by the United States Government, together with new pertinent background information.

  13. Antarctica, why so Blue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, C.; Williams, Q.; Manners, U.

    2006-12-01

    Are all fast seismic anomalies at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) created alike? Much attention has been paid to the relative variations of seismic wave speeds in slow regions of the lowermost mantle, but there is a wealth of information in the fast anomalies as well. Here we systematically characterize fast regions at the CMB in terms of their shear, compressional, and bulk wave speed anomalies and Poisson's ratio using the largest long-period catalog to date of S, ScS, Sdiff, P, and Pdiff arrival times. The fastest regions at the CMB occur beneath Antarctica, Central America, and eastern Asia. The latter two have been active subduction zones for more than 200 Ma. However, Antarctica is an exception in that subduction has not occurred there in the last 100 Ma. And, during the final stages of subduction, young oceanic lithosphere may be positively buoyant compared to the mantle and not be likely to sink all the way to the CMB. Therefore, the youngest (and thus coldest) material beneath Antarctica near the CMB is around 130 Ma in age. It is puzzling why the region beneath Antarctica would have one of the fastest seismic signals since plate reconstructions indicate that for the last 200 Ma, the greatest volume of material has been subducted under the northern Pacific. However, outside of Antarctica, the strongest fast anomalies at the CMB are geographically coincident with the current pattern of subduction, not that of the distant past. It has been noted that the seismic anomalies at the CMB do not fit those predicted by past plate reconstructions, and this mismatch has been explained in terms of the presence of the thermal boundary layer. Here, we examine thermal and compositional effects that could be produced by the interaction of subducted material with a basal thermal boundary layer, and probe how strong fast anomalies can be produced in both unexpected (Antarctica) and expected regions (eastern Asia), while fast anomalies anticipated elsewhere (northern Pacific

  14. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  15. Getting Antarctica down Cold!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmeier, Kay; Greeson, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Outlines learning activities for applying geography's five fundamental themes to studying Antarctica and points out the learning potential, for studying the economic, historical, and political geography of the continent. Groups activities for grades K-5, 6-8, and 8-12. Stresses cooperative learning in general, and includes a role play activity for…

  16. Married to Antarctica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    1991-01-01

    A novel theory about Earth's ancient history is presented. It is proposed that North America and Antarctica once lay side by side for perhaps as long as a billion years. The importance of these continental connections to geology and other disciplines is discussed. (KR)

  17. Ozone Hole Over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) show the progressive depletion of ozone over Antarctica from 1979 to 1999. This 'ozone hole' has extended to cover an area as large as 10.5 million square miles in September 1998. The previous record of 10.0 million square miles was set in 1996. The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year between late August and early October. Regions with higher levels of ozone are shown in red. NASA and NOAA instruments have been measuring Antarctic ozone levels since the early 1970s. Large regions of depleted ozone began to develop over Antarctica in the early 1980s. Ozone holes of substantial size and depth are likely to continue to form during the next few years, scientists hope to see a reduction in ozone loss as levels of ozone-destroying CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are gradually reduced. Credit: Images by Greg Shirah, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  18. Earth - Antarctica Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of the limb of the Earth, looking north past Antarctica, is a mosaic of 11 images taken during a ten-minute period near 5:45 p.m. PST Dec. 8, 1990, by Galileo's imaging system. Red, green and violet filters were used. The picture spans about 1,600 miles across the south polar latitudes of our planet. The morning day/night terminator is toward the right. The South Pole is out of sight below the picture; the visible areas of Antarctica are those lying generally south of South America. The violet-blue envelope of Earth's atmosphere is prominent along the limb to the left. At lower left, the dark blue Amundsen Sea lies to the left of the Walgreen and Bakutis Coasts. Beyond it, Peter Island reacts with the winds to produce a striking pattern of atmospheric waves.

  19. Permafrost warming and vegetation changes in continental Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmin, Mauro; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Cannone, Nicoletta

    2014-04-01

    Continental Antarctica represents the last pristine environment on Earth and is one of the most suitable contexts to analyze the relations between climate, active layer and vegetation. In 2000 we started long-term monitoring of the climate, permafrost, active layer and vegetation in Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. Our data confirm the stability of mean annual and summer air temperature, of snow cover, and an increasing trend of summer incoming short wave radiation. The active layer thickness is increasing at a rate of 0.3 cm y-1. The active layer is characterized by large annual and spatial differences. The latter are due to scarce vegetation, a patchy and very thin organic layer and large spatial differences in snow accumulation. The active layer thickening, probably due to the increase of incoming short wave radiation, produced a general decrease of the ground water content due to the better drainage of the ground. The resultant drying may be responsible for the decline of mosses in xeric sites, while it provided better conditions for mosses in hydric sites, following the species-specific water requirements. An increase of lichen vegetation was observed where the climate drying occurred. This evidence emphasizes that the Antarctic continent is experiencing changes that are in total contrast to the changes reported from maritime Antarctica.

  20. Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The continent of Antarctica is almost completely covered by a thick blanket of ice, punctuated only by steep mountain peaks and a handful of dry valleys. Antarctica is also ringed by a permanent ice shelf, and that is surrounded by seasonal sea ice. The image above, acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on September 26, 2001, shows many of the types of ice found in Antarctica. At the bottom of the image is the ice of the continental glacier, which is up to 4,000 meters thick in the interior. These thick glaciers are held in place by coastal mountain ranges. Some ice does flow through the mountains, spilling onto the relatively flat land of the Princess Astrid Coast. Cold air also spills over the mountains, creating very strong and persistent 'katabatic' winds. These scour the snow off the tops of the glaciers, leaving pale blue patches of bare ice. Above the coastline is the ice shelf, which is much smoother. There, glacial ice actually floats on the sea surface. Beyond that is the chaotic surface of the sea ice, which has been solidifying all winter long. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  1. 75 FR 71721 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their application for membership, to the...-7324. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security...

  2. On English Teaching in Maritime Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jiang; Wang, Honggui

    2011-01-01

    According to English level of Chinese ocean sailors at present, we analyze the characteristics and instruction needs of navigation English and point out current English teaching in maritime specialty has many problems. Traditional teaching modes are not suitable for modern maritime needs any longer. So we propose feasible methods and…

  3. The National Maritime College of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greville, Eamonn

    2005-01-01

    The new National Maritime College of Ireland is regarded as the country's most exciting and innovative development in maritime training and education and is the first tertiary institution to be built and operated under the government's Public Private Partnership (PPP) model of procurement. The project is the outcome of a partnership between Cork…

  4. Some Features of Maritime Telex Service Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Barry

    1995-01-01

    This article analyzes four categories of English-language maritime telex service communication: (1) standard, system- generated messages; (2) standard procedures for transmitting messages; (3) nonstandard messages related to maritime mobile radio service (MMRS); and (4) nonstandard messages related to the organization, procedures, or equipment of…

  5. 78 FR 31809 - National Maritime Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-12649 Filed 5-23-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... May 24, 2013 Part VI The President Proclamation 8985--National Maritime Day, 2013 Executive Order... President ] Proclamation 8985 of May 21, 2013 National Maritime Day, 2013 By the President of the...

  6. 77 FR 31479 - National Maritime Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13005 Filed 5-24-12; 11:15 am... May 25, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8828--National Maritime Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8828 of May 22, 2012 National Maritime...

  7. 76 FR 29989 - National Maritime Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8678 of May 18, 2011 National Maritime Day... Maritime Day, we honor their invaluable contributions to America's economic strength and security. On...

  8. 75 FR 29395 - National Maritime Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8526 of May 20, 2010 National Maritime Day, 2010 By the President of the... times of peace and war alike. On National Maritime Day, we recognize the men and women of the...

  9. Informal STEM Education in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chell, K.

    2010-12-01

    Tourism in Antarctica has increased dramatically with tens of thousands of tourists visiting the White Continent each year. Tourism cruises to Antarctica offer a unique educational experience for lay people through informal science-technology-engineering-mathematics (STEM) education. Passengers attend numerous scientific lectures that cover topics such as the geology of Antarctica, plate tectonics, glaciology, and climate change. Furthermore, tourists experience the geology and glaciology first hand during shore excursions. Currently, the grand challenges facing our global society are closely connected to the Earth sciences. Issues such as energy, climate change, water security, and natural hazards, are consistently on the legislative docket of policymakers around the world. However, the majority of the world’s population is uninformed about the role Earth sciences play in their everyday lives. Tourism in Antarctica provides opportunities for informal STEM learning and, as a result, tourists leave with a better understanding and greater appreciation for both Antarctica and Earth sciences.

  10. How isolated is Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Barnes, David K A; Hodgson, Dominic A

    2005-01-01

    The traditional view of Antarctica and the surrounding Southern Ocean as an isolated system is now being challenged by the recent discovery at the Antarctic Peninsula of adult spider crabs Hyas areneus from the North Atlantic and of larvae of subpolar marine invertebrates. These observations question whether the well described biogeographical similarities between the benthic fauna of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Magellan region of South America result from history (the two regions were once contiguous), or from a previously unrecognized low level of faunal exchange. Such exchange might be influenced by regional climate change, and also exacerbated by changes in human impact. PMID:16701330

  11. Hovercraft experience in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Harvey C.

    The Model 1500 TD air-cushion vehicle (ACV) has been modified for the extreme conditions encountered in Antarctic operations; these operations began in the 1988-1989 austral summer. Performance evaluations covering 300 hours of engine operations have been obtained which demonstrate the basic soundness of this ACV's design and construction, and its applicability to Antarctic operations, where it was able to reduce travel time and fuel consumption in excess of 40 percent. In addition, passenger comfort was increased manyfold over wheeled and tracked vehicles for comparable missions. The ACV is judged capable of solving many of the transportation problems experienced in Antarctica.

  12. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count

  13. Information Services of Maritime Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stefanov, Asen

    2015-04-01

    The ultimate goal of modern oceanography is an end user oriented product. Beneficiaries are the governmental services, coast-based enterprises and research institutions that make use of the products generated by operational oceanography. Direct potential users and customers are coastal managers, shipping, offshore industry, ports and harbours, fishing, tourism and recreation industry, and scientific community. Indirect beneficiaries, through climate forecasting based on ocean observations, are food, energy, water and medical suppliers. Five general classes of users for data and information are specified: (1) operational users that analyze the collected data and produce different forecasts serving to impose regulation measures; (2) authorities and managers of large-scale projects needing timely oceanographic information, including statistics and climatic trends; (3) industrial enterprises, safety of structures and avoiding of pollution; (4) tourism and recreation related users aiming protection of human health; (5) scientists, engineers, and economists carrying out special researches, strategic design studies, and other investigations to advance the application of marine data. The analysis of information received during the extensive inquiry among all potential end users reveals variety of data and information needs encompassing physical, chemical, biological and hydrometeorological observation. Nevertheless, the common requirement concerns development of observing and forecasting systems providing accurate real-time or near-real time data and information supporting decision making and environmental management. Availability of updated information on the actual state as well as forecast for the future changes of marine environment are essential for the success and safety of maritime operations in the offshore industry. For this purpose different systems have been developed to collect data and to produce forecasts on the state of the marine environment and to provide

  14. America's Forgotten Maritime Heritage: A Bicentennial Treasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzman, William Ray

    1975-01-01

    The contributions of maritime enterprises to the development of America is examined as part of the social studies curriculum for the upcoming Bicentennial. A selective list of resources and an annotated bibliography of materials are included. (JR)

  15. Remote Viewer for Maritime Robotics Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Wolf, Michael; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Howard, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    This software is a viewer program for maritime robotics software that provides a 3D visualization of the boat pose, its position history, ENC (Electrical Nautical Chart) information, camera images, map overlay, and detected tracks.

  16. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  17. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  18. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  19. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  20. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  1. Petroleum geology of western Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Antarctica's geology is mostly obscured by thick, moving ice that covers 95% of the land and continental shelf. Reconnaissance investigations of outcrops, shallow boreholes, and geophysical surveys are limited and peripheral owing to ice coverage. However, it is possible to outline substantial elements of the regional geology. Further insight is gained by comparison to analogous sedimentary provinces, especially provinces once adjoined within the framework of the Gondwana supercontinent until middle Cretaceous. The petroleum potential of Antarctica, as in the case of the other related high-standing Gondwana continental fragments, is in Early Cretaceous rifts associated with the Gondwana breakup and with the Pacific convergence in the west Antarctica back arc. The Pacific-facing western Antarctica includes two structural provinces: (1) the Cretaceous and younger interior rift system on the east side of the Weddell and Ross Sea embayment, which contain aulacogens that form the boundary with East Antarctica and (2) the back-arc and fore-arc basins adjoining the Antarctica Peninsula and extending into Marie Byrd Land and the Bellingshausen Sea which are associated with the eastward convergence of the Pacific plate. The petroleum potential of the rifts may be assessed by analogies with related rifts of Australia, India, and South Africa; assessment of the convergent basins of western Antarctica depends upon analogy with similar basins of South America, New Zealand, and Indonesia. An estimate of the petroleum potential of western Antarctica generally is comparable with oil and gas occurrences (both in overall quantity and in field sizes) in the other Gondwana continental fragments. However, in view of the thict moving ice cover, the remote locale, and severe climate, petroleum production is largely beyond technology at this time and probably is economically unfeasible.

  2. Q fever in maritime Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, T. J.; Haldane, E. V.; Noble, M. A.; Faulkner, R. S.; Lee, S. H.; Gough, D.; Meyers, S.; Stewart, J.

    1982-01-01

    Only nine cases of Q fever were recorded in Canada in the 20 years prior to 1978. In the 18 months from August 1979 to January 1981 the disease was diagnosed serologically in six patients from the Maritime provinces. All were epidemiologically unrelated and none had been exposed to animals. Five had pneumonia and one had chronic Q fever with probable prosthetic valve endocarditis. Three of the five pneumonia patients presented with signs and symptoms of an acute lower respiratory tract infection and were indistinguishable clinically from other patients with atypical pneumonias. The other two with pneumonia presented with nonresolving pulmonary infiltrates and complained of decreased energy. Four of the five pneumonia patients responded well to treatment with erythromycin; the fifth required two courses of tetracycline. The patient with chronic Q fever had a large amount of cryoglobulins in his serum and evidence of immune complex disease. These cases indicate that Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of atypical pneumonia in Canada. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7074457

  3. Alternative fuels for maritime use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to review the potential fuels which may be available to the marine industry from the present to the year 2000 and to define the economic, technical, and environmental/social impacts of these alternative fuels on marine power plants. Thus, this study is aimed at the fuels/prime mover combination. This study should help to guide the industry in choosing the proper power plant for the future - recognizing that a new power plant installed in 1980 will still be in service in the 21st century. The importance of the marine transportation industry and the need to consider alternate fuels are examined. An overview of potential alternate fuels for marine applications is presented, and power plant/fuel interaction is discussed. An in-depth discussion is presented on the impact of the most likely alternate fuels from the viewpoint of maintenance, retrofit capability, safety, and air-quality impacts. Two nonfossil-fuel alternatives sailing ships and nuclear-powered vessels, are discussed. It is concluded that: there is a high probability of using synfuels from tar sands shale, or coal liquids in both existing and future ships; coal and coal/oil slurries have a high probability of use in future ships and medium probability in existing ships; nuclear and sail-power future ships have a medium probability of commercial development; and is a low probability of commercial maritime use of alcohol fuels, methane, or coal/methanol combinations. (LCL)

  4. Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) as a component of AERONET - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents a concept and the current status of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), which has been developed as a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The proposed activity includes deployment of hand-held sunphotometers at sea and measurements from various ships of opportunity. Overall MAN will complement island-based AERONET measurements and will expand AERONET program to acquire additional data over the oceans. Scientific objectives of this kind of activity are primarily climate change studies (direct and indirect forcing); satellite retrievals validation; validation of global aerosol transport model simulations; and atmospheric correction in ocean color studies. MAN deploys Microtops hand-held sunphotometers and utilizes the calibration procedure and data processing (Version 2) traceable to AERONET. A web site (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/maritime_aerosol_network.html) dedicated to the MAN activity is described. A brief historical perspective is given to aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements over the oceans. Accomplished cruises included transects from Northern to Southern Atlantic, from Northern to Southern Pacific, from New Zealand to Japan, measurements in Southern Indian Ocean, in the Tropical Atlantic, along the western coast of South America, near the coast of Antarctica, in the Mediterranean, Arabian, Beafort, Bering, Barents, Greenland Seas and in the Bay of Bengal. First results are presented. MAN ship-based aerosol optical depth compare well to simultaneous island and near-coastal AERONET site AOD. We believe that the Maritime Aerosol Network will provide the scientific community with valuable information on aerosol optical properties over the oceans. Employing simple, standard and commercially available instrumentation, traceable calibration, a scientifically sound processing scheme and easily accessible web-based public data archive, the network has strong growth potential. Expanded spatial coverage will contribute

  5. Advances in permafrost and periglacial research in Antarctica: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmin, Mauro

    2012-06-01

    Recently the research on permafrost, periglacial morphology and processes had a great stimulus especially from the International Polar Year. Permafrost areas of continental Antarctica with its extreme dry and cold environment can be considered an analog of extraterrestrial landscapes like those on Mars, but also preserve much paleoclimatic information of this crucial part of the global climatic system. On the other hand, maritime Antarctica is one of the areas of the world currently affected by the greatest air warming and provides a unique opportunity to understand the impacts of climate change on permafrost and its related ecosystems. Despite the significant recent progress, some gaps on permafrost distribution still remain as the network for permafrost and active layer monitoring needs further enlargement and better standardization. Ground ice, its age and stability over time need further investigation, as well as the role of living organisms on the weathering processes within the cryotic rocks, the landscape evolution of continental Antartica could be improved providing potential implications also for a better understanding and modeling of life and landscape evolution of other planets.

  6. My IGY in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Dr Charles Bentley is the A.P. Crary Professor Emeritus of Geophysics, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Bentley joined the Arctic Institute of North America in 1956 to participate in International Geophysical Year (IGY)-related activities in the Antarctic. He wintered over consecutively in 1957 and 1958 at Byrd Station, a station in the interior of West Antarctica that housed 24 men each winter - 12 Navy support people and 12 civilian scientists/technicians. During the austral summers, he also participated in over-snow traverses, first as co-leader, then leader (the other coleader went home after the first year). These traverses consisted of six men and three vehicles, and lasted several months. These traverses covered more than 1609 kilometers (1000 miles) of largely unmapped and unphotographed terrain. During these traverses, connections to Byrd Station were by radio (daily, when the transmission conditions were good enough) and roughly every 2 weeks by resupply flight.

  7. GOCE and Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Rene

    2015-03-01

    GOCE has mapped the gravity field of the planet with unprecedented accuracy, and will leave a legacy gravity field measurement unmatched for many years to come. GOCE data in Antarctica demonstrate the mapping of significant crustal anomalies and deep subglacial valleys, and give for the first time a unified overlook of the gravitation field north of 83.3°S, and the accuracy and high resolution of GOCE is confirmed by comparison to recent airborne gravity data. A “beauty spot” of the global GOCE gravity field map is, however, the lack of data at the polar gaps, beyond 83.5 latitude. Although GRACE fills the polar gaps at medium to long wavelengths, the crucial wavelength band around harmonic degrees 120-240 will remain unmapped, unless terrestrial data are used. The gravity data coverage of the Arctic is pretty much done, thanks to major US, European and Russian airborne and surface surveys carried out since the early 1990’s. In the Antarctic, however, the situation is the opposite: virtually no surface or airborne data exist in the polar gap; therefore an international effort to fill in this gap by airborne gravity would be timely now, to make the final GOCE legacy gravity field models truly global. It is possible to fill this gap at a sufficient accuracy level in one field season, and plans for doing exactly that in a European-US cooperation 2015/16 are outlined.

  8. Solar Eclipses Observed from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of the solar corona are still best observed during totality of solar eclipses, and other high-resolution observations of coronal active regions can be observed with radio telescopes by differentiation of occultation observations, as we did with the Jansky Very Large Array for the annular solar eclipse of 2012 May 20 in the US. Totality crossing Antarctica included the eclipse of 2003 November 23, and will next occur on 2021 December 4; annularity crossing Antarctica included the eclipse of 2008 February 7, and will next occur on 2014 April 29. Partial phases as high as 87% coverage were visible and were imaged in Antarctica on 2011 November 25, and in addition to partial phases of the total and annular eclipses listed above, partial phases were visible in Antarctica on 2001 July 2011, 2002 December 4, 2004 April 19, 2006 September 22, 2007 September 11, and 2009 January 26, and will be visible on 2015 September 13, 2016 September 1, 2017 February 26, 2018 February 15, and 2020 December 14. On behalf of the Working Group on Solar Eclipses of the IAU, the poster showed the solar eclipses visible from Antarctica and this article shows a subset (see www.eclipses.info for the full set). A variety of investigations of the Sun and of the response of the terrestrial atmosphere and ionosphere to the abrupt solar cutoff can be carried out at the future eclipses, making the Antarctic observations scientifically useful.

  9. Data Quality Assessment for Maritime Situation Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iphar, C.; Napoli, A.; Ray, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) initially designed to ensure maritime security through continuous position reports has been progressively used for many extended objectives. In particular it supports a global monitoring of the maritime domain for various purposes like safety and security but also traffic management, logistics or protection of strategic areas, etc. In this monitoring, data errors, misuse, irregular behaviours at sea, malfeasance mechanisms and bad navigation practices have inevitably emerged either by inattentiveness or voluntary actions in order to circumvent, alter or exploit such a system in the interests of offenders. This paper introduces the AIS system and presents vulnerabilities and data quality assessment for decision making in maritime situational awareness cases. The principles of a novel methodological approach for modelling, analysing and detecting these data errors and falsification are introduced.

  10. The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Peter E.

    1990-08-01

    The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) is discussed with respect to its initial planning, the communication network, and other details, including the fully automated Maritime Safety Information service and the implementation of the whole system. GMDSS is the result of international cooperation over a period of about 10 years and provides the maritime community with an integrated distress and safety communication system which significantly enhances the safety of life and property in the harsh environment of the sea. Probably the most essential element of the GMDSS is the provision of an adequate communication network which will permit ships in need of assistance to notify responsible authorities, discuss the help they need, and allow the search and rescue activities to be coordinated by the most appropriate center.

  11. OCCIMA: Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Steve; Tsintikidis, Dimitri; deGrassie, John; Reinhardt, Colin; McBryde, Kevin; Hallenborg, Eric; Wayne, David; Gibson, Kristofor; Cauble, Galen; Ascencio, Ana; Rudiger, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    The Navy is actively developing diverse optical application areas, including high-energy laser weapons and free- space optical communications, which depend on an accurate and timely knowledge of the state of the atmospheric channel. The Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres (OCCIMA) project is a comprehensive program to coalesce and extend the current capability to characterize the maritime atmosphere for all optical and infrared wavelengths. The program goal is the development of a unified and validated analysis toolbox. The foundational design for this program coordinates the development of sensors, measurement protocols, analytical models, and basic physics necessary to fulfill this goal.

  12. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  13. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  14. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  15. 49 CFR 1.93 - Delegations to the Maritime Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delegations to the Maritime Administrator. 1.93 Section 1.93 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.93 Delegations to the Maritime Administrator. The Maritime Administrator is delegated authority to:...

  16. Language Characteristics and Written Requirements of the Maritime English Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jiang; Zhao, Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the requirements of the maritime English correspondence, the language characteristics of the maritime English correspondence are analyzed in this article, and the factors influencing the written skills of the maritime English correspondence are discussed, and the principles of "7C" including the courtesy, the consideration, the…

  17. 75 FR 38536 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) will meet in Washington, DC to discuss various issues relating to national maritime security. This meeting...

  18. 75 FR 82039 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) will meet in Washington, DC to discuss various issues relating to national maritime security. This meeting...

  19. 75 FR 60133 - Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC); Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC); Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Detroit Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their applications for membership to the...: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-295)...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1069 - Maritime sea areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime sea areas. 80.1069 Section 80.1069 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) General Provisions § 80.1069...

  1. 77 FR 39249 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Boston Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their applications for membership, to the...-223-3008. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security...

  2. 29 CFR 2530.200b-6 - Maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime industry. 2530.200b-6 Section 2530.200b-6 Labor... Provisions § 2530.200b-6 Maritime industry. (a) General. Sections 202(a)(3)(D), 203(b)(2)(D) and 204(b)(3)(E... provisions applicable to the maritime industry. In general, those provisions permit statutory...

  3. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  4. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  5. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters....

  6. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  7. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  8. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410 Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment....

  9. Life and Poverty in the Maritimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Pierre-Yves

    Five areas in the Maritime Provinces of Canada were subjected to intensive geographical, economic, and sociological surveys in an attempt to determine and define poverty illustratively rather than statistically. Information was obtained by in-residence researchers on bio-physical setting, settlement, population, labor and economic activity,…

  10. Opportunities in Marine and Maritime Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Wm. Ray

    This book describes careers related to the sea. The following chapters are included: (1) "The World of Water"; (2) "Cruise Ship Careers"; (3) "Oceanography and the Marine Sciences"; (4) "Fishing"; (5) "Commerical Diving"; (6) "Maritime Transportation"; (7) "Shipbuilding"; (8) "Military Careers Afloat"; (9) "Miscellaneous Marine and Maritime…

  11. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  12. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Description Fact sheet introduces the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) with images from a section of the mosaic over McMurdo Station, descriptions of the four versions of LIMA, where to access and download LIMA, and a brief explanation of the Antarctic Web portal.

  13. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  14. Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements in the Southern Ocean Within the Framework of Maritime Aerosol Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.; Sayer, A. M.; Sakerin, S. M.; Radionov, V. F.; Courcoux, Y.; Broccardo, S. P.; Evangelista, H.; Croot, P. L.; Disterhoft, P.; Piketh, S.; Milinevsky, G. P.; O'Neill, N. T.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol production sources over the World Ocean and various factors determining aerosol spatial and temporal distribution are important for understanding the Earth's radiation budget and aerosol-cloud interactions. The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) as a component of AERONET has been collecting aerosol optical depth data over the oceans since 2006. A significant progress has been made in data acquisition over areas that previously had very little or no coverage. Data collection included intensive study areas in the Southern Ocean and off the coast of Antarctica including a number of circumnavigation cruises in high southern latitudes. It made an important contribution to MAN and provided a valuable reference point in atmospheric aerosol optical studies. The paper presents results of this international and multi-agency effort in studying aerosol optical properties over Southern Ocean and adjacent areas. The ship-borne aerosol optical depth measurements offer an excellent opportunity for comparison with global aerosol transport models, satellite retrievals and provide useful information on aerosol distribution over the World Ocean. A public domain web-based database dedicated to the MAN activity can be found at http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/maritime_aerosol_network.html.

  15. Cryoprotective dehydration and the resistance to inoculative freezing in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During winter, larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera, Chironomidae), must endure 7–8 months of continuous subzero temperatures, encasement in a matrix of soil and ice, and severely desiccating conditions. This environment, along with the fact that larvae possess a high rate of w...

  16. Maritime climate influence on chaparral composition and diversity in the coast range of central California

    PubMed Central

    Vasey, Michael C; Parker, V Thomas; Holl, Karen D; Loik, Michael E; Hiatt, Seth

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that maritime climatic factors associated with summer fog and low cloud stratus (summer marine layer) help explain the compositional diversity of chaparral in the coast range of central California. We randomly sampled chaparral species composition in 0.1-hectare plots along a coast-to-interior gradient. For each plot, climatic variables were estimated and soil samples were analyzed. We used Cluster Analysis and Principle Components Analysis to objectively categorize plots into climate zone groups. Climate variables, vegetation composition and various diversity measures were compared across climate zone groups using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Differences in climatic variables that relate to summer moisture availability and winter freeze events explained the majority of variance in measured conditions and coincided with three chaparral assemblages: maritime (lowland coast where the summer marine layer was strongest), transition (upland coast with mild summer marine layer influence and greater winter precipitation), and interior sites that generally lacked late summer water availability from either source. Species turnover (β-diversity) was higher among maritime and transition sites than interior sites. Coastal chaparral differs from interior chaparral in having a higher obligate seeder to facultative seeder (resprouter) ratio and by being dominated by various Arctostaphylos species as opposed to the interior dominant, Adenostoma fasciculatum. The maritime climate influence along the California central coast is associated with patterns of woody plant composition and β-diversity among sites. Summer fog in coastal lowlands and higher winter precipitation in coastal uplands combine to lower late dry season water deficit in coastal chaparral and contribute to longer fire return intervals that are associated with obligate seeders and more local endemism. Soil nutrients are comparatively less important in explaining plant

  17. Maritime climate influence on chaparral composition and diversity in the coast range of central California.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Michael C; Parker, V Thomas; Holl, Karen D; Loik, Michael E; Hiatt, Seth

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that maritime climatic factors associated with summer fog and low cloud stratus (summer marine layer) help explain the compositional diversity of chaparral in the coast range of central California. We randomly sampled chaparral species composition in 0.1-hectare plots along a coast-to-interior gradient. For each plot, climatic variables were estimated and soil samples were analyzed. We used Cluster Analysis and Principle Components Analysis to objectively categorize plots into climate zone groups. Climate variables, vegetation composition and various diversity measures were compared across climate zone groups using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Differences in climatic variables that relate to summer moisture availability and winter freeze events explained the majority of variance in measured conditions and coincided with three chaparral assemblages: maritime (lowland coast where the summer marine layer was strongest), transition (upland coast with mild summer marine layer influence and greater winter precipitation), and interior sites that generally lacked late summer water availability from either source. Species turnover (β-diversity) was higher among maritime and transition sites than interior sites. Coastal chaparral differs from interior chaparral in having a higher obligate seeder to facultative seeder (resprouter) ratio and by being dominated by various Arctostaphylos species as opposed to the interior dominant, Adenostoma fasciculatum. The maritime climate influence along the California central coast is associated with patterns of woody plant composition and β-diversity among sites. Summer fog in coastal lowlands and higher winter precipitation in coastal uplands combine to lower late dry season water deficit in coastal chaparral and contribute to longer fire return intervals that are associated with obligate seeders and more local endemism. Soil nutrients are comparatively less important in explaining plant

  18. Site-testing in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, J. W. V.; Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.

    2007-10-01

    Sites on the Antarctic Plateau such as Dome A, Dome C and South Pole, offer unique and exceptionally favourable conditions for astronomy. Site testing over the past decade has revealed extremely low infrared backgrounds, low water vapour, excellent infrared transmission and very low levels of atmospheric turbulence. Although several large facilities have already been built in Antarctica and plans for many more are well underway, there is still much to learn about this unique and beautiful place.

  19. Microbial biomass and basal respiration of selected Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic soils in the areas of some Russian polar stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, E.; Mukhametova, N.

    2014-07-01

    Antarctica is a unique place for soil, biological, and ecological investigations. Soils of Antarctica have been studied intensively during the last century, when different national Antarctic expeditions visited the sixth continent with the aim of investigating nature and the environment. Antarctic investigations are comprised of field surveys mainly in the terrestrial landscapes, where the polar stations of different countries are situated. That is why the main and most detailed soil surveys were conducted in the McMurdo Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, South Shetland Islands, Larsemann Hills and the Schirmacher Oasis. Our investigations were conducted during the 53rd and 55th Russian Antarctic expeditions in the base of soil pits, and samples were collected in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Sub-Antarctic or maritime landscapes are considered to be very different from Antarctic landscapes due to differing climatic and geogenic conditions. Soils of diverse zonal landscapes were studied with the aim of assessing the microbial biomass level, basal respiration rates and metabolic activity of microbial communities. This investigation shows that Antarctic soils are quite diverse in profile organization and carbon content. In general, Sub-Antarctic soils are characterized by more developed humus (sod) organo-mineral horizons as well as by an upper organic layer. The most developed organic layers were revealed in peat soils of King George Island, where its thickness reach, in some cases, was 80 cm. These soils as well as soils formed under guano are characterized by the highest amount of total organic carbon (TOC), between 7.22 and 33.70%. Coastal and continental Antarctic soils exhibit less developed Leptosols, Gleysols, Regolith and rare Ornhitosol, with TOC levels between 0.37 and 4.67%. The metabolic ratios and basal respiration were higher in Sub-Antarctic soils than in Antarctic ones, which can be interpreted as a result of higher amounts of fresh organic

  20. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  1. 33 CFR 103.310 - Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.310 Section 103.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee §...

  2. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410...

  3. 33 CFR 103.410 - Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons involved in the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.410 Section 103.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.410...

  4. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.405 Elements of...

  5. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    For most of us, Antarctica was at best a distant acquaintance. Now, with the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), we are on intimate terms. In stunning, up-close and personal detail, LIMA brings Antarctica to life. Explore this virtually cloudless, seamless, most geometrically accurate, and highest resolution satellite mosaic of Antarctica. A team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Antarctic Survey, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with funding from the National Science Foundation, created LIMA in support of the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007?08). As the first major scientific outcome of the IPY, LIMA truly fulfills the IPY goals. LIMA is an international effort, supports current scientific polar research, encourages new projects, and helps the general public visualize Antarctica and changes happening in this southernmost environment. Researchers and the general public can download LIMA and all component Landsat scenes at no charge.

  6. When Did the Swahili Become Maritime?

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Lane, Paul; LaViolette, Adria; Horton, Mark; Pollard, Edward; Quintana Morales, Eréndira; Vernet, Thomas; Christie, Annalisa; Wynne-Jones, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine an assumption about the historic Swahili of the eastern African coast: that they were a maritime society from their beginnings in the first millennium C.E. Based on historical and archaeological data, we suggest that, despite their proximity to and use of the sea, the level of maritimity of Swahili society increased greatly over time and was only fully realized in the early second millennium C.E. Drawing on recent theorizing from other areas of the world about maritimity as well as research on the Swahili, we discuss three arenas that distinguish first- and second-millennium coastal society in terms of their maritime orientation. These are variability and discontinuity in settlement location and permanence; evidence of increased engagement with the sea through fishing and sailing technology; and specialized architectural developments involving port facilities, mosques, and houses. The implications of this study are that we must move beyond coastal location in determining maritimity; consider how the sea and its products were part of social life; and assess whether the marine environment actively influences and is influenced by broader patterns of sociocultural organization, practice, and belief within Swahili and other societies. [maritime, fishing and sailing, long-distance trade, Swahili, eastern Africa] RESUMEN En este artículo, evaluamos la hipótesis de que los pueblos Swahili de la costa oriental africana fueron una sociedad marítima a partir del primer milenio E.C. Basados en información histórica y arqueológica, proponemos que la asociación de la sociedad Swahili con el mar incrementó considerablemente con el tiempo y se manifestó de una forma significativa particularmente desde principios del segundo milenio E.C. Utilizando teorías recientes sobre maritimidad en otras áreas del mundo, así como investigaciones sobre los Swahili, discutimos tres temas que marcan las diferencias del nivel de orientación marítima de

  7. Maritime target identification in gated viewing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The growing interest in unmanned surface vehicles, accident avoidance for naval vessels and automated maritime surveillance leads to a growing need for automatic detection, classification and pose estimation of maritime objects in medium and long ranges. Laser radar imagery is a well proven tool for near to medium range, but up to now for higher distances neither the sensor range nor the sensor resolution was satisfying. As a result of the mentioned limitations of laser radar imagery the potential of laser illuminated gated viewing for automated classification and pose estimation was investigated. The paper presents new techniques for segmentation, pose estimation and model-based identification of naval vessels in gated viewing imagery in comparison with the corresponding results of long range data acquired with a focal plane array laser radar system. The pose estimation in the gated viewing data is directly connected with the model-based identification which makes use of the outline of the object. By setting a sufficient narrow gate, the distance gap between the upper part of the ship and the background leads to an automatic segmentation. By setting the gate the distance to the object is roughly known. With this distance and the imaging properties of the camera, the width of the object perpendicular to the line of sight can be calculated. For each ship in the model library a set of possible 2D appearances in the known distance is calculated and the resulting contours are compared with the measured 2D outline. The result is a match error for each reasonable orientation of each model of the library. The result gained from the gated viewing data is compared with the results of target identification by laser radar imagery of the same maritime objects.

  8. Anomaly detection in the maritime domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Jean

    2008-04-01

    Defence R&D Canada is developing a Collaborative Knowledge Exploitation Framework (CKEF) to support the analysts in efficiently managing and exploiting relevant knowledge assets to achieve maritime domain awareness in joint operations centres of the Canadian Forces. While developing the CKEF, anomaly detection has been clearly recognized as an important aspect requiring R&D. An activity has thus been undertaken to implement, within the CKEF, a proof-of-concept prototype of a rule-based expert system to support the analysts regarding this aspect. This expert system has to perform automated reasoning and output recommendations (or alerts) about maritime anomalies, thereby supporting the identification of vessels of interest and threat analysis. The system must contribute to a lower false alarm rate and a better probability of detection in drawing operator's attention to vessels worthy of their attention. It must provide explanations as to why the vessels may be of interest, with links to resources that help the operators dig deeper. Mechanisms are necessary for the analysts to fine tune the system, and for the knowledge engineer to maintain the knowledge base as the expertise of the operators evolves. This paper portrays the anomaly detection prototype, and describes the knowledge acquisition and elicitation session conducted to capture the know-how of the experts, the formal knowledge representation enablers and the ontology required for aspects of the maritime domain that are relevant to anomaly detection, vessels of interest, and threat analysis, the prototype high-level design and implementation on the service-oriented architecture of the CKEF, and other findings and results of this ongoing activity.

  9. Possibilities of Uas for Maritime Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimkowska, A.; Lee, I.; Choi, K.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have become more important and its use for different application is appreciated. At the beginning UAS were used for military purposes. These successful applications initiated interest among researchers to find uses of UAS for civilian purposes, as they are alternative to both manned and satellite systems in acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data at lower cost while long flight duration. As UAS are built from many components such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), sensing payloads, communication systems, ground control stations, recovery and launch equipment, and supporting equipment, knowledge about its functionality and characteristics is crucial for missions. Therefore, finding appropriate configuration of all elements to fulfill requirements of the mission is a very difficult, yet important task. UAS may be used in various maritime applications such as ship detection, red tide detection and monitoring, border patrol, tracking of pollution at sea and hurricane monitoring just to mention few. One of the greatest advantages of UAV is their ability to fly over dangerous and hazardous areas, where sending manned aircraft could be risky for a crew. In this article brief description of aerial unmanned system components is introduced. Firstly characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles are presented, it continues with introducing inertial navigation system, communication systems, sensing payloads, ground control stations, and ground and recovery equipment. Next part introduces some examples of UAS for maritime applications. This is followed by suggestions of key indicators which should be taken into consideration while choosing UAS. Last part talks about configuration schemes of UAVs and sensor payloads suggested for some maritime applications.

  10. Biodiversity of air-borne microorganisms at Halley Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Pearce, David A; Hughes, K A; Lachlan-Cope, T; Harangozo, S A; Jones, A E

    2010-03-01

    A study of air-borne microbial biodiversity over an isolated scientific research station on an ice-shelf in continental Antarctica was undertaken to establish the potential source of microbial colonists. The study aimed to assess: (1) whether microorganisms were likely to have a local (research station) or distant (marine or terrestrial) origin, (2) the effect of changes in sea ice extent on microbial biodiversity and (3) the potential human impact on the environment. Air samples were taken above Halley Research Station during the austral summer and austral winter over a 2-week period. Overall, a low microbial biodiversity was detected, which included many sequence replicates. No significant patterns were detected in the aerial biodiversity between the austral summer and the austral winter. In common with other environmental studies, particularly in the polar regions, many of the sequences obtained were from as yet uncultivated organisms. Very few marine sequences were detected irrespective of the distance to open water, and around one-third of sequences detected were similar to those identified in human studies, though both of these might reflect prevailing wind conditions. The detected aerial microorganisms were markedly different from those obtained in earlier studies over the Antarctic Peninsula in the maritime Antarctic. PMID:20091326

  11. Maritime Tsunami Hazard Assessment in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The California tsunami program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase awareness of tsunami generated hazards to the maritime community (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education and outreach program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. An important step in this process is to understand the causative mechanism for damage in ports and harbors, and then ensure that the models used to generate hazard maps are able to accurately simulate these processes. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. Basin resonance and geometric amplification are two reasonably well understood mechanisms for local magnification of tsunami impact in harbors, and are generally the mechanisms investigated when estimating the tsunami hazard potential in a port or harbor. On the other hand, our understanding of and predictive ability for currents is lacking. When a free surface flow is forced through a geometric constriction, it is readily expected that the enhanced potential gradient will drive strong, possibly unstable currents and the associated turbulent coherent structures such as "jets" and "whirlpools"; a simple example would be tidal flow through an inlet channel. However, these fundamentals have not been quantitatively connected with respect to understanding tsunami hazards in ports and harbors. A plausible explanation for this oversight is the observation that these features are turbulent phenomena with spatial and temporal scales much smaller than that

  12. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage. PMID:22932387

  13. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  14. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  15. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  16. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area...

  17. Under-reporting of maritime accidents.

    PubMed

    Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Eide, Magnus Strandmyr

    2010-03-01

    The majority of current maritime regulations has been developed following a reactive approach, often as ad-hoc response to serious accidents, and are characterised as being prescriptive leaving limited space for adapting equivalent solutions rather those described in the regulations. On the premise of providing a more proactive approach for the proposal or the evaluation of regulations, the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) has been introduced. In the context of FSA, the analysis of accident data is considered to be very important for providing potential input on developing more balanced, proactive and cost-effective regulations. However, it has been argued that the validity of historical data may be undermined by uncertainties. This paper is aimed at showing evidence on serious under-reporting in accident databases, which can be considered as the main contributor to questioning the direct and uncritical use of historical data. By analysing the 10-year tanker accident data from the Lloyd's Register FairPlay (LRFP) and the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD) for vessels registered in Norway, it is found that the reporting performance has an upper bound of 41% for NMD and 30% for LRFP. Furthermore, based on comparison between LRFP data and self-assessment by Flag States, it is seen that accidents reported by the Flag States are also incomplete. PMID:20159087

  18. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... technology to insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial...

  19. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  20. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  1. 33 CFR 106.140 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Directive. 106.140 Section 106.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General §...

  2. 78 FR 19277 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or presentations... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: United States Coast... published a notice of meeting for the National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) in the...

  3. 77 FR 1076 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  4. 77 FR 51817 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  5. 77 FR 1710 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... published in the Federal Register of January 9, 2012, a notice announcing a National Maritime Security... Web site 13 calendar days prior to the meeting. Additionally, all known interested parties were...

  6. 77 FR 26024 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... published in the Federal Register of May 1, 2012, a notice announcing a National Maritime Security Advisory... Federal Register Web site 13 calendar days prior to the meeting. Additionally, all known...

  7. 78 FR 16699 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316) Docket: Any... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  8. 78 FR 42101 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Boston Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their applications for membership, to the Captain of the Port, Boston, MA. DATES: Requests for membership should reach the U.S. Coast Guard...

  9. 76 FR 66313 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Maritime Security...

  10. 75 FR 24961 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their application for membership, to... Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-295) added section 70112 to Title 46 of the U.S. Code,...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety... and the IMO Master Plan of Shore-Based Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the...

  16. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  17. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  18. 78 FR 27032 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... regulation can be found in the April 27, 1996, issue of the Federal Register (61 FR 16710). A regulated area... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12...

  19. 76 FR 22033 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... regulation can be found in the April 27, 1996 issue of the Federal Register (61 FR 16710). A regulated area... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12...

  20. 75 FR 24400 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... in the April 17, 1996 issue of the Federal Register (70 FR 23938). A regulated area is established on... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA on May 8,...

  1. Inmarsat - A new global maritime satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaidis, E.

    1982-07-01

    In response to increasing communication demands related to the presence of a large number of ships at sea, the Assembly of the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), a specialized agency of the United Nations, convened in 1973 the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System. The chain of events set in motion in connection with this conference culminated in the birth of the International Maritime Satellite Organization (Inmarsat). Inmarsat came into being on July 16, 1979. The purpose of Inmarsat is to make provision for the space segment necessary for improving maritime communications, thereby assisting in improving communications for distress and safety of life at sea, efficiency and management of ships, maritime public correspondence services, and radio determination capabilities. The Inmarsat system went into operation on February 1, 1982, taking over from the American Marisat system which had provided a similar service since 1976.

  2. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  3. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  4. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  5. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  6. 33 CFR 106.235 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.235 Maritime Security (MARSEC)...

  7. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201l. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record -- provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica--parameters such as surface temperature.

  8. Tectonic structure of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leychenkov, German; Grikurov, Garrik; Golynsky, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    First overviews of tectonic structure of the Southern Continent were made by the pioneers of Antarctic earth science investigations almost 100 years ago. Despite rapidly advancing international geological studies under the Antarctic Treaty, the presentations of Antarctic tectonic structure remained largely speculative until the end of the past century when implementation of modern analytical and remote-sensing research technologies enabled compilation of more credible tectonic models of Antarctica. The East Antarctic bedrock consists mainly of the Precambrian crystalline complexes and the Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic platform units. Crystalline Shield is locally complicated by Neoproterozoic aulacogenes and Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic rifts. Shield assemblages reliably recognized in coastal outcrops indicate the predominant occurrence of Archean cratonic nuclei and Mesoproterozoic mobile belts. The undisturbed platform cover strata are exposed in East Antarctica mainly along its boundary with West Antarctica. Tectonic structure of ice-covered regions (more that 99% of the East Antarctic territory) is interpreted using mostly magnetic and bedrock topography data, but other geophysical and geological information (satellite, airborne and over-ice gravity; seismology; active seismics; erratics; detrital zircons dates; etc.) is also important. Archean cratons are geologically documented in western Dronning Maud Land, Enderby Land, Princess Elizabeth Land and in the southern Prince Charles Mts. Their distribution under the ice is marked by a specific magnetic pattern including low-amplitude mosaic and/or high-amplitude long-wavelength anomalies. The most extensive ancient craton being 1000 km across is believed to extend from the southern Prince Charles Mts. to the Gamburtsev Mts. Mesoproterozoic mobile belts are distinguished by elongated high-amplitude magnetic anomalies and are mapped along the costal area as the zone of 250-600 km wide. The Gamburtsev Mts. area is also

  9. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D.; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500–1800 AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670 AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species. PMID:23969993

  10. Phylogeography of microbial phototrophs in the dry valleys of the high Himalayas and Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, S. K.; Lynch, R. C.; King, A. J.; Karki, D.; Robeson, M. S.; Nagy, L.; Williams, M. W.; Mitter, M. S.; Freeman, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    High-elevation valleys in dry areas of the Himalayas are among the most extreme, yet least explored environments on Earth. These barren, rocky valleys are subjected to year-round temperature fluctuations across the freezing point and very low availability of water and nutrients, causing previous workers to hypothesize that no photoautotrophic life (primary producers) exists in these locations. However, there has been no work using modern biogeochemical or culture-independent molecular methods to test the hypothesis that photoautotrophs are absent from high Himalayan soil systems. Here, we show that although microbial biomass levels are as low as those of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, there are abundant microbial photoautotrophs, displaying unexpected phylogenetic diversity, in barren soils from just below the permanent ice line of the central Himalayas. Furthermore, we discovered that one of the dominant algal clades from the high Himalayas also contains the dominant algae in culture-independent surveys of both soil and ice samples from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, revealing an unexpected link between these environmentally similar but geographically very distant systems. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that although this algal clade is globally distributed to other high-altitude and high-latitude soils, it shows significant genetic isolation by geographical distance patterns, indicating local adaptation and perhaps speciation in each region. Our results are the first to demonstrate the remarkable similarities of microbial life of arid soils of Antarctica and the high Himalayas. Our findings are a starting point for future comparative studies of the dry valleys of the Himalayas and Antarctica that will yield new insights into the cold and dry limits to life on Earth. PMID:20826485

  11. Maritime Archaeology in Uruguay: Towards a Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge Manuel; Buffa, Valerio; Cordero, Alejo; Francia, Gabriel; Adams, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    We report a collaborative maritime archaeological project in Uruguay, one of several Latin American countries where the subject is undergoing review in terms of the ways it is practised and managed. Uruguay is typical of many states where there has been a tension between a heritage-based approach in which the results of investigations are viewed as publicly owned, as opposed to the profit motive in which commercial and personal gain is the underlying ethic. This project was conceived both as a way of assisting the Uruguayan Heritage Commission in promoting the former approach as well as advancing a programme of research into the age of global exploration. This paper sets out the rationale of the initial field season and reflects on subsequent developments.

  12. Quebrada jaguay: early south american maritime adaptations

    PubMed

    Sandweiss; McInnis; Burger; Cano; Ojeda; Paredes; Sandweiss; Glascock

    1998-09-18

    Excavations at Quebrada Jaguay 280 (QJ-280) (16 degrees30'S) in south coastal Peru demonstrated that Paleoindian-age people of the Terminal Pleistocene (about 11,100 to 10,000 carbon-14 years before the present or about 13,000 to 11,000 calibrated years before the present) in South America relied on marine resources while resident on the coast, which extends the South American record of maritime exploitation by a millennium. This site supports recent evidence that Paleoindian-age people had diverse subsistence systems. The presence of obsidian at QJ-280 shows that the inhabitants had contact with the adjacent Andean highlands during the Terminal Pleistocene. PMID:9743490

  13. Maritime route of colonization of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C.; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe. PMID:24927591

  14. A maritime roadmap in the cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoelstra, George

    2013-04-01

    Web mapping has morphed from sharing maps and geospatial information to a geospatial content management system that supports collaboration. The new iteration allows for the publication and sharing with others, as well as the access to rich global base data through cloud services. The European EMODnet initiative provides an excellent showcase to the world what can be achieved today. This presentation will highlight the latest developments on portal and geospatial cloud services as the basis for sharing in a Marine SDI, and how the maritime community can benefit from this right away. Various examples of maritime cloud services (Emodnet, Eye on Earth) will be discussed to illustrate the capabilities provided by these developments. New technologies and especially those dealing with the latest web-trends are easily consumed and applied. This introduces a risk of a series of new services and start-ups all competing for our attention causing the reverse effect of what we try achieve: easier access to collaborative information and better tools to analyze and understand it. Instead we end up looking for a road map. Esri long supports data interoperability and sharing, and understands these challenges. In this presentation we will give an insider's view on Esri's vision for a road map that allows data managers and data users to collaborate effectively using a platform approach, optimizing cloud computing and GIS to allow access from many devices and for many applications. The presentation will conclude by highlighting how this platform can be implemented and utilized, supported by the ocean content initiative, to facilitate collaborative knowledge building, decision making and knowledge management in general in oceanography and ocean sciences.

  15. Littoral and Coastal Management in Supporting Maritime Security for Realizing Indonesia as World Maritime Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotosusilo, Agus; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.; Agung Satria, Afrizal; Jokopitoyo, Trisasono

    2016-02-01

    The Indonesian under President Joko Widodo has new goal to make Indonesia as the world maritime axis. This is supported by the geographic of Indonesia as the largest archipelagic country where the sea is two-thirds wide among the whole spacious. Indonesia is the world largest archipelagic state. More than two-third of its territory consist of seas. The ecosystem of littoral and coastal has correlative relationship with country development. There is no doubt of physically facts that Indonesian littoral and coastal with total wide of 5.8 million km2 is rich with various natural resources. Therefore, the condition of Indonesia with its world second longest coastline has several comparative advantages. Not only the country has an abundant natural resources, but it also blessed by demographic bonus advantage. The population of Indonesian is the fifth largest in the world which approximately 220 million people and approximately 60 percent among them live at coastal areas. The people in coastal area relies their live from its surrounding natural resource. Hence, most of their life and daily activity is related with the presence of natural resources. The dealing of conflict potential and attention to maritime security are important to be studied as a reference in preparing and facing the government policies that will lead to the development of maritime.

  16. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  17. Wind profiler installed in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsley, B. B.; Carey, J.; Woodman, R. F.; Sarango, M.; Urbina, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ragaini, E.

    A VHF (50 MHz) wind profiler was installed in Antarctica at the Peruvian Base “Machu Picchu” on King George Island from January 21 to 26. The wind profiler will provide a first look at atmospheric dynamics over the region.The profiler—the first of its kind in Antarctica—is a National Science Foundationsponsored cooperative project of the University of Colorado, the Geophysical Institute of Peru, the University of Piura (Peru), and the Peruvian Navy. This venture was also greatly facilitated by Peru's Comision Nacional de Asuntos Antartidos and Consejo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnologia, with additional logis tics support provided by the Argentinean Navy and the Uruguayan Air Force.

  18. The seismic noise environment of Antarctica

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anthony, Robert E.; Aster, Richard C.; Wiens, Douglas; Nyblade, Andrew; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Huerta, Audrey; Winberry, J. Paul; Wilson, Terry; Rowe, Charlotte

    2014-11-26

    Seismographic coverage of Antarctica prior to 2007 consisted overwhelmingly of a handful of long running and sporadically deployed transient stations, many of which were principally collocated with scientific research stations. Thus, despite very cold temperatures, sunless winters, challenging logistics, and extreme storms, recent developments in polar instrumentation driven by new scientific objectives have opened up the entirety of Antarctica to year–round and continuous seismological observation (e.g., Nyblade et al., 2012).

  19. Near Real Time Applications for Maritime Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, E.; Krause, D.; Berg, M.; Daedelow, H.; Maass, H.

    2015-04-01

    Applications to derive maritime value added products like oil spill and ship detection based on remote sensing SAR image data are being developed and integrated at the Ground Station Neustrelitz, part of the German Remote Sensing Data Center. Products of meteo-marine parameters like wind and wave will complement the product portfolio. Research and development aim at the implementation of highly automated services for operational use. SAR images are being used because of the possibility to provide maritime products with high spatial resolution over wide swaths and under all weather conditions. In combination with other information like Automatic Identification System (AIS) data fusion products are available to support the Maritime Situational Awareness.

  20. Contrasting patterns in lichen diversity in the continental and maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shiv Mohan; Olech, Maria; Cannone, Nicoletta; Convey, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Systematic surveys of the lichen floras of Schirmacher Oasis (Queen Maud Land, continental Antarctic), Victoria Land (Ross Sector, continental Antarctic) and Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic) were compared to help infer the major factors influencing patterns of diversity and biogeography in the three areas. Biogeographic patterns were determined using a variety of multivariate statistical tools. A total of 54 lichen species were documented from Schirmacher Oasis (SO), 48 from Victoria Land (VL) and 244 from Admiralty Bay (AB). Of these, 21 species were common to all areas. Most lichens from the SO and VL areas were microlichens, the dominant genus being Buellia. In AB, in contrast, many macrolichens were also present and the dominant genus was Caloplaca. In SO and VL large areas lacked any visible lichen cover, even where the ground was snow-free in summer. Small-scale diversity patterns were present in AB, where the number of species and genera was greater close to the coast. Most species recorded were rare in the study areas in which they were present and endemic to Antarctica.

  1. 47 CFR 80.469 - Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. 80... Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. (a) Maritime mobile repeater stations are authorized to extend...) On a secondary basis, maritime mobile repeater stations may be authorized to extend the range of...

  2. 47 CFR 80.469 - Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. 80... Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. (a) Maritime mobile repeater stations are authorized to extend...) On a secondary basis, maritime mobile repeater stations may be authorized to extend the range of...

  3. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501—Federal Maritime...

  4. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Pt. 501, App. A Appendix A to Part 501—Federal Maritime...

  5. 33 CFR 105.230 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. 105.230 Section 105.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.230 Maritime Security...

  6. 46 CFR 501.3 - Organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission. 501.3 Section 501.3 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Organization and Functions § 501.3 Organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission. The...

  7. 47 CFR 80.469 - Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. 80... Maritime mobile repeater stations in Alaska. (a) Maritime mobile repeater stations are authorized to extend...) On a secondary basis, maritime mobile repeater stations may be authorized to extend the range of...

  8. Maritime Interdiction Operations Small Craft Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A D; Trombino, D; Dunlop, W; Bordetsky, A

    2010-01-26

    The Naval Postgraduate School has been conducting Tactical Network Topology (TNT) Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) experiments with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since early in 2005. In this work, we are investigating cutting edge technology to evaluate use of networks, advanced sensors and collaborative technology for globally-supported maritime interdiction operations. Some examples of our research include communications in harsh environments, between moving ships at sea; small boat drive-by radiation detection; network-centric collaboration with global partners; situational awareness; prototype sensors & biometric instruments. Since 2006, we have studied the concept of using a small vessel with fixed radiation sensors to do initial searches for illicit radioactive materials. In our work, we continue to evaluate concepts of operation for small boat monitoring. For example, in San Francisco Bay we established a simulated choke point using two RHIBs. Each RHIB had a large sodium iodide radiation sensor on board, mounted on the side nearest to the passing potential target boats. Once detections were made, notification over the network prompted a chase RHIB also equipped with a radiation sensor to further investigate the potential target. We have also used an unmanned surface vessel (USV) carrying a radiation sensor to perform the initial discovery. The USV was controlled remotely and to drive by boats in different configurations. The potential target vessels were arranged in a line, as a choke point and randomly spaced in the water. Search plans were problematic when weather, waves and drift complicated the ability to stay in one place. A further challenge is to both detect and identify the radioactive materials during the drive-by. Our radiation detection system, ARAM, Adaptable Radiation Area Monitor, is able to detect, alarm and quickly identify plausible radionuclides in real time. We have performed a number of experiments to better

  9. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...-1933, email TSA-OSCCommunications@tsa.dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 5, 2003 (68 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool...

  10. [Mass maritime casualty incidents in German waters: structures and resources].

    PubMed

    Castan, J; Paschen, H-R; Wirtz, S; Dörges, V; Wenderoth, S; Peters, J; Blunk, Y; Bielstein, A; Kerner, T

    2012-07-01

    The Central Command for Maritime Emergencies was founded in Germany in 2003 triggered by the fire on board of the cargo ship "Pallas" in 1998. Its mission is to coordinate and direct measures at or above state level in maritime emergency situations in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. A special task in this case is to provide firefighting and medical care. To face these challenges at sea emergency doctors and firemen have been specially trained. This form of organization provides a concept to counter mass casualty incidents and peril situations at sea. Since the foundation of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies there have been 5 operations for firefighting units and 4 for medical response teams. Assignments and structure of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies are unique in Europe. PMID:22699223

  11. 17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEE ALSO HABS No. CA-2718), WITH RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3. S. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. The Advocate's Devil: The Maritime Public Historian as Expert Witness.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jay C

    2015-02-01

    The maritime historian working as litigation support and expert witness faces many challenges, including identifying and analyzing case law associated with admiralty subjects, cultural resource management law, and general historical topics. The importance of the unique knowledge of the historian in the maritime context is demonstrated by a case study of attempts to salvage the shipwreck Atlantic, the remains of a merchant vessel built and enrolled in the United States and lost in the Canadian waters of Lake Erie in 1852. PMID:26281238

  13. Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

  14. A baseline maritime satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, S. H.; Mcgregor, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a baseline system for maritime communications via satellite during the 1980s. The system model employs three geostationary satellites with global coverage antennas. Access to the system is controlled by a master station; user access is based on time-ordered polling or random access. Each Thor-Delta launched satellite has an RF power of 100 W (spinner) or 250 W (three-axis stabilized), and provides 10 equivalent duplex voice channels for up to 1500 ships with average waiting times of approximately 2.5 minutes. The satellite capacity is bounded by the available bandwidth to 50 such channels, which can serve up to 10,000 ships with an average waiting time of 5 minutes. The ships must have peak antenna gains of approximately 15.5 dB or 22.5 dB for the two cases (10 or 50 voice channels) when a spinner satellite is used; the required gains are 4 dB lower if a three-axis stabilized satellite is used. The ship antenna requirements can be reduced by 8 to 10 dB by employing a high-gain multi-beam phased array antenna on the satellite.

  15. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework.

    PubMed

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-02-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer's role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this "poor compliance" trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  16. Digital Photogrammetry for Documentation of Maritime Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorelli, Massimo; Pensa, Claudio; Speranza, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    Documentation of maritime heritage is essential for its protection, and for reference in restoration and renovation processes. These functions become problematic in the case of historical ships and boats that lack lines drawings. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure for creation of lines drawings based on the shape analysis of surviving historical boats or their small-scale models with the help of reverse engineering (RE) techniques. The paper describes how digital photogrammetry and the iterative method were used to analyze the shape of three historical boats: Tomahawk, Refola and Nada. The application of the proposed procedure produced the lines drawings of the boats as its result. The accuracy of the 3D CAD model obtained with the photogrammetric technique was verified by comparing it against a more accurate 3D model produced with the help of a RE laser scanner. The examination of the resulting lines drawings proves that the digital photogrammetry process and the proposed iterative method are adequate tools for developing lines plans of boat models. The research offers the methodological basis for the creation of an archive of lines drawings of historical boats. Such an archive would provide reference for philologically correct restorations, and permit definition and classification of distinctive elements of various types of historical boats, particularly those produced in the Campania Region.

  17. Wireless sensor networks in a maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavelaars, W.; Maris, M.

    2005-10-01

    In the recent years, there has been a lot of research on sensor networks and their applications. In particular for monitoring large and potentially hostile areas these networks have proven to be very useful. The technique of land-based sensor networks can be extrapolated to sensing buoys at sea or in harbors. This is a novel and intriguing addition to existing maritime monitoring systems. At TNO, much research effort has gone into developing sensor networks. In this paper, the TNOdes sensor network is presented. Its practical employability is demonstrated in a surveillance application deploying 50 nodes. The system is capable of tracking persons in a field, as would be the situation around a military compound. A camera-system is triggered by the sensors and zooms into the detected moving objects. It is described how this system could be modified to create a wireless buoys network. Typical applications of a wireless (and potentially mobile) buoy network are bay-area surveillance, mine detection, identification and ship protection.

  18. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer’s role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this “poor compliance” trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  19. [WBV risk in maritime and port operators].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Iole; Stacchini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is the shaking or jolting of the human body through a supporting surface, usually a seat or floor. The risk from vibration is related to the overall time the operator or driver is exposed to the vibration and the number of shocks and jolts they experience each day. In the 27 countries of Europe the EC Physical Agents Directive, effective 6th July 2010, requires all employers to control exposure to a number of hazards including noise and vibration. The EC Vibration Directive sets out regulations for the control of health and safety risks from the exposure of workers to hand arm vibration (HAV) and whole body vibration (WBV) in the workplace. The maritime sector needs to comply: high exposure WBV levels can be found when operating RIBs and High Speed Craft. Marine sectors affected by Whole Body Vibration (WBV) include military, search & rescue, government agencies, local authorities, police, water sports, oil & gas, thrill ride, charter and all organisations operating boats, RIBs (Rigid Inflatable Boat) and High Speed Craft. PMID:24303697

  20. Yukimarimo at Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petenko, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Natural frostballs called "yukimarimo" were observed at at Dome C, Antarctica, during the winter of 2014. Frostballs have spheroidal or lightly oblate form. Four cases of the yukimarimo were observed in the period April - August. The characteristics concerning their sizes, density, distribution over the surface varied for different cases. The diameters ranged from several millimetres to 120 mm, the density ranged from 15 to 60 kg/m3 . The heaviest one weighted 14 g and had a diameter of ≈90 mm. The initial "material" from which they formed resembles candy floss or fluff. In one case, only the initial stage of the small-yukimarimo formation was observed; the further development was interrupted. The meteorological conditions observed diuring the yukimarimo were not particular. The near-surface temperature varied between -70° and -60°C. Winds favouring to the yukimarimo formation were low, but not less than 2 m/s^1. A two-step mechanism of their formation and development is assumed: 1) at the initial stage, an electrostatic attraction favours the clumping of ice crystals to form some ice mass resembling floss structured in spherical pieces; 2) some pieces of ice floss are rolled by the wind and collect more ice crystals and increase in size like to a tumbleweed. Special comprehensive studies of electrical properties of the frost during the initial stage are necessary. Videos of moving yukimarimo at different stages of their formation are available.

  1. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  2. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-09-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mltogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  3. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  4. Antarctica: Scientific Journeys from McMurdo to the Pole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on Antarctica. Antarctica has one of the most extreme climates in the world with an untouched environment inviting researchers with great opportunities for study. This issue describes the journey of four Exploratorium staff members to frozen Antarctica. Chapters include: (1) "Life at the Bottom of the…

  5. Records of past ice sheet fluctuations in interior East Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Xiaohan; Huang, Feixin; Kong, Ping; Fang, Aimin; Li, Xiaoli

    2007-01-01

    The results of a land-based multi-disciplinary study of the past ice surface elevation in the Grove Mountains of interior East Antarctica support a dynamic evolution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Moraine boulders of sedimentary rocks and spore pollen assemblage imply a significant shrinkage of the EAIS, with its margin retreating south of the Grove Mountains (~450 km south of recent coast line) before the middle Pliocene. The exposure ages indicate that the ice sheet subsequently re-advanced, with the ice surface rising locally at least 450 m higher than today. It then went back down constantly from before 2.3 Ma to 1.6 Ma. The glacial topography and existence of soil show that the ice surface fluctuation continued since the early Quaternary, but with highest levels never exceeding ~100 m higher than today.

  6. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA): A Cutting-Edge Way for Students and Teachers to Learn about Antarctica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian; Bindschadler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    By studying Antarctica via satellite and through ground-truthing research, we can learn where the ice is melting and why. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), a new and cutting-edge way for scientists, researchers, educators, students, and the public to look at Antarctica, supports this research and allows for unprecedented views of our…

  7. Machine Learning of Maritime Fog Forecast Rules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tag, Paul M.; Peak, James E.

    1996-05-01

    In recent years, the field of artificial intelligence has contributed significantly to the science of meteorology, most notably in the now familiar form of expert systems. Expert systems have focused on rules or heuristics by establishing, in computer code, the reasoning process of a weather forecaster predicting, for example, thunderstorms or fog. In addition to the years of effort that goes into developing such a knowledge base is the time-consuming task of extracting such knowledge and experience from experts. In this paper, the induction of rules directly from meteorological data is explored-a process called machine learning. A commercial machine learning program called C4.5, is applied to a meteorological problem, forecasting maritime fog, for which a reliable expert system has been previously developed. Two detasets are used: 1) weather ship observations originally used for testing and evaluating the expert system, and 2) buoy measurements taken off the coast of California. For both datasets, the rules produced by C4.5 are reasonable and make physical sense, thus demonstrating that an objective induction approach can reveal physical processes directly from data. For the ship database, the machine-generated rules are not as accurate as those from the expert system but are still significantly better than persistence forecasts. For the buoy data, the forecast accuracies are very high, but only slightly superior to persistence. The results indicate that the machine learning approach is a viable tool for developing meteorological expertise, but only when applied to reliable data with sufficient cases of known outcome. In those instances when such databases are available, the use of machine learning can provide useful insight that otherwise might take considerable human analysis to produce.

  8. Carbon and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Microbial Communities in Antarctic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prommer, Judith; Spohn, Marie; Klaus, Karoline; Kusch, Stephanie; Wanek, Wolfgang; Dercon, Gerd; Richter, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems in the Antarctic experience harsh environmental conditions including very low temperatures and a low carbon input leading to poorly developed ecosystems with low diversity and a low soil organic matter content, which may be vulnerable to perturbations in a future climate. Microbial transformation and decomposition of soil organic matter under the extreme climatic conditions in the Antarctic has received little attention so far. Specifically, little is known about microbial process rates and how they might be affected by climate warming. We here report on C and N transformation rates and their corresponding microbial use efficiencies in two soil horizons of two sites on King George Island, the maritime Antarctica. We used novel isotope techniques to estimate microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE; based on incorporation of 18O from water into DNA) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE; based on a 15N isotope pool dilution assays). The investigated two contrasting sites at marine terraces on basaltic rocks that were characterized by a stable surface. While both sites were similar in exposition, distance from sea and elevation, they differed in their vegetation cover and several biogeochemical parameters, such as soil pH and soil organic carbon and nitrogen content. Surprisingly, we found low soil C:N ratios at both sites and for both horizons, i.e. below 12 in the organic crust and below 8 in the first mineral horizon. This indicates a low carbon availability relative to nitrogen and would thus imply a high microbial CUE. However, our results showed also a low CUE at both sites and in both horizons (CUE of 24% and 9% in the organic crust and mineral layer, respectively). In contrast, NUE was very high in organic layers (98%), pointing towards a strong nitrogen limitation, while in the mineral horizons, NUE was lower (between 84% and 72%), as expected for soil horizons with a C:N ratio below 8. Thus, the NUE pattern followed stoichiometric theory (i

  9. Frictionless Telescopes in Antarctica: Why and How?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattri, M.

    Seeing quality in Antarctica is in the hundredth arcseconds range out of the boundary layer. To take advantage of this quality telescopes should be in thermal equilibrium with the outside environment and should minimize the non linearity's like limit cycles which will deteriorate tracking. At the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) 8m telescopes this is realized using oil bearings and direct drives on the axes to avoid slip stick effects on the motion. In Antarctica this could be realized using magnetic bearings, possibly combined with motors, on the axes, with also advantages concerning power consumptions and maintenance of the system.

  10. Live from Antarctica: Then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This real-time educational video series, featuring Camille Jennings from Maryland Public Television, includes information from Antarctic scientists and interactive discussion between the scientists and school children from both Maryland and Hawaii. This is part of a 'Passport to Knowledge Special' series. In this part of the four part Antarctic series, the history of Antarctica from its founding to the present, its mammals, plants, and other life forms are shown and discussed. The importance of Antarctica as a research facility is explained, along with different experiments and research that the facilities there perform.

  11. Live from Antarctica: Then and Now

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This real-time educational video series, featuring Camille Jennings from Maryland Public Television, includes information from Antarctic scientists and interactive discussion between the scientists and school children from both Maryland and Hawaii. This is part of a 'Passport to Knowledge Special' series. In this part of the four part Antarctic series, the history of Antarctica from its founding to the present, its mammals, plants, and other life forms are shown and discussed. The importance of Antarctica as a research facility is explained, along with different experiments and research that the facilities there perform.

  12. Acting Antarctica: science on stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciceri, Piera; Tizzoni, Paola; Pierro, Luigia

    2016-04-01

    Key-words: Polar science, Earth science, Theatre, Hands on activities The legendary Antarctic Expedition of sir E. Shackleton and his crew of 27 aboard the Endurance (1914/16) trapped in the Antarctic ice has become the starting point to learn about Polar Science and Climate Change. While the students were involved into this incredible adventure by the astonishing images of the Australian photographer Frank Hurley (who joined the crew), they discovered the world in which this story happened. Students were then involved in hands-on activities and role plays and have become the writers of the play "Uomini a scienza ai confini del mondo". They act the story of Shackelton's expedition and they tell at the same time to the audience about ice pack, ice cores and their role in understanding the past of the climate, physical and geographical characteristic of polar regions, thermal phenomena related to adaptations of polar animals, solar radiation at different latitude, day/night duration. The theater was the place to "stage" some scientific experiments and to explain the current research carried out in polar regions and their importance in climate change studies and to stress some similarities between Antarctica and space. The project was carried out from teachers of science, letters and geography and was born in collaboration with the "Piccolo Teatro di Milano" and the association "Science Under 18" with the support of a professional actor and director and was played for other schools at "EXPO 2015" in Milano (Italy). In our opinion drama activities improve reading comprehension, and both verbal and non-verbal communication skills. To be able to write and to act, students need a deep understanding of contents. Arts, including theatre, are a good key to involve emotionally students. To have an audience different from their own teachers and classmates offers a real task and the opportunity to play and let grow real skills.

  13. Trace element contamination and availability in the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Padeiro, Ana; Amaro, Eduardo; Dos Santos, Margarida M C; Araújo, Maria F; Gomes, Susana S; Leppe, Marcelo; Verkulich, Sergey; Hughes, Kevin A; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Canário, João

    2016-06-15

    The Ardley Cove area (located on the Maxwell Bay shoreline, Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica) is characterized not only by its high biodiversity, but also by a high density of scientific stations, making it potentially one of the most impacted areas of Antarctica. In order to assess the source, contamination levels, distribution and availability of several trace elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Cd and Hg) in and around Maxwell Bay, soil and seawater samples were collected. Soil samples were also collected in the study reference site near the Bellingshausen Dome area, as it lies far from centers of human activity and associated infrastructure. Enrichment factors (EFs) and sequential extractions were also used to assess the degree of contamination and availability of the trace elements under investigation. The results obtained in this study pointed to the existence of several contamination hotspots, mainly related to high levels of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. Comparison of the contaminant distribution patterns with data from earlier studies allowed the identification of anthropogenic sources. Use of the EF approach and sequential extractions confirmed these findings. In particular, higher extraction proportions were obtained for Zn and Pb (68 and 71%, respectively), which were also the same elements where the highest EFs were determined. The results obtained in this study clearly point to human impact on the natural environment in this region of Antarctica and we recommend the implementation of appropriate contamination control and remediation methods. PMID:27224418

  14. Use of fuzzy evidential reasoning in maritime security assessment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z L; Wang, J; Bonsall, S; Fang, Q G

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a growing international recognition that the security performance of the maritime industry needs to be reviewed on an urgent basis. A large number of optional maritime security control measures have been proposed through various regulations and publications in the post-9/11 era. There is a strong need for a sound and generic methodology, which is capable of taking into account multiple selection criteria such as the cost effectiveness of the measures based on reasonable security assessment. The use of traditional risk assessment and decision-making approaches to deal with potential terrorism threats in a maritime security area reveals two major challenges. They are lack of capability of analyzing security in situations of high-level uncertainty and lack of capability of processing diverse data in a utility form suitable as input to a risk inference mechanism. To deal with such difficulties, this article proposes a subjective security-based assessment and management framework using fuzzy evidential reasoning (ER) approaches. Consequently, the framework can be used to assemble and process subjective risk assessment information on different aspects of a maritime transport system from multiple experts in a systematic way. Outputs of this model can also provide decisionmakers with a transparent tool to evaluate maritime security policy options for a specific scenario in a cost-effective manner. PMID:19141152

  15. Seapower in the nuclear age: NATO as a maritime alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolsky, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, (NATO), from the perspective of its collective maritime forces; how those forces were organized, what task they were given, and how they related to the broader strategic and political doctrines of the Alliance. Drawing upon much heretofore classified material, the study begins with a history and analysis of the cold water at sea. It then examines the impact of the growth in Soviet maritime capabilities and the adoption by NATO of a strategy of flexible response upon the allied posture at sea. A single chapter is devoted to the reinforcement sealift problem. The concluding chapter discusses NATO and the war at sea in the early 1980s. The study comes to the following basic conclusions: (1) the collective maritime forces of the Alliance, both nuclear and conventional, have had as their tasks the traditional task all maritime forces have had in the past - to exploit the strategic value of the seas for the purposes of conveyance and projection and to deny these usages to the enemy; (2) NATO's maritime posture has been consistent with the overall strategies of the Alliance (3) the strategy of flexible response only increased NATO's need to exploit that strategic value of the seas, but did so at a time when the Soviets were becoming increasingly able to deny NATO effective use of the sea to support its position on the European continent.

  16. Antarctica--the Ultimate Summer Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wey, Nate J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes personal experiences of a participant in the National Science Foundation program, Teachers Experiencing Antarctica. Uses the study of the temperature history of Taylor Dome to provide teachers with the experience of research and help other teachers recognize that there are opportunities outside the classroom for personal and professional…

  17. Antarctica: What Shall We Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Margaret S.; Long, Cathryn J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a role playing exercise in which students act as delegates to a meeting at which they will revise the Antarctic Treaty. Background information is presented about Antarctica, the Antarctic Treaty, and positions of 19 nations with regard to the Treaty. (Author/DB)

  18. CyberHunt: Head Off to Antarctica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloza, Brad

    2001-01-01

    Explains how to take an elementary class on a cyber visit to the continent of Antarctica, the highest, driest, and coldest continent on earth. A student reproducible page presents eight web sites to visit in this quest as well as questions to answer about each site. Answers to the questions are included. (SM)

  19. Read--and Walk--to Antarctica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harr, Natalie; Doneyko, Kathleen; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The students at Crestwood Primary School proved that they have what it takes to exercise their bodies and their minds. In an effort to support their teacher's scientific expedition to Antarctica, students from kindergarten to second grade pledged to read books and do physical activity that equated to the 12,900 km (8,000-mile) journey to the…

  20. Lystrosaurus zone (triassic) fauna from antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kitching, J W; Collinson, J W; Elliot, D H; Colbert, E H

    1972-02-01

    Tetrapod skeletons recently found in the Fremouw Formation in the Shackleton Glacier area, Transantarctic Mountains, include several forms that closely compare to South African species. Faunal similarities that confirm a close connection between Antarctica and Africa during the Triassic Period lend further support to the concept of Gondwanaland and continental drift. PMID:17755654

  1. Antarctica: Is It More Than Just Ice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cheryl; Gutierrez, Melida

    2009-01-01

    The authors introduced polar science in a fourth-grade classroom by means of 3 hands-on activities that addressed (1) the melting of glaciers and ice, (2) the differences between the North and the South Pole, and (3) the geography and landforms of Antarctica. An assessment 4 months after the original activity showed that students remembered the…

  2. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces. PMID:21594022

  3. Monuments in the Desert: A Maritime Landscape in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lynn; Jones, Jennifer; Schnitzer, Kate

    2012-10-01

    Eduard Bohlen II, wrecked in 1909 on the coast of Namibia in Africa, has an illustrious history, which is part of a larger maritime cultural landscape linked to the diamond mining industry. The ship, like many artifacts and sites, served many different purposes over time and the historical and archaeological record incorporates different levels of meaning, some of which may be nationally divisive or reconciliatory. The role of historical archaeologists is not only to document, interpret, preserve and manage grandiose elements of heritage that evoke stakeholder nationalism, but also to explore the mundane, unsavory aspects of the historical narrative. In 2010, a team from the Program in Maritime Studies of East Carolina University supported by the Maritime Archaeology Division of the Windhoek Underwater Club investigated a surf boat, diamond mining settlement and some of the remaining structure of Eduard Bohlen II, while posing mitigation and management questions about legacy of historical memory within Skeleton Coast Park.

  4. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Wen-Chung

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  5. An Evaluation of Antarctica as a Calibration Target for Passive Microwave Satellite Missions with Climate Data Record Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band (1.4 GHz) is sensitive to soil moisture and sea surface salinity, both important climate variables. Science studies involving these variables can now take advantage of new satellite L-band observations. The first mission with regular global passive microwave observations at L-band is the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), launched November, 2009. A second mission, NASA's Aquarius, was launched June, 201 I. A third mission, NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is scheduled to launch in 2014. Together, these three missions may provide a decade-long data record-provided that they are intercalibrated. The intercalibration is best performed at the radiance (brightness temperature) level, and Antarctica is proving to be a key calibration target. However, Antarctica has thus far not been fully characterized as a potential target. This paper will present evaluations of Antarctica as a microwave calibration target for the above satellite missions. Preliminary analyses have identified likely target areas, such as the vicinity of Dome-C and larger areas within East Antarctica. Physical sources of temporal and spatial variability of polar firn are key to assessing calibration uncertainty. These sources include spatial variability of accumulation rate, compaction, surface characteristics (dunes, micro-topography), wind patterns, and vertical profiles of density and temperature. Using primarily SMOS data, variability is being empirically characterized and attempts are being made to attribute observed variability to physical sources. One expected outcome of these studies is the potential discovery of techniques for remotely sensing--over all of Antarctica-parameters such as surface temperature.

  6. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  7. Study of ground handling characteristics of a maritime patrol airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mooring concepts appropriate for maritime patrol airship (MPA) vehicles are investigated. The evolution of ground handling systems and procedures for all airship types is reviewed to ensure that appropriate consideration is given to past experiences. A tri-rotor maritime patrol airship is identified and described. Wind loads on a moored airship and the effects of these loads on vehicle design are analyzed. Several mooring concepts are assessed with respect to the airship design, wind loads, and mooring site considerations. Basing requirements and applicability of expeditionary mooring also are addressed.

  8. Skills required for maritime pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care (PHEC) in the military has undergone major changes during the last 10 years of warfighting in the land environment. Providing this care in the maritime environment presents several unique challenges. This paper examines the clinical capabilities required of a PHEC team in the maritime environment and how this role can be fulfilled as part of Role 2 Afloat. It applies to Pre-hospital emergency care projected from a hospital not to General Duties Medical Officers at Role 1. PMID:22558737

  9. What maritime ISAR designers should know about ship dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2012-06-01

    ISAR has enjoyed some success in imaging maritime targets, particularly ships. In fact, a number of maritime ISAR systems have been operational for a number of years. With ISAR, the ship's own motion is critical to forming well-resolved ISAR images. Seemingly important to accounting for ship motion is to first understand the nature of the ship motion that we are likely to encounter. Designing ships for specific motion characteristics is the domain of naval architecture. This paper presents some preliminary analysis of naval architecture principles, and typical ship designs' impact on the ISAR problem.

  10. Anaerobic psychrophiles from Lake Zub and Lake Untersee, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Stahl, Sarah; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-08-01

    The study of samples from Antarctica 2008 and 2009 expeditions organized and successfully conducted by Richard Hoover led to the isolation of diverse anaerobic strains with psychrotolerant and psychrophilic physiology. Due to the fact that Lake Untersee has never been subject to microbiological study, this work with the samples has significant and pioneering impact to the knowledge about the biology of this unique ecosystem. Also, the astrobiological significance for the study of these ecosystems is based on new findings of ice covered water systems on other bodies of our solar system. Anaerobic psychrotolerant strain LZ-22 was isolated from a frozen sample of green moss with soils around the rhizosphere collected near Lake Zub in Antarctica. Morphology of strain LZ-22 was observed to be motile, rod shaped and spore-forming cells with sizes 1 x 5-10 μm. This new isolate is a mesophile with the maximum temperature of growth at 40°C. Strain LZ-22 is able to live on media without NaCl and in media with up to 7 % (w/v) NaCl. It is catalase negative and grows only on sugars with the best growth rate being on lactose. The strain is a neutrophile and grows between pH 5 and 9.0 with the optimum at 7.8. Another two strains UL7-96mG and LU-96m7P were isolated from deep water samples of Lake Untersee. Proteolytic strain LU-96m7P had a truly psychrophilic nature and refused to grow at room temperature. Sugarlytic strain UL7-96mG was found to be psychrotolerant, but its rate of growth at 3°C was very high compared with other mesophiles. Two homoacetogenic psychrophilic strains A7AC-96m and AC-DS7 were isolated and purified from samples of Lake Untersee; both of them are able to grow chemolithotrophically on H2+CO2. In the presence of lactate, these strains are able to grow only at 0-18 °C, and growth at 22 °C was observed only with yeast extract stimulation. In this paper, physiological and morphological characteristics of novel psychrophilic and psychrotolerant isolates

  11. Anaerobic Psychrophiles from Lake Zub and Lake Untersee, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Stahl, Sarah; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of samples from Antarctica 2008 and 2009 expeditions organized and successfully conducted by Richard Hoover led to the isolation of diverse anaerobic strains with psychrotolerant and psychrophilic physiology. Due to the fact that Lake Untersee has never been subject to microbiological study, this work with the samples has significant and pioneering impact to the knowledge about the biology of this unique ecosystem. Also, the astrobiological significance for the study of these ecosystems is based on new findings of ice covered water systems on other bodies of our solar system. Anaerobic psychrotolerant strain LZ-22 was isolated from a frozen sample of green moss with soils around the rhizosphere collected near Lake Zub in Antarctica. Morphology of strain LZ-22 was observed to be motile, rod shaped and spore-forming cells with sizes 1 x 5-10 micron. This new isolate is a mesophile with the maximum temperature of growth at 40C. Strain LZ-22 is able to live on media without NaCl and in media with up to 7% (w/v) NaCl. It is catalase negative and grows only on sugars with the best growth rate being on lactose. The strain is a neutrophile and grows between pH 5 and 9.0 with the optimum at 7.8. Another two strains UL7-96mG and LU-96m7P were isolated from deep water samples of Lake Untersee. Proteolytic strain LU-96m7P had a truly psychrophilic nature and refused to grow at room temperature. Sugarlytic strain UL7-96mG was found to be psychrotolerant, but its rate of growth at 3C was very high compared with other mesophiles. Two homoacetogenic psychrophilic strains A7AC-96m and AC-DS7 were isolated and purified from samples of Lake Untersee; both of them are able to grow chemolithotrophically on H2+CO2. In the presence of lactate, these strains are able to grow only at 0-18C, and growth at 22C was observed only with yeast extract stimulation. In this paper, physiological and morphological characteristics of novel psychrophilic and psychrotolerant isolates from

  12. 77 FR 46126 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nomination of members to serve on the Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health....

  13. 76 FR 54806 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of MACOSH Meeting. SUMMARY: The Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)...

  14. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  15. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  16. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  17. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  18. 47 CFR 80.333 - Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.333 Stations in the maritime mobile-satellite service. The...-satellite service....

  19. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE... Organization Chart ER03JN10.006...

  20. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE... Organization Chart ER03JN10.006...

  1. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal Maritime Commission Organization Chart A Appendix A to Part 501 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE... Organization Chart ER03JN10.006...

  2. Multiple meteoroid impact in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihoupt, J. W.; Rice, A.; van der Hoeven, F.

    2006-12-01

    In the late 1950's, geophysical field parties undertaking gravity surveys across Antarctica observed over a large area of Wilkes Land (> 240km across) an exceptionally pronounced negative free air anomaly ((to -158.3 mgal). This area was later interpreted as a possible meteor impact site because the gravity profiles were similar to those of known impact sites (apparent rim structures, circular basins, central peaks or rings), they possessed appropriate aspect ratios (e.g., crater diameter vs crater depth), anomalously steep negative free air gravity anomaly gradients (to 4.71 mgal/km) were characteristic of impact craters and uncharacteristic of solely mantle-related or geologic crustal variations, etc. The condition of the ice covering the anomaly (heavily crevassed), the apparent lack of isostatic compensation with surrounding environs, etc suggested the impact was geologically recent and that perhaps a tektite strewn field was associated with it. The distance from the postulated impact to the Australian strewn field was appropriate as are the ages of the tektites there. This early work has been augmented with the detection of a dominant cluster of negative free air gravity anomalies crossing the continental-oceanic boundary, and the East and West Antarctic structural boundary (i.e., Transantarctic Mountains). These anomalies are coincident with complex subglacial craterform topographic features inferred from radiosounding (to -500m below MSL). The major interior positive free air gravity anomalies are associated with subglacial topographic highs. The elliptical distribution of the negative gravity anomalies resemble known multiple impact distributions (scatter ellipses with the larger anomalies forward and the lesser ones aft). This more recent information favors expanding the original proposal to that of a multiple meteoroid impact. The multiple impact hypotheses would explain aeromagnetic surveys revealing ring-shaped structures in the subglacial rock surface

  3. 47 CFR 80.379 - Maritime frequencies assignable to aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maritime frequencies assignable to aircraft stations. 80.379 Section 80.379 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Aircraft Stations § 80.379 Maritime frequencies assignable to...

  4. Health promotion in the maritime work environment--training of leaders.

    PubMed

    Jezewska, Maria; Jaremin, Bogdan; Leszczyńska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    The essence of the project of pro-health attitudes promotion is the assumption that they contribute to a successful occupational career and reduce health and life hazards in the maritime work environment. The method chosen was to train students of the Maritime Academy in Gdynia, the future officers and potential health leaders among maritime employees. PMID:18350982

  5. 46 CFR 501.3 - Organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational components of the Federal Maritime... THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Organization and Functions § 501.3 Organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission. The major organizational components of the Commission are...

  6. 33 CFR 162.270 - Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. 162.270 Section 162.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.270 Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. (a) The... National Defense Reserve Fleets of the Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation: (1)...

  7. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay... Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime Festival's Pier 66 Safety Zone in Elliott Bay, WA from 8 a.m... Guard will enforce the Safety Zone for the Fleet Week Maritime Festival in 33 CFR 165.1330 on August...

  8. 46 CFR 501.5 - Functions of the organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Functions of the organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission. 501.5 Section 501.5 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION-GENERAL Organization and Functions § 501.5 Functions of the organizational components of the...

  9. On the Applications of Modern Educational Technology in Maritime English Teaching from the Perspective of Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Zhongliang

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays maritime transportation has become a major modern logistics because of its large capacity and low cost. English plays a leading role in the industry of maritime transportation. It is the most important medium and an indispensable communication tool in international business and global marine industry. Maritime English teaching has made…

  10. 46 CFR 308.408 - Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium. 308.408 Section 308.408 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.408 Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium. The...

  11. 46 CFR 308.408 - Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium. 308.408 Section 308.408 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.408 Right of Maritime Administrator to change rate of premium. The...

  12. Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. LoBiondo, Frank A. [R-NJ-2

    2012-06-01

    06/07/2012 Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Discharged. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2838, which became Public Law 112-213 on 12/20/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. PMID:21819835

  14. Maritime health in Spain: integrated services are the key.

    PubMed

    Canals, M L; Gómez, F; Herrador, J

    2001-01-01

    The maritime occupational health services in Spain are overviewed, and their coordination for seafarers and fishermen within the integrated governmental "Maritime Health Programme", which as from 1984 has been supervised by the Labour and Social Affairs Ministry. The institution in charge is the "Instituto Social de la Marina" (ISM) in Madrid (Mariners' Social Institute) established in 1919, which has organised a network of specialised health institutions in ports. They provide medical assistance on board ships and coastal preventive services for maritime workers. There is the Radio Medical Advice Centre in Madrid, local centres in ports, centres abroad, hospital ships and a repatriation centre. All of them are connected in a centralised database net of shared medical records in a confidential computerised system. Another institution is "Sanidad Exterior" which is related to vaccinations and hygienic problems in harbours. There is also a non profit national scientific medical organisation, the Spanish Society of Maritime Medicine (SEMM) established in 1989, and another society of Naval Medicine founded in 1995. There are also groups of specialists in underwater medicine and health problems of divers. A separate article is published on the SEMM and its activities. PMID:11817826

  15. 49 CFR 1.66 - Delegations to Maritime Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... feasibility study of an oil pollution prevention program. (See 49 CFR 1.46 and 1.53). (z) Carry out the... Federal Register citations affecting § 1.66, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegations to Maritime Administrator....

  16. Indians of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Giving the history of the Indians of Quebec and the maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Prince Edward Island), this document covers the period from the arrival of European explorers in the New World to 1967. Reviewing the history of these Indians, sections are devoted to (1) colonization of Acadia, (2) colonization of Quebec, (3)…

  17. The new Euskalmet coastal-maritime warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaztelumendi, Santiago; Egaña, Joseba; Liria, Pedro; Gonzalez, Manuel; Aranda, José Antonio; Anitua, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    This work presents the main characteristics of the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) maritime-coastal risk warning system, with special emphasis on the latest updates, including a clear differentiation on specific warning messages addressing sea conditions for navigation purposes in the first 2 nautical miles, and expected coastal impacts. Some details of the warning bulletin for maritime and coastal risk situations are also presented, together with other communication products and strategies used in coastal and maritime severe episodes at the Basque coast. Today, three different aspects are included in the coastal-maritime risk warning system in Basque Country, related to the main potential severe events that affecting coastal activities. - "Galerna" risk relates to a sudden wind reversal that can severely affect coastal navigation and recreational activities. - "Navigation" risk relates to severe sea state conditions for 0-2 miles, affecting different navigation activities. - "Coastal impact" risk relates to adverse wave characteristics and tidal surges that induce flooding events and different impacts in littoral areas.

  18. Understanding Attrition in UK Maritime Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gekara, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The shipping industry worldwide is experiencing a shortage of trained and qualified officers to operate a rapidly expanding global merchant fleet. High cadet wastage in Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutions is an obstacle to skills replenishment in the UK. This paper examines the specificity of MET programmes with regard to the…

  19. 49 CFR 1.66 - Delegations to Maritime Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... feasibility study of an oil pollution prevention program. (See 49 CFR 1.46 and 1.53). (z) Carry out the... Federal Register citations affecting § 1.66, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the... provisions of sections 10 through 13 of Public Law 103-451, the National Maritime Heritage Act of 1994,...

  20. MANAGEMENT OF MARITIME COMMUNITIES FOR THREATENED AND ENDANGERED SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maritime ecosystems along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts support the military mission of the United States Department of Defense (DoD). Since the DoD mission has not required large-scale urbanization of the coast, these ecosystems also provide high quality habitat for several feder...

  1. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  2. Texture orientation-based algorithm for detecting infrared maritime targets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Dong, Lili; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Houde; Xu, Wenhai

    2015-05-20

    Infrared maritime target detection is a key technology for maritime target searching systems. However, in infrared maritime images (IMIs) taken under complicated sea conditions, background clutters, such as ocean waves, clouds or sea fog, usually have high intensity that can easily overwhelm the brightness of real targets, which is difficult for traditional target detection algorithms to deal with. To mitigate this problem, this paper proposes a novel target detection algorithm based on texture orientation. This algorithm first extracts suspected targets by analyzing the intersubband correlation between horizontal and vertical wavelet subbands of the original IMI on the first scale. Then the self-adaptive wavelet threshold denoising and local singularity analysis of the original IMI is combined to remove false alarms further. Experiments show that compared with traditional algorithms, this algorithm can suppress background clutter much better and realize better single-frame detection for infrared maritime targets. Besides, in order to guarantee accurate target extraction further, the pipeline-filtering algorithm is adopted to eliminate residual false alarms. The high practical value and applicability of this proposed strategy is backed strongly by experimental data acquired under different environmental conditions. PMID:26192503

  3. TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system based on TVWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chunxiang; Chen, Xing; Li, Wanchao; Chen, Baodan

    2014-10-01

    This paper collects the measurement results of 470 MHZ-960MHZ spectrum in the coastal areas, and analyzes the characteristics of TV broadcast spectrum occupancy in the measurement region. Moreover, this article proposes construct the TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system using geolocation database, television database (TVDB) and cognitive radio (CR) technology.

  4. Rule-based expert system for maritime anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Maritime domain operators/analysts have a mandate to be aware of all that is happening within their areas of responsibility. This mandate derives from the needs to defend sovereignty, protect infrastructures, counter terrorism, detect illegal activities, etc., and it has become more challenging in the past decade, as commercial shipping turned into a potential threat. In particular, a huge portion of the data and information made available to the operators/analysts is mundane, from maritime platforms going about normal, legitimate activities, and it is very challenging for them to detect and identify the non-mundane. To achieve such anomaly detection, they must establish numerous relevant situational facts from a variety of sensor data streams. Unfortunately, many of the facts of interest just cannot be observed; the operators/analysts thus use their knowledge of the maritime domain and their reasoning faculties to infer these facts. As they are often overwhelmed by the large amount of data and information, automated reasoning tools could be used to support them by inferring the necessary facts, ultimately providing indications and warning on a small number of anomalous events worthy of their attention. Along this line of thought, this paper describes a proof-of-concept prototype of a rule-based expert system implementing automated rule-based reasoning in support of maritime anomaly detection.

  5. 77 FR 23120 - National Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... regulation can be found in the April 27, 1996 issue of the Federal Register (61 FR 16710). A regulated area is established on that portion of Elliott Bay along the Seattle waterfront in Puget Sound bounded by... Local Regulation for the annual National Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12...

  6. Influence of environmental factors on the geomorphologic support in Maritime Danube Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichersu, Iuliana; Nichersu, Iulian; Trifanov, Cristian; Mierla, Marian; Marin, Eugenia; Sela, Florentina

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to present the main aspects of the influence of environmental factors in the maritime part of Danube Delta, in the context of the impact on the geomorphologic support. The evolution of environmental factors impact is exponentially increasing in recent years, mapping out the complexity of the Delta system. Analysis of the impact of these factors on the evolution of geomorphologic support is relevant if the system analysis is done in an integrated way. In this context, this research presents in detail the interaction between the elements of the environment and maritime delta complex geomorphologic evolution. The approach provides a concrete example of systemic modeling through a multi-criteria methodology, systematically introducing and changing the impact of environmental factors in the deltaic system. Analyzing with the environmental factors (abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic) was noticed a high level of synergies between their components and the deltaic support-with relevant observations on the geomorphology of the study area. Soil science, geomorphology, hydrology etc. are geographical subjects that are used in applied sciences, considering the anthropogenic pressure regarding spatial planning and regional development. The precise knowledge of the vulnerability of land provides delineation, spatial location of areas with different degrees of exposure. Thus opens another direction regarding the practical knowledge of the environment and relief in which the maps receives analytic and practical valences and the geographical sciences proves their social usefulness. In order to determine the impact of the chosen factors (climate - temperature, rainfall etc, geomorphologic - exposure, slope etc, soil - texture, salinity etc, biotic - habitat, species etc, anthropogenic - embankments, irritations etc) on the geomorphologic support of the maritime Danube Delta, the analysis was based on detailed maps (both historical and actual like the Digital Terrain

  7. 45 CFR 674.4 - Restrictions on collection of meteorites in Antarctica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.4 Restrictions on collection of meteorites in Antarctica. No person may collect meteorites in Antarctica for other than scientific research purposes....

  8. 45 CFR 674.4 - Restrictions on collection of meteorites in Antarctica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.4 Restrictions on collection of meteorites in Antarctica. No person may collect meteorites in Antarctica for other than scientific research purposes....

  9. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Iceland and Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. These studies, conducted in Iceland and in Antarctica, investigated physical and chemical weathering mechanisms and rates, eolitan processes, mudflow phenomena, drainage development, and catastrophic fluvial and volcanic phenomena. Continuing investigations in Iceland fall in three main catagories: (1) catastrophic floods of the Jokulsa a Fjollum, (2) lahars associated with explosive volcanic eruptions of Askja caldera, and (3) rates of eolian abrasion in cold, volcanic deserts. The ice-free valleys of Antarctica, in particular those in South Victoria Land, have much is common with the surface of Mars. In addition to providing independent support for the application of the Iceland findings to consideration of the martian erosional system, the Antarctic observations also provide analogies to other martian phenomena. For example, a family of sand dunes in Victoria Valley are stabilized by the incorporation of snow as beds.

  10. Antarctica - Lessons for a Mars exploration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    The history of exploration and the international system of control of Antarctica has often been cited as a paradigm for the exploration of space. The small isolated research stations have been used to model the psychological stresses of future space missions. In addition, the programmatic structure of the U.S. Antarctic Research Program provides several possible analogs to future Mars Programs presently under discussion. These are: (1) Continued presence; (2) Civilian, military and private sector involvement; (3) Scientific activities; (4) Risk assessment and logistical support; (5) Accessibility for non-specialists; (6) Political and strategic motivations; (7) International cooperation/competition. Survival in Antarctica is contingent on advanced technology and the active transport of supplies. The scientific exploration of this remote and barren expanse without, of course, the aid and guidance of indigenous people certainly provides one of the closest analogs available to future science activities on the Martian surface.

  11. Intercomparison of ozone measurements over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margitan, J. J.; Farmer, C. B.; Toon, G. C.; Brothers, G. A.; Browell, E. V.; Gregory, G. L.; Hypes, W.; Larsen, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Krueger, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the abundances of ozone over Antarctica in August and September 1987 obtained during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment are intercompared. These measurements of ozone concentrations and total column abundance were obtained by three satellite instruments, two IR and one UV column-measuring instruments aboard the DC-8, one in situ DC-8, and two in situ ER-2 instruments, an upward looking lidar aboard the DC-8, and ozone sondes from four sites in Antarctica. This paper presents a summary of the ozone data, using the data and accuracies given by the individual investigators in the individual papers in this issue, without any attempt to critically review or evaluate the data. In general, very good agreement (within about 10-20 percent, limited by natural variability) among the various techniques was found, with no systematic biases detected. These observations confirm the low ozone amounts reported in the Antarctic stratosphere.

  12. Temporal and spatial patterns of anthropogenic disturbance at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, Mahlon C., II; Klein, Andrew; Montagna, Paul; Sweet, Stephen; Wade, Terry; Palmer, Terence; Sericano, Jose; Denoux, Guy

    2010-07-01

    Human visitations to Antarctica have increased in recent decades, raising concerns about preserving the continent's environmental quality. To understand the spatial and temporal patterns of anthropogenic disturbances at the largest scientific station in Antarctica, McMurdo Station, a long-term monitoring program has been implemented. Results from the first nine years (1999-2007) of monitoring are reported. Most physical disturbance of land surfaces occurred prior to 1970 during initial establishment of the station. Hydrocarbons from fuel and anthropogenic metals occur in patches of tens to hundreds of square meters in areas of fuel usage and storage. Most soil contaminant concentrations are not expected to elicit biological responses. Past disposal practices have contaminated marine sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), petroleum hydrocarbons, and metals in close proximity to the station that often exceed concentrations expected to elicit biological responses. Chemical contamination and organic enrichment reduced marine benthic ecological integrity within a few hundred meters offshore of the station. Contaminants were detected in marine benthic organisms confirming bioavailability and uptake. PCBs in sediments are similar to suspected source materials, indicating minimal microbial degradation decades after release. Anthropogenic disturbance of the marine environment is likely to persist for decades. A number of monitoring design elements, indicators and methodologies used in temperate climates were effective and provide guidance for monitoring programs elsewhere in Antarctica.

  13. Microbial Analyses of Ancient Ice Core Sections from Greenland and Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Caitlin; Veerapaneni, Ram; D’Elia, Tom; Rogers, Scott O.

    2013-01-01

    Ice deposited in Greenland and Antarctica entraps viable and nonviable microbes, as well as biomolecules, that become temporal atmospheric records. Five sections (estimated to be 500, 10,500, 57,000, 105,000 and 157,000 years before present, ybp) from the GISP2D (Greenland) ice core, three sections (500, 30,000 and 70,000 ybp) from the Byrd ice core, and four sections from the Vostok 5G (Antarctica) ice core (10,500, 57,000, 105,000 and 105,000 ybp) were studied by scanning electron microscopy, cultivation and rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial and fungal isolates were recovered from 10 of the 12 sections. The highest numbers of isolates were found in ice core sections that were deposited during times of low atmospheric CO2, low global temperatures and low levels of atmospheric dust. Two of the sections (GISP2D at 10,500 and 157,000 ybp) also were examined using metagenomic/metatranscriptomic methods. These results indicated that sequences from microbes common to arid and saline soils were deposited in the ice during a time of low temperature, low atmospheric CO2 and high dust levels. Members of Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, while Rhodotorula species were the most common eukaryotic representatives. Isolates of Bacillus, Rhodotorula, Alternaria and members of the Davidiellaceae were isolated from both Greenland and Antarctica sections of the same age, although the sequences differed between the two polar regions. PMID:24832659

  14. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Morin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The first-ever true-color, high-resolution digital mosaic of Antarctica has been produced from nearly 1100 Landsat-7 ETM+ images collected between 1999 and 2003. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) project was an early benchmark data set of the International Polar Year and represents a close and successful collaboration between NASA, USGS, the British Antarctic Survey and the National Science Foundation. The mosaic was successfully merged with lower resolution MODIS data south of Landsat coverage to produce a complete true-color data set of the entire continent. LIMA is being used as a platform for a variety of education and outreach activities. Central to this effort is the NASA website 'Faces of Antarctica' that offers the web visitor the opportunity to explore the data set and to learn how these data are used to support scientific research. Content is delivered through a set of mysteries designed to pique the user's interest and to motivate them to delve deeper into the website where there are various videos and scientific articles for downloading. Detailed lesson plans written by teachers are provided for classroom use and Java applets let the user track the motion of ice in sequential Landsat images. Web links take the user to other sites where they can roam over the imagery using standard pan and zoom functions, or search for any named feature in the Antarctic Geographic Names data base that returns to the user a centered true-color view of any named feature. LIMA also has appeared is a host of external presentations from museum exhibits, to postcards and large posters. It has attracted various value-added providers that increase LIMA's accessibility by allowing users to specify subsets of the very large data set for individual downloads. The ultimate goal of LIMA in the public and educational sector is to enable everyone to become more familiar with Antarctica.

  15. Life on ice, Antarctica and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Sagan, C.; Squyres, S. W.; Simmons, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the origin of life and the prospects for human exploration of Mars are two themes developed in a new 57-minute film, Life on Ice, Antarctica, and Mars, produced by the InnerSpace Foundation and WHRO Television for broadcast by the Public Broadcasting System (PBS). A brief explanation of the film and how it relates to the future human exploration of space is presented.

  16. The Ice: A Journey to Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Arthur B.

    The title is misleading for a non—“OAE” (Old Antarctic Explorer, to whom “The Ice” is Antarctica) because The Ice is about far more than just ice. It does indeed cover just about all you'd want to know (or more) about Antarctic ice, from the vast south polar sheets and glaciers to the great tabular bergs, bergy bits, brash ice, pancake ice, frazil ice, and the pack of the polar seas; but it also explores nearly every aspect of this “Last of Lands” in an unusually comprehensive coverage. From the “Heroic Ages” of early 20th-century explorers Robert Scott, Ernest Shackleton, and Roald Amundsen to the present “Cruise Ship Age,”Antarctica has produced a wealth of literature in the “Journey to…” style — which Pyne's is not. Instead, his product from one short (3-month) visit under a National Endowment for the Humanities fellowship takes all readers o n a webwork journey through time, space, ice, and rocks for an appreciation of “ The Ice” in a way found in no other book. This, his fifth book (another one is Fire in America, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1982), is a significant contribution to the literature of Antarctica. Pyne's prose cannot be paraphrased for a review, as the reader will be able to appreciate from the excerpts to follow.

  17. PUTATIVE STRESS REGULATED GENES OF THE ANTARCTIC MIDGE, BELGICA ANTARCTICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antarctica presents one of the earth’s most inhospitable environments. Though an abundance of animals have adapted to life associated with the sea in this part of the world, few animals have adapted to the rigors of a terrestrial existence. One exception is the flightless midge Belgica antarctica ...

  18. STRESS PROTEINS OF THE ANTARCTIC MIDGE, BELGICA ANTARCTICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antarctica presents one of the earth’s most inhospitable environments. Though an abundance of animals have adapted to life associated with the sea in this part of the world, few animals have adapted to the rigors of a terrestrial existence. One exception is the flightless midge Belgica antarctica ...

  19. Antarctica Research in the Polar Research Center of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Cole-Dai, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Polar Research Center of China (PRCC) was established in the early 1990s (formerly Polar Research Institute of China) to serve as the leading national organization for Antarctica-related research in China. Current research areas of center staff scientists include glaciology and paleoclimatology, upper atmospheric physics, polar and marine biology, and oceanagrphy. In addition to its own active research, PRCC on behalf of the China Antarctic and Arctic Administration coordinates and provides logistical support to Antarctica research activities by all Chinese scientists. The center organizes and manages the annual Chinese Research Expedition to Antarctica with participation from many other national and academic institutions. In its first decade of existence, PRCC has accumulated valuable experience in conducting and facilitating research in Antarctica, particularly in the areas of logistic support for field programs, staffing and managing the two permanent stations in Antarctica (Great Wall and Zhongshan). The successful operation of the Chinese Antarctica research program has benefitted from generous assistance from several more established national (for example, Australia, Japan and the United States) Antarctica programs and from frequent contact with international colleagues working on Antarctica research. Among the many issues and problems frequently encountered in the last decade are: (1) The scale of research activities is often seriously constrained by logistic capabilities and funding; (2) Limited computer network and library resources hamper speedy and timely access to relevant international scientific literature; (3) Acquisition of high quality scientific (field and laboratory) equipment and special supplies can be limited by funding and access to suppliers.

  20. [The French maritime health police in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hillemand, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The French law of 1822 created a homogeneous maritime health police all along the French coastline. Noteworthy in many respects, it was however very binding since it included some penalties of an extraordinary harshness as hard labour or even death. It was first disputed by those against the theory of contagion and the maritime and commercial circles, but subsequently it became overtaken by scientific knowledge despite numerous facilities and some important remodelling decrees were decided, one of them in 1876 just before the Pasteur revolution and another in 1896. The aim was then not only to prevent, epidemics (plague, cholera, yellow fever) crossing the borders of the national country, but also to prevent them from spreading out of their original cradles. Later it was the beginning of the sanitary international cooperation with the training of special eastern practitioners who could take sanitary precautions close to the sources of infection. PMID:23038863

  1. A maritime wireless communication primitive power-supplied by GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Youling; Liu, Angli; Du, Wencai; Zhang, Yonghui

    2014-10-01

    As global positioning systems (GPS) are becoming ubiquitous, GPS signals are populating the space. While such signals have exclusively been used in localization services in the first place, we take the first step in turning them to energy sources for maritime communication. Specifically, we leverage antennas deployed on ships to harvest energy from such ambient GPS signals, which are also fed into encoders to carry information bits. This way, maritime communication can be built completely battery-free all day long. Also, it it because the communication takes place on the ocean, where no interference is introduced, except for the original GPS signals to the backscattered GPS signals, the design of the transceiver under certain energy budget is simplified. In this paper, we show the theoretical promise that the system would work using electromagnetic theories, and introduce our prototype which proves the concept in real world settings.

  2. URANIUM DETECTION USING SMALL SCINTILLATORS IN A MARITIME ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K

    2006-05-12

    The performance of several commercially available portable radiation spectrometers containing small NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors has been studied at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These hand-held radioisotope identifiers are used by field personnel to detect and identify the illegal transport of uranium as a deterrent to undeclared nuclear proliferation or nuclear terrorism. The detection of uranium in a variety of chemical forms and isotopic enrichments presents some unique challenges in the maritime environment. This study was conducted using a variety of shielded and unshielded uranium sources in a simulated maritime environment. The results include estimates of the detection sensitivity for various isotopic enrichments and configurations using the manufacturer's spectral analysis firmware. More sophisticated methods for analyzing the spectra off-line are also evaluated to determine the detection limits and enrichment sensitivities from the field measurements.

  3. Maritime target identification in flash-ladar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Walter; Hammer, Marcus

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents new techniques and processing results for automatic segmentation, shape classification, generic pose estimation, and model-based identification of naval vessels in laser radar imagery. The special characteristics of focal plane array laser radar systems such as multiple reflections and intensity-dependent range measurements are incorporated into the algorithms. The proposed 3D model matching technique is probabilistic, based on the range error distribution, correspondence errors, the detection probability of potentially visible model points and false alarm errors. The match algorithm is robust against incomplete and inaccurate models, each model having been generated semi-automatically from a single range image. A classification accuracy of about 96% was attained, using a maritime database with over 8000 flash laser radar images of 146 ships at various ranges and orientations together with a model library of 46 vessels. Applications include military maritime reconnaissance, coastal surveillance, harbor security and anti-piracy operations.

  4. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  5. Unmanned vehicles for maritime spill response case study: Exercise Cathach.

    PubMed

    Dooly, Gerard; Omerdic, Edin; Coleman, Joseph; Miller, Liam; Kaknjo, Admir; Hayes, James; Braga, Jóse; Ferreira, Filipe; Conlon, Hugh; Barry, Hugh; Marcos-Olaya, Jesús; Tuohy, Thomas; Sousa, João; Toal, Dan

    2016-09-15

    This paper deals with two aspects, namely a historical analysis of the use of unmanned vehicles (UAVs ROVs, AUVs) in maritime spill incidents and a detailed description of a multi-agency oil and HNS incident response exercise involving the integration and analysis of unmanned vehicles environmental sensing equipment. The exercise was a first in terms of the level of robotic systems deployed to assist in survey, surveillance and inspection roles for oil spills and harmful and noxious substances. PMID:27339741

  6. Modelling of microwave propagation and clutter in a maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, M. H.

    1994-07-01

    For a radar system in a maritime environment, the probability of detection of a target at a low altitude is strongly dependent on the conditions of the atmosphere and the sea surface. In order to determine the detection probability of a target at low altitude, these conditions should be taken into account. This paper presents numerical methods to calculate electromagnetic propagation in an evaporation duct and to calculate sea clutter returns.

  7. Development of an unmanned maritime system reference architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Christiane N.; Cramer, Megan A.; Stack, Jason R.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of operations (CONOPS) for unmanned maritime systems (UMS) continues to envision systems that are multi-mission, re-configurable and capable of acceptable performance over a wide range of environmental and contextual variability. Key enablers for these concepts of operation are an autonomy module which can execute different mission directives and a mission payload consisting of re-configurable sensor or effector suites. This level of modularity in mission payloads enables affordability, flexibility (i.e., more capability with future platforms) and scalability (i.e., force multiplication). The modularity in autonomy facilitates rapid technology integration, prototyping, testing and leveraging of state-of-the-art advances in autonomy research. Capability drivers imply a requirement to maintain an open architecture design for both research and acquisition programs. As the maritime platforms become more stable in their design (e.g. unmanned surface vehicles, unmanned underwater vehicles) future developments are able to focus on more capable sensors and more robust autonomy algorithms. To respond to Fleet needs, given an evolving threat, programs will want to interchange the latest sensor or a new and improved algorithm in a cost effective and efficient manner. In order to make this possible, the programs need a reference architecture that will define for technology providers where their piece fits and how to successfully integrate. With these concerns in mind, the US Navy established the Unmanned Maritime Systems Reference Architecture (UMS-RA) Working Group in August 2011. This group consists of Department of Defense and industry participants working the problem of defining reference architecture for autonomous operations of maritime systems. This paper summarizes its efforts to date.

  8. Inference of vessel intent and behaviour for maritime security operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Bert; Smith, Arthur; den Breejen, Eric; van de Voorde, Imelda

    2014-10-01

    Coastguard and Navy assets are increasingly involved in Maritime Security Operations (MSO) for countering piracy, weapons and drugs smuggling, terrorism and illegal trafficking. Persistent tracking of vessels in interrupted time series over long distances and the modelling of intent and behaviour from multiple data sources are key enablers for Situation Assessment in MSO. Results of situation assessment are presented for AIS/VTS observations in the Dutch North Sea and for simulated scenarios in the Gulf of Oman.

  9. Maritime traffic monitoring using a space-based AIS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Torkild; Høye, Gudrun; Narheim, Bjørn; Meland, Bente Jensløkken

    2006-05-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a maritime safety and vessel traffic system imposed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The system broadcasts position reports and short messages with information about the ship and the voyage. Using frequencies in the maritime VHF band, the coverage is similar to other VHF applications, and is essentially dependent on the altitude of the antenna. For ship-to-ship communications the range is typically 20 nautical miles and for ship-to-shore up to 40 nm. A space-based AIS receiver in low earth orbit will have a range to the horizon of more than 1000 nm, giving an excellent opportunity for large-area ocean surveillance. The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has performed a feasibility study on reception of AIS messages from space. The results show that a ship detection probability of near 100% can be obtained for up to 1000 ships within the coverage area, and that for a standard AIS receiver a signal power margin of 10-20 dB can be achieved. On this background, swath-width analyses for European scenarios are done. It is argued that space-based reception of AIS messages is a promising way of achieving long-range identification and tracking services at marginal cost.

  10. Gender, social norms, and survival in maritime disasters

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, Mikael; Erixson, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Since the sinking of the Titanic, there has been a widespread belief that the social norm of “women and children first” (WCF) gives women a survival advantage over men in maritime disasters, and that captains and crew members give priority to passengers. We analyze a database of 18 maritime disasters spanning three centuries, covering the fate of over 15,000 individuals of more than 30 nationalities. Our results provide a unique picture of maritime disasters. Women have a distinct survival disadvantage compared with men. Captains and crew survive at a significantly higher rate than passengers. We also find that: the captain has the power to enforce normative behavior; there seems to be no association between duration of a disaster and the impact of social norms; women fare no better when they constitute a small share of the ship’s complement; the length of the voyage before the disaster appears to have no impact on women’s relative survival rate; the sex gap in survival rates has declined since World War I; and women have a larger disadvantage in British shipwrecks. Taken together, our findings show that human behavior in life-and-death situations is best captured by the expression “every man for himself.” PMID:22847426

  11. Training and Maritime Archaeology in a University Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parham, David; Palma, Paola

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on experience gained by Bournemouth University to consider undergraduate education in maritime archaeology. At Bournemouth maritime archaeology is taught firmly in the context of a broader archaeological education. Archaeological programmes vary with the institutions within which they are taught, each programme thus having an individual character that separates it from that of other institutions and further enriches the subject through the breadth of this education. At Bournemouth the value of teaching archaeology with a high component of practical experience has been long understood. This does not mean that archaeology is taught as a purely practical subject but as one within which experience in the field is seen as a worthwhile focus. Bournemouth’s programme therefore recognises the value of field research projects as learning environments for undergraduates studying maritime archaeology. The programme is subject to a number of constraints, notably the size of the archaeological employment market, levels of pay within that market, questions of ongoing professional development after graduation, and the requirements of other employment markets into which archaeological graduates enter. This paper argues that research project-based learning, and in particular, involvement with amateur groups, provides a way to balance these constraints and supports development of both technical and transferable ‘soft’ skills.

  12. A century of leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, France.

    PubMed

    Marty, P; Izri, A; Ozon, C; Haas, P; Rosenthal, E; Del Giudice, P; Godenir, J; Coulibaly, E; Gari-Toussaint, M; Delaunay, P; Ferrua, B; Haas, H; Pratlong, F; Le Fichoux, Y

    2007-10-01

    A century of publications on leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, in southern France, is here reviewed. Autochtonous human and canine leishmaniasis were first recognised in this département, which lies by the Mediterranean Sea and near the Italian border, in 1918 and 1925, respectively. The parasite responsible for the leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi. The human leishmaniasis is zoonotic, with domestic dogs acting as the main 'reservoir' hosts. In prospective surveys over the last two decades, a mean of 12% of the domestic dogs checked in Alpes-Maritimes have been found seropositive for L. infantum but only about 50% of the seropositive animals showed any clinical signs of infection at the time of the surveys. During the last 30 years, 178 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis have been recorded in the area. Such cases are sporadic and often opportunistic, occurring predominantly in children (29% of the 178 cases) or HIV-positive subjects (31%). Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in Alpes-Maritimes, approximately 20% of those found seropositive in leishmanin skin tests are asymptomatic carriers, with amastigotes in their peripheral blood. PMID:17877875

  13. Spatial, Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Maritime Piracy

    PubMed Central

    Marchione, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine patterns in the timing and location of incidents of maritime piracy to see whether, like many urban crimes, attacks cluster in space and time. Methods: Data for all incidents of maritime piracy worldwide recorded by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency are analyzed using time-series models and methods originally developed to detect disease contagion. Results: At the macro level, analyses suggest that incidents of pirate attacks are concentrated in five subregions of the earth’s oceans and that the time series for these different subregions differ. At the micro level, analyses suggest that for the last 16 years (or more), pirate attacks appear to cluster in space and time suggesting that patterns are not static but are also not random. Conclusions: Much like other types of crime, pirate attacks cluster in space, and following an attack at one location the risk of others at the same location or nearby is temporarily elevated. The identification of such regularities has implications for the understanding of maritime piracy and for predicting the future locations of attacks. PMID:25076796

  14. Cryptococcus nyarrowii sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Hall, Skye; Watson, Kenneth

    2002-05-01

    In December 1997, 196 soil and snow samples were collected from Vestvold Hills, Davis Base, Antarctica. Two isolates, CBS 8804T (pink colonies) and CBS 8805 (yellow colonies), were shown by proteome analysis and DNA sequencing to represent the same species. Results from the sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the large rDNA subunit placed this species in the hymenomycetous tree in a unique sister clade to the Trichosporonales and the Tremellales. The clade consists of Holtermannia corniformis CBS 6979 and CBS strains 8804T, 8805, 8016, 7712, 7713 and 7743. Morphological and physiological characteristics placed this species in the genus Cryptococcus, with characteristics including the assimilation of D-glucuronate and myo-inositol, no fermentation, positive Diazonium blue B and urease reactions, absence of sexual reproduction and production of starch-like compounds. Fatty acid analysis identified large proportions of polyunsaturated lipids, mainly linoleic (C18:2) and, to a lesser extent, linolenic (C18:3) acids. On the basis of the physiological and phylogenetic data, isolates CBS 8804T and CBS 8805 are described as Cryptococcus nyarrowii sp. nov. PMID:12054220

  15. The crustal thickness of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.

    2014-01-01

    P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

  16. Antarctica: measuring glacier velocity from satellite images

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferguson, H.M.

    1986-11-28

    Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

  17. Antarctica: Measuring glacier velocity from satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferguson, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

  18. Low deuterium content of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragotzkie, R.A.; Friedman, I.

    1965-01-01

    Lake Vanda in Victoria Land, Antarctica, is permanently ice-covered and permanently stratified, with warm, salty water near the bottom. Deuterium analyses of lake water from several levels indicate that the lake has a low deuterium content, and that it is stratified with respect to this isotope. This low deuterium content supports the evidence from the lake's ionic content that the saline layer is not of marine origin, and it indicates that evaporation from the ice surface has taken place. The stratification of the lake with respect to deuterium suggests that the upper and lower layers of water were formed at different times from different sources of glacial melt water.

  19. Exhumation of the Shackleton Range, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucka, Nicole; Lisker, Frank; Läufer, Andreas; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2013-04-01

    The Shackleton Range is situated between 80° - 81°S and 19° - 31°W, where it forms the continuation of the Transantarctic Mountains in the Weddell Sea sector of Antarctica. There, Precambrian igneous and metamorphic basement is overlain by (meta-) sedimentary rocks of an Early Paleozoic nappe stack and post-orogenic red beds. Nappe stacking resulted from the collision of East and West Gondwana due to the closure of the Mozambique Ocean in pan-African times. The uplift and exhumation history of the Shackleton Range has been analysed earlier based on a series of vertical fission track profiles (Schäfer, 1998; Lisker et al., 1999). Zircon ages range from ~160 to 210 Ma while apatite ages between ~95 and ~170 Ma comprise a break in slope of the altitude regression at ~110 Ma, and are accompanied by mean track lengths of 12.7 - 14.1 µm (standard deviation 1.0 - 1.4 µm). These data have been interpreted qualitatively in terms of two cooling/ exhumation stages during Jurassic and mid-Cretaceous times. However, the recognition of Jurassic volcaniclastic rocks associated with the ~180 Ma Ferrar event in the vicinity of the sample locations (Buggisch et al., 1994) challenges this exhumation concept. Moreover, new fission track proxy data (Dpar) and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 88 and 171 Ma allow thermal history modelling of the combined thermochronological data. First tentative thermal history models suggest early Mesozoic cooling followed by (post-) Jurassic heating and final cooling since the Late Cretaceous. This scenario requires burial of the Shackleton Range region, and therefore the existence of a sedimentary basin at least during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, and subsequent basin inversion. The thickness of the now vanished sedimentary strata did unlikely exceed 2 - 3 km. Future work including additional apatite fission track analyses will help to quantifying geometry, depth and timing of this depocentre and evaluating potential links with the coeval

  20. Boundary layer halogens in coastal Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S; Salmon, Rhian A; Bauguitte, Stephane J-B; Jones, Anna E; Roscoe, Howard K; Plane, John M C

    2007-07-20

    Halogens influence the oxidizing capacity of Earth's troposphere, and iodine oxides form ultrafine aerosols, which may have an impact on climate. We report year-round measurements of boundary layer iodine oxide and bromine oxide at the near-coastal site of Halley Station, Antarctica. Surprisingly, both species are present throughout the sunlit period and exhibit similar seasonal cycles and concentrations. The springtime peak of iodine oxide (20 parts per trillion) is the highest concentration recorded anywhere in the atmosphere. These levels of halogens cause substantial ozone depletion, as well as the rapid oxidation of dimethyl sulfide and mercury in the Antarctic boundary layer. PMID:17641195

  1. Application of infrared imaging systems to maritime security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Debing

    Enhancing maritime security through video based systems is a very challenging task, not only due to the different scales of vessels to be monitored, but also due to the constantly changing background and environmental conditions. Yet video systems operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum have established themselves as one of the most crucial tools in maritime security. However, certain inherent limitations such as requirements of proper scene illumination and failure under low visibility weather conditions like fog could be overcome utilizing different spectral regions. Thermal imaging systems present themselves as a good alternative in maritime security. They could overcome these problems and allow for additional detection of local variation of water temperature, yet have been rarely used efficiently in maritime environment evaluated. Here we present a first order study of the advantage of using long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging for diver detection. Within these tasks we study the reasons and effects of bubbles on water surface in laboratory IR imaging study and have determined the changes in infrared emissivity and reflectivity due to the corresponding surface manifestation. This was compared and used to analyze experiments in the Hudson Estuary to the real-world applicability of infrared technology in maritime security application. Utilizing a LWIR camera, we limit ourselves on the detection of the scuba diver as well as the determination of its depth---information normally not obtainable in very low visibility water like the Hudson River. For this purpose we observed the thermal surface signature of the diver and obtained and analyzed its temporal behavior with respect to area, perimeter and infrared brightness. Additional qualitative and quantitative analyses of the area and perimeter growth show different behaviors with more or less pronounced correlation to the diver's depth---yet clearly showing a trend allowing for estimation of

  2. Applications of Subspace Seismicity Detection in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, E. K.; Aster, R. C.; Benz, H.; McMahon, N. D.; McNamara, D. E.; Lough, A. C.; Wiens, D. A.; Wilson, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Subspace detection can improve event recognition by enhancing the completeness of earthquake catalogs and by improving the characterization and interpretation of seismic events, particularly in regions of clustered seismicity. Recent deployments of dense networks of seismometers enable subspace detection methods to be more broadly applied to intraplate Antarctica, where historically very limited and sporadic network coverage has inhibited understanding of dynamic glacial, volcanic, and tectonic processes. In particular, recent broad seismographic networks such as POLENET/A-Net and AGAP provide significant new opportunities for characterizing and understanding the low seismicity rates of this continent. Our methodology incorporates three-component correlation to detect events in a statistical and adaptive framework. Detection thresholds are statistically assessed using phase-randomized template correlation levels. As new events are detected and the set of subspace basis vectors is updated, the algorithm can also be directed to scan back in a search for weaker prior events that have significant correlations with the updated basis vectors. This method has the resolving power to identify previously undetected areas of seismic activity under very low signal-to-noise conditions, and thus holds promise for revealing new seismogenic phenomena within and around Antarctica. In this study we investigate two intriguing seismogenic regions and demonstrate the methodology, reporting on a subspace detection-based study of recently identified clusters of deep long-period magmatic earthquakes in Marie Byrd Land, and on shallow icequakes that are dynamically triggered by teleseismic surface waves.

  3. Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica

    PubMed

    Cande; Stock; Muller; Ishihara

    2000-03-01

    The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world. PMID:10724159

  4. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Mullins, J.; Binnie, D.; Paulsen, S.J.; Granneman, B.; Gorodetzky, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) is the first true-color, high-spatial-resolution image of the seventh continent. It is constructed from nearly 1100 individually selected Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes. Each image was orthorectified and adjusted for geometric, sensor and illumination variations to a standardized, almost seamless surface reflectance product. Mosaicing to avoid clouds produced a high quality, nearly cloud-free benchmark data set of Antarctica for the International Polar Year from images collected primarily during 1999-2003. Multiple color composites and enhancements were generated to illustrate additional characteristics of the multispectral data including: the true appearance of the surface; discrimination between snow and bare ice; reflectance variations within bright snow; recovered reflectance values in regions of sensor saturation; and subtle topographic variations associated with ice flow. LIMA is viewable and individual scenes or user defined portions of the mosaic are downloadable at http://lima.usgs.gov. Educational materials associated with LIMA are available at http://lima.nasa.gov.

  5. Trace metals in Antarctica related to climate change and increasing human impact.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, R

    2000-01-01

    Metals are natural constituents of the abiotic and biotic components of all ecosystems, and under natural conditions they are cycled within and between the geochemical spheres--the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere--at quite steady fluxes. In the second half of the twentieth century, the huge increase in energy and mineral consumption determined anthropogenic emissions of several metals exceeding those from natural sources, e.g., volcanoes and windborne soil particles. In the Northern Hemisphere, the biogeochemical cycles of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and other metals were significantly altered, even in Arctic regions. On the contrary, available data on trace metal concentrations in abiotic matrices from continental Antarctica, summarized in this review, suggest that the biogeochemical cycle of Pb is probably the only one that has been significantly altered by anthropogenic emissions in Antarctica and elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the period 1950-1975. Environmental contamination by other metals from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica itself can generally only be detected in snow samples taken within a range of a few kilometers or several hundred meters from scientific stations. Local metal pollution from human activities in Antarctica may compromise studies aimed at assessing the biogeochemical cycle of trace elements and the effects of global climate change. Thus, this review focuses on concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate, snow, surface soils, and freshwater from the Antarctic continent and surface sediments and seawater from the Southern Ocean, which can plausibly be regarded as global background values of trace elements. These baselines are also necessary in view of the construction of new stations, the expansion of existing facilities to support research, and the growth of tourism and fisheries. Despite difficulties in making comparisons with data from other remote areas of the world, concentrations of trace metals

  6. 78 FR 9406 - Southwest Louisiana Area Maritime Security Regional Sub-Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... government; the State government and political subdivisions of the State; local public safety, crisis management, and emergency response agencies; law enforcement and security organizations; maritime...

  7. Advanced Ship Detection For Spaceborne Based Maritime Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radius, Andrea; Ferreira, Joao; Carmo, Paulo; Marques, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    In the last years the increase in marine traffic generated the necessity of global monitoring for marine environment management in terms of safety, security and fisheries. The increasing number of new satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems, and the intrinsic capability of the transmitted electromagnetic pulses to interact with the ships and to retrieve its cinematic characteristics, made this instrument particularly fit to improve global maritime awareness through the fusion with cooperative data (AIS, VMS, LRIT). The growing need of global maritime awareness gave a push to the realization of different projects in the European context, each one focused on a different particular objective. Particularly useful is the synergy between the operational and research aspects, being the goal of the last to improve the state of the art in the field of ship detection. Two European projects are the key to strive this synergy: the project MARitime Security Service (MARISS), which implements the operational capability, and the R&D Dolphin projects, which is focused on the deep exploitation of remote sensing data and on the technological development of advanced techniques for ship detection and classification purposes, and Seabilla project, which is also dedicated to improve the current ship detection capability and to fuse all the available information from different data sources for border surveillance optimization. This paper introduces the multipurpose Edisoft Vessel Detection software (EdiVDC) implemented by the EDISOFT company, which comes from the necessity to respect increasingly stringent requirements in terms of ship detection. The EdiVDC software is being operationally used in the framework of the MARISS project and it integrates advanced processing algorithms, developed in the scope of the Dolphin project with the cooperation of ISEL-IT (Instituto de Telecomunicações), and data simulators, developed in the context of the Seabilla project, improving

  8. Maritime Cultural Resource Investigation, Management, and Mitigation in Coastal Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlings, Rachel L.

    2012-10-01

    Four field seasons of maritime archaeological research in coastal Ghana offer insights into submerged cultural heritage, but also highlight serious concerns for its preservation and protection. A discussion of cultural heritage legislation and its ineffective implementation, as well as imminent and potential threats to submerged cultural heritage frames the argument for the mitigation and protection of submerged sites in coastal Ghana. Work on the Benya Lagoon vessel and the Elmina Wreck site is presented here as both documentation and mitigation in terms of the context of threats to submerged heritage in coastal Ghana, and preventative mitigation is proposed for its protection.

  9. Tunable Vibration Energy Harvester for Condition Monitoring of Maritime Gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a new tuning concept, which enables the operation of a vibration generator for energy autonomous condition monitoring of maritime gearboxes. The tuning concept incorporates a circular tuning magnet, which interacts with a coupling magnet attached to the active transducer element. The tuning range can be tailored to the application by careful design of the gap between tuning magnet and coupling magnet. A total rotation angle of only 180° is required for the tuning magnet in order to obtain the full frequency bandwidth. The tuning concept is successfully demonstrated by charging a 0.6 F capacitor on the basis of physical vibration profiles taken from a gearbox.

  10. Ground-Penetrating Radar vertical resolution, signal attenuation, and penetration in temperate and polar glaciers: Case studies from North America and Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, S. W.; Kreutz, K. J.; Arcone, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The application of commercially available ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has become a standard routine for many field glaciological research efforts. However, the success of glaciological radar surveys often depends on frequency selection, tunable parameters, and data collection methods relative to the glaciological setting. Specifically, glaciers exhibit a range of thermal properties (i.e. cold, polythermal, temperate) and exist under diverse settings (e.g. maritime, continental, mountain glaciers, ice sheets, ice streams), each which present unique and complex challenges for conducting radar surveys. Herein, we review over 1000 km of ground collected GPR data from polar and temperate settings and distill vertical resolution, signal attenuation, and depth of penetration for various recording and antenna configurations ranging between 15-900 MHz. Snow and firn studies, ice thickness measurements, and ice flow dynamics studies from Alaska, Antarctica, Canada, and the Western United States will be referenced.

  11. Proposal to protect marine areas around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Forty percent of Antarctica's Southern Ocean should be protected in a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) and no-take marine reserves, according to a 21 May report by the Antarctic Ocean Alliance, which is composed of about 20 environmental groups. The protected areas should include the 19 Antarctic marine habitats outlined in the report, along with existing MPAs and areas identified through previous conservation and planning analyses, the report notes. Protected areas should include the Antarctic Peninsula, the Weddell and Ross seas, the Indian Ocean Benthic Environment, and Pacific seamounts, according to the report. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which manages living resources for the Southern Ocean, has already agreed to establish an initial network of Antarctic MPAs this year, the report states.

  12. Ice-shelf melting around Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Rignot, E; Jacobs, S; Mouginot, J; Scheuchl, B

    2013-07-19

    We compare the volume flux divergence of Antarctic ice shelves in 2007 and 2008 with 1979 to 2010 surface accumulation and 2003 to 2008 thinning to determine their rates of melting and mass balance. Basal melt of 1325 ± 235 gigatons per year (Gt/year) exceeds a calving flux of 1089 ± 139 Gt/year, making ice-shelf melting the largest ablation process in Antarctica. The giant cold-cavity Ross, Filchner, and Ronne ice shelves covering two-thirds of the total ice-shelf area account for only 15% of net melting. Half of the meltwater comes from 10 small, warm-cavity Southeast Pacific ice shelves occupying 8% of the area. A similar high melt/area ratio is found for six East Antarctic ice shelves, implying undocumented strong ocean thermal forcing on their deep grounding lines. PMID:23765278

  13. Ice-Shelf Melting Around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.

    2013-07-01

    We compare the volume flux divergence of Antarctic ice shelves in 2007 and 2008 with 1979 to 2010 surface accumulation and 2003 to 2008 thinning to determine their rates of melting and mass balance. Basal melt of 1325 ± 235 gigatons per year (Gt/year) exceeds a calving flux of 1089 ± 139 Gt/year, making ice-shelf melting the largest ablation process in Antarctica. The giant cold-cavity Ross, Filchner, and Ronne ice shelves covering two-thirds of the total ice-shelf area account for only 15% of net melting. Half of the meltwater comes from 10 small, warm-cavity Southeast Pacific ice shelves occupying 8% of the area. A similar high melt/area ratio is found for six East Antarctic ice shelves, implying undocumented strong ocean thermal forcing on their deep grounding lines.

  14. Volcanic earthquake swarms at Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminuma, Katsutada; Ueki, Sadato; Juergen, Kienle

    1985-04-01

    Mount Erebus is an active volcano in Antarctica located on Ross Island. A convecting lava lake occupies the summit crater of Mt. Erebus. Since December 1980 the seismic activity of Mt. Erebus has been continuously monitored using a radio-telemetered network of six seismic stations. The seismic activity observed by the Ross Island network during the 1982-1983 field season shows that: (1)Strombolian eruptions occur frequently at the Erebus summit lava lake at rates of 2-5 per day; (2)centrally located earthquakes map out a nearly vertical, narrow conduit system beneath the lava lake; (3)there are other source regions of seismicity on Ross Island, well removed from Mt. Erebus proper. An intense earthquake swarm recorded in October 1982 near Abbott Peak, 10 km northwest of the summit of Mt. Erebus, and volcanic tremor accompanying the swarm, may have been associated with new dike emplacement at depth.

  15. Iceberg B-15, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Iceberg B-15 broke from the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica in late March. Among the largest ever observed, the new iceberg is approximately 170 miles long x 25 miles wide. Its 4,250 square-mile area is nearly as large as the state of Connecticut. The iceberg was formed from glacial ice moving off the Antarctic continent and calved along pre-existing cracks in the Ross Ice Shelf near Roosevelt Island. The calving of the iceberg essentially moves the northern boundary of the ice shelf about 25 miles to the south, a loss that would normally take the ice shelf as long as 50-100 years to replace. This infrared image was acquired by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) F-13 satellite on April 13, 2000. For more images see Antarctic Meteorological Research Center Image courtesy of the University of Wisconsin - Madison, Space Science and Engineering Center, Antarctic Meteorological Research Center

  16. A study on the development of automatic economic profit and loss calculation system for maritime boundary delimitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, G.; Kim, K.; Park, Y.

    2014-02-01

    As the maritime boundary delimitation is important for the purpose of securing marine resources, in addition to the aspect of maritime security, interest in maritime boundary delimitation to help national benefits are increasing over the world. In Korea, the importance of maritime boundary delimitation with the neighbouring countries is also increasing in practice. The quantity of obtainable marine resources depending on maritime boundary acts as an important factor for maritime boundary delimitation. Accordingly, a study is required to calculate quantity of our obtainable marine resources depending on maritime boundary delimitation. This study intends to calculate obtainable marine resources depending on various maritime boundary scenarios insisted by several countries. It mainly aims at developing a GIS-based automation system to be utilized for decision making of the maritime boundary delimitation. For this target, it has designed a module using spatial analysis technique to automatically calculate profit and loss waters area of each country upon maritime boundary and another module to estimate economic profits and losses obtained by each country using the calculated waters area and pricing information of the marine resources. By linking both the designed modules, it has implemented an automatic economic profit and loss calculation system for the GIS-based maritime boundary delimitation. The system developed from this study automatically calculate quantity of the obtainable marine resources of a country for the maritime boundary to be added and created in the future. Thus, it is expected to support decision making for the maritime boundary negotiators.

  17. Occurrence and diversity of marine yeasts in Antarctica environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Hua, Mingxia; Song, Chunli; Chi, Zhenming

    2012-03-01

    A total of 28 yeast strains were obtained from the sea sediment of Antarctica. According to the results of routine identification and molecular characterization, the strains belonged to species of Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula slooffiae, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mrakia frigida and Guehomyces pullulans, respectively. The Antarctica yeasts have wide potential applications in biotechnology, for some of them can produce β-galactosidase and killer toxins.

  18. Oxygen isotope studies and compilation of isotopic dates from Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Grootes, P.M.; Stuiver, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Quaternary Isotope Laboratory, alone or in collaboration with other investigators, is currently involved in a number of oxygen-isotope studies mainly in Antarctica. Studies of a drill core from the South Pole, seasonal oxygen-18 signals preserved in the Dominion Range, isotope dating of the Ross Ice Shelf, oxygen-18 profiles of the Siple Coast, McMurdo Ice Shelf sampling, and a data compilation of radiometric dates from Antarctica are discussed.

  19. Ice-shelf melting around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.

    2008-12-01

    The traditional view on the mass balance of Antarctic ice shelves is that they loose mass principally from iceberg calving with bottom melting a much lower contributing factor. Because ice shelves are now known to play a fundamental role in ice sheet evolution, it is important to re-evaluate their wastage processes from a circumpolar perspective using a combination of remote sensing techniques. We present area average rates deduced from grounding line discharge, snow accumulation, firn depth correction and ice shelf topography. We find that ice shelf melting accounts for roughly half of ice-shelf ablation, with a total melt water production of 1027 Gt/yr. The attrition fraction due to in-situ melting varies from 9 to 90 percent around Antarctica. High melt producers include the Ronne, Ross, Getz, Totten, Amery, George VI, Pine Island, Abbot, Dotson/Crosson, Shackleton, Thwaites and Moscow University Ice Shelves. Low producers include the Larsen C, Princess Astrid and Ragnhild coast, Fimbul, Brunt and Filchner. Correlation between melt water production and grounding line discharge is low (R2 = 0.65). Correlation with thermal ocean forcing from the ocean are highest in the northern parts of West Antarctica where regressions yield R2 of 0.93-0.97. Melt rates in the Amundsen Sea exhibit a quadratic sensitivity to thermal ocean forcing. We conclude that ice shelf melting plays a dominant role in ice shelf mass balance, with a potential to change rapidly in response to altered ocean heat transport onto the Antarctic continental shelf.

  20. Human Activity and Pollution in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, H.-F.; Shirsat, S. V.; Podzun, R.

    2009-04-01

    A regional climate chemistry model is used to determine the level of pollution of the Antarctic continent due to anthropogenic and natural emission of sulphur species. Based on an emission inventory for the year 2004/2005 including emissions from energy use and ground traffic at and between Antarctic research stations, flight activity, tourist and scientific ship operations, and emissions from the Mt. Erebus volcano, atmospheric concentration and deposition rates of sulphur species and black carbon were simulated at 0.5 degree resolution for the whole Antarctic continent. The biggest anthropogenic source of pollution is ship operations. These concentrate near the Antarctic Peninsula and close to the big scientific stations at Queen Maud Land and in the Ross sea area. The prevailing winds guarantee that most of the anthropogenic emissions from sources near the coast will be blown to lower latitudes and do not affect the continent. While atmospheric concentrations over vast areas remain extremely low, in some places locally concentrations and deposition rates are reached that may be detectable by in-situ measurements and give rise to concern. Especially at the Peninsula atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of sulphur and soot are dominated by ship emissions. The largest part of shipping activity in this region is from tourist ships, a strongly increasing business. The by far biggest source of sulphur species in Antarctica is the Mt. Erebus volcano. It is also the only source that remains equally strong in polar winter. However, due to its high altitude and the long life time of SO2, especially in winter resulting in long range transport and dilution, Erebus emissions contribute relatively little to deposition of sulphur in the most anthropogenic polluted areas while they dominate the sulphur deposition in central Antarctica.

  1. IT’S GOOD TO BE BIG—PHAEOCYSTIS ANTARCTICA COLONY SIZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ZOOPLANKTON GRAZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica forms extremely dense accumulations in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and accounts for over 60% of the seasonal primary production. Similar to the Phaeocystis species in the northern hemisphere, P. antarctica exists as solitary cells and mucilagin...

  2. It’s good to be big--- Phaeocystis antarctica colony size under the influence of zooplankton grazers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica forms extremely dense accumulations in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and accounts for over 60% of the seasonal primary production. Similar to the Phaeocystis species in the northern hemisphere, P. antarctica exists as solitary cells and mucilagin...

  3. McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica - A Mars Phoenix Mission Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Anderson, R. M.; Archer, D.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Moore, Q.; Quinn, J. E.; Smith, P. H.; Stroble, S.; Zent, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix mission (PHX; May 25 - Nov. 2, 2008) studied the north polar region of Mars (68deg N) to understand the history of water and potential for habitability. Phoenix carried with it a wet chemistry lab (WCL) capable of determining the basic solution chemistry of the soil and the pH value, a thermal and evolved-gas analyzer capable of determining the mineralogy of the soil and detecting ice, microscopes capable of seeing soil particle shapes, sizes and colors at very high resolution, and a soil probe (TECP) capable of detecting unfrozen water in the soil. PHX coincided with an international effort to study the Earth s polar regions named the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007-2008). The best known Earth analog to the Martian high-northern plains, where Phoenix landed, are the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), Antarctica (Fig. 1). Thus, the IPY afforded a unique opportunity to study the MDV with the same foci - history of water and habitability - as PHX. In austral summer 2007, our team took engineering models of WCL and TECP into the MDV and performed analgous measurements. We also collected sterile samples and analyzed them in our home laboratories using state-of-the-art tools. While PHX was not designed to perform biologic analyses, we were able to do so with the MDV analog samples collected.

  4. The influence of transport network vulnerability for maritime ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscă, F.; Roşca, E.; Rusca, A.; Roşca, M.; Burciu, S.

    2015-11-01

    The concepts of reliability and vulnerability are quite important in assessing the ability of transport networks from land to provide continuity in operation tacking in consideration the relation with seaports. Transport infrastructure modernizing and extension according to land use and sustainable development requirements still represents a challenging issue among policy makers, regional/local communities and scientists. The interest for the researches reliability and vulnerability for transport networks who connect maritime ports with interior city's is generate by the natural disasters, the terrorist acts, unconventional war, etc.. Transport network modelling enable the development of mathematical models used in evaluating the reliability and vulnerability. Nodes or link disruption could have an important impact over transport network users. In our paper we investigates the Romanian road network vulnerability related to Danube crossing versus maritime ports (Constanta and Mangalia) and its mitigation by improving network topology. We use Visum software to promote a methodology to assess road transport network vulnerability versus Romanian seaports and we propose some solutions to reduce probability of road transport network to fail.

  5. Speed Profiles for Improvement of Maritime Emission Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Pui Shan; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Ho, Kin Fai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Maritime emissions play an important role in anthropogenic emissions, particularly for cities with busy ports such as Hong Kong. Ship emissions are strongly dependent on vessel speed, and thus accurate vessel speed is essential for maritime emission studies. In this study, we determined minute-by-minute high-resolution speed profiles of container ships on four major routes in Hong Kong waters using Automatic Identification System (AIS). The activity-based ship emissions of NOx, CO, HC, CO2, SO2, and PM10 were estimated using derived vessel speed profiles, and results were compared with those using the speed limits of control zones. Estimation using speed limits resulted in up to twofold overestimation of ship emissions. Compared with emissions estimated using the speed limits of control zones, emissions estimated using vessel speed profiles could provide results with up to 88% higher accuracy. Uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis of the model demonstrated the significance of improvement of vessel speed resolution. From spatial analysis, it is revealed that SO2 and PM10 emissions during maneuvering within 1 nautical mile from port were the highest. They contributed 7%–22% of SO2 emissions and 8%–17% of PM10 emissions of the entire voyage in Hong Kong. PMID:23236250

  6. Climate Change, Globalization and Geopolitics in the New Maritime Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Early in the 21st century a confluence of climate change, globalization and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. This nexus is also fostering greater linkage of the Arctic to the rest of the planet. Arctic sea ice is undergoing a historic transformation of thinning, extent reduction in all seasons, and reduction in the area of multiyear ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Global Climate Model simulations of Arctic sea ice indicate multiyear ice could disappear by 2030 for a short period of time each summer. These physical changes invite greater marine access, longer seasons of navigation, and potential, summer trans-Arctic voyages. As a result, enhanced marine safety, environmental protection, and maritime security measures are under development. Coupled with climate change as a key driver of regional change is the current and future integration of the Arctic's natural wealth with global markets (oil, gas and hard minerals). Abundant freshwater in the Arctic could also be a future commodity of value. Recent events such as drilling for hydrocarbons off Greenland's west coast and the summer marine transport of natural resources from the Russian Arctic to China across the top of Eurasia are indicators of greater global economic ties to the Arctic. Plausible Arctic futures indicate continued integration with global issues and increased complexity of a range of regional economic, security and environmental challenges.

  7. Emissions of maritime transport: a European reference system.

    PubMed

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Panis, Luc Int; Chiffi, Cosimo; Pastori, Enrico

    2009-12-20

    Emissions from ships have recently received more attention since they have become a significant concern for air quality in harbours and port cities. This paper presents the methodology for a comprehensive maritime transport database of activity data, specific energy consumption, emission factors, and total emissions that have been developed within the European EX-TREMIS project. The model is built upon 3 modules: the fleet module, the transport activity module, and the emission module. The fleet module defines the ship categories, the loading capacities, and the engine characteristics of the different vessels by using EUROSTAT data, Sea Web Lloyd's database, and international literature. The transport activity module transforms total cargo handled (mainly based on EUROSTAT data and CEMT statistics) into ship-equivalents. These ship-equivalents are further transformed into ship-hours. The emission module calculates energy uses and CO(2), NO(X), SO(2), CO, HC, CH(4), NMHC, PM emissions from the resulting maritime activities. We have used technology based emission factors to take into account the technological evolution of vessels. To illustrate this new methodology, we present some results (emissions, fuel consumption and emission factors) for different countries. The overall methodology as well as the results and the country specific energy consumption and emission factors per ship type and size class can be extracted from the EX-TREMIS website (www.ex-tremis.eu). Our results contribute to more accurate estimates of emissions and air quality assessments in coastal cities and ports. PMID:19840885

  8. Challenges of Forward Naval Surgical Support for Maritime Forces.

    PubMed

    Chong, Si Jack; Jiang, Lei; Chow, Wei-En

    2015-08-01

    The emphasis of naval operations has shifted from conventional naval warfare since World War II to Operations Other than War such as Peace Support Operations and Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief. Maritime forces are increasingly deployed in distant areas of operations such as the Somali Basin and Gulf of Aden for longer durations, in a possibly higher threat environment against nonconventional threats such as in counter piracy operations. There is therefore a need to balance the challenges of providing adequate forward naval surgical support with limitations in medical manpower, logistics as well as the need for a suitable surgical platform for these deployments. This article aims to share the Republic of Singapore Navy's experience in overcoming some of these challenges. This includes the ability to deploy surgical containers onboard the Landing Ship Tank and Civil Resource vessels, and the ability to convert existing spaces onboard the endurance class Landing Ship Tank and other platforms such as the formidable class Frigate into surgical facilities. The key success factors such as the development of deep expertise in naval operational medicine, operationalization of third generation surgical stores, and enhanced interoperability among maritime forces will also be highlighted. PMID:26226532

  9. Modeling low elevation GPS signal propagation in maritime atmospheric ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Wu, Zhensen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Hongguang; Zhu, Qinglin

    2012-05-01

    Using the parabolic wave equation (PWE) method, we model low elevation GPS L1 signal propagation in maritime atmospheric ducts. To consider sea surface impedance, roughness, and the effects of earth's curvature, we propose a new initial field model for the GPS PWE split-step solution. On the basis of the comparison between the proposed model and the conventional initial field model for a smooth, perfectly conducting sea surface on a planar earth, we conclude that both the amplitude and phase of the initial field are influenced by surface impedance and roughness, and that the interference behavior between direct and reflected GPS rays is affected by earth's curvature. The performance of the proposed model is illustrated with examples of low elevation GPS L1 signal propagation in three types of ducts: an evaporation duct, a surface-based duct, and an elevated duct. The GPS PWE is numerically implemented using the split-step discrete mixed Fourier transform algorithm to enforce impedance-type boundary conditions at the rough sea surface. Because the GPS signal is right hand circularly polarized, we calculate its power strength by combining the propagation predictions of the horizontally and the vertically polarized components. The effects of the maritime atmospheric ducts on low elevation GPS signal propagation are demonstrated according to the presented examples, and the potential applications of the GPS signals affected by ducts are discussed.

  10. High-fidelity real-time maritime scene rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, Hawjye; Taczak, Thomas M.; Cox, Kevin; Gover, Robert; Maraviglia, Carlos; Cahill, Colin

    2011-06-01

    The ability to simulate authentic engagements using real-world hardware is an increasingly important tool. For rendering maritime environments, scene generators must be capable of rendering radiometrically accurate scenes with correct temporal and spatial characteristics. When the simulation is used as input to real-world hardware or human observers, the scene generator must operate in real-time. This paper introduces a novel, real-time scene generation capability for rendering radiometrically accurate scenes of backgrounds and targets in maritime environments. The new model is an optimized and parallelized version of the US Navy CRUISE_Missiles rendering engine. It was designed to accept environmental descriptions and engagement geometry data from external sources, render a scene, transform the radiometric scene using the electro-optical response functions of a sensor under test, and output the resulting signal to real-world hardware. This paper reviews components of the scene rendering algorithm, and details the modifications required to run this code in real-time. A description of the simulation architecture and interfaces to external hardware and models is presented. Performance assessments of the frame rate and radiometric accuracy of the new code are summarized. This work was completed in FY10 under Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) funding and will undergo a validation process in FY11.

  11. The mental health of deployed UK maritime forces

    PubMed Central

    Whybrow, Dean; Jones, Norman; Evans, Charlotte; Minshall, Darren; Smith, Darren; Greenberg, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish the level of psychological symptoms and the risk factors for possible decreased mental health among deployed UK maritime forces. Methods A survey was completed by deployed Royal Navy (RN) personnel which measured the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential alcohol misuse. Military and operational characteristics were also measured including exposure to potentially traumatic events, problems occurring at home during the deployment, unit cohesion, leadership and morale. Associations between variables of interest were identified using binary logistic regression to generate ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for a range of potential confounding variables. Results In total, 41.2% (n=572/1387) of respondents reported probable CMD, 7.8% (n=109/1389) probable PTSD and 17.4% (n=242/1387) potentially harmful alcohol use. Lower morale, cohesion, leadership and problems at home were associated with CMD; lower morale, leadership, problems at home and exposure to potentially traumatic events were associated with probable PTSD; working in ships with a smaller crew size was associated with potentially harmful alcohol use. Conclusions CMD and PTSD were more frequently reported in the maritime environment than during recent land-based deployments. Rates of potentially harmful alcohol use have reduced but remain higher than the wider military. Experiencing problems at home and exposure to potentially traumatic events were associated with experiencing poorer mental health; higher morale, cohesion and better leadership with fewer psychological symptoms. PMID:26265671

  12. 32 CFR 536.121 - Claims not payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States, are contrary to public policy, or are otherwise contrary to the basic intent of the... inhabitants of unfriendly foreign countries or by individuals considered to be unfriendly to the United States... ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.121 Claims not payable as maritime...

  13. Student Aid for the Eighties: Report of the Study of Financial Aid to Maritime Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission, Fredericton (New Brunswick).

    A research report on financial aid to maritime student (those in the Maritime Provinces) enrolled in postsecondary education in Canada is presented in English and French versions. The study was designed to: (1) prepare a historical perspective of and rationale for programs of financial assistance to students; (2) review and compare existing…

  14. 75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66... aerial spectator events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Entry into,...

  15. 78 FR 79071 - National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... listen-only information January 10, 2014. distributed to registrants. National Maritime Strategy... additional information, insights and experience to assist in the development of a National Maritime Strategy..., 2000 (65 FR 19476, 04/11/2011) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Authority: 5 U.S.C. 610;...

  16. State University of New York Maritime College Faculty Student Association--Selected Financial Management Practices. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit and State Financial Services.

    The Maritime College Faculty Student Association (FSA) is a campus-based, not-for-profit corporation that was formed to operate, manage, and promote educationally related services for the benefit of the campus community at the State University of New York Maritime College, which trains students to become licensed officers in the U.S. Merchant…

  17. 3 CFR 8678 - Proclamation 8678 of May 18, 2011. National Maritime Day, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... citizens around the world. On National Maritime Day, we honor their invaluable contributions to America’s... the 20th century, the United States maritime trade was booming, fostering exchanges across the world and aiding our military at war. During World War II, Merchant Marines were critical in...

  18. 33 CFR 104.240 - Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... additional measures, pursuant to 33 CFR part 6, 160 or 165, as appropriate, which may include but are not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level... § 104.240 Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level coordination and implementation. (a) The vessel owner...

  19. 77 FR 6133 - Sector Upper Mississippi River Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Sector Upper Mississippi River Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY... interested in serving on the Sector Upper Mississippi River Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their application for membership, to the Captain of the Port, Sector Upper Mississippi River....

  20. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 390 - Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement IV Appendix IV to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Pt. 390, App. IV Appendix IV to...

  1. Reconfiguring the Shipping News: Maritime's Hidden Histories and the Politics of Gender Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meecham, Pam

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the book "Hello Sailor! The Hidden History of Gay Life at Sea" published in 2003 by Paul Baker and Jo Stanley, re-interpreted as a landmark temporary exhibition "Hello Sailor! Gay Life on the Ocean Wave" at the Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool from where it travelled in 2007 to other maritime museums. Based largely on…

  2. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530.200b-7 Section 2530.200b-7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be...

  3. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and...

  4. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and...

  5. 47 CFR 80.475 - Scope of service of the Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of service of the Automated Maritime... Automated Systems § 80.475 Scope of service of the Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS). (a... correspondence service. However, such communications may be provided only to stations whose licensees...

  6. 47 CFR 80.475 - Scope of service of the Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope of service of the Automated Maritime... Automated Systems § 80.475 Scope of service of the Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS). (a... correspondence service. However, such communications may be provided only to stations whose licensees...

  7. 47 CFR 80.475 - Scope of service of the Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope of service of the Automated Maritime... Automated Systems § 80.475 Scope of service of the Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS). (a... correspondence service. However, such communications may be provided only to stations whose licensees...

  8. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and...

  9. 47 CFR 80.475 - Scope of service of the Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope of service of the Automated Maritime... Automated Systems § 80.475 Scope of service of the Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS). (a... correspondence service. However, such communications may be provided only to stations whose licensees...

  10. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and...

  11. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and...

  12. 47 CFR 80.475 - Scope of service of the Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope of service of the Automated Maritime... Automated Systems § 80.475 Scope of service of the Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS). (a... correspondence service. However, such communications may be provided only to stations whose licensees...

  13. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal... workshops regarding the expansion of the Panama Canal and the America's Marine Highway Program. The meetings... Administration (MARAD) should consider in the development of its comprehensive study of the 2014 Panama...

  14. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  15. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  16. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  17. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  18. 33 CFR 103.305 - Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. 103.305 Section 103.305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Committee § 103.305 Composition of an Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) An...

  19. 78 FR 9709 - Draft Guidance Regarding Voluntary Inspection of Vessels for Compliance With the Maritime Labour...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The 94th (Maritime) session of... force on August 20, 2013. The NVIC will provide guidance to the maritime industry, Coast Guard...

  20. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 390 - Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Construction Fund Agreement IV Appendix IV to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Pt. 390, App. IV Appendix IV to Part...: (Assistant Chief Counsel Maritime Administration) Editorial Note: At 73 FR 56741, Sept. 30, 2008, appendix...

  1. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 390 - Sample Addendum to Maritime Administration Capital Construction Fund Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Construction Fund Agreement IV Appendix IV to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Pt. 390, App. IV Appendix IV to Part...: (Assistant Chief Counsel Maritime Administration) Editorial Note: At 73 FR 56741, Sept. 30, 2008, appendix...

  2. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF HAWAII MARITIME CENTER WITH PORT 3/4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF HAWAII MARITIME CENTER WITH PORT 3/4 STERN VIEW OF OIL TANKER FALLS OF CLYDE REPLICA POLYNESIAN SAILING CRAFT ARE SEEN ALONGSIDE AND BEHIND HER. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  3. State University of New York Maritime College: Selected Financial Management Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    This report presents audit findings of the financial management practices at the State University of New York (SUNY) Maritime College, which trains students to become licensed officers in the U.S. Merchant Marines. Specifically, the audit examined whether SUNY Maritime maintains an adequate internal control environment and adequate internal…

  4. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...The Coast Guard is harmonizing its regulations with amendments to Chapter VI and Chapter VII of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended, (SOLAS) that make the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code mandatory. The amendments require that all vessels subject to SOLAS, and carrying bulk solid cargoes......

  5. 32 CFR 536.123 - Limitation of liability for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation of liability for maritime claims. 536.123 Section 536.123 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.123 Limitation of liability...

  6. 32 CFR 536.123 - Limitation of liability for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Limitation of liability for maritime claims. 536.123 Section 536.123 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.123 Limitation of liability...

  7. 33 CFR 103.505 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of the Area Maritime...) Plan § 103.505 Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan. The AMS Plan should address the following elements, as applicable: (a) Details of both operational and physical measures that are in...

  8. Rockfall erosion in Antarctica as a significant agent of change above ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, Stuart; Westoby, Matthew; Woodward, John; Hein, Andrew; Marrero, Shaster; Sugden, David; Lim, Michael; Winter, Kate

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of Antarctica's bedrock landscape has long been thought to be represent repeated glacial modification to an ancient pre-glacial land surface. However, significant areas of Antarctica are above current, and many past, ice elevations. These nunataks are often the steep sided upper part of buried mountains with high potential relief . They are therefore subject to hillslope erosion processes for long period of time, which in Antarctic landscapes has received scant attention ,with rates of sediment flux often assumed to be insignificant, or amongst the lowest on the planet. We have used repeat high resolution surveys to derive face averaged rockfall erosion rates of 0.095 - 0.137 mmyr-1 from 67°- 80°S along the Antarctic Peninsula, from the milder maritime influenced zone, to the high, arid, windy interior of the West Antarctic Ice sheet. These rates are in keeping with rates derived from Arctic and temperate landscapes thought to be far more active, and undergoing rapid changes to rates due to climatic warming. They are also consistent with long-term estimates of catchment wide denudation by the glaciers (not-ice streams) of the Antarctic Peninsula (0.001 - 0.08 mmyr-1). We further show using cosmogenic isotope dating of rockfall boulders (8.1, 10.5, 10.8 and 108.8 ka) deposited on a blue-ice moraine that failures have been occurring at 80°S for long periods in a mountain range that has had some slopes exposed for ~ 1.4 Ma. These findings demonstrate the importance of rockfalls for long-term debris supply to Antarctic glacier landsystems and the potential for substantial modification of nunataks between periods of ice-cover. Although caution must be exercised in upscaling short-term, limited spatial extent derived rates to long-term estimates, in the case of the stable ice-geometry site in the Ellsworth Mountains there has been the potential for > 190 m of face retreat, and a full suite of landslide processes.

  9. The impacts of permafrost degradation in paraglacial environments in Elephant Point (Livingston Island, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Elephant Point constitutes an ice-free environment of only 1.16 km2 in the south-western corner of Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). In January 2014 we conducted a detailed geomorphological mapping in situ, examining the distribution of processes and landforms in Elephant Point. Four main geomorphological environments were identified: proglacial area, moraine system, bedrock plateaus and marine terraces. The ice cap covering most part of the western half of this island has significantly retreated during the last decades in parallel to the accelerated warming trend recorded in the Antarctic Peninsula. Between 1956 and 2010 this rapid retreat has exposed 17.3% of the present-day land surface in Elephant Point. Two of these geomorphological units are located in this new ice-free area: a polygenic moraine stretching from the western to the eastern edges of the peninsula and a relatively flat proglacial environment. The glacier sat next to the northern slope of the moraine in 1956, but the retreat of the Rotch dome glacier during the last decades left these environments free of glacier ice. Following the deglaciation, the postglacial dynamics in these areas showed the characteristic response of paraglacial systems. Very different geomorphological processes occur today in the northern and southern slopes of the moraine, which is related to the different stage of paraglacial adjustment in both sides. The southern slope shows a low to moderate activity of slope processes operating on coarser sediments that have built pronival ramparts, debris flows and alluvial fans. By contrast, mass wasting processes are very active in the northern slope, which is composed of fine-grained unconsolidated sediments. Here, ice-rich permafrost has been observed in slumps degrading the moraine. The sediments of the moraine are being mobilized down-slope in large amounts by landslides and slumps. Up to 9.6% of the surface of the moraine is affected by retrogressive

  10. Assessment of the Extirpated Maritimes Walrus Using Morphological and Ancient DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Brenna A.; Frasier, Timothy R.; Lucas, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Species biogeography is a result of complex events and factors associated with climate change, ecological interactions, anthropogenic impacts, physical geography, and evolution. To understand the contemporary biogeography of a species, it is necessary to understand its history. Specimens from areas of localized extinction are important, as extirpation of species from these areas may represent the loss of unique adaptations and a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) has a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the arctic and subarctic that once included the southeastern Canadian Maritimes region. However, exploitation of the Maritimes population during the 16th-18th centuries led to extirpation, and the species has not inhabited areas south of 55°N for ∼250 years. We examined genetic and morphological characteristics of specimens from the Maritimes, Atlantic (O. r. rosmarus) and Pacific (O. r. divergens) populations to test the hypothesis that the first group was distinctive. Analysis of Atlantic and Maritimes specimens indicated that most skull and mandibular measurements were significantly different between the Maritimes and Atlantic groups and discriminant analysis of principal components confirmed them as distinctive groups, with complete isolation of skull features. The Maritimes walrus appear to have been larger animals, with larger and more robust tusks, skulls and mandibles. The mtDNA control region haplotypes identified in Maritimes specimens were unique to the region and a greater average number of nucleotide differences were found between the regions (Atlantic and Maritimes) than within either group. Levels of diversity (h and π) were lower in the Maritimes, consistent with other studies of species at range margins. Our data suggest that the Maritimes walrus was a morphologically and genetically distinctive group that was on a different evolutionary path from other walrus found in the north Atlantic. PMID:24924490

  11. Assessment of the extirpated Maritimes walrus using morphological and ancient DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Brenna A; Frasier, Timothy R; Lucas, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Species biogeography is a result of complex events and factors associated with climate change, ecological interactions, anthropogenic impacts, physical geography, and evolution. To understand the contemporary biogeography of a species, it is necessary to understand its history. Specimens from areas of localized extinction are important, as extirpation of species from these areas may represent the loss of unique adaptations and a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) has a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the arctic and subarctic that once included the southeastern Canadian Maritimes region. However, exploitation of the Maritimes population during the 16th-18th centuries led to extirpation, and the species has not inhabited areas south of 55°N for ∼250 years. We examined genetic and morphological characteristics of specimens from the Maritimes, Atlantic (O. r. rosmarus) and Pacific (O. r. divergens) populations to test the hypothesis that the first group was distinctive. Analysis of Atlantic and Maritimes specimens indicated that most skull and mandibular measurements were significantly different between the Maritimes and Atlantic groups and discriminant analysis of principal components confirmed them as distinctive groups, with complete isolation of skull features. The Maritimes walrus appear to have been larger animals, with larger and more robust tusks, skulls and mandibles. The mtDNA control region haplotypes identified in Maritimes specimens were unique to the region and a greater average number of nucleotide differences were found between the regions (Atlantic and Maritimes) than within either group. Levels of diversity (h and π) were lower in the Maritimes, consistent with other studies of species at range margins. Our data suggest that the Maritimes walrus was a morphologically and genetically distinctive group that was on a different evolutionary path from other walrus found in the north Atlantic. PMID:24924490

  12. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in the environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Zhu, Chaofei; Gao, Guanjun; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-11-01

    Antarctica is considered as a final sink of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, distributions and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with HRGC/HRMS technique. Twenty-three OCPs were measured in various environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica. The total concentrations (Σ23OCPs) were at quite low levels, ranging 93.6-1260 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil and sediment, 223-1053 pg g(-1) dw in moss and 373-812 pg g(-1) dw in lichen. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (especially p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the main contaminants in all samples. Lower α-HCH/γ-HCH and higher p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios compared with the technical products indicated long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of recent lindane and aged technical DDT. Significant dependence of many OCPs concentrations on total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. Apart from LRAT, local biotic activities could also contribute and influence the spatial distribution of the contaminants. PMID:26162333

  13. OCULUS SeaTM: integrated maritime surveillance platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanellopoulos, Sotirios A.; Katsoulis, Stavros; Motos, Dionysis; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Margonis, Chris; Dimitros, Kostantinos; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    OCULUS Sea™ is a C2 platform for Integrated Maritime Surveillance. The platform consists of "loosely coupled" National/ Regional and Local C2 Centers which are "centrally governed". "Loosely coupled" as C2 Centers are located separately, share their Situational Pictures via a Message Oriented Middleware but preserve their administrational and operational autonomy. "Centrally governed" as there exists a central governance mechanism at the NCC that registers, authenticates and authorizes Regional and Local C2 centers into the OCULUS Sea network. From operational point of view, OCULUS Sea has been tested under realistic conditions during the PERSEUS [3] Eastern Campaign and has been positively evaluated by Coast Guard officers from Spain and Greece. From Research and Development point of view, OCULUS Sea can act as a test bed for validating any technology development is this domain in the near future.

  14. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Initiatives in Tanzania and Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Bill; Parthesius, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the capacity building programmes in maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) conducted by the authors in Tanzania and Mozambique. Tanzania and Mozambique have long histories of indigenous cultures, foreign contacts and influences and African adaptations beginning in the late Greco-Roman period, when the coastal populations exploited the peoples and riches of the interior. Today the coastline contains numerous examples of indigenous tangible and intangible heritage and many sites and histories related to the Swahili culture. Some exploratory research and training has been conducted in Tanzania and Mozambique, but the implementation by local residents of their own MUCH programme is still at an early stage. Under a UNESCO agreement framework, Tanzania in particular has started to develop a MUCH programme, which can assist in highlighting their extensive histories, cultural landscapes and cultural identity.

  15. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D. O. D.; Sediono, W.; Shah, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process.

  16. Target detection and tracking in maritime surveillance mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabordo, Madeleine G.; Aboutanios, Elias

    2015-05-01

    Target detection and tracking is an important element of military operations. Military commanders and personnel have been allocating and continue to allocate resources into the assessment of platforms' performances in target detection, tracking, identification and classification to assist in decision making regarding the allocation of military assets for surveillance missions. We present an application of target detection and tracking by military aircraft in maritime surveillance mission. We modelled platforms' capabilities and targets' motion and performed simulations of the scenario. Performance of military aircraft is quantified by the time taken to complete the mission, the percentage of targets detected and the extent of surveillance completed. Results show that the joint operation of the UAVs and the helicopter gives better detection results than the sole performance of the helicopter.

  17. Enhanced TCP for maritime communications over satellite network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Liang; Du, Wencai; Bai, Yong

    2014-10-01

    For maritime communications over satellite network, TCP performance is essential for data transmissions. TCP ADaLR is congestion control algorithm that the sender judgments the relevant window change and measures roundtrip time to control congestion window. It can adapt to the characteristics of the satellite link and improve the performance of TCP than conventional TCP. However, it does not take into account distinction of random packet loss and congestion loss like TCP Veno. In this paper, we propose further enhancement of TCP ADaLR, called TCP ADaLR+, that can distinguish between random packet loss and congestion loss. The improved performance of proposed TCP ADaLR+ is demonstrated by simulations.

  18. Characteristics of a maritime interdiction operations unmanned ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Baker, Mendel

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Navy conducts thousands of Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIOs) every year around the globe. Navy Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure (VBSS) teams regularly board suspect ships and perform search operations, often in hostile environments. There is a need for a small tactical robot that can be deployed ahead of the team to provide enhanced situational awareness in these boarding, breaching, and clearing operations. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) performed a market survey, identified and obtained a number of throwable robots that may be useful in these situations, and conducted user evaluations with Navy VBSS team members, taking each of these robots through all applicable steps of the VBSS operation in realistic training environments. From these tests, we verified the requirements and defined the key performance parameters for an MIO robot. This paper describes the tests conducted and the identified characteristics of this robot.

  19. Performance limits for maritime Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR).

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-11-01

    The performance of an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. In this report we specifically examine ISAR as applied to maritime targets (e.g. ships). It is often difficult to get your arms around' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall ISAR system. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the seek time'.

  20. Lynx maritime radar in USN experiment Trident Warrior 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, R.; Link, Z.; Verge, T.; Laue, J.

    2012-06-01

    General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. (GA-ASI) participated in the joint naval experiment Trident Warrior 2011 at Combat Direction Systems Activity (CDSA), Dam Neck, Va., in July 2011. The goal was to introduce the Lynx® Multi-Mode Radar's new Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) mode and display a viable Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) full kill chain solution for the naval environment. GA-ASI presented a manned platform, a Beechcraft Super King Air 200 modified with an operators console, Lynx Multi-mode Radar, FLIR Star SAFIRE 380-HD EO/IR camera system, and an L-3 TCDL (aircraft data link system) as a surrogate for the Predator® B/ MQ-9 UAS.

  1. Maritime Cultural Landscape: A New Approach to the Cascais Coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Jorge Vaz

    2014-06-01

    Portuguese Archaeology only recently began to address the concept of maritime cultural landscape. In this article we intend to analyze the impact that this kind of approach has upon the study of a littoral characterized by a cliffed coast and a seafloor that is morphologically complicated by the estuary influences of the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus River. The coast of Cascais, located near Lisbon, is the space that we wish to address with this epistemological paradigm. A large spectrum of sites composed of fortresses, lighthouses, harbors, anchorages, and shipwrecks permits a longue durée examination. The relationships and networks between humans and archaeological remains, directly and indirectly linked to the nautical past, are observed diachronically with a focus on the early Modern Period.

  2. Aerosol scattering of ultraviolet sunlight in the tropical maritime atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghazi, A.; Krueger, A. J.; Fraser, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric aerosol scattering on the vertical profile of solar ultraviolet radiation are investigated. Measurements of diffuse and total ultraviolet radiation were made using a rocketborne optical sonde in the marine atmosphere of Antigua. During observations, the sun was at zenith. Vertical profiles of directly transmitted solar radiation were calculated by subtraction of the diffuse component from the total radiance. Using these values of direct downward solar UV-flux, the optical thickness of the atmosphere was derived as a function of altitude. Absorption by ozone was also considered. In the troposphere the values of observed optical thickness were in general equal to or lower than those expected theoretically from Rayleigh scattering alone. The measured radiation profiles were compared with those computed for a multiple scattering model atmosphere. Some computations regarding the interaction of UV-sunlight with maritime aerosols are presented.

  3. EMI survey for maritime satellite, L-band, shipboard terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Hill, J. S.; Brandel, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The United States Lines 15,690-ton commercial-container ship, American Alliance, was selected as lead ship for an onboard EMI survey prior to installation of L-Band shipboard terminals for operation with two, geostationary, maritime satellites. In general, the EMI survey revealed tolerable interference levels onboard ship: radiometer measurements indicate antenna-noise temperatures less than 70 K, at elevation angles of 5 deg and greater, at 1559 MHz, at the output terminals of the 1.2-m-diameter, parabolic-dish antenna for the L-Band shipboard terminal. Other EMI measurements include field intensity from 3 cm- and 10 cm-wavelength pulse radars, and conducted-emission tests of primary power lines to both onboard radars.

  4. Knowledge-aided multisensor data fusion for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistello, Giulia; Ulmke, Martin; Koch, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Multi sensor fusion techniques are widely employed in several surveillance applications (e.g., battlefield monitoring, air traffic control, camp protection, etc). The necessity of tracking the elements of a dynamic system usually requires combining information from heterogeneous data sources in order to overcome the limitations of each sensor. The gathered information might be related to the target kinematics (position, velocity), its physical features (shape, size, composition) or intentions (route plan, friend/foe, engaged sensor modes, etc). The combination of such heterogeneous sensor data proved to benefit from the exploitation of context information, i.e., static and dynamic features of the scenario, represented in a Knowledge Base (KB). A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a typical example for a KB that can be exploited for the enhancement of multi sensor data fusion. The present paper describes potential strategies for "knowledge-based" data fusion in the area of Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA). MSA is founded on the data from heterogeneous sources, including radars, Navigation Aids, air- and space-based monitoring services, and recently-conceived passive sensors. Several strategies for optimally fusing two or more of these information data flows have been proposed for MSA applications. Relevant KB information comprises port locations, coastal lines, preferred routes, traffic rules, and potentially a maritime vessel database. We propose mathematical models and techniques to integrate kinematic constraints, e.g., in terms of navigation fields, and different object behaviour into a data fusion approach. For an exemplary sensor suite, we evaluate performance measures in the framework of centralised and decentralised fusion architectures.

  5. Shallow groundwater systems in a polar desert, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooseff, Michael N.; Barrett, John E.; Levy, Joseph S.

    2013-02-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDVs), Antarctica, exist in a hyperarid polar desert, underlain by deep permafrost. With an annual mean air temperature of -18 °C, the MDVs receive <10 cm snow-water equivalent each year, collecting in leeward patches across the landscape. The landscape is dominated by expansive ice-free areas of exposed soils, mountain glaciers, permanently ice-covered lakes, and stream channels. An active layer of seasonally thawed soil and sediment extends to less than 1 m from the surface. Despite the cold and low precipitation, liquid water is generated on glaciers and in snow patches during the austral summer, infiltrating the active layer. Across the MDVs, groundwater is generally confined to shallow depths and often in unsaturated conditions. The current understanding and the biogeochemical/ecological significance of four types of shallow groundwater features in the MDVs are reviewed: local soil-moisture patches that result from snow-patch melt, water tracks, wetted margins of streams and lakes, and hyporheic zones of streams. In general, each of these features enhances the movement of solutes across the landscape and generates soil conditions suitable for microbial and invertebrate communities.

  6. Marine record of Holocene climate, ocean, and cryosphere interactions: Herbert Sound, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minzoni, Rebecca Totten; Anderson, John B.; Fernandez, Rodrigo; Wellner, Julia Smith

    2015-12-01

    The sediment record offshore James Ross Island, northeast Antarctic Peninsula presents an unparalleled opportunity to directly compare marine and terrestrial climate records spanning the Holocene in maritime Antarctica. An 11 m drill core was collected between Herbert Sound and Croft Bay as part of the SHALDRIL NBP-0502 initiative and produced the southernmost sediment record from the eastern side of the AP. Thirty-eight radiocarbon ages are used to construct an age model of centennial-scale resolution. Multi-proxy records, including magnetic susceptibility, pebble content, particle size, total organic carbon, and diatom assemblages, were interrogated in the context of nearby Holocene-age ice core, lake, and drift records from James Ross Island. Differences in the timing and expression of Holocene events reflect marine controls on tidewater glaciers, such as water mass configurations and sea ice. Glacial behavior mimics ice core paleotemperatures during the Holocene, with the exception of distinct ocean warming events. Herbert Sound was fully occupied by grounded ice during the Last Glacial Maximum, and experienced rapid lift-off, followed by a floating ice phase. The canopy of floating ice receded by 10 ± 2.4 cal kyr BP, presumably in response to Early Holocene warming. Herbert Sound and Croft Bay fully deglaciated by 7.2 cal kyr BP, when the Mid Holocene Hypsithermal commenced and the sound became open and productive. An extreme peak in productivity ˜6.1 cal kyr BP indicates an oceanic warming event that is not reflected in atmospheric temperature or lacustrine sediment records. Increase in sea ice cover and ice rafting mark the onset of the Neoglacial ˜2.5 cal kyr BP, when pronounced atmospheric cooling is documented in the James Ross Island ice core. Our comparison facilitates more holistic understanding of atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere interactions that may aid predictions of glacial response to future warming and sea-level scenarios.

  7. Hydrogen emissions from Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussallam, Yves; Oppenheimer, Clive; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Giudice, Gaetano; Moussallam, Manuel; Kyle, Philip

    2012-11-01

    The continuous measurement of molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions from passively degassing volcanoes has recently been made possible using a new generation of low-cost electrochemical sensors. We have used such sensors to measure H2, along with SO2, H2O and CO2, in the gas and aerosol plume emitted from the phonolite lava lake at Erebus volcano, Antarctica. The measurements were made at the crater rim between December 2010 and January 2011. Combined with measurements of the long-term SO2 emission rate for Erebus, they indicate a characteristic H2 flux of 0.03 kg s-1 (2.8 Mg day-1). The observed H2 content in the plume is consistent with previous estimates of redox conditions in the lava lake inferred from mineral compositions and the observed CO2/CO ratio in the gas plume (˜0.9 log units below the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer). These measurements suggest that H2 does not combust at the surface of the lake, and that H2 is kinetically inert in the gas/aerosol plume, retaining the signature of the high-temperature chemical equilibrium reached in the lava lake. We also observe a cyclical variation in the H2/SO2 ratio with a period of ˜10 min. These cycles correspond to oscillatory patterns of surface motion of the lava lake that have been interpreted as signs of a pulsatory magma supply at the top of the magmatic conduit.

  8. Icebergs in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Two large icebergs, designated B-15A and C-16, are captured in this MISR nadir camera view of the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea in Antarctica. The image was acquired on December 10, 2000 during Terra orbit 5220.

    Iceberg C-16 calved off the ice shelf in late September and is nearly 50 kilometers in length. It is seen here having migrated to the vicinity of Cape Bird on Ross Island. The initial letter designation in an iceberg's name denotes the longitudinal quadrant in which it is first seen, and new icebergs sighted in that quadrant are sequentially numbered. B-15 divided from the ice shelf last March, and initially was nearly as large as the state of Connecticut. It has since broken up into several pieces, hence the final letter designation in the berg shown in this image.

    Ross Island lies between 77 and 78 degrees south latitude, and consists of several volcanic peaks, of which the still active Mt. Erebus is the tallest (3794 meters). It overlooks McMurdo Station, a U.S. research facility located near the tip of the island's Hut Point Peninsula.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Odd cloud in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 28, 2002, MODIS captured this image of an interesting cloud formation in the boundary waters between Antarctica's Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean. A dragon? A snake? A fish? No, but it is an interesting example of the atmospheric physics of convection. The 'eye' of this dragon-looking cloud is likely a small spot of convection, the process by which hot moist air rises up into the atmosphere, often producing big, fluffy clouds as moisture in the air condenses as rises into the colder parts of the atmosphere. A false color analysis that shows different kinds of clouds in different colors reveals that the eye is composed of ice crystals while the 'body' is a liquid water cloud. This suggests that the eye is higher up in the atmosphere than the body. The most likely explanation for the eye feature is that the warm, rising air mass had enough buoyancy to punch through the liquid water cloud. As a convective parcel of air rises into the atmosphere, it pushes the colder air that is higher up out of its way. That cold air spills down over the sides of the convective air mass, and in this case has cleared away part of the liquid cloud layer below in the process. This spilling over of cold air from higher up in the atmosphere is the reason why thunderstorms are often accompanied by a cool breeze. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Sedimentary basins in Ross Sea, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A.K.; Davey, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    The Ross Sea lies in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic continental margin. Three major sedimentary basins (from east to west, the Eastern, Central, and Victoria Land basins) lie beneath the broad, deep continental shelf of the Ross Sea. These north-south-trending basins occur in the extensionally deformed region between East and West Antarctica. Multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) surveys have been conducted over these basins since 1980 by West German, French, Japanese, and US expeditions. The MCS and previous geophysical surveys have shown that the three basins contain 5-6 km of sedimentary rock, possibly Late Cretaceous and younger. An additional 6-8 km of sedimentary and volcanic rock lies within the deeper parts of the Victoria Land basin. The basins are separated by uplifted and eroded basement ridges covered by thin sedimentary sections. Each basin has distinct characteristics, commonly related to its extensional origin. Petroleum hydrocarbons are unknown from the Ross Sea region, with the possible exception of ethane gas recovered by the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Previous model studies, based on estimated sediment thickness, assumed temperature gradients, and postulated seismostratigraphy, indicate that hydrocarbons could be generated at depths of 3.5-6km within the sedimentary section. However, this hypothesis cannot be verified without further geologic and geophysical data from the Ross Sea region.

  11. Fabric and texture at Siple Dome, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diprinzio, C.L.; Wilen, L.A.; Alley, R.B.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Spencer, M.K.; Gow, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Preferred c-axis orientations are present in the firn at Siple Dome, West Antarctica, and recrystallization begins as shallow as 200 m depth in ice below -20??C, based on digital analysis of c-axis fabrics, grain-sizes and other characteristics of 52 vertical thin sections prepared in the field from the kilometer-long Siple Dome ice core. The shallowest section analyzed, from 22 m, shows clustering of c axes toward the vertical. By 200 m depth, girdle fabric and other features of recrystallized ice are evident in layers (or regions), separated by layers (regions) of typically finer-grained ice lacking evidence of recrystallization. Ice from about 700-780 m depth, which was deposited during the last ice age, is especially fine-grained, with strongly vertical c axes, but deeper ice shows much larger crystals and strong evidence of recrystallization. Azimuthal asymmetry of some c-axis fabrics, trends in grain-size, and other indicators reveal additional information on processes and history of ice flow at Siple Dome.

  12. Social, occupational and cultural adaptation in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel; Bishop, Sheryl; Weiss, Karine; Gaudino, Marvin

    2016-07-01

    Life in isolated and confined environments (ICEs, e.g., polar stations, submarine or space missions), is subject to important constraints which can generate psychosociological impaired outcomes. This study investigated psychological, social, occupational and cultural variables which are among the most important determinants in adaptation to a one-year wintering in Antarctica with 13 international participants. Our findings confirm and give further insight into the role of social (Cohesiveness, Social Support) and occupational (Implementation / Preparedness, Counterproductive Activity, Decision Latitude and Psychological Job Demands) dimensions of adaptation to ICE environments. Relationships between various social and occupational dimensions studies reflected detrimental effects ranging from decrements in cohesiveness, social support and work performance which differed across professional status and multicultural factors. These psychosocial issues have important implications for pre-mission selection and training, monitoring and support of crews during the mission and post-mission readaptation. Operational recommendations are suggested to improve adaptation, success and well-being for long-term ICE missions, e.g., to Mars and beyond.

  13. A magnetospheric substorm observed at Sanae, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, J.A.; Dore, I.S.; Haggard, R. ); Goertz, C.K. ); Hughes, W.J. ); Scourfield, M.W.J.; Wakerley, P.A.; Walker, A.D.M. ); Smits, D.P.; Sutcliffe, P.R. ); Stoker, P.H. )

    1987-03-01

    A magnetospheric substorm that occurred at Sanae, Antarctica, on July 27, 1979, was observed by a variety of techniques. A synthesis of the observations is presented, and an attempt made to deduce details of the behavior of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system during the event. While there was some evidence of a growth phase, it was inconclusive. At the onset there was a rapid change in the tail field, which assumed a more dipolar form, accompanied by Pi 2 oscillations and the precipitation of 6-keV electrons, with brightening of the auroral arc, auroral-type sporadic E ionization, and riometer absorption. A positive spike was observed in the D magnetic component, instead of the expected negative one. There was no evidence of the usual westward traveling surge at the beginning of the expansion phase during which the precipitation region, auroral arc, and electrojet moved rapidly poleward, though it may have occurred outside the field of view from Sanae. The H{beta} emission increased by a factor of less than 2, whereas the oxygen and nitrogen emissions monitored increased by 3-4. During the recovery phase, phenomena were consistent with a return of the tail field to an elongated form; a very high ratio of 557.7-nm/630-nm emissions, exceeding 10, was observed; and the electrojet lagged noticeably behind the photon emission regions.

  14. Seismic Tomography of Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, Daria; Kyle, Philip; Miller, Pnina; Snelson, Catherine; Aster, Richard

    2010-02-01

    Mount Erebus (77°32'S, 167°10'E elevation 3794 meters) is the most active volcano in Antarctica and is well known for its persistent lava lake. The lake constitutes an “open window” into the conduit and underlying feeding system and offers a rare opportunity to observe a shallow convecting magmatic system. Imaging and modeling of the internal structure of Erebus volcano are best done through compiling information from arrays of seismometers positioned strategically around the volcano. From these data, the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of the conduit can be pieced together. Building this 3-D model of Erebus was a main goal of the seismic tomographic experiment Tomo Erebus (TE). During the 2007-2008 austral field season, 23 intermediate-period seismometers were installed to contribute data, through the winter, for the passive-source aspect of the experiment. One year later, 100 three-component short-period stations were deployed to record 16 chemical blasts (see Figure 1).

  15. Intercomparison of ozone measurements over Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Margitan, J.J.; Farmer, C.B.; Toon, G.C. ); Brothers, G.A. ); Browell, E.V.; Gregory, G.L.; Hypes, W.; Larsen, J.C.; McCormick, M.P. ); Cariolle, D. ); Coffey, M.T.; Mankin, W. ); Farman, J.C. ); Harder, J.W.; Mount, G.H.; Ravishankara, A.R.; Schemeltekopf, A.L.; Tuck, A.F. ); Hofmann, D.J. ); Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. ); Jakoubek, R.O.; Proffitt, M.H.; Wahner, A.; Watterson, I. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder ); Komhyr, W. (NOAA Air Resources La

    1989-11-30

    Measurements of the abundances of ozone over Antarctic in August and September 1987 obtained during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment are intercompared. These measurements of ozone concentrations and total column abundance were obtained by three satellite instruments, two IR and one UV column-measuring instruments aboard the DC-8, one in situ DC-8, and two in situ ER-2 instruments, an upward looking lidar aboard the DC-8, and ozonesondes from four sites in Antarctica. Given the natural variability of ozone in the Antarctic and the fact that the data were not truly coincident spatially and temporally, this intercomparison is suitable only for identifying gross disparities among the techniques, rather than confirming the accuracies as rigorously as is normally done in an intercomparison. This paper presents a summary of the ozone data, using the data and accuracies given by the individual investigators in the individual papers in this issue, without any attempt to critically review or evaluate the data. In general, very good agreement (within about 10-20%, limited by natural variability) among the various techniques was found, with no systematic biases detected. These observations confirm the low ozone amounts reported in the Antarctic stratosphere.

  16. Ozone profiles above Palmer Station, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Arnold L.; Brothers, George

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility conducted a series of 52 balloon-borne measurements of vertical ozone profiles over the National Science Foundation (NSF) research facility at Palmer Station, Antarctica (64 deg 46 S, 64 deg 3 W) between August 9 and October 24, 1987. High resolution measurements were made from ground level to an average of 10 mb. While much variation was seen in the profile amounts of ozone, it is clear that a progressive depletion of ozone occurred during the measurement period, with maximum depletion taking place in the 17 to 19 km altitude region. Ozone partial pressures dropped by about 95 percent in this region. Shown here are plotted time dependences of ozone amounts observed at 17 km and at arbitrarily selected altitudes below (13 km) and above (24 km) the region of maximum depletion. Ozone partial pressure at 17 km is about 150nb in early August, and has decreased to less than 10nb in the minimums in October. The loss rate is of the order of 1.5 percent/day. In summary, a progressive depletion in stratospheric ozone over Palmer Station was observed from August to October, 1987. Maximum depletion occurred in the 17 to 19 km range, and amounted to 95 percent. Total ozone overburden decreased by up to 50 percent during the same period.

  17. The Center for Astrophysics in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pernic, Robert J.; Harper, D. AL, Jr.; Bausch, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Nowhere on Earth are the infrared skies clearer, darker, or more stable than on the high Antarctic Plateau. At some wavelengths, Antarctic telescopes may be more than one to two orders of magnitude more efficient than at other sites. However, exploiting these advantages requires first addressing the formidable practical difficulties of working in the remote and frigid polar environment. This was the motivation for the Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica (CARA), one of twenty-five National Science Foundation Science and Technology Centers. At its inception, the Center organized its research into four projects. Three - AST/RO, COBRA, and SPIREX - address key problems in star formation, evolution of galaxies, and the distribution of matter in the early universe. They feature surveys which can be conducted effectively with moderate-size telescopes operated in a highly automated mode. They also explore the potential of the Antarctic Plateau for a broad range of astrophysical research over a spectral range extending from the near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. A fourth, ATP, was created to obtain quantitative data on the qualities of the South Pole site and to plan for future scientific projects. During the next five years, AST/RO, COBRA, and SPIREX will become operational, and the Center will begin to build a second generation of telescopes which can address a broader range of problems and accommodate a larger community of users.

  18. Mass casualty incident response and aeromedical evacuation in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mills, Christopher N; Mills, Gregory H

    2011-02-01

    Antarctica is one of the most remote regions on Earth. Mass casualty incident (MCI) responses in Antarctica are prone to complications from multiple environmental and operational challenges. This review of the current status of MCI risks and response strategies for Antarctica focuses on aeromedical evacuation, a critical component of many possible MCI scenarios. Extreme cold and weather, a lack of medical resources and a multitude of disparate international bases all exert unique demands on MCI response planning. Increasing cruise ship traffic is also escalating the risk of MCI occurrence. To be successful, MCI response must be well coordinated and undertaken by trained rescuers, especially in the setting of Antarctica. Helicopter rescue or aeromedical evacuation of victims to off-continent facilities may be necessary. Currently, military forces have the greatest capacity for mass air evacuation. Specific risks that are likely to occur include structure collapses, vehicle incapacitations, vehicle crashes and fires. All of these events pose concomitant risks of hypothermia among both victims and rescuers. Antarctica's unique environment requires flexible yet robust MCI response planning among the many entities in operation on the continent. PMID:21691470

  19. Tectonic evolution of west Antarctica and its relation to east Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D.

    1987-05-01

    West Antarctica consists of five major blocks of continental crust separated by deep sub-ice basins. Marie Byrd Land appears to have been rifted off the adjacent margin of the East Antarctic craton along the line of the Transantarctic Mountains during the Mesozoic. Ellsworth-Whitmore mountains and Haag Nunataks blocks were also rifted from the margin of the craton. They appear to have moved together with the Antarctic Peninsula and Thurston Island blocks, segments of a Pacific margin Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatic arc, during the Mesozoic opening of the Weddell Sea basin. Paleomagnetic data suggest that all four of these blocks remained attached to western Gondwanaland (South America-Africa) until approximately 125 m.y. ago, and that the present geographic configuration of the Antarctic continent was essentially complete by the mid-Cretaceous, although important Cenozoic rifting has also occurred. Fragmentation of the Gondwanaland supercontinent was preceded in the Middle to Late Jurassic by an important and widespread thermal event of uncertain origin that resulted in the emplacement of an extensive bimodal igneous suite in South America, Africa, Antarctica, and Australia. This was associated with the development of the composite back-arc basin along the western margin of South America. Inversion of this basin in the mid-Cretaceous initiated Andean orogenesis. The presentation will include new data from the joint US-UK West Antarctic Tectonics Project.

  20. Terrestrial and submarine evidence for the extent and timing of the Last Glacial Maximum and the onset of deglaciation on the maritime-Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Dominic A.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Bentley, Michael J.; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.; Verleyen, Elie; Vyverman, Wim; Jomelli, Vincent; Favier, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Verfaillie, Deborah; Colhoun, Eric A.; Saunders, Krystyna M.; Selkirk, Patricia M.; Mackintosh, Andrew; Hedding, David W.; Nel, Werner; Hall, Kevin; McGlone, Matt S.; Van der Putten, Nathalie; Dickens, William A.; Smith, James A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper is the maritime and sub-Antarctic contribution to the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) Past Antarctic Ice Sheet Dynamics (PAIS) community Antarctic Ice Sheet reconstruction. The overarching aim for all sectors of Antarctica was to reconstruct the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ice sheet extent and thickness, and map the subsequent deglaciation in a series of 5000 year time slices. However, our review of the literature found surprisingly few high quality chronological constraints on changing glacier extents on these timescales in the maritime and sub-Antarctic sector. Therefore, in this paper we focus on an assessment of the terrestrial and offshore evidence for the LGM ice extent, establishing minimum ages for the onset of deglaciation, and separating evidence of deglaciation from LGM limits from those associated with later Holocene glacier fluctuations. Evidence included geomorphological descriptions of glacial landscapes, radiocarbon dated basal peat and lake sediment deposits, cosmogenic isotope ages of glacial features and molecular biological data. We propose a classification of the glacial history of the maritime and sub-Antarctic islands based on this assembled evidence. These include: (Type I) islands which accumulated little or no LGM ice; (Type II) islands with a limited LGM ice extent but evidence of extensive earlier continental shelf glaciations; (Type III) seamounts and volcanoes unlikely to have accumulated significant LGM ice cover; (Type IV) islands on shallow shelves with both terrestrial and submarine evidence of LGM (and/or earlier) ice expansion; (Type V) Islands north of the Antarctic Polar Front with terrestrial evidence of LGM ice expansion; and (Type VI) islands with no data. Finally, we review the climatological and geomorphological settings that separate the glaciological history of the islands within this classification scheme.

  1. The network of WHO Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health and the role of maritime centres.

    PubMed

    Kortum, Evelyn; Fingerhut, Marilyn A

    2003-01-01

    The WHO Network of Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health comprises 70 Collaborating Centres. Four of these Centres are specialised in Maritime Occupational Health and they are situated in Poland, Germany, Denmark and the Ukraine. All Collaborating Centres follow the mandate of the Occupational Health Programme in WHO, which is the Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All. Collaborating Centres in Maritime Occupational Health cover a specific group of workers who are exposed to different work environments than workers on land. They are often not at all or only insufficiently covered by any health services. The Collaborating Centres in Maritime Occupational Health provide an excellent example of international collaboration. PMID:14974788

  2. Maritime strategy and coalition defense: a synthesis for NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) success

    SciTech Connect

    Glazier, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Maritime strategy is an essential element underpinning the credibility of the NATO alliance. Far from hampering continental defense, the strategy enhances the deterrent posture and, should deterrence fail, increases the prospects for both preserving NATO allies and for ending hostilities on favorable terms. Execution of the global-war portion of the maritime strategy would almost certainly occur as part of a NATO defensive effort against Warsaw Pact aggression. Also, discussions about the feasibility of executing the maritime strategy have attempted to compare the us national force structure and capabilities to that of the Soviets.

  3. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage in South Africa: The Development of Relevant Management Strategies in the Historical Maritime Context of the Southern Tip of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharfman, Jonathan; Boshoff, Jaco; Parthesius, Robert

    2012-10-01

    South Africans have a long association with water. It has provided a source of food, a medium for trade and a catalyst for migration and development. The country's geographical position as a crossroads of maritime trade between Europe and the East means that its history is inextricably linked to the history of the rest of the world. The result is a multi-faceted representation of sites, objects and mythologies related to water and maritime heritage that reflect not only local historical and social development, but global cultural change as well. Given the importance of South Africa's underwater cultural heritage (UCH), managers have grappled with management principles, ethics and theoretical models in an effort to produce and enforce heritage legislation that is relevant and effective. This paper outlines South Africa's maritime context from 1.5 million years ago until the present, summarises legislative and mitigation developments over the past half century and provides details of current trends in maritime archaeology and UCH management at the southern tip of Africa. Training programmes and public awareness are keys to this strategy to bring UCH and maritime archaeology into the mainstream and counter treasure hunting and looting of this rich, friable resource.

  4. Live from Antarctica: The coldest, windiest place on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In this first part of a four part 'Passport to Knowledge Special', hosted by Camille Jennings from Maryland Public Television, children from Maryland and Texas schools had the opportunity to directly interact with and ask questions of scientists and researchers in Antarctica live. The physical characteristics of Antarctica are featured, along with their effects on the human and microbiological organisms living in the region. The reasons behind the clothing worn in the Antarctic and the importance of the meteorological station are featured. Interviews with Professor Ian Dolziel (U of Texas) and Lt. commander John Joseph, NSFA (the head of the Navy Meteorology Center) occur with the school children, along with actual video footage of the surrounding geological features and geography. The 'Weatherops' is located at McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

  5. Live from Antarctica: the Coldest, Windiest Place on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In this first part of a four part 'Passport to Knowledge Special', hosted by Camille Jennings from Maryland Public Television, children from Maryland and Texas schools had the opportunity to directly interact with and ask questions of scientists and researchers in Antarctica live. The physical characteristics of Antarctica are featured, along with their effects on the human and microbiological organisms living in the region. The reasons behind the clothing worn in the Antarctic and the importance of the meteorological station are featured. Interviews with Professor Ian Dolziel (U of Texas) and Lt. commander John Joseph, NSFA (the head of the Navy Meteorology Center) occur with the school children, along with actual video footage of the surrounding geological features and geography. The 'Weatherops' is located at McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

  6. Ongoing deformation of Antarctica following recent Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Matt A.; Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro

    2016-03-01

    Antarctica's secular motion is thought to be almost everywhere governed by horizontal rigid plate rotation plus three-dimensional deformations due to past and present changes in ice ocean loading, known as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We use geodetic data to investigate deformation following the 1998 M ~8.2 Antarctic intraplate Earthquake and show sustained three-dimensional deformation along East Antarctica's coastline, 600 km from the rupture location. Using a model of viscoelastic deformation, we are able to match observed northward velocity changes, and either east or height, but not all three directions simultaneously, apparently partly due to lateral variations in mantle rheology. Our modeling predicts that much of Antarctica may still be deforming, with further deformation possible from the 2004 M 8 Macquarie Ridge Earthquake. This previously unconsidered mode of Antarctic deformation affects geodetic estimates of plate motion and GIA; its viscous nature raises the prospect of further present-day deformation due to earlier Great Earthquakes.

  7. Cryoconite and Ice-bubble Microbial Ecosystems in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the Antarctica 2000 Expedition samples of rocks and ice bubbles entrained in ice were collected from the blue ice fields near the Moulton Escarpment of the Thiel Mountains (85S, 94W) and the Morris Moraine of the Patriot Hills (80S, 8 1 W) Ellsworth Mountains of Antarctica. Investigation of the microbiota of these cryoconite and ice bubble ecosystems are now being conducted to help refine chemical and morphological biomarkers of potential significance to Astrobiology. The Antarctica 2000 Expedition will be discussed and the preliminary results of the studies of the ice bubble and cryoconite microbial ecosystems discussed. Recent ESEM images of the Antarctic microbiota will be presented a the relevance of ice ecosystems to Astrobiology will be discussed.

  8. Where does CO2 in Antarctica cool the atmosphere ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmithüsen, Holger; Notholt, Justus; König-Langlo, Gert; Lemke, Peter; Jung, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In a recent study we have shown that for the high altitude plateau in Antarctica CO2 causes a surplus in infrared emission to space compared to what is emitted from the surface. This corresponds to a negative greenhouse effect, and is due to the fact that for this region the surface is typically colder than the atmosphere above, opposite to the rest of the world. As a consequence, for this region an increase in CO2 leads to an increase in the energy loss to space, leading to an increase in the negative greenhouse effect. We now studied in more detail the radiative effect of CO2 and compared the results with available measurements from Antarctica. H. Schmithüsen, J. Notholt, G. Köngig-Langlo, T, Jung. How increasing CO2 leads to an increased negative greenhouse effect in Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, in press, 2015. doi: 10.1002/2015GL066749.

  9. Provenance of dust to Antarctica: A lead isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gili, Stefania; Gaiero, Diego M.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Koester, Edinei; Jweda, Jason; Vallelonga, Paul; Kaplan, Michael R.

    2016-03-01

    Antarctic ice preserves an ~800 kyr record of dust activity in the Southern Hemisphere. Major efforts have been dedicated to elucidate the origin of this material in order to gain greater insight into the atmospheric dust cycle. On the basis of Pb isotopes in Antarctic dust samples and potential sources, this contribution demonstrates for the first time that Patagonia is the main contributor of dust to Antarctica during interglacial periods as well as glacials, although the potential importance of Tierra del Fuego remains unclear because of its geochemical similarities to Patagonia. An important new finding is that the Puna-Altiplano sector of the continent is a second important dust source to eastern Antarctica during both glacials and interglacials, being more prominent during interglacials. The data indicate South America is the primary dust source to Antarctica during both glacials and interglacials.

  10. Atmospheric mercury in the marine boundary layer along a cruise path from Shanghai, China to Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chonghuan; Xie, Zhouqing; Sun, Liguang

    2010-05-01

    The total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements were performed using an automatic Mercury Vapor Analyze (model 2537B) aboard the Chinese research vessel (R/V) XueLong during the 24th China Antarctic Research Expedition from Shanghai, China to Prydz Bay, Antarctica in 2007. TGM ranged between 0.302 and 4.496 ng m -3 with an average of 1.536 ± 0.785 ng m -3 over the entire period. Geographically, TGM in the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere along the cruise path were 1.746 ± 0.513 and 1.471 ± 0.842 ng m -3 in average, respectively. Higher TGM concentrations were observed in the coastal regions outside the polar region due primarily to air masses transported from the adjacent mainland reflecting the contribution from anthropogenic sources. The pronounced episode was recorded when ship passed through Sunda straits, which should be ascribed to the volcano plume and/or biomass burning contamination. In the maritime Antarctic TGM level was in agreement with the values by land-based observation, presenting a diurnal cycle with the maximum around midday and minimum at night. Atmospheric mercury destruction events dominated by the oxidation of atmospheric Hg 0 were apparently observed in this region.

  11. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photography (DISP) Coverage of Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Seider, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a nine-week summer project examining all Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photography (DISP) of Antarctica. It was discovered that the data were collected in three separate missions during 1962 and 1963. The first two missions covered only the coastal areas, while the third mission covered the entire continent. Many of the 1782 frames collected were cloudy. This is especially true of West Antarctica. An optimal set of photographs covering the entire Antarctic coastline is identified along with some examples that show changes in the coastline which have occurred since the early 1960s.

  12. Avian cholera in Southern Great Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leotta, G.A.; Rivas, M.; Chinen, I.; Vigo, G.B.; Moredo, F.A.; Coria, N.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    A southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) was found dead at Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland, Antarctica. The adult male was discovered approximately 48 hr after death. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were compatible with avian cholera and the bacterium Pasteurella multocida subsp. gallicida, serotype A1 was isolated from lung, heart, liver, pericardial sac, and air sacs. In addition, Escherichia coli was isolated from pericardial sac and air sacs. This is the first known report of avian cholera in a southern giant petrel in Antarctica.

  13. The Prospects of Integral-Field Spectroscopy for Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelz, A.

    The first suite of instruments and associated science cases for a larger facility at Dome C are mainly targeted towards imaging and surveys. While the potential advantages for astronomical observations from Antarctica are applicable to both imaging and spectroscopy, spectrographs are more complex to build and harder to use in a fully automatic and remote operation. However, the innovative technique of 3D-Spectroscopy (3DS) offers imaging and spectroscopic capabilities simultaneously with applications to a wide range of astronomical programmes. Furthermore, 3DS provides several operational benefits, that are well suited for a location such as Antarctica.

  14. Distribution of narrow-width magnetic anomalies in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.

    1964-01-01

    Data for aeromagnetic profiles obtained in Antarctica during the 1963-64 austral summer were used together with earlier results to construct a map showing the areal distribution of narrow-width magnetic anomalies. Numerous anomalies are associated with known volcanic mountains in western Antarctica. A large area of few anomalies is probably a result of an extension of the thick metasedimentary section observed in the Ellsworth Mountains. Portions of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains have associated anomalies which are probably caused by late Cenozoic volcanic rocks.

  15. Practical analysis of tide gauges records from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    We have collected and analyzed in a basic way the currently available time series from tide gauges deployed along the coasts of Antarctica. The database of the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) holds relative sea level information for 17 stations, which are mostly concentrated in the Antarctic Peninsula (8 out of 17). For 7 of the PSMSL stations, Revised Local Reference (RLR) monthly and yearly observations are available, spanning from year 1957.79 (Almirante Brown) to 2013.95 (Argentine Islands). For the remaining 11 stations, only metric monthly data can be obtained during the time window 1957-2013. The record length of the available time series is not generally exceeding 20 years. Remarkable exceptions are the RLR station of Argentine Island, located in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) (time span: 1958-2013, record length: 54 years, completeness=98%), and the metric station of Syowa in East Antarctica (1975-2012, 37 years, 92%). The general quality (geographical coverage and length of record) of the time series hinders a coherent geophysical interpretation of the relative sea-level data along the coasts of Antarctica. However, in an attempt to characterize the relative sea level signals available, we have stacked (i.e., averaged) the RLR time series for the AP and for the whole Antarctica. The so obtained time series have been analyzed using simple regression in order to estimate a trend and a possible sea-level acceleration. For the AP, the the trend is 1.8 ± 0.2 mm/yr and for the whole Antarctica it is 2.1 ± 0.1 mm/yr (both during 1957-2013). The modeled values of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) obtained with ICE-5G(VM2) using program SELEN, range between -0.7 and -1.6 mm/yr, showing that the sea-level trend recorded by tide gauges is strongly influenced by GIA. Subtracting the average GIA contribution (-1.1 mm/yr) to observed sea-level trend from the two stacks, we obtain 3.2 and 2.9 mm/yr for Antarctica and AP respectively, which are interpreted

  16. The GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Coldwell, R. L.; Dunnam, F. E.; Rester, A. C.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R.

    1989-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Advanced Detector (GRAD) consists of a n-type germanium detector inside an active bismuth-germanate Compton and charged particle shield with additional active plastic shielding across the aperture. It will be flown on a high-altitude balloon at 36 km altitude at a latitude of 78 deg S over Antarctica for observations of gamma radiation emitted by the radioactive decay of Co-56 in the supernova SN1987A, for assessment of the performance of bismuth-germanate scintillation material in the radiation environment of near space, for gathering information on the gamma-ray background over Antarctica, and for testing fault-tolerant software.

  17. Identification of small open reading frames in the Glaciozyma antarctica genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat-Sharani, Shuhaila; Bharudin, Izwan; Zainuddin, Nursyafiqi; Abdul-Murad, Abdul-Munir; Abu-Bakar, Farah-Diba; Najimuddin, Nazalan; Mahadi, Nor-Muhammad; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Glaciozyma antarctica is an obligate psychrophilic yeast that was isolated from Casey Research Station, Antarctica. The objective of this study was to identify small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) in the G. antarctica genome. Small ORFs have been found in other organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human and they have been known to partake in a diverse variety of functions. In this study, ORFs were searched from the existing G. antarctica genome annotations and this resulted 294 sORFs (of at most 100 amino acids) which represented 4% of the 7857 annotated ORFs. Several of these sORFs were validated by mapping to EST and transcriptome of G. antarctica.

  18. Understanding the Dynamic Neotectonic System in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. J.

    2004-05-01

    Feedbacks and interactions between components of the earth system are fundamental to polar geodynamic processes. The Antarctic Neotectonics (ANTEC) group has developed a vision for a major interdisciplinary program to investigate linkages between neotectonic processes in Antarctica, focused on understanding 1) how the stress/strain regimes of the lithosphere respond to changing ice mass loads; 2) how glacial isostatic adjustment and the tectono-thermal structure of the lithosphere influence modern ice sheet dynamics; 3) how tectonic motions and magmatism are linked with fluctuations of the Antarctic ice sheets through the Cenozoic; and 4) how evolving continental-scale paleogeography, volcanism, and erosion/sedimentation influence climate change. A primary focus to address these science goals is achieving continental-scale deployments of remote geodetic and geophysical observatories across the continental interior. Developing technologies are beginning to allow observatory operation through the polar night, due to advances in power sources and data storage capacity. Continued development in these areas, as well as in communications technologies to allow data transfer from remote stations, is required. Ground-based experiments must be integrated with campaigns by spaceborne instruments, to discriminate cryosphere mass flux signals from neotectonic activity. Coordination of ground-based observatory deployments with ongoing efforts to develop airborne geophysical platforms and new drilling systems will facilitate mapping and sampling unknown subglacial terrain and the earth's deep interior. Promising new areas of investigation to understand how surface processes are linked with tectonism in polar environments lie in application of new mapping technologies (LIDAR, ice-penetrating radar), new chronological tools, and assimilation of new surface information into modeling. If we can meet the logistical and funding challenges of instrumenting the Antarctic interior on a

  19. Ice megadunes on Mars: analogy with Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herny, Clémence; Massé, Marion; Bourgeois, Olivier; Carpy, Sabrina; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Appéré, Thomas; Smith, Isaac; Spiga, Aymeric; Rodriguez, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Mass and energy balance of ice sheets are driven by complex interactions between the atmosphere and the cryosphere. Feedbacks between katabatic winds and the cryosphere may lead to the formation of sedimentation waves, so-called megadunes, at the surface of ice sheets. These have been first described in Antarctica. Here we use topographic data, optical images, and spectroscopic data acquired by Mars orbiters. We show that the surface of the Martian North Polar Cap displays two superimposed sets of sedimentation waves with differing wavelengths. These sedimentation waves have similarities with Antarctic ice megadunes regarding their surface morphology, texture, grain size, and internal stratigraphic architecture. Their shallow-dipping upwind sides, their tops and the intervening troughs are covered by young ice and occasional sastrugi fields, indicative of net accumulation. On the other hand, their steep-dipping downwind sides either expose exhumed layers of dusty old ice or correspond to smooth surfaces of coarse-grained ice, indicative of net ablation or reduced net accumulation associated with sublimation and metamorphism. These surface characteristics and the internal stratigraphic architecture revealed by radar sounding are consistent with the interpretation that both sets of Martian sedimentation waves grow and migrate upwind in response to the development of periodic accumulation/ablation patterns controlled by katabatic winds. The smaller waves, characterized by reduced net accumulation on their downwind sides, are probably analogous to the Antarctic megadunes that have been described so far. On the other hand, a terrestrial equivalent remains to be discovered for the larger ones, characterized by net ablation on their downwind sides. The recognition of these sedimentation waves provides the basis for the development of a common model of ice/wind interaction at the surface of Martian and terrestrial ice sheets and for future investigations on the respective

  20. Multi-instrument MLT study in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, M.; Syowa Mlt Team

    The study of polar MLT region dynamics at Syowa station using various radio and optical instruments is overviewed. An MF radar (since 1999), applied to night time meteor wind measurement in addition to a conventional correlation measurement technique, provides wind information over a broad height range from 60 to nearly 120km. A sodium lidar (2000-2002) observed night time mesopause region temperature. The observed winter time mean temperature showed a significant difference from that at Arctic sites, suggesting a difference in the general circulation pattern and also wave activity between Arctic and Antarctic [Kawahara et al., 2002]. Wave analysis, especially tidal components, using both the MF radar and lidar is also being made. Other optical instrument observations including an all-sky monochromatic imager and a Fabry-Perot imager started recently. Behavior of small scale atmospheric waves is being studied using sodium airglow images, which are less affected by aurora activity compared with other emissions, together with background wind information observed by the MF radar. Recently SuperDARN HF radars, originally designed for polar F region plasma study, get much attention for their great potential for MLT study such as meteor wind and PMSE measurements. Using the two SuperDARN radars located at Syowa we developed a meteor measurement technique, of which quality is nearly comparable to that of a dedicated meteor radar [Yukimatu and Tsutsumi, 2002]. The new technique is planned to be applied to the almost twenty SuperDARN radars surrounding Arctic and Antarctica, and is expected to provide information on the longitudinal structure of background wind and planetary scale waves.