Science.gov

Sample records for mark embryogenic competence

  1. Abscisic acid and stress treatment are essential for the acquisition of embryogenic competence by carrot somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Akira; Sanuki, Nobuya; Higashi, Katsumi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Kamada, Hiroshi

    2006-03-01

    Studies of carrot embryogenesis have suggested that abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in somatic embryogenesis. A relationship between endogenous ABA and the induction of somatic embryogenesis was demonstrated using stress-induced system of somatic embryos. The embryonic-specific genes C-ABI3 and embryogenic cell proteins (ECPs) were expressed during stress treatment prior to the formation of somatic embryos. The stress-induction system for embryogenesis was clearly distinguished by two phases: the acquisition of embryogenic competence and the formation of a somatic embryo. Somatic embryo formation was inhibited by the application of fluridone (especially at 10(-4) M), a potent inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, during stress treatment. The inhibitory effect of fluridone was nullified by the simultaneous application of fluridone and ABA. The level of endogenous ABA increased transiently during stress. However, somatic embryogenesis was not significantly induced by the application of only ABA to the endogenous level, in the absence of stress. These results suggest that the induction of somatic embryogenesis, in particular the acquisition of embryogenic competence, is caused not only by the presence of ABA but also by physiological responses that are directly controlled by stresses. PMID:16160844

  2. Embryogenic plant cells in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1991-01-01

    In view of circumstantial evidence for the role of gravity (g) in shaping the embryo environment, normal embryo development may not occur reliably and efficiently in the microgravity environment of space. Attention must accordingly be given to those aspects of higher plant reproductive biology in space environments required for the production of viable embryos in a 'seed to seed to seed' experiment. It is suggested that cultured cells can be grown to be morphogenetically competent, and can be evaluated as to their ability to simulate embryogenic events usually associated with fertilized eggs in the embryo sac of the ovule in the ovary.

  3. Formation of embryogenic cell clumps from carrot epidermal cells is suppressed by 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Hatsumi; Togashi, Takashi; Mori, Yukiko; Kikuchi, Koji; Kuriyama, Kyoko; Tokuji, Yoshihiko

    2005-01-01

    Using a direct somatic embryogenesis system in carrot, we examined the role of DNA methylation in the change of cellular differentiation state, from somatic to embryogenic. 5-Azacytidine (aza-C), an inhibitor of DNA methylation suppressed the formation of embryogenic cell clumps from epidermal carrot cells. Aza-C also downregulated the expression of DcLEC1c, a LEC1-like embryonic gene in carrot, during morphogenesis of embryos. A carrot DNA methyltransferase gene, Met1-5 was expressed transiently after the induction of somatic embryogenesis by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), before the formation of embryogenic cell clumps. These findings suggested the significance of DNA methylation in acquiring the embryogenic competence in somatic cells in carrot. PMID:15700420

  4. Polyphenoloxidase-activity and -activation in embryogenic and non-embryogenic suspension cultures of Euphorbia pulcherrima.

    PubMed

    Grotkass, C; Lieberei, R; Preil, W

    1995-04-01

    The activity and activation potential of polyphenoloxidase (PPO, E.C. 1.10.3.1.) of tissue from shoot tips, adult leaves and embryogenic and non-embryogenic cell suspension cultures of Euphorbia pulcherrima was investigated using an oxygen probe technique. PPO derived from differentiated in vivo plant tissue (shoot tips, leaves) cannot be activated either by storage at 0-4°, freezing and thawing, incubation with CaCl2, sodium dodecyl sulfate or by incubation with trypsin. Embryogenic cells are characterized by high initial PPO activity and strong activation potential of membrane bound enzyme. Non-embryogenic material reveals low phenolase activity and low activation potential. An activation quotient (based on the ratio between "PPO-activity determined after sodium dodecyl sulfate incubation" to "PPO-activity determined after CaCl2-incubation") was calculated. This is independent of absolute enzyme activity and can be used for characterization of the embryogenic status of cells. PMID:24185450

  5. Initiation and transformation of grapevine embryogenic cultures.

    PubMed

    Dhekney, Sadanand A; Li, Zhijian T; Dutt, Manjul; Gray, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Protocols for the production and transformation of grapevine embryogenic cultures are described. Embryogenic cultures are initiated from leaves or stamens and pistils and transformed with Agrobacterium containing an enhanced green fluorescent protein/neomycin phosphotransferase II (egfp/nptII) fusion gene. Cultures are transferred to induction medium in the dark for callus formation and proliferation. Resulting cultures are transferred to somatic embryo development medium to induce secondary embryogenesis and formation of transgenic somatic embryos. Transgenic embryos identified on the basis on GFP fluorescence and kanamycin resistance are transferred to germination medium to regenerate transgenic plants. The presence of transgenes in independent plant lines is confirmed by PCR. PMID:22351011

  6. Changes in the Metabolome of Picea balfouriana Embryogenic Tissues That Were Linked to Different Levels of 6-BAP by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Q F; Wang, J H; Pulkkinen, P; Kong, L S

    2015-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of Picea balfouriana, which is an important commercial species for reforestation in Southern China, easily lose their embryogenic ability during long-term culture. Embryogenic tissue that proliferated at lower concentrations (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM) of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) were more productive, and generated 113 ± 6 and 89 ± 3 mature embryos per 100 mg embryogenic tissue, respectively. A metabolomic approach was used to study the changes in metabolites linked to embryogenic competence related to three different 6-BAP concentrations (2.5 μM, 3.6 μM, and 5 μM). A total of 309 compounds were obtained, among which 123 metabolites mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. The levels of 35 metabolites were significantly differentially regulated among the three 6-BAP treatments, and 32 metabolites differed between the 2.5 μM and 5 μM treatments. A total of 17 metabolites appeared only once among the three comparisons. The combination of a score plot and a loading plot showed that in the samples with higher embryogenic ability (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM), up-regulated metabolites were mostly amino acids and down-regulated metabolites were mostly primary carbohydrates (especially sugars). These results suggested that 6-BAP may influence embryogenic competence by nitrogen metabolism, which could cause an increase in amino acid levels and higher amounts of aspartate, isoleucine, and leucine in tissues with higher embryogenic ability. Furthermore, we speculated that 6-BAP may affect the amount of tryptophan in tissues, which would change the indole-3-acetic acid levels and influence the embryogenic ability. PMID:26517840

  7. Changes in the Metabolome of Picea balfouriana Embryogenic Tissues That Were Linked to Different Levels of 6-BAP by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q. F.; Wang, J. H.; Pulkkinen, P.; Kong, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of Picea balfouriana, which is an important commercial species for reforestation in Southern China, easily lose their embryogenic ability during long-term culture. Embryogenic tissue that proliferated at lower concentrations (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM) of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) were more productive, and generated 113 ± 6 and 89 ± 3 mature embryos per 100 mg embryogenic tissue, respectively. A metabolomic approach was used to study the changes in metabolites linked to embryogenic competence related to three different 6-BAP concentrations (2.5 μM, 3.6 μM, and 5 μM). A total of 309 compounds were obtained, among which 123 metabolites mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. The levels of 35 metabolites were significantly differentially regulated among the three 6-BAP treatments, and 32 metabolites differed between the 2.5 μM and 5 μM treatments. A total of 17 metabolites appeared only once among the three comparisons. The combination of a score plot and a loading plot showed that in the samples with higher embryogenic ability (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM), up-regulated metabolites were mostly amino acids and down-regulated metabolites were mostly primary carbohydrates (especially sugars). These results suggested that 6-BAP may influence embryogenic competence by nitrogen metabolism, which could cause an increase in amino acid levels and higher amounts of aspartate, isoleucine, and leucine in tissues with higher embryogenic ability. Furthermore, we speculated that 6-BAP may affect the amount of tryptophan in tissues, which would change the indole-3-acetic acid levels and influence the embryogenic ability. PMID:26517840

  8. Amino Acid and Secondary Metabolite Production in Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Callus of Fingerroot Ginger (Boesenbergia rotunda).

    PubMed

    Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Karim, Rezaul; Tan, Yew Seong; Teh, Huey Fang; Danial, Asma Dazni; Ho, Li Sim; Khalid, Norzulaani; Appleton, David Ross; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the medicinal properties of secondary metabolites of Boesenbergia rotunda (fingerroot ginger) has led to investigations into tissue culture of this plant. In this study, we profiled its primary and secondary metabolites, as well as hormones of embryogenic and non-embryogenic (dry and watery) callus and shoot base, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry together with histological characterization. Metabolite profiling showed relatively higher levels of glutamine, arginine and lysine in embryogenic callus than in dry and watery calli, while shoot base tissue showed an intermediate level of primary metabolites. For the five secondary metabolites analyzed (ie. panduratin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, cardamonin and alpinetin), shoot base had the highest concentrations, followed by watery, dry and embryogenic calli. Furthermore, intracellular auxin levels were found to decrease from dry to watery calli, followed by shoot base and finally embryogenic calli. Our morphological observations showed the presence of fibrils on the cell surface of embryogenic callus while diphenylboric acid 2-aminoethylester staining indicated the presence of flavonoids in both dry and embryogenic calli. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that shoot base and dry and embryogenic calli contained starch reserves while none were found in watery callus. This study identified several primary metabolites that could be used as markers of embryogenic cells in B. rotunda, while secondary metabolite analysis indicated that biosynthesis pathways of these important metabolites may not be active in callus and embryogenic tissue. PMID:27258536

  9. Amino Acid and Secondary Metabolite Production in Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Callus of Fingerroot Ginger (Boesenbergia rotunda)

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Karim, Rezaul; Tan, Yew Seong; Teh, Huey Fang; Danial, Asma Dazni; Ho, Li Sim; Khalid, Norzulaani; Appleton, David Ross; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the medicinal properties of secondary metabolites of Boesenbergia rotunda (fingerroot ginger) has led to investigations into tissue culture of this plant. In this study, we profiled its primary and secondary metabolites, as well as hormones of embryogenic and non-embryogenic (dry and watery) callus and shoot base, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry together with histological characterization. Metabolite profiling showed relatively higher levels of glutamine, arginine and lysine in embryogenic callus than in dry and watery calli, while shoot base tissue showed an intermediate level of primary metabolites. For the five secondary metabolites analyzed (ie. panduratin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, cardamonin and alpinetin), shoot base had the highest concentrations, followed by watery, dry and embryogenic calli. Furthermore, intracellular auxin levels were found to decrease from dry to watery calli, followed by shoot base and finally embryogenic calli. Our morphological observations showed the presence of fibrils on the cell surface of embryogenic callus while diphenylboric acid 2-aminoethylester staining indicated the presence of flavonoids in both dry and embryogenic calli. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that shoot base and dry and embryogenic calli contained starch reserves while none were found in watery callus. This study identified several primary metabolites that could be used as markers of embryogenic cells in B. rotunda, while secondary metabolite analysis indicated that biosynthesis pathways of these important metabolites may not be active in callus and embryogenic tissue. PMID:27258536

  10. Validating a Marking Rubric for Evaluating Staff Knowledge of Dementia for Competency in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aberdeen, Suzanne M.; Leggat, Sandra G.; Barraclough, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The shift to Vocational Education and Training (VET) for the training of the Australian residential aged care workforce has resulted in significant variance in the competencies at graduation of those caring for people with dementia. Competence may be also be enhanced, or conversely, decline over time as a result of implicit learning gained from…

  11. Isolation of an embryogenic line from non-embryogenic Brassica napus cv. Westar through microspore embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Meghna R.; Wang, Feng; Dirpaul, Joan M.; Zhou, Ning; Hammerlindl, Joe; Keller, Wilf; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Ferrie, Alison M. R.; Krochko, Joan E.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica napus cultivar Westar is non-embryogenic under all standard protocols for induction of microspore embryogenesis; however, the rare embryos produced in Westar microspore cultures, induced with added brassinosteroids, were found to develop into heritably stable embryogenic lines after chromosome doubling. One of the Westar-derived doubled haploid (DH) lines, DH-2, produced up to 30% the number of embryos as the highly embryogenic B. napus line, Topas DH4079. Expression analysis of marker genes for embryogenesis in Westar and the derived DH-2 line, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR, revealed that the timely expression of embryogenesis-related genes such as LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEC2, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3, and BABY BOOM1, and an accompanying down-regulation of pollen-related transcripts, were associated with commitment to embryo development in Brassica microspores. Microarray comparisons of 7 d cultures of Westar and Westar DH-2, using a B. napus seed-focused cDNA array (10 642 unigenes), identified highly expressed genes related to protein synthesis, translation, and response to stimulus (Gene Ontology) in the embryogenic DH-2 microspore-derived cell cultures. In contrast, transcripts for pollen-expressed genes were predominant in the recalcitrant Westar microspores. Besides being embryogenic, DH-2 plants showed alterations in morphology and architecture as compared with Westar, for example epinastic leaves, non-abscised petals, pale flower colour, and longer lateral branches. Auxin, cytokinin, and abscisic acid (ABA) profiles in young leaves, mature leaves, and inflorescences of Westar and DH-2 revealed no significant differences that could account for the alterations in embryogenic potential or phenotype. Various mechanisms accounting for the increased capacity for embryogenesis in Westar-derived DH lines are considered. PMID:18552352

  12. Isolation of an embryogenic line from non-embryogenic Brassica napus cv. Westar through microspore embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malik, Meghna R; Wang, Feng; Dirpaul, Joan M; Zhou, Ning; Hammerlindl, Joe; Keller, Wilf; Abrams, Suzanne R; Ferrie, Alison M R; Krochko, Joan E

    2008-01-01

    Brassica napus cultivar Westar is non-embryogenic under all standard protocols for induction of microspore embryogenesis; however, the rare embryos produced in Westar microspore cultures, induced with added brassinosteroids, were found to develop into heritably stable embryogenic lines after chromosome doubling. One of the Westar-derived doubled haploid (DH) lines, DH-2, produced up to 30% the number of embryos as the highly embryogenic B. napus line, Topas DH4079. Expression analysis of marker genes for embryogenesis in Westar and the derived DH-2 line, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR, revealed that the timely expression of embryogenesis-related genes such as LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEC2, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3, and BABY BOOM1, and an accompanying down-regulation of pollen-related transcripts, were associated with commitment to embryo development in Brassica microspores. Microarray comparisons of 7 d cultures of Westar and Westar DH-2, using a B. napus seed-focused cDNA array (10 642 unigenes), identified highly expressed genes related to protein synthesis, translation, and response to stimulus (Gene Ontology) in the embryogenic DH-2 microspore-derived cell cultures. In contrast, transcripts for pollen-expressed genes were predominant in the recalcitrant Westar microspores. Besides being embryogenic, DH-2 plants showed alterations in morphology and architecture as compared with Westar, for example epinastic leaves, non-abscised petals, pale flower colour, and longer lateral branches. Auxin, cytokinin, and abscisic acid (ABA) profiles in young leaves, mature leaves, and inflorescences of Westar and DH-2 revealed no significant differences that could account for the alterations in embryogenic potential or phenotype. Various mechanisms accounting for the increased capacity for embryogenesis in Westar-derived DH lines are considered. PMID:18552352

  13. Biolistic transformation of cotton embryogenic cell suspension cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation of cotton is highly dependent on the ability to regenerate fertile plants from transgenic cells through somatic embryogenesis. Induction of embryogenic cell cultures is genotype-dependant. However, once embryogenic cell cultures are available, they can be effectively used fo...

  14. Comprehension of Competing Argument Marking Systems in Two Australian Mixed Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shannessy, Carmel; Meakins, Felicity

    2012-01-01

    Crosslinguistic influence has been seen in bilingual adult and child learners when compared to monolingual learners. For speakers of Light Warlpiri and Gurindji Kriol there is no monolingual group for comparison, yet crosslinguistic influence can be seen in how the speakers resolve competition between case-marking and word order systems in each…

  15. Sox2 marks epithelial competence to generate teeth in mammals and reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Juuri, Emma; Jussila, Maria; Seidel, Kerstin; Holmes, Scott; Wu, Ping; Richman, Joy; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Arnold, Katrin; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Klein, Ophir; Michon, Frederic; Thesleff, Irma

    2013-01-01

    Tooth renewal is initiated from epithelium associated with existing teeth. The development of new teeth requires dental epithelial cells that have competence for tooth formation, but specific marker genes for these cells have not been identified. Here, we analyzed expression patterns of the transcription factor Sox2 in two different modes of successional tooth formation: tooth replacement and serial addition of primary teeth. We observed specific Sox2 expression in the dental lamina that gives rise to successional teeth in mammals with one round of tooth replacement as well as in reptiles with continuous tooth replacement. Sox2 was also expressed in the dental lamina during serial addition of mammalian molars, and genetic lineage tracing indicated that Sox2+ cells of the first molar give rise to the epithelial cell lineages of the second and third molars. Moreover, conditional deletion of Sox2 resulted in hyperplastic epithelium in the forming posterior molars. Our results indicate that the Sox2+ dental epithelium has competence for successional tooth formation and that Sox2 regulates the progenitor state of dental epithelial cells. The findings imply that the function of Sox2 has been conserved during evolution and that tooth replacement and serial addition of primary teeth represent variations of the same developmental process. The expression patterns of Sox2 support the hypothesis that dormant capacity for continuous tooth renewal exists in mammals. PMID:23462476

  16. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics of Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Callus during Sugarcane Somatic Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Barroso, Tatiana; Macedo, Amanda Ferreira; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Souza, Gustavo Henrique Martins Ferreira; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; de Souza-Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Silveira, Vanildo

    2015-01-01

    The development of somatic cells in to embryogenic cells occurs in several stages and ends in somatic embryo formation, though most of these biochemical and molecular changes have yet to be elucidated. Somatic embryogenesis coupled with genetic transformation could be a biotechnological tool to improve potential crop yields potential in sugarcane cultivars. The objective of this study was to observe somatic embryo development and to identify differentially expressed proteins in embryogenic (E) and non-embryogenic (NE) callus during maturation treatment. E and NE callus were cultured on maturation culture medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.0 g L-1) of activated charcoal (AC). Somatic embryo formation and differential protein expression were evaluated at days 0 and 21 using shotgun proteomic analyses. Treatment with 1.5 g L-1 AC resulted in higher somatic embryo maturation rates (158 somatic embryos in 14 days) in E callus but has no effect in NE callus. A total of 752 co-expressed proteins were identified through the SUCEST (The Sugarcane EST Project), including many housekeeping proteins. E callus showed 65 exclusive proteins on day 0, including dehydrogenase, desiccation-related protein, callose synthase 1 and nitric oxide synthase. After 21 days on maturation treatment, 14 exclusive proteins were identified in E callus, including catalase and secreted protein. NE callus showed 23 exclusive proteins on day 0 and 10 exclusive proteins after 21 days on maturation treatment, including many proteins related to protein degradation. The induction of maturation leads to somatic embryo development, which likely depends on the expression of specific proteins throughout the process, as seen in E callus under maturation treatment. On the other hand, some exclusive proteins can also specifically prevent of somatic embryos development, as seen in the NE callus. PMID:26035435

  17. Cryopreservation of embryogenic tissues from mature holm oak trees.

    PubMed

    Barra-Jiménez, Azahara; Aronen, Tuija S; Alegre, Jesús; Toribio, Mariano

    2015-06-01

    The development of a vitrification method for cryopreservation of embryogenic lines from mature holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees is reported. Globular embryogenic clusters of three embryogenic lines grown on gelled medium, and embryogenic clumps of one line collected from liquid cultures, were used as samples. The effect of both high-sucrose preculture and dehydration by incubation in the PVS2 solution for 30-90 min, on both survival and maintenance of the differentiation ability was evaluated in somatic embryo explants with and without immersion into liquid nitrogen. Growth recovery of the treated samples and ability to differentiate cotyledonary embryos largely depended on genotype. Overall, high growth recovery frequencies on gelled medium and increase of fresh weight in liquid medium were obtained in all the tested lines, also after freezing. However, the differentiation ability of the embryogenic lines was severely hampered following immersion into LN. Two of the embryogenic lines from gelled medium were able to recover the differentiation ability, one not. In the lines with reduced or no differentiation ability, variation in the microsatellite markers was observed when comparing samples taken prior to and after cryopreservation. The best results were achieved in the genotype Q8 in which 80% of explants grown on gelled medium differentiated into cotyledonary embryos following cryopreservation when they were precultured on medium with 0.3M sucrose and then incubated for 30 min in the PVS2 solution. Explants of the same genotype from liquid medium were unable to recover the differentiation ability. A 4-weeks storage period both in liquid nitrogen and in an ultra-low temperature freezer at -80°C was also evaluated with four embryogenic lines from gelled medium using the best vitrification treatment. Growth recovery frequencies of all lines from the two storage systems were very high, but their differentiation ability was completely lost. PMID:25748175

  18. Water Relation Parameters of Embryogenic Cultures and Seedlings of Larch

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Nigel J.; von Aderkas, Patrick; Fuchs, Edgar E.; Reaney, Martin J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the water relations parameters of developing somatic embryogenic and xygotic European larch (Larix decidua) were studied. Water release curves were generated by suspending tissue samples over unsaturated NaCl solutions until they reached vapor equilibration with the surrounding air. Twenty solutions were used whose water potentials ranged from −0.05 to −10 MPa. Water release curves were obtained by plotting paired values of tissue relative water content (RWC) and solution potential. Curves were derived for embryonic larch at various stages of development and for hypocotyls and roots from germinated zygotic and somatic embryos. The ability to resist dehydration increased markedly with development. Stage 1 tissue, which consisted of clusters of loosely associated nonchlorophyllous cells, had extremely low bulk elastic modulus (ε) (1.91 MPa) and apoplastic water content (A) (0.023), relatively high osmotic potential (Ψπ) (−0.53 MPa), and lost turgor at 0.56 RWC. In contrast, mature embryoids with primary roots, hypocotyl, and cotyledons (stage 3) had an almost 4-fold increase in A (0.089), significantly higher ε (3.49 MPa), and lower Ψπ (−0.88 MPa) and lost turgor at 0.66 RWC. Hypocotyl tissue from germinated somatic embryos lost turgor at 0.74 RWC and had higher ε, A, and solute accumulation than pregerminated tissue. Hypocotyl tissue resisted dehydration more strongly than root tissue, and differences between root and hypocotyl water relation parameters were more pronounced in xygotic than in somatic seedlings. Highest dehydration resistance was in zygotic hypocotyls. The characterization of the water relations of tissue cultures should allow the development of more consistent and reliable desiccation protocols to induce maturation of embryos and produce synchronously germinating seed. PMID:16653121

  19. Molecular aspects of somatic-to-embryogenic transition in plants.

    PubMed

    Karami, Omid; Aghavaisi, Behzad; Mahmoudi Pour, Aghil

    2009-11-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a model system for understanding the physiological, biochemical, and molecular biological events occurring during plant embryo development. Plant somatic cells have the ability to undergo sustained divisions and give rise to an entire organism. This remarkable feature is called plant cell totipotency. SE is a notable illustration of plant totipotency and involves reprogramming of development in somatic cells toward the embryogenic pathway. Plant growth regularities, especially auxins, are key components as their exogenous application recapitulates the embryogenic potential of the mitotically quiescent somatic cells. It has been observed that there are genetic and also physiological factors that trigger in vitro embryogenesis in various types of plant somatic cells. Analysis of the proteome and transcriptome has led to the identification and characterization of certain genes involved in SE. Most of these genes, however, are upregulated only in the late developmental stages, suggesting that they do not play a direct role in the vegetative-to-embryogenic transition. However, the molecular bases of those triggering factors and the genetic and biochemical mechanisms leading to in vitro embryogenesis are still unknown. Here, we describe the plant factors that participate in the vegetative-to-embryogenic transition and discuss their possible roles in this process. PMID:19763658

  20. Identification of differentially accumulated proteins associated with embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a complex biological process that occurs under inductive conditions and causes fully differentiated cells to be reprogrammed to an embryo like state. In order to get a better insight about molecular basis of the SE in Crocus sativus L. and to characterize differentially accumulated proteins during the process, a proteomic study based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry has been carried out. Results We have compared proteome profiles of non-embryogenic and embryogenic calli with native corm explants. Total soluble proteins were phenol-extracted and loaded on 18 cm IPG strips for the first dimension and 11.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels for the second dimension. Fifty spots with more than 1.5-fold change in abundance were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis for further characterization. Among them 36 proteins could be identified, which are classified into defense and stress response, protein synthesis and processing, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Conclusion Our results showed that diverse cellular and molecular processes were affected during somatic to embryogenic transition. Differential proteomic analysis suggests a key role for ascorbate metabolism during early stage of SE, and points to the possible role of ascorbate-glutathione cycle in establishing somatic embryos. PMID:22243837

  1. Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in embryogenic, non-embryogenic calluses and somatic embryogenesis of Valencia sweet orange by SSH-based microarray.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Xia; Chai, Li-Jun; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2012-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a most promising technology that is used for in vitro germplasm conservation and genetic improvement via biotechnological approaches in citrus. Herein, three suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using calluses of Citrus sinensis cv. 'Valencia' to explore the molecular mechanisms that underlie the SE in citrus. A total of 880 unisequences were identified by microarray screening based on these three SSH libraries. Gene ontology analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that nucleolus associated regulation and biogenesis processes, hormone signal transduction, and stress factors might be involved in SE. Transcription factors might also play an important role. LEC1/B3 domain regulatory network genes (LEC1, L1L, FUS3, ABI3, and ABI5) were isolated in citrus SE. Some new transcription factors associated with citrus SE, like a B3 domain containing gene and HB4, were identified. To understand the influence of these isolated genes on SE competence, their expression profiles were compared among callus lines of seven citrus cultivars with different SE competence. The expression dynamics suggested that these genes could be necessary for the SE initiation and might play a role in embryogenic competence maintenance in different cultivars. On the basis of gene expression profiles, an overview of major physiological and biosynthesis processes at different developmental stages during citrus SE is presented. For the first time, these data provide a global resource for transcriptional events important for SE in citrus, and the specific genes offer new information for further investigation on citrus SE maintenance and development. PMID:22622359

  2. The Phaseolus vulgaris PvTRX1h gene regulates plant hormone biosynthesis in embryogenic callus from common bean

    PubMed Central

    Barraza, Aarón; Cabrera-Ponce, José L.; Gamboa-Becerra, Roberto; Luna-Martínez, Francisco; Winkler, Robert; Álvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Common bean is the most important grain legume in the human diet. Bean improvement efforts have been focused on classical breeding techniques because bean is recalcitrant to both somatic embryogenesis and in vitro regeneration. This study was undertaken to better understand the process of somatic embryogenesis in the common bean. We focused on the mechanisms by which somatic embryogenesis in plants is regulated and the interaction of these mechanisms with plant hormones. Specifically, we examined the role of the gene PvTRX1h, an ortholog of a major known histone lysine methyltransferase in plants, in somatic embryo generation. Given the problems with regeneration and transformation, we chose to develop and use regeneration-competent callus that could be successively transformed. Embryogenic calli of common bean were generated and transformed with the PvTRX1hRiA construction to down-regulate, by RNA interference, expression of the PvTRX1h gene. Plant hormone content was measured by mass spectrometry and gene expression was assessed by q-PCR. Detailed histological analysis was performed on selected transgenic embryogenic calli. It was determined that down-regulation of PvTRX1h gene was accompanied by altered concentrations of plant hormones in the calli. PvTRX1h regulated the expression of genes involved in auxin biosynthesis and embryogenic calli in which PvTRX1h was down-regulated were capable of differentiation into somatic embryos. Also, down-regulation of PvTRX1h showed increased transcript abundance of a gene coding for a second histone lysine methyltransferase, PvASHH2h. Accordingly, the PvTRX1h gene is involved in the synthesis of plant hormones in common bean callus. These results shed light on the crosstalk among histone methyltransferases and plant hormone signaling and on gene regulation during somatic embryo generation. PMID:26284093

  3. Cryotechniques for the Long-Term Conservation of Embryogenic Cultures from Woody Plants.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Lambardi, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Since its development in the 1960s, plant cryopreservation is considered an extraordinary method of safe long-term conservation of biological material, as it does not induce genetic alterations and preserve the regeneration potential of the stored material. It is based on the storage of explants at cryogenic temperatures, such as the one of liquid nitrogen (-196 °C), where the metabolism within the cells is suspended; thus, the time for these cells is theoretically "stopped". Cryopreservation is particularly important for embryogenic cultures, as they require periodic subculturing for their maintenance, and this, in turn, increases the risk of losing the material, as well as its embryogenic potential. Periodic re-initiation of embryogenic cultures is possible; however, it is labor intensive, expensive, and particularly difficult when working with species for which embryogenic explants are available only during a limited period of the year. Among various methods of cryopreservation available for embryogenic cultures, slow cooling is still the most common approach, especially in callus cultures from softwood species. This chapter briefly reviews the cryopreservation of embryogenic cultures in conifers and broadleaf trees, and describes as well a complete protocol of embryogenic callus cryopreservation from common ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior L.) by slow cooling. PMID:26619887

  4. Regeneration of transgenic cassava from transformed embryogenic tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Puonti-Kaerlas, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    Production of transgenic plants is gradually becoming routine in cassava biotechnology. Green cotyledons of maturing somatic embryos (somatic cotyledons for short) and friable embryogenic suspensions (FES) are the target tissues for transformation by Agrobacterium or biolistics. Putative transgenic shoots develop from transformed somatic cotyledons via shoot organogenesis or from FES via somatic embryogenesis under selection. Maturation of transgenic somatic embryos is induced by transfer to maturation medium with reduced concentrations of selective agents. Mature somatic embryos can also develop directly from FES cells under selection. Transgenic plants are regenerated by the elongation of transgenic shootlets from organogenesis experiments and by the germination of or shoot development from transgenic mature embryos cultured without selection. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) assays and rooting tests can be used to screen for escapes from selection, which improves the regeneration rate of truly transgenic plants. PMID:15310920

  5. High Uniformity of plants regenerated from cytogenetically variable embryogenic suspension cultures of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch).

    PubMed

    Geier, T; Beck, A; Preil, W

    1992-04-01

    Shoot tip explants, callus and embryogenic cell suspensions of Euphorbia pulcherrima have been examined for quantitative variation in nuclear DNA content by means of cytophotometry. Increasing instability was found in calli and cell suspensions from Erlenmeyer flask and bioreactor culture. Nuclear DNA content ranged from 2C up to 32 C. Plants regenerated from embryogenic cell suspensions, however, were highly uniform with regard to phenotype and ploidy level indicating strongly impaired embryogenic potential of polyploid, aneuploid or other genetically altered cells. PMID:24213549

  6. Mps1 (Monopolar Spindle 1) Protein Inhibition Affects Cellular Growth and Pro-Embryogenic Masses Morphology in Embryogenic Cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Douétts-Peres, Jackellinne C.; Cruz, Marco Antônio L.; Reis, Ricardo S.; Heringer, Angelo S.; de Oliveira, Eduardo A. G.; Elbl, Paula M.; Floh, Eny I. S.; Silveira, Vanildo

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been shown to be an efficient tool for studying processes based on cell growth and development. The fine regulation of the cell cycle is essential for proper embryo formation during the process of somatic embryogenesis. The aims of the present work were to identify and perform a structural and functional characterization of Mps1 and to analyze the effects of the inhibition of this protein on cellular growth and pro-embryogenic mass (PEM) morphology in embryogenic cultures of A. angustifolia. A single-copy Mps1 gene named AaMps1 was retrieved from the A. angustifolia transcriptome database, and through a mass spectrometry approach, AaMps1 was identified and quantified in embryogenic cultures. The Mps1 inhibitor SP600125 (10 μM) inhibited cellular growth and changed PEMs, and these effects were accompanied by a reduction in AaMps1 protein levels in embryogenic cultures. Our work has identified the Mps1 protein in a gymnosperm species for the first time, and we have shown that inhibiting Mps1 affects cellular growth and PEM differentiation during A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis. These data will be useful for better understanding cell cycle control during somatic embryogenesis in plants. PMID:27064899

  7. Cryopreservation of embryogenic cell suspensions by encapsulation-vitrification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaochun; Perl, Avihai

    2006-01-01

    Encapsulation-vitrification, which is a combination of encapsulation-dehydration and vitrification procedures, is a newly developed technique for cryopreservation of plant germoplasm. Here, we describe the protocol of this methodology, using grapevine (Vitis) as a model plant. Cell suspensions at the exponential growth stage were encapsulated with 2.5% sodium alginate solution in 0.1 M calcium chloride solution for 20 min to form beads of about 4 mm in diameter containing 25% cells. The beads were stepwise precultured in increasing sucrose concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 M for 3 yr, with 1 d for each step. Precultured beads were treated with a loading solution for 60 min at room temperature and then dehydrated with PVS2 at 0 degrees C for 270 min, followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 h. The beads were rapidly rewarmed at 40 degrees C in a water bath for 3 min and then diluted with 1 M sucorse solution at room temperature for 30 min. Rewarmed, washed beads were post-cultured on a recovery medium for 3 d at 25 degrees C in the dark for survival. Surviving cells were transferred to a regrowth medium to induce cell proliferation. Embryogenic cell suspensions were re-established by suspending the cells in a cell suspension maintenance medium maintained on a gyratory shaker at 25 degrees C in the dark. For plant regeneration, surviving cells were transferred from the recovery medium to an embryo maturation medium and maintained at 25 degrees C under light conditions. Embryos at the torpedo stage were cultured on rooting medium until whole plantlet was developed. PMID:16673907

  8. Regeneration of transgenic cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from microbombarded embryogenic suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Schöpke, C; Taylor, N; Cárcamo, R; Konan, N K; Marmey, P; Henshaw, G G; Beachy, R N; Fauquet, C

    1996-06-01

    A protocol was established for the introduction of DNA into embryogenic suspension-derived tissues of cassava via microparticle bombardment, for the selection of genetically transformed cells, and for the regeneration of fully transgenic plants from these cells. The plasmid DNA used for bombardment contained a gene encoding neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and a gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (uidA). Selection of bombarded tissue with paromomycin resulted in the establishment of putative transgenic embryogenic calli. In most of these calli, beta-glucuronidase was detected histochemically. Molecular analysis of paromomycin-resistant embryogenic calli and of plants regenerated from these calli, confirmed the stable integration of bombarded DNA into the cassava genome. PMID:9630980

  9. Induction of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases in transformed embryogenic calli of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were analyzed in non-regenerative transformed embryogenic lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) carrying wound-inducible oryzacystatin I (OC-I), wound-inducible oryzacystatin I antisense (OC-Ias) or hygromycin phosphotransferase (...

  10. SYCHRONIZED SOMATIC EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN EMBRYOGENIC SUSPENSIONS OF GRAPEVINE (MUSCADINIA ROTUNDIFOLIA SMALL AND VITIS VINIFERA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The full advantages of somatic embryogenesis as a regeneration system and essential model for performing functional genomics studies and understanding molecular aspect of the ontogenesis of higher plants are demonstrated only in high-frequency, synchronous embryogenic system in liquid culture. In t...

  11. Plant regeneration from encapsulated embryoids and an embryogenic mass of pistachio, Pistacia vera L.

    PubMed

    Onay, A; Jeffree, C E; Yeoman, M M

    1996-05-01

    Pieces of an embryogenic mass (EMS) induced in culture from immature fruits of pistachio, Pistacia vera L., were encapsulated into calcium alginate beads. Somatic embryos were also encapsulated individually into calcium alginate beads to produce synthetic seeds. The viability of the encapsulated EMS and somatic embryos was investigated immediately following encapsulation, and after storage for 60 days at 4°C. The encapsulated-stored EMS fragments recovered their original proliferative capacity after two months storage following two sub-cultures, but non-encapsulated-stored EMS failed to recover. The conversion frequency of synthetic seeds to seedling plants was 14% after storage for 60 days at 4°C, from which it may be concluded that encapsulation is a practical procedure for short-term storage of embryogenic pistachio tissue, and may be applicable to the preservation of desirable elite genotypes. PMID:24178619

  12. Biochemical characterization of embryogenic calli of Vanilla planifolia in response to two years of thidiazuron treatment.

    PubMed

    Kodja, Hippolyte; Noirot, Michel; Khoyratty, Shahnoo S; Limbada, Hafsah; Verpoorte, Robert; Palama, Tony Lionel

    2015-11-01

    Vanilla planifolia embryogenic calli were cultured for two years on a medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ). Due to the presence of TDZ, these calli were under permanent chemical treatment and the differentiation of adventitious shoots from protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) was blocked. When embryogenic calli were transferred onto a medium without TDZ, shoot organogenesis and plantlet regeneration occurred. To gain better knowledge about the biochemical and molecular processes involved in the morphoregulatory role of TDZ, hormonal and metabolomic analyses were performed. Our results indicate that in the presence of TDZ, embryogenic calli contained a high amount of abscisic acid (ABA) essentially metabolized into abscisic acid glucosyl ester (ABAGE) and phaseic acid (PA), which was the most abundant. When transferred onto a medium without TDZ, shoot regeneration and development take place in four stages that include: embryogenic calli growth, differentiation of PLBs from meristmatic cells zones (MCZ), shoot organogenesis from PLBs and the elongation of well-formed shoots. From a hormonal perspective, the significant reduction in ABA metabolism and its readjustment in the ABAGE pathway triggered PLBs formation. However, this first morphogenesis was stimulated by a strong reduction in IAA metabolism. The organogenesis of PLBs into shoots is associated with an increase in ABA catabolism and a gradual shift in cellular metabolism towards shoot differentiation. Thus, the initiation of the elongation process in shoots is correlated with an alteration in metabolite composition, including an increase in energy reserves (sucrose/starch) and a rapid decrease in alanine content. Our data highlighted the relationship between endogenous hormone signalling, carbohydrate metabolism and shoot organogenesis in Orchid plants. PMID:26351150

  13. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  14. Cryopreservation of Fraxinus excelsior L. embryogenic callus by one-step freezing and slow cooling techniques.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, E A; Capuana, M; Kaya, E; Panis, B; Lambard, M

    2010-01-01

    An efficient cryopreservation protocol for the safe storage of Fraxinus excelsior L. embryogenic callus cultures is reported. The cryopreservation methods tested included one-step freezing by means of (i) encapsulation-vitrification; or (ii) encapsulation-dehydration; and (iii) slow cooling using the Nalgene Freezing container, Mr Frosty, which produces a temperature decrease of about 1 masculineC min-1 when placed in a -70 degree C freezer. None of the one-step freezing techniques was effective for cryopreservation of encapsulated callus masses, irrespective of the cryoprotective treatment applied, i.e., treatment with the PVS2 vitrification solution or physical dehydration with silica gel before direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. On the contrary, when a slow cooling protocol was applied to embryogenic callus which had been pretreated for 60 min with a 210 g per liter (0.61 M) sucrose-7.5 percent DMSO cryoprotective solution, up to about 1.3 g per Petri dish of proliferating callus was observed 42 days after recovery from liquid nitrogen, and cultures were able to produce somatic embryos 8 weeks after transfer to semi-solid medium. TTC staining of callus cultures provided a fast evaluation of culture viability. PMID:20309510

  15. Stretch Marks

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes that can go with bodybuilding. People who use steroid-containing skin creams or ointments (such as hydrocortisone) for more than a few weeks may also get stretch marks. So might people who have to ... surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual ...

  16. Release of somatic embryogenic potential from excised zygotic embryos of carrot and maintenance of proembryonic cultures in hormone-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    Excised zygotic embryos, mericarps ("seeds") and hypocotyls of seedlings of cultivated carrot Daucus carota cv. Scarlet Nantes were evaluated for their ability to generate somatic embryos on a semisolid hormone-free nutrient medium. Neither intact zygotic embryos nor hypocotyls ever produced somatic embryos. However, mericarps and broken zygotic embryos were excellent sources for somatic embryo production (response levels as high as 86%). Somatic embryo formation was highest from cotyledons, but was also observed on isolated hypocotyls and root tips of mature zygotic embryos. On media containing unreduced nitrogen, somatic embryo formation led to the generation of vigorous cultures comprised entirely of somatic embryos at various stages of development which in turn proliferated still other somatic embryos. However, a medium was devised which when 1-5 mM NH4+ was the sole nitrogen source, led only to a proliferation of globular proembryos. Sustained subculturing of these proembryos at 2-3 week intervals enabled establishment of highly uniform cultures in which no further development into more mature stages of embryonic development occurred. These have been maintained, without decline, as morphogenetically competent proembryonic globules for over ten months. A basal medium containing from 1-5 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source appears not to be inductive to somatic proembryo formation. Instead, such a medium is best thought of as permissive to the expression of embryogenically determined cells within zygotic embryos. By excising and breaking or wounding zygotic embryos, constituent cells are probably released from positional or chemical restraints and thus are able to express their innate embryogenic potential. Once a proembryonic culture is established, this medium containing 1-5 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source provides a nonpermissive environment to the development and growth of later embryonic stages, but it does allow the continued formation and

  17. Formation and excretion of autophagic plastids (plastolysomes) in Brassica napus embryogenic microspores

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Vega, Verónica; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Rivas-Sendra, Alba; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The change in developmental fate of microspores reprogrammed toward embryogenesis is a complex but fascinating experimental system where microspores undergo dramatic changes derived from the developmental switch. After 40 years of study of the ultrastructural changes undergone by the induced microspores, many questions are still open. In this work, we analyzed the architecture of DNA-containing organelles such as plastids and mitochondria in samples of B. napus isolated microspore cultures covering the different stages before, during, and after the developmental switch. Mitochondria presented a conventional oval or sausage-like morphology for all cell types studied, similar to that found in vivo in other cell types from vegetative parts. Similarly, plastids of microspores before induction and of non-induced cells showed conventional architectures. However, approximately 40% of the plastids of embryogenic microspores presented atypical features such as curved profiles, protrusions, and internal compartments filled with cytoplasm. Three-dimensional reconstructions confirmed that these plastids actually engulf cytoplasm regions, isolating them from the rest of the cell. Acid phosphatase activity was found in them, confirming the lytic activity of these organelles. In addition, digested plastid-like structures were found excreted to the apoplast. All these phenomena seemed transient, since microspore-derived embryos (MDEs) showed conventional plastids. Together, these results strongly suggested that under special circumstances, such as those of the androgenic switch, plastids of embryogenic microspores behave as autophagic plastids (plastolysomes), engulfing cytoplasm for digestion, and then are excreted out of the cytoplasm as part of a cleaning program necessary for microspores to become embryos. PMID:25745429

  18. Formation and excretion of autophagic plastids (plastolysomes) in Brassica napus embryogenic microspores.

    PubMed

    Parra-Vega, Verónica; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Rivas-Sendra, Alba; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    The change in developmental fate of microspores reprogrammed toward embryogenesis is a complex but fascinating experimental system where microspores undergo dramatic changes derived from the developmental switch. After 40 years of study of the ultrastructural changes undergone by the induced microspores, many questions are still open. In this work, we analyzed the architecture of DNA-containing organelles such as plastids and mitochondria in samples of B. napus isolated microspore cultures covering the different stages before, during, and after the developmental switch. Mitochondria presented a conventional oval or sausage-like morphology for all cell types studied, similar to that found in vivo in other cell types from vegetative parts. Similarly, plastids of microspores before induction and of non-induced cells showed conventional architectures. However, approximately 40% of the plastids of embryogenic microspores presented atypical features such as curved profiles, protrusions, and internal compartments filled with cytoplasm. Three-dimensional reconstructions confirmed that these plastids actually engulf cytoplasm regions, isolating them from the rest of the cell. Acid phosphatase activity was found in them, confirming the lytic activity of these organelles. In addition, digested plastid-like structures were found excreted to the apoplast. All these phenomena seemed transient, since microspore-derived embryos (MDEs) showed conventional plastids. Together, these results strongly suggested that under special circumstances, such as those of the androgenic switch, plastids of embryogenic microspores behave as autophagic plastids (plastolysomes), engulfing cytoplasm for digestion, and then are excreted out of the cytoplasm as part of a cleaning program necessary for microspores to become embryos. PMID:25745429

  19. An embryogenic suspension cell culture system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of citrus.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M; Grosser, J W

    2010-11-01

    A method for the genetic transformation of several citrus cultivars is described, including cultivars observed to be recalcitrant to conventional epicotyl-mediated transformation. Embryogenic cell suspension cultures, established from unfertilized ovules were used as target tissues for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Several modifications were made to the culture environment to investigate factors required for efficient transfer of the T-DNA and the subsequent regeneration of transgenic citrus plants. It was determined that co-cultivation of citrus cells and Agrobacterium in EME medium supplemented with maltose (EME-M) and 100 μM acetosyringone for 5 days at 25°C was optimum for transformation of each of the citrus cultivars. Efficient selection was obtained and escapes were prevented when the antibiotic hygromycin B was used as a selection antibiotic following transformation with an Agrobacterium strain containing hptII in the T-DNA region. Transgenic embryo regeneration and development was enhanced in medium that contained a liquid overlay consisting of a 1:2 mixture of 0.6 M BH3 and 0.15 M EME-M media. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of the T-DNA and the stable integration into the genome of regenerated plants, while RT-PCR demonstrated variable amounts of RNA being transcribed in different transgenic lines. This protocol can create an avenue for insertion of useful traits into any polyembryonic citrus cultivar that can be established as embryogenic cell suspension cultures, including popular specialty mandarins and seedless cultivars. PMID:20711728

  20. Polar Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02155 Polar Markings

    These bright and dark markings occurred near the end of summer in the south polar region. The dark material is likely dust that has been freed of frost cover.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -76.3N, Longitude 84.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis: Identified Factors that Lead to Embryogenic Repression. A Case of Species of the Same Genus

    PubMed Central

    Nic-Can, Geovanny I.; Galaz-Ávalos, Rosa M.; De-la-Peña, Clelia; Alcazar-Magaña, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Loyola-Vargas, Víctor M.

    2015-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful biotechnological tool for the mass production of economically important cultivars. Due to the cellular totipotency of plants, somatic cells under appropriate conditions are able to develop a complete functional embryo. During the induction of somatic embryogenesis, there are different factors involved in the success or failure of the somatic embryogenesis response. Among these factors, the origin of the explant, the culture medium and the in vitro environmental conditions have been the most studied. However, the secretion of molecules into the media has not been fully addressed. We found that the somatic embryogenesis of Coffea canephora, a highly direct embryogenic species, is disrupted by the metabolites secreted from C. arabica, a poorly direct embryogenic species. These metabolites also affect DNA methylation. Our results show that the abundance of two major phenolic compounds, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, are responsible for inhibiting somatic embryogenesis in C. canephora. PMID:26038822

  2. High-efficiency encapsulation-vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of embryogenic calli of the oriental medicinal plant Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge.

    PubMed

    Hong, S-R; Yin, M-H

    2012-01-01

    Embryogenic calli from in vitro grown tillers of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge were successfully cryopreserved by the encapsulation-vitrification technique. Excised embryogenic calli were precultured for 4 days in liquid MS medium supplemented with 2 mg per liter kinetin (KIN), 0.1 mg per liter α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.75 M sucrose, then encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and loaded with a mixture of 2 M glycerol + 0.4 M sucrose for 60 min at 25 +/- 1 degree C. Calli were then dehydrated with the PVS2 solution for 80 min at 0 degree C. After changing the solution with fresh PVS2, calli were directly immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN). After rapid rewarming in a water-bath at 35 degree C for 5 min, calli were washed three times with liquid MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L-1 KIN, 0.1 mg per liter NAA and 1.2 M sucrose, then transferred on solid MS medium supplemented with 2 mg per liter KIN, 0.1 mg per liter NAA, 3 % (w/v) sucrose and 0.75 % (w/v) agar. Cryopreserved cultures were kept in the dark for 5 days prior to exposure to a 14h light/10h dark photoperiod with a light intensity of 36 μmol per square meter per sec provided by white cool fluorescent tubes at 25 +/- 1 degree C. Survival of cryopreserved embryogenic calli reached 80 percent, including after storage for c. 1 year. No significant difference was observed in the morphological development of plants coming from control and cryopreserved embryogenic calli. This encapsulation-vitrification method appears promising for the cryopreservation of A. asphodeloides Bunge germplasm. PMID:22825786

  3. Microarray Analysis of Siberian Ginseng Cyclic Somatic Embryogenesis Culture Systems Provides Insight into Molecular Mechanisms of Embryogenic Cell Cluster Generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chenguang; Liu, Likun; Li, Chenghao

    2014-01-01

    Four systems of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim) were used to study the mechanism of embryonic cell cluster generation. The first, direct somatic embryo induction (DSEI), generates secondary embryos directly from the primary somatic embryos; the second, direct embryogenic cell cluster induction (DEC)), induces embryogenic cell clusters directly from somatic embryos in agar medium. Subsequently, we found that when DEC-derived somatic embryos are transferred to suspension culture or a bioreactor culture, only somatic embryos are induced, and embryogenic cell clusters cannot form. Therefore, these new lines were named DEC cultured by liquid medium (ECS) and DEC cultured by bioreactor (ECB), respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that DEC epidermal cells contained a variety of inclusions, distinct from other lines. A cDNA library of DEC was constructed, and 1,948 gene clusters were obtained and used as probes. RNA was prepared from somatic embryos from each of the four lines and hybridized to a microarray. In DEC, 7 genes were specifically upregulated compared with the other three lines, and 4 genes were downregulated. EsXTH1 and EsPLT1, which were among the genes upregulated in DEC, were cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Real-time quantitative PCR showed EsXTH1 was more highly expressed in DEC than in other lines throughout the culture cycle, and EsPLT1 expression in DEC increased as culture duration increased, but remained at a low expression level in other lines. These results suggest that EsXTH1 and EsPLT1 may be the essential genes that play important roles during the induction of embryogenic cell clusters. PMID:24743225

  4. Origin of somatic embryos from repetitively embryogenic cultures of walnut (Juglans regia L.): Implications forAgrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Polito, V S; McGranahan, G; Pinney, K; Leslie, C

    1989-04-01

    Early stages of somatic embryo development from embryogenic cultures ofJuglans regia (Persian or English walnut) are described. Histological examination reveals that secondary somatic embryos arise from cotyledons and hypocotyls of primary embryos cultured in the dark. The embryos originate by transverse to oblique divisions of surface cells. Single-cell origin of the secondary embryos confirms the potential of the repetitive embryogenesis system forAgrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of non-chimeric, transgenic walnut plants. PMID:24233141

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli and regeneration of transgenic cassava.

    PubMed

    Bull, S E; Owiti, J A; Niklaus, M; Beeching, J R; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) is the most widely used method to generate transgenic cassava plants. However, this approach has proven to be time-consuming and can lead to changes in the morphology and quality of FEC, influencing regeneration capacity and plant health. Here we present a comprehensive, reliable and improved protocol, taking approximately 6 months, that optimizes Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of FEC from cassava model cultivar TMS60444. We cocultivate the FEC with Agrobacterium directly on the propagation medium and adopt the extensive use of plastic mesh for easy and frequent transfer of material to new media. This minimizes stress to the FEC cultures and permits a finely balanced control of nutrients, hormones and antibiotics. A stepwise increase in antibiotic concentration for selection is also used after cocultivation with Agrobacterium to mature the transformed FEC before regeneration. The detailed information given here for each step should enable successful implementation of this technology in other laboratories, including those being established in developing countries where cassava is a staple crop. PMID:20010938

  6. Evolution of endogenous hormone concentration in embryogenic cultures of carrot during early expression of somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, V M; Guevara, E; Herrera, J; Bangerth, F

    2005-01-01

    Embryogenic callus and suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota L., cv. Nantaise), growing on/in medium including 1 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), were transferred to medium with or without this plant growth regulator, to impair or induce, respectively, further development of somatic embryos. The endogenous hormone levels of the cultures were determined over 7 days by means of radio-immunoassay, to characterize their evolution in the initial stages of embryo development. In general, levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) showed only short-lived differences among treatments during this time in both types of tissue analyzed (i.e., a peak of IAA in callus cultures in the absence of 2,4-D, 48 h after medium change, and higher ABA contents 144 h after subculture of suspension cultures in the presence of 2,4-D). Gibberellins (1, 3 and 20) were detected only in suspension cultures devoid of 2,4-D, starting 24 h after subculture. Concerning the evaluated cytokinins-zeatin/zeatin riboside and N6(Delta2-isopentenyl) adenine/N6(Delta2-isopentenyl) adenosine-the most remarkable observation is that high levels of the former generally coincided with low concentrations of the latter, indicating a shift from precursor to the active form, and vice versa. PMID:15375630

  7. Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Gisele M; Nairn, Campbell J; Le, Huong T; Merkle, Scott A

    2009-09-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of anti-fungal candidate genes into American chestnut (Castanea dentata), devastated by a fungal blight in the last century, would offer an alternative or supplemental approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees resistant to the blight fungus and other pathogens. By taking advantage of the strong ability of embryogenic American chestnut cultures to proliferate in suspension, a high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into the tree was established. Proembryogenic masses (PEMs) were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the plasmid pCAMBIA 2301, followed by stringent selection with 50 or 100 mg/l Geneticin. A protocol employing size-fractionation to enrich for small PEMs to use as target material and selection in suspension culture was applied to rapidly produce transgenic events with an average efficiency of four independent transformation events per 50 mg of target tissue and minimal escapes. Mature somatic embryos, representing 18 transgenic events and derived from multiple American chestnut target genotypes, were germinated and over 100 transgenic somatic seedlings were produced and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Multiple vigorous transgenic somatic seedlings produced functional staminate flowers within 3 years following regeneration. PMID:19578855

  8. Enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli of upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Wu, Shen-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cotton embryogenic calli (EC) was enhanced by choosing appropriate EC and improving efficiency of coculture, selection cultivation, and plant regeneration. The binary vector pBI121 (containing a neomycin phosphotransferase II gene npt-II as a selection marker and a uidA gene as a reporter gene) was used to research transformation efficiency. After 48 h cocultivation, the number of β-glucuronidase (GUS)-positive calli characterized by yellow, loose, and fine-grained EC was twofold greater than that of gray, brown, and coarse granule EC. It indicated that the efficiency of transient transformation was affected by EC morphology. Transient transformation efficiency also was improved by cocultivation on the medium by adding 50 mg/L acetosyringone at 19°C for 48 h. Subculturing EC on the selection medium with low cell density increased the production of kanamycin-resistant (Km-R) calli lines. From an original 0.3 g EC, an average of 20 Km-R calli lines were obtained from a selection dish, and the GUS-positive rate of Km-R clones was 81.97%. A large number of normal plants were rapidly regenerated on the differentiation medium with dehydration treatments, and the GUS-positive rate of regeneration plants was about 72.6%. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of GUS-positive plantlets revealed a 100% positive detection rate for neomycin phosphotransferase II gene and gus gene. Southern blot of transgenic plants regenerated from different Km-R calli lines demonstrated that the target gene, mostly with the low copy number, was integrated into the cotton genome. PMID:22351014

  9. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato. PMID:21958713

  10. Direct evidence that suspensor cells have embryogenic potential that is suppressed by the embryo proper during normal embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Xinbo; Zhao, Jing; Tang, Xingchun; Tian, Shujuan; Chen, Junyi; Shi, Ce; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Liyao; Feng, Xianzhong; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The suspensor is a temporary supporting structure of proembryos. It has been proposed that suspensor cells also possess embryogenic potential, which is suppressed by the embryo as an effect of the embryo–suspensor interaction. However, data to support this hypothesis are not yet available. In this report, using an in vivo living cell laser ablation technique, we show that Arabidopsis suspensor cells can develop into embryos after removing the embryo proper. The embryo proper plays a critical role in maintaining suspensor cell identity. However, this depends on the developmental stage; after the globular embryo stage, the suspensors no longer possess the potential to develop into embryos. We also reveal that hypophysis formation may be essential for embryo differentiation. Furthermore, we show that, after removing the embryo, auxin gradually accumulates in the top suspensor cell where cell division occurs to produce an embryo. Auxin redistribution likely reprograms the fate of the suspensor cell and triggers embryogenesis in suspensor cells. Thus, we provide direct evidence that the embryo suppresses the embryogenic potential of suspensor cells. PMID:26396256

  11. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    PubMed Central

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari; Ayub, Nor Hanin; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Tarmizi, Ahmad Hashim; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets. PMID:26322053

  12. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli.

    PubMed

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari; Ayub, Nor Hanin; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Tarmizi, Ahmad Hashim; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets. PMID:26322053

  13. The effects of nitrogen and potassium nutrition on the growth of nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissue of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. ‘Valencia’) nonembryogenic and embryogenic callus tissue via nitrogen nutrition. The experimental approach was a mixture-amount design comprised of a two-component NH4+:K+ mixture that ranged from...

  14. Low external pH replaces 2,4-D in maintaining and multiplying 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A mixed culture comprised of both embryonic globules and nonembryogenic callus was derived from seedling hypocotyls of Daucus carota cv. Scarlet Nantes on 2,4-D- containing medium using well-established methods. Then the mixed cultures were transferred to, and serially subcultured on, a hormone-free medium near pH 4. The medium contained 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. When cultured in this way, embryonic globules were able to multiply without development into later embryo stages. Nonembryogenic callus did not survive. Continuous culture of embryonic globules on this low pH hormone-free medium yielded cultures consisting entirely of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). PGSP cultures have been maintained as such with continuous multiplication for nearly 2 years without loss of embryogenic potential. These hormone-free-maintained PGSPs continue their development to later embryo stages when cultured on the same hormone-free medium buffered at pH 5.8. We show that hormone-free medium near pH 4 can replace 2,4-D in its ability to sustain multiplication of 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot at an acceptable growth rate without their development into later embryo stages. This procedure provides selective conditions that do not permit the growth of non-embryogenic cells while providing an adequate environment for embryogenic cell proliferation and should prove invaluable in studying habituation.

  15. The Role of auxin, pH, and stress in the activation of embryogenic cell division in leaf protoplast-derived cells of alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Taras P; Prinsen, Els; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Miskolczi, Pál; Potters, Geert; Asard, Han; Van Onckelen, Harry A; Dudits, Dénes; Fehér, Attila

    2002-08-01

    Culturing leaf protoplast-derived cells of the embryogenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. varia A2) genotype in the presence of low (1 microM) or high (10 microM) 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) concentrations results in different cell types. Cells exposed to high 2,4-D concentration remain small with dense cytoplasm and can develop into proembryogenic cell clusters, whereas protoplasts cultured at low auxin concentration elongate and subsequently die or form undifferentiated cell colonies. Fe stress applied at nonlethal concentrations (1 mM) in the presence of 1 microM 2,4-D also resulted in the development of the embryogenic cell type. Although cytoplasmic alkalinization was detected during cell activation of both types, embryogenic cells could be characterized by earlier cell division, a more alkalic vacuolar pH, and nonfunctional chloroplasts as compared with the elongated, nonembryogenic cells. Buffering of the 10 microM 2,4-D-containing culture medium by 10 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid delayed cell division and resulted in nonembryogenic cell-type formation. The level of endogenous indoleacetic acid (IAA) increased transiently in all protoplast cultures during the first 4 to 5 d, but an earlier peak of IAA accumulation correlated with the earlier activation of the division cycle in embryogenic-type cells. However, this IAA peak could also be delayed by buffering of the medium pH by 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid. Based on the above data, we propose the involvement of stress responses, endogenous auxin synthesis, and the establishment of cellular pH gradients in the formation of the embryogenic cell type. PMID:12177494

  16. LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) promotes embryogenic induction in somatic tissues of Arabidopsis, via YUCCA-mediated auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wójcikowska, Barbara; Jaskóła, Karolina; Gąsiorek, Przemysław; Meus, Magdalena; Nowak, Katarzyna; Gaj, Małgorzata D

    2013-09-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) transcription factor with a plant-specific B3 domain plays a central role in zygotic and somatic embryogenesis (SE). LEC2 overexpression induced in planta leads to spontaneous somatic embryo formation, but impairs the embryogenic response of explants cultured in vitro under auxin treatment. The auxin-related functions of LEC2 appear during SE induction, and the aim of the present study was to gain further insights into this phenomenon. To this end, the effect of LEC2 overexpression on the morphogenic responses of Arabidopsis explants cultured in vitro under different auxin treatments was evaluated. The expression profiles of the auxin biosynthesis genes were analysed in embryogenic cultures with respect to LEC2 activity. The results showed that LEC2 overexpression severely modifies the requirement of cultured explants for an exogenous auxin concentration at a level that is effective in SE induction and suggested an increase in the auxin content in 35S::LEC2-GR transgenic explants. The assumption of an LEC2 promoted increase in endogenous auxin in cultured explants was further supported by the expression profiling of the genes involved in auxin biosynthesis. The analysis indicated that YUCCAs and TAA1, working in the IPA-YUC auxin biosynthesis pathway, are associated with SE induction, and that the expression of three YUCCA genes (YUC1, YUC4 and YUC10) is associated with LEC2 activity. The results also suggest that the IAOx-mediated auxin biosynthesis pathway involving ATR1/MYB34 and CYP79B2 does not seem to be involved in SE induction. We conclude that de novo auxin production via the tryptophan-dependent IPA-YUC auxin biosynthesis pathway is implicated in SE induction, and that LEC2 plays a key role in this mechanism. PMID:23722561

  17. Cryopreservation enhances embryogenic capacity of Gentiana cruciata (L.) suspension culture and maintains (epi)genetic uniformity of regenerants.

    PubMed

    Mikuła, Anna; Tomiczak, Karolina; Rybczyński, Jan J

    2011-04-01

    The embryogenic cell suspension culture of Gentiana cruciata, cryopreserved by the encapsulation/dehydration method, survived both short- (48 h) and long-term (1.5 years) cryostorage with more than 80% viability. To assess the influence of cryotreatments on the embryogenic potential, a proembryogenic mass was encapsulated and exposed to the following treatments: (1) osmotic dehydration (OD), (2) OD + air desiccation (AD) and (3) OD + AD + cryostorage (LN). The somatic embryogenesis efficiency increased ten times after osmotic dehydration. The AD and LN cryotreatments did not cause any significant alterations in somatic embryo production. We monitored the (epi)genetic stability of 288 regenerants derived from: non-cryotreated, short-term, and long-term cryostored tissue using metAFLP markers and ten primer combinations. Changes in the sequence and DNA methylation levels were studied by subjecting the DNA to digestion with two pairs of isoschisomer restriction enzymes (KpnI/MseI and Acc65I/MseI). Two new AFLP unique DNA fragments at the DNA sequence level, with no differences at the methylation level, were found between regenerants derived from cryopreserved tissue, compared with the non-cryotreated controls. The Acc65I/MseI methylation levels for the three groups of regenerants were not significantly different. Cluster analysis was capable of identifying a number of sub-clusters. Only one of the sub-clusters comprises almost all regenerants derived from non-cryotreated and short-term cryostored tissue. Plantlets derived from long-term cryostored tissue were grouped into separate clusters. The observed AFLP alterations did not appear to be associated with the use of cryopreservation, but were probably related to the process of in vitro culture. PMID:21161232

  18. Analysis of the global transcriptome of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) embryogenic callus using Illumina paired-end sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Longan is a tropical/subtropical fruit tree of great economic importance in Southeast Asia. Progress in understanding molecular mechanisms of longan embryogenesis, which is the primary influence on fruit quality and yield, is slowed by lack of transcriptomic and genomic information. Illumina second generation sequencing, which is suitable for generating enormous numbers of transcript sequences that can be used for functional genomic analysis of longan. Results In this study, a longan embryogenic callus (EC) cDNA library was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 system. A total of 64,876,258 clean reads comprising 5.84 Gb of nucleotides were assembled into 68,925 unigenes of 448-bp mean length, with unigenes ≥1000 bp accounting for 8.26% of the total. Using BLASTx, 40,634 unigenes were found to have significant similarity with accessions in Nr and Swiss- Prot databases. Of these, 38,845 unigenes were assigned to 43 GO sub-categories and 17,118 unigenes were classified into 25 COG sub-groups. In addition, 17,306 unigenes mapped to 199 KEGG pathways, with the categories of Metabolic pathways, Plant-pathogen interaction, Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and Genetic information processing being well represented. Analyses of unigenes ≥1000 bp revealed 328 embryogenesis-related unigenes as well as numerous unigenes expressed in EC associated with functions of reproductive growth, such as flowering, gametophytogenesis, and fertility, and vegetative growth, such as root and shoot growth. Furthermore, 23 unigenes related to embryogenesis and reproductive and vegetative growth were validated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) in samples from different stages of longan somatic embryogenesis (SE); their differentially expressions in the various embryogenic cultures indicated their possible roles in longan SE. Conclusions The quantity and variety of expressed EC genes identified in this study is sufficient to serve as a global transcriptome dataset for

  19. On Your Marks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines the application of field, rink, track, and court markings and explains why the use of proper materials and some knowledge of science is important. Specific issues when using marking paints and dyes are addressed. (GR)

  20. Competence of Immature Maize Embryos for Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Schlappi, M; Hohn, B

    1992-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of viral sequences to plant cells (agroinfection) was applied to study the susceptibility of immature maize embryos to the pathogen. The shoot apical meristem of immature embryos 10 to 20 days after pollination from four different maize genotypes was investigated for competence for agroinfection. There was a direct correlation between different morphological stages of the unwounded immature embryos and their competence for agroinfection. Agroinfection frequency was highest in the embryogenic line A188. All developmental stages tested showed Agrobacterium virulence gene-inducing activity, whereas bacteriocidal substances were produced at stages of the immature embryos competent for agroinfection. The results suggested that Agrobacterium may require differentiated tissue in the maize shoot apical meristem before wounding for successful T-DNA transfer. This requirement for the young maize embryo has implications for the possible use of Agrobacterium for maize transformation. PMID:12297627

  1. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  2. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  3. [Double ricochet marks].

    PubMed

    Sellier, K

    1987-01-01

    When bullets are flying stably and ricochet on a surface, only one mark is produced. In contrast yawing bullets can produce a double mark if the angle of incidence is sufficiently small (less than or equal to 5 degrees). Distances up to 15 cm were seen between the two marks. PMID:3660953

  4. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4: A novel approach to marking circulating prostate tumor cells with a replication competent adenovirus controlled by PSA/PSMA transcription regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Eun; Joung, Jae Young; Shin, Seung-Phil; Choi, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Yon Hui; Park, Weon Seo; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells serve as useful biomarkers with which to identify disease status associated with survival, metastasis and drug sensitivity. Here, we established a novel application for detecting PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells circulating in peripheral blood employing an adenovirus called Ad5/35E1aPSESE4. Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 utilized PSES, a chimeric enhancer derived from PSA/PSMA promoters that is highly active with and without androgen. A fluorescence signal mediated by GFP expression upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection was selectively amplified in PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, for the in vivo model, blood drawn from TRAMP was tested for CTCs with Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection and was positive for CTCs at week 16. Validation was performed on patient blood at various clinical stages and found out 1-100 CTCs expressing GFP upon Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 infection. Interestingly, CTC from one patient was confirmed to be sensitive to docetaxel chemotherapeutic reagent and to abundantly express metastasis-related genes like MMP9, Cofilin1, and FCER1G through RNA-seq. Our study established that the usage of Ad5/35E1aPSESE4 is effective in marking PSA/PSMA-positive prostate cancer cells in patient blood to improve the efficacy of utilizing CTCs as a biomarker. PMID:26723876

  5. High Genetic and Epigenetic Stability in Coffea arabica Plants Derived from Embryogenic Suspensions and Secondary Embryogenesis as Revealed by AFLP, MSAP and the Phenotypic Variation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Bobadilla Landey, Roberto; Cenci, Alberto; Georget, Frédéric; Bertrand, Benoît; Camayo, Gloria; Dechamp, Eveline; Herrera, Juan Carlos; Santoni, Sylvain; Lashermes, Philippe; Simpson, June; Etienne, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Embryogenic suspensions that involve extensive cell division are risky in respect to genome and epigenome instability. Elevated frequencies of somaclonal variation in embryogenic suspension-derived plants were reported in many species, including coffee. This problem could be overcome by using culture conditions that allow moderate cell proliferation. In view of true-to-type large-scale propagation of C. arabica hybrids, suspension protocols based on low 2,4-D concentrations and short proliferation periods were developed. As mechanisms leading to somaclonal variation are often complex, the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes were jointly assessed so as to accurately evaluate the conformity of suspension-derived plants. The effects of embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis, used as proliferation systems, on the genetic conformity of somatic embryogenesis-derived plants (emblings) were assessed in two hybrids. When applied over a 6 month period, both systems ensured very low somaclonal variation rates, as observed through massive phenotypic observations in field plots (0.74% from 200 000 plant). Molecular AFLP and MSAP analyses performed on 145 three year-old emblings showed that polymorphism between mother plants and emblings was extremely low, i.e. ranges of 0–0.003% and 0.07–0.18% respectively, with no significant difference between the proliferation systems for the two hybrids. No embling was found to cumulate more than three methylation polymorphisms. No relation was established between the variant phenotype (27 variants studied) and a particular MSAP pattern. Chromosome counting showed that 7 of the 11 variant emblings analyzed were characterized by the loss of 1–3 chromosomes. This work showed that both embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis are reliable for true-to-type propagation of elite material. Molecular analyses revealed that genetic and epigenetic alterations are particularly limited during coffee somatic

  6. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  7. PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S M; Thorpe, T A; Moloney, M M

    1989-03-01

    ß-Glucuronidase (GUS) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) were used as reporter proteins in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce). Plasmid DNA enclosing chimeric GUS and CAT constructs, using the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was introduced into Picea glauca protoplasts using polyethylene glycol (PEG). Transient expression was detected 12 to 40 h after PEG-mediated DNA delivery. Dose-response curves using covalently closed circular plasmid DNA, in the absence of carrier DNA, have been obtained for each of these reporter genes. Linearized plasmid DNA gave lower levels of expression than covalently closed circular plasmid DNA when assayed 40 h after PEG-mediated DNA transfer. The use of carrier DNA (herring sperm DNA), in combination with covalently closed circular plasmid DNA, increased the level of expression of GUS by about 50%. CAT expression was enhanced if PEG-mediated delivery was performed on ice rather than at room temperature. The highest level of expression for CAT, and the lowest signal-to-noise ratio, was found 24 h after PEG-mediated DNA transfer. Both GUS and CAT provided results that were quantifiable and can therefore be used as reporter genes in Picea glauca. PMID:24240467

  8. Growth regulator requirement for in vitro embryogenic cultures of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L.) suitable for germplasm preservation.

    PubMed

    Resetár, Anna; Demeter, Zita; Ficsor, Emese; Balázs, Andrea; Mosolygó, Agnes; Szőke, Eva; Gonda, S; Papp, L; Surányi, G; Máthé, C

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we report on the production of bulb scale-derived tissue cultures capable of efficient shoot and plant regeneration in three genotypes of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L., Amaryllidaceae), a protected ornamental plant. For culture line A, high auxin and low cytokinin concentration is required for callus production and plant regeneration. The type of auxin is of key importance: α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at concentrations of 2 mg L-1 or 2-10 mg L-1 NAA with 1 mg L-1 N6-benzyladenine (BA), a cytokinin on full-strength media are required for regeneration. Cultures showing regeneration were embryogenic. When lines B and C were induced and maintained with 2 mg L-1 NAA and 1 mg L-1 BA, they produced mature bulblets with shoots, without roots. Line A produced immature bulblets with shoots under the above culture condition. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that (i) genetic differences between line A and its bulb explants were not significant, therefore these tissue cultures are suitable for germplasm preservation, and (ii) different morphogenetic responses of lines A, B and C originated from genetic differences. Culture line A is suitable for field-growing, cultivation and germplasm preservation of G. nivalis and for the production of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. PMID:24873910

  9. Physical wounding and ethylene stimulated embryogenic stem cell proliferation and plantlet regeneration in protocorm-like bodies of Phalaenopsis orchids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y-W; Tsai, Y-J; Cheng, T-C; Chen, J-J; Chen, F-C

    2014-01-01

    Phalaenopsis orchids have been regenerated by inducing protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) from etiolated leaf sections. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms of secondary PLB development and subsequent proliferation have not been explored. Bisectionally cutting primary PLBs resulted in more secondary PLBs at 5 weeks, suggesting an embryogenic stem cell property imposed by wounding of primary PLB tissues. The ethylene precursors ethephon and 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid and the ethylene perception inhibitor silver nitrate increased PLB formation, while aminoethoxyvinylglycine decreased PLB formation. Ethylene content in wounded PLB explants increased over culture time in media containing ethylene precursors or inhibitors. mRNA levels of PhACS2, PhACS3, and PhACO were increased by ethephon and decreased by ethylene inhibitors. Expression of genes in the ethylene signaling pathway was enhanced following ethylene-precursor treatment and was mitigated by ethylene inhibitors during PLB proliferation. Transcription of PhETR and PhEIN3, as well as PhERS, PhCTR, and PhGTP, was significantly increased 12 h after ethylene treatment. Ethylene and physical wounding stimulated secondary PLB formation in Phalaenopsis, probably through ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction. PMID:25501164

  10. Theme: Coping with Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of five articles on the topic of competencies in vocational agriculture. Topics covered include (1) competency-based instruction, (2) competencies for agricultural recordkeeping, (3) competencies in hydroponics, and (4) competencies in agribusiness. (CH)

  11. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  12. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  13. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  14. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  15. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  16. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  17. Presuming Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Douglas; Burke, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    At least since the early 1990s, educators in inclusive schooling as well as scholars in Disability Studies have critiqued prevailing notions of intellectual ability and have suggested the importance of interpretive communities for constructing student competence (Biklen, 1990; Goode, 1992, 1994; Kliewer, 1998; Kluth, 2003; Linneman, 2001). This…

  18. Ames Fellows Award - Mark

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Hans Mark is a leading expert in the fields of aerospace design and national defense policy. From 1969 to 1977, he served as Director of the NASA Ames Research Center. During his tenure, Ames b...

  19. Meetings with Mark Vishik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikinskaya, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Mark Iosifovich Vishik was my husband Vladimir Chepyzhov's advisor during his years as a student in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at Moscow State University, and afterwards they worked together for almost 30 years. This is why I knew him personally while not being a mathematician myself: we sometimes talked on the phone, and met during common trips and a few holidays. In his last years, after the death of his devoted wife who was also his best friend, my husband and I decided to visit Mark regularly in order to comfort him in his loneliness, and many other of his friends did the same. I can say without exaggeration that Mark loved to talk with me about everyday matters, to reminisce about his wife Asya Moiseevna, their friends and relatives, to tell stories of his youth and the wonderful encounters that had so enriched his life. We had the idea to write down our conversations and publish them as a book. Unfortunately, few such conversations lay ahead. The last one took place in January 2010. We did not write a book, but we did write an article [1], which was published in English in the form of an interview with Mark. The present article is based on our conversations with Mark. Here I will try to recount his memories about people who played an important role in his life.

  20. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  1. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  2. Religious competence as cultural competence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of cultural competence often refer to the need to be aware and attentive to the religious and spiritual needs and orientations of patients. However, the institution of psychiatry maintains an ambivalent attitude to the incorporation of religion and spirituality into psychiatric practice. This is despite the fact that many patients, especially those from underserved and underprivileged minority backgrounds, are devotedly religious and find much solace and support in their religiosity. I use the case of mental health of African Americans as an extended example to support the argument that psychiatric services must become more closely attuned to religious matters. I suggest ways in which this can be achieved. Attention to religion can aid in the development of culturally competent and accessible services, which in turn, may increase engagement and service satisfaction among religious populations. PMID:22421686

  3. Digitally Marking RSA Moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.M.

    2000-10-09

    The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

  4. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  5. Marking Advanced Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Michael

    1978-01-01

    A list of points to aid essay writers is suggested as the basis of a marking system for the teacher of English as a foreign language. The checklist, obtained from a book on higher education by Ruth Beard, can be adapted to the English as a foreign language situation. (SW)

  6. Airbag bounce marks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  7. Fathoming Mark Twain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggar, Joanna

    1988-01-01

    Relates the efforts of completing two collections of the works and papers of Mark Twain. Describes the combined efforts of the University of Iowa and the University of California to publish both a scholarly edition and a reader's edition devoted to Twain. (KO)

  8. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  9. Double Marking Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published the report of an independent panel of experts into maintaining standards at Advanced Level (A-Level). One of its recommendations was for: limited experimental double marking of scripts in subjects such as English to determine whether the strategy would significantly reduce errors…

  10. Polyamine and Its Metabolite H2O2 Play a Key Role in the Conversion of Embryogenic Callus into Somatic Embryos in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wen-Han; Wang, Fan-Long; Cheng, Xin-Qi; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Sun, Yu-Qiang; Zhu, Hua-Guo; Sun, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to increase understanding about the mechanism by which polyamines (PAs) promote the conversion of embryogenic calli (EC) into somatic embryos in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). We measured the levels of endogenous PAs and H2O2, quantified the expression levels of genes involved in the PAs pathway at various stages of cotton somatic embryogenesis (SE), and investigated the effects of exogenous PAs and H2O2 on differentiation and development of EC. Putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) significantly increased from the EC stage to the early phase of embryo differentiation. The levels of Put then decreased until the somatic embryo stage whereas Spd and Spm remained nearly the same. The expression profiles of GhADC genes were consistent with changes in Put during cotton SE. The H2O2 concentrations began to increase significantly at the EC stage, during which time both GhPAO1 and GhPAO4 expressions were highest and PAO activity was significantly increased. Exogenous Put, Spd, Spm, and H2O2 not only enhanced embryogenic callus growth and embryo formation, but also alleviated the effects of D-arginine and 1, 8-diamino-octane, which are inhibitors of PA synthesis and PAO activity. Overall, the results suggest that both PAs and their metabolic product H2O2 are essential for the conversion of EC into somatic embryos in cotton. PMID:26697030

  11. Competent psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Gardner, David M

    2014-08-01

    There is little doubt that undergraduate and post-graduate training of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses is insufficient to prepare them to use psychotropics safely and effectively, especially in the context of their expanded off-label uses. Therefore, the development of competencies in psychotropic prescribing needs to be approached as a long-term, practice-based learning commitment. Proposed are the abilities and knowledge components necessary for safe and effective use of psychotropics. Typical challenges in prescribing for chronic and recurrent illnesses include highly variable responses and tolerability, drug interactions, and adverse effects that can be serious, irreversible, and even fatal. Prescribing psychotropics is further complicated by negative public and professional reports and growing patient concerns about the quality of care, and questions about the efficacy, safety, and addictive risks of psychotropics. Increased efforts are needed to enhance clinical training and knowledge in psychopharmacology among trainees and practising clinicians, with more comprehensive and sustained attention to the assessment of individual patients, and greater reliance on patient education and collaboration. Improved competence in psychotropic prescribing should lead to more informed, thoughtful, and better-targeted applications as one component of more comprehensive clinical care. PMID:25161064

  12. Competent Psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, David M

    2014-01-01

    There is little doubt that undergraduate and post-graduate training of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses is insufficient to prepare them to use psychotropics safely and effectively, especially in the context of their expanded off-label uses. Therefore, the development of competencies in psychotropic prescribing needs to be approached as a long-term, practice-based learning commitment. Proposed are the abilities and knowledge components necessary for safe and effective use of psychotropics. Typical challenges in prescribing for chronic and recurrent illnesses include highly variable responses and tolerability, drug interactions, and adverse effects that can be serious, irreversible, and even fatal. Prescribing psychotropics is further complicated by negative public and professional reports and growing patient concerns about the quality of care, and questions about the efficacy, safety, and addictive risks of psychotropics. Increased efforts are needed to enhance clinical training and knowledge in psychopharmacology among trainees and practising clinicians, with more comprehensive and sustained attention to the assessment of individual patients, and greater reliance on patient education and collaboration. Improved competence in psychotropic prescribing should lead to more informed, thoughtful, and better-targeted applications as one component of more comprehensive clinical care. PMID:25161064

  13. Mark Twain on phrenology.

    PubMed

    Stone, James L

    2003-12-01

    Mark Twain was a noted 19th century American writer and humorist. He often elaborated upon the personalities of his characters, and his observational skills reflected a strong interest in psychology. Similarly, he found an interest in phrenology, a pseudoscience that purported to characterize personality traits according to elevations or depressions on the head. Twain's style is clearly reflected in the interesting essay he wrote regarding his personal experience with phrenology. PMID:14633308

  14. Identification marking by means of laser peening

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, C. Brent; Harris, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.

  15. Case Marking Strategies in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John

    Case marking strategies in Kope, a Papuan language of Papua New Guinea, are analyzed in light of previous claims that most Papuan languages have one strategy for marking core relations and another for marking peripheral relations. A brief grammatical overview illustrates how core and peripheral relations are marked in Kope, including nominal case…

  16. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  17. Telecollaborative Desktop-Videoconferencing Exchange: The Case of Mark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    This presentation is a case study of the Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) development of Mark, one of ten American students engaged in a desktop-videoconferencing telecollaborative exchange with a class of French students. Due in part to its inherent complexity, this context has not been widely researched. To observe ICC development, I…

  18. Perspectives from Nurse Managers on Informatics Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Dan; Zhu, Xuemei; Zhao, Qiuli; Xiao, Ningning; Shen, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Nurse managers are in an excellent position for providing leadership and support within the institutions they serve and are often responsible for accessing information that is vital to the improvement of health facility processes and patients' outcomes. Therefore, competency in informatics is essential. The purposes of this study are to examine current informatics competency levels of nurse managers and to identify the variables that influence these competencies. Methods. A questionnaire designed to assess demographic information and nursing informatics competency was completed by 68 nurse managers. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to analyze the factors influencing informatics competency. Results. Descriptive analysis of the data revealed that informatics competency of these nurse managers was in the moderate range (77.65 ± 8.14). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that level of education, nursing administration experience, and informatics education/training were significant factors affecting competency levels. Conclusion. The factors identified in this study can serve as a reference for nurse managers who were wishing to improve their informatics competency, hospital administrators seeking to provide appropriate training, and nursing educators who were making decisions about nursing informatics curricula. These findings suggest that efforts to enhance the informatics competency of nurse managers have marked potential benefits. PMID:24790565

  19. Extended Essay Marking on Screen: Is Examiner Marking Accuracy Influenced by Marking Mode?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Hopkin, Rebecca; Shiell, Hannah; Bell, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, large-scale educational assessment agencies are shifting the mode of school examination marking towards having examiners mark examination scripts on screen rather than on paper. This shift has prompted questions about whether the mode of marking might influence examiner marking accuracy, particularly in relation to…

  20. Atomic force microscopy and laser confocal scanning microscopy analysis of callose fibers developed from protoplasts of embryogenic cells of a conifer.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Noriko; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2005-12-01

    Efficiency of novel fiber formation was much improved in protoplast culture of embryogenic cells (ECs) of a conifer, Larix leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Gord., by pre-culturing ECs in a medium containing a high concentration of glutamine (13.7 mM). The fibrillar substructures of large and elongated fibers of protoplasts isolated from Larix ECs were investigated by laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) after Aniline Blue staining and atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a micromanipulator without any pre-treatment. Fibers were composed of bundles of fibrils and subfibrils, whose diameters were defined as 0.7 and 0.17 mum, respectively, by image analysis after LCSM and AFM. These fibers were proven to be composed of callose by using specific degrading enzymes for beta-1,4-glucan and beta-1,3-glucan. PMID:16034590

  1. De novo assembly and characterization of global transcriptome of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) embryogenic calli using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, M K; Fayas, T P; Naganeeswaran, S; Rachana, K E; Bhavyashree, U; Sajini, K K; Karun, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Production and supply of quality planting material is significant to coconut cultivation but is one of the major constraints in coconut productivity. Rapid multiplication of coconut through in vitro techniques, therefore, is of paramount importance. Although somatic embryogenesis in coconut is a promising technique that will allow for the mass production of high quality palms, coconut is highly recalcitrant to in vitro culture. In order to overcome the bottlenecks in coconut somatic embryogenesis and to develop a repeatable protocol, it is imperative to understand, identify, and characterize molecular events involved in coconut somatic embryogenesis pathway. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of coconut embryogenic calli, derived from plumular explants of West Coast Tall cultivar, was undertaken on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. After de novo transcriptome assembly and functional annotation, we have obtained 40,367 transcripts which showed significant BLASTx matches with similarity greater than 40 % and E value of ≤10(-5). Fourteen genes known to be involved in somatic embryogenesis were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of these 14 genes were carried in six developmental stages. The result showed that CLV was upregulated in the initial stage of callogenesis. Transcripts GLP, GST, PKL, WUS, and WRKY were expressed more in somatic embryo stage. The expression of SERK, MAPK, AP2, SAUR, ECP, AGP, LEA, and ANT were higher in the embryogenic callus stage compared to initial culture and somatic embryo stages. This study provides the first insights into the gene expression patterns during somatic embryogenesis in coconut. PMID:26210639

  2. An efficient and rapid regeneration via multiple shoot induction from mature seed derived embryogenic and organogenic callus of Indian maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Pathi, Krishna Mohan; Tula, Suresh; Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-10-01

    An efficient method for in vitro micro propagation and genetic transformation of plants are crucial for both basic and applied research. Maize is one of the most important cereal crops around the world. Regeneration from immature embryo is hampered due to its unavailability round the year. On the contrary mature embryo especially tropical maize is recalcitrant toward tissue culture. Here we report a highly efficient regeneration (90%) system for maize by using 2 different approaches i.e., embryogenic and organogenic callus cultures. Seeds were germinated on MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l 2,4-D and 3 mg/l BAP. Nodal regions of 2 wks old seedlings were longitudinally split upon isolation and subsequently placed on callus initiation medium. The maximum frequency of embryogenic callus formation (90%) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l BAP in the dark conditions. The compact granular organogenic callus formation (85% frequency) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.5 mg/l BAP at light conditions. MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l Kinetin and 0.5 mg/l NAA promoted the highest frequency of shoot induction. The highest frequency of root formation was observed when shoots were grown on MS medium. The regenerated plants were successfully hardened in earthen pots after adequate acclimatization. The important advantage of this improved method is shortening of regeneration time by providing an efficient and rapid regeneration tool for obtaining more stable transformants from mature seeds of Indian tropical maize cultivar (HQPM-1). PMID:23921544

  3. Genomewide analysis of small RNAs in nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissues of citrus: microRNA- and siRNA-mediated transcript cleavage involved in somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Meng; Kou, Shu-Jun; Liu, Yuan-Long; Fang, Yan-Ni; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2015-04-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a process of somatic cells becoming dedifferentiated and generating embryos. SE has been widely used in biotechnology as a powerful way of regeneration and a model system for studying plant embryogenesis, but the controlling mechanisms of SE are far from clear. Here, we show the genomewide profiles of miRNAs/siRNAs and their target genes in nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissues of 'Valencia' sweet orange. By high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of small RNAs and RNA degradome tags, we identified 50 known and 45 novel miRNAs, 130 miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) derived, 94 other and 235 phased small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), as well as 203 target genes. The majority of the abundantly expressed miRNAs/siRNAs exhibit lower expression levels in embryogenic callus (EC) or during SE process than in nonembryogenic callus (NEC), which is supposed to derepress the target genes that are involved in development and stress response, thus to activate the biological processes required for cell differentiation. However, the conserved csi-miR156a/b, miR164b and 171c directed suppression of specific transcription factors (TFs) are supposed to inactivate the postembryonic growth thus to maintain normal SE. In this study, miRNA- and siRNA-mediated silencing of target genes was found under sophisticated regulation in citrus SE system; the enhancement effect of specific conserved miRNAs on SE was discussed, providing new clues for future investigation of mechanisms that control SE. PMID:25615015

  4. The Mark 3 Haploscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Logar, N. D.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-operated binocular vision testing device was developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to evaluate the visual function of astronauts during spaceflight. This particular device, called the Mark 3 Haploscope, employs semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phoria, fixation disparity, refractive state and accommodation/convergence relationships. Test procedures are self-administered and can be used repeatedly without subject memorization. The Haploscope was designed as one module of the complete NASA Vision Testing System. However, it is capable of stand-alone operation. Moreover, the compactness and portability of the Haploscope make possible its use in a broad variety of testing environments.

  5. Cellular and molecular changes associated with competence acquisition during passion fruit somatic embryogenesis: ultrastructural characterization and analysis of SERK gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Diego Ismael; Pinto, Daniela Lopes Paim; Vieira, Lorena Melo; Tanaka, Francisco André Ossamu; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Otoni, Wagner Campos

    2016-03-01

    The integration of cellular and molecular data is essential for understanding the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of competence by plant somatic cells and the cytological changes that underlie this process. In the present study, we investigated the dynamics and fate of Passiflora edulis Sims cotyledon explants that were committed to somatic embryogenesis by characterizing the associated ultrastructural events and analysing the expression of a putative P. edulis ortholog of the Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor-like Kinase (SERK) gene. Embryogenic calli were obtained from zygotic embryo explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6-benzyladenine. Callus formation was initiated by the division of cells derived from the protodermal and subprotodermal cells on the abaxial side of the cotyledons. The isodiametric protodermal cells of the cotyledon explants adopted a columnar shape and became meristematic at the onset of PeSERK expression, which was not initially detected in explant cells. Therefore, we propose that these changes represent the first observable steps towards the acquisition of a competent state within this regeneration system. PeSERK expression was limited to the early stages of somatic embryogenesis; the expression of this gene was confined to proembryogenic zones and was absent in the embryos after the globular stage. Our data also demonstrated that the dynamics of the mobilization of reserve compounds correlated with the differentiation of the embryogenic callus. PMID:26008651

  6. Competence Development in the Workplace: Concepts, Strategies and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Kock, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the expectations that exist regarding efforts to develop competence and in spite of the large amounts of resources devoted to it, there is a marked lack of empirically-based research on competence development in companies and other organizations. The purpose of this article is to present a review of research on strategies for…

  7. Mark-specific Hazard Ratio Model with Multivariate Continuous Marks: An Application to Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In randomized placebo-controlled preventive HIV vaccine efficacy trials, an objective is to evaluate the relationship between vaccine efficacy to prevent infection and genetic distances of the exposing HIV strains to the multiple HIV sequences included in the vaccine construct, where the set of genetic distances is considered as the continuous multivariate ‘mark’ observed in infected subjects only. This research develops a multivariate mark-specific hazard ratio model in the competing risks failure time analysis framework for the assessment of mark-specific vaccine efficacy. It allows improved efficiency of estimation by employing the semiparametric method of maximum profile likelihood estimation in the vaccine-to-placebo mark density ratio model. The model also enables the use of a more efficient estimation method for the overall log hazard ratio in the Cox model. Additionally, we propose testing procedures to evaluate two relevant hypotheses concerning mark-specific vaccine efficacy. The asymptotic properties and finite-sample performance of the inferential procedures are investigated. Finally, we apply the proposed methods to data collected in the Thai RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial. PMID:23421613

  8. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are "better" at it. We outline a…

  9. An Approach to Mark Arthropods for Mark Capture Type Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of studies were conducted to validate methods for marking a wide variety of arthropods with inexpensive proteins for mark-capture dispersal research. The markers tested included egg albumin protein in chicken egg whites and casein protein in bovine milk. The first study qualified the effec...

  10. Leaving A Mark: A Comparison Arthropod Protein Marking Protocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of arthropod pest and natural enemy disperal patterns is needed for effective and environmentally benign pest control. The most common tactics used to monitor arthropod dispersal patterns include mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture methodologies. Both methods require the applica...

  11. Competencies: A New Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Monica; Kiely, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Job analysis of managers in 42 Irish three-star hotels identified the following key management competencies and associated behavioral indicators. The results were used to develop a competency framework for management development. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  12. Competencies in Professional Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2004-01-01

    There has been a burgeoning interest in competency-based education and credentialing in professional psychology. This movement gained momentum at the Competencies Conference: Future Directions in Education and Credentialing in Professional Psychology. After defining professional competence, the author focuses on the identification and delineation…

  13. [Competence in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Burton L.

    Four papers discuss the Harvard Preschool Project whose goal is to learn how to structure the experiences of the first six years of life to encourage maximal development of human competence. To determine what competence at age 6 is, a group of 13 highly competent 6-year-olds of mixed residence, class, and ethnicity were compared to a like group of…

  14. Competencies in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on competencies in human resource development (HRD). "The Development of a Competency Model and Assessment Instrument for Public Sector Leadership and Management Development" (Sharon S. Naquin, Elwood F. Holton III) reports on a streamlined methodology and process used to develop a competency model for…

  15. Characterization of overlay mark fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, Mike; Ghinovker, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Kassel, Elyakim; Izikson, Pavel; Pollentier, Ivan K.; Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David W.

    2003-05-01

    In this publication we introduce a new metric for process robustness of overlay metrology in microelectronic manufacturing. By straightforward statistical analysis of overlay metrology measurements on an array of adjacent, nominally identical overlay targets the Overlay Mark Fidelity (OMF) can be estimated. We present the results of such measurements and analysis on various marks, which were patterned using a DUV scanner. The same reticle set was used to pattern wafers on different process layers and process conditions. By appropriate statistical analysis, the breakdown of the total OMF into a reticle-induced OMF component and a process induced OMF component was facilitated. We compare the OMF of traditional box-in-box overlay marks with that of new gratingbased overlay marks and show that in all cases the grating marks are superior. The reticle related OMF showed an improvement of 30 % when using the new grating-based overlay mark. Furthermore, in a series of wafers run through an STI-process with different Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) times, the random component of the OMF of the new grating-based overlay mark was observed to be 40% lower and 50% less sensitive to process variation compared with Box in Box marks. These two observations are interpreted as improved process robustness of the grating mark over box in box, specifically in terms of reduced site by site variations and reduced wafer to wafer variations as process conditions change over time. Overlay Mark Fidelity, as defined in this publication, is a source of overlay metrology uncertainty, which is statistically independent of the standard error contributors, i.e. precision, TIS variability, and tool to tool matching. Current overlay metrology budgeting practices do not take this into consideration when calculating total measurement uncertainty (TMU). It is proposed that this be reconsidered, given the tightness of overlay and overlay metrology budgets at the 70 nm design rule node and below.

  16. Transition from somatic embryo to friable embryogenic callus in cassava: dynamic changes in cellular structure, physiological status, and gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiuxiang; Zhou, Wenzhi; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Friable embryogenic callus (FEC) is considered as the most suitable material for efficient genetic transformation of cassava. Heavy genotype dependence of FEC induction and amenability to somaclonal variation limits the production and maintenance of reliable FEC. Identifying key elements involved in biological processes from somatic embryos (SEs) to FEC at different stages provides critical insights for FEC improvement. Cytological observation showed a dramatic change of subcellular structures among SEs, fresh FEC (FFEC), and old FEC (OFEC). Decrease of sucrose and increase of fructose and glucose were detected in OFEC. A total of 6871 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from SEs, FFEC, and OFEC by RNA-seq. Analysis of the DEGs showed that FEC induction was accompanied by the process of dedifferentiation, whereas the epigenetics modification occurred during the continuous subculturing process. The cell structure was reconstructed, mainly including the GO terms of "cell periphery" and "external encapsulating structure"; in parallel, the internal mechanisms changed correspondingly, including the biological process of glycolysis and metabolisms of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate. The significant reduction of genomic DNA methylation in OFEC indicated altered gene expression via chromatin modification. These results indicate that the induction and long-term subculture of FEC is a complicated biological process involving changes of genome modification, gene expression, and subcellular reconstruction. The findings will be useful for improving FEC induction and maintenance from farmer-preferred cassava cultivars recalcitrant to genetic transformation, hence improving cassava through genetic engineering. PMID:26500668

  17. Transition from somatic embryo to friable embryogenic callus in cassava: dynamic changes in cellular structure, physiological status, and gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiuxiang; Zhou, Wenzhi; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Friable embryogenic callus (FEC) is considered as the most suitable material for efficient genetic transformation of cassava. Heavy genotype dependence of FEC induction and amenability to somaclonal variation limits the production and maintenance of reliable FEC. Identifying key elements involved in biological processes from somatic embryos (SEs) to FEC at different stages provides critical insights for FEC improvement. Cytological observation showed a dramatic change of subcellular structures among SEs, fresh FEC (FFEC), and old FEC (OFEC). Decrease of sucrose and increase of fructose and glucose were detected in OFEC. A total of 6871 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from SEs, FFEC, and OFEC by RNA-seq. Analysis of the DEGs showed that FEC induction was accompanied by the process of dedifferentiation, whereas the epigenetics modification occurred during the continuous subculturing process. The cell structure was reconstructed, mainly including the GO terms of “cell periphery” and “external encapsulating structure”; in parallel, the internal mechanisms changed correspondingly, including the biological process of glycolysis and metabolisms of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate. The significant reduction of genomic DNA methylation in OFEC indicated altered gene expression via chromatin modification. These results indicate that the induction and long-term subculture of FEC is a complicated biological process involving changes of genome modification, gene expression, and subcellular reconstruction. The findings will be useful for improving FEC induction and maintenance from farmer-preferred cassava cultivars recalcitrant to genetic transformation, hence improving cassava through genetic engineering. PMID:26500668

  18. 19 CFR 134.21 - Special marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Marking of Containers or Holders § 134.21 Special marking. This subpart includes only country of origin marking requirements and exceptions under section 304(b), Tariff Act of 1930,...

  19. CE Marking - the Essential Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Mervyn

    The European Union (EU) harmonisation project introduced the CE marking of products to enable the free, unhindered movement of goods throughout the European market. The CE mark replaced the EC mark in the mid 1990s and is fundamental to the New Approach Directives. When a product falls within the scope of a New Approach Directive the manufacturer must comply with the 'goal setting' essential requirements of the directive, to follow one of the conformity assessment procedures provided for, and to draw up the technical documentation specified. Although not mandatory, a manufacturer can choose to satisfy the essential requirements through the application of European harmonised standards.

  20. Mark Chaffin (1952-2015).

    PubMed

    Lutzker, John R; Bonner, Barbara L

    2016-04-01

    Presents an obituary for Mark Chaffin, who passed away unexpectedly on August 23, 2015, in Atlanta, Georgia, while riding his bike on the Atlanta Beltline, a joy and passion for him. Mark was a leader in the field of child maltreatment research. He dedicated his career to helping at-risk children and families. His distinguished career belied his self-proclaimed, self-effacing lack of accomplishment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27042891

  1. Changes in granulosa cells' gene expression associated with increased oocyte competence in bovine.

    PubMed

    Nivet, Anne-Laure; Vigneault, Christian; Blondin, Patrick; Sirard, Marc-André

    2013-06-01

    One of the challenges in mammalian reproduction is to understand the basic physiology of oocyte quality. It is believed that the follicle status is linked to developmental competence of the enclosed oocyte. To explore the link between follicles and competence in cows, previous research at our laboratory has developed an ovarian stimulation protocol that increases and then decreases oocyte quality according to the timing of oocyte recovery post-FSH withdrawal (coasting). Using this protocol, we have obtained the granulosa cells associated with oocytes of different qualities at selected times of coasting. Transcriptome analysis was done with Embryogene microarray slides and validation was performed by real-time PCR. Results show that the major changes in gene expression occurred from 20 to 44  h of coasting, when oocyte quality increases. Secondly, among upregulated genes (20-44  h), 25% were extracellular molecules, highlighting potential granulosa signaling cascades. Principal component analysis identified two patterns: one resembling the competence profile and another associated with follicle growth and atresia. Additionally, three major functional changes were identified: (i) the end of follicle growth (BMPR1B, IGF2, and RELN), involving interactions with the extracellular matrix (TFPI2); angiogenesis (NRP1), including early hypoxia, and potentially oxidative stress (GFPT2, TF, and VNN1) and (ii) apoptosis (KCNJ8) followed by iii) inflammation (ANKRD1). This unique window of analysis indicates a progressive hypoxia during coasting mixed with an increase in apoptosis and inflammation. Potential signaling pathways leading to competence have been identified and will require downstream testing. This preliminary analysis supports the potential role of the follicular differentiation in oocyte quality both during competence increase and decrease phases. PMID:23564726

  2. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants. PMID:17551731

  3. Competence and ability.

    PubMed

    Vogelstein, Eric

    2014-06-01

    It is nearly universally thought that the kind of decision-making competence that gives one a strong prima facie right to make one's own medical decisions essentially involves having an ability (or abilities) of some sort, or having a certain level or degree of ability (or abilities). When put under philosophical scrutiny, however, this kind of theory does not hold up. I will argue that being competent does not essentially involve abilities, and I will propose and defend a theory of decision-making competence according to which one is competent only if one possesses a certain kind of rationality in making treatment decisions. PMID:22845798

  4. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marks. 24.259 Section 24....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... shipment. (b) Application of marks. Required marks may be cut, printed, or otherwise legibly and...

  5. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  6. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  7. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  8. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  9. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marks. 24.259 Section 24....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... shipment. (b) Application of marks. Required marks may be cut, printed, or otherwise legibly and...

  10. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marks. 24.259 Section 24....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... shipment. (b) Application of marks. Required marks may be cut, printed, or otherwise legibly and...

  11. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marks. 24.259 Section 24....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... shipment. (b) Application of marks. Required marks may be cut, printed, or otherwise legibly and...

  12. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  13. Developing Culturally Competent Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focal Point, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue examines multicultural aspects of services provided by agencies concerned with children's mental health. The lead article is titled "Developing Culturally Competent Organizations" by James L. Mason. This article uses the cultural competence model to discuss an organization's self-evaluation and its planning in the areas of…

  14. Competencies in Ornamental Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Curtis E.

    1974-01-01

    Based on the author's dissertation, this article pertains to the identification of competencies for ornamental horticulture workers in Oregon. Findings were based on interviews with 56 ornamental horticulture business employers regarding 100 competencies. The method used can serve as a model for obtaining occupational information to develop and…

  15. Developing Competence at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bound, Helen; Lin, Magdalene

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the relationship between differing conceptualisations of competence, and the implications of these differences for the enacted workplace curriculum and its pedagogical epistemologies. We argue that when competence is understood as a set of stand-alone attributes that reside within an individual, it limits and over…

  16. ICT Competences: Algorithmic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsakó, László; Szlávi, Péter

    2012-01-01

    A lot has been said about what to teach in ICT in primary and secondary education. There are serious discussions even debates about it. Much less has been said about why ICT should be taught. [1] Competences are related actions and tasks done by people (somebody is competent in a certain field if they are able to solve common tasks related to that…

  17. Curriculum Competencies, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Technical and Community Coll., Dover. Terry Campus.

    This manual specifies the skills and abilities possessed by the graduates of programs offered by the Terry Campus of Delaware Technical and Community College. First, introductory material discusses the college's competency-based philosophy and the efforts by faculty and administrators to criterion reference the competencies perceived by faculty to…

  18. Core Competence and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Gary; Hooper, Nick

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the concept of core competence and applies it to postcompulsory education in the United Kingdom. Adopts an educational perspective that suggests accreditation as the core competence of universities. This economic approach suggests that the market trend toward lifetime learning might best be met by institutions developing a core competence…

  19. Global Managers' Career Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappellen, Tineke; Janssens, Maddy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to empirically examine the career competencies of global managers having world-wide coordination responsibility: knowing-why, knowing-how and knowing-whom career competencies. Design/methodology/approach: Based on in-depth interviews with 45 global managers, the paper analyzes career stories from a content analysis…

  20. Cultural Competence Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garran, Ann Marie; Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) adopted 10 discrete standards of culturally competent practice which undergird our commitment to diversity and social justice. The concept of intersectionality is newly emerging in social work, though, causing us to reflect on our current conceptualizations of cultural competence.…

  1. Minimum Competency Testing. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Jacob G.

    During the last decade many school systems began to define minimum levels of competency for their students and to construct tests to measure whether students had achieved these minimums. Many states have passed laws which require high school students to pass minimum competency tests in order to graduate. This digest overviews four areas of…

  2. Drafting. Competency Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everly, Al; And Others

    This competency based drafting curriculum is presented in seven specialization sections with units in each section containing a competency statement, performance objective, learning activities, evaluation, and quiz or problem sheets. Some units also contain answer sheets and/or handout sheets. Sections and number of units presented are (1) basic…

  3. Assessing and Teaching Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Terri

    2004-01-01

    The Professional Communication Unit (PCU) at the University of Cape Town (UCT) recently conducted a business communication needs analysis to determine student perceptions of their communicative competence and the teaching strategies being used to develop such competence. Students felt that the specialist, stand-alone communication program was more…

  4. Competencies and Their Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drisko, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores competencies and methods for their assessment in higher education and in social work's accreditation standards. Many contemporary policy and educational accreditation efforts employ the model of competency assessment. The current emphasis on accountability in higher education, including the Council on Social Work…

  5. Adult Vocational Teacher Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, F. Marvin

    As part of a larger study to investigate the backgrounds and professional inservice needs of part-time adult vocational teachers in Pennsylvania, research was conducted to identify and assess adult vocational teacher competencies. Following a literature review, a survey instrument was devised which listed thirty-four competencies (basically…

  6. Competencies for Gerontological Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.; Schwiebert, Valerie L.

    Gerontological counseling as a counseling specialty spans only 20 years. This text incorporates into its framework the 16 Minimum Essential Competencies of gerontological counseling that have been developed over the past two decades. These competencies focus on the knowledge and skills required to be an effective counselor for older persons and…

  7. Profiles of Algebraic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, J.; Reeve, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The algebraic competence of 72 12-year-old female students was examined to identify profiles of understanding reflecting different algebraic knowledge states. Beginning algebraic competence (mapping abilities: word-to-symbol and vice versa, classifying, and solving equations) was assessed. One week later, the nature of assistance required to map…

  8. An Annotated Bibliography on Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Surveys the published literature and Internet-based resources on competencies, and presents resources in five sections: general introduction to competencies in postsecondary education, competencies for entry into postsecondary education, competencies within postsecondary education, competencies for exit from postsecondary education, and…

  9. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  10. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  11. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  12. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight... specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on or near the selector for those tanks; (3) The...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight... specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on or near the selector for those tanks; (3) The...

  14. Developing emergency nursing competence.

    PubMed

    Proehl, Jean A

    2002-03-01

    Developing and maintaining the competence emergency nurses need is an important function of emergency clinical nurse specialists (CNS), educators, and other members of the emergency department (ED) leadership team. A thorough orientation is the first and most important step in developing the competence of emergency nurses. After orientation, the challenge is to maintain currency of practice in the face of incessant change such as new medications, new equipment, and new therapies in emergency care. This article focuses on the orientation of emergency nurses. A related article in this issue addresses assessment of competency. PMID:11818264

  15. Compassion Competence in Nurses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjin; Seomun, GyeongAe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of study was to identify the attributes of the concept of compassion competence for nurses. A hybrid model was used to develop the concept, which included fieldwork performed. The concept of compassion competence was found to possess 3 dimensions: (a) acquisition of a wealth of knowledge; (b) development of skills of emotional communication, sensitivity, insight, and self-regulation; and (c) development of attitudes of respect and empathy, and maintenance of occupational distance. Compassion competence could be useful for developing ways to enhance the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for nurses to provide compassionate care in various nursing practices. PMID:27149235

  16. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications*

    PubMed Central

    Vorburger, T V; Song, J; Petraco, N

    2016-01-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. PMID:27182440

  17. Physician Assistant Genomic Competencies.

    PubMed

    Goldgar, Constance; Michaud, Ed; Park, Nguyen; Jenkins, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Genomic discoveries are increasingly being applied to the clinical care of patients. All physician assistants (PAs) need to acquire competency in genomics to provide the best possible care for patients within the scope of their practice. In this article, we present an updated version of PA genomic competencies and learning outcomes in a framework that is consistent with the current medical education guidelines and the collaborative nature of PAs in interprofessional health care teams. PMID:27490287

  18. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  19. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  20. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  1. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  2. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  3. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

  4. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

  5. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

  6. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

  7. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

  8. 46 CFR 160.171-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Immersion Suits § 160.171-23 Marking. (a) Each immersion suit must be marked with the words “IMMERSION SUIT—COMPLIES WITH SOLAS 74/83,” the name of the manufacturer... case must be marked with the words “immersion suit” and the size. (c) The markings for the child...

  9. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  10. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mark. 40.212 Section 40... TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages § 40.212 Mark. Every package of tobacco... thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may...

  11. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  12. Reading Skill, Textbook Marking, and Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Kenneth E.; Limber, John E.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed students enrolled in Introductory Psychology courses about their text marking preferences and analyzed the marking in their textbooks. Low-skill readers report more reliance on highlighting strategies and actually mark their texts more than better readers. In addition, low-skilled readers prefer to buy used, previously marked texts…

  13. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every... imprinted thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark...

  14. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  15. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  16. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  17. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  18. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  19. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  20. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  1. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  2. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mark. 44.184 Section 44.184... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every... imprinted thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark...

  3. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mark. 45.42 Section 45.42... TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.42 Mark. Every package of tobacco... label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may consist of the name...

  4. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every... imprinted thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark...

  5. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  6. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every... imprinted thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark...

  7. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  8. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mark. 45.42 Section 45.42... TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.42 Mark. Every package of tobacco... label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may consist of the name...

  9. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  10. 27 CFR 19.1008 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marks. 19.1008 Section 19... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Marks § 19.1008 Marks. (a) Fuel alcohol. The proprietor shall conspicuously and permanently mark or securely label each container of...

  11. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mark. 45.42 Section 45.42... TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.42 Mark. Every package of tobacco... label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may consist of the name...

  12. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  13. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mark. 40.212 Section 40.212... TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages § 40.212 Mark. Every package of tobacco... thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may...

  14. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  15. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  16. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  17. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every... imprinted thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark...

  18. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  19. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  20. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  1. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 40.212 Section 40... TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages § 40.212 Mark. Every package of tobacco... thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may...

  2. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 45.42 Section 45.42... TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.42 Mark. Every package of tobacco... label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may consist of the name...

  3. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  4. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  5. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  6. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  7. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mark. 45.42 Section 45.42... TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.42 Mark. Every package of tobacco... label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may consist of the name...

  8. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  9. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mark. 40.212 Section 40... TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages § 40.212 Mark. Every package of tobacco... thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may...

  10. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mark. 40.212 Section 40... TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages § 40.212 Mark. Every package of tobacco... thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 23.1555 Section 23.1555... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and simple push button type starter switches, must be plainly marked as to its function and...

  12. 14 CFR 45.10 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking. 45.10 Section 45.10 Aeronautics..., § 45.10 was added, effective Apr. 14, 2010. The effective date of this addition was subsequently... REGISTRATION MARKING Identification of Aircraft and Related Products § 45.10 Marking. No person may mark...

  13. Marked Initial Pitch in Questions Signals Marked Communicative Function.

    PubMed

    Sicoli, Mark A; Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    In conversation, the initial pitch of an utterance can provide an early phonetic cue of the communicative function, the speech act, or the social action being implemented. We conducted quantitative acoustic measurements and statistical analyses of pitch in over 10,000 utterances, including 2512 questions, their responses, and about 5000 other utterances by 180 total speakers from a corpus of 70 natural conversations in 10 languages. We measured pitch at first prominence in a speaker's utterance and discriminated utterances by language, speaker, gender, question form, and what social action is achieved by the speaker's turn. Through applying multivariate logistic regression we found that initial pitch that significantly deviated from the speaker's median pitch level was predictive of the social action of the question. In questions designed to solicit agreement with an evaluation rather than information, pitch was divergent from a speaker's median predictably in the top 10% of a speakers range. This latter finding reveals a kind of iconicity in the relationship between prosody and social action in which a marked pitch correlates with a marked social action. Thus, we argue that speakers rely on pitch to provide an early signal for recipients that the question is not to be interpreted through its literal semantics but rather through an inference. PMID:26677643

  14. Black anneal marking with pulsed fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T.; Harrison, P.; Norman, S.

    2015-07-01

    High contrast marking of metals is used in a wide range of industries. Fiber laser marking of these metals provides non-contact marking with no consumables, offering many advantages over traditional methods of metal marking. The laser creates a permanent mark on the material surface combining heat and oxygen with no noticeable ablation. The focussed beam of the fiber laser in combination with precision control of the heat input is able to treat small areas of the material surface evenly and consistently, which is critical for producing black anneal marks. The marks are highly legible which is ideal for marking serial numbers or small data matrices where traceability is required. This paper reports the experimental study for producing black anneal marks on various grades of stainless steel using fiber lasers. The influence of metal surface finish, beam quality, spot size diameter and pulse duration are investigated for producing both smooth and decorative anneal marks.

  15. The Mark III vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Cheu, E.; Freese, T.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Mir, R.; Odian, A.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 ..mu..m at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 ..mu..m using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

  16. Out of Range: An Interview with Mark Tushnet on the Second Amendment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, James H.

    2007-01-01

    This September, Oxford University Press is publishing "Out of Range: Why the Constitution Can't End the Battle Over Guns." Written by Mark Tushnet, the William Nelson Cromwell Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, "Out of Range" explores competing interpretations of the Second Amendment and discusses how the entanglement of views on guns in the…

  17. Welding. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a welding program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability skills needed…

  18. Cosmetology. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This comprehensive and verified employer competency list was developed from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This competency list contains 17 units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

  19. Strategies for developing competency models.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Anne F; Tondora, Janis; Hoge, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    There is an emerging trend within healthcare to introduce competency-based approaches in the training, assessment, and development of the workforce. The trend is evident in various disciplines and specialty areas within the field of behavioral health. This article is designed to inform those efforts by presenting a step-by-step process for developing a competency model. An introductory overview of competencies, competency models, and the legal implications of competency development is followed by a description of the seven steps involved in creating a competency model for a specific function, role, or position. This modeling process is drawn from advanced work on competencies in business and industry. PMID:16082796

  20. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007). PMID:27494150

  1. Preparing culturally competent practitioners.

    PubMed

    St Clair, A; McKenry, L

    1999-05-01

    Preparing culturally competent practitioners is critical, and evaluating the effect of experiences intended to move students toward cultural competence is important. This research study explored the relationship among short-term international nursing clinical immersion experiences, cultural self-efficacy, and cultural competence. A triangulated research design was used to explore the relationship among the variables with 200 senior undergraduate and graduate nursing students from a university in New England. Quantitative analysis found statistically significant differences in the achievement of cultural self-efficacy for the participants who completed the international clinical experiences versus those who remained in the United States. Qualitative analysis, used to further explain the quantitative results, found that the differences were related to international students' ability to overcome their ethnocentrism, experience a transformative perspective about being culturally aware and sensitive, as well as understand and integrate the patients' cultural practices and beliefs into the students' Western health care practices. It became apparent that something other than cultural self-efficacy had occurred for participants in the international immersion experiences. The students believed they had entered the arena of cultural competence. Short-term clinical cultural immersion experiences have relevance for assisting faculty to move nursing students toward an understanding and achievement of cultural competence in ways currently not possible with nonimmersion community cultural experiences. PMID:10438097

  2. Methods to Mark Termites with Protein for Mark-Release-Recapture and Mark-Capture Type Studies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture type studies. Qualitative laboratory studies were conducted to de...

  3. The research of laser marking control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  4. Nest-mark orientation versus vector navigation in desert ants.

    PubMed

    Bregy, Patrick; Sommer, Stefan; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2008-06-01

    Foraging ants and bees use path-integration vectors and landmark cues for navigation. When in particular experimental paradigms the two types of information--vector-based and landmark-based information--are made to compete with each other, the insect may weight either source more heavily depending on the navigational context and the animal's motivational state. Here we studied the effects of a displaced nest mark on the homing performances of Cataglyphis ants. Foragers were trained to shuttle between the nest, which was marked by a black cylinder (the beacon), and an artificial feeder. Trained ants were captured at the feeder and transferred to a distant test field, where they experienced the nest mark at various positions relative to their home vector. When the beacon was positioned to one side of the point of release, the ants slightly drifted towards the beacon right at the start of their inbound run, but thereafter resumed their home-vector courses. When the nest mark appeared to one side further down the homing course, the ants set off in the home-vector direction, but then gradually drifted towards the beacon. The distance, at which this occurred, and the ants' drift from the home-vector course were very similar across test conditions. During the final search for the nest, landmark information dominated the ants' path integrator. The results clearly show that nest-mark memories are effective during the entire vector-based homeward course, but that they are either only partly activated or partly used unless the state of the ants' path integrator is close to zero. PMID:18515716

  5. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector for those tanks; and...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector for those tanks; and...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector for those tanks; and...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  14. DSN tracking system: Mark III-77

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaney, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Deep Space Network tracking system is described. Revisions of subsystem Mark III-75 are briefly outlined, and the currently used multimission support subsystem Mark III-77 is described. Tracking functions performed are given as well.

  15. 46 CFR 160.028-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Signal Pistols for Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.028-5 Marking. (a) General. Each signal pistol shall be permanently and legibly marked with its serial...

  16. 46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... cushions shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will...

  17. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  18. 46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... cushions shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will...

  19. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  20. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  1. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  2. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  3. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOGR1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l-1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm. PMID:26442041

  4. Key Competencies. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, David; Browne, Geoff

    Key competencies (or generic skills) have been specified in four sources: Further Education Unit (FEU), United Kingdom (1987); Finn Report (1991) and Mayer Committee (1992), Australia; U.S. Labor Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) (June 1991); and Butterworth and Lovell (1983), New South Wales. A comparison of the four…

  5. Ohio Biotechnology Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lavonna; Bowermeister, Bob; Boudreau, Joyce

    This document, which lists the biotechnology competencies identified by representatives from biotechnology businesses and industries as well as secondary and post-secondary educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through…

  6. Competencies of Student Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeze-Mead, Alison

    1991-01-01

    Competent student leaders' actions derive from personal values, beliefs, skills, and goals. Leaders need to know themselves well and act consistently with regard to their value systems to earn followers' trust. Kennesaw State College (Georgia) combines the components and stages of student leadership in a framework for developing leadership…

  7. Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Robert; And Others

    Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

  8. Competencies for Articulation: Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Community Coll., Lincoln, NE.

    Designed to help articulate vocational education student progress from one level of training to another and to employment, this electronics education guide lists competencies for soldering; performing basic operations with test equipment; servicing basic logic circuits; servicing DC power supplies; servicing solid state amplifiers; and servicing…

  9. A Question of Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Harry N.

    1982-01-01

    The author addresses the concern that many learning handicapped students are being denied diplomas because of minimum competency testing (MCT). The beginnings of the MCT trend are traced, faults with MCT are pointed out, and legal aspects of MCT are considered. (SW)

  10. Assessment Mathematics Teacher's Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnoor, A. G.; Yuanxiang, Guo; Abudhuim, F. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aimed to identifying the professional efficiencies for the intermediate schools mathematics teachers and tries to know at what level the math teachers experience those competencies. The researcher used a descriptive research approach, the study data collected from specialist educators and teacher's experts and previous studies to…

  11. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-05-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  12. Adult Competency Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of brief descriptions of 20 current resources for Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) programs, this guide was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are already involved with APL/ACE programs. Each citation contains information…

  13. Adult Competency Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of abstracts of 120 current Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) federally supported projects being conducted in 34 States and the District of Columbia, this project profile was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are currently…

  14. Plastics Technical Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is intended to assist individuals responsible for developing tech prep programs, lists the occupational, academic, and employability competencies that representatives from education, business/industry, and labor throughout Ohio have identified as being necessary for employment in technician-level positions involving the…

  15. Welding. Competencies for Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Community Coll., Lincoln, NE.

    Materials contained in this guide present competencies describing welding skills necessary for success in initial employment or applicable to advanced educational placement, and may be used by administrators, students, and secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers. The student outcomes section provides guidelines for planning of and…

  16. Teach to Compete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light; Funk, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    After years of working with athletes and coaches of all ages, the authors have come to the conclusion that young people need to be taught how to compete. Rather than assume students understand competition, it is vital that they are educated about it. Coaches and physical educators have both a unique opportunity and profound responsibility to teach…

  17. Assessing Culturally Competent Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendias, Elnora P.; Guevara, Edilma B.

    2001-01-01

    Eight criteria for culturally competent scholarship (contextuality, relevance, communication styles, awareness of identity and power differences, disclosure, reciprocation, empowerment, time) were applied to an international education/research nursing program. Appropriate measures for each were developed and ways to improve the program were…

  18. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  19. Instruction for Political Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The development process of an alternative to high school government courses included the elaboration of a two-semester course called Comparing Political Experiences. The discussion of a competency-based approach to instruction and learning used in this course specifies, in diagram and in theoretical terms, three phases in achieving political…

  20. Competencies in the Heartland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejda, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Although many of the issues facing community colleges are similar, rural community colleges face additional leadership challenges due to limited resources, geographic isolation, and static economies. This chapter focuses on the impact of location on the interpretation and development of the leadership competencies. The chapter concludes with…

  1. Check your cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R

    1998-08-01

    Intrapersonal reactions such as ethnocentrism, prejudice, anxiety, stereotyping, and our comfort zone with the familiar can influence our interactions with culturally diverse people. Here, we explore these stumbling blocks, the dynamics behind these reactions, and strategies nurse managers can employ to enhance their cultural competence. PMID:9807388

  2. Competence without Credentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Nevzer G., Ed.

    These workshop papers address the challenges of alternative credentials, new modes of instruction, and multiple sources of instruction. Following an introduction by Nevzer G. Stacey, "Competence without Credentials: Promise and Potential Problems of Computer-Based Distance Education" (Stephen R. Barley) provides a conceptual framework for the…

  3. Competency Development for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Karolyn J.

    This paper describes two conceptual models for addressing long-range development needs of principals. The first, a job competency model for managing productive schools, presents a comprehensive view of the central job tasks of the principal for stretching the school's capacity to influence achievement norms. Changing the school's work norms…

  4. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  5. Core Competencies. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Beth, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to investigate the status of core competencies (i.e., the skills, knowledge, abilities, and attributes that employees across an organization are expected to have to contribute successfully…

  6. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have...

  7. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

  8. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

  9. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

  10. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

  11. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

  12. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they...

  13. 27 CFR 19.752 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marks. 19.752 Section 19... Marks. (a) Fuel alcohol. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must place a conspicuous and permanent warning mark or label on each container of 55 gallons or less of fuel alcohol that the proprietor...

  14. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an application to register a certification mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall include...

  15. 27 CFR 19.752 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marks. 19.752 Section 19... Marks. (a) Fuel alcohol. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must place a conspicuous and permanent warning mark or label on each container of 55 gallons or less of fuel alcohol that the proprietor...

  16. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  17. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an application to register a collective mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall specify...

  18. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an application to register a certification mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall include...

  19. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an application to register a service mark, the application shall specify and contain all the elements required...

  20. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an application to register a service mark, the application shall specify and contain all the elements required...

  1. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an application to register a certification mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall include...

  2. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they...

  3. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  4. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an application to register a service mark, the application shall specify and contain all the elements required...

  5. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an application to register a collective mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall specify...

  6. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  7. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an application to register a certification mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall include...

  8. 14 CFR 27.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leveling marks. 27.871 Section 27.871... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 27.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  9. 14 CFR 27.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leveling marks. 27.871 Section 27.871... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 27.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  10. 27 CFR 19.752 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marks. 19.752 Section 19... Marks. (a) Fuel alcohol. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must place a conspicuous and permanent warning mark or label on each container of 55 gallons or less of fuel alcohol that the proprietor...

  11. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  12. Marking Student Programs Using Graph Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Kevin A.; Greyling, Jean H.; Vogts, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automated marking of student programming assignments. Our technique quantifies the structural similarity between unmarked student submissions and marked solutions, and is the basis by which we assign marks. This is accomplished through an efficient novel graph similarity measure ("AssignSim"). Our experiments…

  13. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an application to register a collective mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall specify...

  14. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they...

  15. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they...

  16. 27 CFR 19.752 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marks. 19.752 Section 19... Marks. (a) Fuel alcohol. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must place a conspicuous and permanent warning mark or label on each container of 55 gallons or less of fuel alcohol that the proprietor...

  17. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an application to register a service mark, the application shall specify and contain all the elements required...

  18. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an application to register a collective mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall specify...

  19. 14 CFR 27.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leveling marks. 27.871 Section 27.871... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 27.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  20. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  1. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an application to register a certification mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall include...

  2. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an application to register a service mark, the application shall specify and contain all the elements required...

  3. 14 CFR 27.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leveling marks. 27.871 Section 27.871... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 27.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  4. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an application to register a collective mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall specify...

  5. 14 CFR 27.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leveling marks. 27.871 Section 27.871... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 27.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  6. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control markings. 27.1555 Section 27.1555 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 27.1555 Control markings. (a) Each...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 25.1555 Control markings. (a) Each...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control markings. 29.1555 Section 29.1555 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 29.1555 Control markings. (a)...

  9. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words “Thermal...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer,...

  10. 46 CFR 162.018-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-6 Marking. (a) Each safety relief valve shall be plainly marked by the manufacturer with the required data... valve or stamped or cast on a plate securely fastened to the valve. The marking shall include...

  11. 22 CFR 9a.6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking. 9a.6 Section 9a.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.6 Marking. (a) The provisions of 22 CFR 9.15 through 9.19 shall govern the marking of information or...

  12. 49 CFR 180.213 - Requalification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be marked on the external surface of the footring. (c) Requalification marking method. The depth of..., securely affixed in a manner prescribed by the cylinder manufacturer, near the original manufacturer's label. Stamping of the composite surface is not authorized. (d) Requalification markings. Each...

  13. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  14. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  15. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  16. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  17. 46 CFR 134.160 - Freeboard markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freeboard markings. 134.160 Section 134.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.160 Freeboard markings. Freeboard markings required by § 174.260 of this subchapter must...

  18. The Text Marking Patterns of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Katie

    1989-01-01

    Examines patterns in college students' text markings using texts from three content areas: history, political science, and sociology. Indicates little differential marking between various text-types. Concludes that students seem to have little idea how to mark text efficiently. (MG)

  19. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  20. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  1. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  2. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  3. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... marked in waterproof lettering that can be read at a distance of 2 feet: Type II Personal Flotation....). (Name and address of manufacturer or distributor.). (Lot No.). (b) Waterproof marking tags. Marking for buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 25.1555 Section 25.1555....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... aerodynamic control must be marked under the requirements of §§ 25.677 and 25.699. (c) For powerplant...

  5. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sensitive Security Information that is controlled under 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. No part of this record may... Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.13 Marking... document. (b) Protective marking. The protective marking is: SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION....

  6. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sensitive Security Information that is controlled under 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. No part of this record may... Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.13 Marking... document. (b) Protective marking. The protective marking is: SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION....

  7. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sensitive Security Information that is controlled under 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. No part of this record may... Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.13 Marking... document. (b) Protective marking. The protective marking is: SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION....

  8. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sensitive Security Information that is controlled under 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. No part of this record may... Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.13 Marking... document. (b) Protective marking. The protective marking is: SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION....

  9. 46 CFR 69.177 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings. 69.177 Section 69.177 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.177 Markings. (a) Tonnage mark. (1) All vessels with a second deck that are measured under the Dual...

  10. 46 CFR 69.177 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings. 69.177 Section 69.177 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.177 Markings. (a) Tonnage mark. (1) All vessels with a second deck that are measured under the Dual...

  11. 46 CFR 69.177 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markings. 69.177 Section 69.177 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.177 Markings. (a) Tonnage mark. (1) All vessels with a second deck that are measured under the Dual...

  12. Classroom Mark-Recapture with Crickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Andrew R.; Woolfe, Jennifer; Kennedy, Kathleen; Oberbillig, David; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques are commonly used by ecologists to estimate abundance of naturally occurring animals and are an important component of ecology curricula. This investigation teaches a mark-recapture technique using store-bought crickets in 10-gallon aquaria and provides an inexpensive way to teach students about mark-recapture in a real…

  13. Commercialization of LARC(TradeMark)-SI Polyimide Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    LARC(TradeMark)-SI, Langley Research Center-Soluble Imide, was developed in 1992. This new polyimide won a 1995 Research and Development 100 Award, with the first patent issuing in 1997 and subsequent issued patents in 1998 and 2000. Currently, this polymer has been successfully licensed by NASA, and has generated revenues in excess of 1.4 million dollars. This might seem insignificant in comparison to industrially developed technology, where the customer is understood, technologies that use a novel assembly of commercial off the shelf (COTS) components, or software patents and "method based" innovations that do not require any material beyond labor, as examples. However, consider that LARC(TradeMark)-SI competes in areas currently dominated by traditional materials at a cost disadvantage ($350/lb) and that the physical-mechanical properties of LARC(TradeMark)-SI are similar to other high performance polymers. Indeed the success of this particular polymer was due to many factors and many lessons learned to the point that the invention was the most important, but least significant part in the commercialization of this material. This brief paper outlines the significant factors that occurred to make this technology available for the public access and application development that led to the licensing success of this material.

  14. The Mark 5 VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, A. R.

    2007-07-01

    The Mark 5 VLBI data system is a disk-based data-recording and playback system for high-data-rate VLBI observations, and has been adopted worldwide for VLBI observations. Approximately 150 Mark 5A systems, capable of recording/playback at 1024 Mbps, are now deployed around the world, directly replacing the Mark 4/VLBA tape-based systems which were prevalent for over 25 years. The Mark 5A system records to an 8-disk removable module which is normally transported to a central correlator facility for processing. The Mark 5B VLBI data system is designed to support the VSI-H international specification and is now being deployed. It is based on the same physical platform and uses the same disk-modules as the Mark 5A; it also supports the same maximum data rate of 1024 Mbps. Data formatting and timetagging is done internally within the Mark 5B, eliminating the need for external formatters. Backwards playback compatibility with Mark 5A is accomplished by an upgrade to the Mark 5A. An upgrade of the Mark 5B system, dubbed Mark 5B+, is now also available and capable of sustained recording at 2 Gbps. The Mark 5C system, currently in development, accepts sampled data through a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet OSI Layer 2 interface and will support sustained recording up to 4 Gbps. The Mark 5C will support a recording mode which is backwards compatible with the Mark 5B system for playback; Mark 5C is expected to be available in early 2008.

  15. Standards and practices for bite mark photography.

    PubMed

    Golden, G S

    2011-12-01

    In most crimes where bite marks are discovered, photographic accuracy is crucial to the investigative process since in many instances the bite mark(s) may be the only evidence linking a particular suspect to the crime. Therefore, the rationale for employing superior photographic principles is mandatory for the investigation team. This paper will discuss current standards, best practice, and armamentaria for digital photography of bite mark injuries on skin. Full spectrum protocols will be described including Alternate Light Imaging, Reflective Ultra-violet, and Infrared techniques for photo-documentation of images of bite marks and other bruise patterns that have been inflicted on human skin. PMID:22717911

  16. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chester; Romney, Jon; Owens, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  17. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chet; Romney, Jon; Owens, Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  18. Competency Mapping of the Employees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisha, N.

    2012-10-01

    Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each other are met. Nowadays it is not possible to show a good financial or operating report unless your personnel relations are in order. Over the years, highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are increasing while low skilled jobs are decreasing. Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization, the jobs and functions within it. Competency mapping, the buzz word in any industry is not complicated as it may appear. At the heart of any successful activity lies a competence or skill. In the recent years, various thought leaders in business strategy have emphasized the need to identify what competencies a business needs, in order to compete in a specific environment. In this article explains the why competencies needed and how is measured competency of employees in the organization.

  19. Competency-Based Accounting Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, John E.

    1977-01-01

    Shows how the proposed model (an individualized competency based learning system) can be used effectively to produce a course in accounting principles which adapts to different entering competencies and to different rates and styles of learning. (TA)

  20. Horticulture. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  1. Carpentry. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  2. Core Competencies for Basic Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Claire; Calderon, Ray

    These competencies for drafting are designed to cover basic principles and practices for beginning drafters. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish competency for…

  3. Competency Based Education: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen, Ed.

    This bibliography is a sampling of the types of publications which have appeared recently on the subject of competency based education. Emphasis is given to current (1970-76) materials and to adult career-related competencies. Titles specifically naming some phase of competency-based education are preferred above titles that emphasize performance,…

  4. Social Competence: A Developmental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakob, Susan G.; Dickerscheid, Jean D.

    This paper presents a developmental study of social competence in preschool children which examines the relationship of motor competence, egocentrism and demographic characteristics to the development of social competence. Tests of motor skills and role taking ability were administered individually to 54 preschool children ranging in age from 3…

  5. Are Competency Models a Waste?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Maxine

    1997-01-01

    Competency models involve a methodology that demonstrates the validity of the model's standards: are people who have the competencies better managers than those who do not? Competency models should no longer be regarded as a panacea and should be only one of the tools used by trainers. (JOW)

  6. Masonry. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for masonry occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that…

  7. Guide to Marketing Course Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This curriculum guide was developed as a model for schools in Virginia to prepare local programs of studies for the marketing program. In addition to marketing competencies for developing occupational expertise, this curriculum includes foundational competencies important for successful performance in marketing. These baseline competencies address…

  8. Electronics. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  9. Engineering Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 397 competencies, grouped into 58 units, for tech prep programs in the engineering technologies cluster. The competencies were developed through collaboration of Ohio business, industry, and labor representatives and secondary and associate degree educators. The competencies are rated either "essential" (necessary to ensure…

  10. Competency-Based Horticulture: Floriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This competency-based horticulture curriculum guide is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary horticulture teachers with a task-oriented program in floriculture. It contains a master resource list, a listing of floriculture resources available from various states, and 89 competency task sheets organized into nine competency areas. These…

  11. Accounting. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for accounting occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that…

  12. Entrepreneurship. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for entrepreneurship. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that…

  13. Adult Functional Competency: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Div. of Extension.

    The Adult Performance Level (APL) project summary specifies the competencies which are functional to economic and educational success in society and describes devices developed for assessing those competencies. The APL theory of functional competency identifies adult needs in general knowledge areas (consumer economics, occupational knowledge,…

  14. Minimum Competency in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Landsheere, Viviane

    1987-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the movement toward minimum competency in secondary education. Addresses the problem of defining minimum competency and the dangers of imposed standardization. Identifies three conceptualizations of minimum competency as: (1) the narrowly educational standpoint, (2) the concern with functional literacy, and (3) a more…

  15. Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

  16. Spiritual Competency Scale: Further Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…

  17. FIRST robots compete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams and their robots work to go through the right motions at the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  18. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  19. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  20. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  1. A fusion tag enabling optical marking and tracking of proteins and cells by FRET-acceptor photobleaching.

    PubMed

    Kuppig, S; Nitschke, R

    2006-04-01

    Combined time-lapse imaging with optical marking of fluorescent proteins (FPs) is a widely used method in studies of the dynamic behaviour of proteins, organelles and cell populations. Most of the approaches have specific limitations as they do not permit simultaneous observation of marked and non-marked molecules, require co-expression of two FP-tagged proteins or rely on oligomerizing FPs. Here we provide a strategy to overcome such limitations with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-competent tandem fusion tag composed of two FPs. We combine optical marking by acceptor photobleaching with spectral imaging to discriminate between marked and non-marked molecules. Such 'bleach-labelling' may be employed in a broad range of studies for robust real-time tracking of proteins, organelles and cells. PMID:16734709

  2. Competencies for disaster mental health.

    PubMed

    King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S

    2015-03-01

    Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts. PMID:25681279

  3. A developmental approach to evaluating competence in clinical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smith, C Scott

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades there has been tremendous worldwide interest in assessing the clinical competence of learners in medical education. This interest marks a philosophical shift toward greater objectivity, accountability, and predictive power in the evaluation of trainees. One of the core competencies in medical education is clinical reasoning. Because veterinary and human medical training share several similarities and differences, a review of the current state of clinical reasoning competency assessment in medical education may be useful for veterinary educators. This article covers the core competency of clinical reasoning (not other important competencies, such as physical examination or communication) and reviews research from medical education on the development of clinical reasoning and its implications for the transition from novice to expert. Four common stage-related learner difficulties are described: reduced knowledge, dispersed knowledge, tunnel vision, and the outsider. Specific approaches to measuring competence in clinical reasoning for each developmental level are recommended. Finally, two specific examples of evaluation based on a developmental approach to clinical expertise, the RIME (reporter, interpreter, manager, expert) system and the Script Concordance Test (SCT) methods, are discussed. PMID:19066354

  4. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Song, J.; Petraco, N.

    2016-03-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper to specify adequately the experimental procedure. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

  5. An analysis of hospital brand mark clusters.

    PubMed

    Vollmers, Stacy M; Miller, Darryl W; Kilic, Ozcan

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzed brand mark clusters (i.e., various types of brand marks displayed in combination) used by hospitals in the United States. The brand marks were assessed against several normative criteria for creating brand marks that are memorable and that elicit positive affect. Overall, results show a reasonably high level of adherence to many of these normative criteria. Many of the clusters exhibited pictorial elements that reflected benefits and that were conceptually consistent with the verbal content of the cluster. Also, many clusters featured icons that were balanced and moderately complex. However, only a few contained interactive imagery or taglines communicating benefits. PMID:20582849

  6. Surgical Simulation and Competency.

    PubMed

    Kim-Fine, Shunaha; Brennand, Erin A

    2016-09-01

    Simulation in surgical training is playing an increasingly important role as postgraduate medical education programs navigate an environment of increasing costs of education, increased attention on patient safety, and new duty hour restrictions. In obstetrics and gynecology, simulation has been used to teach many procedures; however, it lacks a standardized curriculum. Several different simulators exist for teaching various routes and aspects of hysterectomy. This article describes how a formal framework of increasing levels of competencies can be applied to simulation in teaching the procedure of hysterectomy. PMID:27521885

  7. Visual search, movement behaviour and boat control during the windward mark rounding in sailing.

    PubMed

    Pluijms, Joost P; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2015-01-01

    In search of key-performance predictors in sailing, we examined to what degree visual search, movement behaviour and boat control contribute to skilled performance while rounding the windward mark. To this end, we analysed 62 windward mark roundings sailed without opponents and 40 windward mark roundings sailed with opponents while competing in small regattas. Across conditions, results revealed that better performances were related to gazing more to the tangent point during the actual rounding. More specifically, in the condition without opponents, skilled performance was associated with gazing more outside the dinghy during the actual rounding, while in the condition with opponents, superior performance was related to gazing less outside the dinghy. With respect to movement behaviour, superior performance was associated with the release of the trimming lines close to rounding the mark. In addition, better performances were related to approaching the mark with little heel, yet heeling the boat more to the windward side when being close to the mark. Potential implications for practice are suggested for each phase of the windward mark rounding. PMID:25105956

  8. 33 CFR 62.31 - Special marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special marks. 62.31 Section 62.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.31 Special marks....

  9. 33 CFR 62.31 - Special marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special marks. 62.31 Section 62.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.31 Special marks....

  10. 33 CFR 62.31 - Special marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special marks. 62.31 Section 62.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.31 Special marks....

  11. 33 CFR 62.31 - Special marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special marks. 62.31 Section 62.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.31 Special marks....

  12. 33 CFR 62.31 - Special marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special marks. 62.31 Section 62.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.31 Special marks....

  13. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF... AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each article... visible to the customer and that affords the customer a reasonable opportunity to learn the price of...

  14. 7 CFR 956.162 - Container markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container markings. 956.162 Section 956.162... WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.162 Container markings. Effective April 15, 1997, no handler shall ship any container of Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  15. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  16. 22 CFR 226.91 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... funded public communications and program materials for compliance with the approved Marking Plan. (3... packaging, must be marked with the USAID Identity. (f) After technical evaluation of applications for USAID... award. (g) After technical evaluation of applications for USAID funding, USAID Agreement Officers...

  17. 22 CFR 226.91 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... funded public communications and program materials for compliance with the approved Marking Plan. (3... packaging, must be marked with the USAID Identity. (f) After technical evaluation of applications for USAID... award. (g) After technical evaluation of applications for USAID funding, USAID Agreement Officers...

  18. 22 CFR 226.91 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... funded public communications and program materials for compliance with the approved Marking Plan. (3... packaging, must be marked with the USAID Identity. (f) After technical evaluation of applications for USAID... award. (g) After technical evaluation of applications for USAID funding, USAID Agreement Officers...

  19. Validating Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper details an investigation into onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong--where paper-based marking is being phased out, being completely superseded by OSM. The study described involved 30 raters who had previously rated English language essay scripts on screen in the 2007 Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination. In the current study,…

  20. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  1. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... showing rotor pitch or landing gear position, must be marked so that each crewmember can determine at any... be marked as to method of operation. (e) For rotorcraft incorporating retractable landing gear, the maximum landing gear operating speed must be displayed in clear view of the pilot....

  2. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  3. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  4. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  5. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  6. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings. 58.16-35 Section 58.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of...

  7. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF... AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each article... visible to the customer and that affords the customer a reasonable opportunity to learn the price of...

  8. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF... AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each article... visible to the customer and that affords the customer a reasonable opportunity to learn the price of...

  9. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF... AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each article... visible to the customer and that affords the customer a reasonable opportunity to learn the price of...

  10. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF... AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each article... visible to the customer and that affords the customer a reasonable opportunity to learn the price of...

  11. 27 CFR 44.251 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mark. 44.251 Section 44.251 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Requirements § 44.251 Mark. Every package of cigars shall, before withdrawal from the customs warehouse...

  12. 27 CFR 44.251 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 44.251 Section 44.251 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Requirements § 44.251 Mark. Every package of cigars shall, before withdrawal from the customs warehouse...

  13. 27 CFR 44.251 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mark. 44.251 Section 44.251 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Requirements § 44.251 Mark. Every package of cigars shall, before withdrawal from the customs warehouse...

  14. 27 CFR 44.251 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mark. 44.251 Section 44.251 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Requirements § 44.251 Mark. Every package of cigars shall, before withdrawal from the customs warehouse...

  15. 27 CFR 44.251 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mark. 44.251 Section 44.251 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Requirements § 44.251 Mark. Every package of cigars shall, before withdrawal from the customs warehouse...

  16. 46 CFR 162.050-11 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 162.050-11 Section 162.050-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-11 Marking. (a) Each separator, oil content meter, and bilge...

  17. Pseudomonas septicaemia following tribal tatoo marks.

    PubMed

    Mathur, D R; Sahoo, A

    1984-09-01

    It is tradition in Northern Nigeria to make tribal tatoo marks on the face of a newborn, commonly on both sides of the angle of the mouth. A case of fatal septicaemia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa following such tribal tatoo marks is reported. PMID:6506210

  18. 46 CFR 162.161-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking. 162.161-8 Section 162.161-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems § 162.161-8 Marking. The following information must be displayed...

  19. 49 CFR 179.22 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requires a tank-head puncture-resistance system must have the letter “S” substituted for the letter “A” in the specification marking. (c) Each tank car that requires a tank-head puncture-resistance system, a... “S” in the specification marking. (d) Each tank car that requires a tank-head...

  20. 49 CFR 179.22 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... puncture-resistance system must have the letter “S” substituted for the letter “A” in the specification marking. (c) Each tank car that requires a tank-head puncture-resistance system, a thermal protection... specification marking. (d) Each tank car that requires a tank-head puncture-resistance system, a...

  1. 49 CFR 179.22 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... puncture-resistance system must have the letter “S” substituted for the letter “A” in the specification marking. (c) Each tank car that requires a tank-head puncture-resistance system, a thermal protection... specification marking. (d) Each tank car that requires a tank-head puncture-resistance system, a...

  2. 49 CFR 179.22 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... puncture-resistance system must have the letter “S” substituted for the letter “A” in the specification marking. (c) Each tank car that requires a tank-head puncture-resistance system, a thermal protection... specification marking. (d) Each tank car that requires a tank-head puncture-resistance system, a...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control markings. 23.1555 Section 23.1555 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards §...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Identification and Markings § 2001.25...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Identification and Markings § 2001.25...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Identification and Markings § 2001.25...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Identification and Markings § 2001.25...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.25 - Declassification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declassification markings. 2001.25 Section 2001.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Identification and Markings § 2001.25...

  9. 46 CFR 160.062-5 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings. 160.062-5 Section 160.062-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-5 Markings. (a) Hydraulic releases...

  10. 46 CFR 160.062-5 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Markings. 160.062-5 Section 160.062-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-5 Markings. (a) Hydraulic releases...

  11. 76 FR 36983 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... voluntary marking of METs less than 200 feet AGL (76 FR 1326). The FAA agrees that marking these structures... conspicuity of the towers for low level agricultural operations in the vicinity of these towers. FOR FURTHER... operators, associations representing agricultural operators, and state governments concerning the...

  12. Fantasy and Reality in Mark Twain's Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Robert R.

    Psychoanalysis, a favorite method for studying personality and motivation, cannot be used on the dead. Instead, biographical analysis must be employed. This study examines Mark Twain's aggression by analyzing his writings, social behavior, and environmental aspects of his life. In viewing Mark Twain's novels as representing fantasy, 17 categories…

  13. 46 CFR 164.023-15 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 164.023-15 Section 164.023-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Thread for Personal Flotation Devices § 164.023-15 Marking. (a) General. The manufacturer must ensure that each...

  14. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.054-6 Section 160.054-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  15. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 160.041-6 Section 160.041-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  16. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be plainly and permanently marked with the following... kit, the Coast Guard approval number, and the words “First-Aid Kit—For Inflatable Life Rafts”. If...

  17. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be permanently marked with the following information: name of... Guard Approval Number, and the words “FIRST-AID KIT.” This information may be embossed on the...

  18. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.041-6 Section 160.041-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  19. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 160.054-6 Section 160.054-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  20. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 160.054-6 Section 160.054-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  1. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be permanently marked with the following information: name of... Guard Approval Number, and the words “FIRST-AID KIT.” This information may be embossed on the...

  2. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be plainly and permanently marked with the following... kit, the Coast Guard approval number, and the words “First-Aid Kit—For Inflatable Life Rafts”. If...

  3. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 160.041-6 Section 160.041-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  4. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking....

  5. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking....

  6. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking....

  7. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking....

  8. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 160.053-5 Section 160.053-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-5 Marking....

  9. 33 CFR 401.6 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Markings. 401.6 Section 401.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.6 Markings. (a) Vessels of more...

  10. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  11. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  12. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  13. 30 CFR 7.90 - Approval marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Engines Intended for Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.90 Approval marking. Each approved diesel engine shall be identified by a legible and... diesel engine. The marking shall also contain the following information: (a) Ventilation rate. (b)...

  14. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...

  15. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...

  16. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...

  17. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...

  18. 10 CFR 1045.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking requirements. 1045.40 Section 1045.40 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.40 Marking...

  19. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the serial number for the gun, the official Coast...

  20. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the serial number for the gun, the official Coast...

  1. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the serial number for the gun, the official Coast...

  2. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the serial number for the gun, the official Coast...

  3. 46 CFR 160.031-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-6 Marking. (a) Gun. The gun shall be permanently and legibly marked on the barrel with the manufacturer's model or type designation of the gun, the serial number for the gun, the official Coast...

  4. 16 CFR 1202.6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MATCHBOOKS § 1202.6 Marking. (a) The manufacturer's or private labeler's name and city or a symbol which will... or cartons in which two or more caddies are shipped shall be marked “For safety, store in a cool,...

  5. 49 CFR 178.33-9 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY..., each container must be marked to show: (1) DOT-2P. (2) Name or symbol of person making the mark specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Symbol, if used, must be registered with the...

  6. 49 CFR 178.33-9 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY..., each container must be marked to show: (1) DOT-2P. (2) Name or symbol of person making the mark specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Symbol, if used, must be registered with the...

  7. 16 CFR 1202.6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MATCHBOOKS § 1202.6 Marking. (a) The manufacturer's or private labeler's name and city or a symbol which will... or cartons in which two or more caddies are shipped shall be marked “For safety, store in a cool,...

  8. 16 CFR 1202.6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MATCHBOOKS § 1202.6 Marking. (a) The manufacturer's or private labeler's name and city or a symbol which will... or cartons in which two or more caddies are shipped shall be marked “For safety, store in a cool,...

  9. 16 CFR 1202.6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MATCHBOOKS § 1202.6 Marking. (a) The manufacturer's or private labeler's name and city or a symbol which will... or cartons in which two or more caddies are shipped shall be marked “For safety, store in a cool,...

  10. 16 CFR 1202.6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR MATCHBOOKS § 1202.6 Marking. (a) The manufacturer's or private labeler's name and city or a symbol which will... or cartons in which two or more caddies are shipped shall be marked “For safety, store in a cool,...

  11. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... time of removal from use if not already marked. ; (3) PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors at the time of... Capacitor at the time of manufacture, at the time of distribution in commerce if not already marked, and at... Capacitors at the time of removal from use (see also paragraph (k) of this section). (6) Electric...

  12. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... time of removal from use if not already marked. ; (3) PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors at the time of... Capacitor at the time of manufacture, at the time of distribution in commerce if not already marked, and at... Capacitors at the time of removal from use (see also paragraph (k) of this section). (6) Electric...

  13. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... time of removal from use if not already marked. ; (3) PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors at the time of... Capacitor at the time of manufacture, at the time of distribution in commerce if not already marked, and at... Capacitors at the time of removal from use (see also paragraph (k) of this section). (6) Electric...

  14. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... time of removal from use if not already marked. ; (3) PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors at the time of... Capacitor at the time of manufacture, at the time of distribution in commerce if not already marked, and at... Capacitors at the time of removal from use (see also paragraph (k) of this section). (6) Electric...

  15. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... time of removal from use if not already marked. ; (3) PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors at the time of... Capacitor at the time of manufacture, at the time of distribution in commerce if not already marked, and at... Capacitors at the time of removal from use (see also paragraph (k) of this section). (6) Electric...

  16. RANDOM PULSE GENERATOR PRODUCING FIDUCIAL MARKS

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, W.F.

    1960-02-01

    The apparatus for automatically applying a fiducial marking, having a nonrepetitive pattern, to a plurality of simultaneously made records comprises, in series, a bypass filter, a trigger circuit, and a pulse generator, with printing means connected to and controlled by the pulse generator for simultaneously making the visible fiducial marks on a plurality of simultaneously produced records.

  17. Credit Documentation and the Mark 15 Subroutine

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, J.E.

    2001-08-16

    This report documents the rewrite of the heat transfer subroutine. Part of the process of preparing the Mark 15 assembly for production operation is the development of thermal-hydraulic limits for the assembly. These limits require, among other items, the development of a Mark 15 assembly subroutine for the CREDIT code.

  18. 46 CFR 160.044-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.044-5 Section 160.044-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pumps, Bilge, Lifeboat, for Merchant Vessels § 160.044-5 Marking. (a) Each pump shall be permanently and...

  19. 49 CFR 180.515 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Markings. 180.515 Section 180.515 Transportation... Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.515 Markings. (a) When a tank car passes the required... applicable provisions of Appendix C of the AAR Specifications for Tank Cars (IBR, see § 171.7 of...

  20. 49 CFR 180.213 - Requalification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requalification markings. 180.213 Section 180.213... Qualification, Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.213 Requalification markings. (a) General. Each cylinder... maintained in accordance with manufacturing specifications for the cylinder; and (C) The...

  1. 49 CFR 180.515 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Markings. 180.515 Section 180.515 Transportation... Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.515 Markings. (a) When a tank car passes the required... applicable provisions of Appendix C of the AAR Specifications for Tank Cars (IBR, see § 171.7 of...

  2. 49 CFR 180.213 - Requalification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requalification markings. 180.213 Section 180.213... Qualification, Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.213 Requalification markings. (a) General. Each cylinder... maintained in accordance with manufacturing specifications for the cylinder; and (C) The...

  3. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  4. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  5. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  6. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  7. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons...

  8. 49 CFR 450.7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 450.7 Section 450.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS GENERAL General Provisions § 450.7 Marking. (a) On each container that construction begins on or after January 1,...

  9. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123 Section 28.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In...

  10. 46 CFR 160.024-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-5 Marking. (a) Cartridge. Each pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked as follows: Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal 20,000 candela—30 seconds...

  11. 46 CFR 160.024-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-5 Marking. (a) Cartridge. Each pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked as follows: Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal 20,000 candela—30 seconds...

  12. 46 CFR 160.024-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-5 Marking. (a) Cartridge. Each pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked as follows: Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal 20,000 candela—30 seconds...

  13. 46 CFR 160.024-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-5 Marking. (a) Cartridge. Each pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked as follows: Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal 20,000 candela—30 seconds...

  14. 46 CFR 160.024-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-5 Marking. (a) Cartridge. Each pistol-projected parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked as follows: Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signal 20,000 candela—30 seconds...

  15. 7 CFR 51.311 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Marking Requirements § 51.311 Marking requirements... minimum diameter of apples packed in a closed container shall be indicated on the container. For apple... varieties, the minimum diameter and minimum weight of apples packed in a closed container shall be...

  16. 7 CFR 51.311 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Marking Requirements § 51.311 Marking requirements... minimum diameter of apples packed in a closed container shall be indicated on the container. For apple... varieties, the minimum diameter and minimum weight of apples packed in a closed container shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 51.311 - Marking requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Marking Requirements § 51.311 Marking requirements... minimum diameter of apples packed in a closed container shall be indicated on the container. For apple... varieties, the minimum diameter and minimum weight of apples packed in a closed container shall be...

  18. 46 CFR 169.545 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.545 Markings. (a) Each personal flotation device must... persons onboard, the containers in which they are stowed must be marked “adult personal flotation devices” or “child personal flotation devices”, as appropriate, and with the number contained therein, in...

  19. 46 CFR 161.012-15 - Markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings. 161.012-15 Section 161.012-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Personal Flotation Device Lights § 161.012-15 Markings. (a)...

  20. 9 CFR 316.9 - Products to be marked with official marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... liver, beef tongue, and beef heart which has been inspected and passed shall be marked with the official..., brisket, chuck, and shank. (c) Beef livers shall be marked with the official inspection legend...

  1. 9 CFR 316.9 - Products to be marked with official marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... liver, beef tongue, and beef heart which has been inspected and passed shall be marked with the official..., brisket, chuck, and shank. (c) Beef livers shall be marked with the official inspection legend...

  2. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    PubMed

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations. PMID:26593118

  3. 9 CFR 316.9 - Products to be marked with official marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marks. 316.9 Section 316.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... official marks. (a) Each carcass which has been inspected and passed in an official establishment shall be... prepared. Additional official marks of inspection may be applied to products as desired to meet...

  4. 9 CFR 316.9 - Products to be marked with official marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marks. 316.9 Section 316.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... official marks. (a) Each carcass which has been inspected and passed in an official establishment shall be... prepared. Additional official marks of inspection may be applied to products as desired to meet...

  5. A Robust Approach for Mapping Group Marks to Individual Marks Using Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatar, Ciprian; Penna, Nigel; Mills, Henny; Kutija, Vedrana; Cooke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Group work can form a substantial component of degree programme assessments. To satisfy institutional and student expectations, students must often be assigned individual marks for their contributions to the group project, typically by mapping a single holistic group mark to individual marks using peer assessment scores. Since the early 1990s,…

  6. 9 CFR 316.9 - Products to be marked with official marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marks. 316.9 Section 316.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... official marks. (a) Each carcass which has been inspected and passed in an official establishment shall be... prepared. Additional official marks of inspection may be applied to products as desired to meet...

  7. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Fernández, A.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2015-05-01

    Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks.

  8. Part Marking and Identification Materials' for MISSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roxby, Donald; Finckenor, Miria M.

    2008-01-01

    The Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is being conducted with funding from NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense, in order to evaluate candidate materials and processes for flight hardware. MISSE modules include test specimens used to validate NASA technical standards for part markings exposed to harsh environments in low-Earth orbit and space, including: atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal vacuum cycling, and meteoroid and orbital debris impact. Marked test specimens are evaluated and then mounted in a passive experiment container (PEC) that is affixed to an exterior surface on the International Space Station (ISS). They are exposed to atomic oxygen and/or ultraviolet radiation for a year or more before being retrieved and reevaluated. Criteria include percent contrast, axial uniformity, print growth, error correction, and overall grade. MISSE 1 and 2 (2001-2005), MISSE 3 and 4 (2006-2007), and MISSE 5 (2005-2006) have been completed to date. Acceptable results were found for test specimens marked with Data Matrix(TradeMark) symbols by Intermec Inc. and Robotic Vision Systems Inc using: laser bonding, vacuum arc vapor deposition, gas assisted laser etch, chemical etch, mechanical dot peening, laser shot peening, laser etching, and laser induced surface improvement. MISSE 6 (2008-2009) is exposing specimens marked by DataLase(Registed TradeMark), Chemico technologies Inc., Intermec Inc., and tesa with laser-markable paint, nanocode tags, DataLase and tesa laser markings, and anodized metal labels.

  9. Where Cultural Competency Begins: Changes in Undergraduate Students' Intercultural Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Elizabeth J.; Tupy, Samantha J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs and accreditation organizations have acknowledged need for educators to demonstrate intercultural knowledge, skills, and abilities. Teacher educators are responding to emphasis in higher education to assure that graduates achieve intercultural competence (NCATE, 2008). This study compared the cultural competency of…

  10. Examining Perception of Competency through Practicum Competencies Outline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Giovanna; Freda, Maria Francesca; Bosco, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the self-perceived competencies of 231 Italian students enrolled in a psychological degree program and involved in a practicum. It analyzes the subjective perception of the competences that students expect to develop, acknowledge as developed and that might be inferred from tasks performed during the practicum;…

  11. Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by…

  12. Competencies: The Competencies Debate in Australian Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cherry, Ed.

    Competencies are the focal concept in the world of education and training in Australia at this moment in 1993. This book is a collection of papers and has three purposes. First, it aims to provide basic information about education and training. Second, the book aims to explore something of what competency-based education and training looks like in…

  13. Eating Competence: Nutrition Education with the Satter Eating Competence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Ellyn

    2007-01-01

    The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive…

  14. Prioritizing competencies: increasing nurse satisfaction with competency testing.

    PubMed

    Dirks, J L; Douglas, M K

    1997-01-01

    During this period of low patient census, downsizing, and reorganization, nurses already complain they do not feel respected. Expanding competency evaluations only adds to this feeling that others do not respect the professional nurse. These authors describe strategies to use with a competency fair that decrease this feeling that nurses are being "checked on" and increase nurse satisfaction. PMID:9043364

  15. Ligature mark on the face - forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Raghavendra Babu, Y P; Atreya, Alok; Acharya, Jenash

    2016-09-01

    In deaths due to hanging and strangulation, the position, course and direction of the ligature mark, the kind of knot used and injuries to the neck structures help in deducing the cause and manner of death. Two cases of suicidal hanging are reported where the unusual positioning of ligature and presence of the ligature mark on the face raise doubts concerning the circumstances of death. The presence of a ligature mark on the face is an unusual and rarely reported phenomenon that can have serious medico-legal implications. PMID:26968980

  16. Preoperative breast marking in reduction mammaplasty.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1987-10-01

    A simple method of preoperative marking for reduction mammaplasty is described. This method may be used in macromastias when the technique chosen implies a postoperative scar with the shape of an inverted T. The marking sequence follows standard steps, but the drawing is always different because it is a consequence of the shape of the breast. This marking method reduces the chance of making mistakes due to excessive personal evaluations or to the use of standard drawing patterns that may be not suitable for all breast shapes. PMID:3688776

  17. Mark XII, V-TO Physics Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, L.W.

    2002-08-09

    Uranium-233 has previously been produced in a 4:2 mixed lattice of Mark VX-C two tube drivers and 82 lb. Mark V-TO ThO2 targets. A subsequent campaign is planned that will use a 3:3 lattice of Mark XII-A three tube drivers with similar ThO2 target assemblies. This report documents a parametric study of this second campaign, presenting the production rates and reactivities of various combinations of driver and target design. The purpose of this study was to provide background material for design of a 233U producing lattice.

  18. Competing on analytics.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated. PMID:16447373

  19. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOG(R)1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOG(R)1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOG(R)1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l(-1) 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOG(R)1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOG(R)1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm. PMID:26442041

  20. 27 CFR 19.607 - Marks on cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bear the additional marks required by 27 CFR part 28. (b) Other marks. In addition to the required... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marks on cases. 19.607... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Marks § 19.607 Marks on...