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Sample records for marked bengal pink

  1. Microtubule Affinity-regulating Kinase 2 (MARK2) Turns on Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)-induced Kinase 1 (PINK1) at Thr-313, a Mutation Site in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matenia, Dorthe; Hempp, Cindy; Timm, Thomas; Eikhof, Annika; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria

    2012-01-01

    The kinase MARK2/Par-1 plays key roles in several cell processes, including neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer disease by phosphorylating tau and detaching it from microtubules. In search of interaction partners of MARK2, we identified phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is important for the survival of neurons and whose mutations are linked to familial Parkinson disease (PD). MARK2 phosphorylated and activated the cleaved form of PINK1 (ΔN-PINK1; amino acids 156–581). Thr-313 was the primary phosphorylation site, a residue mutated to a non-phosphorylatable form (T313M) in a frequent variant of PD. Mutation of Thr-313 to Met or Glu in PINK1 showed toxic effects with abnormal mitochondrial distribution in neurons. MARK2 and PINK1 were found to colocalize with mitochondria and regulate their transport. ΔN-PINK1 promoted anterograde transport and increased the fraction of stationary mitochondria, whereas full-length PINK1 promoted retrograde transport. In both cases, MARK2 enhanced the effects. The results identify MARK2 as an upstream regulator of PINK1 and ΔN-PINK1 and provide insights into the regulation of mitochondrial trafficking in neurons and neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:22238344

  2. Pink urine.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

    2014-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

  3. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  4. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) ... can be very serious. Symptoms and Causes of Conjunctivitis in Newborns Newborns with conjunctivitis develop drainage from ...

  5. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  6. PINK1-Interacting Proteins: Proteomic Analysis of Overexpressed PINK1.

    PubMed

    Rakovic, Aleksandar; Grünewald, Anne; Voges, Lisa; Hofmann, Sarah; Orolicki, Slobodanka; Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Recent publications suggest that the Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. We used tandem affinity purification (TAP), SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry as a first step towards identification of possible substrates for PINK1. The cellular abundance of selected identified interactors was investigated by Western blotting. Furthermore, one candidate gene was sequenced in 46 patients with atypical PD. In addition to two known binding partners (HSP90, CDC37), 12 proteins were identified using the TAP assay; four of which are mitochondrially localized (GRP75, HSP60, LRPPRC, and TUFM). Western blot analysis showed no differences in cellular abundance of these proteins comparing PINK1 mutant and control fibroblasts. When sequencing LRPPRC, four exonic synonymous changes and 20 polymorphisms in noncoding regions were detected. Our study provides a list of putative PINK1 binding partners, confirming previously described interactions, but also introducing novel mitochondrial proteins as potential components of the PINK1/Parkin mitophagy pathway. PMID:21437181

  7. "Pink plague" changes course.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, L

    1993-03-01

    By October 1992, the government's Special Program to Control AIDS (PECOS) registered 717 cases of the disease in Peru; however, the number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases could number thousands. PECOS estimates that the number of cases of HIV is doubling every 2 years. One of the main reasons for the continued spread of HIV is the common perception that the pink plague, as AIDS is called here, affects only homosexuals. While 85% of sexually transmitted HIV and AIDS cases are among gay and bisexual men, in the past 4 years a large number of new cases has been registered among heterosexuals, especially women. In 1987, the ratio of AIDS cases among men and women was approximately 15 to 1. Today, the male to female ratio is 7 to 1. Most people working on AIDS say that the changing profile of the epidemic in Peru is caused by the high costs of prevention programs and the lack of information on the disease, which drastically raise the number of people in high risk groups. Peru's ongoing economic crisis has eaten into the budgets of nongovernment organization's (NGOs) AIDS prevention campaigns and has pushed treatment out of the reach of many people. In 1991, 3 television commercials developed by PECOS to promote the use of condoms were blocked by the Health Ministry. One of the groups that fought against campaigns promoting condom use was the Association of Catholic Doctors. The only way to organize an effective program is through a joint effort that brings together the government, NGOs, and other private and public institutions. Cooperation was demonstrated through the actions carried out for World AIDS Day, when more than 16 public, NGO, and government organizations were involved in a variety of AIDS information activities. In 1993, about 30 NGOs will begin actively working with Peru's Health Ministry to coordinate activities. PMID:12286735

  8. Discovery of catalytically active orthologues of the Parkinson's disease kinase PINK1: analysis of substrate specificity and impact of mutations.

    PubMed

    Woodroof, Helen I; Pogson, Joe H; Begley, Mike; Cantley, Lewis C; Deak, Maria; Campbell, David G; van Aalten, Daan M F; Whitworth, Alexander J; Alessi, Dario R; Muqit, Miratul M K

    2011-11-01

    Missense mutations of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause autosomal-recessive Parkinson's disease. To date, little is known about the intrinsic catalytic properties of PINK1 since the human enzyme displays such low kinase activity in vitro. We have discovered that, in contrast to mammalian PINK1, insect orthologues of PINK1 we have investigated-namely Drosophila melanogaster (dPINK1), Tribolium castaneum (TcPINK1) and Pediculus humanus corporis (PhcPINK1)-are active as judged by their ability to phosphorylate the generic substrate myelin basic protein. We have exploited the most active orthologue, TcPINK1, to assess its substrate specificity and elaborated a peptide substrate (PINKtide, KKWIpYRRSPRRR) that can be employed to quantify PINK1 kinase activity. Analysis of PINKtide variants reveal that PINK1 phosphorylates serine or threonine, but not tyrosine, and we show that PINK1 exhibits a preference for a proline at the +1 position relative to the phosphorylation site. We have also, for the first time, been able to investigate the effect of Parkinson's disease-associated PINK1 missense mutations, and found that nearly all those located within the kinase domain, as well as the C-terminal non-catalytic region, markedly suppress kinase activity. This emphasizes the crucial importance of PINK1 kinase activity in preventing the development of Parkinson's disease. Our findings will aid future studies aimed at understanding how the activity of PINK1 is regulated and the identification of physiological substrates. PMID:22645651

  9. Cytological examination of pink eye afflicted tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye is a tuber disorder of undetermined cause that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses throughout North America. Pink eye symptoms progress from ephemeral light pink colorations around bud-end eyes to water-soaked or dried and cracked “corky-patch” periderm. Late s...

  10. Pink1, the first ubiquitin kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinde; Hunter, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Pink1 and Parkin, identified through studies of hereditary early onset Parkinson's disease, are involved in mitochondria quality control. Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is activated by Pink1 kinase activity, although the mechanism is still elusive. Three recent reports uncover a surprising mechanism in which Pink1 directly phosphorylates ubiquitin to boost Parkin activity. PMID:24942162

  11. Clueless, a protein required for mitochondrial function, interacts with the PINK1-Parkin complex in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Aditya; Kalvakuri, Sreehari; Bodmer, Rolf; Cox, Rachel T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Loss of mitochondrial function often leads to neurodegeneration and is thought to be one of the underlying causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise events linking mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death remain elusive. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin (Park), either of which, when mutated, are responsible for early-onset PD, mark individual mitochondria for destruction at the mitochondrial outer membrane. The specific molecular pathways that regulate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria to sense mitochondrial dysfunction under normal physiological conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Clueless (Clu), a highly conserved protein required for normal mitochondrial function, can associate with Translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) 20, Porin and PINK1, and is thus located at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, we found that clu genetically interacts with park in Drosophila female germ cells. Here, we show that clu also genetically interacts with PINK1, and our epistasis analysis places clu downstream of PINK1 and upstream of park. In addition, Clu forms a complex with PINK1 and Park, further supporting that Clu links mitochondrial function with the PINK1-Park pathway. Lack of Clu causes PINK1 and Park to interact with each other, and clu mutants have decreased mitochondrial protein levels, suggesting that Clu can act as a negative regulator of the PINK1-Park pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that Clu directly modulates mitochondrial function, and that Clu's function contributes to the PINK1-Park pathway of mitochondrial quality control. PMID:26035866

  12. [PINK1 and the related diseases].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Mu, De-Zhi

    2016-08-01

    As a kind of mitochondrial membrane protein with protein kinase activity, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is involved in many biological metabolic processes. Since PINK1 had been found to be associated with Parkinson's disease, researchers have been exploring its biological function. PINK1 localizes in the outer mitochondrial membrane and regulates cell function through phosphorylating proteins. PINK1 is involved in mitochondrial function, mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial autophagy, but the regulatory pathway is not yet clear. PINK1 is expressed widely in many tissues with a variety of biological activity, especially in tissues with high energy consumption. It may therefore be involved in the development and regulation of many diseases. Mutations in PINK1 were originally discovered to cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Recently some research has revealed that PINK1 is related to the development of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Studying and exploring the biological functions of PINK1 will facilitate the identification of the targets for therapeutic intervention for its related diseases. This review article mainly focuses on recent studies about the biological function and related diseases of PINK1. PMID:27530800

  13. What Does Daniel Pink Have to Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2007-01-01

    In Daniel Pink's vision of the near future, Americans value artists and creative thinkers as much as computer programmers, good design is a necessity, and empathy is essential to all products and services. In this article, the author discusses what Pink, author of "A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers will Rule the Future," has to say on creative…

  14. An Efficient Composition for Bengal Lights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Fuzellier, H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports the discovery of an efficient base composition for making bengal lights that is obtained with potassium chlorate and thiourea. Combining this mixture with appropriate flame coloring can produce several impressive bengal lights. (DDR)

  15. Inheritance of pink flower color in Styrax japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most Styrax japonicus (Japanese snowbell) cultivars produce white flowers, but a few pink-flowered forms have been reported. ‘Pink Chimes’ is the most widely grown pink-flowered form and the only S. japonicus cultivar with deep pink flowers that hold their color even under hot growing conditions. ...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  1. Phosphoproteomic screening identifies Rab GTPases as novel downstream targets of PINK1.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Chiang; Kondapalli, Chandana; Lehneck, Ronny; Procter, James B; Dill, Brian D; Woodroof, Helen I; Gourlay, Robert; Peggie, Mark; Macartney, Thomas J; Corti, Olga; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, David G; Itzen, Aymelt; Trost, Matthias; Muqit, Miratul Mk

    2015-11-12

    Mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are causative of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). We have previously reported that PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial depolarisation and phosphorylates serine 65 (Ser(65)) of the ubiquitin ligase Parkin and ubiquitin to stimulate Parkin E3 ligase activity. Here, we have employed quantitative phosphoproteomics to search for novel PINK1-dependent phosphorylation targets in HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 cells stimulated by mitochondrial depolarisation. This led to the identification of 14,213 phosphosites from 4,499 gene products. Whilst most phosphosites were unaffected, we strikingly observed three members of a sub-family of Rab GTPases namely Rab8A, 8B and 13 that are all phosphorylated at the highly conserved residue of serine 111 (Ser(111)) in response to PINK1 activation. Using phospho-specific antibodies raised against Ser(111) of each of the Rabs, we demonstrate that Rab Ser(111) phosphorylation occurs specifically in response to PINK1 activation and is abolished in HeLa PINK1 knockout cells and mutant PINK1 PD patient-derived fibroblasts stimulated by mitochondrial depolarisation. We provide evidence that Rab8A GTPase Ser(111) phosphorylation is not directly regulated by PINK1 in vitro and demonstrate in cells the time course of Ser(111) phosphorylation of Rab8A, 8B and 13 is markedly delayed compared to phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65). We further show mechanistically that phosphorylation at Ser(111) significantly impairs Rab8A activation by its cognate guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Rabin8 (by using the Ser111Glu phosphorylation mimic). These findings provide the first evidence that PINK1 is able to regulate the phosphorylation of Rab GTPases and indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Rab8A/8B/13 at Ser(111) may represent novel biomarkers of PINK1 activity in vivo. Our findings also suggest that disruption of Rab GTPase-mediated signalling may represent a major mechanism

  2. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  3. Radiation-induced pink nickel oligomeric clusters in water. Pulse radiolysis study.

    PubMed

    Hioul, Mohamed Larbi; Lin, Mingzhang; Belloni, Jacqueline; Keghouche, Nassira; Marignier, Jean-Louis

    2014-10-01

    γ-rays and pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of Ni(2+) ions in the presence of polyacrylate (PA(-)) and 2-propanol leads to the formation of metastable species absorbing at 540 nm that are ascribed to "pink" oligomeric clusters of a few nickel atoms only. The molar absorption coefficient is evaluated as ε540 nm = 3300 ± 300 L mol(-1) cm(-1) per Ni(0) atom. The successive steps from the reduction of Ni(2+) into Ni(+) ions to the formation of the pink clusters at 540 nm under conditions of complexation by PA(-) are investigated by pulse radiolysis. The yield of the formation of pink clusters increases markedly with the irradiation dose rate, demonstrating the occurrence of the disproportionation of the [Ni(+), PA(-)] complex after a single electron pulse. The reduction and nucleation mechanisms, including rate constants, in competition with the back oxidation by protons, particularly at low dose rate, are discussed. PMID:25198291

  4. Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-04-01

    The phenolphthalein-pink tornado demonstration utilizes the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stirring bar in a 1 L graduated cylinder containing 0.01 M HCl to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water H 2 In + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O + + In 2 - where H 2 In is phenophthalein. The addition of 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution followed immediately by 3-4 drops of 50% (w/w) NaOH to the vortex of the HCl solution results in a shift to the right in the equilibrium owing to the reaction of OH - + H 3 O + to form water. This shift is accompanied by the vortex becoming visible by the appearance of a pinkish-red color caused by an increase in In 2- concentration within the localized region of the vortex. The demonstration also provides one an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of limiting reagent and reagent in excess. Some insight regarding the extent to which uniform mixing is achieved when using a magnetic stirrer is also provided. Included is a note from the Feature Editor, Ed Vitz.

  5. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-16

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  6. Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

  7. Pink prehnite from Michigan: a mineral much confused.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    Both pink prehnite and thomsonite occur in amygdales in volcanic rocks of Keweenawan age in the Lake Superior region. Although the pink prehnite superficially resembles thomsonite, it does not develop the spectacular patterns with colour variations of gem quality thomsonite. The pink prehnite has long been misidentified and a history of this problem is presented. The pink colour of the prehnite is caused by internal reflections from very fine and evenly disseminated inclusions of native copper. (Preceding abstracts)-R.S.M.

  8. The mitochondrial intramembrane protease PARL cleaves human Pink1 to regulate Pink1 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Cathrin; Lorenz, Holger; Weihofen, Andreas; Selkoe, Dennis J; Lemberg, Marius K

    2011-06-01

    Intramembrane proteolysis is a conserved mechanism that regulates a variety of cellular processes ranging from transcription control to signaling. In mitochondria, the inner membrane rhomboid protease PARL has been implicated in the control of life span and apoptosis by a so far uncharacterized mechanism. Here, we show that PARL cleaves human Pink1, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease, within its conserved membrane anchor. Mature Pink1 is then free to be released into the cytosol or the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Upon depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the canonical import of Pink1 and PARL-catalyzed processing is blocked, leading to accumulation of the Pink1 precursor. As targeting of this precursor to the outer mitochondrial membrane has been shown to trigger mitophagy, we suggest that the PARL-catalyzed removal of the Pink1 signal sequence in the canonical import pathway acts as a cellular checkpoint for mitochondrial integrity. Furthermore, we show that two Parkinson's disease-causing mutations decrease the processing of Pink1 by PARL, with attendant implications for pathogenesis. PMID:21426348

  9. Sleep deepening effect of steady pink noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kawada, T.; Ogawa, M.; Aoki, S.

    1991-12-01

    Sleep under a steady pink noise was studied by a hypnogram of EEG. A young male subject slept all night under a steady pink noise of 40, 50 or 60 dB(A) for 4 to 5 nights, and for 10 nights under unexposed conditions with 35 dB(A). The hypnogram showed a significant decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2, at 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise exposure. The proportion of stage 3 increased significantly at 40 and 50 dB(A) as compared with 35 dB(A). The average depth of a night's sleep at 60 dB(A), calculated postulating stage W, 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be 0·0, 1·0, 2·0, 3·0 and 4·0, respectively, and REM to be 1·5, was significantly deeper than that at 35 and 40 dB(A). These findings are all sleep deepening effects of a steady noise. A second experiments was carried out with four other subjects exposed to a night of 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise and a paired quiet night. All four subjects also showed a decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2 at this exposure level. No significant change in subjective sleep was observed in either experiment. An inhibition pulse from the cortex may suppress the activation of reticular formation, which could make sleep under a steady noise deeper. However, the meaning of a depressed proportion of REM under steady pink noise is not clear.

  10. Antioxidants protect PINK1-dependent dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danling; Qian, Li; Xiong, Hui; Liu, Jiandong; Neckameyer, Wendi S.; Oldham, Sean; Xia, Kun; Wang, Jianzhi; Bodmer, Rolf; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Mutations in the PINK1 gene are linked to the autosomal recessive early onset familial form of PD. The physiological function of PINK1 and pathological abnormality of PD-associated PINK1 mutants are largely unknown. We here show that inactivation of Drosophila PINK1 (dPINK1) using RNAi results in progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and in ommatidial degeneration of the compound eye, which is rescued by expression of human PINK1 (hPINK1). Expression of human SOD1 suppresses neurodegeneration induced by dPINK1 inactivation. Moreover, treatment of dPINK1 RNAi flies with the antioxidants SOD and vitamin E significantly inhibits ommatidial degeneration. Thus, dPINK1 plays an essential role in maintaining neuronal survival by preventing neurons from undergoing oxidative stress, thereby suggesting a potential mechanism by which a reduction in PINK1 function leads to PD-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:16938835

  11. On determinants of migration in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, N C

    1987-10-01

    The migration flow to West Bengal from different parts of the Indian subcontinent is an old phenomenon which can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century when the process of industrialization began in the areas comprising the present West Bengal. As West Bengal gradually industrialized and urbanized, the migration flow which was an equiliberating process up to 1947 turned into a stagnating mechanism in the economic sphere. This paper attempts to treat the causative process generating migration flows into West Bengal. Some popular hypotheses are tested, and their inadequacies in the case of migration in West Bengal are shown. Then a variable incorporating the expected long-run socioeconomic condition of West Bengal vis-a-vis the states/countries belonging to the migration universe of West Bengal was constructed, and this expectational variable appears to have more explanatory power than the observed income differential. Barring the political factor which played the central role in the case of immigration from Bangladesh, the determinants can be ranked in order of importance as 1) linguistic distance, 2) expected socioeconomic condition, and 3) physical distance. The limitation of the framework used is the scaling of linguistic distance and the inability to treat the political variable in a causal matrix of migration. PMID:12281036

  12. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Arkendu; Joardar, Siddhartha N.; Isore, Devi Prasad; Samanta, Indranil; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti; Lodh, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT) in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005) samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum), rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent. PMID:27051176

  13. NRF2 Regulates PINK1 Expression under Oxidative Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Hitoshi; Takamatsu, Hitoshi; Liu, Sulai; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease. Recent studies have revealed that PINK1 is an essential factor for controlling mitochondrial quality, and that it protects cells from oxidative stresses. Although there has been considerable progress in the elucidation of various aspects of PINK1 protein regulation such as activation, stability and degradation, the transcriptional regulation of PINK1 mRNA under stress conditions remains unclear. In this study, we found that nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), an antioxidant transcription factor, regulates PINK1 expression under oxidative stress conditions. Damaged mitochondria arising from stress conditions induced NRF2-dependent transcription of the PINK1 gene through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Either an ROS scavenger or forced expression of KEAP1, a potent inhibitory partner to NRF2, restricted PINK1 expression induced by activated NRF2. Transcriptionally up-regulated PINK1 diminished oxidative stress-associated cell death. The results indicate that PINK1 expression is positively regulated by NRF2 and that the NRF2-PINK1 signaling axis is deeply involved in cell survival. PMID:26555609

  14. A case report of pink breast milk.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jenny; Crete, Joan; Neumeier, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A woman presented for her postpartum examination alarmed about pink stains on her breast pads and on her infant's burp pads and diapers. The stains were also found in her breast pump and the infant's bottles. Out of concern, she stopped breastfeeding. The diagnosis was colonization of mother and infant with Serratia marcescens. They were managed conservatively without antibiotics. The mother was guided to restart breastfeeding. The infant resumed nursing and continued to thrive. PMID:25141908

  15. Dorsal hump morphology in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Susuki, Kenta; Ichimura, Masaki; Koshino, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Takagi, Yasuaki; Adachi, Shinji; Kudo, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) develop a dorsal hump, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. Previous gross anatomical studies have indicated that the dorsal humps of salmon are mainly composed of cartilaginous tissue (Davidson [1935] J Morphol 57:169-183.) However, the histological and biochemical characteristics of such humps are poorly understood. In this study, the detailed microstructures and components of the dorsal humps of pink salmon were analyzed using histochemical techniques and electrophoresis. In mature males, free interneural spines and neural spines were located in a line near to the median septum of the dorsal hump. No cartilaginous tissue was detected within the dorsal hump. Fibrous and mucous connective tissues were mainly found in three regions of the dorsal hump: i) the median septum, ii) the distal region, and iii) the crescent-shaped region. Both the median septum and distal region consisted of connective tissue with a high water content, which contained elastic fibers and hyaluronic acid. It was also demonstrated that the lipid content of the dorsal hump connective tissue was markedly decreased in the mature males compared with the immature and maturing males. Although, the crescent-shaped region of the hump consisted of connective tissue, it did not contain elastic fibers, hyaluronic acid, or lipids. In an ultrastructural examination, it was found that all of the connective tissues in the dorsal hump were composed of collagen fibers. Gel electrophoresis of collagen extracts from these tissues found that the collagen in the dorsal hump is composed of Type I collagen, as is the case in salmon skin. These results indicate that in male pink salmon the dorsal hump is formed as a result of an increase in the amount of connective tissue, rather than cartilage, and the growth of free interneural spines and neural spines. PMID:24323872

  16. Tom70 Is Essential for PINK1 Import into Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Doron; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    PTEN induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase in the outer membrane of mitochondria (OMM), and known as a responsible gene of Parkinson's disease (PD). The precursor of PINK1 is synthesized in the cytosol and then imported into the mitochondria via the translocase of the OMM (TOM) complex. However, a large part of PINK1 import mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined using cell-free system the mechanism by which PINK1 is targeted to and assembled into mitochondria. Surprisingly, the main component of the import channel, Tom40 was not necessary for PINK1 import. Furthermore, we revealed that the import receptor Tom70 is essential for PINK1 import. In addition, we observed that although PINK1 has predicted mitochondrial targeting signal, it was not processed by the mitochondrial processing peptidase. Thus, our results suggest that PINK1 is imported into mitochondria by a unique pathway that is independent of the TOM core complex but crucially depends on the import receptor Tom70. PMID:23472196

  17. Potential roles of PINK1 for increased PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and their associations with Alzheimer disease and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joungil; Ravipati, Avinash; Nimmagadda, Vamshi; Schubert, Manfred; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Russell, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Down-regulation of PINK1 and PGC-1α proteins is implicated in both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress potentially linking metabolic abnormality and neurodegeneration. Here, we report that PGC-1α and PINK1 expression is markedly decreased in Alzheimer disease (AD) and diabetic brains. We observed a significant down-regulation of PGC-1α and PINK1 protein expression in H2O2-treated cells but not in those cells treated with N-acetyl cysteine. The protein levels of two key enzymes of the mitochondrial β-oxidation machinery, acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, very long chain (ACADVL) and mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme subunit α are significantly decreased in AD and diabetic brains. Moreover, we observed a positive relationship between ACADVL and 64 kDa PINK1 protein levels in AD and diabetic brains. Overexpression of PGC-1α decreases lipid-droplet accumulation and increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation; down-regulation of PINK1 abolishes these effects. Together, these results provide new insights into potential cooperative roles of PINK1 and PGC-1α in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, suggesting possible regulatory roles for mitochondrial function in the pathogenesis of AD and diabetes. PMID:25260493

  18. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between odd-and even-broodyear pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gharrett, A.J.; Smoker, W.W.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Taylor, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fewer F2 hybrids between even- and odd-broodline pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which are lines that are genetically isolated by their strict two-year life cycle, survived than did F2 controls, indicating outbreeding depression. Cryopreserved sperm of 40 broodyear 1990 males and of 40 broodyear 1991 males fertilized equal subsamples of eggs from 40 broodyear 1992 females. Return rates of F1 hybrids (1.73%) and controls (1.63%) in 1994 did not differ significantly (P=0.30). F2 hybrid and control crosses were made from 40 males and 40 females selected at random from each return group. Offspring were differentially marked and released. In 1996, returns differed significantly (P=0.011) between hybrids (n=34, 0.34%) and controls (n=44, 0.42%). The low rate of return of the control fish was similar to the measured return of a much larger group of tagged Auke Creek pink salmon, and probably not an artifact of the experiment. Although no increase in fluctuating asymmetry of paired meristic counts was observed in either F1or F2 hybrids, size and some meristic counts of hybrids exceed measurements of controls, suggesting heterosis for those traits. The observations of decreased survival in F2 hybrids confirm previous work [Gharrett, A.J., Smoker, W.W., 1991. Two generations of hybrids between even- and odd-year pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(9) 1744–1749]. Although genetic divergence between pink salmon broodlines is large and outbreeding depression might be expected in such unlikely hybrids, the results document the occurrence of outbreeding depression in salmon and signal caution in making management and aquacultural decisions that may create the possibility of outbreeding depression in self-sustaining or cultured populations.

  19. Killing effect of peppermint vapor against pink-slime forming microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Nozomi; Sakamoto, Jin; Yoshida, Munehiro; Tsuchido, Tetsuaki

    2015-01-01

    The killing effect of peppermint vapor (PMV) against pink-slime forming microorganisms, Methylobacterium mesophilicum as a bacterium and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa as a yeast, was investigated by the agar vapor assay. In this method, microbial cells were spread over the agar surface exposed to PMV in a petri dish, and then transferred into a recovery liquid. When 60μl of the peppermint liquid was added to a paper disc, a marked killing effect of PMV was observed after 48h against M. mesophilicum and after 168h against R. mucilaginosa. M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa were found to be more resistant to PMV than Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, used as reference microorganisms, respectively. With the addition of 0.03% sodium pyruvate as a hydrogen peroxide scavenger in agar, the killing effect of PMV against E. coli and C. albicans was decreased, whereas it was little changed against M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa. In fact, the properties of the killing effect of hydrogen peroxide solution at 0.2-1.0mM was in accord with those of PMV. M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa were more resistant to the oxidant than E. coli and C. albicans, respectively. Results obtained suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved in the killing action of PMV and therefore pink-slime formers are more resistant to PMV than non-pink-slime formers because of the presence of carotenoids as an antioxidant in cells. We also suggest that the use of PMV appeared to be a potential tool for the control of pink-slime forming microorganisms occurring in wet areas of houses such as the bathroom and washing room. PMID:26133506

  20. M81 Galaxy is Pretty in Pink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The perfectly picturesque spiral galaxy known as Messier 81, or M81, looks sharp in this new composite from NASA's Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes and NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. M81 is a 'grand design' spiral galaxy, which means its elegant arms curl all the way down into its center. It is located about 12 million light-years away in the Ursa Major constellation and is one of the brightest galaxies that can be seen from Earth through telescopes.

    The colors in this picture represent a trio of light wavelengths: blue is ultraviolet light captured by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer; yellowish white is visible light seen by Hubble; and red is infrared light detected by Spitzer. The blue areas show the hottest, youngest stars, while the reddish-pink denotes lanes of dust that line the spiral arms. The orange center is made up of older stars.

  1. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  2. Short Mitochondrial ARF Triggers Parkin/PINK1-dependent Mitophagy*

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Karl; Kontogiannea, Maria; Fon, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Multiple genes have been associated with PD, including Parkin and PINK1. Recent studies have established that the Parkin and PINK1 proteins function in a common mitochondrial quality control pathway, whereby disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential leads to PINK1 stabilization at the mitochondrial outer surface. PINK1 accumulation leads to Parkin recruitment from the cytosol, which in turn promotes the degradation of the damaged mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy). Most studies characterizing PINK1/Parkin mitophagy have relied on high concentrations of chemical uncouplers to trigger mitochondrial depolarization, a stimulus that has been difficult to adapt to neuronal systems and one unlikely to faithfully model the mitochondrial damage that occurs in PD. Here, we report that the short mitochondrial isoform of ARF (smARF), previously identified as an alternate translation product of the tumor suppressor p19ARF, depolarizes mitochondria and promotes mitophagy in a Parkin/PINK1-dependent manner, both in cell lines and in neurons. The work positions smARF upstream of PINK1 and Parkin and demonstrates that mitophagy can be triggered by intrinsic signaling cascades. PMID:25217637

  3. Field Longevity of a Fluorescent Protein Marker in an Engineered Strain of the Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)

    PubMed Central

    Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Phillips, Caroline E.; Young, Robin; Zink, Richard T.; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The cotton pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)), is a significant pest in most cotton-growing areas around the world. In southwestern USA and northern Mexico, pink bollworm is the target of the sterile insect technique (SIT), which relies on the mass-release of sterile pink bollworm adults to over-flood the wild population and thereby reduce it over time. Sterile moths reared for release are currently marked with a dye provided in their larval diet. There are concerns, however, that this marker fails from time to time, leading to sterile moths being misidentified in monitoring traps as wild moths. This can lead to expensive reactionary releases of sterile moths. We have developed a genetically marked strain that is engineered to express a fluorescent protein, DsRed2, which is easily screened under a specialised microscope. In order to test this marker under field conditions, we placed wild-type and genetically marked moths on traps and placed them in field cages. The moths were then screened, in a double-blind fashion, for DsRed2 fluorescence at regular intervals to determine marker reliability over time. The marker was shown to be robust in very high temperatures and generally proved reliable for a week or longer. More importantly, genotyping of moths on traps by PCR screening of the moths was 100% correct. Our findings indicate that this strain - and fluorescent protein markers in general - could make a valuable contribution to SIT. PMID:22693645

  4. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  5. The kinase domain of mitochondrial PINK1 faces the cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chun; Huang, Yong; Shao, Yufang; May, Jessica; Prou, Delphine; Perier, Celine; Dauer, William; Schon, Eric A.; Przedborski, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are a cause of autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Efforts in deducing the PINK1 signaling pathway have been hindered by controversy around its subcellular and submitochondrial localization and the authenticity of its reported substrates. We show here that this mitochondrial protein exhibits a topology in which the kinase domain faces the cytoplasm and the N-terminal tail is inside the mitochondria. Although deletion of the transmembrane domain disrupts this topology, common PD-linked PINK1 mutations do not. These results are critical in rectifying the location and orientation of PINK1 in mitochondria, and they should help decipher its normal physiological function and potential pathogenic role in PD. PMID:18687899

  6. Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  7. Evidence for size-selective mortality after the first summer of ocean growth by pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Myers, K.W.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Pink salmon Onchorhynchus gorbuscha with identifiable thermal otolith marks from Prince William Sound hatchery release groups during 2001 were used to test the hypothesis that faster-growing fish during their first summer in the ocean had higher survival rates than slower-growing fish. Marked juvenile pink salmon were sampled monthly in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska, and adults that survived to maturity were recovered at hatchery release sites the following year. Surviving fish exhibited significantly wider circuli spacing on the region of the scale formed during early marine residence than did juveniles collected at sea during their first ocean summer, indicating that marine survival after the first growing season was related to increases in early marine growth. At the same circuli, a significantly larger average scale radius for returning adults than for juveniles from the same hatchery would suggest that larger, faster-growing juveniles had a higher survival rate and that significant size-selective mortality occurred after the juveniles were sampled. Growth patterns inferred from intercirculi spacing on scales varied among hatchery release groups, suggesting that density-dependent processes differed among release groups and occurred across Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska. These observations support other studies that have found that larger, faster-growing fish are more likely to survive until maturity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  8. Stretch Marks

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes that can go with bodybuilding. People who use steroid-containing skin creams or ointments (such as hydrocortisone) for more than a few weeks may also get stretch marks. So might people who have to ... surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual ...

  9. Loss of PINK1 Increases the Heart's Vulnerability to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Siddall, Hilary K.; Yellon, Derek M.; Ong, Sang-Bing; Mukherjee, Uma A.; Burke, Niall; Hall, Andrew R.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H. R.; Deas, Emma; Davidson, Sean M.; Mocanu, Mihaela M.; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Mutations in PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1) induce mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson’s disease. Although PINK1 is present in the heart its exact role there is unclear. We hypothesized that PINK1 protects the heart against acute ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods and Results Over-expressing PINK1 in HL-1 cardiac cells reduced cell death following simulated IRI (29.2±5.2% PINK1 versus 49.0±2.4% control; N = 320 cells/group P<0.05), and delayed the onset of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening (by 1.3 fold; P<0.05). Hearts excised from PINK1+/+, PINK1+/− and PINK1−/− mice were subjected to 35 minutes regional ischemia followed by 30 minutes reperfusion. Interestingly, myocardial infarct size was increased in PINK1−/− hearts compared to PINK1+/+ hearts with an intermediate infarct size in PINK1+/− hearts (25.1±2.0% PINK1+/+, 38.9±3.4% PINK1+/− versus 51.5±4.3% PINK1−/− hearts; N>5 animals/group; P<0.05). Cardiomyocytes isolated from PINK1−/− hearts had a lower resting mitochondrial membrane potential, had inhibited mitochondrial respiration, generated more oxidative stress during simulated IRI, and underwent rigor contracture more rapidly in response to an uncoupler when compared to PINK1+/+ cells suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction in hearts deficient in PINK1. Conclusions We show that the loss of PINK1 increases the heart's vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury. This may be due, in part, to increased mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings implicate PINK1 as a novel target for cardioprotection. PMID:23638067

  10. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martínez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan MF; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul MK

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser65)—which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)—and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65. How Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser65 by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, thereby promoting Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser65. Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser65 in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65. Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65, leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser65-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, which could aid in the development of Parkin activators that mimic the effect of

  11. Sediment dispersal pattern in the Bay of Bengal - evidence for commencement of Bengal Fan sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. S.; Ismaiel, M.; Karlapati, S.; Gopala Rao, D.; Mishra, J.; D, S.

    2015-12-01

    The sediment succession in the Bay of Bengal records signatures corresponding to India-Asia collision, regional climate, and erosional processes of the Himalayan orogeny and the Indian subcontinent. The Bengal Fan - world's largest submarine fan - has been long studied to understand the link between the Himalayan tectonics and Asian monsoon climate, but early phase information of the Himalaya erosion is not retrieved from the Indian Ocean due to lack of deep-core samples. Therefore, the missing corresponding signals hampered the understanding of coupled processes between tectonics, climate and erosion. Seismic reflection profiles and industrial drill wells from the western Bay of Bengal show two different modes of sediment deposition: initially Indian peninsular rivers discharged sediments to the ocean at a rate ~20 m/m.y. until Oligocene-Miocene time (~23 Ma) with the exception of two fairly-enhanced sediment pulses from 65 to 54 and again from 34 to 23 Ma; since 23 Ma the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers added huge volumes of sediments to the bay with variable rates range from 40 to >1000 m/m.y. Using seismic stratigraphic technique we found a distinct increase in sediment discharge (~140 m/m.y.) at 23 Ma is an important age marker for the onset of Bengal Fan sedimentation as a coupled connection between the Himalayan tectonics and Asian climate. Further rise in sedimentation rate during the period 6.8 - 0.8 Ma is surprisingly not in agreement with the decrease in sediment rate reported at ODP Leg 116 sites in the distal Bengal Fan, but coincident with the change in monsoon intensity. Here we provide well constrained ages for the growth of the Bengal Fan, which can serve as benchmark for interactions between the Himalayan exhumation and Asian climate.

  12. Polar Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02155 Polar Markings

    These bright and dark markings occurred near the end of summer in the south polar region. The dark material is likely dust that has been freed of frost cover.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -76.3N, Longitude 84.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  14. PINK1 deficiency enhances autophagy and mitophagy induction

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Martin-Cano, Francisco E; González-Soltero, María E; Tandon, Anurag; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with poorly understood etiology. Increasing evidence suggests that age-dependent compromise of the maintenance of mitochondrial function is a key risk factor. Several proteins encoded by PD-related genes are associated with mitochondria including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which was first identified as a gene that is upregulated by PTEN. Loss-of-function PINK1 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction and, ultimately, neuronal cell death. To mitigate the negative effects of altered cellular functions cells possess a degradation mechanism called autophagy for recycling damaged components; selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy is termed mitophagy. Our study indicates that autophagy and mitophagy are upregulated in PINK1-deficient cells, and is the first report to demonstrate efficient fluxes by one-step analysis. We propose that autophagy is induced to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of non-regulated mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27308585

  15. PINK1 deficiency enhances autophagy and mitophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Martin-Cano, Francisco E; González-Soltero, María E; Tandon, Anurag; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with poorly understood etiology. Increasing evidence suggests that age-dependent compromise of the maintenance of mitochondrial function is a key risk factor. Several proteins encoded by PD-related genes are associated with mitochondria including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which was first identified as a gene that is upregulated by PTEN. Loss-of-function PINK1 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction and, ultimately, neuronal cell death. To mitigate the negative effects of altered cellular functions cells possess a degradation mechanism called autophagy for recycling damaged components; selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy is termed mitophagy. Our study indicates that autophagy and mitophagy are upregulated in PINK1-deficient cells, and is the first report to demonstrate efficient fluxes by one-step analysis. We propose that autophagy is induced to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of non-regulated mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27308585

  16. Parkin and PINK1: much more than mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Scarffe, Leslie A; Stevens, Daniel A; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes a debilitating movement disorder. Although most cases of PD appear to be sporadic, rare Mendelian forms have provided tremendous insight into disease pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired mitochondria underpin PD pathology. In support of this theory, data from multiple PD models have linked Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, two recessive PD genes, in a common pathway impacting mitochondrial health, prompting a flurry of research to identify their mitochondrial targets. Recent work has focused on the role of PINK1 and parkin in mediating mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy); however, emerging evidence casts parkin and PINK1 as key players in multiple domains of mitochondrial health and quality control. PMID:24735649

  17. IR-stimulated visible fluorescence in pink and brown diamond.

    PubMed

    Byrne, K S; Chapman, J G; Luiten, A N

    2014-03-19

    Irradiation of natural pink and brown diamond by middle-ultraviolet light (photon energy ϵ ≥ 4.1 eV ) is seen to induce anomalous fluorescence phenomena at N3 defect centres (structure N3-V). When diamonds primed in this fashion are subsequently exposed to infrared light (even with a delay of many hours), a transient burst of blue N3 fluorescence is observed. The dependence of this IR-triggered fluorescence on pump wavelength and intensity suggest that this fluorescence phenomena is intrinsically related to pink diamond photochromism. An energy transfer process between N3 defects and other defect species can account for both the UV-induced fluorescence intensity changes, and the apparent optical upconversion of IR light. From this standpoint, we consider the implications of this N3 fluorescence behaviour for the current understanding of pink diamond photochromism kinetics. PMID:24589842

  18. Parkin and PINK1: Much More than Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Scarffe, Leslie A.; Stevens, Daniel A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes a debilitating movement disorder. While most cases of PD appear to be sporadic, rare Mendelian forms have provided tremendous insight into disease pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired mitochondria underpin PD pathology. In support of this theory, data from multiple PD models has linked PINK1 and parkin, two recessive PD genes, in a common pathway impacting mitochondrial health, prompting a flurry of research to identify their mitochondrial targets. Recent work has focused on the role of PINK1 and parkin in mediating mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), however, emerging evidence casts parkin and PINK1 as key players in multiple domains of mitochondrial health and quality control. PMID:24735649

  19. Pink noise of ionic conductance through single artificial nanopores revisited.

    PubMed

    Tasserit, C; Koutsioubas, A; Lairez, D; Zalczer, G; Clochard, M-C

    2010-12-31

    We report voltage-clamp measurements through single conical nanopore obtained by chemical etching of a single ion track in polyimide film. Special attention is paid to the pink noise of the ionic current (i.e., 1/f noise) measured with different filling liquids. The relative pink-noise amplitude is almost independent of concentration and pH for KCl solutions, but varies strongly using ionic liquids. In particular, we show that depending on the ionic liquid, the transport of charge carriers is strongly facilitated (low noise and higher conductivity than in the bulk) or jammed. These results show that the origin of the pink noise can be ascribed neither to fluctuations of the pore geometry nor to the pore wall charges, but rather to a cooperative effect on ions motion in confined geometry. PMID:21231637

  20. Paradoxical darkening and removal of pink tattoo ink.

    PubMed

    Kirby, William; Kaur, Ravneet Ruby; Desai, Alpesh

    2010-06-01

    It is widely accepted that Q-switched lasers are the gold-standard treatment for the resolution of unwanted tattoo ink. Although much safer than other tattoo removal modalities, the treatment of tattoo ink with Q-switched devices may be associated with long-term adverse effects including undesired pigmentary alterations such as tattoo ink darkening. Darkening of tattoo ink is most often reported in cosmetic, flesh-toned, white, peach, and pink tattoos. In this paper, we briefly review a case of pink tattoo ink that initially darkened paradoxically but eventually resolved with continued Q-switched laser treatments. PMID:20618561

  1. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy alleviates chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongmei; Deng, Yuanying; Zhang, Jie; Han, Hailong; Zhao, Mingyi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Chen; Tian, Jing; Bing, Guoying; Zhao, Lingling

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphorous insecticides. There are links between CPF exposure and neurological disorders. Mitochondrial damage has been implicated to play a key role in CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Mitophagy, the selective autophagic elimination of mitochondria, is an important mitochondrial quality control mechanism. However, the role of mitophagy in CPF-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, CPF-caused mitochondrial damage, role and mechanism of mitophagy on CPF-induced neuroapoptosis were extensively studied by using SH-SY5Y cells. We showed that CPF treatment caused mitochondrial fragmentation, excessive ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization, thus led to cell apoptosis. Moreover, CPF treatment also resulted in increased colocalizaton of mitochondria with LC3, decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins, PINK1 stabilization and mitochondrial accumulation of Parkin. These data suggested that CPF treatment induced PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Parkin dramatically increased CPF-induced neuroapoptosis. On the other hand, overexpression of Parkin markedly alleviated CPF-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. Together, these findings implicate a protective role of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy against neuroapoptosis and that enhancing mitophagy provides a potential therapeutic strategy for CPF-induced neurological disorders. PMID:26070385

  2. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  3. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  4. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  5. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  6. 75 FR 52364 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis... repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN, that meet the... remains and associated funerary objects from the site. Officials of the Memphis Pink Palace Museum...

  7. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  8. PINK1 protects against oxidative stress by phosphorylating mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease (PD). So far, no substrates of PINK1 have been reported, and the mechanism by which PINK1 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unknown. Here we report the identification of tumor n...

  9. Stabilizing Oils from Smoked Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smoking of meats and fish is one of the earliest preservation technologies developed by humans. In this study, the smoking process was evaluated as a method for reducing oxidation of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) oils and also maintaining the quality of oil in aged fish prior to oil extractio...

  10. Girls, Computers, and "Becoming": "The Pink Voice" Writing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Sarah Jane

    2011-01-01

    Through a feminist content analysis of young women's writing and reflections, this study gives evidence of how a school-based new literacy project shared knowledge in a public voice about the irreducible and complex world of "becoming" a girl. This project, called "The Pink Voice," was conducted in a large urban centre on the West Coast of Canada.…

  11. Motivated to Learn: A Conversation with Daniel Pink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    The author has looked at four decades of scientific research on human motivation and found a mismatch between what science tells us and what organizations actually do. In this interview with "Educational Leadership," Pink shares his insights on how schools can create more optimal conditions for learning--and how they can dial up…

  12. Teaching Social Justice and Encountering Society: The Pink Triangle Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; Stein, Jill M.; Conley, Terri D.

    1999-01-01

    Studied student reflections and responses when they took on a stigmatized role, wearing a pink triangle in support of gay rights. Many of the 103 college students advanced through stages of identity development and moved to more open and positive ways of thinking about others. (SLD)

  13. The effects of racemization rate for age estimation of pink teeth.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ayaka; Saitoh, Hisako; Ishii, Namiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-03-01

    Pink teeth is thought to result from the seepage of hemoglobin caused by dental pulp decomposition. We investigated whether racemization can be applied for age estimation in cases of pink teeth where the whole tooth is used. The pink teeth used were three cases and the normal teeth for control were five mandibular canines of known age. Age of the pink teeth was calculated on the basis of regression formula obtained from the five control teeth. Only a slight error was noted between the actual and estimated ages of the pink teeth (R(2) = 0.980, r = 0.990): Cases 1-3 actually aged 23, 53, and 59 years were estimated to be 26, 52, and 60 years. Based on our results of testing pink teeth of known age, we suggest that racemization techniques allow for the age estimation of pink teeth using the same methods for normally colored teeth. PMID:25684096

  14. The yeast complex I equivalent NADH dehydrogenase rescues pink1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Vilain, Sven; Esposito, Giovanni; Haddad, Dominik; Schaap, Onno; Dobreva, Mariya P; Vos, Melissa; Van Meensel, Stefanie; Morais, Vanessa A; De Strooper, Bart; Verstreken, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Pink1 is a mitochondrial kinase involved in Parkinson's disease, and loss of Pink1 function affects mitochondrial morphology via a pathway involving Parkin and components of the mitochondrial remodeling machinery. Pink1 loss also affects the enzymatic activity of isolated Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC); however, the primary defect in pink1 mutants is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ETC deficiency is upstream of other pink1-associated phenotypes. We expressed Saccaromyces cerevisiae Ndi1p, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex I, or sea squirt Ciona intestinalis AOX, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex III and IV, in pink1 mutant Drosophila and find that expression of Ndi1p, but not of AOX, rescues pink1-associated defects. Likewise, loss of function of subunits that encode for Complex I-associated proteins displays many of the pink1-associated phenotypes, and these defects are rescued by Ndi1p expression. Conversely, expression of Ndi1p fails to rescue any of the parkin mutant phenotypes. Additionally, unlike pink1 mutants, fly parkin mutants do not show reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that Ndi1p acts downstream or parallel to Pink1, but upstream or independent of Parkin. Furthermore, while increasing mitochondrial fission or decreasing mitochondrial fusion rescues mitochondrial morphological defects in pink1 mutants, these manipulations fail to significantly rescue the reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that functional defects observed at the level of Complex I enzymatic activity in pink1 mutant mitochondria do not arise from morphological defects. Our data indicate a central role for Complex I dysfunction in pink1-associated defects, and our genetic analyses with heterologous ETC enzymes suggest that Ndi1p-dependent NADH dehydrogenase activity largely acts downstream of, or in parallel to, Pink1 but upstream of Parkin and mitochondrial remodeling. PMID:22242018

  15. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  16. Arsenic Mobilization from Source Sediments in an Aquifer System of West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Koenig, C. E. M.; Pal, T.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Beckie, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geogenic As contamination of groundwater is an enormous public health problem in West Bengal and neighboring Bangladesh. The source of As and its release mechanisms are investigated at a field site in rural West Bengal where As concentrations up to 531 μg/L are measured in domestic wells. The shallow groundwater system is hosted by sediments deposited in a meandering fluvial environment, a typical setting in the Bengal Delta Plain. A numerical groundwater flow model is developed in order to establish the hydrogeological context for As contamination patterns. Reverse particle tracking is then used to map the flow path from each well screen back to its point of recharge. High-As groundwaters are found to be recharged in ponds marking an abandoned river channel; however, the source of As is located within the underlying channel-fill sediments. Analyses of environmental tracers reveal that As release within these sediments is accompanied by a concomitant release of Br and DOC indicating that these species may be decay products of natural organobromines co-deposited along with As. Mass transfer of As to the dissolved phase and its flushing from source sediments are described using a simplified reactive solute transport model. By fitting this model to observations, a characteristic reaction time for mass transfer is estimated at 6.7 years. With the advent of intensive irrigation pumping, bulk groundwater residence times in the source are estimated to have declined from 16.6 to 6.6 years. The ratio of residence and reaction times, a Damköhler number, has declined correspondingly from 2.49 to 0.99, indicating a shift from transport to reaction rate limited As mobilization. Greater insight into the As problem in Asia may be achieved by switching the focus of field investigations from plumes in aquifers to potential contamination sources in aquitards.

  17. Pink Moon: The petrogenesis of pink spinel anorthosites and implications concerning Mg-suite magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prissel, T. C.; Parman, S. W.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Rutherford, M. J.; Hess, P. C.; Head, J. W.; Cheek, L.; Dhingra, D.; Pieters, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) has identified and characterized a new lunar rock type termed pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) (Pieters et al., 2011). Dominated by anorthitic feldspar and rich in MgAl2O4 spinel, PSA appears to have an unusually low modal abundance of mafic silicates, distinguishing it from known lunar spinel-bearing samples. The interaction between basaltic melts and the lunar crust and/or assimilation of anorthitic plagioclase have been proposed as a possible mechanism for PSA formation (Gross and Treiman, 2011; Prissel et al., 2012). To test these hypotheses, we have performed laboratory experiments exploring magma-wallrock interactions within the lunar crust. Lunar basaltic melts were reacted with anorthite at 1400 °C and pressures between 0.05-1.05 GPa. Results indicate that PSA spinel compositions are best explained via the interaction between Mg-suite parental melts and anorthositic crust. Mare basalts and picritic lunar glasses produce spinels too rich in Fe and Cr to be consistent with the M3 observations. The experiments suggest that PSA represents a new member of the plutonic Mg-suite. If true, PSA can be used as a proxy for spectrally identifying areas of Mg-suite magmatism on the Moon. Moreover, the presence of PSA on both the lunar nearside and farside (Pieters et al., in press) indicates Mg-suite magmatism may have occurred on a global scale. In turn, this implies that KREEP is not required for Mg-suite petrogenesis (as KREEP is constrained to the nearside of the Moon) and is only necessary to explain the chemical make-up of nearside Mg-suite samples.

  18. Visual motion with pink noise induces predation behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Wataru; Watanabe, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Visual motion cues are one of the most important factors for eliciting animal behaviour, including predator-prey interactions in aquatic environments. To understand the elements of motion that cause such selective predation behaviour, we used a virtual plankton system where the predation behaviour in response to computer-generated prey was analysed. First, we performed motion analysis of zooplankton (Daphnia magna) to extract mathematical functions for biologically relevant motions of prey. Next, virtual prey models were programmed on a computer and presented to medaka (Oryzias latipes), which served as predatory fish. Medaka exhibited predation behaviour against several characteristic virtual plankton movements, particularly against a swimming pattern that could be characterised as pink noise motion. Analysing prey-predator interactions via pink noise motion will be an interesting research field in the future. PMID:22355733

  19. Tidal and seasonal effects on transport of pink shrimp postlarvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Transport simulations were conducted to investigate a large seasonal peak in postlarvae of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum that occurs every summer on the northwestern border of Florida Bay. Daily vertical migration, a known behavior in pink shrimp postlarvae, was assumed in all scenarios investigated. A Lagrangian trajectory model was developed using a current field derived from a 3 yr ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) time series. To fit the estimated planktonic development time of pink shrimp, the model simulated larvae traveling at night over a 30 d period. We investigated 2 types of effects: (1) the effect of mismatch periodicity between tidal constituents and daily migration, and (2) the effect of seasonal changes in night length. The maximum eastward displacement with the semidiurnal lunar tidal constituent (M2) was 4 km, with periods of enhanced transport in both summer and winter. In contrast, eastward displacement with the semidiurnal solar tidal constituent (S2) and the lunisolar diurnal K1 was 65 km and the period of maximum distance occurred in summer every year. Because the periods of S2 and K1 are so close to the 24 h vertical migration period, and the eastward current (flood) of these constituents matches the diel cycle over extended intervals, they can induce strong horizontal transport during summer. Thus, diel vertical migration can interact with the S2 and the K1 tidal constituents and with the annual cycle of night length to produce a distinct annual cycle that may enhance transport of pink shrimp and other coastal species during summer in shallow areas of the Gulf of Mexico. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  20. Nitric Oxide Induction of Parkin Translocation in PTEN-induced Putative Kinase 1 (PINK1) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Young; Kang, Min-Ji; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Han, Pyung-Lim; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Ha, Ji-Young; Son, Jin H.

    2015-01-01

    The failure to trigger mitophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of familial Parkinson disease that is caused by PINK1 or Parkin mutations. According to the prevailing PINK1-Parkin signaling model, mitophagy is promoted by the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, an essential PINK1-dependent step that occurs via a previously unknown mechanism. Here we determined that critical concentrations of NO was sufficient to induce the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin even in PINK1 deficiency, with apparent increased interaction of full-length PINK1 accumulated during mitophagy, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Specifically, optimum levels of NO enabled PINK1-null dopaminergic neuronal cells to regain the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, which appeared to be significantly suppressed by nNOS-null mutation. Moreover, nNOS-null mutation resulted in the same mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enzyme deficits as PINK1-null mutation. The involvement of mitochondrial nNOS activation in mitophagy was further confirmed by the greatly increased interactions of full-length PINK1 with nNOS, accompanied by mitochondrial accumulation of phospho-nNOS (Ser1412) during mitophagy. Of great interest is that the L347P PINK1 mutant failed to bind to nNOS. The loss of nNOS phosphorylation and Parkin accumulation on PINK1-deficient mitochondria could be reversed in a PINK1-dependent manner. Finally, non-toxic levels of NO treatment aided in the recovery of PINK1-null dopaminergic neuronal cells from mitochondrial ETC enzyme deficits. In summary, we demonstrated the full-length PINK1-dependent recruitment of nNOS, its activation in the induction of Parkin translocation, and the feasibility of NO-based pharmacotherapy for defective mitophagy and ETC enzyme deficits in Parkinson disease. PMID:25716315

  1. Dopamine-dependent CB1 receptor dysfunction at corticostriatal synapses in homozygous PINK1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Madeo, G; Schirinzi, T; Maltese, M; Martella, G; Rapino, C; Fezza, F; Mastrangelo, N; Bonsi, P; Maccarrone, M; Pisani, A

    2016-02-01

    Recessive mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the interaction between endocannabinoid (eCB) and dopaminergic transmission at corticostriatal synapses in PINK1 deficient mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp and conventional recordings of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were made from slices of PINK1(-/-), heterozygous PINK1(+/-) mice and wild-type littermates (PINK1(+/+)). In PINK1(+/+) mice, CB1 receptor (CB1R) activation reduced spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Likewise, CB1R agonists (ACEA, WIN55,212-3 and HU210) induced a dose-dependent reduction of cortically-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potential (eEPSP) amplitude. While CB1R agonists retained their inhibitory effect in heterozygous PINK1(+/-) mice, conversely, in PINK1(-/-) mice they failed to modulate sEPSC amplitude. Similarly, CB1R activation failed to reduce eEPSP amplitude in PINK1(-/-) mice. Parallel biochemical measurements revealed no significant difference in the levels of the two main eCBs, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) in PINK1(-/-) striata. Similarly, no change was observed in the enzymatic activity of both fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), responsible for eCB hydrolysis. Instead, a significant reduction of binding ability of CB1R agonists was found in PINK1(-/-) mice. Notably, the CB1R-dependent inhibition of synaptic activity was restored either by amphetamine or after chronic treatment with the D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole. Additionally, CB1R binding activity returned to control levels after chronic pretreatment with quinpirole. Consistent with the hypothesis of a close interplay with dopaminergic neurotransmission, our findings show a CB1R dysfunction at corticostriatal synapses in PINK1(-/-), but not in PINK1(+/-) mice, and provide a mechanistic link to the distinct plasticity deficits observed in both genotypes. PMID

  2. Cycles, stochasticity and density dependence in pink salmon population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Hilborn, Ray; Peterman, Randall M; Quinn, Thomas P

    2011-07-01

    Complex dynamics of animal populations often involve deterministic and stochastic components. A fascinating example is the variation in magnitude of 2-year cycles in abundances of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) stocks along the North Pacific rim. Pink salmon have a 2-year anadromous and semelparous life cycle, resulting in odd- and even-year lineages that occupy the same habitats but are reproductively isolated in time. One lineage is often much more abundant than the other in a given river, and there are phase switches in dominance between odd- and even-year lines. In some regions, the weak line is absent and in others both lines are abundant. Our analysis of 33 stocks indicates that these patterns probably result from stochastic perturbations of damped oscillations owing to density-dependent mortality caused by interactions between lineages. Possible mechanisms are cannibalism, disease transmission, food depletion and habitat degradation by which one lineage affects the other, although no mechanism has been well-studied. Our results provide comprehensive empirical estimates of lagged density-dependent mortality in salmon populations and suggest that a combination of stochasticity and density dependence drives cyclical dynamics of pink salmon stocks. PMID:21147806

  3. Palaeosol Control of Arsenic Pollution: The Bengal Basin in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, U; Sikdar, P K; McArthur, J M

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in the Bengal Basin is badly polluted by arsenic (As) which adversely affects human health. To provide low-As groundwater for As mitigation, it was sought across 235 km(2) of central West Bengal, in the western part of the basin. By drilling 76 boreholes and chemical analysis of 535 water wells, groundwater with <10 µg/L As in shallow aquifers was found under one-third of a study area. The groundwater is in late Pleistocene palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of weathered brown sand that are capped by a palaeosol of red clay. The aquifers form two N-S trending lineaments that are bounded on the east by an As-polluted deep palaeo-channel aquifer and separated by a shallower palaeo-channel aquifer. The depth to the top of the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers is mostly between 35 and 38 m below ground level (mbgl). The palaeo-interfluvial aquifers are overlain by shallow palaeo-channel aquifers of gray sand in which groundwater is usually As-polluted. The palaeosol now protects the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers from downward migration of As-polluted groundwater in overlying shallow palaeo-channel aquifers. The depth to the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of 35 to 38 mbgl makes the cost of their exploitation affordable to most of the rural poor of West Bengal, who can install a well cheaply to depths up to 60 mbgl. The protection against pollution afforded by the palaeosol means that the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers will provide a long-term source of low-As groundwater to mitigate As pollution of groundwater in the shallower, heavily used, palaeo-channel aquifers. This option for mitigation is cheap to employ and instantly available. PMID:25099955

  4. PINK1 disables the anti-fission machinery to segregate damaged mitochondria for mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Pryde, Kenneth R; Smith, Heather L; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2016-04-25

    Mitochondrial fission is essential for the degradation of damaged mitochondria. It is currently unknown how the dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-associated fission machinery is selectively targeted to segregate damaged mitochondria. We show that PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1) serves as a pro-fission signal, independently of Parkin. Normally, the scaffold protein AKAP1 recruits protein kinase A (PKA) to the outer mitochondrial membrane to phospho-inhibit DRP1. We reveal that after damage, PINK1 triggers PKA displacement from A-kinase anchoring protein 1. By ejecting PKA, PINK1 ensures the requisite fission of damaged mitochondria for organelle degradation. We propose that PINK1 functions as a master mitophagy regulator by activating Parkin and DRP1 in response to damage. We confirm that PINK1 mutations causing Parkinson disease interfere with the orchestration of selective fission and mitophagy by PINK1. PMID:27091447

  5. PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Lesley A.; Lazarou, Michael; Fogel, Adam I.; Li, Yan; Yamano, Koji; Sarraf, Shireen A.; Banerjee, Soojay

    2014-01-01

    PINK1 kinase activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to induce selective autophagy of damaged mitochondria. However, it has been unclear how PINK1 activates and recruits Parkin to mitochondria. Although PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin, other PINK1 substrates appear to activate Parkin, as the mutation of all serine and threonine residues conserved between Drosophila and human, including Parkin S65, did not wholly impair Parkin translocation to mitochondria. Using mass spectrometry, we discovered that endogenous PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin at serine 65, homologous to the site phosphorylated by PINK1 in Parkin’s ubiquitin-like domain. Recombinant TcPINK1 directly phosphorylated ubiquitin and phospho-ubiquitin activated Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in cell-free assays. In cells, the phosphomimetic ubiquitin mutant S65D bound and activated Parkin. Furthermore, expression of ubiquitin S65A, a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PINK1, inhibited Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. These results explain a feed-forward mechanism of PINK1-mediated initiation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. PMID:24751536

  6. PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Kane, Lesley A; Lazarou, Michael; Fogel, Adam I; Li, Yan; Yamano, Koji; Sarraf, Shireen A; Banerjee, Soojay; Youle, Richard J

    2014-04-28

    PINK1 kinase activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to induce selective autophagy of damaged mitochondria. However, it has been unclear how PINK1 activates and recruits Parkin to mitochondria. Although PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin, other PINK1 substrates appear to activate Parkin, as the mutation of all serine and threonine residues conserved between Drosophila and human, including Parkin S65, did not wholly impair Parkin translocation to mitochondria. Using mass spectrometry, we discovered that endogenous PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin at serine 65, homologous to the site phosphorylated by PINK1 in Parkin's ubiquitin-like domain. Recombinant TcPINK1 directly phosphorylated ubiquitin and phospho-ubiquitin activated Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in cell-free assays. In cells, the phosphomimetic ubiquitin mutant S65D bound and activated Parkin. Furthermore, expression of ubiquitin S65A, a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PINK1, inhibited Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. These results explain a feed-forward mechanism of PINK1-mediated initiation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. PMID:24751536

  7. A Dimeric PINK1-containing Complex on Depolarized Mitochondria Stimulates Parkin Recruitment*

    PubMed Central

    Okatsu, Kei; Uno, Midori; Koyano, Fumika; Go, Etsu; Kimura, Mayumi; Oka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Parkinsonism typified by sporadic Parkinson disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1), a mitochondrial Ser/Thr protein kinase, or PARKIN, a ubiquitin-protein ligase, cause familial parkinsonism. The accumulation and autophosphorylation of PINK1 on damaged mitochondria results in the recruitment of Parkin, which ultimately triggers quarantine and/or degradation of the damaged mitochondria by the proteasome and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanism of PINK1 in dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) has not been fully elucidated. Here we show by fluorescence-based techniques that the PINK1 complex formed following a decrease in ΔΨm is composed of two PINK1 molecules and is correlated with intermolecular phosphorylation of PINK1. Disruption of complex formation by the PINK1 S402A mutation weakened Parkin recruitment onto depolarized mitochondria. The most disease-relevant mutations of PINK1 inhibit the complex formation. Taken together, these results suggest that formation of the complex containing dyadic PINK1 is an important step for Parkin recruitment onto damaged mitochondria. PMID:24189060

  8. Population control programme in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K V

    1996-01-01

    Population size doubled over the period 1947-81 and continues to grow. Such a rapid increase in population size has serious repercussions upon socioeconomic development. Population growth threatens to nullify efforts to improve the condition of the poor. Indeed, all gains in the field of agriculture, industry, and national income look marginal when measured in per capita terms. The family welfare program seeks to promote, on a voluntary basis, responsible and planned parenthood of a two-child norm devoid of any bias for or against the sex of a given child. Use of the mass media and interpersonal communication to explain various methods of contraception and remove sociocultural barriers has led to an increase in the number of family planning acceptors in recent years. However, despite the family welfare program being in operation for four decades, population continues to grow at an alarming rate. It is clear that program strategy and mode of implementation must be reviewed. The state government of West Bengal is determined to implement the family welfare program effectively through the motivation and education of married couples, while making various types of contraceptive services available to the people. PMID:12347749

  9. The classical pink-eyed dilution mutation affects angiogenic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael S; Boyartchuk, Victor; Rohan, Richard M; Birsner, Amy E; Dietrich, William F; D'Amato, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis. PMID:22615734

  10. P-Ink displays: flexible, low power, reflective color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Andre C.; Wang, Hai; Henderson, Eric; Kerins, Fergal; Kamp, Ulrich; Da Silva Bonifacio, Leonardo; Law, Pak Hin; Ozin, Geoffrey A.

    2013-03-01

    Opalux's P-Ink material represents a revolutionary step forward in display technology, offering the ability to reflect bright and vivid colors spanning the visible spectrum. By applying low power electric pulses, the color of this Photonic Color-based material can be selected at will, with the resulting electrically bi-stable color states requiring no power to maintain. It can be coated onto rigid and flexible substrates in scale, highlighting its potential to drive the development of bendable form factors for displays.

  11. [Salmon-pink colored conjunctival tumor with amyloid deposits].

    PubMed

    Müller, P L; Loeffler, K U; Holz, F G; Fischer, H-P; Herwig, M C

    2016-07-01

    An 82-year-old male patient presented with a salmon-pink colored conjunctival tumor of the left eye. A circumscribed, dense and whitish portion was detected by clinical examination. The histophological and immunhistochemical examination of the biopsy tissue revealed a CD20+ marginal zone lymphoma of the conjunctiva with amyloid deposits. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma at this site is the most common lymphoma of the ocular adnexa and accounts for 5-10% of malignant diseases. An association with amyloid production is very rare and according to the current state of knowledge has no known impact on the outcome. PMID:26362570

  12. Pink topaz from the Thomas Range, Juab County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Chirnside, W.; Lichte, F.E.; Briggs, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Thomas Range is world-famous for its production of topaz Al2SiO4(F,OH)2, occurring in lithophysal cavities in rhyolite. Topaz Valley, at the southern end of the range, is perhaps the single most famous locality. While fine-quality, sherry-orange crystals to 5 cm or more in length occur at various localities, pale to medium pink crystals were first reported from the Thomas Range in 1934. The cause of the unusual coloration, unknown for 60 years, is now believed to be substitution of Mn3+ ?? Fe3+ for Al3+. -Authors

  13. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  14. EVALUATION OF THE ULTRAVIOLET-OZONE AND ULTRAVIOLET-OXIDANT TREATMENT OF PINK WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pink water, a solution of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other nitrobodies, is a major pollutant at ammunition plants engaged either in the manufacture of TNT or in the loading, assembly, and packing of bombs and shells. As an alternative to carbon adsorption for the treatment of pink...

  15. Shades of Pink: Preschoolers Make Meaning in a Reggio-Inspired Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Shades of Pink study describes how six preschoolers and their teacher engaged in a collaborative learning project through which they learned about the shades of a color--in this case, pink. As the children learned through experimenting and discussing their theories, they represented ideas using art as a tool for discovery and learning. The study…

  16. [CK2beta promotes Pink1/Parkin-mediated MIRO1 degradation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenliang; Qin, Siyue; Jiang, Chang'an

    2014-12-01

    PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a Parkinson's disease (PD)-related protein, has two isoforms, the mitochondria-localized full-length isoform PINK1FL and the cytoplasm-localized short isoform PINK1-cyto. Studies have suggested that PINK1FL can selectively accumulate at the surface of damaged mitochondria and cooperate with another Parkinson's Disease-related protein PARKIN to trigger the degradation of MIRO1, a mitochondria trafficking regulator. The functions of PINK1-cyto are, however, not yet clear. To investigate the functions of PINK1-cyto, we expressed different proteins in cultured HEK293 cells by transfecting it with different plasmids, and detected the protein levels by Western blot after expressing for 24 h. We found that in cultured HEK293 cells, PINK1-cyto could also cooperate with PARKIN degrade MIRO1 in the presence of CK23, and the regulatory subunit of Casein Kinase II. Interestingly, this function of CK2P was not dependent on CK2alpha, the catalytic subunit of Casein Kinase II. We also found that CK2P could promote the direct interaction between PINK1-cyto and MIRO1 by immunocoprecipitation analysis. This result suggested that in addition to CK2alpha, CK2beta could also form a kinase complex. PMID:25868250

  17. Unconventional PINK1 localization to the outer membrane of depolarized mitochondria drives Parkin recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Okatsu, Kei; Kimura, Mayumi; Oka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dysfunction of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a Ser/Thr kinase with an N-terminal mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS), causes familial recessive parkinsonism. Reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential limits MTS-mediated matrix import and promotes PINK1 accumulation on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) of depolarized mitochondria. PINK1 then undergoes autophosphorylation and phosphorylates ubiquitin and Parkin, a cytosolic ubiquitin ligase, for clearance of damaged mitochondria. The molecular basis for PINK1 localization on the OMM of depolarized mitochondria rather than release to the cytosol is poorly understood. Here, we disentangle the PINK1 localization mechanism using deletion mutants and a newly established constitutively active PINK1 mutant. Disruption of the MTS through N-terminal insertion of aspartic acid residues results in OMM localization of PINK1 in energized mitochondria. Unexpectedly, the MTS and putative transmembrane domain (TMD) are dispensable for OMM localization, whereas mitochondrial translocase Tom40 (also known as TOMM40) and an alternative mitochondrial localization signal that resides between the MTS and TMD are required. PINK1 utilizes a mitochondrial localization mechanism that is distinct from that of conventional MTS proteins and that presumably functions in conjunction with the Tom complex in OMM localization when the conventional N-terminal MTS is inhibited. PMID:25609704

  18. Responses of pink salmon to CO2-induced aquatic acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Michelle; Hamilton, Trevor J.; Eom, Junho; Lyall, Emily M.; Gallup, Joshua; Jiang, Amy; Lee, Jason; Close, David A.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification negatively affects many marine species and is predicted to cause widespread changes to marine ecosystems. Similarly, freshwater ecosystems may potentially be affected by climate-change-related acidification; however, this has received far less attention. Freshwater fish represent 40% of all fishes, and salmon, which rear and spawn in freshwater, are of immense ecosystem, economical and cultural importance. In this study, we investigate the impacts of CO2-induced acidification during the development of pink salmon, in freshwater and following early seawater entry. At this critical and sensitive life stage, we show dose-dependent reductions in growth, yolk-to-tissue conversion and maximal O2 uptake capacity; as well as significant alterations in olfactory responses, anti-predator behaviour and anxiety under projected future increases in CO2 levels. These data indicate that future populations of pink salmon may be at risk without mitigation and highlight the need for further studies on the impact of CO2-induced acidification on freshwater systems.

  19. Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Its historical center reflects most of their culture and history, especially of the colonial period; in fact, it was appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry (the most used building stone in Morelia) are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti.

  20. PINK1 and Parkin Target Miro for Phosphorylation and Degradation to Arrest Mitochondrial Motility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinnan; Winter, Dominic; Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; Schlehe, Julia; Wong, Yao Liang; Selkoe, Dennis; Rice, Sarah; Steen, Judith; LaVoie, Matthew J.; Schwarz, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Cells keep their energy balance and avoid oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial movement, distribution, and clearance. We report here that two Parkinson’s disease proteins, the Ser/Thr-kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin-ligase Parkin, participate in this regulation by arresting mitochondrial movement. PINK1 phosphorylates Miro, a component of the primary motor/adaptor complex that anchors kinesin to the mitochondrial surface. The phosphorylation of Miro activates proteasomal degradation of Miro in a Parkin-dependent manner. Removal of Miro from the mitochondrion also detaches kinesin from its surface. By preventing mitochondrial movement, the PINK1/Parkin pathway may quarantine damaged mitochondria prior to their clearance. PINK1 has been shown to act upstream of Parkin but the mechanism corresponding to this relationship has not been known. We propose that PINK1 phosphorylation of substrates triggers the subsequent action of Parkin and the proteasome. PMID:22078885

  1. PINK1 and Parkin target Miro for phosphorylation and degradation to arrest mitochondrial motility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinnan; Winter, Dominic; Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; Schlehe, Julia; Wong, Yao Liang; Selkoe, Dennis; Rice, Sarah; Steen, Judith; LaVoie, Matthew J; Schwarz, Thomas L

    2011-11-11

    Cells keep their energy balance and avoid oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial movement, distribution, and clearance. We report here that two Parkinson's disease proteins, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin ligase Parkin, participate in this regulation by arresting mitochondrial movement. PINK1 phosphorylates Miro, a component of the primary motor/adaptor complex that anchors kinesin to the mitochondrial surface. The phosphorylation of Miro activates proteasomal degradation of Miro in a Parkin-dependent manner. Removal of Miro from the mitochondrion also detaches kinesin from its surface. By preventing mitochondrial movement, the PINK1/Parkin pathway may quarantine damaged mitochondria prior to their clearance. PINK1 has been shown to act upstream of Parkin, but the mechanism corresponding to this relationship has not been known. We propose that PINK1 phosphorylation of substrates triggers the subsequent action of Parkin and the proteasome. PMID:22078885

  2. Sedimentology and arsenic pollution in the Bengal Basin: insight into arsenic occurrence and subsurface geology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Andrew; McArthur, John

    2014-05-01

    The Bengal delta system is a geologically recent feature overlying a deeply incised palaeo-surface formed during the Last Glacial Maximum. This surface is a series of terraces and valleys created by river incision (Goodbred & Kuehl 2003). The terraces were weathered, forming a thin, indurated laterite deposit (Goodbred & Kuehl 2000) at depths greater than 50 m. McArthur et al. (2008) define this as a palaeosol and have identified it at depths greater than 30 m though out Bangladesh and West Bengal. It has been observed that arsenic concentrations at these sites are lower than the rest of the delta. It has been assumed that the surface morphology at sites where there is a palaeosol are similar and can therefore be characterised by remote sensing, in the form of Google Earth images. Sites were selected in Bangladesh and West Bengal, from work by McArthur et al. (2011); Hoque et al. (2012), where groundwater chemistry and sedimentology data are available making it possible to determine if the subsurface is a palaeo-channel or palaeo-interfluve. Arsenic concentration data have been inputted into Google Earth and the palaeo-channels marked where the arsenic concentration is greater than 10 µg/L, and palaeo-interfluves where arsenic concentration is less than 10 µg/L. The surface morphologies in these domains have been examined for similarities, and it was shown that avulsion scars and abandoned river channels are found where arsenic concentrations are greater than 10 µg/L. Conversely the surrounding areas that are devoid of channel scars have arsenic concentrations less than 10 µg/L. Using the correlation between avulsion features being representative of palaeo-channels and high arsenic concentrations, sites were selected that had a similar surface morphology to the type localities. A comparison of these images and arsenic concentrations showed that the postulate is valid for over 80 percent of cases. Where this is not valid, this could indicate that the subsurface

  3. Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E.; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24 h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3 h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

  4. Exposure to low-dose rotenone precipitates synaptic plasticity alterations in PINK1 heterozygous knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Martella, G; Madeo, G; Maltese, M; Vanni, V; Puglisi, F; Ferraro, E; Schirinzi, T; Valente, E M; Bonanni, L; Shen, J; Mandolesi, G; Mercuri, N B; Bonsi, P; Pisani, A

    2016-07-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the PINK1 gene are considered a susceptibility factor to develop early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), as supported by dopamine hypometabolism in asymptomatic mutation carriers and subtle alterations of dopamine-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knockout (PINK1(+/-)) mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to low-dose rotenone of heterozygous PINK1(+/-) mice, compared to their wild-type PINK1(+/+) littermates, could impact on dopamine-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity, in the absence of apparent structural alterations. Mice were exposed to a range of concentrations of rotenone (0.01-1mg/kg). Chronic treatment with concentrations of rotenone up to 0.8mg/kg did not cause manifest neuronal loss or changes in ATP levels both in the striatum or substantia nigra of PINK1(+/-) and PINK1(+/+) mice. Moreover, rotenone (up to 0.8mg/kg) treatment did not induce mislocalization of the mitochondrial membrane protein Tom20 and release of cytochrome c in PINK1(+/-) striata. Accordingly, basic electrophysiological properties of nigral dopaminergic and striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were normal. Despite the lack of gross alterations in neuronal viability in chronically-treated PINK1(+/-), a complete loss of both long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) was recorded in MSNs from PINK1(+/-) mice treated with a low rotenone (0.1mg/kg) concentration. Even lower concentrations (0.01mg/kg) blocked LTP induction in heterozygous PINK1(+/-) MSNs compared to PINK1(+/+) mice. Of interest, chronic pretreatment with the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and Trolox, a water-soluble analog of vitamin E and powerful antioxidant, rescued synaptic plasticity impairment, confirming that, at the doses we utilized, rotenone did not induce irreversible alterations. In this model, chronic exposure to low-doses of rotenone was not sufficient to alter mitochondrial integrity and ATP production, but

  5. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is attempting to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used in crop identification. The status of each field is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground surveys taken at the time of each ERTS-1 overflight. Correlation has been to date 100%. A computer analysis will be performed to compare field status with the crop calendar in order to identify crops. Correlation is expected to be 80 to 90%. Cotton fields, because of their state regulated season which is exactly coincident with no other crop, are expected to be easily identified.

  6. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    PubMed

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases. PMID:25654945

  7. On Your Marks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines the application of field, rink, track, and court markings and explains why the use of proper materials and some knowledge of science is important. Specific issues when using marking paints and dyes are addressed. (GR)

  8. PINK1 positively regulates HDAC3 to suppress dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo-Kyoung; Choi, Youngsok; Kang, HeeBum; Lim, Eun-Jin; Park, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Seob; Park, Ji-Min; Moon, Jisook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Choi, Insup; Joe, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2015-02-15

    Deciphering the molecular basis of neuronal cell death is a central issue in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Dysregulation of p53 levels has been implicated in neuronal apoptosis. The role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in suppressing p53-dependent apoptosis has been recently emphasized; however, the molecular basis of modulation of p53 function by HDAC3 remains unclear. Here we show that PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which is linked to autosomal recessive early-onset familial Parkinson's disease, phosphorylates HDAC3 at Ser-424 to enhance its HDAC activity in a neural cell-specific manner. PINK1 prevents H2O2-induced C-terminal cleavage of HDAC3 via phosphorylation of HDAC3 at Ser-424, which is reversed by protein phosphatase 4c. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of HDAC3 enhances its direct association with p53 and causes subsequent hypoacetylation of p53. Genetic deletion of PINK1 partly impaired the suppressive role of HDAC3 in regulating p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. However, depletion of HDAC3 fully abolished the PINK1-mediated p53 inhibitory loop. Finally, ectopic expression of phosphomometic-HDAC3(S424E) substantially overcomes the defective action of PINK1 against oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Together, our results uncovered a mechanism by which PINK1-HDAC3 network mediates p53 inhibitory loop in response to oxidative stress-induced damage. PMID:25305081

  9. Mitochondrial Parkin recruitment is impaired in neurons derived from mutant PINK1 iPS cells

    PubMed Central

    Seibler, Philip; Graziotto, John; Jeong, Hyun; Simunovic, Filip; Klein, Christine; Krainc, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Genetic Parkinson disease (PD) has been associated with mutations in PINK1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial kinase implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial degradation. While the studies so far examined PINK1 function in non-neuronal systems or through PINK1 knockdown approaches, there is an imperative to examine the role of endogenous PINK1 in appropriate human-derived and biologically relevant cell models. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from skin fibroblasts taken from three PD patients with nonsense (c.1366C>T; p.Q456X) or missense mutations (c.509T>G; p.V170G) in the PINK1 gene. These cells were differentiated into dopaminergic neurons that upon mitochondrial depolarization showed impaired recruitment of lentivirally expressed Parkin to mitochondria, increased mitochondrial copy number and upregulation of PGC-1α, an important regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Importantly, these alterations were corrected by lentiviral expression of wild-type PINK1 in mutant iPS cell-derived PINK1 neurons. In conclusion, our studies suggest that fibroblasts from genetic PD can be reprogrammed and differentiated into neurons. These neurons exhibit distinct phenotypes that should be amenable to further mechanistic studies in this relevant biological context. PMID:21508222

  10. Impaired dopamine release and synaptic plasticity in the striatum of PINK1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Tohru; Pisani, Antonio; Porter, Douglas R; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Tscherter, Anne; Martella, Giuseppina; Bonsi, Paola; Zhang, Chen; Pothos, Emmanuel N; Shen, Jie

    2007-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective vulnerability of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic circuit. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene have been linked to early-onset PD. How PINK1 deficiency causes dopaminergic dysfunction and degeneration in PD patients is unknown. Here, we investigate the physiological role of PINK1 in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic circuit through the generation and multidisciplinary analysis of PINK1(-/-) mutant mice. We found that numbers of dopaminergic neurons and levels of striatal dopamine (DA) and DA receptors are unchanged in PINK1(-/-) mice. Amperometric recordings, however, revealed decreases in evoked DA release in striatal slices and reductions in the quantal size and release frequency of catecholamine in dissociated chromaffin cells. Intracellular recordings of striatal medium spiny neurons, the major dopaminergic target, showed specific impairments of corticostriatal long-term potentiation and long-term depression in PINK1(-/-) mice. Consistent with a decrease in evoked DA release, these striatal plasticity impairments could be rescued by either DA receptor agonists or agents that increase DA release, such as amphetamine or l-dopa. These results reveal a critical role for PINK1 in DA release and striatal synaptic plasticity in the nigrostriatal circuit and suggest that altered dopaminergic physiology may be a pathogenic precursor to nigrostriatal degeneration. PMID:17563363

  11. Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Pontus; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Motori, Elisa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Schnorrer, Frank; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Klein, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its signaling receptor Ret are neuroprotective in toxin-based animal models of PD. However, the mechanism by which GDNF/Ret protects cells from degenerating remains unclear. We investigated whether the Drosophila homolog of Ret can rescue Pink1 and park mutant phenotypes. We report that a signaling active version of Ret (RetMEN2B) rescues muscle degeneration, disintegration of mitochondria and ATP content of Pink1 mutants. Interestingly, corresponding phenotypes of park mutants were not rescued, suggesting that the phenotypes of Pink1 and park mutants have partially different origins. In human neuroblastoma cells, GDNF treatment rescues morphological defects of PINK1 knockdown, without inducing mitophagy or Parkin recruitment. GDNF also rescues bioenergetic deficits of PINK knockdown cells. Furthermore, overexpression of RetMEN2B significantly improves electron transport chain complex I function in Pink1 mutant Drosophila. These results provide a novel mechanism underlying Ret-mediated cell protection in a situation relevant for human PD. PMID:24473149

  12. Histochemical Characterization of Oocytes in the Pink Cuskeel (Genypterus blacodes).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stefanía; Petcoff, Gladys; Freijo, Roberto O; Portiansky, Enrique L; Barbeito, Claudio G; Macchi, Gustavo J; Díaz, Alcira O

    2015-08-01

    In the present study we histochemically and lectinhistochemically characterized the growing oocytes of the pink cuskeel (Genypterus blacodes). We used histochemical methods for the localization and characterization of glycoconjugates (GCs) and lectin histochemical techniques for the identification of specific sugar residues. We analyzed presence and distribution of GCs in the different structures of the growing follicles (cortical alveoli, globules, yolk granules and zona radiata). During the initial stage of vitellogenesis, the oocytes presented small yolk granules composed of GCs that gradually increased during exogenous vitellogenesis. These GCs contained moderate quantities of α-D-mannose, D-glucose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. The cortical alveoli contained both neutral and carboxylated GCs, and lectin techniques detected N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose and L-fucose. The zona radiata showed a strong positive reaction to PAS and it reacted weakly with more specific techniques, such as KOH/PA*S and PA/Bh/KOH/PAS. This structure showed GCs with oxidizable vicinal diols, O-acyl sugars and sialic acid residues with different substitution types and presented N-acetylgalactosamine and L-fucose specific residues. The oocytes follicular envelope evidenced neutral and acidic non-sulfated GCs and high concentrations of α-D-mannose, D-glucose, galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine. The intergranular cytoplasmic GCs were mainly rich in α-D-mannose, D-glucose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. These results enhance the comprehension of the structure and functionality of the pink cuskeel ovarian follicles, and provide a useful tool for the study of this tissue in other teleost species. PMID:26245226

  13. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  14. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  15. [Double ricochet marks].

    PubMed

    Sellier, K

    1987-01-01

    When bullets are flying stably and ricochet on a surface, only one mark is produced. In contrast yawing bullets can produce a double mark if the angle of incidence is sufficiently small (less than or equal to 5 degrees). Distances up to 15 cm were seen between the two marks. PMID:3660953

  16. Novel P-TEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) variant in Indian Parkinson's disease patient.

    PubMed

    Halder, Tamali; Raj, Janak; Sharma, Vivek; Das, Parimal

    2015-09-25

    Loss-of-function mutation in PINK1 is known for causing autosomal recessive early onset Parkinsonism accounting approximately 6.5% of PD cases. Recently, PINK1 has also been shown to cause Parkinson's disease (PD) in eastern India. Present study is aimed to see its contribution in north-Indian PD patients. A total of 106 PD patients and 60 ethnically matched healthy controls were included in the study. All the patients were screened for mutation in PINK1 by direct DNA sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons covering all exons and exon-intron boundaries. Identified novel variant was reconfirmed by DNA sequencing of 10 randomly selected TA clones containing the variant amplicon. In vitro functional assay of the mutant protein was performed by transfecting COS-7 cell line with wild type and mutant (created by site-directed-mutagenesis) cDNA construct of PINK1 fused to N' terminal GFP followed by western blot analysis. Two potentially pathogenic, one being novel (p.Q267X) and 6 other apparently non-pathogenic variants were identified. Western blot analysis reveals production of truncated PINK1 fusion protein of ∼55kDa in p.Q267X mutant instead of 82/93kDa of wild type PINK1 fusion protein (molecular weight of GFP is ∼27kDa). Our study concludes that PINK1 variants are prevalent for causing Parkinson's disease (PD) in India, as revealed by the occurrence of 1.8% (2/106) in PD patients from north Indian population. The novel homozygous variant of PINK1 (c.799C>T) reported here is the plausible cause for disease manifestation in this patient. Future study, however, would be helpful to understand the functional mechanism how this premature PINK1 protein (p.Q267X) responds to cellular stress leading to the PD pathophysiology. PMID:26282903

  17. The mouse pink-eyed dilution allele of the P-gene greatly inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2011-02-01

    The mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) locus is known to control eumelanin synthesis, melanosome morphology, and tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. However, it has not been fully determined whether the mutant allele, p affects pheomelanin synthesis. Effects of the p allele on eumelanin and phemelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice obtained from the F(2) generations (black, pink-eyed black, recessive yellow, pink-eyed recessive yellow, agouti, and pink-eyed agouti) between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-congenic pink-eyed black mice (B10-p/p) and recessive yellow (B10-Mc1r(e)/Mc1r(e)) or agouti (B10-A/A) mice. The eumelanin content was dramatically (>20-fold) decreased in pink-eyed black and pink-eyed agouti mice, whereas the pheomelanin content did not decrease in pink-eyed black, pink-eyed recessive yellow, or pink-eyed agouti mice compared to the corresponding P/- mice. These results suggest that the pink-eyed dilution allele greatly inhibits eumelanin synthesis, but not pheomelanin synthesis. PMID:21232027

  18. PINK1 loss-of-function mutations affect mitochondrial complex I activity via NdufA10 ubiquinone uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Morais, Vanessa A; Haddad, Dominik; Craessaerts, Katleen; De Bock, Pieter-Jan; Swerts, Jef; Vilain, Sven; Aerts, Liesbeth; Overbergh, Lut; Grünewald, Anne; Seibler, Philip; Klein, Christine; Gevaert, Kris; Verstreken, Patrik; De Strooper, Bart

    2014-04-11

    Under resting conditions, Pink1 knockout cells and cells derived from patients with PINK1 mutations display a loss of mitochondrial complex I reductive activity, causing a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Analyzing the phosphoproteome of complex I in liver and brain from Pink1(-/-) mice, we found specific loss of phosphorylation of serine-250 in complex I subunit NdufA10. Phosphorylation of serine-250 was needed for ubiquinone reduction by complex I. Phosphomimetic NdufA10 reversed Pink1 deficits in mouse knockout cells and rescued mitochondrial depolarization and synaptic transmission defects in pink(B9)-null mutant Drosophila. Complex I deficits and adenosine triphosphate synthesis were also rescued in cells derived from PINK1 patients. Thus, this evolutionary conserved pathway may contribute to the pathogenic cascade that eventually leads to Parkinson's disease in patients with PINK1 mutations. PMID:24652937

  19. Characterization of pUCD5000 involved in pink disease color formation by Pantoea citrea.

    PubMed

    Pujol, C J; Kado, C I

    1998-09-01

    Pantoea citrea, the causal agent of pink disease of pineapple, harbors a cryptic plasmid of 5229 bp. designated pUCD5000. On the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses, pUCD5000 contains both replication and mobilization loci (bom and mobCABD) that are similar to those in plasmids pSW100 and pSW200 in Pantoea stewartii and pEC3 in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. The survival of P. citrea on pineapple does not depend on pUCD5000. However, full pink coloration development, which is characteristic of the pink disease, appears to require this plasmid. PMID:9735319

  20. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) of pink teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, N.; Watanabe, G.; Harada, A.; Suzuki, T.

    1988-11-01

    Samples of postmortem pink teeth were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fracture surfaces of the dentin in pink teeth were noticeably rough and revealed many more smaller dentinal tubules than those of the control white teeth. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed that the pink teeth contained iron which seemed to be derived from blood hemoglobin. The present study confirms that under the same circumstance red coloration of teeth may occur more easily in the teeth in which the dentin is less compact and contains more dentinal tubules.

  1. Mitochondrial Quality Control Mediated by PINK1 and Parkin: Links to Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Derek; Walker, John E.; Youle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in Parkin or PINK1 are the most common cause of recessive familial parkinsonism. Recent studies suggest that PINK1 and Parkin form a mitochondria quality control pathway that identifies dysfunctional mitochondria, isolates them from the mitochondrial network, and promotes their degradation by autophagy. In this pathway the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 senses mitochondrial fidelity and recruits Parkin selectively to mitochondria that lose membrane potential. Parkin, an E3 ligase, subsequently ubiquitinates outer mitochondrial membrane proteins, notably the mitofusins and Miro, and induces autophagic elimination of the impaired organelles. Here we review the recent rapid progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of PINK1- and Parkin-mediated mitophagy and the identification of Parkin substrates suggesting how mitochondrial fission and trafficking are involved. We also discuss how defects in mitophagy may be linked to Parkinson's disease. PMID:23125018

  2. Insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of pink bollworm resistance to Cry toxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) toxins target key insect pests in cotton and corn cropping systems. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is currently the target of an area-wide eradication progra...

  3. Parkin and PINK1 function in a vesicular trafficking pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control

    PubMed Central

    McLelland, Gian-Luca; Soubannier, Vincent; Chen, Carol X; McBride, Heidi M; Fon, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin and PINK1, two genes associated with familial PD, have been implicated in the degradation of depolarized mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy). Here, we describe the involvement of parkin and PINK1 in a vesicular pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control. This pathway is distinct from canonical mitophagy and is triggered by the generation of oxidative stress from within mitochondria. Wild-type but not PD-linked mutant parkin supports the biogenesis of a population of mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs), which bud off mitochondria and contain a specific repertoire of cargo proteins. These MDVs require PINK1 expression and ultimately target to lysosomes for degradation. We hypothesize that loss of this parkin- and PINK1-dependent trafficking mechanism impairs the ability of mitochondria to selectively degrade oxidized and damaged proteins leading, over time, to the mitochondrial dysfunction noted in PD. PMID:24446486

  4. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Malick, Michael J; Cox, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Reysenbach, A.L.; Wickham, G.S.; Pace, N.R.

    1994-06-01

    This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  7. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  8. In Vitro Comparison of the Activity Requirements and Substrate Specificity of Human and Triboleum castaneum PINK1 Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Liesbeth; Craessaerts, Katleen; De Strooper, Bart; Morais, Vanessa A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 cause early-onset familial Parkinson’s disease. To understand the biological function of PINK1 and its role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease, it is useful to study its kinase activity towards substrates both in vivo and in vitro. For in vitro kinase assays, a purified Triboleum castaneum PINK1 insect orthologue is often employed, because it displays higher levels of activity when compared to human PINK1. We show, however, that the activity requirements, and more importantly the substrate specificity, differ between both orthologues. While Triboleum castaneum PINK1 readily phosphorylates the PINKtide peptide and Histone H1 in vitro, neither of these non-physiological substrates is phosphorylated by human PINK1. Nonetheless, both Tc and human PINK1 phosphorylate Parkin and Ubiquitin, two physiological substrates of PINK1. Our results show that the substrate selectivity differs among PINK1 orthologues, an important consideration that should be taken into account when extrapolating findings back to human PINK1. PMID:26784449

  9. PINK1 Is a Negative Regulator of Growth and the Warburg Effect in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Golbourn, Brian; Huang, Xi; Remke, Marc; Younger, Susan; Cairns, Rob A; Chalil, Alan; Smith, Christian A; Krumholtz, Stacey-Lynn; Mackenzie, Danielle; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taccone, Michael S; Mischel, Paul S; Fuller, Gregory N; Hawkins, Cynthia; Stanford, William L; Taylor, Michael D; Zadeh, Gelareh; Rutka, James T

    2016-08-15

    Proliferating cancer cells are characterized by high rates of glycolysis, lactate production, and altered mitochondrial metabolism. This metabolic reprogramming provides important metabolites for proliferation of tumor cells, including glioblastoma. These biological processes, however, generate oxidative stress that must be balanced through detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using an unbiased retroviral loss-of-function screen in nontransformed human astrocytes, we demonstrate that mitochondrial PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a regulator of the Warburg effect and negative regulator of glioblastoma growth. We report that loss of PINK1 contributes to the Warburg effect through ROS-dependent stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1A and reduced pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 activity, both key regulators of aerobic glycolysis. Mechanistically, PINK1 suppresses ROS and tumor growth through FOXO3a, a master regulator of oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase 2. These findings highlight the importance of PINK1 and ROS balance in normal and tumor cells. PINK1 loss was observed in a significant number of human brain tumors including glioblastoma (n > 900) and correlated with poor patient survival. PINK1 overexpression attenuates in vivo glioblastoma growth in orthotopic mouse xenograft models and a transgenic glioblastoma model in Drosophila Cancer Res; 76(16); 4708-19. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27325644

  10. Mitochondrial membrane potential regulates PINK1 import and proteolytic destabilization by PARL.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seok Min; Lazarou, Michael; Wang, Chunxin; Kane, Lesley A; Narendra, Derek P; Youle, Richard J

    2010-11-29

    PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase mutated in some familial cases of Parkinson's disease. It has been found to work in the same pathway as the E3 ligase Parkin in the maintenance of flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and to recruit cytosolic Parkin to mitochondria to mediate mitophagy in mammalian cells. Although PINK1 has a predicted mitochondrial import sequence, its cellular and submitochondrial localization remains unclear in part because it is rapidly degraded. In this study, we report that the mitochondrial inner membrane rhomboid protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) mediates cleavage of PINK1 dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential. In the absence of PARL, the constitutive degradation of PINK1 is inhibited, stabilizing a 60-kD form inside mitochondria. When mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated, PINK1 accumulates as a 63-kD full-length form on the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it can recruit Parkin to impaired mitochondria. Thus, differential localization to the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes appears to regulate PINK1 stability and function. PMID:21115803

  11. Mitochondrial membrane potential regulates PINK1 import and proteolytic destabilization by PARL

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seok Min; Lazarou, Michael; Wang, Chunxin; Kane, Lesley A.; Narendra, Derek P.

    2010-01-01

    PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase mutated in some familial cases of Parkinson’s disease. It has been found to work in the same pathway as the E3 ligase Parkin in the maintenance of flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and to recruit cytosolic Parkin to mitochondria to mediate mitophagy in mammalian cells. Although PINK1 has a predicted mitochondrial import sequence, its cellular and submitochondrial localization remains unclear in part because it is rapidly degraded. In this study, we report that the mitochondrial inner membrane rhomboid protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) mediates cleavage of PINK1 dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential. In the absence of PARL, the constitutive degradation of PINK1 is inhibited, stabilizing a 60-kD form inside mitochondria. When mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated, PINK1 accumulates as a 63-kD full-length form on the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it can recruit Parkin to impaired mitochondria. Thus, differential localization to the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes appears to regulate PINK1 stability and function. PMID:21115803

  12. Sedimentary Controls on Foraminifera Distribution in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz-Endres, T.; Fox, L. R.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Dekens, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 354 drilled sites in the Bay of Bengal to improve our understanding of the links between tectonics, monsoon strength, and oceanographic conditions. The Bengal Fan contains complex depositional environments, which vary from thick sequences of turbidites and levee sediments that reflects channel activity, to intervals of hemipelagic calcareous clay. Foraminifera are commonly used to reconstruct past oceanographic conditions, but the complex depositional environments raises the possibility that foraminifera in the cores were transported from the northern Bay of Bengal through turbidity currents, rather than settling out from the overlying water column. The goal of the project is to determine if foraminifera in the modern sediments at IODP Exp 354 sites record the overlying water column conditions or water conditions of the northern Bay of Bengal. Today sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) has a larger seasonal range in the northern bay (3.0 psu and 5ᵒC, respectively) compared to Exp 354 core sites at 8ᵒN (0.7 psu and 1.4ᵒC, respectively). We present Mg/Ca and d18O data of individual Globigerinoides ruber or sacculifer in the mud-line samples of site U1454 (8.4ᵒN, 85.5ᵒE, 3721 m water depth), which is near the modern active channel, and site U1449 (8.4ᵒN, 88.7ᵒE, 3653 m water depth), which is farthest from the active channel. Because foraminifera live ~2-4 weeks, each analysis reflects a short period of time. Taken together, the distribution of 75 to 100 data points will reflect the seasonal SST and SSS range where the foraminifera calcified. Given the spatial variability of seasonality in the Bay of Bengal, a broader distribution of the data would reflect the larger SSS and SST range of the northern bay, while a narrower data distribution would reflect the much smaller SSS and SST range at the Exp 354 location. If foraminifera at both sites reflect local surface water conditions we can be more confident in applying

  13. Red, purple and pink: the colors of diffusion on pinterest.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work-e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  14. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  15. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  16. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  17. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups: photographing femininity after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Regehr, Kaitlyn

    2012-01-01

    Many treatments for breast cancer are traumatic, invasive and harshly visible. In addition to physical trauma, breast cancer is often associated with a variety of psychosocial issues surrounding romantic relationships, sexuality and feminine identity. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups was a pin-up girl calendar wherein all the models were women who were living with, or had survived, breast cancer. The project's purpose was to raise funds and awareness for breast cancer research and to create a space where survivors could explore and express their post-cancer sexuality. This study uses an observational approach, paired with semi-structured interviews, to explore the ways that breast cancer survivors perceive their post-cancer body and the subsequent impact on relationships and feminine identity. By examining contemporary discussions regarding breast cancer, body image and the objectification of women, it is concluded that although this photographic approach may be at odds with some modern breast cancer activism, it does appear to meet the expressed needs of a particular group of women living with the disease. PMID:22624706

  18. Red, Purple and Pink: The Colors of Diffusion on Pinterest

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work—e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  19. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  20. Rediscovery of the 8th Natural Wonder of the World: The Pink and White Terraces' survival of the 1886 Tarawera Rift eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, C. E.; Fornari, D. J.; Ferrini, V.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Walker, S. L.; Scott, B. J.; Leybourne, M. I.; Pittari, A.; Keam, R. F.; Lupton, J. E.; Mazot, A.; Kukulya, A.; Littlefield, R.; Immenga, D.; Stagpoole, V.; Timm, C.; Berthelsen, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    On June 10, 1886, Mt. Tarawera in the rhyolitic Okataina Volcanic Centre of the central North Island, New Zealand, erupted in spectacular fashion. Basaltic eruptions at Tarawera produced tall eruption columns, while hydrothermal and phreatomagmatic eruptions at Rotomahana excavated the pre-1886 Lake Rotomahana site, which later filled to form a new lake up to 125 m deep and ~5 x larger than its predecessor. The Pink and White Terraces, which were the world's largest silica aprons and buttresses, had formed as a result of discharging thermal waters and deposition of silica on the margins of the pre-1886 lake, and were believed destroyed during the 1886 eruption. The post-eruption landscape was scarred by eruption craters with the largest marking the foci of the phreatomagmatic eruption, which blanketed the area with 10s of m of mud. A combined ~250 line km survey of Lake Rotomahana was conducted using two REMUS 100 AUVs simultaneously mapping with multibeam and sidescan sonar. Also fitted were a magnetometer, minature plume recorders (LSS, Eh, temperature, depth) and pH sensors. Surface vessels conducted magnetic surveys (110 line km), CO2 flux measurements (420 sites), deployed a CTD and Niksin bottles for water properties and sampling (14 stations), and a camera over sites (12) of known venting and/or where the sidescan showed evidence for the terraces. New bathymetric data clearly shows the en-echelon rift of 1886 in the center of the lake and identifies some pre-1886 shoreline. When combined with sidescan sonar images, several of the basal layers of the Pink Terraces were found very near their original, pre-eruption locations. Underwater photographs reveal buttresses of several tiers. Magnetic data show a pronounced positive anomaly in the southern part of the lake, associated with older lavas, and a distinct negative anomaly associated with the Pink Terraces, marking the boundaries of the pre-1886 geothermal field. Bubble plumes recorded during the magnetic

  1. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  2. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  3. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  4. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  5. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  6. PINK1 regulates histone H3 trimethylation and gene expression by interaction with the polycomb protein EED/WAIT1

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Arnaud; Jiménez-Sáinz, Judit; Pulido, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are associated to early-onset recessive forms of Parkinson disease. PINK1 function is related to mitochondria homeostasis, but the molecular pathways in which PINK1 is involved are largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of the embryonic ectoderm development polycomb histone-methylation modulator (EED/WAIT1) as a PINK1-interacting and -regulated protein. The PINK1:EED/WAIT1 physical interaction was mediated by the PINK1 kinase domain and the EED/WAIT1 40 amino acid ending with tryptophan and aspartate (WD40)-repeat region, and PINK1 phosphorylated EED/WAIT1 in vitro. PINK1 associated with EED/WAIT1 in cells and relocated EED/WAIT1 to the mitochondria. This interaction reduced the trimethylation of lysine 27 from histone H3, which affected polycomb-regulated gene transcription during RA differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our findings unveil a pathway by which PINK1 regulates histone methylation and gene expression through the polycomb repressor complex. PMID:23959866

  7. Ames Fellows Award - Mark

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Hans Mark is a leading expert in the fields of aerospace design and national defense policy. From 1969 to 1977, he served as Director of the NASA Ames Research Center. During his tenure, Ames b...

  8. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, Akira; SUGIYAMA, Makoto; HONDO, Eiichi; KINOSHITA, Keiji; YAMAGISHI, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2p-cas (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2p-cas usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2p-cas revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging. PMID:25739360

  9. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Makoto; Hondo, Eiichi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Yamagishi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2(p-cas) (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2(p-cas) usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2(p-cas) revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging. PMID:25739360

  10. Bengal arsenic, an archive of Himalaya orogeny and paleohydrology.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Stephane; Charlet, Laurent

    2007-10-01

    Holocene groundwater in many districts of the West Bengal and parts of Bangladesh are enriched in arsenic enhancing poisoning effect on humans. One of the main problems to depict the source of arsenic is that this element is very mobile and can be easily removed and recombined from the source during alteration processes, transport and mobilization in sediments. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system mainly contributed to the buildup of the Bengal fan, which is considered one of the largest modern deltas of the world, then the possible source of the As has probably to be search within the Himalayan belt. We propose that the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone dominated by arc-related rocks and more particularly by large volume of serpentinites enriched in arsenic could be one of the primary source of arsenic. The fact that, the present day arsenic concentration in the main Himalayan river, and particularly the Siang-Brahmaputra river system is not so high as expected can be explained by strong aridic conditions present day prevailing in the Indus-Suture zone and do not favored the weathering of serpentinites into As rich-smectite and Fe-hydroxydes. For the Ganga basin, the original source of arsenic has to be search in the weathering of arc related rocks in the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone followed by its intermediate storage into the sediments of the Siwalik foreland basin, playing the role of arsenic reservoir from Miocene to Pleistocene. Intense tectonic activity in the front of the Himalayan belt associated with high rainfall conditions during the Holocene allowed the arsenic to be remobilized and transported toward the Bay of Bengal. PMID:17952779

  11. Post cyclone spiral eddy in the Bay of Bengal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, N.; Rao, K. H.; Ramana, I. V.; Rao, M. V.; Anjaneyuluy, Y.

    Bay of Bengal is a semi enclosed tropical ocean basin that is highly influenced by monsoonal winds and receives large volumes of fresh water from both river discharge and rainfall Bay of Bengal experiences southwest monsoon during June -- September and Northeast monsoon during November to February This is a region which experiences right from depression to super cyclone Rainfall and fresh river water discharge the upper layers leading to the formation the strong stratified surface layer and there by restricting the turbulent wind driven mixing Prasanna kumar et al 2002 We identified the formation of spiral eddy diameter 300 Km after the passage of Tropical Super Cyclone 05B 25 Oct -- 30 Oct 1999 in the Bay of Bengal Spiral eddy of high Chlorophyll is observed in the chlorophyll image derived from IRS-P4 OCM Satellite data At location where the maximum wind speed was 140 Knots cyclone induced circular currents sustained for 3 weeks after passage of cyclone which were responsible for formation of the spiral eddy Surprisingly phytoplankton chlorophyll-a bloom was not seen along the cyclone track as earlier studies revealed Fuentes-Yaco et al 1997 Nayak et al 2001 Subrahmanyam et al 2002 Zedler et al 2002 Lin et al 2003 McKinnon et al 2003 Vinaychandran and Mathew 2003 Babin et al 2004 The reason could be the strong stratified layer 60 m present in the central BOB But we observed chlorophyll-a bloom near the coast where less wind speeds 35 Knots were present This could be because of shallow 10 m

  12. Photochemical Thrombosis Of Retinal And Choroidal Vessels Using Rose Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Mary Lou; Winward, Kirk; Watson, Brant D.; Hernandez, Eleut

    1989-09-01

    Rose bengal is an effective photosensitizing agent which interacts with argon green light to induce photochemical thrombosis of irradiated vessels. We used focal, low energy irradiation to occlude retinal and choroidal vessels in both albino and pigmented rabbits. Immediately after intravenous injection of rose bengal at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/kg, irradiation was performed via a slit lamp-delivered argon green laser (514.5 nm) with the aid of fundus contact lens. In 11 eyes, arteries were treated with 50-100 interrupted bursts of 75u spot size at 0.2 sec and 40-100 mW (9 bengal, demonstrated no evidence of thermal injury.

  13. ATM mediates spermidine-induced mitophagy via PINK1 and Parkin regulation in human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yongmei; Qiu, Qian; Gu, Xueyan; Tian, Yihong; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-01-01

    The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) protein has recently been proposed to play critical roles in the response to mitochondrial dysfunction by initiating mitophagy. Here, we have used ATM-proficient GM00637 cells and ATM-deficient GM05849 cells to investigate the mitophagic effect of spermidine and to elucidate the role of ATM in spermdine-induced mitophagy. Our results indicate that spermidine induces mitophagy by eliciting mitochondrial depolarization, which triggers the formation of mitophagosomes and mitolysosomes, thereby promoting the accumulation of PINK1 and translocation of Parkin to damaged mitochondria, finally leading to the decreased mitochondrial mass in GM00637 cells. However, in GM05849 cells or GM00637 cells pretreated with the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933, the expression of full-length PINK1 and the translocation of Parkin are blocked, and the colocalization of Parkin with either LC3 or PINK1 is disrupted. These results suggest that ATM drives the initiation of the mitophagic cascade. Our study demonstrates that spermidine induces mitophagy through ATM-dependent activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These findings underscore the importance of a mitophagy regulatory network of ATM and PINK1/Parkin and elucidate a novel mechanism by which ATM influences spermidine-induced mitophagy. PMID:27089984

  14. Structures and reactions of compounds involved in pink discolouration of onion.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masahiro; Kamoi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Sakurai, Nozomu; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Imai, Shinsuke

    2013-08-15

    In "pinking" of onion, E-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide is first cleaved by alliinase to yield colour developers (CDs), which react with amino acids, such as valine, to form pigment precursors (PPs). The PPs react with naturally occurring carbonyls (NOCs) to form pigments. By inducing a PP from previously isolated cepathiolanes and L-valine, it was confirmed that cepathiolanes constitute at least a part of the CDs. From the PP and formaldehyde as a NOC, two colourless and two pink compounds were derived. The structure of one of the colourless compounds was established as 2-(2-(1-(1-carboxy-2-methylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-3-methylbutanoic acid. The structures of the other colourless compound and the pink pigments were predicted based on their molecular formula and the MS(n) spectral data. A trimeric pigment structure was predicted for one of the pink pigments, which was believed to be the first to be reported in the literature. With these, a new reaction scheme for "pinking" of onion is proposed. PMID:23561186

  15. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Mitofusin-mediated ER stress triggers neurodegeneration in pink1/parkin models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Celardo, I; Costa, A C; Lehmann, S; Jones, C; Wood, N; Mencacci, N E; Mallucci, G R; Loh, S H Y; Martins, L M

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), thought to be due to mitochondrial toxicity. Here, we show that in Drosophila pink1 and parkin mutants, defective mitochondria also give rise to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signalling, specifically to the activation of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We show that enhanced ER stress signalling in pink1 and parkin mutants is mediated by mitofusin bridges, which occur between defective mitochondria and the ER. Reducing mitofusin contacts with the ER is neuroprotective, through suppression of PERK signalling, while mitochondrial dysfunction remains unchanged. Further, both genetic inhibition of dPerk-dependent ER stress signalling and pharmacological inhibition using the PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 were neuroprotective in both pink1 and parkin mutants. We conclude that activation of ER stress by defective mitochondria is neurotoxic in pink1 and parkin flies and that the reduction of this signalling is neuroprotective, independently of defective mitochondria. A video abstract for this article is available online in the supplementary information. PMID:27336715

  17. Empirical evaluation of cell critical volume dose vs. cell response function for pink mutations in tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, M.N.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Microdosimetric spectra for 0.43, 1.8, and 14.7 MeV neutrons, and for 215 kVp x rays and 1250 keV gammas were used in conjunction with relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for pink mutations in Tradescantia to obtain an effectiveness function (i.e., a cell critical volume dose vs. cell response function). This effectiveness function (or hit size weighting function) provides the probability of inducing a biological effect of interest (in the present study, pink mutations in Tradescantia) as a function of lineal energy density y. In a preliminary analysis the critical value of y above which pink mutations are seen was 4.5 keV/..mu..m, and the value of y at which the probability reaches unity was 115 keV/..mu..m. Idealized but approximate event size distributions for mono-LET particles ranging from 10 to 5000 keV/..mu..m were generated, and these distributions were weighted by the effectiveness function to determine the pink mutation frequencies. Results are compared with measured pink mutation frequencies for 11 keV/..mu..m (/sup 12/C) and 31 keV/..mu..m (/sup 20/Ne) ions.

  18. PKA Regulates PINK1 Stability and Parkin Recruitment to Damaged Mitochondria through Phosphorylation of MIC60.

    PubMed

    Akabane, Shiori; Uno, Midori; Tani, Naoki; Shimazaki, Shunta; Ebara, Natsumi; Kato, Hiroki; Kosako, Hidetaka; Oka, Toshihiko

    2016-05-01

    A mitochondrial kinase, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), selectively recruits the ubiquitin ligase Parkin to damaged mitochondria, which modifies mitochondria by polyubiquitination, leading to mitochondrial autophagy. Here, we report that treatment with an adenylate cyclase agonist or expression of protein kinase A (PKA) impairs Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria and decreases PINK1 protein levels. We identified a mitochondrial membrane protein, MIC60 (also known as mitofilin), as a PKA substrate. Mutational and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that the Ser528 residue of MIC60 undergoes PKA-dependent phosphorylation. MIC60 transiently interacts with PINK1, and MIC60 downregulation leads to a reduction in PINK1 and mislocalization of Parkin. Phosphorylation-mimic mutants of MIC60 fail to restore the defect in Parkin recruitment in MIC60-knocked down cells, whereas a phosphorylation-deficient MIC60 mutant facilitates the mitochondrial localization of Parkin. Our findings indicate that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of MIC60 negatively regulates mitochondrial clearance that is initiated by PINK1 and Parkin. PMID:27153535

  19. Groundwater flow dynamics and arsenic source characterization in an aquifer system of West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Koenig, C. E. M.; Pal, T.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Beckie, R. D.

    2014-06-01

    Numerical groundwater flow modeling, reverse particle tracking, and environmental tracers are used to locate the source of geogenic As affecting an aquifer in West Bengal. The aquifer is hosted by point-bar sands deposited in a meandering fluvial environment. Wells tapping the aquifer exhibit As concentrations up to 531 μg/L. High-As groundwaters are recharged in ponds marking an abandoned river channel. The source of As is traced to the underlying fine-grained channel-fill sediments. Arsenic release within these sediments is accompanied by a concomitant release of Br and DOC indicating that these species may be decay products of natural organobromines codeposited along with As. Mass transfer of As to the dissolved phase and its flushing from source sediments are described using a simplified reactive solute transport model. Based on this model, a characteristic reaction time for mass transfer is estimated at 6.7 years. Average groundwater residence times in the source are estimated to have declined from 16.6 to 6.6 years with the advent of intensive irrigation pumping. The ratio of residence and reaction times, a Damköhler number, has declined correspondingly from 2.49 to 0.99, indicating a shift from transport to reaction rate limited As mobilization. Greater insight into the As problem in SE Asia may be achieved by shifting the focus of field investigations from aquifers to potential contamination sources in aquitards.

  20. Amphibole—a key indicator mineral for petrogenesis of the Purulia carbonatite, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Aniket; Sen, Amit Kumar; Ghosh, Tamal K.

    2009-01-01

    The Purulia carbonatite of West Bengal, India is a dyke occurring within the 100 km long South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ), which marks the boundary between the Singhbhum Group of Rocks and the Chhotanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex (CGGC). It is composed essentially of calcite with apatite, amphibole, phlogopite, biotite, magnetite and ilmenite as common accessories. Based on optical properties and mineral chemistry two varieties of the amphibole are recognized: magnesiokatophorite and richterite. The latter is characterized by a relatively high content of Si and Na, while the former is enriched in Al and Ca. Such a composition of the amphibole is characteristic for the intermediate to the late stage carbonatite development. These two co-existing amphiboles reflect a sudden variation in total pressure within the magma chamber during the intrusion of the carbonatite dyke. It is inferred that the magnesiokatophorite started crystallizing first along with calcite and apatite. Subsequently, the ascent of carbonatitic magma to a more shallow depth (hypabyssal) resulted in the formation of the richterite. The difference in amphibole composition reflects a variation in the total pressure within the magma chamber that took place during the formation of the Purulia carbonatite. However, an alternative explanation, such as wallrock contamination, or liquid immiscibility, followed by carbonate magma segregation or magma mixing, may also be possible. There is, however, no evidence corroborating such an interpretation.

  1. Meetings with Mark Vishik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikinskaya, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Mark Iosifovich Vishik was my husband Vladimir Chepyzhov's advisor during his years as a student in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at Moscow State University, and afterwards they worked together for almost 30 years. This is why I knew him personally while not being a mathematician myself: we sometimes talked on the phone, and met during common trips and a few holidays. In his last years, after the death of his devoted wife who was also his best friend, my husband and I decided to visit Mark regularly in order to comfort him in his loneliness, and many other of his friends did the same. I can say without exaggeration that Mark loved to talk with me about everyday matters, to reminisce about his wife Asya Moiseevna, their friends and relatives, to tell stories of his youth and the wonderful encounters that had so enriched his life. We had the idea to write down our conversations and publish them as a book. Unfortunately, few such conversations lay ahead. The last one took place in January 2010. We did not write a book, but we did write an article [1], which was published in English in the form of an interview with Mark. The present article is based on our conversations with Mark. Here I will try to recount his memories about people who played an important role in his life.

  2. Pink Noise in Rowing Ergometer Performance and the Role of Skill Level.

    PubMed

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Cox, Ralf F A; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers’ (natural) ergometer strokes to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill level. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink noise for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink noise than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink noise suggeststhat rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in noise pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes’ motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance. PMID:26559647

  3. Mutational analysis of parkin and PINK1 in multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Janet A.; Houlden, Henry; Melchers, Anna; Islam, Ansha J.; Ding, Jinhui; Li, Abi; Paudel, Reema; Revesz, Tamas; Holton, Janice L.; Wood, Nick; Lees, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew B.; Scholz, Sonja W.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders with overlapping clinical, biochemical and genetic features. To test the hypothesis that the Parkinson’s disease genes parkin and PINK1 also play a role in the pathogenesis of MSA, we performed a mutational screening study involving 87 pathology-proven MSA cases. In parkin we identified eight sequence variants and four heterozygous deletions, and in PINK1 we identified nine variants of which two silent mutations have not been previously reported (p.Gly189Gly and p.Arg337Arg). The frequencies of the observed variants were not significantly different from previously published control data and none of the possibly pathogenic variants were found in a homozygous state. Our results indicate that genetic variants at the parkin and PINK1 loci do not play a critical role in the pathogenesis of MSA. PMID:20034704

  4. Parkinson's Disease-Related Proteins PINK1 and Parkin Repress Mitochondrial Antigen Presentation.

    PubMed

    Matheoud, Diana; Sugiura, Ayumu; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angélique; Laplante, Annie; Rondeau, Christiane; Chemali, Magali; Fazel, Ali; Bergeron, John J; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Burelle, Yan; Gagnon, Etienne; McBride, Heidi M; Desjardins, Michel

    2016-07-14

    Antigen presentation is essential for establishing immune tolerance and for immune responses against infectious disease and cancer. Although antigen presentation can be mediated by autophagy, here we demonstrate a pathway for mitochondrial antigen presentation (MitAP) that relies on the generation and trafficking of mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) rather than on autophagy/mitophagy. We find that PINK1 and Parkin, two mitochondrial proteins linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), actively inhibit MDV formation and MitAP. In absence of PINK1 or Parkin, inflammatory conditions trigger MitAP in immune cells, both in vitro and in vivo. MitAP and the formation of MDVs require Rab9 and Sorting nexin 9, whose recruitment to mitochondria is inhibited by Parkin. The identification of PINK1 and Parkin as suppressors of an immune-response-eliciting pathway provoked by inflammation suggests new insights into PD pathology. PMID:27345367

  5. Effect of "Pink Eye" Label on Parents' Intent to Use Antibiotics and Perceived Contagiousness.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura D; Finan, Caitlin; Simancek, Dalton; Finkelstein, Jerome I; Tarini, Beth A

    2016-06-01

    Parents of children who presented for a pediatrics appointment responded to a clinical vignette that described a child with symptoms consistent with acute viral conjunctivitis. In a 2 × 2 randomized survey design, the physician in the vignette either used the term "pink eye" or "eye infection" to describe the symptoms, and either told parents that antibiotics are likely ineffective at treating the symptoms or did not discuss effectiveness. When the symptoms were referred to as "pink eye," parents remained interested in antibiotics, despite being informed about their ineffectiveness. By contrast, when the symptoms were referred to as an "eye infection," information about antibiotic ineffectiveness significantly reduced interest, Mdiff = 1.63, P < .001. Parents who received the "pink eye" label also thought that the symptoms were more contagious and were less likely to believe that their child could go to child care, compared with parents who received the "eye infection" label, Mdiff = 0.37, P = .38. PMID:26294761

  6. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  7. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  8. Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

    1990-11-01

    Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2249726

  9. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  10. Mucin Characteristics of Human Corneal-Limbal Epithelial Cells that Exclude the Rose Bengal Anionic Dye

    PubMed Central

    Argüeso, Pablo; Tisdale, Ann; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Sumiyoshi, Mika; Gipson, Ilene K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Rose bengal is an organic anionic dye used to assess damage of the ocular surface epithelium in ocular surface disease. It has been proposed that mucins have a protective role, preventing rose bengal staining of normal ocular surface epithelial cells. The current study was undertaken to evaluate rose bengal staining in a human corneal-limbal epithelial (HCLE) cell line known to produce and glycosylate membrane-associated mucins. Methods HCLE cells were grown to confluence in serum-free medium and switched to DMEM/F12 with 10% serum to promote differentiation. Immunolocalization of the membrane-associated mucins MUC1 and MUC16 and the T-antigen carbohydrate epitope was performed with the monoclonal antibodies HMFG-2 and OC125 and jacalin lectin, respectively. To assess dye uptake, cultures were incubated for 5 minutes with 0.1% rose bengal and photographed. To determine whether exclusion of negatively charged rose bengal requires a negative charge at the cell surface, cells were incubated with fluoresceinated cationized ferritin. The effect of hyperosmotic stress on rose bengal staining in vitro was evaluated by increasing the ion concentration (Ca+2 and Mg+2) in the rose bengal uptake assay. Results The cytoplasm and nucleus of confluent HCLE cells cultured in media without serum, lacking the expression of MUC16 but not MUC1, as well as human corneal fibroblasts, which do not express mucins, stained with rose bengal. Culture of HCLE cells in medium containing serum resulted in the formation of islands of stratified cells that excluded rose bengal. Apical cells of the stratified islands produced MUC16 and the T-antigen carbohydrate epitope on their apical surfaces. Colocalization experiments demonstrated that fluoresceinated cationized ferritin did not bind to these stratified cells, indicating that rose bengal is excluded from cells that lack negative charges. Increasing the amounts of divalent cations in the media reduced the cellular area protected

  11. Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akundi, Ravi S.; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    Background PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice. Methods and Findings Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1−/− mice showed impaired Ca2+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca2+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1−/− mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1−/− mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1−/− mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1−/− embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1−/− mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Conclusions Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1−/− mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant

  12. Airbag bounce marks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  13. Fathoming Mark Twain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggar, Joanna

    1988-01-01

    Relates the efforts of completing two collections of the works and papers of Mark Twain. Describes the combined efforts of the University of Iowa and the University of California to publish both a scholarly edition and a reader's edition devoted to Twain. (KO)

  14. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  15. Digitally Marking RSA Moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.M.

    2000-10-09

    The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

  16. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  17. Marking Advanced Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Michael

    1978-01-01

    A list of points to aid essay writers is suggested as the basis of a marking system for the teacher of English as a foreign language. The checklist, obtained from a book on higher education by Ruth Beard, can be adapted to the English as a foreign language situation. (SW)

  18. Double Marking Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published the report of an independent panel of experts into maintaining standards at Advanced Level (A-Level). One of its recommendations was for: limited experimental double marking of scripts in subjects such as English to determine whether the strategy would significantly reduce errors…

  19. Understanding sea-level variations in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, J.; Davis, J. L.; Hill, E. M.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Ponte, R. M.; Vinogradova, N. T.

    2012-12-01

    Sea level is affected by a wide range of processes, resulting in a response that varies on seasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales, and that has clear regional variations. Understanding such variability is important in order to quantify and interpret global trends in long-term sea level. One cause of this variability, of many, is the seasonal exchange of water between the continents and the ocean, which induces changes in the shape and gravity field of the Earth. This so-called 'self-attraction and loading' (SAL) causes a spatial and temporal variation of sea level, with an annual amplitude that ranges from ~2 mm to >18 mm. Previous studies show that the effect of SAL on the annual cycle of sea level is larger in the Bay of Bengal than anywhere else on Earth. In addition, tide-gauge measurements of the annual cycle in sea level show among the largest disagreements with ocean model predictions and near-coastal altimeter measurements in this region. The study of sea level in the Bay of Bengal is important, both socially and scientifically. Three rivers converge in Bangladesh, with one of the world's highest annual discharge, of ~1300 GT/yr. The large delta covers the highly populated regions of southern Bangladesh and West Bengal. River flow is highly seasonal, with almost all discharge taking place during the summer monsoon. These conditions result in widespread flooding over Bangladesh every summer, with ~100 GT of water stored within Bangladesh during these events, as observed with GRACE and in-situ measurements. This large hydrological load is the cause for the observed large annual SAL effect in this region, and may account for at least part of the discrepancy between tide-gauge measurements and ocean-model predictions. Furthermore, comparison with measurements suggests that the hydrology models used to estimate the global SAL effect on the annual sea-level cycle may be underestimating the water load over this region. The problem is compounded by the fact

  20. Increase in the Intensity of Postmonsoon Bay of Bengal Tropical Cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2014-05-28

    The post-monsoon (October-November) tropical cyclone (TC) season in the Bay of Bengal has spawned many of the deadliest storms in recorded history. Here it is shown that the intensity of post-monsoon Bay of Bengal TCs, and the contribution of major TCs to total TC power, increased during 1981-2010. It is found that changes in environmental parameters are responsible for the observed increases in TC intensity. Increases in sea surface temperature and upper ocean heat content made the ocean more conducive to TC development, while enhanced convective instability made the atmosphere more favorable for the growth of TCs. The largest changes in the atmosphere and ocean occurred in the eastern Bay of Bengal, where nearly all major TCs form. These changes are part of positive linear trends, suggesting that the intensity of post-monsoon Bay of Bengal TCs may continue to increase in the future.

  1. Mark Twain on phrenology.

    PubMed

    Stone, James L

    2003-12-01

    Mark Twain was a noted 19th century American writer and humorist. He often elaborated upon the personalities of his characters, and his observational skills reflected a strong interest in psychology. Similarly, he found an interest in phrenology, a pseudoscience that purported to characterize personality traits according to elevations or depressions on the head. Twain's style is clearly reflected in the interesting essay he wrote regarding his personal experience with phrenology. PMID:14633308

  2. Validation of two pheromonal compounds for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Macconelicoccus hirsutus (Green)) was detected, in 2004, in Valle de Banderas, at municipalities Bahía de Banderas, Nayarit, and Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, affecting fruit trees, native and ornamental plants. This pest insect is native to Asia and Australia, and has ...

  3. The Coming Right-Brain Economy: Daniel H. Pink Says the MFA Is the New MBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a recent "Harvard Business Review" piece by author Daniel H. Pink, MBA graduates are, in many ways, becoming this century's blue-collar workers--people who entered a workforce that was full of promise only to see their jobs move overseas. At the same time, businesses are realizing that the only way to differentiate their goods and…

  4. EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

  5. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  6. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  7. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Nathan F.; Jenkins, Erica S.; Michielsens, Catherine G. J.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  8. A system for harvesting eggs from the pink-spotted lady beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink spotted lady beetle. Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Adult beetles placed in square transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on t...

  9. Relationship Between Pink Eye Symptoms and Cell Damage in the Tuber Periderm and Cortex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a tuber disorder that leads to processing complications and bud-end rot in storage. Despite the significance of PE for the potato processing industry, limited progress has been made in understanding the physiological basis of this disorder. Although the internal autofluorescence tha...

  10. THE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PINK SHRIMP 'PENAEUS DUORARUM' BY METHYL PARATHION AND ITS OXON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, E.C.3.1.1.7, (AChE) activity in the ventral nerve cord of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) by methyl parathion (MPT) and methyl paraoxon (MPO) was investigated. When the animals were exposed to these compounds in water (in vivo), AChE activit...

  11. Pink Tea to Proactive: CCET's Transition Years, 1961-1982, as I Remember Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alvin H.

    2015-01-01

    Alvin Thompson, former president of the California Council on the Education of Teachers (CCET), describes how he became involved with the CCET, and how the cultural environment of the CCET shifted from a "Pink Tea" society to one of political action focused on the real needs of the schools for which teachers are prepared. Thompson…

  12. Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bt Cotton: Still Rare After All These Years.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins reduce reliance on insecticides, but evolution of resistance by pests could cut short their usefulness. Pink bollworm is a major pest that has experienced intense selection for resistance to Bt cotton in Arizona since 1997. Unexpectedly...

  13. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  14. Lagerstroemia speciosa ‘Big Pink’, an improved pink flowered queen’s crape myrtle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers., commonly called Pride-of-India, queen’s or giant crape myrtle, is a large shrub or small tree widely used as a tropical ornamental, with landscape utility limited to USDA Hardiness Zones 10-11. This paper describes a pink-flowered seedling selec...

  15. Bacterial Antagonists, Zoospore Inoculum Retention Time, and Potato Cultivar Influence Pink Rot Disease Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink rot of potato, primarily incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato growing regions of the world including North America. The principal mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protec...

  16. 76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... telephone hotline numbers described at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 76 FR 25246 (May 4, 2011). The inseason... telephone hotline numbers as specified at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 76 FR 25246 (May 4, 2011); those dates... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  17. 78 FR 69002 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... hotline numbers described at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 77 FR 25915 (May 2, 2012). The inseason orders are... numbers as specified at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 78 FR 25865 (May 3, 2013); those dates and times are... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  18. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

    2012-08-01

    Pink peppers, also known as "pimenta-rosa" and "poivre rose", are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p<0.05) among the studied doses. The color of the pink peppers were affected by the irradiation: the parameters a* and b* were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

  19. PINK1-phosphorylated mitofusin 2 is a Parkin receptor for culling damaged mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Dorn, Gerald W

    2013-04-26

    Senescent and damaged mitochondria undergo selective mitophagic elimination through mechanisms requiring two Parkinson's disease factors, the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase protein 1; PTEN is phosphatase and tensin homolog) and the cytosolic ubiquitin ligase Parkin. The nature of the PINK-Parkin interaction and the identity of key factors directing Parkin to damaged mitochondria are unknown. We show that the mitochondrial outer membrane guanosine triphosphatase mitofusin (Mfn) 2 mediates Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria. Parkin bound to Mfn2 in a PINK1-dependent manner; PINK1 phosphorylated Mfn2 and promoted its Parkin-mediated ubiqitination. Ablation of Mfn2 in mouse cardiac myocytes prevented depolarization-induced translocation of Parkin to the mitochondria and suppressed mitophagy. Accumulation of morphologically and functionally abnormal mitochondria induced respiratory dysfunction in Mfn2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes and in Parkin-deficient Drosophila heart tubes, causing dilated cardiomyopathy. Thus, Mfn2 functions as a mitochondrial receptor for Parkin and is required for quality control of cardiac mitochondria. PMID:23620051

  20. Sustained susceptibility of Pink Bollworm to Bt cotton in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the benefits of transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control. One of the world's most important cotton pests, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), has been targeted for control by transgenic cotton producin...

  1. The ubiquitin kinase PINK1 recruits autophagy receptors to induce mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Michael; Sliter, Danielle A; Kane, Lesley A; Sarraf, Shireen A; Wang, Chunxin; Burman, Jonathon L; Sideris, Dionisia P; Fogel, Adam I; Youle, Richard J

    2015-08-20

    Protein aggregates and damaged organelles are tagged with ubiquitin chains to trigger selective autophagy. To initiate mitophagy, the ubiquitin kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate the ubiquitin ligase parkin, which builds ubiquitin chains on mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, where they act to recruit autophagy receptors. Using genome editing to knockout five autophagy receptors in HeLa cells, here we show that two receptors previously linked to xenophagy, NDP52 and optineurin, are the primary receptors for PINK1- and parkin-mediated mitophagy. PINK1 recruits NDP52 and optineurin, but not p62, to mitochondria to activate mitophagy directly, independently of parkin. Once recruited to mitochondria, NDP52 and optineurin recruit the autophagy factors ULK1, DFCP1 and WIPI1 to focal spots proximal to mitochondria, revealing a function for these autophagy receptors upstream of LC3. This supports a new model in which PINK1-generated phospho-ubiquitin serves as the autophagy signal on mitochondria, and parkin then acts to amplify this signal. This work also suggests direct and broader roles for ubiquitin phosphorylation in other autophagy pathways. PMID:26266977

  2. Parkin-catalyzed Ubiquitin-Ester Transfer Is Triggered by PINK1-dependent Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Masahiro; Kujuro, Yuki; Okatsu, Kei; Koyano, Fumika; Kosako, Hidetaka; Kimura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Norihiro; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    PINK1 and PARKIN are causal genes for autosomal recessive familial Parkinsonism. PINK1 is a mitochondrial Ser/Thr kinase, whereas Parkin functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Under steady-state conditions, Parkin localizes to the cytoplasm where its E3 activity is repressed. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential triggers Parkin E3 activity and recruits it to depolarized mitochondria for ubiquitylation of mitochondrial substrates. The molecular basis for how the E3 activity of Parkin is re-established by mitochondrial damage has yet to be determined. Here we provide in vitro biochemical evidence for ubiquitin-thioester formation on Cys-431 of recombinant Parkin. We also report that Parkin forms a ubiquitin-ester following a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in cells, and that this event is essential for substrate ubiquitylation. Importantly, the Parkin RING2 domain acts as a transthiolation or acyl-transferring domain rather than an E2-recruiting domain. Furthermore, formation of the ubiquitin-ester depends on PINK1 phosphorylation of Parkin Ser-65. A phosphorylation-deficient mutation completely inhibited formation of the Parkin ubiquitin-ester intermediate, whereas phosphorylation mimics, such as Ser to Glu substitution, enabled partial formation of the intermediate irrespective of Ser-65 phosphorylation. We propose that PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Parkin leads to the ubiquitin-ester transfer reaction of the RING2 domain, and that this is an essential step in Parkin activation. PMID:23754282

  3. The pink eye syndrome does not impair tuber fresh cut wound-related responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuber pink eye (PE) syndrome is a costly physiological disorder that results in corruption of the native periderm, susceptibility to infection, water vapor loss and associated shrinkage, roughened and cracked tuber surfaces, and various related blemishes and defects. PE results in aberra...

  4. Pink bollworm trapping in the Southern Plains of Texas and New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study identified several cotton fields in southern Midland County, TX on which large numbers of pink bollworm (PBW) moths were caught. No other large concentrations of PBW were found in the region. Winds with the capability of moving moths long distances occurred during the 2010 study. Wind ...

  5. 78 FR 26308 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle that was published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2012 (77 FR... (77 FR 60208), which is available online at http://www.regulations.gov (at Docket No. FWS-R6-ES-2012... species and its habitat (77 FR 60208). Table 1 summarizes the coextensive economic impacts of the...

  6. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold kit therefor

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.; Hupf, Homer B.; Wanek, Philip M.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free .sup.125 I.sup.- is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  7. Parkin is activated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Kondapalli, Chandana; Gourlay, Robert; Campbell, David G.; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Hofmann, Kay; Alessi, Dario R.; Knebel, Axel; Trost, Matthias; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that the Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) is activated by mitochondrial depolarization and stimulates the Parkin E3 ligase by phosphorylating Ser65 within its Ubl (ubiquitin-like) domain. Using phosphoproteomic analysis, we identified a novel ubiquitin phosphopeptide phosphorylated at Ser65 that was enriched 14-fold in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells overexpressing wild-type PINK1 stimulated with the mitochondrial uncoupling agent CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), to activate PINK1, compared with cells expressing kinase-inactive PINK1. Ser65 in ubiquitin lies in a similar motif to Ser65 in the Ubl domain of Parkin. Remarkably, PINK1 directly phosphorylates Ser65 of ubiquitin in vitro. We undertook a series of experiments that provide striking evidence that Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65) functions as a critical activator of Parkin. First, we demonstrate that a fragment of Parkin lacking the Ubl domain encompassing Ser65 (ΔUbl-Parkin) is robustly activated by ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65, but not by non-phosphorylated ubiquitin. Secondly, we find that the isolated Parkin Ubl domain phosphorylated at Ser65 (UblPhospho−Ser65) can also activate ΔUbl-Parkin similarly to ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65. Thirdly, we establish that ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65, but not non-phosphorylated ubiquitin or UblPhospho−Ser65, activates full-length wild-type Parkin as well as the non-phosphorylatable S65A Parkin mutant. Fourthly, we provide evidence that optimal activation of full-length Parkin E3 ligase is dependent on PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of both Parkin at Ser65 and ubiquitin at Ser65, since only mutation of both proteins at Ser65 completely abolishes Parkin activation. In conclusion, the findings of the present study reveal that PINK1 controls Parkin E3 ligase activity not only by phosphorylating Parkin at Ser65, but also by phosphorylating ubiquitin at Ser65

  8. Differential expression of genes involved in Bengal macrothrombocytopenia (BMTCP).

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahnaz; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2015-12-01

    Bengal macrothrombocytopenia (BMTCP) is a giant platelet disorder with mild to moderate thrombocytopenia, clinically characterized by mild bleeding symptoms to totally asymptomatic condition. The pathophysiological mechanism of this condition is not fully understood yet. In the present study, 5 subjects (P1-P5) with BMTCP whose platelet counts ranged between 36140X10(9)/l and mean platelet volume (MPV)13.5-16.1fl were analyzed for differential gene expression of platelets by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. Four genes i.e. myotubularin related protein 9 (MTMR9), iron responsive element binding protein 2 (IREB2), alpha tubulin(TUBA) and tyrosine kinase ligand (TKL) were found to be differentially expressed in patient platelets as compared to that of normal healthy controls which was further confirmed by quantitative RT PCR analysis. The study highlights a multi-factorial etiology for BMTCP which is widely prevalent in the northeastern region of the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26460267

  9. Raman tomography of Himalayan-derived muds (Bengal Shelf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borromeo, Laura; Andò, Sergio; Aliatis, Irene; France-Lanord, Christian; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Raman mineral analysis (RaMAn) is an innovative, efficient and user-friendly technique representing the ideal tool to perform provenance analysis of silt-sized sediments, which represent most of the sediment flux in river systems and the predominant grain size in large deltas and submarine fans (Andò et al., 2011). RaMAn allows in fact the reliable recognition of detrital grains down to 5 μm in size. The Ganga-Brahmaputra estuary in Bangladesh represents the largest single entry point of detritus in the world oceans. Between 1 and 2 billion tons of sediment each year has been reaching the Bengal Sea during most of the Neogene, feeding the world largest submarine fan (Goodbred and Kuehl, 2000; Galy and France-Lanord 2001). In order to detect the compositional differences between the fluvial environment (Garzanti et al., 2010; 2011) and the deep sea (Thompson, 1974; Yokohama et al., 1990) as well as the mineralogical variability associated with hydrodynamic sorting in the delta plain and proximal shelf, we have determined the mineralogical composition of largely Himalayan-derived muds deposited on the Bengal Shelf. Mineralogical analyses were carried out separately for four grain-size classes of 4 samples: (5-10 μm, 10-15 μm, 15-32 μm, >32 μm). Each class was separated into low-density (<2.90 g/cm3) and high-density fraction (>2.90 g/cm3) by centrifuging in sodium polytungstate and recovered by partial freezing with liquid nitrogen. Accurate quantitative mineralogical data were obtained by identifying at least 100 grains on each slide. RaMAn resulted to be essential for confident mineral identification, and helped us to reveal the nature of altered and opaque grains that cannot be identified under the optical microscope. Andò S.,Vignola P., Garzanti E., (2011). Raman counting: a new method to determine provenance of silt. Rendiconti Lincei, 22, Issue 4, pp 327-347; Galy A., France-Lanord C., (2001), Higher erosion rates in the Himalaya geochemical constraints

  10. Assessment of Rose Bengal vs. Riboflavin Photodynamic Therapy for Inhibition of Fungal Keratitis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Arboleda, Alejandro; Miller, Darlene; Cabot, Florence; Taneja, Mukesh; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Alawa, Karam; Amescua, Guillermo; Yoo, Sonia H.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the in vitro effect of rose bengal and riboflavin as photosensitizing agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT) on fungal isolates that are common causes of fungal keratitis Design Experimental study Methods Three isolates (Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans) recovered from patients with confirmed fungal keratitis were used in the experiments. Isolates were grown on Sabouraud-Dextrose agar, swabbed and prepared in suspension, and one milliliter aliquots were inoculated onto test plates in triplicate. Test plates were separated into 5 groups: Group 1 - no treatment, Group 2 - 0.1% rose bengal alone, Group 3 - 518 nm irradiation alone, Group 4 - riboflavin PDT (riboflavin + 375 nm irradiation), and Group 5 - rose bengal PDT (rose bengal + 518 nm irradiation). Irradiation was performed over a circular area using either a green LED array (peak wavelength: 518 nm) or a UV-A LED array (peak wavelength: 375 nm). Test plates were irradiated with an energy density of 5.4 J/cm2. Later, plates were placed in a 30° C incubator and observed for growth. Results Rose bengal-mediated PDT successfully inhibited the growth of all three fungal isolates in the irradiated area. All other groups exhibited unrestricted growth throughout the plate. Conclusions Rose bengal-mediated PDT successfully inhibited the growth of three types of fungi. No other experimental groups, including riboflavin-mediated PDT, had any inhibitory effect on the isolates. The results might be useful for the treatment of patients suffering from corneal infection. PMID:24792103

  11. PINK1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Parkin Boosts Parkin Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Two genes linked to early onset Parkinson's disease, PINK1 and Parkin, encode a protein kinase and a ubiquitin-ligase, respectively. Both enzymes have been suggested to support mitochondrial quality control. We have reported that Parkin is phosphorylated at Ser65 within the ubiquitin-like domain by PINK1 in mammalian cultured cells. However, it remains unclear whether Parkin phosphorylation is involved in mitochondrial maintenance and activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Here, we examined the effects of Parkin phosphorylation in Drosophila, in which the phosphorylation residue is conserved at Ser94. Morphological changes of mitochondria caused by the ectopic expression of wild-type Parkin in muscle tissue and brain dopaminergic neurons disappeared in the absence of PINK1. In contrast, phosphomimetic Parkin accelerated mitochondrial fragmentation or aggregation and the degradation of mitochondrial proteins regardless of PINK1 activity, suggesting that the phosphorylation of Parkin boosts its ubiquitin-ligase activity. A non-phosphorylated form of Parkin fully rescued the muscular mitochondrial degeneration due to the loss of PINK1 activity, whereas the introduction of the non-phosphorylated Parkin mutant in Parkin-null flies led to the emergence of abnormally fused mitochondria in the muscle tissue. Manipulating the Parkin phosphorylation status affected spontaneous dopamine release in the nerve terminals of dopaminergic neurons, the survivability of dopaminergic neurons and flight activity. Our data reveal that Parkin phosphorylation regulates not only mitochondrial function but also the neuronal activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, suggesting that the appropriate regulation of Parkin phosphorylation is important for muscular and dopaminergic functions. PMID:24901221

  12. Case Marking Strategies in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John

    Case marking strategies in Kope, a Papuan language of Papua New Guinea, are analyzed in light of previous claims that most Papuan languages have one strategy for marking core relations and another for marking peripheral relations. A brief grammatical overview illustrates how core and peripheral relations are marked in Kope, including nominal case…

  13. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  14. Carbon Monoxide, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrogen Dioxide Levels in Gas Ovens Related to Surface Pinking of Cooked Beef and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cornforth; Rabovitser; Ahuja; Wagner; Hanson; Cummings; Chudnovsky

    1998-01-19

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and total nitrogen oxide (NO(x)()) levels were monitored during meat cookery with a standard Ovenpak and a new ultralow-NO(x)() (ULN) cyclonic gas burner. With the standard burner, CO varied from 103 to 152 ppm, NO(x)() was 1.3-10.7 ppm, and surface pinking was observed on both beef and turkey. The ULN burner at optimal efficiency produced only 6.7 ppm of CO and 1 ppm of NO(x)(), insufficient to cause surface pinking. To determine the relative contribution of CO and NO(x)() to pinking, trials were also conducted in an electric oven with various pure gases. Pinking was not observed with up to 149 ppm of CO or 5 ppm of NO. However, as little as 0.4 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) caused pinking of turkey rolls. Beef roasts were pink at >2.5 ppm of NO(2). Thus, pinking previously attributed to CO and NO in gas ovens is instead due to NO(2), which has much greater reactivity than NO with moisture at meat surfaces. PMID:10554228

  15. Cytosolic PINK1 promotes the targeting of ubiquitinated proteins to the aggresome-autophagy pathway during proteasomal stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ju; Li, Mengen; Qin, Siyue; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Sicong; Hu, Yuan; Deng, Yongkang; Zhang, Chenliang; You, Dujuan; Li, Hongchang; Mu, Dezhi; Zhang, Zhuohua; Jiang, Changan

    2016-04-01

    During proteasomal stress, cells can alleviate the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins by targeting them to perinuclear aggresomes for autophagic degradation, but the mechanism underlying the activation of this compensatory pathway remains unclear. Here we report that PINK1-s, a short form of Parkinson disease (PD)-related protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1), is a major regulator of aggresome formation. PINK1-s is extremely unstable due to its recognition by the N-end rule pathway, and tends to accumulate in the cytosol during proteasomal stress. Overexpression of PINK1-s induces aggresome formation in cells with normal proteasomal activities, while loss of PINK1-s function leads to a significant decrease in the efficiency of aggresome formation induced by proteasomal inhibition. PINK1-s exerts its effect through phosphorylation of the ubiquitin-binding protein SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1) and increasing its ability to sequester polyubiquitinated proteins into aggresomes. These findings pinpoint PINK1-s as a sensor of proteasomal activities that transduces the proteasomal impairment signal to the aggresome formation machinery. PMID:27050454

  16. PINK1 alleviates palmitate induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells by suppressing ROS mediated MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Cang, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Pingli; Wu, Xue; Yan, Jin; Chen, Jinfeng; Wu, Gang; Jin, Yan; Xu, Feng; Su, Jianbin; Wan, Chunhua; Wang, Xueqin

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies have shown that knockdown of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) causes oxidative stress and mitophagy. In db/db mice, PINK1 protein level is down-regulated. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which PINK1 modulates IR in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced stress. In our study, PINK1 expression decreased during palmitate (PA) induced IR in HepG2 cells and the hepatic tissues of high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Additionally, free fatty acids (FFAs) could increase ROS and suppress insulin signaling pathway, which was indicated by reduced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). In addition, insulin induced glucose uptake decreased and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), two key gluconeogenic enzymes, was up-regulated after PA treatment. Intriguingly, PINK1 overexpression could lead to opposite results. Moreover, PA induced hepatic IR through C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, which were rescued by PINK1 overexpression. In summary, our results demonstrate that PINK1 promoted hepatic IR via JNK and ERK pathway in PA treated HepG2 cells, implying a novel molecular target for the therapy of diabetes. PMID:27423393

  17. PINK1 drives Parkin self-association and HECT-like E3 activity upstream of mitochondrial binding

    PubMed Central

    Lazarou, Michael; Narendra, Derek P.; Jin, Seok Min; Tekle, Ephrem; Banerjee, Soojay

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate that the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the RING-between-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin function in the same pathway. In concurrence, mechanistic studies show that PINK1 can recruit Parkin from the cytosol to the mitochondria, increase the ubiquitination activity of Parkin, and induce Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we used a cell-free assay to recapitulate PINK1-dependent activation of Parkin ubiquitination of a validated mitochondrial substrate, mitofusin 1. We show that PINK1 activated the formation of a Parkin–ubiquitin thioester intermediate, a hallmark of HECT E3 ligases, both in vitro and in vivo. Parkin HECT-like ubiquitin ligase activity was essential for PINK1-mediated Parkin translocation to mitochondria and mitophagy. Using an inactive Parkin mutant, we found that PINK1 stimulated Parkin self-association and complex formation upstream of mitochondrial translocation. Self-association occurred independent of ubiquitination activity through the RING-between-RING domain, providing mechanistic insight into how PINK1 activates Parkin. PMID:23319602

  18. PINK1 drives Parkin self-association and HECT-like E3 activity upstream of mitochondrial binding.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Michael; Narendra, Derek P; Jin, Seok Min; Tekle, Ephrem; Banerjee, Soojay; Youle, Richard J

    2013-01-21

    Genetic studies indicate that the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the RING-between-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin function in the same pathway. In concurrence, mechanistic studies show that PINK1 can recruit Parkin from the cytosol to the mitochondria, increase the ubiquitination activity of Parkin, and induce Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we used a cell-free assay to recapitulate PINK1-dependent activation of Parkin ubiquitination of a validated mitochondrial substrate, mitofusin 1. We show that PINK1 activated the formation of a Parkin-ubiquitin thioester intermediate, a hallmark of HECT E3 ligases, both in vitro and in vivo. Parkin HECT-like ubiquitin ligase activity was essential for PINK1-mediated Parkin translocation to mitochondria and mitophagy. Using an inactive Parkin mutant, we found that PINK1 stimulated Parkin self-association and complex formation upstream of mitochondrial translocation. Self-association occurred independent of ubiquitination activity through the RING-between-RING domain, providing mechanistic insight into how PINK1 activates Parkin. PMID:23319602

  19. Rescue of PINK1 protein null-specific mitochondrial complex IV deficits by ginsenoside Re activation of nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Karen; Yoon, Seung-Hee; Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Son, Jin H

    2012-12-28

    PINK1, linked to familial Parkinson's disease, is known to affect mitochondrial function. Here we identified a novel regulatory role of PINK1 in the maintenance of complex IV activity and characterized a novel mechanism by which NO signaling restored complex IV deficiency in PINK1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells. In PINK1 null cells, levels of specific chaperones, including Hsp60, leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (LRPPRC), and Hsp90, were severely decreased. LRPPRC and Hsp90 were found to act upstream of Hsp60 to regulate complex IV activity. Specifically, knockdown of Hsp60 resulted in a decrease in complex IV activity, whereas antagonistic inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-(allylamino) geldanamycin decreased both Hsp60 and complex IV activity. In contrast, overexpression of the PINK1-interacting factor LRPPRC augmented complex IV activity by up-regulating Hsp60. A similar recovery of complex IV activity was also induced by coexpression of Hsp90 and Hsp60. Drug screening identified ginsenoside Re as a compound capable of reversing the deficit in complex IV activity in PINK1 null cells through specific increases of LRPPRC, Hsp90, and Hsp60 levels. The pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Re could be reversed by treatment of the pan-NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) and could also be reproduced by low-level NO treatment. These results suggest that PINK1 regulates complex IV activity via interactions with upstream regulators of Hsp60, such as LRPPRC and Hsp90. Furthermore, they demonstrate that treatment with ginsenoside Re enhances functioning of the defective PINK1-Hsp90/LRPPRC-Hsp60-complex IV signaling axis in PINK1 null neurons by restoring NO levels, providing potential for new therapeutics targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23144451

  20. Extended Essay Marking on Screen: Is Examiner Marking Accuracy Influenced by Marking Mode?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Hopkin, Rebecca; Shiell, Hannah; Bell, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, large-scale educational assessment agencies are shifting the mode of school examination marking towards having examiners mark examination scripts on screen rather than on paper. This shift has prompted questions about whether the mode of marking might influence examiner marking accuracy, particularly in relation to…

  1. Refining the Bengal Fan stratigraphy - A first correlation of IODP Expedition 354 results and seismic data from the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, Tilmann; Spiess, Volkhard; Bergmann, Fenna; France-Lanord, Christian; Klaus, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The Bengal Fan covers the floor of the entire Bay of Bengal from the continental margins of India and Bangladesh to the sediment-filled Sunda Trench off Myanmar and the Andaman Islands, and along the west side of the Ninetyeast Ridge. The deposition and progradation of the Bengal Fan started in the Eocene after the collision of India with Asia resulting in the build-up of the Himalaya and the formation of a large proto-Bay of Bengal. Continued convergence of the Indian and Australian plates with the Southeast Asian plate reduced the size of the bay and focused the source of turbidites finally into the present Bengal Basin, Bangladesh shelf, and the shelf canyon "Swatch of no Ground". Today, the Bengal Fan is mainly fed by the sediment load of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which drain the Himalayas at its southern and northern slope, respectively, and deliver their load to the delta in the Bengal Basin, to the Bengal Shelf and to the deep sea fan. Thus the Bengal Fan is a suitable recorder to study interactions among the growth of the Himalaya and Tibet, the development of the Asian monsoon, and processes affecting the carbon cycle and global climate. Because sedimentation in the Bengal Fan responds to both, climate and tectonic processes, its terrigenous sediment records the past evolution of both the Himalaya and regional climate. This evolution is also expressed in the stratigraphy of the fan in terms of unconformities and key horizons, average sedimentation rates as a function of distance from the basement ridges at 85°E and 90°E and the presence or absence of channel-levee systems. The histories of the Himalaya/Tibetan system and the Asian monsoon require sampling different periods of time with different levels of precision. Therefore IODP Expedition 354 drilled in February-March 2015 a seven site, 320 km-long transect across the Bengal Fan at 8°N. This strategy has been chosen because sediment transport took place by turbidity currents following

  2. Hubble's Famous Plate of 1923: A Story of Pink Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, D. R.

    2012-06-01

    On October 6, 1923 Edwin Hubble used the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope to take a 45-minute exposure of a field in the Andromeda galaxy. This is the now-famous plate marked with his “VAR!” notation. I will discuss this plate and that notation. I will also tell the story of flying copies of that plate on the deployment mission for HST in 1990 as a Hubble memento and then locating those copies afterwards, and how copies were flown on Servicing Mission 4 on 2009 as well. This has led to an effort in which AAVSO members joined to identify and reobserve that noted star, arguably the most important object in the history of cosmology, but largely ignored since Hubble’s time.

  3. Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) marine survival rates reflect early marine carbon source dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Thomas C., Jr.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Helle, John H.

    2008-05-01

    Marine survival rate (the number of adult salmon returning divided by the number of salmon fry released) of pink salmon runs propagated by Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) salmon hatcheries is highly variable resulting in large year-to-year run size variation, which ranged from ∼20 to ∼50 million during 1998-2004. Marine survival rate was hypothesized to be determined during their early marine life stage, a time period corresponding to the first growing season after entering the marine environment while they are still in coastal waters. Based on the predictable relationships of 13C/ 12C ratios in food webs and the existence of regional 13C/ 12C gradients in organic carbon, 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon were measured to test whether marine survival rate was related to food web processes. Year-to-year variation in marine survival rate was inversely correlated to 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon, but with differences among hatcheries. The weakest relationship was for pink salmon from the hatchery without historic co-variation of marine survival rate with other PWS hatcheries or wild stocks. Year-to-year variation in 13C/ 12C ratio of early marine stage pink salmon in combination with regional spatial gradients of 13C/ 12C ratio measured in zooplankton suggested that marine survival was driven by carbon subsidies of oceanic origin (i.e., oceanic zooplankton). The 2001 pink salmon cohort had 13C/ 12C ratios that were very similar to those found for PWS carbon, i.e., when oceanic subsidies were inferred to be nil, and had the lowest marine survival rate (2.6%). Conversely, the 2002 cohort had the highest marine survival (9.7%) and the lowest mean 13C/ 12C ratio. These isotope patterns are consistent with hypotheses that oceanic zooplankton subsidies benefit salmon as food subsidies, or as alternate prey for salmon predators. Oceanic subsidies are manifestations of significant exchange of material between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska. Given

  4. The Mark 3 Haploscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Logar, N. D.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-operated binocular vision testing device was developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to evaluate the visual function of astronauts during spaceflight. This particular device, called the Mark 3 Haploscope, employs semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phoria, fixation disparity, refractive state and accommodation/convergence relationships. Test procedures are self-administered and can be used repeatedly without subject memorization. The Haploscope was designed as one module of the complete NASA Vision Testing System. However, it is capable of stand-alone operation. Moreover, the compactness and portability of the Haploscope make possible its use in a broad variety of testing environments.

  5. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  6. Development of trapping methods using a synthetic sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) threatens numerous crops of economic importance and could spread from populations in California and Florida to 33 other states. Field experiments conducted in Florida evaluated three commercially available trap designs baited with syntheti...

  7. Growth kinetics and efficacy as parameters for ranking and selecting biocontrol agents that reduce pink rot in stored potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased production of organic agricultural products and the relative ineffectiveness of traditional control measures support development of new biocontrol technologies for use against pink rot infections in storage. The microbiota of 84 different agricultural soils was individually transferred to...

  8. E2F1-dependent miR-421 regulates mitochondrial fragmentation and myocardial infarction by targeting Pink1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Lu-Yu; Wang, Jian-Xun; Wang, Yin; Sun, Teng; Zhao, Bing; Yang, Yong-Jie; An, Tao; Long, Bo; Li, Na; Liu, Cui-Yun; Gong, Ying; Gao, Jin-Ning; Dong, Yan-Han; Zhang, Jian; Li, Pei-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial fragmentation plays an important role in the progression of cardiac diseases, such as myocardial infarction and heart failure. Mitochondrial network is controlled by many factors in different cell types. Here we show that the interplay between E2F1, miR-421 and Pink1 regulates mitochondrial morphology and cardiomyocyte cell death. Pink1 reduces mitochondrial fragmentation and protects cardiomyocyte from apoptosis. On the other hand, miR-421 promotes cardiomyocyte mitochondrial fragmentation, apoptosis and myocardial infarction by suppressing Pink1 translation. Finally, we show that transcription factor E2F1 activates miR-421 expression. Knocking down E2F1 suppresses mitochondrial fragmentation, apoptosis and myocardial infarction by affecting miR-421 levels. Collectively, these data identify the E2F1/miR-421/Pink axis as a regulator of mitochondrial fragmentation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and suggest potential therapeutic targets in treatment of cardiac diseases. PMID:26184432

  9. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  10. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  11. Distribution, size, and interannual, seasonal and diel food habits of northern Gulf of Alaska juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Janet L.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Cross, Alison D.; Moss, Jamal H.; Davis, Nancy D.; Myers, Katherine W.; Walker, Robert V.; Beauchamp, David A.; Haldorson, Lewis J.

    2005-01-01

    An integral part of assessing the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) ecosystem is the analysis of the food habits and feeding patterns of abundant zooplanktivorous fish. Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha are highly abundant zooplanktivores, and support valuable commercial fisheries as adults. We document variability in pink salmon distribution and size from summer to early fall, and present major trends in their food habits by summarizing interannual (August 1999-2001), seasonal (July-October 2001) and diel (August 2000, and July-September 2001) feeding patterns based on analysis of stomach contents of juvenile pink salmon collected along the Seward Line (GOA) and in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Diets of juvenile pink salmon were more diverse in 2001 compared to either 1999 or 2000. Small pteropods ( Limacina helicina) composed the majority (>60%) of prey consumed in 1999 and 2000; whereas large copepods, euphausiids, and small pteropods composed the majority of prey in 2001. As juvenile pink salmon increased in size, they consumed increasingly larger prey from August to October 2001 in the GOA. The diet of GOA juvenile pink salmon was different and more diverse than the diet of fish caught in PWS. The dominant prey in PWS during July-October was hyperiid amphipods, whereas the primary prey in the GOA were larvaceans and euphausiids in July, then copepods plus small pteropods, amphipods, euphausiids, larval crabs, and shrimp in August. In September and October, diets in both PWS and GOA included high percentages of larger prey items, including fish, euphausiids, and large pteropods ( Clio pyramidata). Diel comparisons of stomach contents showed pink salmon fed during daylight hours with stomach fullness increasing from dawn to a maximum fullness 8-12 h after sunrise, and declining thereafter. We hypothesize that juvenile pink salmon in the northern GOA consumed distinct and varied prey from the suite of zooplankton available during summer months, July

  12. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.

    2016-07-01

    The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of ~0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the ~0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

  13. Frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in field populations of pink bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Patin, Amanda L.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Liu, Yong-Biao; Carrière, Yves; Sims, Maria A.; Antilla, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for delaying pest resistance to genetically modified crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are based primarily on theoretical models. One key assumption of such models is that genes conferring resistance are rare. Previous estimates for lepidopteran pests targeted by Bt crops seem to meet this assumption. We report here that the estimated frequency of a recessive allele conferring resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac was 0.16 (95% confidence interval = 0.05–0.26) in strains of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) derived from 10 Arizona cotton fields during 1997. Unexpectedly, the estimated resistance allele frequency did not increase from 1997 to 1999 and Bt cotton remained extremely effective against pink bollworm. These results demonstrate that the assumptions and predictions of resistance management models must be reexamined. PMID:11087854

  14. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  15. Inactivated mariner-like elements (MLE) in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Staten, R; Miller, T A; Park, Y

    2005-10-01

    We isolated multiple copies of mariner-like element (MLE) from the pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella, a key lepidopteran cotton pest. Although all the MLE sequences contain multiple mutations accumulated in their transposase coding region, the consensus sequence revealed a putative ancestral transposase encoding 339 amino acid residues with a D,D(34)D motif, and 36 bp inverted terminal repeats, belonging to the cecropia subfamily, and most similar to the MLE found in Antheraea species. Examining six different pink bollworm populations, we conclude that the MLE in PBW described in this study are ancient and are undergoing the process of accumulating inactivating mutations. This conclusion is supported by the patterns of polymorphisms revealed by genomic Southern hybridization, transposable element displays, and sequences from multiple MLE. PMID:16164610

  16. Biotransformation of pink water TNT on the surface of a low-cost adsorbent pine bark.

    PubMed

    Chusova, O; Nõlvak, H; Odlare, M; Truu, J; Truu, M; Oopkaup, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-09-01

    This two-week anaerobic batch study evaluated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) removal efficiency from industrial pink water by (1) adsorption on low-cost adsorbent pine bark, and (2) adsorption coupled with TNT biotransformation by specialised microbial communities. Samples of the supernatant and acetonitrile extracts of pine bark were analysed by HPLC, while the composition of the bacterial community of the experimental batches, inocula and pine bark were profiled by high-throughput sequencing the V6 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Integrated adsorption and biotransformation proved to be the most efficient method for TNT removal from pink water. The type of applied inoculum had a profound effect on TNT removal efficiencies and microbial community structures, which were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The analysis of acetonitrile extracts of pine bark supported the hypothesis that the microbial community indigenous to pine bark has the ability to degrade TNT. PMID:26142875

  17. Structure and Function of Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1, the Three Musketeers of Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Trempe, Jean-François; Fon, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease are caused by mutations in three genes: Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1. These genes encode for proteins with distinct enzymatic activities that may work together to confer neuroprotection. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been shown to ubiquitinate substrates and to trigger proteasome-dependent degradation or autophagy, two crucial homeostatic processes in neurons. PINK1 is a mitochondrial protein kinase whose activity is required for Parkin-dependent mitophagy, a process that has been linked to neurodegeneration. Finally, DJ-1 is a protein homologous to a broad class of bacterial enzymes that may function as a sensor and modulator of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the literature on the structure and biochemical functions of these three proteins. PMID:23626584

  18. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.; Lewis, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    The use of satellite data from the ERTS-1 satellite for mapping the cotton acreage in the southern deserts of California is discussed. The differences between a growing, a defoliated, and a plowed down field can be identified using an optical color combiner. The specific application of the land use maps is to control the spread of the pink bollworms by establishing planting and plowdown dates.

  19. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. PMID:27313289

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Pink Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, Robert F.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  2. Cloning and expression of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Pichia Pink.

    PubMed

    Babavalian, H; Latifi, A M; Shokrgozar, M A; Bonakdar, S; Tebyanian, H; Shakeri, F

    2016-01-01

    The PDGF-BB plays a key role in several pathogenesis diseases and it is believed to be an important mediator for wound healing. The recombinant human PDGF-BB is safe and effective to stimulate the healing of chronic, full thickness and lower extremity diabetic neurotrophic ulcers. In the present study, we attempted to produce a PDGF-BB growth factor and also, evaluate its functionality in cell proliferation in yeast host Pichia pink. Pichia pink yeast was used as a host for evaluation of the rhPDGF-BB expression. The coding sequence of PDGF-BB protein was synthesized after optimization and packed into the pGEM. Recombinant proteins were produced and purified. The construct of pPinkα-HC-pdgf was confirmed by sequence, the PDGF-BB protein was expressed and purified with using a nickel affinity chromatography column and then characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The biological activity of PDGF-BB was estimated with using human fibroblast cell line. The measurement of protein concentration was determined by Bradford and human PDGF-BB ELISA kit. Purified rhPDGF-BB showed similar biological activity (as the standard PDGF-BB) and suggested that the recombinant protein has a successful protein expression (as well as considerable biological activity in P. pink host). The exact amount of recombinant PDGF-BB concentrations were measured by specific ELISA test which it was about 30 μg/ml. Our study suggested that efficiency of biological activity of PDGF-BB protein may be related to its conformational similarity with standard type and also, it practically may be important in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:27545214

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. PMID:27313289

  4. A comparison of the bioactivity and phytochemical profile of three different cultivars of globe amaranth: red, white, and pink.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Ângela; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Pereira, Carla; Adega, Filomena; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Abreu, Rui M V; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-02-17

    The phytochemical profiles and bioactivities of red, white and pink globe amaranth (Gomphrena haageana K., Gomphrena globosa var. albiflora and Gomphrena sp., respectively), much less studied than the purple species (G. globosa L.), were compared. The chemical characterization of the samples included the analysis of macronutrients and individual profiles of sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds. Their bioactivity was evaluated by determining the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; the absence of cytotoxicity was also determined. Red and pink samples showed the highest sugar content. Otherwise, the white sample gave the highest level of organic acids, and together with the pink one showed the highest tocopherol and PUFA levels. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside was the major flavonol in white and pink samples, whereas a tetrahydroxy-methylenedioxyflavone was the major compound in the red variety, which revealed a different phenolic profile. The pink globe amaranth hydromethanolic extract revealed the highest antioxidant activity, followed by those of red and white samples. The anti-inflammatory activity was more relevant in red and pink varieties. None of the samples presented toxicity in liver cells. Overall, these samples can be used in bioactive formulations against inflammatory processes and in free radical production. PMID:26674477

  5. Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 form a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex promoting unfolded protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hui; Wang, Danling; Chen, Linan; Choo, Yeun Su; Ma, Hong; Tang, Chengyuan; Xia, Kun; Jiang, Wei; Ronai, Ze’ev; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in PARKIN, pten-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), and DJ-1 are individually linked to autosomal recessive early-onset familial forms of Parkinson disease (PD). Although mutations in these genes lead to the same disease state, the functional relationships between them and how their respective disease-associated mutations cause PD are largely unknown. Here, we show that Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 formed a complex (termed PPD complex) to promote ubiquitination and degradation of Parkin substrates, including Parkin itself and Synphilin-1 in neuroblastoma cells and human brain lysates. Genetic ablation of either Pink1 or Dj-1 resulted in reduced ubiquitination of endogenous Parkin as well as decreased degradation and increased accumulation of aberrantly expressed Parkin substrates. Expression of PINK1 enhanced Parkin-mediated degradation of heat shock–induced misfolded protein. In contrast, PD-pathogenic Parkin and PINK1 mutations showed reduced ability to promote degradation of Parkin substrates. This study identified a functional ubiquitin E3 ligase complex consisting of PD-associated Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 to promote degradation of un-/misfolded proteins and suggests that their PD-pathogenic mutations impair E3 ligase activity of the complex, which may constitute a mechanism underlying PD pathogenesis. PMID:19229105

  6. Subtle alterations of excitatory transmission are linked to presynaptic changes in the hippocampus of PINK1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Feligioni, Marco; Mango, Dalila; Piccinin, Sonia; Imbriani, Paola; Iannuzzi, Filomena; Caruso, Alessandra; De Angelis, Francesca; Blandini, Fabio; Mercuri, Nicola B; Pisani, Antonio; Nisticò, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Homozygous or heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene have been linked to early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Several neurophysiological studies have demonstrated alterations in striatal synaptic plasticity along with impaired dopamine release in PINK1-deficient mice. Using electrophysiological methods, here we show that PINK1 loss of function causes a progressive increase of spontaneous glutamate-mediated synaptic events in the hippocampus, without influencing long-term potentiation. Moreover, fluorescence analysis reveals increased neurotrasmitter release although our biochemical results failed to detect which presynaptic proteins might be engaged. This study provides a novel role for PINK1 beyond the physiology of nigrostriatal dopaminergic circuit. Specifically, PINK1 might contribute to preserve synaptic function and glutamatergic homeostasis in the hippocampus, a brain region underlying cognition. The subtle changes in excitatory transmission here observed might be a pathogenic precursor to excitotoxic neurodegeneration and cognitive decline often observed in PD. Using electrophysiological and fluorescence techniques, we demonstrate that lack of PINK1 causes increased excitatory transmission and neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus, which might lead to the cognitive decline often observed in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26850695

  7. PINK1-Parkin-Mediated Mitophagy Protects Mitochondrial Integrity and Prevents Metabolic Stress-Induced Endothelial Injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiwei; Xu, Hao; Wang, Zemin; Mao, Yun; Yuan, Liangshuai; Luo, Wei; Cui, Zhaoqiang; Cui, Taixing; Wang, Xing Li; Shen, Ying H

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial injury and dysfunction, a significant feature in metabolic syndrome, triggers endothelial cell dysfunction and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests that mitophagy, a process of autophagic turnover of damaged mitochondria, maintains mitochondrial integrity. PINK1 (phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1) and Parkin signaling is a key pathway in mitophagy control. In this study, we examined whether this pathway could protect mitochondria under metabolic stress. We found that palmitic acid (PA) induced significant mitophagy and activated PINK1 and Parkin in endothelial cells. Knocking down PINK1 or Parkin reduced mitophagy, leading to impaired clearance of damaged mitochondria and intracellular accumulation of mitochondrial fragments. Furthermore, PINK1 and Parkin prevented PA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production and apoptosis. Finally, we show that PINK1 and Parkin were up-regulated in vascular wall of obese mice and diabetic mice. Our study demonstrates that PINK1-Parkin pathway is activated in response to metabolic stress. Through induction of mitophagy, this pathway protects mitochondrial integrity and prevents metabolic stress-induced endothelial injury. PMID:26161534

  8. Complete genome sequence of two genotype III Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Taraphdar, Debjani; Chatterjee, Shyamalendu

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE), caused by a mosquito-borne virus JE virus (JEV), is a serious health problem in West Bengal, India. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of two JEV isolates from West Bengal. The amino acid and nucleotide sequence homology was compared with other Indian strains. Methods: Two JEV isolates (IND-WB-JE1 and IND-WB-JE2) obtained in 2008 and 2010, respectively, from two districts of the State of West Bengal, respectively were analyzed for genetic variations by sequencing the 10934 bp whole genome of the virus. Of these two districts, one was covered under JE vaccination programme in 2007. Results: Phylogenetic analysis showed that both the isolates belonged to the genotype III. A total of 16 mutations were identified in the two isolates studied with respect to Vellore P20778 strain. One unique mutation A3215S was only found in IND-WB-JE2 isolate, but not in the isolate IND-WB-JE1. These two isolates showed maximum homology with P20778 strain of India. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports on complete gene based phylogenetic analysis of JEV isolates from the State of West Bengal. It was evident from the results that JEV was still under circulation in both vaccine covered and not covered districts of West Bengal. PMID:26261169

  9. Modulation of SST, SSS over northern Bay of Bengal on ISO time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Suryachandra A.; Saha, Subodh K.; Pokhrel, Samir; Sundar, Damodaran; Dhakate, Ashish R.; Mahapatra, Somnath; Ali, Sabeer; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Shreeram, P.; Vasimalla, Suneel; Srikanth, A. S.; Suresh, R. R. V.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution observations of atmospheric and oceanic variables are carried out at northern Bay of Bengal from 22nd July to 6th August 2009 on-board ORV Sagar kanya under the Continental Tropical Convergence Zone research/observational programme. Freshening of surface layer by more than 4 psu within 24 hours is observed, which is followed by warming in the surface layer temperature. The heat and salt budget analysis primarily indicates dominant role of advection processes on the evolution of temperature and salinity. The amount of rainfall received at observation site could not explain the observed freshening, thus an extensive analysis using wavelet coherence is done to find out the source of advected fresh water to the observed location. It is found that surface salinity in the northern Bay of Bengal (at 15° N) varies coherently with the rainfall over Ganga-Brahmaputra catchment area on intraseasonal time scale and with lag of about 60 days. Based on above observations, this study hypothesize that the intraseasonal rainfall variation modulates the amount of river discharge, which in turn modulates the salinity over northern Bay of Bengal on intraseasonal time scale. Since surface warming always follows the surface freshening, the time delay between the rainfall over catchment area and freshening at northern Bay of Bengal may explain the post monsoon warming. Importance of atmosphere-ocean coupling in driving the dynamics of the northern bay of Bengal has been clearly brought out in this study.

  10. Parallel signatures of selection in temporally isolated lineages of pink salmon.

    PubMed

    Seeb, L W; Waples, R K; Limborg, M T; Warheit, K I; Pascal, C E; Seeb, J E

    2014-05-01

    Studying the effect of similar environments on diverse genetic backgrounds has long been a goal of evolutionary biologists with studies typically relying on experimental approaches. Pink salmon, a highly abundant and widely ranging salmonid, provide a naturally occurring opportunity to study the effects of similar environments on divergent genetic backgrounds due to a strict two-year semelparous life history. The species is composed of two reproductively isolated lineages with overlapping ranges that share the same spawning and rearing environments in alternate years. We used restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to discover and genotype approximately 8000 SNP loci in three population pairs of even- and odd-year pink salmon along a latitudinal gradient in North America. We found greater differentiation within the odd-year than within the even-year lineage and greater differentiation in the southern pair from Puget Sound than in the northern Alaskan population pairs. We identified 15 SNPs reflecting signatures of parallel selection using both a differentiation-based method (BAYESCAN) and an environmental correlation method (BAYENV). These SNPs represent genomic regions that may be particularly informative in understanding adaptive evolution in pink salmon and exploring how differing genetic backgrounds within a species respond to selection from the same natural environment. PMID:24762204