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Sample records for marked bengal pink

  1. Microtubule Affinity-regulating Kinase 2 (MARK2) Turns on Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)-induced Kinase 1 (PINK1) at Thr-313, a Mutation Site in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matenia, Dorthe; Hempp, Cindy; Timm, Thomas; Eikhof, Annika; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria

    2012-01-01

    The kinase MARK2/Par-1 plays key roles in several cell processes, including neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer disease by phosphorylating tau and detaching it from microtubules. In search of interaction partners of MARK2, we identified phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is important for the survival of neurons and whose mutations are linked to familial Parkinson disease (PD). MARK2 phosphorylated and activated the cleaved form of PINK1 (ΔN-PINK1; amino acids 156–581). Thr-313 was the primary phosphorylation site, a residue mutated to a non-phosphorylatable form (T313M) in a frequent variant of PD. Mutation of Thr-313 to Met or Glu in PINK1 showed toxic effects with abnormal mitochondrial distribution in neurons. MARK2 and PINK1 were found to colocalize with mitochondria and regulate their transport. ΔN-PINK1 promoted anterograde transport and increased the fraction of stationary mitochondria, whereas full-length PINK1 promoted retrograde transport. In both cases, MARK2 enhanced the effects. The results identify MARK2 as an upstream regulator of PINK1 and ΔN-PINK1 and provide insights into the regulation of mitochondrial trafficking in neurons and neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:22238344

  2. Pink urine.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

    2014-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

  3. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  4. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) ... can be very serious. Symptoms and Causes of Conjunctivitis in Newborns Newborns with conjunctivitis develop drainage from ...

  5. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  6. PINK1-Interacting Proteins: Proteomic Analysis of Overexpressed PINK1.

    PubMed

    Rakovic, Aleksandar; Grünewald, Anne; Voges, Lisa; Hofmann, Sarah; Orolicki, Slobodanka; Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Recent publications suggest that the Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. We used tandem affinity purification (TAP), SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry as a first step towards identification of possible substrates for PINK1. The cellular abundance of selected identified interactors was investigated by Western blotting. Furthermore, one candidate gene was sequenced in 46 patients with atypical PD. In addition to two known binding partners (HSP90, CDC37), 12 proteins were identified using the TAP assay; four of which are mitochondrially localized (GRP75, HSP60, LRPPRC, and TUFM). Western blot analysis showed no differences in cellular abundance of these proteins comparing PINK1 mutant and control fibroblasts. When sequencing LRPPRC, four exonic synonymous changes and 20 polymorphisms in noncoding regions were detected. Our study provides a list of putative PINK1 binding partners, confirming previously described interactions, but also introducing novel mitochondrial proteins as potential components of the PINK1/Parkin mitophagy pathway. PMID:21437181

  7. "Pink plague" changes course.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, L

    1993-03-01

    By October 1992, the government's Special Program to Control AIDS (PECOS) registered 717 cases of the disease in Peru; however, the number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases could number thousands. PECOS estimates that the number of cases of HIV is doubling every 2 years. One of the main reasons for the continued spread of HIV is the common perception that the pink plague, as AIDS is called here, affects only homosexuals. While 85% of sexually transmitted HIV and AIDS cases are among gay and bisexual men, in the past 4 years a large number of new cases has been registered among heterosexuals, especially women. In 1987, the ratio of AIDS cases among men and women was approximately 15 to 1. Today, the male to female ratio is 7 to 1. Most people working on AIDS say that the changing profile of the epidemic in Peru is caused by the high costs of prevention programs and the lack of information on the disease, which drastically raise the number of people in high risk groups. Peru's ongoing economic crisis has eaten into the budgets of nongovernment organization's (NGOs) AIDS prevention campaigns and has pushed treatment out of the reach of many people. In 1991, 3 television commercials developed by PECOS to promote the use of condoms were blocked by the Health Ministry. One of the groups that fought against campaigns promoting condom use was the Association of Catholic Doctors. The only way to organize an effective program is through a joint effort that brings together the government, NGOs, and other private and public institutions. Cooperation was demonstrated through the actions carried out for World AIDS Day, when more than 16 public, NGO, and government organizations were involved in a variety of AIDS information activities. In 1993, about 30 NGOs will begin actively working with Peru's Health Ministry to coordinate activities. PMID:12286735

  8. Discovery of catalytically active orthologues of the Parkinson's disease kinase PINK1: analysis of substrate specificity and impact of mutations.

    PubMed

    Woodroof, Helen I; Pogson, Joe H; Begley, Mike; Cantley, Lewis C; Deak, Maria; Campbell, David G; van Aalten, Daan M F; Whitworth, Alexander J; Alessi, Dario R; Muqit, Miratul M K

    2011-11-01

    Missense mutations of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause autosomal-recessive Parkinson's disease. To date, little is known about the intrinsic catalytic properties of PINK1 since the human enzyme displays such low kinase activity in vitro. We have discovered that, in contrast to mammalian PINK1, insect orthologues of PINK1 we have investigated-namely Drosophila melanogaster (dPINK1), Tribolium castaneum (TcPINK1) and Pediculus humanus corporis (PhcPINK1)-are active as judged by their ability to phosphorylate the generic substrate myelin basic protein. We have exploited the most active orthologue, TcPINK1, to assess its substrate specificity and elaborated a peptide substrate (PINKtide, KKWIpYRRSPRRR) that can be employed to quantify PINK1 kinase activity. Analysis of PINKtide variants reveal that PINK1 phosphorylates serine or threonine, but not tyrosine, and we show that PINK1 exhibits a preference for a proline at the +1 position relative to the phosphorylation site. We have also, for the first time, been able to investigate the effect of Parkinson's disease-associated PINK1 missense mutations, and found that nearly all those located within the kinase domain, as well as the C-terminal non-catalytic region, markedly suppress kinase activity. This emphasizes the crucial importance of PINK1 kinase activity in preventing the development of Parkinson's disease. Our findings will aid future studies aimed at understanding how the activity of PINK1 is regulated and the identification of physiological substrates. PMID:22645651

  9. Cytological examination of pink eye afflicted tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye is a tuber disorder of undetermined cause that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses throughout North America. Pink eye symptoms progress from ephemeral light pink colorations around bud-end eyes to water-soaked or dried and cracked “corky-patch” periderm. Late s...

  10. Pink1, the first ubiquitin kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinde; Hunter, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Pink1 and Parkin, identified through studies of hereditary early onset Parkinson's disease, are involved in mitochondria quality control. Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is activated by Pink1 kinase activity, although the mechanism is still elusive. Three recent reports uncover a surprising mechanism in which Pink1 directly phosphorylates ubiquitin to boost Parkin activity. PMID:24942162

  11. Clueless, a protein required for mitochondrial function, interacts with the PINK1-Parkin complex in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Aditya; Kalvakuri, Sreehari; Bodmer, Rolf; Cox, Rachel T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Loss of mitochondrial function often leads to neurodegeneration and is thought to be one of the underlying causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise events linking mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death remain elusive. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin (Park), either of which, when mutated, are responsible for early-onset PD, mark individual mitochondria for destruction at the mitochondrial outer membrane. The specific molecular pathways that regulate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria to sense mitochondrial dysfunction under normal physiological conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Clueless (Clu), a highly conserved protein required for normal mitochondrial function, can associate with Translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) 20, Porin and PINK1, and is thus located at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, we found that clu genetically interacts with park in Drosophila female germ cells. Here, we show that clu also genetically interacts with PINK1, and our epistasis analysis places clu downstream of PINK1 and upstream of park. In addition, Clu forms a complex with PINK1 and Park, further supporting that Clu links mitochondrial function with the PINK1-Park pathway. Lack of Clu causes PINK1 and Park to interact with each other, and clu mutants have decreased mitochondrial protein levels, suggesting that Clu can act as a negative regulator of the PINK1-Park pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that Clu directly modulates mitochondrial function, and that Clu's function contributes to the PINK1-Park pathway of mitochondrial quality control. PMID:26035866

  12. [PINK1 and the related diseases].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Mu, De-Zhi

    2016-08-01

    As a kind of mitochondrial membrane protein with protein kinase activity, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is involved in many biological metabolic processes. Since PINK1 had been found to be associated with Parkinson's disease, researchers have been exploring its biological function. PINK1 localizes in the outer mitochondrial membrane and regulates cell function through phosphorylating proteins. PINK1 is involved in mitochondrial function, mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial autophagy, but the regulatory pathway is not yet clear. PINK1 is expressed widely in many tissues with a variety of biological activity, especially in tissues with high energy consumption. It may therefore be involved in the development and regulation of many diseases. Mutations in PINK1 were originally discovered to cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Recently some research has revealed that PINK1 is related to the development of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Studying and exploring the biological functions of PINK1 will facilitate the identification of the targets for therapeutic intervention for its related diseases. This review article mainly focuses on recent studies about the biological function and related diseases of PINK1. PMID:27530800

  13. What Does Daniel Pink Have to Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2007-01-01

    In Daniel Pink's vision of the near future, Americans value artists and creative thinkers as much as computer programmers, good design is a necessity, and empathy is essential to all products and services. In this article, the author discusses what Pink, author of "A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers will Rule the Future," has to say on creative…

  14. An Efficient Composition for Bengal Lights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Fuzellier, H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports the discovery of an efficient base composition for making bengal lights that is obtained with potassium chlorate and thiourea. Combining this mixture with appropriate flame coloring can produce several impressive bengal lights. (DDR)

  15. Inheritance of pink flower color in Styrax japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most Styrax japonicus (Japanese snowbell) cultivars produce white flowers, but a few pink-flowered forms have been reported. ‘Pink Chimes’ is the most widely grown pink-flowered form and the only S. japonicus cultivar with deep pink flowers that hold their color even under hot growing conditions. ...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  1. Phosphoproteomic screening identifies Rab GTPases as novel downstream targets of PINK1.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Chiang; Kondapalli, Chandana; Lehneck, Ronny; Procter, James B; Dill, Brian D; Woodroof, Helen I; Gourlay, Robert; Peggie, Mark; Macartney, Thomas J; Corti, Olga; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, David G; Itzen, Aymelt; Trost, Matthias; Muqit, Miratul Mk

    2015-11-12

    Mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are causative of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). We have previously reported that PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial depolarisation and phosphorylates serine 65 (Ser(65)) of the ubiquitin ligase Parkin and ubiquitin to stimulate Parkin E3 ligase activity. Here, we have employed quantitative phosphoproteomics to search for novel PINK1-dependent phosphorylation targets in HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 cells stimulated by mitochondrial depolarisation. This led to the identification of 14,213 phosphosites from 4,499 gene products. Whilst most phosphosites were unaffected, we strikingly observed three members of a sub-family of Rab GTPases namely Rab8A, 8B and 13 that are all phosphorylated at the highly conserved residue of serine 111 (Ser(111)) in response to PINK1 activation. Using phospho-specific antibodies raised against Ser(111) of each of the Rabs, we demonstrate that Rab Ser(111) phosphorylation occurs specifically in response to PINK1 activation and is abolished in HeLa PINK1 knockout cells and mutant PINK1 PD patient-derived fibroblasts stimulated by mitochondrial depolarisation. We provide evidence that Rab8A GTPase Ser(111) phosphorylation is not directly regulated by PINK1 in vitro and demonstrate in cells the time course of Ser(111) phosphorylation of Rab8A, 8B and 13 is markedly delayed compared to phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65). We further show mechanistically that phosphorylation at Ser(111) significantly impairs Rab8A activation by its cognate guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Rabin8 (by using the Ser111Glu phosphorylation mimic). These findings provide the first evidence that PINK1 is able to regulate the phosphorylation of Rab GTPases and indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Rab8A/8B/13 at Ser(111) may represent novel biomarkers of PINK1 activity in vivo. Our findings also suggest that disruption of Rab GTPase-mediated signalling may represent a major mechanism

  2. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  3. Radiation-induced pink nickel oligomeric clusters in water. Pulse radiolysis study.

    PubMed

    Hioul, Mohamed Larbi; Lin, Mingzhang; Belloni, Jacqueline; Keghouche, Nassira; Marignier, Jean-Louis

    2014-10-01

    γ-rays and pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of Ni(2+) ions in the presence of polyacrylate (PA(-)) and 2-propanol leads to the formation of metastable species absorbing at 540 nm that are ascribed to "pink" oligomeric clusters of a few nickel atoms only. The molar absorption coefficient is evaluated as ε540 nm = 3300 ± 300 L mol(-1) cm(-1) per Ni(0) atom. The successive steps from the reduction of Ni(2+) into Ni(+) ions to the formation of the pink clusters at 540 nm under conditions of complexation by PA(-) are investigated by pulse radiolysis. The yield of the formation of pink clusters increases markedly with the irradiation dose rate, demonstrating the occurrence of the disproportionation of the [Ni(+), PA(-)] complex after a single electron pulse. The reduction and nucleation mechanisms, including rate constants, in competition with the back oxidation by protons, particularly at low dose rate, are discussed. PMID:25198291

  4. Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-04-01

    The phenolphthalein-pink tornado demonstration utilizes the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stirring bar in a 1 L graduated cylinder containing 0.01 M HCl to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water H 2 In + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O + + In 2 - where H 2 In is phenophthalein. The addition of 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution followed immediately by 3-4 drops of 50% (w/w) NaOH to the vortex of the HCl solution results in a shift to the right in the equilibrium owing to the reaction of OH - + H 3 O + to form water. This shift is accompanied by the vortex becoming visible by the appearance of a pinkish-red color caused by an increase in In 2- concentration within the localized region of the vortex. The demonstration also provides one an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of limiting reagent and reagent in excess. Some insight regarding the extent to which uniform mixing is achieved when using a magnetic stirrer is also provided. Included is a note from the Feature Editor, Ed Vitz.

  5. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-16

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  6. Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

  7. Pink prehnite from Michigan: a mineral much confused.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    Both pink prehnite and thomsonite occur in amygdales in volcanic rocks of Keweenawan age in the Lake Superior region. Although the pink prehnite superficially resembles thomsonite, it does not develop the spectacular patterns with colour variations of gem quality thomsonite. The pink prehnite has long been misidentified and a history of this problem is presented. The pink colour of the prehnite is caused by internal reflections from very fine and evenly disseminated inclusions of native copper. (Preceding abstracts)-R.S.M.

  8. The mitochondrial intramembrane protease PARL cleaves human Pink1 to regulate Pink1 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Cathrin; Lorenz, Holger; Weihofen, Andreas; Selkoe, Dennis J; Lemberg, Marius K

    2011-06-01

    Intramembrane proteolysis is a conserved mechanism that regulates a variety of cellular processes ranging from transcription control to signaling. In mitochondria, the inner membrane rhomboid protease PARL has been implicated in the control of life span and apoptosis by a so far uncharacterized mechanism. Here, we show that PARL cleaves human Pink1, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease, within its conserved membrane anchor. Mature Pink1 is then free to be released into the cytosol or the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Upon depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the canonical import of Pink1 and PARL-catalyzed processing is blocked, leading to accumulation of the Pink1 precursor. As targeting of this precursor to the outer mitochondrial membrane has been shown to trigger mitophagy, we suggest that the PARL-catalyzed removal of the Pink1 signal sequence in the canonical import pathway acts as a cellular checkpoint for mitochondrial integrity. Furthermore, we show that two Parkinson's disease-causing mutations decrease the processing of Pink1 by PARL, with attendant implications for pathogenesis. PMID:21426348

  9. Sleep deepening effect of steady pink noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kawada, T.; Ogawa, M.; Aoki, S.

    1991-12-01

    Sleep under a steady pink noise was studied by a hypnogram of EEG. A young male subject slept all night under a steady pink noise of 40, 50 or 60 dB(A) for 4 to 5 nights, and for 10 nights under unexposed conditions with 35 dB(A). The hypnogram showed a significant decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2, at 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise exposure. The proportion of stage 3 increased significantly at 40 and 50 dB(A) as compared with 35 dB(A). The average depth of a night's sleep at 60 dB(A), calculated postulating stage W, 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be 0·0, 1·0, 2·0, 3·0 and 4·0, respectively, and REM to be 1·5, was significantly deeper than that at 35 and 40 dB(A). These findings are all sleep deepening effects of a steady noise. A second experiments was carried out with four other subjects exposed to a night of 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise and a paired quiet night. All four subjects also showed a decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2 at this exposure level. No significant change in subjective sleep was observed in either experiment. An inhibition pulse from the cortex may suppress the activation of reticular formation, which could make sleep under a steady noise deeper. However, the meaning of a depressed proportion of REM under steady pink noise is not clear.

  10. Antioxidants protect PINK1-dependent dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danling; Qian, Li; Xiong, Hui; Liu, Jiandong; Neckameyer, Wendi S.; Oldham, Sean; Xia, Kun; Wang, Jianzhi; Bodmer, Rolf; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Mutations in the PINK1 gene are linked to the autosomal recessive early onset familial form of PD. The physiological function of PINK1 and pathological abnormality of PD-associated PINK1 mutants are largely unknown. We here show that inactivation of Drosophila PINK1 (dPINK1) using RNAi results in progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and in ommatidial degeneration of the compound eye, which is rescued by expression of human PINK1 (hPINK1). Expression of human SOD1 suppresses neurodegeneration induced by dPINK1 inactivation. Moreover, treatment of dPINK1 RNAi flies with the antioxidants SOD and vitamin E significantly inhibits ommatidial degeneration. Thus, dPINK1 plays an essential role in maintaining neuronal survival by preventing neurons from undergoing oxidative stress, thereby suggesting a potential mechanism by which a reduction in PINK1 function leads to PD-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:16938835

  11. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Arkendu; Joardar, Siddhartha N.; Isore, Devi Prasad; Samanta, Indranil; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti; Lodh, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT) in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005) samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum), rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent. PMID:27051176

  12. On determinants of migration in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, N C

    1987-10-01

    The migration flow to West Bengal from different parts of the Indian subcontinent is an old phenomenon which can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century when the process of industrialization began in the areas comprising the present West Bengal. As West Bengal gradually industrialized and urbanized, the migration flow which was an equiliberating process up to 1947 turned into a stagnating mechanism in the economic sphere. This paper attempts to treat the causative process generating migration flows into West Bengal. Some popular hypotheses are tested, and their inadequacies in the case of migration in West Bengal are shown. Then a variable incorporating the expected long-run socioeconomic condition of West Bengal vis-a-vis the states/countries belonging to the migration universe of West Bengal was constructed, and this expectational variable appears to have more explanatory power than the observed income differential. Barring the political factor which played the central role in the case of immigration from Bangladesh, the determinants can be ranked in order of importance as 1) linguistic distance, 2) expected socioeconomic condition, and 3) physical distance. The limitation of the framework used is the scaling of linguistic distance and the inability to treat the political variable in a causal matrix of migration. PMID:12281036

  13. NRF2 Regulates PINK1 Expression under Oxidative Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Hitoshi; Takamatsu, Hitoshi; Liu, Sulai; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease. Recent studies have revealed that PINK1 is an essential factor for controlling mitochondrial quality, and that it protects cells from oxidative stresses. Although there has been considerable progress in the elucidation of various aspects of PINK1 protein regulation such as activation, stability and degradation, the transcriptional regulation of PINK1 mRNA under stress conditions remains unclear. In this study, we found that nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), an antioxidant transcription factor, regulates PINK1 expression under oxidative stress conditions. Damaged mitochondria arising from stress conditions induced NRF2-dependent transcription of the PINK1 gene through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Either an ROS scavenger or forced expression of KEAP1, a potent inhibitory partner to NRF2, restricted PINK1 expression induced by activated NRF2. Transcriptionally up-regulated PINK1 diminished oxidative stress-associated cell death. The results indicate that PINK1 expression is positively regulated by NRF2 and that the NRF2-PINK1 signaling axis is deeply involved in cell survival. PMID:26555609

  14. A case report of pink breast milk.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jenny; Crete, Joan; Neumeier, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A woman presented for her postpartum examination alarmed about pink stains on her breast pads and on her infant's burp pads and diapers. The stains were also found in her breast pump and the infant's bottles. Out of concern, she stopped breastfeeding. The diagnosis was colonization of mother and infant with Serratia marcescens. They were managed conservatively without antibiotics. The mother was guided to restart breastfeeding. The infant resumed nursing and continued to thrive. PMID:25141908

  15. Dorsal hump morphology in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Susuki, Kenta; Ichimura, Masaki; Koshino, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Takagi, Yasuaki; Adachi, Shinji; Kudo, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) develop a dorsal hump, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. Previous gross anatomical studies have indicated that the dorsal humps of salmon are mainly composed of cartilaginous tissue (Davidson [1935] J Morphol 57:169-183.) However, the histological and biochemical characteristics of such humps are poorly understood. In this study, the detailed microstructures and components of the dorsal humps of pink salmon were analyzed using histochemical techniques and electrophoresis. In mature males, free interneural spines and neural spines were located in a line near to the median septum of the dorsal hump. No cartilaginous tissue was detected within the dorsal hump. Fibrous and mucous connective tissues were mainly found in three regions of the dorsal hump: i) the median septum, ii) the distal region, and iii) the crescent-shaped region. Both the median septum and distal region consisted of connective tissue with a high water content, which contained elastic fibers and hyaluronic acid. It was also demonstrated that the lipid content of the dorsal hump connective tissue was markedly decreased in the mature males compared with the immature and maturing males. Although, the crescent-shaped region of the hump consisted of connective tissue, it did not contain elastic fibers, hyaluronic acid, or lipids. In an ultrastructural examination, it was found that all of the connective tissues in the dorsal hump were composed of collagen fibers. Gel electrophoresis of collagen extracts from these tissues found that the collagen in the dorsal hump is composed of Type I collagen, as is the case in salmon skin. These results indicate that in male pink salmon the dorsal hump is formed as a result of an increase in the amount of connective tissue, rather than cartilage, and the growth of free interneural spines and neural spines. PMID:24323872

  16. Tom70 Is Essential for PINK1 Import into Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Doron; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    PTEN induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase in the outer membrane of mitochondria (OMM), and known as a responsible gene of Parkinson's disease (PD). The precursor of PINK1 is synthesized in the cytosol and then imported into the mitochondria via the translocase of the OMM (TOM) complex. However, a large part of PINK1 import mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined using cell-free system the mechanism by which PINK1 is targeted to and assembled into mitochondria. Surprisingly, the main component of the import channel, Tom40 was not necessary for PINK1 import. Furthermore, we revealed that the import receptor Tom70 is essential for PINK1 import. In addition, we observed that although PINK1 has predicted mitochondrial targeting signal, it was not processed by the mitochondrial processing peptidase. Thus, our results suggest that PINK1 is imported into mitochondria by a unique pathway that is independent of the TOM core complex but crucially depends on the import receptor Tom70. PMID:23472196

  17. Potential roles of PINK1 for increased PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and their associations with Alzheimer disease and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joungil; Ravipati, Avinash; Nimmagadda, Vamshi; Schubert, Manfred; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Russell, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Down-regulation of PINK1 and PGC-1α proteins is implicated in both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress potentially linking metabolic abnormality and neurodegeneration. Here, we report that PGC-1α and PINK1 expression is markedly decreased in Alzheimer disease (AD) and diabetic brains. We observed a significant down-regulation of PGC-1α and PINK1 protein expression in H2O2-treated cells but not in those cells treated with N-acetyl cysteine. The protein levels of two key enzymes of the mitochondrial β-oxidation machinery, acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, very long chain (ACADVL) and mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme subunit α are significantly decreased in AD and diabetic brains. Moreover, we observed a positive relationship between ACADVL and 64 kDa PINK1 protein levels in AD and diabetic brains. Overexpression of PGC-1α decreases lipid-droplet accumulation and increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation; down-regulation of PINK1 abolishes these effects. Together, these results provide new insights into potential cooperative roles of PINK1 and PGC-1α in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, suggesting possible regulatory roles for mitochondrial function in the pathogenesis of AD and diabetes. PMID:25260493

  18. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between odd-and even-broodyear pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gharrett, A.J.; Smoker, W.W.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Taylor, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fewer F2 hybrids between even- and odd-broodline pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which are lines that are genetically isolated by their strict two-year life cycle, survived than did F2 controls, indicating outbreeding depression. Cryopreserved sperm of 40 broodyear 1990 males and of 40 broodyear 1991 males fertilized equal subsamples of eggs from 40 broodyear 1992 females. Return rates of F1 hybrids (1.73%) and controls (1.63%) in 1994 did not differ significantly (P=0.30). F2 hybrid and control crosses were made from 40 males and 40 females selected at random from each return group. Offspring were differentially marked and released. In 1996, returns differed significantly (P=0.011) between hybrids (n=34, 0.34%) and controls (n=44, 0.42%). The low rate of return of the control fish was similar to the measured return of a much larger group of tagged Auke Creek pink salmon, and probably not an artifact of the experiment. Although no increase in fluctuating asymmetry of paired meristic counts was observed in either F1or F2 hybrids, size and some meristic counts of hybrids exceed measurements of controls, suggesting heterosis for those traits. The observations of decreased survival in F2 hybrids confirm previous work [Gharrett, A.J., Smoker, W.W., 1991. Two generations of hybrids between even- and odd-year pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(9) 1744–1749]. Although genetic divergence between pink salmon broodlines is large and outbreeding depression might be expected in such unlikely hybrids, the results document the occurrence of outbreeding depression in salmon and signal caution in making management and aquacultural decisions that may create the possibility of outbreeding depression in self-sustaining or cultured populations.

  19. Killing effect of peppermint vapor against pink-slime forming microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Nozomi; Sakamoto, Jin; Yoshida, Munehiro; Tsuchido, Tetsuaki

    2015-01-01

    The killing effect of peppermint vapor (PMV) against pink-slime forming microorganisms, Methylobacterium mesophilicum as a bacterium and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa as a yeast, was investigated by the agar vapor assay. In this method, microbial cells were spread over the agar surface exposed to PMV in a petri dish, and then transferred into a recovery liquid. When 60μl of the peppermint liquid was added to a paper disc, a marked killing effect of PMV was observed after 48h against M. mesophilicum and after 168h against R. mucilaginosa. M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa were found to be more resistant to PMV than Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, used as reference microorganisms, respectively. With the addition of 0.03% sodium pyruvate as a hydrogen peroxide scavenger in agar, the killing effect of PMV against E. coli and C. albicans was decreased, whereas it was little changed against M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa. In fact, the properties of the killing effect of hydrogen peroxide solution at 0.2-1.0mM was in accord with those of PMV. M. mesophilicum and R. mucilaginosa were more resistant to the oxidant than E. coli and C. albicans, respectively. Results obtained suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved in the killing action of PMV and therefore pink-slime formers are more resistant to PMV than non-pink-slime formers because of the presence of carotenoids as an antioxidant in cells. We also suggest that the use of PMV appeared to be a potential tool for the control of pink-slime forming microorganisms occurring in wet areas of houses such as the bathroom and washing room. PMID:26133506

  20. M81 Galaxy is Pretty in Pink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The perfectly picturesque spiral galaxy known as Messier 81, or M81, looks sharp in this new composite from NASA's Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes and NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. M81 is a 'grand design' spiral galaxy, which means its elegant arms curl all the way down into its center. It is located about 12 million light-years away in the Ursa Major constellation and is one of the brightest galaxies that can be seen from Earth through telescopes.

    The colors in this picture represent a trio of light wavelengths: blue is ultraviolet light captured by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer; yellowish white is visible light seen by Hubble; and red is infrared light detected by Spitzer. The blue areas show the hottest, youngest stars, while the reddish-pink denotes lanes of dust that line the spiral arms. The orange center is made up of older stars.

  1. Short Mitochondrial ARF Triggers Parkin/PINK1-dependent Mitophagy*

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Karl; Kontogiannea, Maria; Fon, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Multiple genes have been associated with PD, including Parkin and PINK1. Recent studies have established that the Parkin and PINK1 proteins function in a common mitochondrial quality control pathway, whereby disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential leads to PINK1 stabilization at the mitochondrial outer surface. PINK1 accumulation leads to Parkin recruitment from the cytosol, which in turn promotes the degradation of the damaged mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy). Most studies characterizing PINK1/Parkin mitophagy have relied on high concentrations of chemical uncouplers to trigger mitochondrial depolarization, a stimulus that has been difficult to adapt to neuronal systems and one unlikely to faithfully model the mitochondrial damage that occurs in PD. Here, we report that the short mitochondrial isoform of ARF (smARF), previously identified as an alternate translation product of the tumor suppressor p19ARF, depolarizes mitochondria and promotes mitophagy in a Parkin/PINK1-dependent manner, both in cell lines and in neurons. The work positions smARF upstream of PINK1 and Parkin and demonstrates that mitophagy can be triggered by intrinsic signaling cascades. PMID:25217637

  2. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  3. Field Longevity of a Fluorescent Protein Marker in an Engineered Strain of the Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)

    PubMed Central

    Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Phillips, Caroline E.; Young, Robin; Zink, Richard T.; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The cotton pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)), is a significant pest in most cotton-growing areas around the world. In southwestern USA and northern Mexico, pink bollworm is the target of the sterile insect technique (SIT), which relies on the mass-release of sterile pink bollworm adults to over-flood the wild population and thereby reduce it over time. Sterile moths reared for release are currently marked with a dye provided in their larval diet. There are concerns, however, that this marker fails from time to time, leading to sterile moths being misidentified in monitoring traps as wild moths. This can lead to expensive reactionary releases of sterile moths. We have developed a genetically marked strain that is engineered to express a fluorescent protein, DsRed2, which is easily screened under a specialised microscope. In order to test this marker under field conditions, we placed wild-type and genetically marked moths on traps and placed them in field cages. The moths were then screened, in a double-blind fashion, for DsRed2 fluorescence at regular intervals to determine marker reliability over time. The marker was shown to be robust in very high temperatures and generally proved reliable for a week or longer. More importantly, genotyping of moths on traps by PCR screening of the moths was 100% correct. Our findings indicate that this strain - and fluorescent protein markers in general - could make a valuable contribution to SIT. PMID:22693645

  4. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  5. Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  6. The kinase domain of mitochondrial PINK1 faces the cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chun; Huang, Yong; Shao, Yufang; May, Jessica; Prou, Delphine; Perier, Celine; Dauer, William; Schon, Eric A.; Przedborski, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are a cause of autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Efforts in deducing the PINK1 signaling pathway have been hindered by controversy around its subcellular and submitochondrial localization and the authenticity of its reported substrates. We show here that this mitochondrial protein exhibits a topology in which the kinase domain faces the cytoplasm and the N-terminal tail is inside the mitochondria. Although deletion of the transmembrane domain disrupts this topology, common PD-linked PINK1 mutations do not. These results are critical in rectifying the location and orientation of PINK1 in mitochondria, and they should help decipher its normal physiological function and potential pathogenic role in PD. PMID:18687899

  7. Evidence for size-selective mortality after the first summer of ocean growth by pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Myers, K.W.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Pink salmon Onchorhynchus gorbuscha with identifiable thermal otolith marks from Prince William Sound hatchery release groups during 2001 were used to test the hypothesis that faster-growing fish during their first summer in the ocean had higher survival rates than slower-growing fish. Marked juvenile pink salmon were sampled monthly in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska, and adults that survived to maturity were recovered at hatchery release sites the following year. Surviving fish exhibited significantly wider circuli spacing on the region of the scale formed during early marine residence than did juveniles collected at sea during their first ocean summer, indicating that marine survival after the first growing season was related to increases in early marine growth. At the same circuli, a significantly larger average scale radius for returning adults than for juveniles from the same hatchery would suggest that larger, faster-growing juveniles had a higher survival rate and that significant size-selective mortality occurred after the juveniles were sampled. Growth patterns inferred from intercirculi spacing on scales varied among hatchery release groups, suggesting that density-dependent processes differed among release groups and occurred across Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska. These observations support other studies that have found that larger, faster-growing fish are more likely to survive until maturity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  8. Stretch Marks

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes that can go with bodybuilding. People who use steroid-containing skin creams or ointments (such as hydrocortisone) for more than a few weeks may also get stretch marks. So might people who have to ... surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual ...

  9. Loss of PINK1 Increases the Heart's Vulnerability to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Siddall, Hilary K.; Yellon, Derek M.; Ong, Sang-Bing; Mukherjee, Uma A.; Burke, Niall; Hall, Andrew R.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H. R.; Deas, Emma; Davidson, Sean M.; Mocanu, Mihaela M.; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Mutations in PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1) induce mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson’s disease. Although PINK1 is present in the heart its exact role there is unclear. We hypothesized that PINK1 protects the heart against acute ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods and Results Over-expressing PINK1 in HL-1 cardiac cells reduced cell death following simulated IRI (29.2±5.2% PINK1 versus 49.0±2.4% control; N = 320 cells/group P<0.05), and delayed the onset of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening (by 1.3 fold; P<0.05). Hearts excised from PINK1+/+, PINK1+/− and PINK1−/− mice were subjected to 35 minutes regional ischemia followed by 30 minutes reperfusion. Interestingly, myocardial infarct size was increased in PINK1−/− hearts compared to PINK1+/+ hearts with an intermediate infarct size in PINK1+/− hearts (25.1±2.0% PINK1+/+, 38.9±3.4% PINK1+/− versus 51.5±4.3% PINK1−/− hearts; N>5 animals/group; P<0.05). Cardiomyocytes isolated from PINK1−/− hearts had a lower resting mitochondrial membrane potential, had inhibited mitochondrial respiration, generated more oxidative stress during simulated IRI, and underwent rigor contracture more rapidly in response to an uncoupler when compared to PINK1+/+ cells suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction in hearts deficient in PINK1. Conclusions We show that the loss of PINK1 increases the heart's vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury. This may be due, in part, to increased mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings implicate PINK1 as a novel target for cardioprotection. PMID:23638067

  10. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martínez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan MF; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul MK

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser65)—which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)—and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65. How Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser65 by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, thereby promoting Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser65. Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser65 in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65. Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65, leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser65-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, which could aid in the development of Parkin activators that mimic the effect of

  11. Sediment dispersal pattern in the Bay of Bengal - evidence for commencement of Bengal Fan sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. S.; Ismaiel, M.; Karlapati, S.; Gopala Rao, D.; Mishra, J.; D, S.

    2015-12-01

    The sediment succession in the Bay of Bengal records signatures corresponding to India-Asia collision, regional climate, and erosional processes of the Himalayan orogeny and the Indian subcontinent. The Bengal Fan - world's largest submarine fan - has been long studied to understand the link between the Himalayan tectonics and Asian monsoon climate, but early phase information of the Himalaya erosion is not retrieved from the Indian Ocean due to lack of deep-core samples. Therefore, the missing corresponding signals hampered the understanding of coupled processes between tectonics, climate and erosion. Seismic reflection profiles and industrial drill wells from the western Bay of Bengal show two different modes of sediment deposition: initially Indian peninsular rivers discharged sediments to the ocean at a rate ~20 m/m.y. until Oligocene-Miocene time (~23 Ma) with the exception of two fairly-enhanced sediment pulses from 65 to 54 and again from 34 to 23 Ma; since 23 Ma the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers added huge volumes of sediments to the bay with variable rates range from 40 to >1000 m/m.y. Using seismic stratigraphic technique we found a distinct increase in sediment discharge (~140 m/m.y.) at 23 Ma is an important age marker for the onset of Bengal Fan sedimentation as a coupled connection between the Himalayan tectonics and Asian climate. Further rise in sedimentation rate during the period 6.8 - 0.8 Ma is surprisingly not in agreement with the decrease in sediment rate reported at ODP Leg 116 sites in the distal Bengal Fan, but coincident with the change in monsoon intensity. Here we provide well constrained ages for the growth of the Bengal Fan, which can serve as benchmark for interactions between the Himalayan exhumation and Asian climate.

  12. Polar Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02155 Polar Markings

    These bright and dark markings occurred near the end of summer in the south polar region. The dark material is likely dust that has been freed of frost cover.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -76.3N, Longitude 84.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  14. IR-stimulated visible fluorescence in pink and brown diamond.

    PubMed

    Byrne, K S; Chapman, J G; Luiten, A N

    2014-03-19

    Irradiation of natural pink and brown diamond by middle-ultraviolet light (photon energy ϵ ≥ 4.1 eV ) is seen to induce anomalous fluorescence phenomena at N3 defect centres (structure N3-V). When diamonds primed in this fashion are subsequently exposed to infrared light (even with a delay of many hours), a transient burst of blue N3 fluorescence is observed. The dependence of this IR-triggered fluorescence on pump wavelength and intensity suggest that this fluorescence phenomena is intrinsically related to pink diamond photochromism. An energy transfer process between N3 defects and other defect species can account for both the UV-induced fluorescence intensity changes, and the apparent optical upconversion of IR light. From this standpoint, we consider the implications of this N3 fluorescence behaviour for the current understanding of pink diamond photochromism kinetics. PMID:24589842

  15. Parkin and PINK1: Much More than Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Scarffe, Leslie A.; Stevens, Daniel A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes a debilitating movement disorder. While most cases of PD appear to be sporadic, rare Mendelian forms have provided tremendous insight into disease pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired mitochondria underpin PD pathology. In support of this theory, data from multiple PD models has linked PINK1 and parkin, two recessive PD genes, in a common pathway impacting mitochondrial health, prompting a flurry of research to identify their mitochondrial targets. Recent work has focused on the role of PINK1 and parkin in mediating mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), however, emerging evidence casts parkin and PINK1 as key players in multiple domains of mitochondrial health and quality control. PMID:24735649

  16. Pink noise of ionic conductance through single artificial nanopores revisited.

    PubMed

    Tasserit, C; Koutsioubas, A; Lairez, D; Zalczer, G; Clochard, M-C

    2010-12-31

    We report voltage-clamp measurements through single conical nanopore obtained by chemical etching of a single ion track in polyimide film. Special attention is paid to the pink noise of the ionic current (i.e., 1/f noise) measured with different filling liquids. The relative pink-noise amplitude is almost independent of concentration and pH for KCl solutions, but varies strongly using ionic liquids. In particular, we show that depending on the ionic liquid, the transport of charge carriers is strongly facilitated (low noise and higher conductivity than in the bulk) or jammed. These results show that the origin of the pink noise can be ascribed neither to fluctuations of the pore geometry nor to the pore wall charges, but rather to a cooperative effect on ions motion in confined geometry. PMID:21231637

  17. Parkin and PINK1: much more than mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Scarffe, Leslie A; Stevens, Daniel A; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes a debilitating movement disorder. Although most cases of PD appear to be sporadic, rare Mendelian forms have provided tremendous insight into disease pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired mitochondria underpin PD pathology. In support of this theory, data from multiple PD models have linked Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, two recessive PD genes, in a common pathway impacting mitochondrial health, prompting a flurry of research to identify their mitochondrial targets. Recent work has focused on the role of PINK1 and parkin in mediating mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy); however, emerging evidence casts parkin and PINK1 as key players in multiple domains of mitochondrial health and quality control. PMID:24735649

  18. PINK1 deficiency enhances autophagy and mitophagy induction

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Martin-Cano, Francisco E; González-Soltero, María E; Tandon, Anurag; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with poorly understood etiology. Increasing evidence suggests that age-dependent compromise of the maintenance of mitochondrial function is a key risk factor. Several proteins encoded by PD-related genes are associated with mitochondria including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which was first identified as a gene that is upregulated by PTEN. Loss-of-function PINK1 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction and, ultimately, neuronal cell death. To mitigate the negative effects of altered cellular functions cells possess a degradation mechanism called autophagy for recycling damaged components; selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy is termed mitophagy. Our study indicates that autophagy and mitophagy are upregulated in PINK1-deficient cells, and is the first report to demonstrate efficient fluxes by one-step analysis. We propose that autophagy is induced to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of non-regulated mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27308585

  19. PINK1 deficiency enhances autophagy and mitophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Martin-Cano, Francisco E; González-Soltero, María E; Tandon, Anurag; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with poorly understood etiology. Increasing evidence suggests that age-dependent compromise of the maintenance of mitochondrial function is a key risk factor. Several proteins encoded by PD-related genes are associated with mitochondria including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which was first identified as a gene that is upregulated by PTEN. Loss-of-function PINK1 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction and, ultimately, neuronal cell death. To mitigate the negative effects of altered cellular functions cells possess a degradation mechanism called autophagy for recycling damaged components; selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy is termed mitophagy. Our study indicates that autophagy and mitophagy are upregulated in PINK1-deficient cells, and is the first report to demonstrate efficient fluxes by one-step analysis. We propose that autophagy is induced to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of non-regulated mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27308585

  20. Paradoxical darkening and removal of pink tattoo ink.

    PubMed

    Kirby, William; Kaur, Ravneet Ruby; Desai, Alpesh

    2010-06-01

    It is widely accepted that Q-switched lasers are the gold-standard treatment for the resolution of unwanted tattoo ink. Although much safer than other tattoo removal modalities, the treatment of tattoo ink with Q-switched devices may be associated with long-term adverse effects including undesired pigmentary alterations such as tattoo ink darkening. Darkening of tattoo ink is most often reported in cosmetic, flesh-toned, white, peach, and pink tattoos. In this paper, we briefly review a case of pink tattoo ink that initially darkened paradoxically but eventually resolved with continued Q-switched laser treatments. PMID:20618561

  1. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy alleviates chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongmei; Deng, Yuanying; Zhang, Jie; Han, Hailong; Zhao, Mingyi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Chen; Tian, Jing; Bing, Guoying; Zhao, Lingling

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphorous insecticides. There are links between CPF exposure and neurological disorders. Mitochondrial damage has been implicated to play a key role in CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Mitophagy, the selective autophagic elimination of mitochondria, is an important mitochondrial quality control mechanism. However, the role of mitophagy in CPF-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, CPF-caused mitochondrial damage, role and mechanism of mitophagy on CPF-induced neuroapoptosis were extensively studied by using SH-SY5Y cells. We showed that CPF treatment caused mitochondrial fragmentation, excessive ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization, thus led to cell apoptosis. Moreover, CPF treatment also resulted in increased colocalizaton of mitochondria with LC3, decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins, PINK1 stabilization and mitochondrial accumulation of Parkin. These data suggested that CPF treatment induced PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Parkin dramatically increased CPF-induced neuroapoptosis. On the other hand, overexpression of Parkin markedly alleviated CPF-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. Together, these findings implicate a protective role of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy against neuroapoptosis and that enhancing mitophagy provides a potential therapeutic strategy for CPF-induced neurological disorders. PMID:26070385

  2. PINK1 protects against oxidative stress by phosphorylating mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease (PD). So far, no substrates of PINK1 have been reported, and the mechanism by which PINK1 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unknown. Here we report the identification of tumor n...

  3. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  4. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  5. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  6. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  7. 75 FR 52364 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis... repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN, that meet the... remains and associated funerary objects from the site. Officials of the Memphis Pink Palace Museum...

  8. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  9. Girls, Computers, and "Becoming": "The Pink Voice" Writing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Sarah Jane

    2011-01-01

    Through a feminist content analysis of young women's writing and reflections, this study gives evidence of how a school-based new literacy project shared knowledge in a public voice about the irreducible and complex world of "becoming" a girl. This project, called "The Pink Voice," was conducted in a large urban centre on the West Coast of Canada.…

  10. Motivated to Learn: A Conversation with Daniel Pink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    The author has looked at four decades of scientific research on human motivation and found a mismatch between what science tells us and what organizations actually do. In this interview with "Educational Leadership," Pink shares his insights on how schools can create more optimal conditions for learning--and how they can dial up…

  11. Teaching Social Justice and Encountering Society: The Pink Triangle Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; Stein, Jill M.; Conley, Terri D.

    1999-01-01

    Studied student reflections and responses when they took on a stigmatized role, wearing a pink triangle in support of gay rights. Many of the 103 college students advanced through stages of identity development and moved to more open and positive ways of thinking about others. (SLD)

  12. Stabilizing Oils from Smoked Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smoking of meats and fish is one of the earliest preservation technologies developed by humans. In this study, the smoking process was evaluated as a method for reducing oxidation of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) oils and also maintaining the quality of oil in aged fish prior to oil extractio...

  13. The effects of racemization rate for age estimation of pink teeth.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ayaka; Saitoh, Hisako; Ishii, Namiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-03-01

    Pink teeth is thought to result from the seepage of hemoglobin caused by dental pulp decomposition. We investigated whether racemization can be applied for age estimation in cases of pink teeth where the whole tooth is used. The pink teeth used were three cases and the normal teeth for control were five mandibular canines of known age. Age of the pink teeth was calculated on the basis of regression formula obtained from the five control teeth. Only a slight error was noted between the actual and estimated ages of the pink teeth (R(2) = 0.980, r = 0.990): Cases 1-3 actually aged 23, 53, and 59 years were estimated to be 26, 52, and 60 years. Based on our results of testing pink teeth of known age, we suggest that racemization techniques allow for the age estimation of pink teeth using the same methods for normally colored teeth. PMID:25684096

  14. The yeast complex I equivalent NADH dehydrogenase rescues pink1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Vilain, Sven; Esposito, Giovanni; Haddad, Dominik; Schaap, Onno; Dobreva, Mariya P; Vos, Melissa; Van Meensel, Stefanie; Morais, Vanessa A; De Strooper, Bart; Verstreken, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Pink1 is a mitochondrial kinase involved in Parkinson's disease, and loss of Pink1 function affects mitochondrial morphology via a pathway involving Parkin and components of the mitochondrial remodeling machinery. Pink1 loss also affects the enzymatic activity of isolated Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC); however, the primary defect in pink1 mutants is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ETC deficiency is upstream of other pink1-associated phenotypes. We expressed Saccaromyces cerevisiae Ndi1p, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex I, or sea squirt Ciona intestinalis AOX, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex III and IV, in pink1 mutant Drosophila and find that expression of Ndi1p, but not of AOX, rescues pink1-associated defects. Likewise, loss of function of subunits that encode for Complex I-associated proteins displays many of the pink1-associated phenotypes, and these defects are rescued by Ndi1p expression. Conversely, expression of Ndi1p fails to rescue any of the parkin mutant phenotypes. Additionally, unlike pink1 mutants, fly parkin mutants do not show reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that Ndi1p acts downstream or parallel to Pink1, but upstream or independent of Parkin. Furthermore, while increasing mitochondrial fission or decreasing mitochondrial fusion rescues mitochondrial morphological defects in pink1 mutants, these manipulations fail to significantly rescue the reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that functional defects observed at the level of Complex I enzymatic activity in pink1 mutant mitochondria do not arise from morphological defects. Our data indicate a central role for Complex I dysfunction in pink1-associated defects, and our genetic analyses with heterologous ETC enzymes suggest that Ndi1p-dependent NADH dehydrogenase activity largely acts downstream of, or in parallel to, Pink1 but upstream of Parkin and mitochondrial remodeling. PMID:22242018

  15. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  16. Arsenic Mobilization from Source Sediments in an Aquifer System of West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Koenig, C. E. M.; Pal, T.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Beckie, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geogenic As contamination of groundwater is an enormous public health problem in West Bengal and neighboring Bangladesh. The source of As and its release mechanisms are investigated at a field site in rural West Bengal where As concentrations up to 531 μg/L are measured in domestic wells. The shallow groundwater system is hosted by sediments deposited in a meandering fluvial environment, a typical setting in the Bengal Delta Plain. A numerical groundwater flow model is developed in order to establish the hydrogeological context for As contamination patterns. Reverse particle tracking is then used to map the flow path from each well screen back to its point of recharge. High-As groundwaters are found to be recharged in ponds marking an abandoned river channel; however, the source of As is located within the underlying channel-fill sediments. Analyses of environmental tracers reveal that As release within these sediments is accompanied by a concomitant release of Br and DOC indicating that these species may be decay products of natural organobromines co-deposited along with As. Mass transfer of As to the dissolved phase and its flushing from source sediments are described using a simplified reactive solute transport model. By fitting this model to observations, a characteristic reaction time for mass transfer is estimated at 6.7 years. With the advent of intensive irrigation pumping, bulk groundwater residence times in the source are estimated to have declined from 16.6 to 6.6 years. The ratio of residence and reaction times, a Damköhler number, has declined correspondingly from 2.49 to 0.99, indicating a shift from transport to reaction rate limited As mobilization. Greater insight into the As problem in Asia may be achieved by switching the focus of field investigations from plumes in aquifers to potential contamination sources in aquitards.

  17. Pink Moon: The petrogenesis of pink spinel anorthosites and implications concerning Mg-suite magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prissel, T. C.; Parman, S. W.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Rutherford, M. J.; Hess, P. C.; Head, J. W.; Cheek, L.; Dhingra, D.; Pieters, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) has identified and characterized a new lunar rock type termed pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) (Pieters et al., 2011). Dominated by anorthitic feldspar and rich in MgAl2O4 spinel, PSA appears to have an unusually low modal abundance of mafic silicates, distinguishing it from known lunar spinel-bearing samples. The interaction between basaltic melts and the lunar crust and/or assimilation of anorthitic plagioclase have been proposed as a possible mechanism for PSA formation (Gross and Treiman, 2011; Prissel et al., 2012). To test these hypotheses, we have performed laboratory experiments exploring magma-wallrock interactions within the lunar crust. Lunar basaltic melts were reacted with anorthite at 1400 °C and pressures between 0.05-1.05 GPa. Results indicate that PSA spinel compositions are best explained via the interaction between Mg-suite parental melts and anorthositic crust. Mare basalts and picritic lunar glasses produce spinels too rich in Fe and Cr to be consistent with the M3 observations. The experiments suggest that PSA represents a new member of the plutonic Mg-suite. If true, PSA can be used as a proxy for spectrally identifying areas of Mg-suite magmatism on the Moon. Moreover, the presence of PSA on both the lunar nearside and farside (Pieters et al., in press) indicates Mg-suite magmatism may have occurred on a global scale. In turn, this implies that KREEP is not required for Mg-suite petrogenesis (as KREEP is constrained to the nearside of the Moon) and is only necessary to explain the chemical make-up of nearside Mg-suite samples.

  18. Visual motion with pink noise induces predation behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Wataru; Watanabe, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Visual motion cues are one of the most important factors for eliciting animal behaviour, including predator-prey interactions in aquatic environments. To understand the elements of motion that cause such selective predation behaviour, we used a virtual plankton system where the predation behaviour in response to computer-generated prey was analysed. First, we performed motion analysis of zooplankton (Daphnia magna) to extract mathematical functions for biologically relevant motions of prey. Next, virtual prey models were programmed on a computer and presented to medaka (Oryzias latipes), which served as predatory fish. Medaka exhibited predation behaviour against several characteristic virtual plankton movements, particularly against a swimming pattern that could be characterised as pink noise motion. Analysing prey-predator interactions via pink noise motion will be an interesting research field in the future. PMID:22355733

  19. Tidal and seasonal effects on transport of pink shrimp postlarvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Transport simulations were conducted to investigate a large seasonal peak in postlarvae of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum that occurs every summer on the northwestern border of Florida Bay. Daily vertical migration, a known behavior in pink shrimp postlarvae, was assumed in all scenarios investigated. A Lagrangian trajectory model was developed using a current field derived from a 3 yr ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) time series. To fit the estimated planktonic development time of pink shrimp, the model simulated larvae traveling at night over a 30 d period. We investigated 2 types of effects: (1) the effect of mismatch periodicity between tidal constituents and daily migration, and (2) the effect of seasonal changes in night length. The maximum eastward displacement with the semidiurnal lunar tidal constituent (M2) was 4 km, with periods of enhanced transport in both summer and winter. In contrast, eastward displacement with the semidiurnal solar tidal constituent (S2) and the lunisolar diurnal K1 was 65 km and the period of maximum distance occurred in summer every year. Because the periods of S2 and K1 are so close to the 24 h vertical migration period, and the eastward current (flood) of these constituents matches the diel cycle over extended intervals, they can induce strong horizontal transport during summer. Thus, diel vertical migration can interact with the S2 and the K1 tidal constituents and with the annual cycle of night length to produce a distinct annual cycle that may enhance transport of pink shrimp and other coastal species during summer in shallow areas of the Gulf of Mexico. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  20. Nitric Oxide Induction of Parkin Translocation in PTEN-induced Putative Kinase 1 (PINK1) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Young; Kang, Min-Ji; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Han, Pyung-Lim; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Ha, Ji-Young; Son, Jin H.

    2015-01-01

    The failure to trigger mitophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of familial Parkinson disease that is caused by PINK1 or Parkin mutations. According to the prevailing PINK1-Parkin signaling model, mitophagy is promoted by the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, an essential PINK1-dependent step that occurs via a previously unknown mechanism. Here we determined that critical concentrations of NO was sufficient to induce the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin even in PINK1 deficiency, with apparent increased interaction of full-length PINK1 accumulated during mitophagy, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Specifically, optimum levels of NO enabled PINK1-null dopaminergic neuronal cells to regain the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, which appeared to be significantly suppressed by nNOS-null mutation. Moreover, nNOS-null mutation resulted in the same mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enzyme deficits as PINK1-null mutation. The involvement of mitochondrial nNOS activation in mitophagy was further confirmed by the greatly increased interactions of full-length PINK1 with nNOS, accompanied by mitochondrial accumulation of phospho-nNOS (Ser1412) during mitophagy. Of great interest is that the L347P PINK1 mutant failed to bind to nNOS. The loss of nNOS phosphorylation and Parkin accumulation on PINK1-deficient mitochondria could be reversed in a PINK1-dependent manner. Finally, non-toxic levels of NO treatment aided in the recovery of PINK1-null dopaminergic neuronal cells from mitochondrial ETC enzyme deficits. In summary, we demonstrated the full-length PINK1-dependent recruitment of nNOS, its activation in the induction of Parkin translocation, and the feasibility of NO-based pharmacotherapy for defective mitophagy and ETC enzyme deficits in Parkinson disease. PMID:25716315

  1. Dopamine-dependent CB1 receptor dysfunction at corticostriatal synapses in homozygous PINK1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Madeo, G; Schirinzi, T; Maltese, M; Martella, G; Rapino, C; Fezza, F; Mastrangelo, N; Bonsi, P; Maccarrone, M; Pisani, A

    2016-02-01

    Recessive mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the interaction between endocannabinoid (eCB) and dopaminergic transmission at corticostriatal synapses in PINK1 deficient mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp and conventional recordings of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were made from slices of PINK1(-/-), heterozygous PINK1(+/-) mice and wild-type littermates (PINK1(+/+)). In PINK1(+/+) mice, CB1 receptor (CB1R) activation reduced spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Likewise, CB1R agonists (ACEA, WIN55,212-3 and HU210) induced a dose-dependent reduction of cortically-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potential (eEPSP) amplitude. While CB1R agonists retained their inhibitory effect in heterozygous PINK1(+/-) mice, conversely, in PINK1(-/-) mice they failed to modulate sEPSC amplitude. Similarly, CB1R activation failed to reduce eEPSP amplitude in PINK1(-/-) mice. Parallel biochemical measurements revealed no significant difference in the levels of the two main eCBs, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) in PINK1(-/-) striata. Similarly, no change was observed in the enzymatic activity of both fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), responsible for eCB hydrolysis. Instead, a significant reduction of binding ability of CB1R agonists was found in PINK1(-/-) mice. Notably, the CB1R-dependent inhibition of synaptic activity was restored either by amphetamine or after chronic treatment with the D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole. Additionally, CB1R binding activity returned to control levels after chronic pretreatment with quinpirole. Consistent with the hypothesis of a close interplay with dopaminergic neurotransmission, our findings show a CB1R dysfunction at corticostriatal synapses in PINK1(-/-), but not in PINK1(+/-) mice, and provide a mechanistic link to the distinct plasticity deficits observed in both genotypes. PMID

  2. Cycles, stochasticity and density dependence in pink salmon population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Hilborn, Ray; Peterman, Randall M; Quinn, Thomas P

    2011-07-01

    Complex dynamics of animal populations often involve deterministic and stochastic components. A fascinating example is the variation in magnitude of 2-year cycles in abundances of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) stocks along the North Pacific rim. Pink salmon have a 2-year anadromous and semelparous life cycle, resulting in odd- and even-year lineages that occupy the same habitats but are reproductively isolated in time. One lineage is often much more abundant than the other in a given river, and there are phase switches in dominance between odd- and even-year lines. In some regions, the weak line is absent and in others both lines are abundant. Our analysis of 33 stocks indicates that these patterns probably result from stochastic perturbations of damped oscillations owing to density-dependent mortality caused by interactions between lineages. Possible mechanisms are cannibalism, disease transmission, food depletion and habitat degradation by which one lineage affects the other, although no mechanism has been well-studied. Our results provide comprehensive empirical estimates of lagged density-dependent mortality in salmon populations and suggest that a combination of stochasticity and density dependence drives cyclical dynamics of pink salmon stocks. PMID:21147806

  3. Palaeosol Control of Arsenic Pollution: The Bengal Basin in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, U; Sikdar, P K; McArthur, J M

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in the Bengal Basin is badly polluted by arsenic (As) which adversely affects human health. To provide low-As groundwater for As mitigation, it was sought across 235 km(2) of central West Bengal, in the western part of the basin. By drilling 76 boreholes and chemical analysis of 535 water wells, groundwater with <10 µg/L As in shallow aquifers was found under one-third of a study area. The groundwater is in late Pleistocene palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of weathered brown sand that are capped by a palaeosol of red clay. The aquifers form two N-S trending lineaments that are bounded on the east by an As-polluted deep palaeo-channel aquifer and separated by a shallower palaeo-channel aquifer. The depth to the top of the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers is mostly between 35 and 38 m below ground level (mbgl). The palaeo-interfluvial aquifers are overlain by shallow palaeo-channel aquifers of gray sand in which groundwater is usually As-polluted. The palaeosol now protects the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers from downward migration of As-polluted groundwater in overlying shallow palaeo-channel aquifers. The depth to the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of 35 to 38 mbgl makes the cost of their exploitation affordable to most of the rural poor of West Bengal, who can install a well cheaply to depths up to 60 mbgl. The protection against pollution afforded by the palaeosol means that the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers will provide a long-term source of low-As groundwater to mitigate As pollution of groundwater in the shallower, heavily used, palaeo-channel aquifers. This option for mitigation is cheap to employ and instantly available. PMID:25099955

  4. PINK1 disables the anti-fission machinery to segregate damaged mitochondria for mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Pryde, Kenneth R; Smith, Heather L; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2016-04-25

    Mitochondrial fission is essential for the degradation of damaged mitochondria. It is currently unknown how the dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-associated fission machinery is selectively targeted to segregate damaged mitochondria. We show that PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1) serves as a pro-fission signal, independently of Parkin. Normally, the scaffold protein AKAP1 recruits protein kinase A (PKA) to the outer mitochondrial membrane to phospho-inhibit DRP1. We reveal that after damage, PINK1 triggers PKA displacement from A-kinase anchoring protein 1. By ejecting PKA, PINK1 ensures the requisite fission of damaged mitochondria for organelle degradation. We propose that PINK1 functions as a master mitophagy regulator by activating Parkin and DRP1 in response to damage. We confirm that PINK1 mutations causing Parkinson disease interfere with the orchestration of selective fission and mitophagy by PINK1. PMID:27091447

  5. PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Lesley A.; Lazarou, Michael; Fogel, Adam I.; Li, Yan; Yamano, Koji; Sarraf, Shireen A.; Banerjee, Soojay

    2014-01-01

    PINK1 kinase activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to induce selective autophagy of damaged mitochondria. However, it has been unclear how PINK1 activates and recruits Parkin to mitochondria. Although PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin, other PINK1 substrates appear to activate Parkin, as the mutation of all serine and threonine residues conserved between Drosophila and human, including Parkin S65, did not wholly impair Parkin translocation to mitochondria. Using mass spectrometry, we discovered that endogenous PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin at serine 65, homologous to the site phosphorylated by PINK1 in Parkin’s ubiquitin-like domain. Recombinant TcPINK1 directly phosphorylated ubiquitin and phospho-ubiquitin activated Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in cell-free assays. In cells, the phosphomimetic ubiquitin mutant S65D bound and activated Parkin. Furthermore, expression of ubiquitin S65A, a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PINK1, inhibited Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. These results explain a feed-forward mechanism of PINK1-mediated initiation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. PMID:24751536

  6. PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.

    PubMed

    Kane, Lesley A; Lazarou, Michael; Fogel, Adam I; Li, Yan; Yamano, Koji; Sarraf, Shireen A; Banerjee, Soojay; Youle, Richard J

    2014-04-28

    PINK1 kinase activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to induce selective autophagy of damaged mitochondria. However, it has been unclear how PINK1 activates and recruits Parkin to mitochondria. Although PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin, other PINK1 substrates appear to activate Parkin, as the mutation of all serine and threonine residues conserved between Drosophila and human, including Parkin S65, did not wholly impair Parkin translocation to mitochondria. Using mass spectrometry, we discovered that endogenous PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin at serine 65, homologous to the site phosphorylated by PINK1 in Parkin's ubiquitin-like domain. Recombinant TcPINK1 directly phosphorylated ubiquitin and phospho-ubiquitin activated Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in cell-free assays. In cells, the phosphomimetic ubiquitin mutant S65D bound and activated Parkin. Furthermore, expression of ubiquitin S65A, a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PINK1, inhibited Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. These results explain a feed-forward mechanism of PINK1-mediated initiation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. PMID:24751536

  7. A Dimeric PINK1-containing Complex on Depolarized Mitochondria Stimulates Parkin Recruitment*

    PubMed Central

    Okatsu, Kei; Uno, Midori; Koyano, Fumika; Go, Etsu; Kimura, Mayumi; Oka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Parkinsonism typified by sporadic Parkinson disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1), a mitochondrial Ser/Thr protein kinase, or PARKIN, a ubiquitin-protein ligase, cause familial parkinsonism. The accumulation and autophosphorylation of PINK1 on damaged mitochondria results in the recruitment of Parkin, which ultimately triggers quarantine and/or degradation of the damaged mitochondria by the proteasome and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanism of PINK1 in dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) has not been fully elucidated. Here we show by fluorescence-based techniques that the PINK1 complex formed following a decrease in ΔΨm is composed of two PINK1 molecules and is correlated with intermolecular phosphorylation of PINK1. Disruption of complex formation by the PINK1 S402A mutation weakened Parkin recruitment onto depolarized mitochondria. The most disease-relevant mutations of PINK1 inhibit the complex formation. Taken together, these results suggest that formation of the complex containing dyadic PINK1 is an important step for Parkin recruitment onto damaged mitochondria. PMID:24189060

  8. Population control programme in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K V

    1996-01-01

    Population size doubled over the period 1947-81 and continues to grow. Such a rapid increase in population size has serious repercussions upon socioeconomic development. Population growth threatens to nullify efforts to improve the condition of the poor. Indeed, all gains in the field of agriculture, industry, and national income look marginal when measured in per capita terms. The family welfare program seeks to promote, on a voluntary basis, responsible and planned parenthood of a two-child norm devoid of any bias for or against the sex of a given child. Use of the mass media and interpersonal communication to explain various methods of contraception and remove sociocultural barriers has led to an increase in the number of family planning acceptors in recent years. However, despite the family welfare program being in operation for four decades, population continues to grow at an alarming rate. It is clear that program strategy and mode of implementation must be reviewed. The state government of West Bengal is determined to implement the family welfare program effectively through the motivation and education of married couples, while making various types of contraceptive services available to the people. PMID:12347749

  9. The classical pink-eyed dilution mutation affects angiogenic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael S; Boyartchuk, Victor; Rohan, Richard M; Birsner, Amy E; Dietrich, William F; D'Amato, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis. PMID:22615734

  10. P-Ink displays: flexible, low power, reflective color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Andre C.; Wang, Hai; Henderson, Eric; Kerins, Fergal; Kamp, Ulrich; Da Silva Bonifacio, Leonardo; Law, Pak Hin; Ozin, Geoffrey A.

    2013-03-01

    Opalux's P-Ink material represents a revolutionary step forward in display technology, offering the ability to reflect bright and vivid colors spanning the visible spectrum. By applying low power electric pulses, the color of this Photonic Color-based material can be selected at will, with the resulting electrically bi-stable color states requiring no power to maintain. It can be coated onto rigid and flexible substrates in scale, highlighting its potential to drive the development of bendable form factors for displays.

  11. [Salmon-pink colored conjunctival tumor with amyloid deposits].

    PubMed

    Müller, P L; Loeffler, K U; Holz, F G; Fischer, H-P; Herwig, M C

    2016-07-01

    An 82-year-old male patient presented with a salmon-pink colored conjunctival tumor of the left eye. A circumscribed, dense and whitish portion was detected by clinical examination. The histophological and immunhistochemical examination of the biopsy tissue revealed a CD20+ marginal zone lymphoma of the conjunctiva with amyloid deposits. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma at this site is the most common lymphoma of the ocular adnexa and accounts for 5-10% of malignant diseases. An association with amyloid production is very rare and according to the current state of knowledge has no known impact on the outcome. PMID:26362570

  12. Pink topaz from the Thomas Range, Juab County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Chirnside, W.; Lichte, F.E.; Briggs, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Thomas Range is world-famous for its production of topaz Al2SiO4(F,OH)2, occurring in lithophysal cavities in rhyolite. Topaz Valley, at the southern end of the range, is perhaps the single most famous locality. While fine-quality, sherry-orange crystals to 5 cm or more in length occur at various localities, pale to medium pink crystals were first reported from the Thomas Range in 1934. The cause of the unusual coloration, unknown for 60 years, is now believed to be substitution of Mn3+ ?? Fe3+ for Al3+. -Authors

  13. [CK2beta promotes Pink1/Parkin-mediated MIRO1 degradation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenliang; Qin, Siyue; Jiang, Chang'an

    2014-12-01

    PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a Parkinson's disease (PD)-related protein, has two isoforms, the mitochondria-localized full-length isoform PINK1FL and the cytoplasm-localized short isoform PINK1-cyto. Studies have suggested that PINK1FL can selectively accumulate at the surface of damaged mitochondria and cooperate with another Parkinson's Disease-related protein PARKIN to trigger the degradation of MIRO1, a mitochondria trafficking regulator. The functions of PINK1-cyto are, however, not yet clear. To investigate the functions of PINK1-cyto, we expressed different proteins in cultured HEK293 cells by transfecting it with different plasmids, and detected the protein levels by Western blot after expressing for 24 h. We found that in cultured HEK293 cells, PINK1-cyto could also cooperate with PARKIN degrade MIRO1 in the presence of CK23, and the regulatory subunit of Casein Kinase II. Interestingly, this function of CK2P was not dependent on CK2alpha, the catalytic subunit of Casein Kinase II. We also found that CK2P could promote the direct interaction between PINK1-cyto and MIRO1 by immunocoprecipitation analysis. This result suggested that in addition to CK2alpha, CK2beta could also form a kinase complex. PMID:25868250

  14. EVALUATION OF THE ULTRAVIOLET-OZONE AND ULTRAVIOLET-OXIDANT TREATMENT OF PINK WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pink water, a solution of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other nitrobodies, is a major pollutant at ammunition plants engaged either in the manufacture of TNT or in the loading, assembly, and packing of bombs and shells. As an alternative to carbon adsorption for the treatment of pink...

  15. Shades of Pink: Preschoolers Make Meaning in a Reggio-Inspired Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Shades of Pink study describes how six preschoolers and their teacher engaged in a collaborative learning project through which they learned about the shades of a color--in this case, pink. As the children learned through experimenting and discussing their theories, they represented ideas using art as a tool for discovery and learning. The study…

  16. Unconventional PINK1 localization to the outer membrane of depolarized mitochondria drives Parkin recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Okatsu, Kei; Kimura, Mayumi; Oka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dysfunction of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a Ser/Thr kinase with an N-terminal mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS), causes familial recessive parkinsonism. Reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential limits MTS-mediated matrix import and promotes PINK1 accumulation on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) of depolarized mitochondria. PINK1 then undergoes autophosphorylation and phosphorylates ubiquitin and Parkin, a cytosolic ubiquitin ligase, for clearance of damaged mitochondria. The molecular basis for PINK1 localization on the OMM of depolarized mitochondria rather than release to the cytosol is poorly understood. Here, we disentangle the PINK1 localization mechanism using deletion mutants and a newly established constitutively active PINK1 mutant. Disruption of the MTS through N-terminal insertion of aspartic acid residues results in OMM localization of PINK1 in energized mitochondria. Unexpectedly, the MTS and putative transmembrane domain (TMD) are dispensable for OMM localization, whereas mitochondrial translocase Tom40 (also known as TOMM40) and an alternative mitochondrial localization signal that resides between the MTS and TMD are required. PINK1 utilizes a mitochondrial localization mechanism that is distinct from that of conventional MTS proteins and that presumably functions in conjunction with the Tom complex in OMM localization when the conventional N-terminal MTS is inhibited. PMID:25609704

  17. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  18. Responses of pink salmon to CO2-induced aquatic acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Michelle; Hamilton, Trevor J.; Eom, Junho; Lyall, Emily M.; Gallup, Joshua; Jiang, Amy; Lee, Jason; Close, David A.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification negatively affects many marine species and is predicted to cause widespread changes to marine ecosystems. Similarly, freshwater ecosystems may potentially be affected by climate-change-related acidification; however, this has received far less attention. Freshwater fish represent 40% of all fishes, and salmon, which rear and spawn in freshwater, are of immense ecosystem, economical and cultural importance. In this study, we investigate the impacts of CO2-induced acidification during the development of pink salmon, in freshwater and following early seawater entry. At this critical and sensitive life stage, we show dose-dependent reductions in growth, yolk-to-tissue conversion and maximal O2 uptake capacity; as well as significant alterations in olfactory responses, anti-predator behaviour and anxiety under projected future increases in CO2 levels. These data indicate that future populations of pink salmon may be at risk without mitigation and highlight the need for further studies on the impact of CO2-induced acidification on freshwater systems.

  19. Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Its historical center reflects most of their culture and history, especially of the colonial period; in fact, it was appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry (the most used building stone in Morelia) are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti.

  20. PINK1 and Parkin Target Miro for Phosphorylation and Degradation to Arrest Mitochondrial Motility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinnan; Winter, Dominic; Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; Schlehe, Julia; Wong, Yao Liang; Selkoe, Dennis; Rice, Sarah; Steen, Judith; LaVoie, Matthew J.; Schwarz, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Cells keep their energy balance and avoid oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial movement, distribution, and clearance. We report here that two Parkinson’s disease proteins, the Ser/Thr-kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin-ligase Parkin, participate in this regulation by arresting mitochondrial movement. PINK1 phosphorylates Miro, a component of the primary motor/adaptor complex that anchors kinesin to the mitochondrial surface. The phosphorylation of Miro activates proteasomal degradation of Miro in a Parkin-dependent manner. Removal of Miro from the mitochondrion also detaches kinesin from its surface. By preventing mitochondrial movement, the PINK1/Parkin pathway may quarantine damaged mitochondria prior to their clearance. PINK1 has been shown to act upstream of Parkin but the mechanism corresponding to this relationship has not been known. We propose that PINK1 phosphorylation of substrates triggers the subsequent action of Parkin and the proteasome. PMID:22078885

  1. PINK1 and Parkin target Miro for phosphorylation and degradation to arrest mitochondrial motility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinnan; Winter, Dominic; Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; Schlehe, Julia; Wong, Yao Liang; Selkoe, Dennis; Rice, Sarah; Steen, Judith; LaVoie, Matthew J; Schwarz, Thomas L

    2011-11-11

    Cells keep their energy balance and avoid oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial movement, distribution, and clearance. We report here that two Parkinson's disease proteins, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin ligase Parkin, participate in this regulation by arresting mitochondrial movement. PINK1 phosphorylates Miro, a component of the primary motor/adaptor complex that anchors kinesin to the mitochondrial surface. The phosphorylation of Miro activates proteasomal degradation of Miro in a Parkin-dependent manner. Removal of Miro from the mitochondrion also detaches kinesin from its surface. By preventing mitochondrial movement, the PINK1/Parkin pathway may quarantine damaged mitochondria prior to their clearance. PINK1 has been shown to act upstream of Parkin, but the mechanism corresponding to this relationship has not been known. We propose that PINK1 phosphorylation of substrates triggers the subsequent action of Parkin and the proteasome. PMID:22078885

  2. Sedimentology and arsenic pollution in the Bengal Basin: insight into arsenic occurrence and subsurface geology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Andrew; McArthur, John

    2014-05-01

    The Bengal delta system is a geologically recent feature overlying a deeply incised palaeo-surface formed during the Last Glacial Maximum. This surface is a series of terraces and valleys created by river incision (Goodbred & Kuehl 2003). The terraces were weathered, forming a thin, indurated laterite deposit (Goodbred & Kuehl 2000) at depths greater than 50 m. McArthur et al. (2008) define this as a palaeosol and have identified it at depths greater than 30 m though out Bangladesh and West Bengal. It has been observed that arsenic concentrations at these sites are lower than the rest of the delta. It has been assumed that the surface morphology at sites where there is a palaeosol are similar and can therefore be characterised by remote sensing, in the form of Google Earth images. Sites were selected in Bangladesh and West Bengal, from work by McArthur et al. (2011); Hoque et al. (2012), where groundwater chemistry and sedimentology data are available making it possible to determine if the subsurface is a palaeo-channel or palaeo-interfluve. Arsenic concentration data have been inputted into Google Earth and the palaeo-channels marked where the arsenic concentration is greater than 10 µg/L, and palaeo-interfluves where arsenic concentration is less than 10 µg/L. The surface morphologies in these domains have been examined for similarities, and it was shown that avulsion scars and abandoned river channels are found where arsenic concentrations are greater than 10 µg/L. Conversely the surrounding areas that are devoid of channel scars have arsenic concentrations less than 10 µg/L. Using the correlation between avulsion features being representative of palaeo-channels and high arsenic concentrations, sites were selected that had a similar surface morphology to the type localities. A comparison of these images and arsenic concentrations showed that the postulate is valid for over 80 percent of cases. Where this is not valid, this could indicate that the subsurface

  3. Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E.; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24 h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3 h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

  4. Exposure to low-dose rotenone precipitates synaptic plasticity alterations in PINK1 heterozygous knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Martella, G; Madeo, G; Maltese, M; Vanni, V; Puglisi, F; Ferraro, E; Schirinzi, T; Valente, E M; Bonanni, L; Shen, J; Mandolesi, G; Mercuri, N B; Bonsi, P; Pisani, A

    2016-07-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the PINK1 gene are considered a susceptibility factor to develop early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), as supported by dopamine hypometabolism in asymptomatic mutation carriers and subtle alterations of dopamine-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knockout (PINK1(+/-)) mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to low-dose rotenone of heterozygous PINK1(+/-) mice, compared to their wild-type PINK1(+/+) littermates, could impact on dopamine-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity, in the absence of apparent structural alterations. Mice were exposed to a range of concentrations of rotenone (0.01-1mg/kg). Chronic treatment with concentrations of rotenone up to 0.8mg/kg did not cause manifest neuronal loss or changes in ATP levels both in the striatum or substantia nigra of PINK1(+/-) and PINK1(+/+) mice. Moreover, rotenone (up to 0.8mg/kg) treatment did not induce mislocalization of the mitochondrial membrane protein Tom20 and release of cytochrome c in PINK1(+/-) striata. Accordingly, basic electrophysiological properties of nigral dopaminergic and striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) were normal. Despite the lack of gross alterations in neuronal viability in chronically-treated PINK1(+/-), a complete loss of both long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) was recorded in MSNs from PINK1(+/-) mice treated with a low rotenone (0.1mg/kg) concentration. Even lower concentrations (0.01mg/kg) blocked LTP induction in heterozygous PINK1(+/-) MSNs compared to PINK1(+/+) mice. Of interest, chronic pretreatment with the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and Trolox, a water-soluble analog of vitamin E and powerful antioxidant, rescued synaptic plasticity impairment, confirming that, at the doses we utilized, rotenone did not induce irreversible alterations. In this model, chronic exposure to low-doses of rotenone was not sufficient to alter mitochondrial integrity and ATP production, but

  5. On Your Marks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines the application of field, rink, track, and court markings and explains why the use of proper materials and some knowledge of science is important. Specific issues when using marking paints and dyes are addressed. (GR)

  6. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is attempting to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used in crop identification. The status of each field is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground surveys taken at the time of each ERTS-1 overflight. Correlation has been to date 100%. A computer analysis will be performed to compare field status with the crop calendar in order to identify crops. Correlation is expected to be 80 to 90%. Cotton fields, because of their state regulated season which is exactly coincident with no other crop, are expected to be easily identified.

  7. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    PubMed

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases. PMID:25654945

  8. Mitochondrial Parkin recruitment is impaired in neurons derived from mutant PINK1 iPS cells

    PubMed Central

    Seibler, Philip; Graziotto, John; Jeong, Hyun; Simunovic, Filip; Klein, Christine; Krainc, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Genetic Parkinson disease (PD) has been associated with mutations in PINK1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial kinase implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial degradation. While the studies so far examined PINK1 function in non-neuronal systems or through PINK1 knockdown approaches, there is an imperative to examine the role of endogenous PINK1 in appropriate human-derived and biologically relevant cell models. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from skin fibroblasts taken from three PD patients with nonsense (c.1366C>T; p.Q456X) or missense mutations (c.509T>G; p.V170G) in the PINK1 gene. These cells were differentiated into dopaminergic neurons that upon mitochondrial depolarization showed impaired recruitment of lentivirally expressed Parkin to mitochondria, increased mitochondrial copy number and upregulation of PGC-1α, an important regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Importantly, these alterations were corrected by lentiviral expression of wild-type PINK1 in mutant iPS cell-derived PINK1 neurons. In conclusion, our studies suggest that fibroblasts from genetic PD can be reprogrammed and differentiated into neurons. These neurons exhibit distinct phenotypes that should be amenable to further mechanistic studies in this relevant biological context. PMID:21508222

  9. Impaired dopamine release and synaptic plasticity in the striatum of PINK1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Tohru; Pisani, Antonio; Porter, Douglas R; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Tscherter, Anne; Martella, Giuseppina; Bonsi, Paola; Zhang, Chen; Pothos, Emmanuel N; Shen, Jie

    2007-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective vulnerability of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic circuit. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene have been linked to early-onset PD. How PINK1 deficiency causes dopaminergic dysfunction and degeneration in PD patients is unknown. Here, we investigate the physiological role of PINK1 in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic circuit through the generation and multidisciplinary analysis of PINK1(-/-) mutant mice. We found that numbers of dopaminergic neurons and levels of striatal dopamine (DA) and DA receptors are unchanged in PINK1(-/-) mice. Amperometric recordings, however, revealed decreases in evoked DA release in striatal slices and reductions in the quantal size and release frequency of catecholamine in dissociated chromaffin cells. Intracellular recordings of striatal medium spiny neurons, the major dopaminergic target, showed specific impairments of corticostriatal long-term potentiation and long-term depression in PINK1(-/-) mice. Consistent with a decrease in evoked DA release, these striatal plasticity impairments could be rescued by either DA receptor agonists or agents that increase DA release, such as amphetamine or l-dopa. These results reveal a critical role for PINK1 in DA release and striatal synaptic plasticity in the nigrostriatal circuit and suggest that altered dopaminergic physiology may be a pathogenic precursor to nigrostriatal degeneration. PMID:17563363

  10. Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Pontus; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Motori, Elisa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Schnorrer, Frank; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Klein, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its signaling receptor Ret are neuroprotective in toxin-based animal models of PD. However, the mechanism by which GDNF/Ret protects cells from degenerating remains unclear. We investigated whether the Drosophila homolog of Ret can rescue Pink1 and park mutant phenotypes. We report that a signaling active version of Ret (RetMEN2B) rescues muscle degeneration, disintegration of mitochondria and ATP content of Pink1 mutants. Interestingly, corresponding phenotypes of park mutants were not rescued, suggesting that the phenotypes of Pink1 and park mutants have partially different origins. In human neuroblastoma cells, GDNF treatment rescues morphological defects of PINK1 knockdown, without inducing mitophagy or Parkin recruitment. GDNF also rescues bioenergetic deficits of PINK knockdown cells. Furthermore, overexpression of RetMEN2B significantly improves electron transport chain complex I function in Pink1 mutant Drosophila. These results provide a novel mechanism underlying Ret-mediated cell protection in a situation relevant for human PD. PMID:24473149

  11. PINK1 positively regulates HDAC3 to suppress dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo-Kyoung; Choi, Youngsok; Kang, HeeBum; Lim, Eun-Jin; Park, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Seob; Park, Ji-Min; Moon, Jisook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Choi, Insup; Joe, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2015-02-15

    Deciphering the molecular basis of neuronal cell death is a central issue in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Dysregulation of p53 levels has been implicated in neuronal apoptosis. The role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in suppressing p53-dependent apoptosis has been recently emphasized; however, the molecular basis of modulation of p53 function by HDAC3 remains unclear. Here we show that PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which is linked to autosomal recessive early-onset familial Parkinson's disease, phosphorylates HDAC3 at Ser-424 to enhance its HDAC activity in a neural cell-specific manner. PINK1 prevents H2O2-induced C-terminal cleavage of HDAC3 via phosphorylation of HDAC3 at Ser-424, which is reversed by protein phosphatase 4c. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of HDAC3 enhances its direct association with p53 and causes subsequent hypoacetylation of p53. Genetic deletion of PINK1 partly impaired the suppressive role of HDAC3 in regulating p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. However, depletion of HDAC3 fully abolished the PINK1-mediated p53 inhibitory loop. Finally, ectopic expression of phosphomometic-HDAC3(S424E) substantially overcomes the defective action of PINK1 against oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Together, our results uncovered a mechanism by which PINK1-HDAC3 network mediates p53 inhibitory loop in response to oxidative stress-induced damage. PMID:25305081

  12. Histochemical Characterization of Oocytes in the Pink Cuskeel (Genypterus blacodes).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stefanía; Petcoff, Gladys; Freijo, Roberto O; Portiansky, Enrique L; Barbeito, Claudio G; Macchi, Gustavo J; Díaz, Alcira O

    2015-08-01

    In the present study we histochemically and lectinhistochemically characterized the growing oocytes of the pink cuskeel (Genypterus blacodes). We used histochemical methods for the localization and characterization of glycoconjugates (GCs) and lectin histochemical techniques for the identification of specific sugar residues. We analyzed presence and distribution of GCs in the different structures of the growing follicles (cortical alveoli, globules, yolk granules and zona radiata). During the initial stage of vitellogenesis, the oocytes presented small yolk granules composed of GCs that gradually increased during exogenous vitellogenesis. These GCs contained moderate quantities of α-D-mannose, D-glucose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. The cortical alveoli contained both neutral and carboxylated GCs, and lectin techniques detected N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose and L-fucose. The zona radiata showed a strong positive reaction to PAS and it reacted weakly with more specific techniques, such as KOH/PA*S and PA/Bh/KOH/PAS. This structure showed GCs with oxidizable vicinal diols, O-acyl sugars and sialic acid residues with different substitution types and presented N-acetylgalactosamine and L-fucose specific residues. The oocytes follicular envelope evidenced neutral and acidic non-sulfated GCs and high concentrations of α-D-mannose, D-glucose, galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine. The intergranular cytoplasmic GCs were mainly rich in α-D-mannose, D-glucose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. These results enhance the comprehension of the structure and functionality of the pink cuskeel ovarian follicles, and provide a useful tool for the study of this tissue in other teleost species. PMID:26245226

  13. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  14. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  15. [Double ricochet marks].

    PubMed

    Sellier, K

    1987-01-01

    When bullets are flying stably and ricochet on a surface, only one mark is produced. In contrast yawing bullets can produce a double mark if the angle of incidence is sufficiently small (less than or equal to 5 degrees). Distances up to 15 cm were seen between the two marks. PMID:3660953

  16. Novel P-TEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) variant in Indian Parkinson's disease patient.

    PubMed

    Halder, Tamali; Raj, Janak; Sharma, Vivek; Das, Parimal

    2015-09-25

    Loss-of-function mutation in PINK1 is known for causing autosomal recessive early onset Parkinsonism accounting approximately 6.5% of PD cases. Recently, PINK1 has also been shown to cause Parkinson's disease (PD) in eastern India. Present study is aimed to see its contribution in north-Indian PD patients. A total of 106 PD patients and 60 ethnically matched healthy controls were included in the study. All the patients were screened for mutation in PINK1 by direct DNA sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons covering all exons and exon-intron boundaries. Identified novel variant was reconfirmed by DNA sequencing of 10 randomly selected TA clones containing the variant amplicon. In vitro functional assay of the mutant protein was performed by transfecting COS-7 cell line with wild type and mutant (created by site-directed-mutagenesis) cDNA construct of PINK1 fused to N' terminal GFP followed by western blot analysis. Two potentially pathogenic, one being novel (p.Q267X) and 6 other apparently non-pathogenic variants were identified. Western blot analysis reveals production of truncated PINK1 fusion protein of ∼55kDa in p.Q267X mutant instead of 82/93kDa of wild type PINK1 fusion protein (molecular weight of GFP is ∼27kDa). Our study concludes that PINK1 variants are prevalent for causing Parkinson's disease (PD) in India, as revealed by the occurrence of 1.8% (2/106) in PD patients from north Indian population. The novel homozygous variant of PINK1 (c.799C>T) reported here is the plausible cause for disease manifestation in this patient. Future study, however, would be helpful to understand the functional mechanism how this premature PINK1 protein (p.Q267X) responds to cellular stress leading to the PD pathophysiology. PMID:26282903

  17. The mouse pink-eyed dilution allele of the P-gene greatly inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2011-02-01

    The mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) locus is known to control eumelanin synthesis, melanosome morphology, and tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. However, it has not been fully determined whether the mutant allele, p affects pheomelanin synthesis. Effects of the p allele on eumelanin and phemelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice obtained from the F(2) generations (black, pink-eyed black, recessive yellow, pink-eyed recessive yellow, agouti, and pink-eyed agouti) between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-congenic pink-eyed black mice (B10-p/p) and recessive yellow (B10-Mc1r(e)/Mc1r(e)) or agouti (B10-A/A) mice. The eumelanin content was dramatically (>20-fold) decreased in pink-eyed black and pink-eyed agouti mice, whereas the pheomelanin content did not decrease in pink-eyed black, pink-eyed recessive yellow, or pink-eyed agouti mice compared to the corresponding P/- mice. These results suggest that the pink-eyed dilution allele greatly inhibits eumelanin synthesis, but not pheomelanin synthesis. PMID:21232027

  18. PINK1 loss-of-function mutations affect mitochondrial complex I activity via NdufA10 ubiquinone uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Morais, Vanessa A; Haddad, Dominik; Craessaerts, Katleen; De Bock, Pieter-Jan; Swerts, Jef; Vilain, Sven; Aerts, Liesbeth; Overbergh, Lut; Grünewald, Anne; Seibler, Philip; Klein, Christine; Gevaert, Kris; Verstreken, Patrik; De Strooper, Bart

    2014-04-11

    Under resting conditions, Pink1 knockout cells and cells derived from patients with PINK1 mutations display a loss of mitochondrial complex I reductive activity, causing a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Analyzing the phosphoproteome of complex I in liver and brain from Pink1(-/-) mice, we found specific loss of phosphorylation of serine-250 in complex I subunit NdufA10. Phosphorylation of serine-250 was needed for ubiquinone reduction by complex I. Phosphomimetic NdufA10 reversed Pink1 deficits in mouse knockout cells and rescued mitochondrial depolarization and synaptic transmission defects in pink(B9)-null mutant Drosophila. Complex I deficits and adenosine triphosphate synthesis were also rescued in cells derived from PINK1 patients. Thus, this evolutionary conserved pathway may contribute to the pathogenic cascade that eventually leads to Parkinson's disease in patients with PINK1 mutations. PMID:24652937

  19. Characterization of pUCD5000 involved in pink disease color formation by Pantoea citrea.

    PubMed

    Pujol, C J; Kado, C I

    1998-09-01

    Pantoea citrea, the causal agent of pink disease of pineapple, harbors a cryptic plasmid of 5229 bp. designated pUCD5000. On the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses, pUCD5000 contains both replication and mobilization loci (bom and mobCABD) that are similar to those in plasmids pSW100 and pSW200 in Pantoea stewartii and pEC3 in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. The survival of P. citrea on pineapple does not depend on pUCD5000. However, full pink coloration development, which is characteristic of the pink disease, appears to require this plasmid. PMID:9735319

  20. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) of pink teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, N.; Watanabe, G.; Harada, A.; Suzuki, T.

    1988-11-01

    Samples of postmortem pink teeth were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fracture surfaces of the dentin in pink teeth were noticeably rough and revealed many more smaller dentinal tubules than those of the control white teeth. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed that the pink teeth contained iron which seemed to be derived from blood hemoglobin. The present study confirms that under the same circumstance red coloration of teeth may occur more easily in the teeth in which the dentin is less compact and contains more dentinal tubules.

  1. Mitochondrial Quality Control Mediated by PINK1 and Parkin: Links to Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Derek; Walker, John E.; Youle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in Parkin or PINK1 are the most common cause of recessive familial parkinsonism. Recent studies suggest that PINK1 and Parkin form a mitochondria quality control pathway that identifies dysfunctional mitochondria, isolates them from the mitochondrial network, and promotes their degradation by autophagy. In this pathway the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 senses mitochondrial fidelity and recruits Parkin selectively to mitochondria that lose membrane potential. Parkin, an E3 ligase, subsequently ubiquitinates outer mitochondrial membrane proteins, notably the mitofusins and Miro, and induces autophagic elimination of the impaired organelles. Here we review the recent rapid progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of PINK1- and Parkin-mediated mitophagy and the identification of Parkin substrates suggesting how mitochondrial fission and trafficking are involved. We also discuss how defects in mitophagy may be linked to Parkinson's disease. PMID:23125018

  2. Insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of pink bollworm resistance to Cry toxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) toxins target key insect pests in cotton and corn cropping systems. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is currently the target of an area-wide eradication progra...

  3. Parkin and PINK1 function in a vesicular trafficking pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control

    PubMed Central

    McLelland, Gian-Luca; Soubannier, Vincent; Chen, Carol X; McBride, Heidi M; Fon, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin and PINK1, two genes associated with familial PD, have been implicated in the degradation of depolarized mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy). Here, we describe the involvement of parkin and PINK1 in a vesicular pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control. This pathway is distinct from canonical mitophagy and is triggered by the generation of oxidative stress from within mitochondria. Wild-type but not PD-linked mutant parkin supports the biogenesis of a population of mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs), which bud off mitochondria and contain a specific repertoire of cargo proteins. These MDVs require PINK1 expression and ultimately target to lysosomes for degradation. We hypothesize that loss of this parkin- and PINK1-dependent trafficking mechanism impairs the ability of mitochondria to selectively degrade oxidized and damaged proteins leading, over time, to the mitochondrial dysfunction noted in PD. PMID:24446486

  4. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  5. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  6. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Malick, Michael J; Cox, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Reysenbach, A.L.; Wickham, G.S.; Pace, N.R.

    1994-06-01

    This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. In Vitro Comparison of the Activity Requirements and Substrate Specificity of Human and Triboleum castaneum PINK1 Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Liesbeth; Craessaerts, Katleen; De Strooper, Bart; Morais, Vanessa A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 cause early-onset familial Parkinson’s disease. To understand the biological function of PINK1 and its role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease, it is useful to study its kinase activity towards substrates both in vivo and in vitro. For in vitro kinase assays, a purified Triboleum castaneum PINK1 insect orthologue is often employed, because it displays higher levels of activity when compared to human PINK1. We show, however, that the activity requirements, and more importantly the substrate specificity, differ between both orthologues. While Triboleum castaneum PINK1 readily phosphorylates the PINKtide peptide and Histone H1 in vitro, neither of these non-physiological substrates is phosphorylated by human PINK1. Nonetheless, both Tc and human PINK1 phosphorylate Parkin and Ubiquitin, two physiological substrates of PINK1. Our results show that the substrate selectivity differs among PINK1 orthologues, an important consideration that should be taken into account when extrapolating findings back to human PINK1. PMID:26784449

  9. Mitochondrial membrane potential regulates PINK1 import and proteolytic destabilization by PARL.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seok Min; Lazarou, Michael; Wang, Chunxin; Kane, Lesley A; Narendra, Derek P; Youle, Richard J

    2010-11-29

    PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase mutated in some familial cases of Parkinson's disease. It has been found to work in the same pathway as the E3 ligase Parkin in the maintenance of flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and to recruit cytosolic Parkin to mitochondria to mediate mitophagy in mammalian cells. Although PINK1 has a predicted mitochondrial import sequence, its cellular and submitochondrial localization remains unclear in part because it is rapidly degraded. In this study, we report that the mitochondrial inner membrane rhomboid protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) mediates cleavage of PINK1 dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential. In the absence of PARL, the constitutive degradation of PINK1 is inhibited, stabilizing a 60-kD form inside mitochondria. When mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated, PINK1 accumulates as a 63-kD full-length form on the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it can recruit Parkin to impaired mitochondria. Thus, differential localization to the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes appears to regulate PINK1 stability and function. PMID:21115803

  10. Mitochondrial membrane potential regulates PINK1 import and proteolytic destabilization by PARL

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seok Min; Lazarou, Michael; Wang, Chunxin; Kane, Lesley A.; Narendra, Derek P.

    2010-01-01

    PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase mutated in some familial cases of Parkinson’s disease. It has been found to work in the same pathway as the E3 ligase Parkin in the maintenance of flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and to recruit cytosolic Parkin to mitochondria to mediate mitophagy in mammalian cells. Although PINK1 has a predicted mitochondrial import sequence, its cellular and submitochondrial localization remains unclear in part because it is rapidly degraded. In this study, we report that the mitochondrial inner membrane rhomboid protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) mediates cleavage of PINK1 dependent on mitochondrial membrane potential. In the absence of PARL, the constitutive degradation of PINK1 is inhibited, stabilizing a 60-kD form inside mitochondria. When mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated, PINK1 accumulates as a 63-kD full-length form on the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it can recruit Parkin to impaired mitochondria. Thus, differential localization to the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes appears to regulate PINK1 stability and function. PMID:21115803

  11. PINK1 Is a Negative Regulator of Growth and the Warburg Effect in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Golbourn, Brian; Huang, Xi; Remke, Marc; Younger, Susan; Cairns, Rob A; Chalil, Alan; Smith, Christian A; Krumholtz, Stacey-Lynn; Mackenzie, Danielle; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taccone, Michael S; Mischel, Paul S; Fuller, Gregory N; Hawkins, Cynthia; Stanford, William L; Taylor, Michael D; Zadeh, Gelareh; Rutka, James T

    2016-08-15

    Proliferating cancer cells are characterized by high rates of glycolysis, lactate production, and altered mitochondrial metabolism. This metabolic reprogramming provides important metabolites for proliferation of tumor cells, including glioblastoma. These biological processes, however, generate oxidative stress that must be balanced through detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using an unbiased retroviral loss-of-function screen in nontransformed human astrocytes, we demonstrate that mitochondrial PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a regulator of the Warburg effect and negative regulator of glioblastoma growth. We report that loss of PINK1 contributes to the Warburg effect through ROS-dependent stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1A and reduced pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 activity, both key regulators of aerobic glycolysis. Mechanistically, PINK1 suppresses ROS and tumor growth through FOXO3a, a master regulator of oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase 2. These findings highlight the importance of PINK1 and ROS balance in normal and tumor cells. PINK1 loss was observed in a significant number of human brain tumors including glioblastoma (n > 900) and correlated with poor patient survival. PINK1 overexpression attenuates in vivo glioblastoma growth in orthotopic mouse xenograft models and a transgenic glioblastoma model in Drosophila Cancer Res; 76(16); 4708-19. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27325644

  12. Sedimentary Controls on Foraminifera Distribution in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz-Endres, T.; Fox, L. R.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Dekens, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 354 drilled sites in the Bay of Bengal to improve our understanding of the links between tectonics, monsoon strength, and oceanographic conditions. The Bengal Fan contains complex depositional environments, which vary from thick sequences of turbidites and levee sediments that reflects channel activity, to intervals of hemipelagic calcareous clay. Foraminifera are commonly used to reconstruct past oceanographic conditions, but the complex depositional environments raises the possibility that foraminifera in the cores were transported from the northern Bay of Bengal through turbidity currents, rather than settling out from the overlying water column. The goal of the project is to determine if foraminifera in the modern sediments at IODP Exp 354 sites record the overlying water column conditions or water conditions of the northern Bay of Bengal. Today sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) has a larger seasonal range in the northern bay (3.0 psu and 5ᵒC, respectively) compared to Exp 354 core sites at 8ᵒN (0.7 psu and 1.4ᵒC, respectively). We present Mg/Ca and d18O data of individual Globigerinoides ruber or sacculifer in the mud-line samples of site U1454 (8.4ᵒN, 85.5ᵒE, 3721 m water depth), which is near the modern active channel, and site U1449 (8.4ᵒN, 88.7ᵒE, 3653 m water depth), which is farthest from the active channel. Because foraminifera live ~2-4 weeks, each analysis reflects a short period of time. Taken together, the distribution of 75 to 100 data points will reflect the seasonal SST and SSS range where the foraminifera calcified. Given the spatial variability of seasonality in the Bay of Bengal, a broader distribution of the data would reflect the larger SSS and SST range of the northern bay, while a narrower data distribution would reflect the much smaller SSS and SST range at the Exp 354 location. If foraminifera at both sites reflect local surface water conditions we can be more confident in applying

  13. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  14. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  15. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  16. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  17. Red, purple and pink: the colors of diffusion on pinterest.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work-e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  18. Red, Purple and Pink: The Colors of Diffusion on Pinterest

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work—e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  19. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups: photographing femininity after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Regehr, Kaitlyn

    2012-01-01

    Many treatments for breast cancer are traumatic, invasive and harshly visible. In addition to physical trauma, breast cancer is often associated with a variety of psychosocial issues surrounding romantic relationships, sexuality and feminine identity. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups was a pin-up girl calendar wherein all the models were women who were living with, or had survived, breast cancer. The project's purpose was to raise funds and awareness for breast cancer research and to create a space where survivors could explore and express their post-cancer sexuality. This study uses an observational approach, paired with semi-structured interviews, to explore the ways that breast cancer survivors perceive their post-cancer body and the subsequent impact on relationships and feminine identity. By examining contemporary discussions regarding breast cancer, body image and the objectification of women, it is concluded that although this photographic approach may be at odds with some modern breast cancer activism, it does appear to meet the expressed needs of a particular group of women living with the disease. PMID:22624706

  20. Rediscovery of the 8th Natural Wonder of the World: The Pink and White Terraces' survival of the 1886 Tarawera Rift eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, C. E.; Fornari, D. J.; Ferrini, V.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Walker, S. L.; Scott, B. J.; Leybourne, M. I.; Pittari, A.; Keam, R. F.; Lupton, J. E.; Mazot, A.; Kukulya, A.; Littlefield, R.; Immenga, D.; Stagpoole, V.; Timm, C.; Berthelsen, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    On June 10, 1886, Mt. Tarawera in the rhyolitic Okataina Volcanic Centre of the central North Island, New Zealand, erupted in spectacular fashion. Basaltic eruptions at Tarawera produced tall eruption columns, while hydrothermal and phreatomagmatic eruptions at Rotomahana excavated the pre-1886 Lake Rotomahana site, which later filled to form a new lake up to 125 m deep and ~5 x larger than its predecessor. The Pink and White Terraces, which were the world's largest silica aprons and buttresses, had formed as a result of discharging thermal waters and deposition of silica on the margins of the pre-1886 lake, and were believed destroyed during the 1886 eruption. The post-eruption landscape was scarred by eruption craters with the largest marking the foci of the phreatomagmatic eruption, which blanketed the area with 10s of m of mud. A combined ~250 line km survey of Lake Rotomahana was conducted using two REMUS 100 AUVs simultaneously mapping with multibeam and sidescan sonar. Also fitted were a magnetometer, minature plume recorders (LSS, Eh, temperature, depth) and pH sensors. Surface vessels conducted magnetic surveys (110 line km), CO2 flux measurements (420 sites), deployed a CTD and Niksin bottles for water properties and sampling (14 stations), and a camera over sites (12) of known venting and/or where the sidescan showed evidence for the terraces. New bathymetric data clearly shows the en-echelon rift of 1886 in the center of the lake and identifies some pre-1886 shoreline. When combined with sidescan sonar images, several of the basal layers of the Pink Terraces were found very near their original, pre-eruption locations. Underwater photographs reveal buttresses of several tiers. Magnetic data show a pronounced positive anomaly in the southern part of the lake, associated with older lavas, and a distinct negative anomaly associated with the Pink Terraces, marking the boundaries of the pre-1886 geothermal field. Bubble plumes recorded during the magnetic

  1. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  2. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  3. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  4. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  5. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  6. PINK1 regulates histone H3 trimethylation and gene expression by interaction with the polycomb protein EED/WAIT1

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Arnaud; Jiménez-Sáinz, Judit; Pulido, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are associated to early-onset recessive forms of Parkinson disease. PINK1 function is related to mitochondria homeostasis, but the molecular pathways in which PINK1 is involved are largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of the embryonic ectoderm development polycomb histone-methylation modulator (EED/WAIT1) as a PINK1-interacting and -regulated protein. The PINK1:EED/WAIT1 physical interaction was mediated by the PINK1 kinase domain and the EED/WAIT1 40 amino acid ending with tryptophan and aspartate (WD40)-repeat region, and PINK1 phosphorylated EED/WAIT1 in vitro. PINK1 associated with EED/WAIT1 in cells and relocated EED/WAIT1 to the mitochondria. This interaction reduced the trimethylation of lysine 27 from histone H3, which affected polycomb-regulated gene transcription during RA differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our findings unveil a pathway by which PINK1 regulates histone methylation and gene expression through the polycomb repressor complex. PMID:23959866

  7. Ames Fellows Award - Mark

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Hans Mark is a leading expert in the fields of aerospace design and national defense policy. From 1969 to 1977, he served as Director of the NASA Ames Research Center. During his tenure, Ames b...

  8. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Makoto; Hondo, Eiichi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Yamagishi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2(p-cas) (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2(p-cas) usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2(p-cas) revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging. PMID:25739360

  9. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, Akira; SUGIYAMA, Makoto; HONDO, Eiichi; KINOSHITA, Keiji; YAMAGISHI, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2p-cas (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2p-cas usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2p-cas revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging. PMID:25739360

  10. Post cyclone spiral eddy in the Bay of Bengal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, N.; Rao, K. H.; Ramana, I. V.; Rao, M. V.; Anjaneyuluy, Y.

    Bay of Bengal is a semi enclosed tropical ocean basin that is highly influenced by monsoonal winds and receives large volumes of fresh water from both river discharge and rainfall Bay of Bengal experiences southwest monsoon during June -- September and Northeast monsoon during November to February This is a region which experiences right from depression to super cyclone Rainfall and fresh river water discharge the upper layers leading to the formation the strong stratified surface layer and there by restricting the turbulent wind driven mixing Prasanna kumar et al 2002 We identified the formation of spiral eddy diameter 300 Km after the passage of Tropical Super Cyclone 05B 25 Oct -- 30 Oct 1999 in the Bay of Bengal Spiral eddy of high Chlorophyll is observed in the chlorophyll image derived from IRS-P4 OCM Satellite data At location where the maximum wind speed was 140 Knots cyclone induced circular currents sustained for 3 weeks after passage of cyclone which were responsible for formation of the spiral eddy Surprisingly phytoplankton chlorophyll-a bloom was not seen along the cyclone track as earlier studies revealed Fuentes-Yaco et al 1997 Nayak et al 2001 Subrahmanyam et al 2002 Zedler et al 2002 Lin et al 2003 McKinnon et al 2003 Vinaychandran and Mathew 2003 Babin et al 2004 The reason could be the strong stratified layer 60 m present in the central BOB But we observed chlorophyll-a bloom near the coast where less wind speeds 35 Knots were present This could be because of shallow 10 m

  11. Bengal arsenic, an archive of Himalaya orogeny and paleohydrology.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Stephane; Charlet, Laurent

    2007-10-01

    Holocene groundwater in many districts of the West Bengal and parts of Bangladesh are enriched in arsenic enhancing poisoning effect on humans. One of the main problems to depict the source of arsenic is that this element is very mobile and can be easily removed and recombined from the source during alteration processes, transport and mobilization in sediments. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system mainly contributed to the buildup of the Bengal fan, which is considered one of the largest modern deltas of the world, then the possible source of the As has probably to be search within the Himalayan belt. We propose that the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone dominated by arc-related rocks and more particularly by large volume of serpentinites enriched in arsenic could be one of the primary source of arsenic. The fact that, the present day arsenic concentration in the main Himalayan river, and particularly the Siang-Brahmaputra river system is not so high as expected can be explained by strong aridic conditions present day prevailing in the Indus-Suture zone and do not favored the weathering of serpentinites into As rich-smectite and Fe-hydroxydes. For the Ganga basin, the original source of arsenic has to be search in the weathering of arc related rocks in the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone followed by its intermediate storage into the sediments of the Siwalik foreland basin, playing the role of arsenic reservoir from Miocene to Pleistocene. Intense tectonic activity in the front of the Himalayan belt associated with high rainfall conditions during the Holocene allowed the arsenic to be remobilized and transported toward the Bay of Bengal. PMID:17952779

  12. Photochemical Thrombosis Of Retinal And Choroidal Vessels Using Rose Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Mary Lou; Winward, Kirk; Watson, Brant D.; Hernandez, Eleut

    1989-09-01

    Rose bengal is an effective photosensitizing agent which interacts with argon green light to induce photochemical thrombosis of irradiated vessels. We used focal, low energy irradiation to occlude retinal and choroidal vessels in both albino and pigmented rabbits. Immediately after intravenous injection of rose bengal at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/kg, irradiation was performed via a slit lamp-delivered argon green laser (514.5 nm) with the aid of fundus contact lens. In 11 eyes, arteries were treated with 50-100 interrupted bursts of 75u spot size at 0.2 sec and 40-100 mW (9 bengal, demonstrated no evidence of thermal injury.

  13. Mitofusin-mediated ER stress triggers neurodegeneration in pink1/parkin models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Celardo, I; Costa, A C; Lehmann, S; Jones, C; Wood, N; Mencacci, N E; Mallucci, G R; Loh, S H Y; Martins, L M

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), thought to be due to mitochondrial toxicity. Here, we show that in Drosophila pink1 and parkin mutants, defective mitochondria also give rise to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signalling, specifically to the activation of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We show that enhanced ER stress signalling in pink1 and parkin mutants is mediated by mitofusin bridges, which occur between defective mitochondria and the ER. Reducing mitofusin contacts with the ER is neuroprotective, through suppression of PERK signalling, while mitochondrial dysfunction remains unchanged. Further, both genetic inhibition of dPerk-dependent ER stress signalling and pharmacological inhibition using the PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 were neuroprotective in both pink1 and parkin mutants. We conclude that activation of ER stress by defective mitochondria is neurotoxic in pink1 and parkin flies and that the reduction of this signalling is neuroprotective, independently of defective mitochondria. A video abstract for this article is available online in the supplementary information. PMID:27336715

  14. Empirical evaluation of cell critical volume dose vs. cell response function for pink mutations in tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, M.N.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Microdosimetric spectra for 0.43, 1.8, and 14.7 MeV neutrons, and for 215 kVp x rays and 1250 keV gammas were used in conjunction with relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for pink mutations in Tradescantia to obtain an effectiveness function (i.e., a cell critical volume dose vs. cell response function). This effectiveness function (or hit size weighting function) provides the probability of inducing a biological effect of interest (in the present study, pink mutations in Tradescantia) as a function of lineal energy density y. In a preliminary analysis the critical value of y above which pink mutations are seen was 4.5 keV/..mu..m, and the value of y at which the probability reaches unity was 115 keV/..mu..m. Idealized but approximate event size distributions for mono-LET particles ranging from 10 to 5000 keV/..mu..m were generated, and these distributions were weighted by the effectiveness function to determine the pink mutation frequencies. Results are compared with measured pink mutation frequencies for 11 keV/..mu..m (/sup 12/C) and 31 keV/..mu..m (/sup 20/Ne) ions.

  15. PKA Regulates PINK1 Stability and Parkin Recruitment to Damaged Mitochondria through Phosphorylation of MIC60.

    PubMed

    Akabane, Shiori; Uno, Midori; Tani, Naoki; Shimazaki, Shunta; Ebara, Natsumi; Kato, Hiroki; Kosako, Hidetaka; Oka, Toshihiko

    2016-05-01

    A mitochondrial kinase, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), selectively recruits the ubiquitin ligase Parkin to damaged mitochondria, which modifies mitochondria by polyubiquitination, leading to mitochondrial autophagy. Here, we report that treatment with an adenylate cyclase agonist or expression of protein kinase A (PKA) impairs Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria and decreases PINK1 protein levels. We identified a mitochondrial membrane protein, MIC60 (also known as mitofilin), as a PKA substrate. Mutational and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that the Ser528 residue of MIC60 undergoes PKA-dependent phosphorylation. MIC60 transiently interacts with PINK1, and MIC60 downregulation leads to a reduction in PINK1 and mislocalization of Parkin. Phosphorylation-mimic mutants of MIC60 fail to restore the defect in Parkin recruitment in MIC60-knocked down cells, whereas a phosphorylation-deficient MIC60 mutant facilitates the mitochondrial localization of Parkin. Our findings indicate that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of MIC60 negatively regulates mitochondrial clearance that is initiated by PINK1 and Parkin. PMID:27153535

  16. ATM mediates spermidine-induced mitophagy via PINK1 and Parkin regulation in human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yongmei; Qiu, Qian; Gu, Xueyan; Tian, Yihong; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-01-01

    The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) protein has recently been proposed to play critical roles in the response to mitochondrial dysfunction by initiating mitophagy. Here, we have used ATM-proficient GM00637 cells and ATM-deficient GM05849 cells to investigate the mitophagic effect of spermidine and to elucidate the role of ATM in spermdine-induced mitophagy. Our results indicate that spermidine induces mitophagy by eliciting mitochondrial depolarization, which triggers the formation of mitophagosomes and mitolysosomes, thereby promoting the accumulation of PINK1 and translocation of Parkin to damaged mitochondria, finally leading to the decreased mitochondrial mass in GM00637 cells. However, in GM05849 cells or GM00637 cells pretreated with the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933, the expression of full-length PINK1 and the translocation of Parkin are blocked, and the colocalization of Parkin with either LC3 or PINK1 is disrupted. These results suggest that ATM drives the initiation of the mitophagic cascade. Our study demonstrates that spermidine induces mitophagy through ATM-dependent activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These findings underscore the importance of a mitophagy regulatory network of ATM and PINK1/Parkin and elucidate a novel mechanism by which ATM influences spermidine-induced mitophagy. PMID:27089984

  17. Structures and reactions of compounds involved in pink discolouration of onion.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masahiro; Kamoi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Sakurai, Nozomu; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Imai, Shinsuke

    2013-08-15

    In "pinking" of onion, E-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide is first cleaved by alliinase to yield colour developers (CDs), which react with amino acids, such as valine, to form pigment precursors (PPs). The PPs react with naturally occurring carbonyls (NOCs) to form pigments. By inducing a PP from previously isolated cepathiolanes and L-valine, it was confirmed that cepathiolanes constitute at least a part of the CDs. From the PP and formaldehyde as a NOC, two colourless and two pink compounds were derived. The structure of one of the colourless compounds was established as 2-(2-(1-(1-carboxy-2-methylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-3-methylbutanoic acid. The structures of the other colourless compound and the pink pigments were predicted based on their molecular formula and the MS(n) spectral data. A trimeric pigment structure was predicted for one of the pink pigments, which was believed to be the first to be reported in the literature. With these, a new reaction scheme for "pinking" of onion is proposed. PMID:23561186

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Groundwater flow dynamics and arsenic source characterization in an aquifer system of West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Koenig, C. E. M.; Pal, T.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Beckie, R. D.

    2014-06-01

    Numerical groundwater flow modeling, reverse particle tracking, and environmental tracers are used to locate the source of geogenic As affecting an aquifer in West Bengal. The aquifer is hosted by point-bar sands deposited in a meandering fluvial environment. Wells tapping the aquifer exhibit As concentrations up to 531 μg/L. High-As groundwaters are recharged in ponds marking an abandoned river channel. The source of As is traced to the underlying fine-grained channel-fill sediments. Arsenic release within these sediments is accompanied by a concomitant release of Br and DOC indicating that these species may be decay products of natural organobromines codeposited along with As. Mass transfer of As to the dissolved phase and its flushing from source sediments are described using a simplified reactive solute transport model. Based on this model, a characteristic reaction time for mass transfer is estimated at 6.7 years. Average groundwater residence times in the source are estimated to have declined from 16.6 to 6.6 years with the advent of intensive irrigation pumping. The ratio of residence and reaction times, a Damköhler number, has declined correspondingly from 2.49 to 0.99, indicating a shift from transport to reaction rate limited As mobilization. Greater insight into the As problem in SE Asia may be achieved by shifting the focus of field investigations from aquifers to potential contamination sources in aquitards.

  20. Amphibole—a key indicator mineral for petrogenesis of the Purulia carbonatite, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Aniket; Sen, Amit Kumar; Ghosh, Tamal K.

    2009-01-01

    The Purulia carbonatite of West Bengal, India is a dyke occurring within the 100 km long South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ), which marks the boundary between the Singhbhum Group of Rocks and the Chhotanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex (CGGC). It is composed essentially of calcite with apatite, amphibole, phlogopite, biotite, magnetite and ilmenite as common accessories. Based on optical properties and mineral chemistry two varieties of the amphibole are recognized: magnesiokatophorite and richterite. The latter is characterized by a relatively high content of Si and Na, while the former is enriched in Al and Ca. Such a composition of the amphibole is characteristic for the intermediate to the late stage carbonatite development. These two co-existing amphiboles reflect a sudden variation in total pressure within the magma chamber during the intrusion of the carbonatite dyke. It is inferred that the magnesiokatophorite started crystallizing first along with calcite and apatite. Subsequently, the ascent of carbonatitic magma to a more shallow depth (hypabyssal) resulted in the formation of the richterite. The difference in amphibole composition reflects a variation in the total pressure within the magma chamber that took place during the formation of the Purulia carbonatite. However, an alternative explanation, such as wallrock contamination, or liquid immiscibility, followed by carbonate magma segregation or magma mixing, may also be possible. There is, however, no evidence corroborating such an interpretation.

  1. Meetings with Mark Vishik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikinskaya, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Mark Iosifovich Vishik was my husband Vladimir Chepyzhov's advisor during his years as a student in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at Moscow State University, and afterwards they worked together for almost 30 years. This is why I knew him personally while not being a mathematician myself: we sometimes talked on the phone, and met during common trips and a few holidays. In his last years, after the death of his devoted wife who was also his best friend, my husband and I decided to visit Mark regularly in order to comfort him in his loneliness, and many other of his friends did the same. I can say without exaggeration that Mark loved to talk with me about everyday matters, to reminisce about his wife Asya Moiseevna, their friends and relatives, to tell stories of his youth and the wonderful encounters that had so enriched his life. We had the idea to write down our conversations and publish them as a book. Unfortunately, few such conversations lay ahead. The last one took place in January 2010. We did not write a book, but we did write an article [1], which was published in English in the form of an interview with Mark. The present article is based on our conversations with Mark. Here I will try to recount his memories about people who played an important role in his life.

  2. Mutational analysis of parkin and PINK1 in multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Janet A.; Houlden, Henry; Melchers, Anna; Islam, Ansha J.; Ding, Jinhui; Li, Abi; Paudel, Reema; Revesz, Tamas; Holton, Janice L.; Wood, Nick; Lees, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew B.; Scholz, Sonja W.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders with overlapping clinical, biochemical and genetic features. To test the hypothesis that the Parkinson’s disease genes parkin and PINK1 also play a role in the pathogenesis of MSA, we performed a mutational screening study involving 87 pathology-proven MSA cases. In parkin we identified eight sequence variants and four heterozygous deletions, and in PINK1 we identified nine variants of which two silent mutations have not been previously reported (p.Gly189Gly and p.Arg337Arg). The frequencies of the observed variants were not significantly different from previously published control data and none of the possibly pathogenic variants were found in a homozygous state. Our results indicate that genetic variants at the parkin and PINK1 loci do not play a critical role in the pathogenesis of MSA. PMID:20034704

  3. Parkinson's Disease-Related Proteins PINK1 and Parkin Repress Mitochondrial Antigen Presentation.

    PubMed

    Matheoud, Diana; Sugiura, Ayumu; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angélique; Laplante, Annie; Rondeau, Christiane; Chemali, Magali; Fazel, Ali; Bergeron, John J; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Burelle, Yan; Gagnon, Etienne; McBride, Heidi M; Desjardins, Michel

    2016-07-14

    Antigen presentation is essential for establishing immune tolerance and for immune responses against infectious disease and cancer. Although antigen presentation can be mediated by autophagy, here we demonstrate a pathway for mitochondrial antigen presentation (MitAP) that relies on the generation and trafficking of mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) rather than on autophagy/mitophagy. We find that PINK1 and Parkin, two mitochondrial proteins linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), actively inhibit MDV formation and MitAP. In absence of PINK1 or Parkin, inflammatory conditions trigger MitAP in immune cells, both in vitro and in vivo. MitAP and the formation of MDVs require Rab9 and Sorting nexin 9, whose recruitment to mitochondria is inhibited by Parkin. The identification of PINK1 and Parkin as suppressors of an immune-response-eliciting pathway provoked by inflammation suggests new insights into PD pathology. PMID:27345367

  4. Pink Noise in Rowing Ergometer Performance and the Role of Skill Level.

    PubMed

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Cox, Ralf F A; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers’ (natural) ergometer strokes to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill level. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink noise for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink noise than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink noise suggeststhat rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in noise pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes’ motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance. PMID:26559647

  5. Effect of "Pink Eye" Label on Parents' Intent to Use Antibiotics and Perceived Contagiousness.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura D; Finan, Caitlin; Simancek, Dalton; Finkelstein, Jerome I; Tarini, Beth A

    2016-06-01

    Parents of children who presented for a pediatrics appointment responded to a clinical vignette that described a child with symptoms consistent with acute viral conjunctivitis. In a 2 × 2 randomized survey design, the physician in the vignette either used the term "pink eye" or "eye infection" to describe the symptoms, and either told parents that antibiotics are likely ineffective at treating the symptoms or did not discuss effectiveness. When the symptoms were referred to as "pink eye," parents remained interested in antibiotics, despite being informed about their ineffectiveness. By contrast, when the symptoms were referred to as an "eye infection," information about antibiotic ineffectiveness significantly reduced interest, Mdiff = 1.63, P < .001. Parents who received the "pink eye" label also thought that the symptoms were more contagious and were less likely to believe that their child could go to child care, compared with parents who received the "eye infection" label, Mdiff = 0.37, P = .38. PMID:26294761

  6. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  7. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  8. Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

    1990-11-01

    Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2249726

  9. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  10. Mucin Characteristics of Human Corneal-Limbal Epithelial Cells that Exclude the Rose Bengal Anionic Dye

    PubMed Central

    Argüeso, Pablo; Tisdale, Ann; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Sumiyoshi, Mika; Gipson, Ilene K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Rose bengal is an organic anionic dye used to assess damage of the ocular surface epithelium in ocular surface disease. It has been proposed that mucins have a protective role, preventing rose bengal staining of normal ocular surface epithelial cells. The current study was undertaken to evaluate rose bengal staining in a human corneal-limbal epithelial (HCLE) cell line known to produce and glycosylate membrane-associated mucins. Methods HCLE cells were grown to confluence in serum-free medium and switched to DMEM/F12 with 10% serum to promote differentiation. Immunolocalization of the membrane-associated mucins MUC1 and MUC16 and the T-antigen carbohydrate epitope was performed with the monoclonal antibodies HMFG-2 and OC125 and jacalin lectin, respectively. To assess dye uptake, cultures were incubated for 5 minutes with 0.1% rose bengal and photographed. To determine whether exclusion of negatively charged rose bengal requires a negative charge at the cell surface, cells were incubated with fluoresceinated cationized ferritin. The effect of hyperosmotic stress on rose bengal staining in vitro was evaluated by increasing the ion concentration (Ca+2 and Mg+2) in the rose bengal uptake assay. Results The cytoplasm and nucleus of confluent HCLE cells cultured in media without serum, lacking the expression of MUC16 but not MUC1, as well as human corneal fibroblasts, which do not express mucins, stained with rose bengal. Culture of HCLE cells in medium containing serum resulted in the formation of islands of stratified cells that excluded rose bengal. Apical cells of the stratified islands produced MUC16 and the T-antigen carbohydrate epitope on their apical surfaces. Colocalization experiments demonstrated that fluoresceinated cationized ferritin did not bind to these stratified cells, indicating that rose bengal is excluded from cells that lack negative charges. Increasing the amounts of divalent cations in the media reduced the cellular area protected

  11. Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akundi, Ravi S.; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    Background PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice. Methods and Findings Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1−/− mice showed impaired Ca2+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca2+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1−/− mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1−/− mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1−/− mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1−/− embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1−/− mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Conclusions Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1−/− mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant

  12. Digitally Marking RSA Moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.M.

    2000-10-09

    The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

  13. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  14. Marking Advanced Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Michael

    1978-01-01

    A list of points to aid essay writers is suggested as the basis of a marking system for the teacher of English as a foreign language. The checklist, obtained from a book on higher education by Ruth Beard, can be adapted to the English as a foreign language situation. (SW)

  15. Airbag bounce marks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Fathoming Mark Twain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggar, Joanna

    1988-01-01

    Relates the efforts of completing two collections of the works and papers of Mark Twain. Describes the combined efforts of the University of Iowa and the University of California to publish both a scholarly edition and a reader's edition devoted to Twain. (KO)

  17. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  18. Double Marking Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published the report of an independent panel of experts into maintaining standards at Advanced Level (A-Level). One of its recommendations was for: limited experimental double marking of scripts in subjects such as English to determine whether the strategy would significantly reduce errors…

  19. Understanding sea-level variations in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, J.; Davis, J. L.; Hill, E. M.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Ponte, R. M.; Vinogradova, N. T.

    2012-12-01

    Sea level is affected by a wide range of processes, resulting in a response that varies on seasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales, and that has clear regional variations. Understanding such variability is important in order to quantify and interpret global trends in long-term sea level. One cause of this variability, of many, is the seasonal exchange of water between the continents and the ocean, which induces changes in the shape and gravity field of the Earth. This so-called 'self-attraction and loading' (SAL) causes a spatial and temporal variation of sea level, with an annual amplitude that ranges from ~2 mm to >18 mm. Previous studies show that the effect of SAL on the annual cycle of sea level is larger in the Bay of Bengal than anywhere else on Earth. In addition, tide-gauge measurements of the annual cycle in sea level show among the largest disagreements with ocean model predictions and near-coastal altimeter measurements in this region. The study of sea level in the Bay of Bengal is important, both socially and scientifically. Three rivers converge in Bangladesh, with one of the world's highest annual discharge, of ~1300 GT/yr. The large delta covers the highly populated regions of southern Bangladesh and West Bengal. River flow is highly seasonal, with almost all discharge taking place during the summer monsoon. These conditions result in widespread flooding over Bangladesh every summer, with ~100 GT of water stored within Bangladesh during these events, as observed with GRACE and in-situ measurements. This large hydrological load is the cause for the observed large annual SAL effect in this region, and may account for at least part of the discrepancy between tide-gauge measurements and ocean-model predictions. Furthermore, comparison with measurements suggests that the hydrology models used to estimate the global SAL effect on the annual sea-level cycle may be underestimating the water load over this region. The problem is compounded by the fact

  20. Increase in the Intensity of Postmonsoon Bay of Bengal Tropical Cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2014-05-28

    The post-monsoon (October-November) tropical cyclone (TC) season in the Bay of Bengal has spawned many of the deadliest storms in recorded history. Here it is shown that the intensity of post-monsoon Bay of Bengal TCs, and the contribution of major TCs to total TC power, increased during 1981-2010. It is found that changes in environmental parameters are responsible for the observed increases in TC intensity. Increases in sea surface temperature and upper ocean heat content made the ocean more conducive to TC development, while enhanced convective instability made the atmosphere more favorable for the growth of TCs. The largest changes in the atmosphere and ocean occurred in the eastern Bay of Bengal, where nearly all major TCs form. These changes are part of positive linear trends, suggesting that the intensity of post-monsoon Bay of Bengal TCs may continue to increase in the future.

  1. Mark Twain on phrenology.

    PubMed

    Stone, James L

    2003-12-01

    Mark Twain was a noted 19th century American writer and humorist. He often elaborated upon the personalities of his characters, and his observational skills reflected a strong interest in psychology. Similarly, he found an interest in phrenology, a pseudoscience that purported to characterize personality traits according to elevations or depressions on the head. Twain's style is clearly reflected in the interesting essay he wrote regarding his personal experience with phrenology. PMID:14633308

  2. Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bt Cotton: Still Rare After All These Years.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins reduce reliance on insecticides, but evolution of resistance by pests could cut short their usefulness. Pink bollworm is a major pest that has experienced intense selection for resistance to Bt cotton in Arizona since 1997. Unexpectedly...

  3. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  4. Lagerstroemia speciosa ‘Big Pink’, an improved pink flowered queen’s crape myrtle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers., commonly called Pride-of-India, queen’s or giant crape myrtle, is a large shrub or small tree widely used as a tropical ornamental, with landscape utility limited to USDA Hardiness Zones 10-11. This paper describes a pink-flowered seedling selec...

  5. Bacterial Antagonists, Zoospore Inoculum Retention Time, and Potato Cultivar Influence Pink Rot Disease Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink rot of potato, primarily incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato growing regions of the world including North America. The principal mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protec...

  6. 76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... telephone hotline numbers described at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 76 FR 25246 (May 4, 2011). The inseason... telephone hotline numbers as specified at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 76 FR 25246 (May 4, 2011); those dates... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  7. 78 FR 69002 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... hotline numbers described at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 77 FR 25915 (May 2, 2012). The inseason orders are... numbers as specified at 50 CFR 300.97(b)(1) and in 78 FR 25865 (May 3, 2013); those dates and times are... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  8. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

    2012-08-01

    Pink peppers, also known as "pimenta-rosa" and "poivre rose", are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p<0.05) among the studied doses. The color of the pink peppers were affected by the irradiation: the parameters a* and b* were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

  9. PINK1-phosphorylated mitofusin 2 is a Parkin receptor for culling damaged mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Dorn, Gerald W

    2013-04-26

    Senescent and damaged mitochondria undergo selective mitophagic elimination through mechanisms requiring two Parkinson's disease factors, the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase protein 1; PTEN is phosphatase and tensin homolog) and the cytosolic ubiquitin ligase Parkin. The nature of the PINK-Parkin interaction and the identity of key factors directing Parkin to damaged mitochondria are unknown. We show that the mitochondrial outer membrane guanosine triphosphatase mitofusin (Mfn) 2 mediates Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria. Parkin bound to Mfn2 in a PINK1-dependent manner; PINK1 phosphorylated Mfn2 and promoted its Parkin-mediated ubiqitination. Ablation of Mfn2 in mouse cardiac myocytes prevented depolarization-induced translocation of Parkin to the mitochondria and suppressed mitophagy. Accumulation of morphologically and functionally abnormal mitochondria induced respiratory dysfunction in Mfn2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes and in Parkin-deficient Drosophila heart tubes, causing dilated cardiomyopathy. Thus, Mfn2 functions as a mitochondrial receptor for Parkin and is required for quality control of cardiac mitochondria. PMID:23620051

  10. EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

  11. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  12. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  13. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Nathan F.; Jenkins, Erica S.; Michielsens, Catherine G. J.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  14. A system for harvesting eggs from the pink-spotted lady beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink spotted lady beetle. Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Adult beetles placed in square transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on t...

  15. Relationship Between Pink Eye Symptoms and Cell Damage in the Tuber Periderm and Cortex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a tuber disorder that leads to processing complications and bud-end rot in storage. Despite the significance of PE for the potato processing industry, limited progress has been made in understanding the physiological basis of this disorder. Although the internal autofluorescence tha...

  16. THE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PINK SHRIMP 'PENAEUS DUORARUM' BY METHYL PARATHION AND ITS OXON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, E.C.3.1.1.7, (AChE) activity in the ventral nerve cord of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) by methyl parathion (MPT) and methyl paraoxon (MPO) was investigated. When the animals were exposed to these compounds in water (in vivo), AChE activit...

  17. Pink Tea to Proactive: CCET's Transition Years, 1961-1982, as I Remember Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alvin H.

    2015-01-01

    Alvin Thompson, former president of the California Council on the Education of Teachers (CCET), describes how he became involved with the CCET, and how the cultural environment of the CCET shifted from a "Pink Tea" society to one of political action focused on the real needs of the schools for which teachers are prepared. Thompson…

  18. The pink eye syndrome does not impair tuber fresh cut wound-related responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuber pink eye (PE) syndrome is a costly physiological disorder that results in corruption of the native periderm, susceptibility to infection, water vapor loss and associated shrinkage, roughened and cracked tuber surfaces, and various related blemishes and defects. PE results in aberra...

  19. Pink bollworm trapping in the Southern Plains of Texas and New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study identified several cotton fields in southern Midland County, TX on which large numbers of pink bollworm (PBW) moths were caught. No other large concentrations of PBW were found in the region. Winds with the capability of moving moths long distances occurred during the 2010 study. Wind ...

  20. The Coming Right-Brain Economy: Daniel H. Pink Says the MFA Is the New MBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a recent "Harvard Business Review" piece by author Daniel H. Pink, MBA graduates are, in many ways, becoming this century's blue-collar workers--people who entered a workforce that was full of promise only to see their jobs move overseas. At the same time, businesses are realizing that the only way to differentiate their goods and…

  1. Sustained susceptibility of Pink Bollworm to Bt cotton in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the benefits of transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control. One of the world's most important cotton pests, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), has been targeted for control by transgenic cotton producin...

  2. The ubiquitin kinase PINK1 recruits autophagy receptors to induce mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Michael; Sliter, Danielle A; Kane, Lesley A; Sarraf, Shireen A; Wang, Chunxin; Burman, Jonathon L; Sideris, Dionisia P; Fogel, Adam I; Youle, Richard J

    2015-08-20

    Protein aggregates and damaged organelles are tagged with ubiquitin chains to trigger selective autophagy. To initiate mitophagy, the ubiquitin kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate the ubiquitin ligase parkin, which builds ubiquitin chains on mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, where they act to recruit autophagy receptors. Using genome editing to knockout five autophagy receptors in HeLa cells, here we show that two receptors previously linked to xenophagy, NDP52 and optineurin, are the primary receptors for PINK1- and parkin-mediated mitophagy. PINK1 recruits NDP52 and optineurin, but not p62, to mitochondria to activate mitophagy directly, independently of parkin. Once recruited to mitochondria, NDP52 and optineurin recruit the autophagy factors ULK1, DFCP1 and WIPI1 to focal spots proximal to mitochondria, revealing a function for these autophagy receptors upstream of LC3. This supports a new model in which PINK1-generated phospho-ubiquitin serves as the autophagy signal on mitochondria, and parkin then acts to amplify this signal. This work also suggests direct and broader roles for ubiquitin phosphorylation in other autophagy pathways. PMID:26266977

  3. Parkin-catalyzed Ubiquitin-Ester Transfer Is Triggered by PINK1-dependent Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Masahiro; Kujuro, Yuki; Okatsu, Kei; Koyano, Fumika; Kosako, Hidetaka; Kimura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Norihiro; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    PINK1 and PARKIN are causal genes for autosomal recessive familial Parkinsonism. PINK1 is a mitochondrial Ser/Thr kinase, whereas Parkin functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Under steady-state conditions, Parkin localizes to the cytoplasm where its E3 activity is repressed. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential triggers Parkin E3 activity and recruits it to depolarized mitochondria for ubiquitylation of mitochondrial substrates. The molecular basis for how the E3 activity of Parkin is re-established by mitochondrial damage has yet to be determined. Here we provide in vitro biochemical evidence for ubiquitin-thioester formation on Cys-431 of recombinant Parkin. We also report that Parkin forms a ubiquitin-ester following a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in cells, and that this event is essential for substrate ubiquitylation. Importantly, the Parkin RING2 domain acts as a transthiolation or acyl-transferring domain rather than an E2-recruiting domain. Furthermore, formation of the ubiquitin-ester depends on PINK1 phosphorylation of Parkin Ser-65. A phosphorylation-deficient mutation completely inhibited formation of the Parkin ubiquitin-ester intermediate, whereas phosphorylation mimics, such as Ser to Glu substitution, enabled partial formation of the intermediate irrespective of Ser-65 phosphorylation. We propose that PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Parkin leads to the ubiquitin-ester transfer reaction of the RING2 domain, and that this is an essential step in Parkin activation. PMID:23754282

  4. Validation of two pheromonal compounds for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Macconelicoccus hirsutus (Green)) was detected, in 2004, in Valle de Banderas, at municipalities Bahía de Banderas, Nayarit, and Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, affecting fruit trees, native and ornamental plants. This pest insect is native to Asia and Australia, and has ...

  5. 78 FR 26308 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle that was published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2012 (77 FR... (77 FR 60208), which is available online at http://www.regulations.gov (at Docket No. FWS-R6-ES-2012... species and its habitat (77 FR 60208). Table 1 summarizes the coextensive economic impacts of the...

  6. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold kit therefor

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.; Hupf, Homer B.; Wanek, Philip M.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free .sup.125 I.sup.- is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  7. Parkin is activated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Kondapalli, Chandana; Gourlay, Robert; Campbell, David G.; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Hofmann, Kay; Alessi, Dario R.; Knebel, Axel; Trost, Matthias; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that the Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) is activated by mitochondrial depolarization and stimulates the Parkin E3 ligase by phosphorylating Ser65 within its Ubl (ubiquitin-like) domain. Using phosphoproteomic analysis, we identified a novel ubiquitin phosphopeptide phosphorylated at Ser65 that was enriched 14-fold in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells overexpressing wild-type PINK1 stimulated with the mitochondrial uncoupling agent CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), to activate PINK1, compared with cells expressing kinase-inactive PINK1. Ser65 in ubiquitin lies in a similar motif to Ser65 in the Ubl domain of Parkin. Remarkably, PINK1 directly phosphorylates Ser65 of ubiquitin in vitro. We undertook a series of experiments that provide striking evidence that Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65) functions as a critical activator of Parkin. First, we demonstrate that a fragment of Parkin lacking the Ubl domain encompassing Ser65 (ΔUbl-Parkin) is robustly activated by ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65, but not by non-phosphorylated ubiquitin. Secondly, we find that the isolated Parkin Ubl domain phosphorylated at Ser65 (UblPhospho−Ser65) can also activate ΔUbl-Parkin similarly to ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65. Thirdly, we establish that ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65, but not non-phosphorylated ubiquitin or UblPhospho−Ser65, activates full-length wild-type Parkin as well as the non-phosphorylatable S65A Parkin mutant. Fourthly, we provide evidence that optimal activation of full-length Parkin E3 ligase is dependent on PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of both Parkin at Ser65 and ubiquitin at Ser65, since only mutation of both proteins at Ser65 completely abolishes Parkin activation. In conclusion, the findings of the present study reveal that PINK1 controls Parkin E3 ligase activity not only by phosphorylating Parkin at Ser65, but also by phosphorylating ubiquitin at Ser65

  8. Differential expression of genes involved in Bengal macrothrombocytopenia (BMTCP).

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahnaz; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2015-12-01

    Bengal macrothrombocytopenia (BMTCP) is a giant platelet disorder with mild to moderate thrombocytopenia, clinically characterized by mild bleeding symptoms to totally asymptomatic condition. The pathophysiological mechanism of this condition is not fully understood yet. In the present study, 5 subjects (P1-P5) with BMTCP whose platelet counts ranged between 36140X10(9)/l and mean platelet volume (MPV)13.5-16.1fl were analyzed for differential gene expression of platelets by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. Four genes i.e. myotubularin related protein 9 (MTMR9), iron responsive element binding protein 2 (IREB2), alpha tubulin(TUBA) and tyrosine kinase ligand (TKL) were found to be differentially expressed in patient platelets as compared to that of normal healthy controls which was further confirmed by quantitative RT PCR analysis. The study highlights a multi-factorial etiology for BMTCP which is widely prevalent in the northeastern region of the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26460267

  9. Raman tomography of Himalayan-derived muds (Bengal Shelf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borromeo, Laura; Andò, Sergio; Aliatis, Irene; France-Lanord, Christian; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Raman mineral analysis (RaMAn) is an innovative, efficient and user-friendly technique representing the ideal tool to perform provenance analysis of silt-sized sediments, which represent most of the sediment flux in river systems and the predominant grain size in large deltas and submarine fans (Andò et al., 2011). RaMAn allows in fact the reliable recognition of detrital grains down to 5 μm in size. The Ganga-Brahmaputra estuary in Bangladesh represents the largest single entry point of detritus in the world oceans. Between 1 and 2 billion tons of sediment each year has been reaching the Bengal Sea during most of the Neogene, feeding the world largest submarine fan (Goodbred and Kuehl, 2000; Galy and France-Lanord 2001). In order to detect the compositional differences between the fluvial environment (Garzanti et al., 2010; 2011) and the deep sea (Thompson, 1974; Yokohama et al., 1990) as well as the mineralogical variability associated with hydrodynamic sorting in the delta plain and proximal shelf, we have determined the mineralogical composition of largely Himalayan-derived muds deposited on the Bengal Shelf. Mineralogical analyses were carried out separately for four grain-size classes of 4 samples: (5-10 μm, 10-15 μm, 15-32 μm, >32 μm). Each class was separated into low-density (<2.90 g/cm3) and high-density fraction (>2.90 g/cm3) by centrifuging in sodium polytungstate and recovered by partial freezing with liquid nitrogen. Accurate quantitative mineralogical data were obtained by identifying at least 100 grains on each slide. RaMAn resulted to be essential for confident mineral identification, and helped us to reveal the nature of altered and opaque grains that cannot be identified under the optical microscope. Andò S.,Vignola P., Garzanti E., (2011). Raman counting: a new method to determine provenance of silt. Rendiconti Lincei, 22, Issue 4, pp 327-347; Galy A., France-Lanord C., (2001), Higher erosion rates in the Himalaya geochemical constraints

  10. Case Marking Strategies in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John

    Case marking strategies in Kope, a Papuan language of Papua New Guinea, are analyzed in light of previous claims that most Papuan languages have one strategy for marking core relations and another for marking peripheral relations. A brief grammatical overview illustrates how core and peripheral relations are marked in Kope, including nominal case…

  11. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  12. Assessment of Rose Bengal vs. Riboflavin Photodynamic Therapy for Inhibition of Fungal Keratitis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Arboleda, Alejandro; Miller, Darlene; Cabot, Florence; Taneja, Mukesh; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Alawa, Karam; Amescua, Guillermo; Yoo, Sonia H.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the in vitro effect of rose bengal and riboflavin as photosensitizing agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT) on fungal isolates that are common causes of fungal keratitis Design Experimental study Methods Three isolates (Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans) recovered from patients with confirmed fungal keratitis were used in the experiments. Isolates were grown on Sabouraud-Dextrose agar, swabbed and prepared in suspension, and one milliliter aliquots were inoculated onto test plates in triplicate. Test plates were separated into 5 groups: Group 1 - no treatment, Group 2 - 0.1% rose bengal alone, Group 3 - 518 nm irradiation alone, Group 4 - riboflavin PDT (riboflavin + 375 nm irradiation), and Group 5 - rose bengal PDT (rose bengal + 518 nm irradiation). Irradiation was performed over a circular area using either a green LED array (peak wavelength: 518 nm) or a UV-A LED array (peak wavelength: 375 nm). Test plates were irradiated with an energy density of 5.4 J/cm2. Later, plates were placed in a 30° C incubator and observed for growth. Results Rose bengal-mediated PDT successfully inhibited the growth of all three fungal isolates in the irradiated area. All other groups exhibited unrestricted growth throughout the plate. Conclusions Rose bengal-mediated PDT successfully inhibited the growth of three types of fungi. No other experimental groups, including riboflavin-mediated PDT, had any inhibitory effect on the isolates. The results might be useful for the treatment of patients suffering from corneal infection. PMID:24792103

  13. PINK1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Parkin Boosts Parkin Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Two genes linked to early onset Parkinson's disease, PINK1 and Parkin, encode a protein kinase and a ubiquitin-ligase, respectively. Both enzymes have been suggested to support mitochondrial quality control. We have reported that Parkin is phosphorylated at Ser65 within the ubiquitin-like domain by PINK1 in mammalian cultured cells. However, it remains unclear whether Parkin phosphorylation is involved in mitochondrial maintenance and activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Here, we examined the effects of Parkin phosphorylation in Drosophila, in which the phosphorylation residue is conserved at Ser94. Morphological changes of mitochondria caused by the ectopic expression of wild-type Parkin in muscle tissue and brain dopaminergic neurons disappeared in the absence of PINK1. In contrast, phosphomimetic Parkin accelerated mitochondrial fragmentation or aggregation and the degradation of mitochondrial proteins regardless of PINK1 activity, suggesting that the phosphorylation of Parkin boosts its ubiquitin-ligase activity. A non-phosphorylated form of Parkin fully rescued the muscular mitochondrial degeneration due to the loss of PINK1 activity, whereas the introduction of the non-phosphorylated Parkin mutant in Parkin-null flies led to the emergence of abnormally fused mitochondria in the muscle tissue. Manipulating the Parkin phosphorylation status affected spontaneous dopamine release in the nerve terminals of dopaminergic neurons, the survivability of dopaminergic neurons and flight activity. Our data reveal that Parkin phosphorylation regulates not only mitochondrial function but also the neuronal activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, suggesting that the appropriate regulation of Parkin phosphorylation is important for muscular and dopaminergic functions. PMID:24901221

  14. Cytosolic PINK1 promotes the targeting of ubiquitinated proteins to the aggresome-autophagy pathway during proteasomal stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ju; Li, Mengen; Qin, Siyue; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Sicong; Hu, Yuan; Deng, Yongkang; Zhang, Chenliang; You, Dujuan; Li, Hongchang; Mu, Dezhi; Zhang, Zhuohua; Jiang, Changan

    2016-04-01

    During proteasomal stress, cells can alleviate the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins by targeting them to perinuclear aggresomes for autophagic degradation, but the mechanism underlying the activation of this compensatory pathway remains unclear. Here we report that PINK1-s, a short form of Parkinson disease (PD)-related protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1), is a major regulator of aggresome formation. PINK1-s is extremely unstable due to its recognition by the N-end rule pathway, and tends to accumulate in the cytosol during proteasomal stress. Overexpression of PINK1-s induces aggresome formation in cells with normal proteasomal activities, while loss of PINK1-s function leads to a significant decrease in the efficiency of aggresome formation induced by proteasomal inhibition. PINK1-s exerts its effect through phosphorylation of the ubiquitin-binding protein SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1) and increasing its ability to sequester polyubiquitinated proteins into aggresomes. These findings pinpoint PINK1-s as a sensor of proteasomal activities that transduces the proteasomal impairment signal to the aggresome formation machinery. PMID:27050454

  15. Carbon Monoxide, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrogen Dioxide Levels in Gas Ovens Related to Surface Pinking of Cooked Beef and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cornforth; Rabovitser; Ahuja; Wagner; Hanson; Cummings; Chudnovsky

    1998-01-19

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and total nitrogen oxide (NO(x)()) levels were monitored during meat cookery with a standard Ovenpak and a new ultralow-NO(x)() (ULN) cyclonic gas burner. With the standard burner, CO varied from 103 to 152 ppm, NO(x)() was 1.3-10.7 ppm, and surface pinking was observed on both beef and turkey. The ULN burner at optimal efficiency produced only 6.7 ppm of CO and 1 ppm of NO(x)(), insufficient to cause surface pinking. To determine the relative contribution of CO and NO(x)() to pinking, trials were also conducted in an electric oven with various pure gases. Pinking was not observed with up to 149 ppm of CO or 5 ppm of NO. However, as little as 0.4 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) caused pinking of turkey rolls. Beef roasts were pink at >2.5 ppm of NO(2). Thus, pinking previously attributed to CO and NO in gas ovens is instead due to NO(2), which has much greater reactivity than NO with moisture at meat surfaces. PMID:10554228

  16. PINK1 drives Parkin self-association and HECT-like E3 activity upstream of mitochondrial binding

    PubMed Central

    Lazarou, Michael; Narendra, Derek P.; Jin, Seok Min; Tekle, Ephrem; Banerjee, Soojay

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate that the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the RING-between-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin function in the same pathway. In concurrence, mechanistic studies show that PINK1 can recruit Parkin from the cytosol to the mitochondria, increase the ubiquitination activity of Parkin, and induce Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we used a cell-free assay to recapitulate PINK1-dependent activation of Parkin ubiquitination of a validated mitochondrial substrate, mitofusin 1. We show that PINK1 activated the formation of a Parkin–ubiquitin thioester intermediate, a hallmark of HECT E3 ligases, both in vitro and in vivo. Parkin HECT-like ubiquitin ligase activity was essential for PINK1-mediated Parkin translocation to mitochondria and mitophagy. Using an inactive Parkin mutant, we found that PINK1 stimulated Parkin self-association and complex formation upstream of mitochondrial translocation. Self-association occurred independent of ubiquitination activity through the RING-between-RING domain, providing mechanistic insight into how PINK1 activates Parkin. PMID:23319602

  17. PINK1 drives Parkin self-association and HECT-like E3 activity upstream of mitochondrial binding.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Michael; Narendra, Derek P; Jin, Seok Min; Tekle, Ephrem; Banerjee, Soojay; Youle, Richard J

    2013-01-21

    Genetic studies indicate that the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the RING-between-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin function in the same pathway. In concurrence, mechanistic studies show that PINK1 can recruit Parkin from the cytosol to the mitochondria, increase the ubiquitination activity of Parkin, and induce Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we used a cell-free assay to recapitulate PINK1-dependent activation of Parkin ubiquitination of a validated mitochondrial substrate, mitofusin 1. We show that PINK1 activated the formation of a Parkin-ubiquitin thioester intermediate, a hallmark of HECT E3 ligases, both in vitro and in vivo. Parkin HECT-like ubiquitin ligase activity was essential for PINK1-mediated Parkin translocation to mitochondria and mitophagy. Using an inactive Parkin mutant, we found that PINK1 stimulated Parkin self-association and complex formation upstream of mitochondrial translocation. Self-association occurred independent of ubiquitination activity through the RING-between-RING domain, providing mechanistic insight into how PINK1 activates Parkin. PMID:23319602

  18. PINK1 alleviates palmitate induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells by suppressing ROS mediated MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Cang, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Pingli; Wu, Xue; Yan, Jin; Chen, Jinfeng; Wu, Gang; Jin, Yan; Xu, Feng; Su, Jianbin; Wan, Chunhua; Wang, Xueqin

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies have shown that knockdown of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) causes oxidative stress and mitophagy. In db/db mice, PINK1 protein level is down-regulated. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which PINK1 modulates IR in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced stress. In our study, PINK1 expression decreased during palmitate (PA) induced IR in HepG2 cells and the hepatic tissues of high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Additionally, free fatty acids (FFAs) could increase ROS and suppress insulin signaling pathway, which was indicated by reduced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). In addition, insulin induced glucose uptake decreased and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), two key gluconeogenic enzymes, was up-regulated after PA treatment. Intriguingly, PINK1 overexpression could lead to opposite results. Moreover, PA induced hepatic IR through C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, which were rescued by PINK1 overexpression. In summary, our results demonstrate that PINK1 promoted hepatic IR via JNK and ERK pathway in PA treated HepG2 cells, implying a novel molecular target for the therapy of diabetes. PMID:27423393

  19. Rescue of PINK1 protein null-specific mitochondrial complex IV deficits by ginsenoside Re activation of nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Karen; Yoon, Seung-Hee; Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Son, Jin H

    2012-12-28

    PINK1, linked to familial Parkinson's disease, is known to affect mitochondrial function. Here we identified a novel regulatory role of PINK1 in the maintenance of complex IV activity and characterized a novel mechanism by which NO signaling restored complex IV deficiency in PINK1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells. In PINK1 null cells, levels of specific chaperones, including Hsp60, leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (LRPPRC), and Hsp90, were severely decreased. LRPPRC and Hsp90 were found to act upstream of Hsp60 to regulate complex IV activity. Specifically, knockdown of Hsp60 resulted in a decrease in complex IV activity, whereas antagonistic inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-(allylamino) geldanamycin decreased both Hsp60 and complex IV activity. In contrast, overexpression of the PINK1-interacting factor LRPPRC augmented complex IV activity by up-regulating Hsp60. A similar recovery of complex IV activity was also induced by coexpression of Hsp90 and Hsp60. Drug screening identified ginsenoside Re as a compound capable of reversing the deficit in complex IV activity in PINK1 null cells through specific increases of LRPPRC, Hsp90, and Hsp60 levels. The pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Re could be reversed by treatment of the pan-NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) and could also be reproduced by low-level NO treatment. These results suggest that PINK1 regulates complex IV activity via interactions with upstream regulators of Hsp60, such as LRPPRC and Hsp90. Furthermore, they demonstrate that treatment with ginsenoside Re enhances functioning of the defective PINK1-Hsp90/LRPPRC-Hsp60-complex IV signaling axis in PINK1 null neurons by restoring NO levels, providing potential for new therapeutics targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23144451

  20. Extended Essay Marking on Screen: Is Examiner Marking Accuracy Influenced by Marking Mode?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Hopkin, Rebecca; Shiell, Hannah; Bell, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, large-scale educational assessment agencies are shifting the mode of school examination marking towards having examiners mark examination scripts on screen rather than on paper. This shift has prompted questions about whether the mode of marking might influence examiner marking accuracy, particularly in relation to…

  1. Refining the Bengal Fan stratigraphy - A first correlation of IODP Expedition 354 results and seismic data from the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, Tilmann; Spiess, Volkhard; Bergmann, Fenna; France-Lanord, Christian; Klaus, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The Bengal Fan covers the floor of the entire Bay of Bengal from the continental margins of India and Bangladesh to the sediment-filled Sunda Trench off Myanmar and the Andaman Islands, and along the west side of the Ninetyeast Ridge. The deposition and progradation of the Bengal Fan started in the Eocene after the collision of India with Asia resulting in the build-up of the Himalaya and the formation of a large proto-Bay of Bengal. Continued convergence of the Indian and Australian plates with the Southeast Asian plate reduced the size of the bay and focused the source of turbidites finally into the present Bengal Basin, Bangladesh shelf, and the shelf canyon "Swatch of no Ground". Today, the Bengal Fan is mainly fed by the sediment load of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which drain the Himalayas at its southern and northern slope, respectively, and deliver their load to the delta in the Bengal Basin, to the Bengal Shelf and to the deep sea fan. Thus the Bengal Fan is a suitable recorder to study interactions among the growth of the Himalaya and Tibet, the development of the Asian monsoon, and processes affecting the carbon cycle and global climate. Because sedimentation in the Bengal Fan responds to both, climate and tectonic processes, its terrigenous sediment records the past evolution of both the Himalaya and regional climate. This evolution is also expressed in the stratigraphy of the fan in terms of unconformities and key horizons, average sedimentation rates as a function of distance from the basement ridges at 85°E and 90°E and the presence or absence of channel-levee systems. The histories of the Himalaya/Tibetan system and the Asian monsoon require sampling different periods of time with different levels of precision. Therefore IODP Expedition 354 drilled in February-March 2015 a seven site, 320 km-long transect across the Bengal Fan at 8°N. This strategy has been chosen because sediment transport took place by turbidity currents following

  2. Hubble's Famous Plate of 1923: A Story of Pink Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, D. R.

    2012-06-01

    On October 6, 1923 Edwin Hubble used the Mount Wilson 100-inch telescope to take a 45-minute exposure of a field in the Andromeda galaxy. This is the now-famous plate marked with his “VAR!” notation. I will discuss this plate and that notation. I will also tell the story of flying copies of that plate on the deployment mission for HST in 1990 as a Hubble memento and then locating those copies afterwards, and how copies were flown on Servicing Mission 4 on 2009 as well. This has led to an effort in which AAVSO members joined to identify and reobserve that noted star, arguably the most important object in the history of cosmology, but largely ignored since Hubble’s time.

  3. Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) marine survival rates reflect early marine carbon source dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Thomas C., Jr.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Helle, John H.

    2008-05-01

    Marine survival rate (the number of adult salmon returning divided by the number of salmon fry released) of pink salmon runs propagated by Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) salmon hatcheries is highly variable resulting in large year-to-year run size variation, which ranged from ∼20 to ∼50 million during 1998-2004. Marine survival rate was hypothesized to be determined during their early marine life stage, a time period corresponding to the first growing season after entering the marine environment while they are still in coastal waters. Based on the predictable relationships of 13C/ 12C ratios in food webs and the existence of regional 13C/ 12C gradients in organic carbon, 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon were measured to test whether marine survival rate was related to food web processes. Year-to-year variation in marine survival rate was inversely correlated to 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon, but with differences among hatcheries. The weakest relationship was for pink salmon from the hatchery without historic co-variation of marine survival rate with other PWS hatcheries or wild stocks. Year-to-year variation in 13C/ 12C ratio of early marine stage pink salmon in combination with regional spatial gradients of 13C/ 12C ratio measured in zooplankton suggested that marine survival was driven by carbon subsidies of oceanic origin (i.e., oceanic zooplankton). The 2001 pink salmon cohort had 13C/ 12C ratios that were very similar to those found for PWS carbon, i.e., when oceanic subsidies were inferred to be nil, and had the lowest marine survival rate (2.6%). Conversely, the 2002 cohort had the highest marine survival (9.7%) and the lowest mean 13C/ 12C ratio. These isotope patterns are consistent with hypotheses that oceanic zooplankton subsidies benefit salmon as food subsidies, or as alternate prey for salmon predators. Oceanic subsidies are manifestations of significant exchange of material between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska. Given

  4. The Mark 3 Haploscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Logar, N. D.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-operated binocular vision testing device was developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to evaluate the visual function of astronauts during spaceflight. This particular device, called the Mark 3 Haploscope, employs semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phoria, fixation disparity, refractive state and accommodation/convergence relationships. Test procedures are self-administered and can be used repeatedly without subject memorization. The Haploscope was designed as one module of the complete NASA Vision Testing System. However, it is capable of stand-alone operation. Moreover, the compactness and portability of the Haploscope make possible its use in a broad variety of testing environments.

  5. Growth kinetics and efficacy as parameters for ranking and selecting biocontrol agents that reduce pink rot in stored potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased production of organic agricultural products and the relative ineffectiveness of traditional control measures support development of new biocontrol technologies for use against pink rot infections in storage. The microbiota of 84 different agricultural soils was individually transferred to...

  6. E2F1-dependent miR-421 regulates mitochondrial fragmentation and myocardial infarction by targeting Pink1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Lu-Yu; Wang, Jian-Xun; Wang, Yin; Sun, Teng; Zhao, Bing; Yang, Yong-Jie; An, Tao; Long, Bo; Li, Na; Liu, Cui-Yun; Gong, Ying; Gao, Jin-Ning; Dong, Yan-Han; Zhang, Jian; Li, Pei-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial fragmentation plays an important role in the progression of cardiac diseases, such as myocardial infarction and heart failure. Mitochondrial network is controlled by many factors in different cell types. Here we show that the interplay between E2F1, miR-421 and Pink1 regulates mitochondrial morphology and cardiomyocyte cell death. Pink1 reduces mitochondrial fragmentation and protects cardiomyocyte from apoptosis. On the other hand, miR-421 promotes cardiomyocyte mitochondrial fragmentation, apoptosis and myocardial infarction by suppressing Pink1 translation. Finally, we show that transcription factor E2F1 activates miR-421 expression. Knocking down E2F1 suppresses mitochondrial fragmentation, apoptosis and myocardial infarction by affecting miR-421 levels. Collectively, these data identify the E2F1/miR-421/Pink axis as a regulator of mitochondrial fragmentation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and suggest potential therapeutic targets in treatment of cardiac diseases. PMID:26184432

  7. Development of trapping methods using a synthetic sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) threatens numerous crops of economic importance and could spread from populations in California and Florida to 33 other states. Field experiments conducted in Florida evaluated three commercially available trap designs baited with syntheti...

  8. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  9. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  10. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  11. Distribution, size, and interannual, seasonal and diel food habits of northern Gulf of Alaska juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Janet L.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Cross, Alison D.; Moss, Jamal H.; Davis, Nancy D.; Myers, Katherine W.; Walker, Robert V.; Beauchamp, David A.; Haldorson, Lewis J.

    2005-01-01

    An integral part of assessing the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) ecosystem is the analysis of the food habits and feeding patterns of abundant zooplanktivorous fish. Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha are highly abundant zooplanktivores, and support valuable commercial fisheries as adults. We document variability in pink salmon distribution and size from summer to early fall, and present major trends in their food habits by summarizing interannual (August 1999-2001), seasonal (July-October 2001) and diel (August 2000, and July-September 2001) feeding patterns based on analysis of stomach contents of juvenile pink salmon collected along the Seward Line (GOA) and in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Diets of juvenile pink salmon were more diverse in 2001 compared to either 1999 or 2000. Small pteropods ( Limacina helicina) composed the majority (>60%) of prey consumed in 1999 and 2000; whereas large copepods, euphausiids, and small pteropods composed the majority of prey in 2001. As juvenile pink salmon increased in size, they consumed increasingly larger prey from August to October 2001 in the GOA. The diet of GOA juvenile pink salmon was different and more diverse than the diet of fish caught in PWS. The dominant prey in PWS during July-October was hyperiid amphipods, whereas the primary prey in the GOA were larvaceans and euphausiids in July, then copepods plus small pteropods, amphipods, euphausiids, larval crabs, and shrimp in August. In September and October, diets in both PWS and GOA included high percentages of larger prey items, including fish, euphausiids, and large pteropods ( Clio pyramidata). Diel comparisons of stomach contents showed pink salmon fed during daylight hours with stomach fullness increasing from dawn to a maximum fullness 8-12 h after sunrise, and declining thereafter. We hypothesize that juvenile pink salmon in the northern GOA consumed distinct and varied prey from the suite of zooplankton available during summer months, July

  12. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.

    2016-07-01

    The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of ~0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the ~0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

  13. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  14. Inactivated mariner-like elements (MLE) in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Staten, R; Miller, T A; Park, Y

    2005-10-01

    We isolated multiple copies of mariner-like element (MLE) from the pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella, a key lepidopteran cotton pest. Although all the MLE sequences contain multiple mutations accumulated in their transposase coding region, the consensus sequence revealed a putative ancestral transposase encoding 339 amino acid residues with a D,D(34)D motif, and 36 bp inverted terminal repeats, belonging to the cecropia subfamily, and most similar to the MLE found in Antheraea species. Examining six different pink bollworm populations, we conclude that the MLE in PBW described in this study are ancient and are undergoing the process of accumulating inactivating mutations. This conclusion is supported by the patterns of polymorphisms revealed by genomic Southern hybridization, transposable element displays, and sequences from multiple MLE. PMID:16164610

  15. Frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in field populations of pink bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Patin, Amanda L.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Liu, Yong-Biao; Carrière, Yves; Sims, Maria A.; Antilla, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for delaying pest resistance to genetically modified crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are based primarily on theoretical models. One key assumption of such models is that genes conferring resistance are rare. Previous estimates for lepidopteran pests targeted by Bt crops seem to meet this assumption. We report here that the estimated frequency of a recessive allele conferring resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac was 0.16 (95% confidence interval = 0.05–0.26) in strains of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) derived from 10 Arizona cotton fields during 1997. Unexpectedly, the estimated resistance allele frequency did not increase from 1997 to 1999 and Bt cotton remained extremely effective against pink bollworm. These results demonstrate that the assumptions and predictions of resistance management models must be reexamined. PMID:11087854

  16. Structure and Function of Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1, the Three Musketeers of Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Trempe, Jean-François; Fon, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease are caused by mutations in three genes: Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1. These genes encode for proteins with distinct enzymatic activities that may work together to confer neuroprotection. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been shown to ubiquitinate substrates and to trigger proteasome-dependent degradation or autophagy, two crucial homeostatic processes in neurons. PINK1 is a mitochondrial protein kinase whose activity is required for Parkin-dependent mitophagy, a process that has been linked to neurodegeneration. Finally, DJ-1 is a protein homologous to a broad class of bacterial enzymes that may function as a sensor and modulator of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the literature on the structure and biochemical functions of these three proteins. PMID:23626584

  17. Biotransformation of pink water TNT on the surface of a low-cost adsorbent pine bark.

    PubMed

    Chusova, O; Nõlvak, H; Odlare, M; Truu, J; Truu, M; Oopkaup, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-09-01

    This two-week anaerobic batch study evaluated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) removal efficiency from industrial pink water by (1) adsorption on low-cost adsorbent pine bark, and (2) adsorption coupled with TNT biotransformation by specialised microbial communities. Samples of the supernatant and acetonitrile extracts of pine bark were analysed by HPLC, while the composition of the bacterial community of the experimental batches, inocula and pine bark were profiled by high-throughput sequencing the V6 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Integrated adsorption and biotransformation proved to be the most efficient method for TNT removal from pink water. The type of applied inoculum had a profound effect on TNT removal efficiencies and microbial community structures, which were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The analysis of acetonitrile extracts of pine bark supported the hypothesis that the microbial community indigenous to pine bark has the ability to degrade TNT. PMID:26142875

  18. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.; Lewis, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    The use of satellite data from the ERTS-1 satellite for mapping the cotton acreage in the southern deserts of California is discussed. The differences between a growing, a defoliated, and a plowed down field can be identified using an optical color combiner. The specific application of the land use maps is to control the spread of the pink bollworms by establishing planting and plowdown dates.

  19. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. PMID:27313289

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Pink Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, Robert F.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  2. Cloning and expression of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Pichia Pink.

    PubMed

    Babavalian, H; Latifi, A M; Shokrgozar, M A; Bonakdar, S; Tebyanian, H; Shakeri, F

    2016-01-01

    The PDGF-BB plays a key role in several pathogenesis diseases and it is believed to be an important mediator for wound healing. The recombinant human PDGF-BB is safe and effective to stimulate the healing of chronic, full thickness and lower extremity diabetic neurotrophic ulcers. In the present study, we attempted to produce a PDGF-BB growth factor and also, evaluate its functionality in cell proliferation in yeast host Pichia pink. Pichia pink yeast was used as a host for evaluation of the rhPDGF-BB expression. The coding sequence of PDGF-BB protein was synthesized after optimization and packed into the pGEM. Recombinant proteins were produced and purified. The construct of pPinkα-HC-pdgf was confirmed by sequence, the PDGF-BB protein was expressed and purified with using a nickel affinity chromatography column and then characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The biological activity of PDGF-BB was estimated with using human fibroblast cell line. The measurement of protein concentration was determined by Bradford and human PDGF-BB ELISA kit. Purified rhPDGF-BB showed similar biological activity (as the standard PDGF-BB) and suggested that the recombinant protein has a successful protein expression (as well as considerable biological activity in P. pink host). The exact amount of recombinant PDGF-BB concentrations were measured by specific ELISA test which it was about 30 μg/ml. Our study suggested that efficiency of biological activity of PDGF-BB protein may be related to its conformational similarity with standard type and also, it practically may be important in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:27545214

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. PMID:27313289

  4. Subtle alterations of excitatory transmission are linked to presynaptic changes in the hippocampus of PINK1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Feligioni, Marco; Mango, Dalila; Piccinin, Sonia; Imbriani, Paola; Iannuzzi, Filomena; Caruso, Alessandra; De Angelis, Francesca; Blandini, Fabio; Mercuri, Nicola B; Pisani, Antonio; Nisticò, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Homozygous or heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene have been linked to early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Several neurophysiological studies have demonstrated alterations in striatal synaptic plasticity along with impaired dopamine release in PINK1-deficient mice. Using electrophysiological methods, here we show that PINK1 loss of function causes a progressive increase of spontaneous glutamate-mediated synaptic events in the hippocampus, without influencing long-term potentiation. Moreover, fluorescence analysis reveals increased neurotrasmitter release although our biochemical results failed to detect which presynaptic proteins might be engaged. This study provides a novel role for PINK1 beyond the physiology of nigrostriatal dopaminergic circuit. Specifically, PINK1 might contribute to preserve synaptic function and glutamatergic homeostasis in the hippocampus, a brain region underlying cognition. The subtle changes in excitatory transmission here observed might be a pathogenic precursor to excitotoxic neurodegeneration and cognitive decline often observed in PD. Using electrophysiological and fluorescence techniques, we demonstrate that lack of PINK1 causes increased excitatory transmission and neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus, which might lead to the cognitive decline often observed in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26850695

  5. PINK1-Parkin-Mediated Mitophagy Protects Mitochondrial Integrity and Prevents Metabolic Stress-Induced Endothelial Injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiwei; Xu, Hao; Wang, Zemin; Mao, Yun; Yuan, Liangshuai; Luo, Wei; Cui, Zhaoqiang; Cui, Taixing; Wang, Xing Li; Shen, Ying H

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial injury and dysfunction, a significant feature in metabolic syndrome, triggers endothelial cell dysfunction and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests that mitophagy, a process of autophagic turnover of damaged mitochondria, maintains mitochondrial integrity. PINK1 (phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1) and Parkin signaling is a key pathway in mitophagy control. In this study, we examined whether this pathway could protect mitochondria under metabolic stress. We found that palmitic acid (PA) induced significant mitophagy and activated PINK1 and Parkin in endothelial cells. Knocking down PINK1 or Parkin reduced mitophagy, leading to impaired clearance of damaged mitochondria and intracellular accumulation of mitochondrial fragments. Furthermore, PINK1 and Parkin prevented PA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production and apoptosis. Finally, we show that PINK1 and Parkin were up-regulated in vascular wall of obese mice and diabetic mice. Our study demonstrates that PINK1-Parkin pathway is activated in response to metabolic stress. Through induction of mitophagy, this pathway protects mitochondrial integrity and prevents metabolic stress-induced endothelial injury. PMID:26161534

  6. Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 form a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex promoting unfolded protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hui; Wang, Danling; Chen, Linan; Choo, Yeun Su; Ma, Hong; Tang, Chengyuan; Xia, Kun; Jiang, Wei; Ronai, Ze’ev; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in PARKIN, pten-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), and DJ-1 are individually linked to autosomal recessive early-onset familial forms of Parkinson disease (PD). Although mutations in these genes lead to the same disease state, the functional relationships between them and how their respective disease-associated mutations cause PD are largely unknown. Here, we show that Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 formed a complex (termed PPD complex) to promote ubiquitination and degradation of Parkin substrates, including Parkin itself and Synphilin-1 in neuroblastoma cells and human brain lysates. Genetic ablation of either Pink1 or Dj-1 resulted in reduced ubiquitination of endogenous Parkin as well as decreased degradation and increased accumulation of aberrantly expressed Parkin substrates. Expression of PINK1 enhanced Parkin-mediated degradation of heat shock–induced misfolded protein. In contrast, PD-pathogenic Parkin and PINK1 mutations showed reduced ability to promote degradation of Parkin substrates. This study identified a functional ubiquitin E3 ligase complex consisting of PD-associated Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 to promote degradation of un-/misfolded proteins and suggests that their PD-pathogenic mutations impair E3 ligase activity of the complex, which may constitute a mechanism underlying PD pathogenesis. PMID:19229105

  7. A comparison of the bioactivity and phytochemical profile of three different cultivars of globe amaranth: red, white, and pink.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Ângela; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Pereira, Carla; Adega, Filomena; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Abreu, Rui M V; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-02-17

    The phytochemical profiles and bioactivities of red, white and pink globe amaranth (Gomphrena haageana K., Gomphrena globosa var. albiflora and Gomphrena sp., respectively), much less studied than the purple species (G. globosa L.), were compared. The chemical characterization of the samples included the analysis of macronutrients and individual profiles of sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds. Their bioactivity was evaluated by determining the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; the absence of cytotoxicity was also determined. Red and pink samples showed the highest sugar content. Otherwise, the white sample gave the highest level of organic acids, and together with the pink one showed the highest tocopherol and PUFA levels. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside was the major flavonol in white and pink samples, whereas a tetrahydroxy-methylenedioxyflavone was the major compound in the red variety, which revealed a different phenolic profile. The pink globe amaranth hydromethanolic extract revealed the highest antioxidant activity, followed by those of red and white samples. The anti-inflammatory activity was more relevant in red and pink varieties. None of the samples presented toxicity in liver cells. Overall, these samples can be used in bioactive formulations against inflammatory processes and in free radical production. PMID:26674477

  8. Modulation of SST, SSS over northern Bay of Bengal on ISO time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Suryachandra A.; Saha, Subodh K.; Pokhrel, Samir; Sundar, Damodaran; Dhakate, Ashish R.; Mahapatra, Somnath; Ali, Sabeer; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Shreeram, P.; Vasimalla, Suneel; Srikanth, A. S.; Suresh, R. R. V.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution observations of atmospheric and oceanic variables are carried out at northern Bay of Bengal from 22nd July to 6th August 2009 on-board ORV Sagar kanya under the Continental Tropical Convergence Zone research/observational programme. Freshening of surface layer by more than 4 psu within 24 hours is observed, which is followed by warming in the surface layer temperature. The heat and salt budget analysis primarily indicates dominant role of advection processes on the evolution of temperature and salinity. The amount of rainfall received at observation site could not explain the observed freshening, thus an extensive analysis using wavelet coherence is done to find out the source of advected fresh water to the observed location. It is found that surface salinity in the northern Bay of Bengal (at 15° N) varies coherently with the rainfall over Ganga-Brahmaputra catchment area on intraseasonal time scale and with lag of about 60 days. Based on above observations, this study hypothesize that the intraseasonal rainfall variation modulates the amount of river discharge, which in turn modulates the salinity over northern Bay of Bengal on intraseasonal time scale. Since surface warming always follows the surface freshening, the time delay between the rainfall over catchment area and freshening at northern Bay of Bengal may explain the post monsoon warming. Importance of atmosphere-ocean coupling in driving the dynamics of the northern bay of Bengal has been clearly brought out in this study.

  9. Complete genome sequence of two genotype III Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Taraphdar, Debjani; Chatterjee, Shyamalendu

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE), caused by a mosquito-borne virus JE virus (JEV), is a serious health problem in West Bengal, India. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of two JEV isolates from West Bengal. The amino acid and nucleotide sequence homology was compared with other Indian strains. Methods: Two JEV isolates (IND-WB-JE1 and IND-WB-JE2) obtained in 2008 and 2010, respectively, from two districts of the State of West Bengal, respectively were analyzed for genetic variations by sequencing the 10934 bp whole genome of the virus. Of these two districts, one was covered under JE vaccination programme in 2007. Results: Phylogenetic analysis showed that both the isolates belonged to the genotype III. A total of 16 mutations were identified in the two isolates studied with respect to Vellore P20778 strain. One unique mutation A3215S was only found in IND-WB-JE2 isolate, but not in the isolate IND-WB-JE1. These two isolates showed maximum homology with P20778 strain of India. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports on complete gene based phylogenetic analysis of JEV isolates from the State of West Bengal. It was evident from the results that JEV was still under circulation in both vaccine covered and not covered districts of West Bengal. PMID:26261169

  10. Mitophagy of damaged mitochondria occurs locally in distal neuronal axons and requires PINK1 and Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; Schlehe, Julia S.; LaVoie, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    To minimize oxidative damage to the cell, malfunctioning mitochondria need to be removed by mitophagy. In neuronal axons, mitochondrial damage may occur in distal regions, far from the soma where most lysosomal degradation is thought to occur. In this paper, we report that PINK1 and Parkin, two Parkinson’s disease–associated proteins, mediate local mitophagy of dysfunctional mitochondria in neuronal axons. To reduce cytotoxicity and mimic physiological levels of mitochondrial damage, we selectively damaged a subset of mitochondria in hippocampal axons. Parkin was rapidly recruited to damaged mitochondria in axons followed by formation of LC3-positive autophagosomes and LAMP1-positive lysosomes. In PINK1−/− axons, damaged mitochondria did not accumulate Parkin and failed to be engulfed in autophagosomes. Similarly, initiation of mitophagy was blocked in Parkin−/− axons. Our findings demonstrate that the PINK1–Parkin-mediated pathway is required for local mitophagy in distal axons in response to focal damage. Local mitophagy likely provides rapid neuroprotection against oxidative stress without a requirement for retrograde transport to the soma. PMID:25154397

  11. Risk of weathered residual Exxon Valdez oil to pink salmon embryos in Prince William Sound.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Cronin, Mathew A; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R; Wilson, William

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that pink salmon eggs incubating in intertidal streams transecting Prince William Sound (PWS) beaches oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill were exposed to lethal doses of dissolved hydrocarbons. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in the incubation gravel were too low to cause mortality, the allegation is that dissolved high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (HPAH) leaching from oil deposits on the beach adjacent to the streams were the source of toxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we placed pink salmon eggs in PWS beach sediments containing residual oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and in control areas without oil. We quantified the hydrocarbon concentrations in the eggs after three weeks of incubation. Tissue PAH concentrations of eggs in oiled sediments were generally < 100 ppb and similar to background levels on nonoiled beaches. Even eggs in direct contact with oil in the sediment resulted in tissue PAH loads well below the lethal threshold concentrations established in laboratory bioassays, and very low concentrations of HPAH compounds were present. These results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbons dissolved from oil deposits on intertidal beaches are not at concentrations that pose toxic risk to incubating pink salmon eggs. The evidence does not support the hypothesis that interstitial pore water in previously oiled beaches is highly toxic. PMID:17447564

  12. Multi-Toxin Resistance Enables Pink Bollworm Survival on Pyramided Bt Cotton.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; DeGain, Ben; Masson, Luke; Zhang, Jie; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins kill key insect pests, providing economic and environmental benefits. However, the evolution of pest resistance threatens the continued success of such Bt crops. To delay or counter resistance, transgenic plant "pyramids" producing two or more Bt proteins that kill the same pest have been adopted extensively. Field populations of the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in the United States have remained susceptible to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab, but field-evolved practical resistance to Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has occurred widely in India. Here we used two rounds of laboratory selection to achieve 18,000- to 150,000-fold resistance to Cry2Ab in pink bollworm. Inheritance of resistance to Cry2Ab was recessive, autosomal, conferred primarily by one locus, and independent of Cry1Ac resistance. We created a strain with high resistance to both toxins by crossing the Cry2Ab-resistant strain with a Cry1Ac-resistant strain, followed by one selection with Cry2Ab. This multi-toxin resistant strain survived on field-collected Bt cotton bolls producing both toxins. The results here demonstrate the risk of evolution of resistance to pyramided Bt plants, particularly when toxins are deployed sequentially and refuges are scarce, as seen with Bt cotton and pink bollworm in India. PMID:26559899

  13. Parallel signatures of selection in temporally isolated lineages of pink salmon.

    PubMed

    Seeb, L W; Waples, R K; Limborg, M T; Warheit, K I; Pascal, C E; Seeb, J E

    2014-05-01

    Studying the effect of similar environments on diverse genetic backgrounds has long been a goal of evolutionary biologists with studies typically relying on experimental approaches. Pink salmon, a highly abundant and widely ranging salmonid, provide a naturally occurring opportunity to study the effects of similar environments on divergent genetic backgrounds due to a strict two-year semelparous life history. The species is composed of two reproductively isolated lineages with overlapping ranges that share the same spawning and rearing environments in alternate years. We used restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to discover and genotype approximately 8000 SNP loci in three population pairs of even- and odd-year pink salmon along a latitudinal gradient in North America. We found greater differentiation within the odd-year than within the even-year lineage and greater differentiation in the southern pair from Puget Sound than in the northern Alaskan population pairs. We identified 15 SNPs reflecting signatures of parallel selection using both a differentiation-based method (BAYESCAN) and an environmental correlation method (BAYENV). These SNPs represent genomic regions that may be particularly informative in understanding adaptive evolution in pink salmon and exploring how differing genetic backgrounds within a species respond to selection from the same natural environment. PMID:24762204

  14. Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the ‘pink berry’ consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and 34S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0–500 μm. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while δ34S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to −31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate–sulfide isotopic fractionations (15–53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

  15. Laboratory evidence for short and long-term damage to pink salmon incubating in oiled gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Heintz, R.; Rice, S.; Wiedmer, M.

    1995-12-31

    Pink salmon, incubating in gravel contaminated with crude oil, demonstrated immediate and delayed responses in the laboratory at doses consistent with the concentrations observed in oiled streams in Prince William Sound. The authors incubated pink salmon embryos in a simulated intertidal environment with gravel contaminated by oil from the Exxon Valdez. During the incubation and emergence periods the authors quantified dose-response curves for characters affected directly by the oil. After emergence, fish were coded wire tagged and released, or cultured in netpens. Delayed responses have been observed among the cultured fish, and further observations will be made when coded wire tagged fish return in September 1995. The experiments have demonstrated that eggs need not contact oiled gravel to experience increased mortality, and doses as low as 17 ppb tPAH in water can have delayed effects on growth. A comparison of sediment tPAH concentrations from streams in Prince William Sound with these laboratory data suggests that many 1989 brood pink salmon were exposed to deleterious quantities of oil.

  16. Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O’Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa’alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

  17. Engineered repressible lethality for controlling the pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Neil I; Simmons, Gregory S; Fu, Guoliang; O'Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J; Harris, Claire L; Staten, Robert T; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects' progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

  18. Mitochondrial proteolytic stress induced by loss of mortalin function is rescued by Parkin and PINK1

    PubMed Central

    Burbulla, L F; Fitzgerald, J C; Stegen, K; Westermeier, J; Thost, A-K; Kato, H; Mokranjac, D; Sauerwald, J; Martins, L M; Woitalla, D; Rapaport, D; Riess, O; Proikas-Cezanne, T; Rasse, T M; Krüger, R

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial chaperone mortalin was implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its reduced levels in the brains of PD patients and disease-associated rare genetic variants that failed to rescue impaired mitochondrial integrity in cellular knockdown models. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying mortalin-related neurodegeneration, we dissected the cellular surveillance mechanisms related to mitochondrial quality control, defined the effects of reduced mortalin function at the molecular and cellular levels and investigated the functional interaction of mortalin with Parkin and PINK1, two PD-related proteins involved in mitochondrial homeostasis. We found that reduced mortalin function leads to: (1) activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), (2) increased susceptibility towards intramitochondrial proteolytic stress, (3) increased autophagic degradation of fragmented mitochondria and (4) reduced mitochondrial mass in human cells in vitro and ex vivo. These alterations caused increased vulnerability toward apoptotic cell death. Proteotoxic perturbations induced by either partial loss of mortalin or chemical induction were rescued by complementation with native mortalin, but not disease-associated mortalin variants, and were independent of the integrity of autophagic pathways. However, Parkin and PINK1 rescued loss of mortalin phenotypes via increased lysosomal-mediated mitochondrial clearance and required intact autophagic machinery. Our results on loss of mortalin function reveal a direct link between impaired mitochondrial proteostasis, UPR(mt) and PD and show that effective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria via either genetic (PINK1 and Parkin overexpression) or pharmacological intervention (rapamycin) may compensate mitochondrial phenotypes. PMID:24743735

  19. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P < 0.05) during storage. The surface redness (a* value) increased (P < 0.05) with the incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp. Furthermore, metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation were lower (P < 0.05) in tomato- and guava-treated emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration. PMID:26396313

  20. Arsenic Incorporation Into Authigenic Pyrite, Bengal Basin Sediment, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Lowers, H.A.; Breit, G.N.; Foster, A.L.; Whitney, J.; Yount, J.; Uddin, Md.N.; Muneem, Ad.A.; /Geological Survey, Denver /Geological Survey, Menlo Park

    2007-07-10

    Sediment from two deep boreholes ({approx}400 m) approximately 90 km apart in southern Bangladesh was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), total chemical analyses, chemical extractions, and electron probe microanalysis to establish the importance of authigenic pyrite as a sink for arsenic in the Bengal Basin. Authigenic framboidal and massive pyrite (median values 1500 and 3200 ppm As, respectively), is the principal arsenic residence in sediment from both boreholes. Although pyrite is dominant, ferric oxyhydroxides and secondary iron phases contain a large fraction of the sediment-bound arsenic between approximately 20 and 100 m, which is the depth range of wells containing the greatest amount of dissolved arsenic. The lack of pyrite in this interval is attributed to rapid sediment deposition and a low sulfur flux from riverine and atmospheric sources. The ability of deeper aquifers (>150 m) to produce ground water with low dissolved arsenic in southern Bangladesh reflects adequate sulfur supplies and sufficient time to redistribute the arsenic into pyrite during diagenesis.

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL STRAIN AMONG WOMEN POTATO CULTIVATORS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amitava; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Mahata, Hiranmoy; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Dhara, Prakash C

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate physiological strain among women cultivators engaged in potato cultivation. The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 150 women participants in different districts of West Bengal State, India. The physiological strain was evaluated by working heart rate, blood lactate and oxygen consumption. The average working heart rate was 109.97 ± 9.94 beats/min when all tasks were considered together. According to the working heart rate, oxygen consumption and energy cost, the potato cultivation job was categorized as a moderate work category. Whereas, according to cardiovascular stress index (CSI), all tasks of potato cultivation were categorized into a stressful category. The more experienced workers were more productive than their less experienced counterparts, and this increased productivity appeared to be a combination of greater efficiency and greater physical exertion. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that work pace and work experience had significant association with all the indices of physiological strain. Work pace had strongest significant impact on these indices even after controlling the effect of age, work experience and efficiency. It was concluded that during performing potato cultivation tasks the workers had a great extent of physiological strain. PMID:27501538

  2. Waves off Gopalpur, northern Bay of Bengal during Cyclone Phailin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Anoop, T. R.; Balakrishnan Nair, T. M.; Nherakkol, A.; Jeyakumar, C.

    2014-09-01

    The wave statistical parameters during Cyclone Phailin which crossed the northern Bay of Bengal are described based on the Directional Waverider buoy-measured wave data from 8 to 13 October 2013. On 12 October 2013, the cyclone passed within 70 km of the Waverider buoy location with a wind speed of 59.2 m s-1 (115 knots), and during this period, a maximum significant wave height of 7.3 m and a maximum wave height of 13.5 m were measured at 50 m water depth. Eight freak wave events are observed during the study period. The ratio of the maximum wave height to significant wave height recorded is found to be higher than the theoretical value and the ratio of the crest height to wave height during the cyclone was 0.6 to 0.7. The characteristics of the wave spectra before and after the cyclone is studied and found that the high-frequency face of the wave spectrum is proportional to f-3 before the cyclone and is between f-4 and f-5 during the cyclone period.

  3. Arsenic incorporation into authigenic pyrite, Bengal Basin sediment, Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, H.A.; Breit, G.N.; Foster, A.L.; Whitney, J.; Yount, J.; Uddin, Md. N.; Muneem, Ad. A.

    2007-01-01

    Sediment from two deep boreholes (???400 m) approximately 90 km apart in southern Bangladesh was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), total chemical analyses, chemical extractions, and electron probe microanalysis to establish the importance of authigenic pyrite as a sink for arsenic in the Bengal Basin. Authigenic framboidal and massive pyrite (median values 1500 and 3200 ppm As, respectively), is the principal arsenic residence in sediment from both boreholes. Although pyrite is dominant, ferric oxyhydroxides and secondary iron phases contain a large fraction of the sediment-bound arsenic between approximately 20 and 100 m, which is the depth range of wells containing the greatest amount of dissolved arsenic. The lack of pyrite in this interval is attributed to rapid sediment deposition and a low sulfur flux from riverine and atmospheric sources. The ability of deeper aquifers (>150 m) to produce ground water with low dissolved arsenic in southern Bangladesh reflects adequate sulfur supplies and sufficient time to redistribute the arsenic into pyrite during diagenesis.

  4. Spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll in Bay of Bengal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, S.; Islam, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) receives approximately 628 km3/ year of freshwater discharge from the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Freshwater discharge from rivers increases the nutrient load and thereby enhances phytoplankton production in the BoB. Cholera, an infectious water-borne disease caused by bacterium Vibrio cholerae, remains endemic in the BoB region. Phytoplankton provides favorable environment for survival of cholera bacteria. Therefore, for development of any predictive model for cholera, it is important to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton in the BoB. Satellite remote sensing is the most effective way to quantify this variability over a range of space and time scales. Using ten years (1998-2007) of daily, weekly and monthly SeaWiFs chlorophyll, a surrogate variable for measuring phytoplankton, imagery we explore the spatial pattern and dominant temporal variability of chlorophyll over the BoB region. We find that chlorophyll in the coastal waters has more variability, both in temporal and spatial scales, than the offshore waters. Mechanism of production and space-time variability of coastal chlorophyll is different from those of offshore chlorophyll. While coastal chlorophyll is dominated by influx of terrestrial nutrients through river discharge, chlorophyll in the offshore region is primarily controlled by oceanic processes. We will also explore issues related to dominant space and time scales of chlorophyll variations in the entire bay.

  5. Population Vulnerability to Biannual Cholera Outbreaks and Associated Macro-Scale Drivers in the Bengal Delta

    PubMed Central

    Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Jutla, Antarpreet S.; Gute, David M.; Sack, R. Bradley; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Islam, Shafiqul

    2013-01-01

    The highly populated floodplains of the Bengal Delta have a long history of endemic and epidemic cholera outbreaks, both coastal and inland. Previous studies have not addressed the spatio-temporal dynamics of population vulnerability related to the influence of underlying large-scale processes. We analyzed spatial and temporal variability of cholera incidence across six surveillance sites in the Bengal Delta and their association with regional hydroclimatic and environmental drivers. More specifically, we use salinity and flood inundation modeling across the vulnerable districts of Bangladesh to test earlier proposed hypotheses on the role of these environmental variables. Our results show strong influence of seasonal and interannual variability in estuarine salinity on spring outbreaks and inland flooding on fall outbreaks. A large segment of the population in the Bengal Delta floodplains remain vulnerable to these biannual cholera transmission mechanisms that provide ecologic and environmental conditions for outbreaks over large geographic regions. PMID:24019441

  6. Status of women in two Bengals: evidence from large scale surveys.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Aparajita; Goswami, Baishali

    2007-03-01

    Greater female autonomy is mirrored through better performance in the major demographic and social indicators. This study attempts to capture the effect of religion on the status of women considering 'Greater Bengal'. There is much evidence suggesting that when cultural factors are constant, religion does not have a significant effect on any demographic issue. In this paper, the validity of this proposition is examined using two datasets, namely NFHS II (98-99) and BDHS 2000. It is clear from the analyses that not only region but also religion has a distinct effect on the status of women. In West Bengal, the religious gap for all the indicators considered is pretty high, whereas in Bangladesh the gap is not that wide. A state-level population policy is needed in West Bengal to act as a social leveller. PMID:16522225

  7. The occurrence and allergising potential of airborne pollen in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Boral, Dola; Chatterjee, Soma; Bhattacharya, Kashinath

    2004-01-01

    A continuous 2-year volumetric aerobiological survey was conducted in Berhampore town, a centrally located and representative part of West Bengal, India. The aim of the study was to assess the allergising potential of airborne pollen grains of West Bengal. A total of 31 pollen types were identified of which Poaceae (grasses) pollen showed maximum frequency, followed by Cyperaceae, Cassia sp., Acacia auriculiformis, etc. The seasonal periodicities of the pollen types and their relationship to meteorological conditions were investigated. It was found that the pollen concentration is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Clinical investigations by skin prick test were carried out to detect allergenicity of pollen types. Eighteen common airborne pollen types induced positive responses of which pollen extracts of Saccharum officinarum (grass), Azadirachta indica, Cocos nucifera, Phoenix sylvestris, Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus citriodora showed strongest sensitising potential. This result is consistent with previous investigations in different parts of West Bengal. PMID:15236497

  8. Population vulnerability to biannual cholera outbreaks and associated macro-scale drivers in the Bengal Delta.

    PubMed

    Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Jutla, Antarpreet S; Gute, David M; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Islam, Shafiqul

    2013-11-01

    The highly populated floodplains of the Bengal Delta have a long history of endemic and epidemic cholera outbreaks, both coastal and inland. Previous studies have not addressed the spatio-temporal dynamics of population vulnerability related to the influence of underlying large-scale processes. We analyzed spatial and temporal variability of cholera incidence across six surveillance sites in the Bengal Delta and their association with regional hydroclimatic and environmental drivers. More specifically, we use salinity and flood inundation modeling across the vulnerable districts of Bangladesh to test earlier proposed hypotheses on the role of these environmental variables. Our results show strong influence of seasonal and interannual variability in estuarine salinity on spring outbreaks and inland flooding on fall outbreaks. A large segment of the population in the Bengal Delta floodplains remain vulnerable to these biannual cholera transmission mechanisms that provide ecologic and environmental conditions for outbreaks over large geographic regions. PMID:24019441

  9. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2016-02-01

    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  10. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. PMID:26332056

  11. The principal PINK1 and Parkin cellular events triggered in response to dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential occur in primary neurons

    PubMed Central

    Koyano, Fumika; Okatsu, Kei; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Fujioka, Yusuke; Kimura, Mayumi; Sobue, Gen; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    PINK1 and PARKIN are causal genes for hereditary Parkinsonism. Recent studies have shown that PINK1 and Parkin play a pivotal role in the quality control of mitochondria, and dysfunction of either protein likely results in the accumulation of low-quality mitochondria that triggers early-onset familial Parkinsonism. As neurons are destined to degenerate in PINK1/Parkin-associated Parkinsonism, it is imperative to investigate the function of PINK1 and Parkin in neurons. However, most studies investigating PINK1/Parkin have used non-neuronal cell lines. Here we show that the principal PINK1 and Parkin cellular events that have been documented in non-neuronal lines in response to mitochondrial damage also occur in primary neurons. We found that dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential triggers phosphorylation of both PINK1 and Parkin and that, in response, Parkin translocates to depolarized mitochondria. Furthermore, Parkin's E3 activity is re-established concomitant with ubiquitin–ester formation at Cys431 of Parkin. As a result, mitochondrial substrates in neurons become ubiquitylated. These results underscore the relevance of the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitochondrial quality control pathway in primary neurons and shed further light on the underlying mechanisms of the PINK1 and Parkin pathogenic mutations that predispose Parkinsonism in vivo. PMID:23751051

  12. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are "better" at it. We outline a…

  13. An Approach to Mark Arthropods for Mark Capture Type Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of studies were conducted to validate methods for marking a wide variety of arthropods with inexpensive proteins for mark-capture dispersal research. The markers tested included egg albumin protein in chicken egg whites and casein protein in bovine milk. The first study qualified the effec...

  14. Leaving A Mark: A Comparison Arthropod Protein Marking Protocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of arthropod pest and natural enemy disperal patterns is needed for effective and environmentally benign pest control. The most common tactics used to monitor arthropod dispersal patterns include mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture methodologies. Both methods require the applica...

  15. Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Roy Chowdhury, T; Chanda, C R; Chowdhury, P P; Basu, G K; Chakraborti, D

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km(2) with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are all located in the upper delta plain, and are mostly in the abandoned meander belt. More than 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people show arsenical skin lesions. Thousands of tube-well water in these six districts have been analysed for arsenic species. Hair, nails, scales, urine, liver tissue analyses show elevated concentrations of arsenic in people drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a longer period. The source of the arsenic is geological. Bore-hole sediment analyses show high arsenic concentrations in only few soil layers which is found to be associated with iron-pyrites. Various social problems arise due to arsenical skin lesions in these districts. Malnutrition, poor socio-economic conditions, illiteracy, food habits and intake of arsenic-contaminated water for many years have aggravated the arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, major water demands are met from groundwater and the geochemical reaction, caused by high withdrawal of water may be the cause of arsenic leaching from the source. If alternative water resources are not utilised, a good percentage of the 30 million people of these six districts may suffer from arsenic toxicity in the near future. PMID:24194364

  16. Formation of the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Umasankar; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Behara, Ambica

    2015-12-01

    A pool of relatively cooler water, called here as the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool, exists around Sri Lanka and southern tip of India during the summer monsoon. This cold pool is enveloped by the larger Indian Ocean warm pool and is believed to affect the intraseasonal variations of summer monsoon rainfall. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the cold pool using a combination of both satellite data sets and a general circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Sea surface temperature (SST) within the cold pool, after the steady increase during the February-April period, decreases first during a pre-monsoon spell in April and then with the monsoon onset during May. The onset cooling is stronger (~1.8° C) than the pre-monsoon cooling (~0.8° C) and culminates in the formation of the cold pool. Analysis of the model temperature equation shows that SST decrease during both events is primarily due to a decrease in incoming solar radiation and an increase in latent heat loss. These changes in the net heat flux are brought about by the arrival of cloud bands above the cold pool during both periods. During the pre-monsoon period, a cloud band originates in the western equatorial Indian Ocean and subsequently arrives above the cold pool. Similarly, during the monsoon onset, a band of clouds originating in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean comes over the cold pool region. A lead-lag correlation calculation between daily SST and rainfall anomalies suggest that cooling in SST occurs in response to rainfall events with a lag of 5 days. These sequence of events occur every year with certain amount of interannual variability.

  17. Space Radar Image of Calcutta, West Bengal, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Calcutta, India, illustrates different urban land use patterns. Calcutta, the largest city in India, is located on the banks of the Hugli River, shown as the thick, dark line in the upper portion of the image. The surrounding area is a flat swampy region with a subtropical climate. As a result of this marshy environment, Calcutta is a compact city, concentrated along the fringes of the river. The average elevation is approximately 9 meters (30 feet) above sea level. Calcutta is located 154 kilometers (96 miles) upstream from the Bay of Bengal. Central Calcutta is the light blue and orange area below the river in the center of the image. The bridge spanning the river at the city center is the Howrah Bridge which links central Calcutta to Howrah. The dark region just below the river and to the left of the city center is Maidan, a large city park housing numerous cultural and recreational facilities. The international airport is in the lower right of the image. The bridge in the upper right is the Bally Bridge which links the suburbs of Bally and Baranagar. This image is 30 kilometers by 10 kilometers (19 miles by 6 miles)and is centered at 22.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 5, 1994, onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  18. IODP Expedition 354 to the Bengal Fan: a Neogene record of Himalayan erosion. Implications on the carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France-Lanord, Christian; Spiess, Volkard; Galy, Albert; Galy, Valier; Huyghe, Pascale; Klaus, Adam; IODP Expedition 354 Scientists

    2016-04-01

    Bengal Fan Expedition 354 drilled an E-W transect in the middle fan at 8°N to investigate interactions between the growth of the Himalaya, the development of the Indian monsoon, and processes affecting the carbon cycle. A comprehensive record of turbiditic deposition between the Late Oligocene and Holocene was drilled over a seven sites E-W transect at 8°N. Shipboard results reveal that the chemical and mineralogical compositions of turbiditic sediments cored across the transect are relatively stable throughout the Neogene. By comparison to modern river sediment compositions (Lupker et al. ref), they reveal a weak intensity of chemical weathering without marked variation through time. Clay assemblages are dominated by illite and chlorite with minor proportions of newly formed clays. This differs from the distal fan record (Leg 116) where the Late Miocene and Pliocene turbidites show high weathering signatures and smectite rich clay assemblage. This difference im plies that the distal fan record does not reflect to an evolution of the source erosion. Rather it is controlled by a change in sediment transport within the fan. Shipboard estimates of organic carbon loading and behaviour resemble observations made in the modern Ganga-Brahmaputra river sediments, suggesting efficient terrestrial organic carbon burial in the Bengal Fan [1]. Preliminary observations support the idea that Himalayan erosion has consumed atmospheric CO2 through the burial of organic carbon, more than by silicate weathering. The main evolution observed in Expedition 354 record is the content of detrital carbonate that is persistent through the Neogene but appears to show a consistent decreasing trend from 8-10% during the Miocene to 3-6% during the Pleistocene and Pliocene. Also, a prominent feature of Miocene silt and sand beds is the higher abundance of plant fragments compared to younger sediments. Together these observations reveal changes in the sediment sources and erosion conditions of

  19. Downregulation of Pink1 influences mitochondrial fusion-fission machinery and sensitizes to neurotoxins in dopaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Charry, Liliana; Cookson, Mark R; Niño, Andrea; Arboleda, Humberto; Arboleda, Gonzalo

    2014-09-01

    It is now well established that mitochondria are organelles that, far from being static, are subject to a constant process of change. This process, which has been called mitochondrial dynamics, includes processes of both fusion and fission. Loss of Pink1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) function is associated with early onset recessive Parkinson's disease and it has been proposed that mitochondrial dynamics might be affected by loss of the mitochondrial kinase. Here, we report the effects of silencing Pink1 on mitochondrial fusion and fission events in dopaminergic neuron cell lines. Cells lacking Pink1 were more sensitive to cell death induced by C2-Ceramide, which inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. In the same cell lines, mitochondrial morphology was fragmented and this was enhanced by application of forskolin, which stimulates the cAMP pathway that phosphorylates Drp1 and thereby inactivates it. Cells lacking Pink1 had lower Drp1 and Mfn2 expression. Based on these data, we propose that Pink1 may exert a neuroprotective role in part by limiting mitochondrial fission. PMID:24792327

  20. Downregulation of Pink1 influences mitochondrial fusion–fission machinery and sensitizes to neurotoxins in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Charry, Liliana; Cookson, Mark R.; Niño, Andrea; Arboleda, Humberto; Arboleda, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that mitochondria are organelles that, far from being static, are subject to a constant process of change. This process, which has been called mitochondrial dynamics, includes processes of both fusion and fission. Loss of Pink1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) function is associated with early onset recessive Parkinson’s disease and it has been proposed that mitochondrial dynamics might be affected by loss of the mitochondrial kinase. Here, we report the effects of silencing Pink1 on mitochondrial fusion and fission events in dopaminergic neuron cell lines. Cells lacking Pink1 were more sensitive to cell death induced by C2-Ceramide, which inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. In the same cell lines, mitochondrial morphology was fragmented and this was enhanced by application of forskolin, which stimulates the cAMP pathway that phosphorylates Drp1 and thereby inactivates it. Cells lacking Pink1 had lower Drp1 and Mfn2 expression. Based on these data, we propose that Pink1 may exert a neuroprotective role in part by limiting mitochondrial fission. PMID:24792327

  1. Increased Frequency of Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ac in China

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Wu, Huaiheng; Huang, Minsong; Cong, Shengbo; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as “refuges” to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on “natural” refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The “natural” refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005–2007 to 56% in 2008–2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton. PMID:22238687

  2. Characterization of overlay mark fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, Mike; Ghinovker, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Kassel, Elyakim; Izikson, Pavel; Pollentier, Ivan K.; Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David W.

    2003-05-01

    In this publication we introduce a new metric for process robustness of overlay metrology in microelectronic manufacturing. By straightforward statistical analysis of overlay metrology measurements on an array of adjacent, nominally identical overlay targets the Overlay Mark Fidelity (OMF) can be estimated. We present the results of such measurements and analysis on various marks, which were patterned using a DUV scanner. The same reticle set was used to pattern wafers on different process layers and process conditions. By appropriate statistical analysis, the breakdown of the total OMF into a reticle-induced OMF component and a process induced OMF component was facilitated. We compare the OMF of traditional box-in-box overlay marks with that of new gratingbased overlay marks and show that in all cases the grating marks are superior. The reticle related OMF showed an improvement of 30 % when using the new grating-based overlay mark. Furthermore, in a series of wafers run through an STI-process with different Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) times, the random component of the OMF of the new grating-based overlay mark was observed to be 40% lower and 50% less sensitive to process variation compared with Box in Box marks. These two observations are interpreted as improved process robustness of the grating mark over box in box, specifically in terms of reduced site by site variations and reduced wafer to wafer variations as process conditions change over time. Overlay Mark Fidelity, as defined in this publication, is a source of overlay metrology uncertainty, which is statistically independent of the standard error contributors, i.e. precision, TIS variability, and tool to tool matching. Current overlay metrology budgeting practices do not take this into consideration when calculating total measurement uncertainty (TMU). It is proposed that this be reconsidered, given the tightness of overlay and overlay metrology budgets at the 70 nm design rule node and below.

  3. Transformation of Enterobacter gergoviae isolated from pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) gut with Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.

    PubMed

    Kuzina, Lyudmila V; Miller, Ernie D; Ge, Baoxue; Miller, Thomas A

    2002-01-01

    Production of molecules with toxic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of pest insects may serve as a powerful approach to biological control. The symbiont, Enterobacter gergoviae, isolated from the gut of the pink bollworm (PBW), has been transformed to express Cyt1A, a cytolytic protein toxin lethal to mosquito and black fly larvae, as a model system. These transgenic bacteria might be used to spread genes encoding insecticidal proteins to populations of agricultural insects or as replacement for chemical insecticides such as malathion used in bait formulation to control specific insect pests, because of extreme public pressure against organophosphate pesticide spraying. PMID:11727033

  4. Wearing pink as a stand against bullying: why we need to say more.

    PubMed

    Naugler, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a contextual discourse analysis of the media response to a campaign against bullying that was developed in the spring of 2007 in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. As a feature of masculine socialization, male-on-male bullying secures the reproduction of an aggressive and heteronormative hegemonic masculinity (Connell, 1987) for boys and young men in contemporary North American mainstream culture. I argue that the celebration of the "Pink Campaign" is illustrative of the normalizing silences, or "unremarkability," about the related discourses of sexism and homophobia that motivate everyday practices of male-on-male bullying. PMID:20390998

  5. On the decreasing trend of the number of monsoon depressions in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnu, S.; Francis, P. A.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study unravels the physical link between the weakening of the monsoon circulation and the decreasing trend in the frequency of monsoon depressions over the Bay of Bengal. Based on the analysis of the terms of Genesis Potential Index, an empirical index to quantify the relative contribution of large scale environmental variables responsible for the modulation of storms, it is shown here that the reduction in the mid-tropospheric relative humidity is the most important reason for the decrease in the number of monsoon depressions. The net reduction of relative humidity over the Bay of Bengal is primarily due to the decrease in the moisture flux convergence, which is attributed to the weakening of the low level jet, a characteristic feature of monsoon circulation. Further, the anomalous moisture convergence over the western equatorial Indian Ocean associated with the rapid warming of the sea surface, reduces the moisture advection into the Bay of Bengal and hence adversely affect the genesis/intensification of monsoon depressions. Hence, the reduction in the number of monsoon depression over the Bay of Bengal could be one of the manifestations of the differential rates in the observed warming trend of the Indian Ocean basin.

  6. The Sex Education Debates: Teaching "Life Style" in West Bengal, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakravarti, Paromita

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the recent controversies surrounding the decision to introduce sex education in secondary schools in India to combat the rapid spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. While 11 Indian states have banned it, the Left-ruled state of West Bengal has designed a teachers' manual to impart sex education. However, a close analysis of…

  7. Mixed layer variability and chlorophyll a biomass in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narvekar, J.; Prasanna Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    The mixed layer is the most variable and dynamically active part of the marine environment that couples the underlying ocean to the atmosphere and plays an important role in determining the oceanic primary productivity. We examined the basin-scale processes controlling the seasonal variability of mixed layer depth in the Bay of Bengal and its association with chlorophyll using a suite of in situ as well as remote sensing data. A coupling between mixed layer depth and chlorophyll was seen during spring intermonsoon and summer monsoon, but for different reasons. In spring intermonsoon the temperature-dominated stratification and associated shallow mixed layer makes the upper waters of the Bay of Bengal nutrient depleted and oligotrophic. In summer, although the salinity-dominated stratification in the northern Bay of Bengal shallows the mixed layer, the nutrient input from adjoining rivers enhance the surface chlorophyll. This enhancement is confined only to the surface layer and with increase in depth, the chlorophyll biomass decreases rapidly due to reduction in sunlight by suspended sediment. In the south, advection of high salinity waters from the Arabian Sea and westward propagating Rossby waves from the eastern Bay of Bengal led to the formation of deep mixed layer. In contrast, in the Indo-Sri Lanka region, the shallow mixed layer and nutrient enrichment driven by upwelling and Ekman pumping resulted in chlorophyll enhancement. The mismatch between the nitrate and chlorophyll indicated the inadequacy of present data to fully unravel its coupling to mixed layer processes.

  8. Growth and Reproduction of Bengal Dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) in Response to Drought Stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the drought stress tolerance of Bengal dayflower and cotton. The response of seedlings of both species to weekly irrigation treatments of 188, 375, 750, and 1500 ml per pot was determined, where 1500 ml approximated field capacity. Also, the influe...

  9. Push-Pull Factors of Undocumented Migration from Bangladesh to West Bengal: A Perception Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Pranati

    2004-01-01

    Movement is an integral part of human existence. While talking about transborder migration from Bangladesh to India, we are, however, aware that this is a controversial subject. The partition of Bengal in 1947 was the cruelest partition in the history of the world and caused forced illegal migration from erstwhile East Pakistan. It is estimated…

  10. A meridional dipole in premonsoon Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone activity induced by ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, L. Ruby; Lu, Jian; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone (TC) track data for the months of May-June during 1979-2014 reveals a meridional dipole in TC intensification: TC intensification rates increased significantly in the northern region and decreased in the southern region. The dipole is consistent with changes in the large-scale TC environment estimated using the Genesis Potential Index (GPI) for the same period. While an increase in lower troposphere cyclonic vorticity and midtroposphere humidity in the northern Bay of Bengal made the environment more favorable for TC intensification, enhanced vertical wind shear in the southern Bay of Bengal tended to reduce TC development. These environmental changes were associated with a strengthening of the monsoon circulation for the months of May-June, driven by a La Niña-like shift in tropical Pacific SSTs and associated tropical wave dynamics. Finally, analysis of a suite of climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archive shows that most models correctly reproduce the link between ENSO and premonsoon Bay of Bengal TC activity at interannual timescales, demonstrating the robustness of our main conclusions.

  11. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. PMID:16487548

  12. Maternal mortality in a district hospital in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Gun, K M

    1970-06-01

    To ascertain the causes of high maternal mortality in West Bengal, the author examined maternal mortality between 1964-68. It was intended that measures to improve the situation in rural areas could be suggested. Women in labor often arrive at the hospital very late and few antenatal care facilities are available in rural areas. High risk cases often are delivered at home, a situation which often results in fetal complications. Maternal deaths have declined, but not dramatically. Of the 24,265 deliveries at the Burdwan district hospital, there were 333 maternal deaths for an incidence of 13.7/1000, along with another 42 cases where death was due to pregnancy-associated causes. In contrast, the maternal mortality rate in a district hospital in Calcutta was 4/1000 in 1968. Eclampsia accounted for 42.34% (141) of maternal deaths making it the major cause of death. In Calcutta this cause of death is receding gradually but in the districts it still accounts for a heavy loss of life (an incidence of 1 in 38). Adequate antenatal care would reduce this high mortality. 2 factors which have contributed to the high mortality are the hours lost in transporting a patient from a rural area and inadequate hospital staff. Postpartum hemorrhage and/or retained placenta was responsible for 39 deaths and none of the cases admitted from outside had received antenatal care. A shortage of blood was also a contributory factor. Severe anemia was responsible for 34 deaths and abortions resulted in another 29 deaths (16 because of severe sepsis; 13 due to hemorrhage or shock). An emergency service would help reduce the number of deaths but at present such a service does not even exist in the urban areas. Ruptured uterus resulted in 29 deaths and obstructed labor in 27 deaths. Placenta previa brought about 14 deaths and the remaining 20 deaths were due to such causes as accidental hemorrhage (10), hydatidiform mole (4), puerperal sepsis (3), ectopic pregnancy (2), and uterine inversion (1

  13. Sea salt production over Bay of Bengal : Effect of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, K. N.; S K, S.; S S, B.; K, K.

    2015-12-01

    Marine aerosols constitute one of the most important natural aerosol systems globally and play an important role in global climate regulation and the marine biogenic system. One of the major constituents of the marine aerosol system is sea salt. Sea salt aerosols are produced via the bubble-bursting process resulting from whitecap generation (due to high wind speed). The resulting sea salt particles are of sub micrometre sizes and go up to a few micrometres. An increase in sea salt mass is primarily associated with increasing wind speeds. The increase in wind speed not only increases the mass concentration of the small-sized sea salt particles but also that of higher-sized particles. This behaviour is constrained by other factors like temperature and salinity. In the present work, this variability in the change in mass concentration of sea salt aerosol is studied with respect to the wind speed variation over Bay of Bengal (BoB). This work includes measurements from two field experiments held on 2006 ((ICARB) March-April) and 2012 ((CTCZ) July-August) over BoB. An analysis of the mass concentration with the wind history showed the mass concentration increasing with the increase in wind speed. Here wind history is used instead of instantaneous wind speed, because it is a good indicator of dependence of mass concentrations on wind speed. However, the cruise held in 2012 showed the size of particles constraining to 2.5 μm unlike the cruise in 2006. This difference in the size of the particles formed is majorly due to change in salinity. In 2012, the cruise was during summer monsoon season wherein the high runoff associated with high precipitation lead to reduced salinity. Whereas in 2006, the cruise was in summer season during which high evaporation lead to increase in salinity. This shows that with lower salinity the sea salt particles formed will be of smaller size. This also shows that apart from wind speed, salinity also affects the sea salt production.

  14. 19 CFR 134.21 - Special marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Marking of Containers or Holders § 134.21 Special marking. This subpart includes only country of origin marking requirements and exceptions under section 304(b), Tariff Act of 1930,...

  15. Assessing the suitability of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups to reconstruct paleomonsoon from Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasa, M.; Saraswat, Rajeev; Nigam, Rajiv

    2016-04-01

    Temporal changes in benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups were suggested as an effective proxy to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Arabian Sea. Here, in order to test the applicability of temporal variation in morpho-groups to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Bay of Bengal, we have documented recent benthic foraminiferal distribution from the continental shelf region of the northwestern Bay of Bengal. Based on the external morphology, benthic foraminifera were categorized into rounded symmetrical (RSBF) and angular asymmetrical benthic foraminifera (AABF). Additionally, a few other dominant groups were also identified based on test composition (agglutinated, calcareous) and abundance (Asterorotalids and Nonions). The relative abundance of each group was compared with the ambient physico-chemical conditions, including dissolved oxygen, organic matter, salinity and temperature. We report that the RSBF are abundant in comparatively warm and well oxygenated waters of low salinity, suggesting a preference for high energy environment, whereas AABF dominate relatively cold, hypersaline deeper waters with low dissolved oxygen, indicating a low energy environment. The agglutinated foraminifera, Asterorotalids and Nonions dominate shallow water, low salinity regions, whereas the calcareous benthic foraminiferal abundance increases away from the riverine influx regions. Food availability, as estimated from organic carbon abundance in sediments, has comparatively less influence on faunal distribution in the northwestern Bay of Bengal, as compared to dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity. We conclude that the factors associated with freshwater influx affect the distribution of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups in the northwestern Bay of Bengal and thus it can be used to reconstruct past monsoon intensity from the Bay of Bengal.

  16. CE Marking - the Essential Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Mervyn

    The European Union (EU) harmonisation project introduced the CE marking of products to enable the free, unhindered movement of goods throughout the European market. The CE mark replaced the EC mark in the mid 1990s and is fundamental to the New Approach Directives. When a product falls within the scope of a New Approach Directive the manufacturer must comply with the 'goal setting' essential requirements of the directive, to follow one of the conformity assessment procedures provided for, and to draw up the technical documentation specified. Although not mandatory, a manufacturer can choose to satisfy the essential requirements through the application of European harmonised standards.

  17. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  18. Composition of the essential oil of pink chablis bluebeard (Caryopteris x clandonensis 'Durio') and its biological activity against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caryopteris ×clandonensis A. Simmonds ex C. H. Curtis 'Durio' Pink Chablis™, (Lamiaceae) a pink-flowered cultivar distinctive among the typically blue-flowered cultivars of bluebeard, is valued as a small, deciduous shrub in the landscape for its mounded growth habit, showy flower display in summer,...

  19. PINK1 protects against cell death induced by mitochondrial depolarization, by phosphorylating Bcl-xL and impairing its pro-apoptotic cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Arena, G; Gelmetti, V; Torosantucci, L; Vignone, D; Lamorte, G; De Rosa, P; Cilia, E; Jonas, E A; Valente, E M

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the PINK1 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 encodes a mitochondrial kinase with neuroprotective activity, implicated in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and function. In concurrence with Parkin, PINK1 regulates mitochondrial trafficking and degradation of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. Moreover, PINK1 can activate autophagy by interacting with the pro-autophagic protein Beclin-1. Here, we report that, upon mitochondrial depolarization, PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic protein also known to inhibit autophagy through its binding to Beclin-1. PINK1–Bcl-xL interaction does not interfere either with Beclin-1 release from Bcl-xL or the mitophagy pathway; rather it protects against cell death by hindering the pro-apoptotic cleavage of Bcl-xL. Our data provide a functional link between PINK1, Bcl-xL and apoptosis, suggesting a novel mechanism through which PINK1 regulates cell survival. This pathway could be relevant for the pathogenesis of PD as well as other diseases including cancer. PMID:23519076

  20. Role of PINK1 binding to the TOM complex and alternate intracellular membranes in recruitment and activation of the E3 ligase Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Lazarou, Michael; Jin, Seok Min; Kane, Lesley A.; Youle, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the cytosolic E3 ligase Parkin can cause Parkinson’s disease. Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1 on the outer membrane where, dependent on kinase activity, it recruits and activates Parkin to induce mitophagy, potentially maintaining organelle fidelity. How PINK1 recruits Parkin is unknown. We show that endogenous PINK1 forms a 700 kDa complex with the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) selectively on depolarized mitochondria whereas PINK1 ectopically targeted to the outer membrane retains association with TOM on polarized mitochondria. Inducibly targeting PINK1 to peroxisomes or lysosomes, which lack a TOM complex, recruits Parkin and activates ubiquitin ligase activity on the respective organelles. Once there, Parkin induces organelle selective autophagy of peroxisomes but not lysosomes. We propose that the association of PINK1 with the TOM complex allows rapid re-import of PINK1 to rescue repolarized mitochondria from mitophagy, and discount mitochondrial-specific factors for Parkin translocation and activation. PMID:22280891

  1. Role of PINK1 binding to the TOM complex and alternate intracellular membranes in recruitment and activation of the E3 ligase Parkin.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Michael; Jin, Seok Min; Kane, Lesley A; Youle, Richard J

    2012-02-14

    Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the cytosolic E3 ligase Parkin can cause Parkinson's disease. Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1 on the outer membrane where, dependent on kinase activity, it recruits and activates Parkin to induce mitophagy, potentially maintaining organelle fidelity. How PINK1 recruits Parkin is unknown. We show that endogenous PINK1 forms a 700 kDa complex with the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) selectively on depolarized mitochondria whereas PINK1 ectopically targeted to the outer membrane retains association with TOM on polarized mitochondria. Inducibly targeting PINK1 to peroxisomes or lysosomes, which lack a TOM complex, recruits Parkin and activates ubiquitin ligase activity on the respective organelles. Once there, Parkin induces organelle selective autophagy of peroxisomes but not lysosomes. We propose that the association of PINK1 with the TOM complex allows rapid reimport of PINK1 to rescue repolarized mitochondria from mitophagy, and discount mitochondrial-specific factors for Parkin translocation and activation. PMID:22280891

  2. Data in support of qPCR primer design and verification in a Pink1 -/- rat model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Stevenson, Sharon A; Ciucci, Michelle R

    2016-09-01

    Datasets provided in this article represent the Rattus norvegicus primer design and verification used in Pink1 -/- and wildtype Long Evans brain tissue. Accessible tables include relevant information, accession numbers, sequences, temperatures and product length, describing primer design specific to the transcript amplification use. Additionally, results of Sanger sequencing of qPCR reaction products (FASTA aligned sequences) are presented for genes of interest. Results and further interpretation and discussion can be found in the original research article "Atp13a2 expression in the periaqueductal gray is decreased in the Pink1 -/- rat model of Parkinson disease" [1]. PMID:27331115

  3. Effect of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol on the pink heelsplitter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is used to selectively kill sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus ) in the tributaries of the Great Lakes. Over the years, TFM was tested most often on nontarget fishes and only occasionally on invertebrates, including freshwater mussels. We exposed pink heelsplitters (Potamilus alatus ) to TFM concentrations and exposure times similar to those in lampricide treatments. Tests were conducted in water similar in quality to the Poultney River, New York, a stream that contains pink heelsplitters and is scheduled for lampricide treatment in 1991. Mussels were exposed to TFM for either 12 or 24 h and observed daily in well water for 14 days. Ninety percent of the mussels exposed to 3.5 mg/L of TFM for 12 h survived, however, only 50% of the mussels exposed to that concentration for 24 h survived. TFM seems to narcotize or anesthetize mussels. Mortality of mussels exposed to 3.5 mg/L TFM for 12 h seemed to be 60% immediately after treatment, but the actual mortality was only 10% after a 14-day recovery period.

  4. Fitness Cost of Resistance to Bt Cotton Linked with Increased Gossypol Content in Pink Bollworm Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jennifer L.; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orth, Robert G.; Gassmann, Aaron J.; Head, Graham; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins. PMID:21738799

  5. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould.

    PubMed

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar 'Fagerlin' based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  6. Interaction of white and pink grapefruit juice with acetaminophen (paracetamol) in vivo in mice.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Reyes, Meredith A; Risin, Semyon A; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2008-12-01

    Grapefruit juice increases bioavailability of a number of drugs because of inhibition of the P-glycoprotein pump and inhibition of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme. However, interaction between acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol in many parts of the world) and grapefruit juice has never been reported. The interaction of grapefruit juice with acetaminophen was examined in an in vivo mouse model. BALB/c mice were fed 200 microL of white grapefruit juice or pink grapefruit juice by oral gavage (three mice in each group) followed by oral delivery of 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg acetaminophen 1 hour later. Blood was withdrawn from the retro-orbital venous plexus at 1 hour and 2 hours after feeding with acetaminophen. The concentrations of acetaminophen in sera of mice were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. White grapefruit juice increased concentrations of acetaminophen in mice both 1 hour and 2 hours after feeding compared to controls. In contrast, pink grapefruit juice increased acetaminophen concentrations 2 hours after feeding compared to controls. Because acetaminophen is almost completely absorbed these effects seems to be related to increased elimination half-life of acetaminophen because of interaction with grapefruit juice. PMID:19053875

  7. Assessment of the phototoxicity of weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil to juvenile pink salmon.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Carls, Mark G; Short, Jeffrey W; Rice, Stanley D; Heintz, Ron A; Rau, Michelle; Di Giulio, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Petroleum products are known to have greater toxicity to the translucent embryos and larvae of aquatic organisms in the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) compared to toxicity determined in tests performed under standard laboratory lighting with minimal UV. This study assessed the acute phototoxicity of the water accommodated fractions of weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANS) to juvenile pink salmon, which are a heavily pigmented life stage. Fish in the highest ANS treatments exhibited melanosis, less mobility, reduced startle response, erratic swimming, and loss of equilibrium. Gills from fish exposed to ANS had elevated levels of hydroperoxides in oil-only, UV-only, and oil+UV treatments compared to control fish, which was indicative of increased lipid peroxidation in gill tissue. Under the test conditions of moderate salinity, low UV and high short-term oil exposure there were no indications of photoenhanced toxicity as assessed by elevation of mortality, behavioral impairment, or gill lipid peroxidation in oil+UV treatments. The results of this study suggest that pink salmon may be at less risk from photoenhanced toxicity compared to the translucent early-life stages of several other Alaska species. PMID:15910909

  8. Syntaxin-17 delivers PINK1/parkin-dependent mitochondrial vesicles to the endolysosomal system.

    PubMed

    McLelland, Gian-Luca; Lee, Sydney A; McBride, Heidi M; Fon, Edward A

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are considered autonomous organelles, physically separated from endocytic and biosynthetic pathways. However, recent work uncovered a PINK1/parkin-dependent vesicle transport pathway wherein oxidized or damaged mitochondrial content are selectively delivered to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation, providing evidence that mitochondria are indeed integrated within the endomembrane system. Given that mitochondria have not been shown to use canonical soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) machinery for fusion, the mechanism by which mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are targeted to the endosomal compartment has remained unclear. In this study, we identify syntaxin-17 as a core mitochondrial SNARE required for the delivery of stress-induced PINK1/parkin-dependent MDVs to the late endosome/lysosome. Syntaxin-17 remains associated with mature MDVs and forms a ternary SNARE complex with SNAP29 and VAMP7 to mediate MDV-endolysosome fusion in a manner dependent on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) tethering complex. Syntaxin-17 can be traced to the last eukaryotic common ancestor, hinting that the removal of damaged mitochondrial content may represent one of the earliest vesicle transport routes in the cell. PMID:27458136

  9. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould

    PubMed Central

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar ‘Fagerlin’ based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  10. Pink-beam focusing with a one-dimensional compound refractive lens.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Eric M; Dunford, Robert W; Kanter, Elliot P; Gao, Yuan; Moon, Seoksu; Walko, Donald A; Zhang, Xusheng

    2016-09-01

    The performance of a cooled Be compound refractive lens (CRL) has been tested at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to enable vertical focusing of the pink beam and permit the X-ray beam to spatially overlap with an 80 µm-high low-density plasma that simulates astrophysical environments. Focusing the fundamental harmonics of an insertion device white beam increases the APS power density; here, a power density as high as 500 W mm(-2) was calculated. A CRL is chromatic so it does not efficiently focus X-rays whose energies are above the fundamental. Only the fundamental of the undulator focuses at the experiment. A two-chopper system reduces the power density on the imaging system and lens by four orders of magnitude, enabling imaging of the focal plane without any X-ray filter. A method to measure such high power density as well as the performance of the lens in focusing the pink beam is reported. PMID:27577759

  11. Mark Chaffin (1952-2015).

    PubMed

    Lutzker, John R; Bonner, Barbara L

    2016-04-01

    Presents an obituary for Mark Chaffin, who passed away unexpectedly on August 23, 2015, in Atlanta, Georgia, while riding his bike on the Atlanta Beltline, a joy and passion for him. Mark was a leader in the field of child maltreatment research. He dedicated his career to helping at-risk children and families. His distinguished career belied his self-proclaimed, self-effacing lack of accomplishment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27042891

  12. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, H. Jr.; Hupf, H.B.; Wanek, P.M.

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free /sup 125/I/sup -/ is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  13. Biological response to local and remote forcing in the bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Helga; Goes, Joaquim; deRada, Sergio; Thoppil, Prasad; Matondkar, Prabhu

    2014-05-01

    The permanently stratified water column in the Bay of Bengal and a strong halocline, resulting from a heavy influx of freshwater from river runoff and precipitation is an impediment to mixing processes that can inject new nutrients into the bay. Consequently, unlike the monsoonal blooms of the Arabian Sea with rates of primary productivity exceptional in magnitude among offshore ocean regions, phytoplankton productivity in the Bay of Bengal is modest and largely dependent on processes that can erode the halocline and entrain nutrients into the euphotic zone. Although considerable advances have been made in understanding the physical mechanisms that are particularly unique to the Bay of Bengal such as the Sri Lanka and Bay of Bengal Domes during the Southwest monsoon, mixing induced by tropical cyclones and cyclonic eddies, all of which can bring new nutrients into the euphotic zone, there seems to be little understanding of the biological response. This is a consequence of sparse shipboard biological measurements of phytoplankton biomass and productivity and inadequate coverage of ocean color satellite measurements because of persistent cloud cover. In view of these limitations, ecosystem models are more advantageous as they offer large scale coverage even under cloudy conditions as well as over the euphotic depth an important aspect for studying the deep chlorophyll maxima. In this study we use outputs from a Naval Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) coupled to a 13-component ecosystem model to describe some of the unique physical forcing features of the Bay of Bengal which enhance phytoplankton productivity in an otherwise low productivity environment. Model results are compared and evaluated against in-situ and remotely sensed observations. We focus on three physically and biologically active regions viz. the Sri Lanka Dome during the Southwest monsoon followed by the Bay of Bengal Dome to its north and the winter bloom in the southwest of the bay. Using the model

  14. Mitochondrial and lysosomal biogenesis are activated following PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Ivankovic, Davor; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H V; Gegg, Matthew E

    2016-01-01

    Impairment of the autophagy-lysosome pathway is implicated with the changes in α-synuclein and mitochondrial dysfunction observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Damaged mitochondria accumulate PINK1, which then recruits parkin, resulting in ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins. These can then be bound by the autophagic proteins p62/SQSTM1 and LC3, resulting in degradation of mitochondria by mitophagy. Mutations in PINK1 and parkin genes are a cause of familial PD. We found a significant increase in the expression of p62/SQSTM1 mRNA and protein following mitophagy induction in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. p62 protein not only accumulated on mitochondria, but was also greatly increased in the cytosol. Increased p62/SQSMT1 expression was prevented in PINK1 knock-down cells, suggesting increased p62 expression was a consequence of mitophagy induction. The transcription factors Nrf2 and TFEB, which play roles in mitochondrial and lysosomal biogenesis, respectively, can regulate p62/SQSMT1. We report that both Nrf2 and TFEB translocate to the nucleus following mitophagy induction and that the increase in p62 mRNA levels was significantly impaired in cells with Nrf2 or TFEB knockdown. TFEB translocation also increased expression of itself and lysosomal proteins such as glucocerebrosidase and cathepsin D following mitophagy induction. We also report that cells with increased TFEB protein have significantly higher PGC-1α mRNA levels, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in increased mitochondrial content. Our data suggests that TFEB is activated following mitophagy to maintain autophagy-lysosome pathway and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, strategies to increase TFEB may improve both the clearance of α-synuclein and mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. Damaged mitochondria are degraded by the autophagy-lysosome pathway and is termed mitophagy. Following mitophagy induction, the transcription factors Nrf2 and TFEB translocate to the nucleus, inducing

  15. The Effects of Baker-Miller Pink on Physiological and Cognitive Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed and Regular Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Fourteen emotionally disturbed junior high students and 16 regular education students were exposed to 2 experimental conditions with white and Baker-Miller pink visual stimuli. Analysis revealed significant differences on systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not on pulse, grip strength, nor the Digit-Symbol test of the Wechsler Adult…

  16. Hit-size effectiveness theory applied to high doses of low LET radiation for pink mutations in Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, M.N.; Bond, V.P.; Matthews, G.

    1985-01-01

    A hit-size effectiveness function which represents the probability of inducing a pink mutation in Tradescantia as a function of lineal energy density has been obtained (1) using observed pink mutation data for seven different radiation qualities and their respective single event microdosimetric spectra. In obtaining this function only the linear portions of dose-response curves were used. A significant improvement of the concepts embodied in the proposed hit-size effectiveness theory would be the demonstration of its applicability at high doses (where multiple hits are produced) and high dose rates (at which no significant biological repair takes place). In this article details are given on preliminary calculations of the pink mutation frequency in Tradescantia at 1, 5, 10, 20, and 60 rads for 250 kVp x rays, using the multi-hit spectra and the hit-size effectiveness function obtained on the basis of single hit microdosimetric spectra as outline in (1). A comparison of the calculated and observed pink mutation frequencies indicate excellent agreement and suggests the possibility of obtaining the hit-size effectiveness function from high dose biological-effect data obtained using low-LET radiations. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Intramembrane protease PARL defines a negative regulator of PINK1- and PARK2/Parkin-dependent mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Cathrin; Lorenz, Holger; Hehn, Beate; Lemberg, Marius K

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in PINK1 and PARK2/Parkin are a main risk factor for familial Parkinson disease. While the physiological mechanism of their activation is unclear, these proteins have been shown in tissue culture cells to serve as a key trigger for autophagy of depolarized mitochondria. Here we show that ablation of the mitochondrial rhomboid protease PARL leads to retrograde translocation of an intermembrane space-bridging PINK1 import intermediate. Subsequently, it is rerouted to the outer membrane in order to recruit PARK2, which phenocopies mitophagy induction by uncoupling agents. Consistent with a role of this retrograde translocation mechanism in neurodegenerative disease, we show that pathogenic PINK1 mutants which are not cleaved by PARL affect PINK1 kinase activity and the ability to induce PARK2-mediated mitophagy. Altogether we suggest that PARL is an important intrinsic player in mitochondrial quality control, a system substantially impaired in Parkinson disease as indicated by reduced removal of damaged mitochondria in affected patients. PMID:26101826

  18. Field evaluation of two systemic neonicotinoid insecticides against pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green))on mulberry trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in ornamental trees were already in an advanced state at the time of its discovery in the Imperial Valley of California (USA) in August 1999. Concern about the spread of M. hirsutus beyond the Imperial Valley led to the p...

  19. Analysis of resistance to Cry1Ac in field-collected pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae), populations.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Abhishek; Sree, K Sowjanya; Sachdev, Bindiya; Rashmi, M A; Ravi, K C; Suresh, P J; Mohan, Komarlingam S; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2014-01-01

    High survivorship of pink bollworrm, Pectinophora gossypiella in bolls of Bollgard® cotton hybrids and resistance to Cry1Ac protein, expressed in Bollgard cotton were reported in field-populations collected from the state of Gujarat (western India) in 2010. We have found Cry1Ac-resistance in pink bollworm populations sourced from Bollgard and non-Bt cotton fields in the adjoining states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh in Central India. Further, we observed reduced binding of labeled Cry1Ac protein to receptors localized on the brush-border membrane of pink bollworm larval strains with high tolerance to Cry1Ac. These strains were sourced from Bollgard and conventional cotton fields. A pooled Cry1Ac-resistant strain, further selected on Cry1Ac diet also showed significantly reduced binding to Cry1Ac protein. The reduced binding of Cry1Ac to receptors could be an underlying mechanism for the observed resistance in pink bollworm populations feeding on Bollgard hybrids. PMID:25523173

  20. Novel Pink Bollworm Resistance to the Bt Toxin:Cryl Ac: Effects on Mating, Oviposition, Larval Development, and Survival.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bt cotton plants are genetically engineered to produce insecticidal toxins from the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium and target key lepidopteran pests. At least four strains of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), have been selected in the laboratory for resistance to insecticid...

  1. INDUCTION OF MATURATION AND SPAWNING OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM, BY CHANGING WATER TEMPERATURE, AND SURVIVAL OF GROWTH OF YOUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maturation, mating, and spawning of pink shrimp, Panaeus duorarum, are described. hree temperature cycles over 130 days produced three separate periods of maturation and spawning within 7 to 14 days after the water temperature increased from the minimum of 20.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C ...

  2. Results of a Two-Year Pink Bollworm Survey in the Southern Plains of Texas and New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producing areas in the Southern Plains Region of Texas and New Mexico were surveyed using delta sticky traps baited with gossyplure, the sex pheromone for pink bollworm (PBW). Non-cotton producing areas south of these areas were also surveyed for moths potentially moving into the El Paso/Tra...

  3. The Halo Effect: Suppression of Pink Bollworm on Non-Bt Cotton by Bt Cotton in China

    PubMed Central

    Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

    2012-01-01

    In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this “halo effect” against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance. PMID:22848685

  4. Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species (e.g., zooplankton, squid), leading to altered diet, reduced total prey consumption and growth, delayed maturation, and reduced survival, depending on species and locale. Reduced survival was observed in chum salmon (O. keta) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) originating from Puget Sound and in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Growth of pink salmon was not measurably affected by other salmon species, but their growth was sometimes inversely related to their own abundance. In all marine studies, pink salmon affected other species through exploitation of prey resources rather than interference. Interspecific competition was observed in nearshore and offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and one study documented competition between species originating from different continents. Climate change had variable effects on competition. In the North Pacific Ocean, competition was observed before and after the ocean regime shift in 1977 that significantly altered abundances of many marine species, whereas a study in the Pacific Northwest reported a shift from predation- to competition-based mortality in response to the 1982/1983 El Nino. Key traits of pink salmon that influenced competition with other salmonids included great abundance, high

  5. A Plume Head and Tail in the Bengal Basin and Bay of Bengal: Rajmahal and Sylhet Traps with Surrounding Alkalic Volcanism and the Ninetyeast Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, A. R.; Weaver, K. L.; Sengupta, S.

    2001-12-01

    Although the 116-113 Ma-old Rajmahal-Sylhet Traps of the Bengal basin, potentially covering an area > 2x105 km2, can be directly linked via Ninetyeast Ridge to the Kerguelen Plume, more than 5,000 kms away, it is generally believed that this flood basalt volcanism originated from a normal MORB-type mantle at the boundary of a mantle plume. This model, primarily based on geochemical analysis of a limited number of Rajmahal basalts, requires initiation of rifting of the eastern Indian margin by a smaller thermal flux than necessary for creating a large igneous province. Here we show that the extent of volcanism associated with the Rajmahal-Sylhet Traps is far greater than usually assumed, thus requiring a direct involvement of the Kerguelen Plume. In addition to the surface exposures of the flood basalts in Rajmahal-Sylhet, the basaltic rocks have been encountered in many parts of the Bengal Basin in bore holes reaching a maximum thickness of 600 m in the western margin of the Basin (Sengupta, Bull. AAPG, 1966) Most importantly, several suites of ultrapotassic and alkalic intrusive complexes, similar to those associated with the Deccan and Siberia Traps, occur over wide areas within and outside the Basin: i) southwest of the surface exposures of Rajmahal basalts, distance 200km, intrusive in Lower Gondwana coalbeds, Ar-Ar age 114 Ma (P.R. Renne, personal communication), ii) 400 km north of Rajmahal, exposed in Sikkim, intrusive into metamorphic crystalline nappes of the Himalayas; distance here is not real and must be a minimum as the nappes have been transported from the north, iii) northeast of Rajmahal in Meghalaya State, distance 550 km, intrusive into metamorphic Precambrian basement rocks. Nd-Sr isotopic ratios and trace element characteristics of these above ultrapotassic and alkaline rocks are consistent with their origin associated with the Kerguelen Plume. The wide range in Nd-Sr array for these rocks, including the Sylhet and Rajmahal basalts, shows

  6. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marks. 24.259 Section 24....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... shipment. (b) Application of marks. Required marks may be cut, printed, or otherwise legibly and...

  7. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  8. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  9. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  10. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  11. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marks. 24.259 Section 24....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... shipment. (b) Application of marks. Required marks may be cut, printed, or otherwise legibly and...

  12. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marks. 24.259 Section 24....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... shipment. (b) Application of marks. Required marks may be cut, printed, or otherwise legibly and...

  13. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marks. 24.259 Section 24....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... shipment. (b) Application of marks. Required marks may be cut, printed, or otherwise legibly and...

  14. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of a Customs officer. The original marks and the port marks shall appear in all papers pertaining to...

  15. Phosphorylation by PINK1 Releases the UBL Domain and Initializes the Conformational Opening of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L.; Dourado, Daniel F. A. R.; Flores, Samuel C.; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 or PARKIN are the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Both gene products, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Parkin, functionally cooperate in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Upon stress, PINK1 activates Parkin and enables its translocation to and ubiquitination of damaged mitochondria to facilitate their clearance from the cell. Though PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Ser65 is an important initial step, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of Parkin's enzymatic functions remain unclear. Using molecular modeling, we generated a complete structural model of human Parkin at all atom resolution. At steady state, the Ub ligase is maintained inactive in a closed, auto-inhibited conformation that results from intra-molecular interactions. Evidently, Parkin has to undergo major structural rearrangements in order to unleash its catalytic activity. As a spark, we have modeled PINK1-dependent Ser65 phosphorylation in silico and provide the first molecular dynamics simulation of Parkin conformations along a sequential unfolding pathway that could release its intertwined domains and enable its catalytic activity. We combined free (unbiased) molecular dynamics simulation, Monte Carlo algorithms, and minimal-biasing methods with cell-based high content imaging and biochemical assays. Phosphorylation of Ser65 results in widening of a newly defined cleft and dissociation of the regulatory N-terminal UBL domain. This motion propagates through further opening conformations that allow binding of an Ub-loaded E2 co-enzyme. Subsequent spatial reorientation of the catalytic centers of both enzymes might facilitate the transfer of the Ub moiety to charge Parkin. Our structure-function study provides the basis to elucidate regulatory mechanisms and activity of the neuroprotective Parkin. This may open up new avenues for the development of small molecule Parkin activators through

  16. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and physiological stress among adult, male potato cultivators of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2015-03-01

    A total of 70 male potato cultivators were selected randomly from the villages of West Bengal, India, to evaluate musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), thermal stress, and physiological stress and were compared with 70 controls from the urban sector of West Bengal. Modified Nordic questionnaire studies and a posture analysis were performed in for the male potato cultivators by the Rapid Entire Body Assessment method. Most of the participants suffered discomfort at different parts of the body, especially in the lower back, knee, ankle, and feet regions. Potato cultivators suffered maximum discomfort during spading, planting seeds, weeding, picking crops, and sprinkling water. Therefore, it can be concluded that prolonged work activity, high repetitiveness, and remaining constantly in an awkward posture for a prolonged period of time may lead to MSDs. This study also revealed that a significant physiological load is exerted on the potato cultivators, as shown by increased heart rates. PMID:22247108

  17. Sonodynamic excitation of Rose Bengal for eradication of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakonechny, Faina; Nisnevitch, Michael; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nisnevitch, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy based on photosensitizers activated by illumination is limited by poor penetration of visible light through skin and tissues. In order to overcome this problem, Rose Bengal was excited in the dark by 28 kHz ultrasound and was applied for inactivation of bacteria. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that the sonodynamic technique is effective for eradication of gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. The net sonodynamic effect was calculated as a 3-4 log10 reduction in bacteria concentration, depending on the cell and the Rose Bengal concentration and the treatment time. Sonodynamic treatment may become a novel and effective form of antimicrobial therapy and can be used for low-temperature sterilization of medical instruments and surgical accessories. PMID:23509759

  18. The dynamics of arsenic in four paddy fields in the Bengal delta.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Jacqueline L; Norton, Gareth J; Islam, M Rafiqul; Dasgupta, Tapash; White, Rodger P; Price, Adam H; Meharg, Andrew A; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2011-04-01

    Irrigation with arsenic contaminated groundwater in the Bengal Delta may lead to As accumulation in the soil and rice grain. The dynamics of As concentration and speciation in paddy fields during dry season (boro) rice cultivation were investigated at 4 sites in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Three sites which were irrigated with high As groundwater had elevated As concentrations in the soils, showing a significant gradient from the irrigation inlet across the field. Arsenic concentration and speciation in soil pore water varied temporally and spatially; higher As concentrations were associated with an increasing percentage of arsenite, indicating a reductive mobilization. Concentrations of As in rice grain varied by 2-7 fold within individual fields and were poorly related with the soil As concentration. A field site employing alternating flooded-dry irrigation produced the lowest range of grain As concentration, suggesting a lower soil As availability caused by periodic aerobic conditions. PMID:21236535

  19. Disseminated giant porokeratosis and porokeratosis of Mibelli in Bankura and Bardhaman districts, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sankha; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Bar, Chittaranjan

    2014-09-01

    Porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM) is a rare genodermatosis. It is caused by proliferation of abnormal clones of epidermal cells in response to several stimuli, the most important of which is sunlight. Giant porokeratosis is thought to be a variant of PM. We report two cases of disseminated PM and one case of disseminated giant porokeratosis from the Bankura and Bardhaman districts of West Bengal in India; presenting to a single observer in the summer of 2012. Interestingly we have noted that the majority of cases of porokeratosis in India have been reported from West Bengal. Few patients with a single lesion of giant porokeratosis have been reported in world literature. As far as we know, this is the first case report of disseminated giant porokeratosis in world literature. PMID:24898929

  20. Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings. PMID:22903174

  1. Search for extinct 36Cl: Vigarano CAIs, the Pink Angel from Allende, and a Ningqiang chondrule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Daisuke; Ott, Ulrich; Hoppe, Peter; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    We have searched for excesses of 36S derived from the decay of extinct 36Cl in sodalite, a secondary Cl-rich mineral, in Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Vigarano and Allende CV3 chondrites and in a chondrule from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. The presence of sodalite in two CAIs from Vigarano and its absence from surrounding CAI fragments suggests sodalite formation after CAI fragmentation. As for sodalite in the Allende Pink Angel CAI, oxygen isotopic compositions have been interpreted as indicative of high temperature interactions, thus suggesting formation prior to accretion to the parent body, probably in a nebular setting. Sodalite in the Ningqiang chondrule is considered to have formed via alkali-Ca exchange, which is believed to have occurred before accretion to the parent body. Sodalites in the Vigarano CAIs and in the Ningqiang chondrule show no clear evidence for the presence of radiogenic 36S. The inferred 2 σ upper limits for 36Cl/ 35Cl at the time of sodalite formation are 1.6 × 10 -6 (Vigarano CAIs) and 3.3 × 10 -6 (Ningqiang chondrule), respectively. In the Pink Angel CAI sodalite exhibits small 36S excesses which weakly correlate with 35Cl/ 34S ratios. The inferred 36Cl/ 35Cl ratio of (1.8 ± 2.2) × 10 -6 (2 σ error) is lower than that found by Hsu et al. [Hsu, W., Guan, Y., Leshin, L. A., Ushikubo, T. and Wasserburg, G. J. (2006) A late episode of irradiation in the early solar system: Evidence from extinct 36Cl and 26Al in meteorites. Astrophys. J. 640, 525-529], thus indicative of heterogeneous distribution of 36Cl in this CAI. Spallation reactions induced by energetic particles from the young Sun are suggested for the origin of 36Cl, similar to the case of 10Be. While 10Be appears to be present in roughly equal abundance in all studied CAIs, our study indicates the level of 36Cl abundances to be variable so that there seems to be no simple relationship between 10Be and 36Cl. This would be expected if trapped cosmic rays rather

  2. Allium Discoloration: Color Compounds Formed during Pinking of Onion and Leek.

    PubMed

    Kubec, Roman; Urajová, Petra; Lacina, Ondřej; Hajšlová, Jana; Kuzma, Marek; Zápal, Jakub

    2015-11-25

    Structures and formation pathways of compounds responsible for pink discoloration of onion and leek were studied. A procedure was developed for the isolation and purification of the color compounds from various model systems and their identification by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. In total, structures of 15 major color compounds were tentatively determined. It was found that the pigment is a complex mixture of highly conjugated species composed of two N-substituted 3,4-dimethylpyrrole-derived rings linked by either a methine or a propenylidine bridge. These two-ring units are further modified by various C1- and C3-side chains. Experiments with isotope-labeled thiosulfinates revealed that the methine bridge and C1-side chains originate from the methyl group of methiin, whereas the C3 units are derived from the propenyl group of isoalliin. PMID:26548475

  3. Pink marine sediments reveal rapid ice melt and Arctic meltwater discharge during Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Tine L; Thomsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The climate of the last glaciation was interrupted by numerous abrupt temperature fluctuations, referred to as Greenland interstadials and stadials. During warm interstadials the meridional overturning circulation was active transferring heat to the north, whereas during cold stadials the Nordic Seas were ice-covered and the overturning circulation was disrupted. Meltwater discharge, from ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas, is implicated as a cause of this ocean instability, yet very little is known regarding this proposed discharge during warmings. Here we show that, during warmings, pink clay from Devonian Red Beds is transported in suspension by meltwater from the surrounding ice sheet and replaces the greenish silt that is normally deposited on the north-western slope of Svalbard during interstadials. The magnitude of the outpourings is comparable to the size of the outbursts during the deglaciation. Decreasing concentrations of ice-rafted debris during the interstadials signify that the ice sheet retreats as the meltwater production increases. PMID:24264767

  4. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Southern California deserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main objective is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (i.e., crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to data has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

  5. Pink plaque on the arm of a man after a trip to Mexico: cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Saavedra, Arturo P; Sax, Paul E; Lipworth, Adam D

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus that presents as asymptomatic pink papules that may ulcerate. There are several species of Leishmania found in 98 endemic countries and whereas all are associated with cutaneous disease, only specific species can cause mucocutaneous or visceral disease. Although the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis can be confirmed with Giemsa staining of a biopsy or "touch prep" specimen, only speciation at specialized centers such as the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) can determine the risk of mucocutaneous or visceral disease. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is varied and depends on the extent of cutaneous disease and the risk of mucocutaneous or visceral disease. PMID:26158361

  6. Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aijun; Amalin, Divina; Shirali, Shyam; Serrano, Miguel S.; Franqui, Rosa A.; Oliver, James E.; Klun, Jerome A.; Aldrich, Jeffrey R.; Meyerdirk, Dale E.; Lapointe, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, were isolated, identified, and synthesized. They are (R)-2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexenyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [common name is (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate] and [(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)cyclobutyl]methyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [which we refer to as (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate]. Maconelliol is an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene, and its structure has been established by enantioselective synthesis from precursors of known structure and configuration. A 1:5 synthetic mixture of the two RS esters (1 μg per rubber septum) proved to be a potent attractant of males in field bioassays. The pheromone component, maconelliyl 2-methylbutanoate, represents a heretofore undescribed natural product. PMID:15197282

  7. Iodine-xenon studies of Allende inclusions - Eggs and the Pink Angel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    1988-01-01

    The I-Xe systems of six Allende inclusions (five Eggs and the Pink Angel) appear to have been altered by nonnebular secondary processes. Evidence for this includes temperature-ordered variations in the initial I isotopic composition within several objects (with older apparent I-Xe ages associated with higher extraction temperatures) and the absence of primitive I-Xe ages. The span of apparent ages seen in Allende objects (10 Myr or more) is probably too long to reflect any nebular process, so at least some alteration probably occurred ont the parent body. The range in initial (Pu-244)/(U-238) ratios for the Eggs (0.003-0.014) includes the current best estimates of the bulk solar system value (0.004-0.007). For Egg 3, the Pu/U ratio varies by a factor of two between extractions, probably the result of fractionation of Pu from U among different phases.

  8. In vivo pink-beam imaging and fast alignment procedure for rat brain tumor radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Nemoz, Christian; Kibleur, Astrid; Hyacinthe, Jean Noël; Berruyer, Gilles; Brochard, Thierry; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Le Duc, Géraldine; Brun, Emmanuel; Elleaume, Hélène; Serduc, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    A fast positioning method for brain tumor microbeam irradiations for preclinical studies at third-generation X-ray sources is described. The three-dimensional alignment of the animals relative to the X-ray beam was based on the X-ray tomography multi-slices after iodine infusion. This method used pink-beam imaging produced by the ID17 wiggler. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to define the irradiation parameters: field width, height, number of angles and X-ray dose. This study is the first reporting an image guided method for soft tissue synchrotron radiotherapy. It allowed microbeam radiation therapy irradiation fields to be reduced by a factor of ∼20 compared with previous studies. It permitted more targeted, more efficient brain tumor microbeam treatments and reduces normal brain toxicity of the radiation treatment. PMID:26698083

  9. Carotene reactivity in pink grapefruit juice elucidated from model systems and multiresponse modeling.

    PubMed

    Achir, Nawel; Hadjal, Thiziri; Madani, Khodir; Dornier, Manuel; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2015-04-22

    This study was carried out to assess the impact of pink grapefruit juice composition and structure on the degradation kinetics of lycopene and β-carotene using model systems and multiresponse modeling. Carotenes were heated at four temperatures in their native matrix (juice) or were extracted and incorporated in water/ethanol emulsion systems formulated with or without ascorbic acid or naringin. Kinetic analysis showed that the rate constants and activation energy were lower for lycopene than for β-carotene in the juice, while this trend was inversed in the model system. Multiresponse modeling was used to analyze the role of ascorbic acid and naringin in carotene degradation. Ascorbic acid had a very low impact, while naringin significantly increased the carotene degradation and isomerization rates. We concluded that lycopene was more sensitive to thermal degradation and phytochemical interactions than β-carotene, but this behavior was masked in the fruit juice matrix by better structural protection. PMID:25818174

  10. Selection for increased pheromone response in the male pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Collins, R D; Cardé, R T

    1990-03-01

    The genetic basis of the duration and incidence of male wing fanning to pheromone in the pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), was examined by artificial selection. Using a still-air bioassay, males from a laboratory colony were selected for increased duration of wing fanning when exposed to a 65:35 blend of (Z,E)- and (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienyl acetates. The mean (+/- SE) duration of wing fanning in the selected line increased from 5.4 +/- 1.4 to 17.4 +/- 2.7 s after six generations. The increase in wing fanning duration was the result of an increase in response duration among responders and not the percentage of males that responded. Realized heritability of wing-fanning duration was 0.16 +/- 0.02. The amount and ratio of pheromone produced by females in the male-selected line did not change. PMID:2353914

  11. Reduced proliferative and differentiative activity of mouse pink-eyed dilution melanoblasts is related to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Terunuma, Emi

    2012-11-01

    The mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) locus is known to control the melanin content, melanosome morphology, and tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. However, it is not well known whether the p allele is involved in regulating melanocyte proliferation, differentiation, and death. The aim of this study is to investigate in detail the role of the p allele in melanocyte proliferation, differentiation, and death using a cell culture system. The epidermal cell suspensions of the neonatal dorsal skin derived from wild type mice at the p locus (black, C57BL/10JHir-P/P) and their congenic mutant (pink-eyed dilution, C57BL/10JHir-p/p) were cultured with serum-free melanoblast-proliferation medium (MDMDF) and melanocyte-proliferation medium (MDMD). The proliferation and differentiation of p/p melanoblasts in MDMDF or MDMD were greatly inhibited compared with those of P/P melanoblasts and melanocytes. It is possible that apoptosis is related to the reduced proliferative and differentiative activity of p/p melanoblasts/melanocytes. The addition of apoptosis-inhibitors, such as caspase-9 inhibitor (C9I) and Bax-inhibiting peptide (BIP) into MDMDF or MDMD stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of p/p melanoblasts. In contrast, in P/P melanoblasts and melanocytes, C9I and BIP failed to stimulate their proliferation and differentiation. The number of apoptotic keratinocytes and melanoblasts/melanocytes in p/p mice was greater than in P/P mice. Moreover, expression of C9 and Bax in keratinocytes and melanoblasts/melanocytes in p/p mice was greater than in P/P mice. These results suggest that the increased apoptosis in keratinocytes and melanoblasts/melanocytes is related to the reduced proliferative and differentiative activity of p/p melanoblasts. PMID:23106556

  12. Climatic limits of pink bollworm in Arizona and California: effects of climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; D'Oultremont, Thibaud; Ellis, C. K.; Ponti, Luigi

    2006-11-01

    The distribution and abundance of pink bollworm ( Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders ( PBW)) in cotton in Arizona and California was examined using a validated weather-driven, physiologically based demographic model of cotton and PBW integrated into a geographic information system (GIS). Survival of diapause larvae during winter as affected by low temperatures is a key factor determining the range of PBW. Winter survival was estimated using data from Gutierrez et al. (Can. Entomol. 109 (1977) 1457) and Venette et al. (Environ. Entomol. 29 (5) (2000) 1018). The model was run continuously over the period 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2003 using observed weather data from 121 locations. Three output variables were mapped as measures of PBW persistence: over-winter survival of diapause PBW larvae, cumulative daily PBW larval densities over the season, and the number of diapause larvae produced during the season. The distribution of pink bollworm is predicted to be restricted to the relatively frost-free cotton growing areas of Arizona and Southern California where it currently reaches pest status. The model predicts that extension of PBW's range into the Central Valley of California is unlikely. The analysis questions the efficacy of an ongoing area-wide effort to prevent the establishment of PBW in the Central Valley of California. Four global warming scenarios were examined to estimate the effects on the potential geographic range of PBW. Average observed daily temperatures were increased 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 °C, respectively, in the four scenarios. Scenarios with average increases of 1.5-2.5 °C predicted that the range of PBW would expand into the Central Valley of California and the severity of the pest would greatly increase in areas of current infestation.

  13. Byssogenesis in the juvenile pink heelsplitter mussel, Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wen, Hai B; Hua, Dan; Ma, Xue Y; Jin, Wu; Zhuang, Yan B; Gu, Ruo B; Yuan, Xin H; Du, Xin W; Xu, Pao

    2015-11-01

    The North American pink heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus) differs from most freshwater mussels in China by the ability to secrete an ephemeral byssus during its juvenile stage. In the present study, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate this ephemeral byssal structure, and amino acid composition was analyzed and compared with that of other species. The results revealed that the byssus consists of a long byssal thread and a few adhesive plaques which are randomly set up along the thread and assembled by petioles. There is a thin but distinctive cuticle with a continuous homogeneous matrix surrounding the byssal thread. Structural variation occurred when the byssal thread was differentially stretched. Four-stranded helical primary fasciculi, which form a stable rope-like structure, become evident after removal of the cuticle. The primary fasciculi consist of bundles of hundreds of parallel secondary fasciculi, each measuring about 5 μm in diameter. All evidence indicates that the byssus of the pink heelsplitter has a significantly different macrostructure and microstructure than the permanent byssus of the marine mussel Mytilus. Byssogenesis ceases when juveniles exceed 30 mm in length, although it varies greatly even among juveniles of similar size. Byssus formation is influenced by substrate type. The unique characteristics of the byssus have important advantages for survival, transition, and aggregation during the early life history. This study not only provides first insight into the structure of the ephemeral byssus and its relationship to freshwater mussel development and growth, but also suggests possibilities for the synthesis of novel biopolymer materials particularly useful in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:26312454

  14. Photochemistry of rose bengal in water and acetonitrile: a comprehensive kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ludvíková, Lucie; Friš, Pavel; Heger, Dominik; Šebej, Peter; Wirz, Jakob; Klán, Petr

    2016-06-28

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of rose bengal (RB) in degassed aqueous and acetonitrile solutions were studied using steady-state and transient absorption spectroscopies. This comprehensive investigation provides detailed information about the kinetics and the optical properties of all intermediates involved: the triplet excited state and the oxidized and reduced forms of RB. A full kinetic description is used to control the concentrations of these intermediates by changing the initial experimental conditions. PMID:27253480

  15. Mesozooplankton production, grazing and respiration in the Bay of Bengal: Implications for net heterotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Veronica; Ramaiah, N.

    2016-03-01

    Mesozooplankton samples were collected from the mixed layer along a central (along 88°E) and a western transect in the Bay of Bengal during four seasons covered between 2001 and 2006 in order to investigate spatio-temporal variability in their biomass. At these stations, grazing and respiration rates were measured from live zooplankton hauled in from the surface during December 2005. Akin to the mesozooplankton "paradox" in the central and eastern Arabian Sea, biomass in the mixed layer was more or less invariant in the central and western Bay of Bengal, even as the chl a showed marginal temporal variation. By empirical equation, the mesozooplankton production rate calculated to be 70-246 mg C m- 2 d- 1 is on par with the Arabian Sea. Contrary to the conventional belief, mesozooplankton grazing impact was up to 83% on primary production (PP). Low PP coupled with very high zooplankton production (70% of PP) along with abundant bacterial production (50% of the PP; Ramaiah et al., 2009) is likely to render the Bay of Bengal net heterotrophic, especially during the spring intermonsoon. Greater estimates of fecal pellet-carbon egestion by mesozooplankton compared to the average particulate organic carbon flux in sediment traps, implies that much of the matter is recycled by heterotrophic communities in the mixed layer facilitating nutrient regeneration for phytoplankton growth. We also calculated that over a third of the primary production is channelized for basin-wide zooplankton respiration that accounts for ~ 52 Mt C annually. In the current scenario of global warming, if low (primary) productive warm pools like the Bay of Bengal continue to be net heterotrophic, negative implications like enhanced emission of CO2 to the atmosphere, increased particulate flux to the deeper waters and greater utilization of dissolved oxygen resulting in expansion of the existing oxygen minimum zone are imminent.

  16. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  17. Early-Modern "Speech" Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Nick

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents a revised history of the punctuation mark ["], drawn from the earliest communities who made it their own. By situating the development of ["] in its historical context, from first uses of the diple [diple] by the Greek scholar Aristarchus, it explains how it was the general applications which persisted into the sixteenth…

  18. EP Profiles Inventor Mark Sherron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Mark Jerome Sherron, inventor of the ALLIES Line of electronic sensors for blind and visually-impaired people. Featuring the American Liquid Level Indicator electronic sensor (ALLI), Sherron's ALLIES product line also includes the Light Intensity Level Indicator (LILI), a multi-function electronic light sensor for electronic…

  19. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, I.; Joardar, S. N.; Ganguli, D.; Das, P. K.; Sarkar, U.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coliweek post-hatch period chicks were contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05). As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock) in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock) which also differs significantly (p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production. PMID:27047068

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of folklore plants used in treatment of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Sarkhel, Sumana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate and collect information from traditional health healers/tribal communities on the use of medicinal plants for treatment of snakebite. Methods The ethno-medicinal study was conducted in 8 villages of the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal in 2012-2013 through questionnaire and personal interviews. Following the method of Martin, information about medicinal plants used in snake bite, precise plant parts used, methods of treatment and administration was enquired from the tribal communities (Santhals, Mundas, Lodhas, Bhumijs, Oraon Kherias) of the region. Results The present study enumerates 20 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 16 families used by the tribal communities and medicinal healers of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal in treatment of snakebite. Each plant species has been listed alphabetically according to its botanical name, family, vernacular name, part(s) used, mode of preparation/administration. Conclusions The importance of traditional medicinal system among the tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal has been highlighted in the present study. PMID:25182729

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of surface sediments from the Bengal Fan, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roonwal, G. S.; Glasby, G. P.; Chugh, R.

    1997-02-01

    The mineralogy and composition of 75 sediment samples from the Bengal Fan. Andaman Sea and the eastern flanks of the upper Nicobar Fan have been determined. Sediments from the Upper and Middle Bengal Fan are mainly terrigenous and derived from the Ganges Brahmaputra river system, whereas sediments from the Andaman Sea and the eastern flank of the upper Nicobar Fan vary from terrigenous to largely biogenic. For the terrigenous sediments, the continental influence is illustrated by the distribution of the major elements (excluding Ca) which decrease away from the source. The Ti/Al and Fe/Al ratios of the sediments are higher in samples from the cast coast of India than from the fans, indicating the influence of material from the Deccan basalts as well as from mafic rocks of the Indian Peninsula. In the clay mineral fraction of Upper Bengal Fan sediments, illite and chlorite are the dominant constituents, with minor amounts of smectite and traces of kaolinite. Illite is mainly a weathering product of lithic material from the Himalaya and is transported by the Ganges Brahmaputra river system. Smectite is the dominant constituent of the sediments adjacent to the Indian Peninsula.

  2. Variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Vishnu, P Guru; Negi, Mamta; Senapati, P K; Charita, V Gnani

    2015-03-01

    A total 290 Black Bengal goats (6 buck, 109 doe and 175 kids born from 11 sires) were studied to evaluate the variability of resistance in Black Bengal goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The variability of resistance in Black Bengal goat was studied for both genetic and non-genetic factors like village, sex, age dam, sire, dam resistance group and offspring resistance group. Male kids have slightly higher resistance than female kids although it was not significant. Resistance of kids was increased as age increases and kid population showed significantly different resistance status among the offspring resistant groups. The doe population showed significantly different LEPG as per the resistance group in all the collections. The present study found that the resistance of kids under sire were varied significantly and observed that the kids under sire 1, 6-8 were significantly more resistant than the kids of the sire 2, 5 and 11 in 3rd collection and it is also noticed that maternal genetic effect has a very little impact on resistance of kids. Males (buck) were most resistant and the kids were least resistant and the resistance of dam was in between the male and kids population. PMID:25698865

  3. Efficient organic carbon burial in the Bengal fan sustained by the Himalayan erosional system.

    PubMed

    Galy, Valier; France-Lanord, Christian; Beyssac, Olivier; Faure, Pierre; Kudrass, Hermann; Palhol, Fabien

    2007-11-15

    Continental erosion controls atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on geological timescales through silicate weathering, riverine transport and subsequent burial of organic carbon in oceanic sediments. The efficiency of organic carbon deposition in sedimentary basins is however limited by the organic carbon load capacity of the sediments and organic carbon oxidation in continental margins. At the global scale, previous studies have suggested that about 70 per cent of riverine organic carbon is returned to the atmosphere, such as in the Amazon basin. Here we present a comprehensive organic carbon budget for the Himalayan erosional system, including source rocks, river sediments and marine sediments buried in the Bengal fan. We show that organic carbon export is controlled by sediment properties, and that oxidative loss is negligible during transport and deposition to the ocean. Our results indicate that 70 to 85 per cent of the organic carbon is recent organic matter captured during transport, which serves as a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The amount of organic carbon deposited in the Bengal basin represents about 10 to 20 per cent of the total terrestrial organic carbon buried in oceanic sediments. High erosion rates in the Himalayas generate high sedimentation rates and low oxygen availability in the Bay of Bengal that sustain the observed extreme organic carbon burial efficiency. Active orogenic systems generate enhanced physical erosion and the resulting organic carbon burial buffers atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, thereby exerting a negative feedback on climate over geological timescales. PMID:18004382

  4. Potential of using arsenic-safe aquifers as sustainable drinking water sources in arsenic-affected areas of Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Ashis; Hossain, Mohammed; von Brömssen, Mattias

    2016-04-01

    predominantly horizontal flow system, and ii) a number of shallow local flow systems. It was confirmed that groundwater irrigation, locally, affects the hydraulic heads at deeper depths. The aquifer system is however fully recharged during the monsoon. Groundwater abstraction for drinking water purposes in rural areas poses little threat for cross-contamination. Installing irrigation- or high capacity drinking water supply wells at deeper depths is however strongly discouraged and assessing sustainability of targeted low-As aquifers remain a main concern. Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the As-affected population in Bengal Basin. In order to replicate the salient outcomes of the Matlab study results, an investigation was carried out in West Bengal, India covering an area of ˜100 km2 to investigate the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source which is currently being practiced in the area for safe tubewell installation. The results revealed salient hydrogeochemical contrasts within the sedimentary sequence designated as shallow grey sand aquifers (GSA) and the brown sand aquifers (BSA) within shallow depth (< 70 m). These two sand groups with all possible variability in the colour shades were analogous to the reducing and the oxidized sequences as delineated aquifers based on the sediment color as perceived by the local driller in Matlab. Although the major ion compositions indicated close similarity, the redox conditions were markedly different in groundwater abstracted from the two group of aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, lower Eh in groundwater of GSA, along with the enrichments of NH4+, PO43‑, Fe and As reflect reductive dissolution of Fe

  5. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight... specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on or near the selector for those tanks; (3) The...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight... specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on or near the selector for those tanks; (3) The...

  7. Impact of river discharge on distribution of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and its fluxes in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, V. D.; Viswanadham, R.; Bharathi, M. D.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Kumar, M. D.

    2015-09-01

    A systematic study was conducted to examine the influence of river discharge on variations in DMS and DMSPt during peak discharge period along the coastal Bay of Bengal. The southern coastal Bay of Bengal (SCB) received a large quantity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and nitrogen nutrients from the monsoonal estuaries and vice versa to the northern coastal Bay of Bengal (NCB) by glacial river (Ganges). The higher concentration of DMSPt was observed in the NCB compared with SCB associated with low nitrate, and low salinity suggesting that their stress on phytoplankton increased DMSPt production in the former region. The concentrations of DMS and DMSPt in the surface waters displayed a linear relation with biovolume of Bacillariophyceae and Dinophyceae suggesting significant contributions by these two groups. In contrast, the weak spatial variability in DMS was attributed to removal of DMS to the atmosphere or bacterial consumption. The mean sea-to-air flux of DMS amounted to 5.5 ± 4 μmol S m- 2 d- 1 suggesting that the coastal Bay of Bengal is a significant source to atmospheric DMS during study period. This study revealed that river discharge brought a significant modification in the chemical characteristics of the coastal Bay of Bengal leading to variable stress (salinity and nutrients) on phytoplankton resulting in a significant flux of DMS to the atmosphere.

  8. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  9. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  10. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  11. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  12. 40 CFR 761.45 - Marking formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.45 Marking formats. The following formats shall be used for marking: (a) Large PCB Mark—M L. Mark ML shall be as shown in Figure 1, letters and striping on a white or yellow... the PCB Article, PCB Equipment, or PCB Container. The size of the mark shall be at least 15.25 cm...

  13. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

  14. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

  15. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

  16. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

  17. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part...

  18. 46 CFR 160.171-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Immersion Suits § 160.171-23 Marking. (a) Each immersion suit must be marked with the words “IMMERSION SUIT—COMPLIES WITH SOLAS 74/83,” the name of the manufacturer... case must be marked with the words “immersion suit” and the size. (c) The markings for the child...

  19. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  20. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mark. 40.212 Section 40... TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages § 40.212 Mark. Every package of tobacco... thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may...

  1. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  2. Reading Skill, Textbook Marking, and Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Kenneth E.; Limber, John E.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed students enrolled in Introductory Psychology courses about their text marking preferences and analyzed the marking in their textbooks. Low-skill readers report more reliance on highlighting strategies and actually mark their texts more than better readers. In addition, low-skilled readers prefer to buy used, previously marked texts…

  3. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every... imprinted thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark...

  4. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  5. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  6. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  7. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  8. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  9. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  10. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  11. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  12. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mark. 44.184 Section 44.184... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every... imprinted thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark...

  13. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mark. 45.42 Section 45.42... TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.42 Mark. Every package of tobacco... label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may consist of the name...

  14. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every... imprinted thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark...

  15. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  16. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every... imprinted thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark...

  17. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  18. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mark. 45.42 Section 45.42... TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.42 Mark. Every package of tobacco... label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may consist of the name...

  19. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  20. 27 CFR 19.1008 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marks. 19.1008 Section 19... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Marks § 19.1008 Marks. (a) Fuel alcohol. The proprietor shall conspicuously and permanently mark or securely label each container of...

  1. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mark. 45.42 Section 45.42... TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.42 Mark. Every package of tobacco... label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may consist of the name...

  2. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  3. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mark. 40.212 Section 40.212... TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages § 40.212 Mark. Every package of tobacco... thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may...

  4. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  5. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  6. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  7. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every... imprinted thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark...

  8. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  9. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  10. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  11. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 40.212 Section 40... TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages § 40.212 Mark. Every package of tobacco... thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may...

  12. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 45.42 Section 45.42... TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.42 Mark. Every package of tobacco... label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may consist of the name...

  13. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  14. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  15. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  16. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  17. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mark. 45.42 Section 45.42... TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.42 Mark. Every package of tobacco... label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may consist of the name...

  18. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  19. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mark. 40.212 Section 40... TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages § 40.212 Mark. Every package of tobacco... thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may...

  20. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mark. 40.212 Section 40... TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages § 40.212 Mark. Every package of tobacco... thereon, or on a label securely affixed thereto, a mark as specified in this section. The mark may...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control markings. 23.1555 Section 23.1555... Markings and Placards § 23.1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and simple push button type starter switches, must be plainly marked as to its function and...

  2. 14 CFR 45.10 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking. 45.10 Section 45.10 Aeronautics..., § 45.10 was added, effective Apr. 14, 2010. The effective date of this addition was subsequently... REGISTRATION MARKING Identification of Aircraft and Related Products § 45.10 Marking. No person may mark...

  3. Marked Initial Pitch in Questions Signals Marked Communicative Function.

    PubMed

    Sicoli, Mark A; Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-06-01

    In conversation, the initial pitch of an utterance can provide an early phonetic cue of the communicative function, the speech act, or the social action being implemented. We conducted quantitative acoustic measurements and statistical analyses of pitch in over 10,000 utterances, including 2512 questions, their responses, and about 5000 other utterances by 180 total speakers from a corpus of 70 natural conversations in 10 languages. We measured pitch at first prominence in a speaker's utterance and discriminated utterances by language, speaker, gender, question form, and what social action is achieved by the speaker's turn. Through applying multivariate logistic regression we found that initial pitch that significantly deviated from the speaker's median pitch level was predictive of the social action of the question. In questions designed to solicit agreement with an evaluation rather than information, pitch was divergent from a speaker's median predictably in the top 10% of a speakers range. This latter finding reveals a kind of iconicity in the relationship between prosody and social action in which a marked pitch correlates with a marked social action. Thus, we argue that speakers rely on pitch to provide an early signal for recipients that the question is not to be interpreted through its literal semantics but rather through an inference. PMID:26677643

  4. Black anneal marking with pulsed fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T.; Harrison, P.; Norman, S.

    2015-07-01

    High contrast marking of metals is used in a wide range of industries. Fiber laser marking of these metals provides non-contact marking with no consumables, offering many advantages over traditional methods of metal marking. The laser creates a permanent mark on the material surface combining heat and oxygen with no noticeable ablation. The focussed beam of the fiber laser in combination with precision control of the heat input is able to treat small areas of the material surface evenly and consistently, which is critical for producing black anneal marks. The marks are highly legible which is ideal for marking serial numbers or small data matrices where traceability is required. This paper reports the experimental study for producing black anneal marks on various grades of stainless steel using fiber lasers. The influence of metal surface finish, beam quality, spot size diameter and pulse duration are investigated for producing both smooth and decorative anneal marks.

  5. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) rescues motor, olfactory, mitochondrial and synaptic impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster genetic model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Simone; De Rose, Francescaelena; Marotta, Roberto; Ruffilli, Roberta; Fanti, Maura; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Collu, Ignazio; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe), a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3-6 (I), 10-15 (II) and 20-25 (III) days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1%) ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT) levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment. PMID:25340511

  6. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) Rescues Motor, Olfactory, Mitochondrial and Synaptic Impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ruffilli, Roberta; Fanti, Maura; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Collu, Ignazio; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe), a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3–6 (I), 10–15 (II) and 20–25 (III) days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1%) ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT) levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment. PMID:25340511

  7. Evidence of damage to pink salmon inhabiting Prince William Sound, Alaska, three generations after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Bue, B.G.; Miller, G.D.; Seeb, J.E.; Sharr, S.

    1995-12-31

    Investigations into the environmental effects of the 1 989 Exxon Valdez oil spill lead us to conclude that chronic damage occurred in some pink salmon populations. Differences in survival between streams contaminated by oil and uncontaminated streams have been observed annually since the spill for pink salmon embryos incubating in the intertidal portions of Prince William Sound. The authors assessed the environmental influence on these findings by collecting gametes from both contaminated and uncontaminated streams, transporting them to a hatchery where intra-stream crosses were made, and incubating the resulting embryos under identical conditions. Lower survival was detected in the embryos originating from the oil-contaminated streams indicating that the agent responsible for the differences detected in the field was genetic rather than environmental.

  8. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0-21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L (∗), a (∗), b (∗)) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380-780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L (∗) and a (∗), did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity. PMID:27019785

  9. A novel PGC-1α isoform in brain localizes to mitochondria and associates with PINK1 and VDAC

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Joungil; Batchu, Vera Venkatanaresh Kumar; Schubert, Manfred; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Russell, James W.

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Novel 35 kDa PGC-1α localizes to mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain. •Mitochondrial localization of 35 kDa PGC-1α depends on VDAC protein. •Mitochondrial localization of 35 kDa PGC-1α depends on membrane potential. •The 35 kDa PGC-1α associates and colocalizes with PINK in brain mitochondria. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are powerful regulators of mitochondrial function. Here, we report that a previously unrecognized, novel 35 kDa PGC-1α isoform localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain as determined by protease protection and carbonate extraction assays, as well as by immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoelectron microscopy and import experiments in vitro revealed that 35 kDa PGC-1α colocalizes and interacts with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and that its import depends on VDAC. Valinomycin treatment which depolarizes the membrane potential, abolished mitochondrial localization of the 35 kDa PGC-1α. Using blue native-PAGE, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunoelectron microscopy analyses, we found that the 35 kDa PGC-1α binds and colocalizes with PINK1 in brain mitochondria. This is the first report regarding mitochondrial localization of a novel 35 kDa PGC-1α isoform and its association with PINK1, suggesting possible regulatory roles for mitochondrial function in the brain.

  10. Melatonin rescues zebrafish embryos from the parkinsonian phenotype restoring the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1/MUL1 network.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Casado, María E; Lima, Elena; García, José A; Doerrier, Carolina; Aranda, Paula; Sayed, Ramy Ka; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-08-01

    Multiple studies reporting mitochondrial impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) involve knockout or knockdown models to inhibit the expression of mitochondrial-related genes, including parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 ones. Melatonin has significant neuroprotective properties, which have been related to its ability to boost mitochondrial bioenergetics. The meaning and molecular targets of melatonin in PD are yet unclear. Zebrafish are an outstanding model of PD because they are vertebrates, their dopaminergic system is comparable to the nigrostriatal system of humans, and their brains express the same genes as mammals. The exposure of 24 hpf zebrafish embryos to MPTP leads to a significant inhibition of the mitochondrial complex I and the induction of sncga gene, responsible for enhancing γ-synuclein accumulation, which is related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, MPTP inhibited the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1 expression, impeding the normal function of the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1/MUL1 network to remove the damaged mitochondria. This situation remains over time, and removing MPTP from the treatment did not stop the neurodegenerative process. On the contrary, mitochondria become worse during the next 2 days without MPTP, and the embryos developed a severe motor impairment that cannot be rescued because the mitochondrial-related gene expression remained inhibited. Melatonin, added together with MPTP or added once MPTP was removed, prevented and recovered, respectively, the parkinsonian phenotype once it was established, restoring gene expression and normal function of the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1/MUL1 loop and also the normal motor activity of the embryos. The results show, for the first time, that melatonin restores brain function in zebrafish suffering with Parkinson-like disease. PMID:27064726

  11. Defining roles of PARKIN and ubiquitin phosphorylation by PINK1 in mitochondrial quality control using a ubiquitin replacement strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ordureau, Alban; Heo, Jin-Mi; Duda, David M.; Paulo, Joao A.; Olszewski, Jennifer L.; Yanishevski, David; Rinehart, Jesse; Schulman, Brenda A.; Harper, J. Wade

    2015-01-01

    The PTEN-induced putative kinase protein 1 (PINK1) and ubiquitin (UB) ligase PARKIN direct damaged mitochondria for mitophagy. PINK1 promotes PARKIN recruitment to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) for ubiquitylation of MOM proteins with canonical and noncanonical UB chains. PINK1 phosphorylates both Ser65 (S65) in the UB-like domain of PARKIN and the conserved Ser in UB itself, but the temporal sequence and relative importance of these events during PARKIN activation and mitochondria quality control remain poorly understood. Using “UBS65A-replacement,” we find that PARKIN phosphorylation and activation, and ubiquitylation of Lys residues on a cohort of MOM proteins, occur similarly irrespective of the ability of the UB-replacement to be phosphorylated on S65. In contrast, polyubiquitin (poly-UB) chain synthesis, PARKIN retention on the MOM, and mitophagy are reduced in UBS65A-replacement cells. Analogous experiments examining roles of individual UB chain linkage types revealed the importance of K6 and K63 chain linkages in mitophagy, but phosphorylation of K63 chains by PINK1 did not enhance binding to candidate mitophagy receptors optineurin (OPTN), sequestosome-1 (p62), and nuclear dot protein 52 (NDP52) in vitro. Parallel reaction monitoring proteomics of total mitochondria revealed the absence of p-S65-UB when PARKIN cannot build UB chains, and <0.16% of the monomeric UB pool underwent S65 phosphorylation upon mitochondrial damage. Combining p-S65-UB and p-S65-PARKIN in vitro showed accelerated transfer of nonphosphorylated UB to PARKIN itself, its substrate mitochondrial Rho GTPase (MIRO), and UB. Our data further define a feed-forward mitochondrial ubiquitylation pathway involving PARKIN activation upon phosphorylation, UB chain synthesis on the MOM, UB chain phosphorylation, and further PARKIN recruitment and enzymatic amplification via binding to phosphorylated UB chains. PMID:25969509

  12. A bacterial metabolite induces glutathione-tractable proteostatic damage, proteasomal disturbances, and PINK1-dependent autophagy in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, B A; Kim, H; Ray, A; Caldwell, G A; Caldwell, K A

    2015-01-01

    Gene-by-environment interactions are thought to underlie the majority of idiopathic cases of neurodegenerative disease. Recently, we reported that an environmental metabolite extracted from Streptomyces venezuelae increases ROS and damages mitochondria, leading to eventual neurodegeneration of C. elegans dopaminergic neurons. Here we link those data to idiopathic disease models that predict loss of protein handling as a component of disorder progression. We demonstrate that the bacterial metabolite leads to proteostatic disruption in multiple protein-misfolding models and has the potential to synergistically enhance the toxicity of aggregate-prone proteins. Genetically, this metabolite is epistatically regulated by loss-of-function to pink-1, the C. elegans PARK6 homolog responsible for mitochondrial maintenance and autophagy in other animal systems. In addition, the metabolite works through a genetic pathway analogous to loss-of-function in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), which we find is also epistatically regulated by loss of PINK-1 homeostasis. To determine remitting counter agents, we investigated several established antioxidants and found that glutathione (GSH) can significantly protect against metabolite-induced proteostasis disruption. In addition, GSH protects against the toxicity of MG132 and can compensate for the combined loss of both pink-1 and the E3 ligase pdr-1, a Parkin homolog. In assessing the impact of this metabolite on mitochondrial maintenance, we observe that it causes fragmentation of mitochondria that is attenuated by GSH and an initial surge in PINK-1-dependent autophagy. These studies mechanistically advance our understanding of a putative environmental contributor to neurodegeneration and factors influencing in vivo neurotoxicity. PMID:26469957

  13. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0–21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L∗, a∗, b∗) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L∗ and a∗, did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity. PMID:27019785

  14. The Mark III vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Cheu, E.; Freese, T.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Mir, R.; Odian, A.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 ..mu..m at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 ..mu..m using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

  15. Differentiating size-dependent responses of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) to sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infections.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Jantzen, Stuart G; Sanderson, Dan S; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2011-06-01

    Salmon infected with an ectoparasitic marine copepod, the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, incur a wide variety of consequences depending upon host sensitivity. Juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) migrate from natal freshwater systems to the ocean at a young age relative to other Pacific salmon, and require rapid development of appropriate defenses against marine pathogens. We analyzed the early transcriptomic responses of naïve juvenile pink salmon of sizes 0.3 g (no scales), 0.7 g (mid-scale development) and 2.4 g (scales fully developed) six days after a low-level laboratory exposure to L. salmonis copepodids. All infected size groups exhibited unique transcriptional profiles. Inflammation and inhibition of cell proliferation was identified in the smallest size class (0.3 g), while increased glucose absorption and retention was identified in the middle size class (0.7 g). Tissue-remodeling genes were also up-regulated in both the 0.3 g and 0.7 g size groups. Profiles of the 2.4 g size class indicated cell-mediated immunity and possibly parasite-induced growth augmentation. Understanding a size-based threshold of resistance to L. salmonis is important for fisheries management. This work characterizes molecular responses reflecting the gradual development of innate immunity to L. salmonis between the susceptible (0.3 g) and refractory (2.4 g) pink salmon size classes. PMID:21543273

  16. Evaluation of Intraspecies Interactions in Biofilm Formation by Methylobacterium Species Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang-Fang; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Wang, Wen-Zhao; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Liang, Yan; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Concern regarding household biofilms has grown due to their widespread existence and potential to threaten human health by serving as pathogen reservoirs. Previous studies identified Methylobacterium as one of the dominant genera found in household biofilms. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation by using the bacterial consortium found in household pink slime. A clone library analysis revealed that Methylobacterium was the predominant genus in household pink slime. In addition, 16 out of 21 pink-pigmented bacterial isolates were assigned to the genus Methylobacterium. Although all of the Methylobacterium isolates formed low-level biofilms, the amount of the biofilms formed by Methylobacterium sp. P-1M and P-18S was significantly increased by co-culturing with other Methylobacterium strains that belonged to a specific phylogenetic group. The single-species biofilm was easily washed from the glass surface, whereas the dual-species biofilm strongly adhered after washing. A confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that the dual-species biofilms were significantly thicker and tighter than the single-species biofilms. PMID:25381715

  17. Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon.

  18. A Novel Homozygous p.L539F Mutation Identified in PINK1 Gene in a Moroccan Patient with Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Ben El Haj, Rafiqua; Regragui, Wafaa; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid; Skalli, Asmae; Bouslam, Naima; Benomar, Ali; Yahyaoui, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. Ten of fifteen causative genes linked to familial forms of PD have been reported to cause autosomal recessive forms. Among them, mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene were shown to be responsible for a phenotype characterized by early onset, good response to levodopa, and a benign course. Using chromosomal microarray analysis and Sanger sequencing, we identified a homozygous G/C substitution in a 58-year-old Moroccan man diagnosed with recessive inherited Parkinson's disease. This G-to-C transition occurred at position 1617 leading to an amino acid change L/F at position 539 located in highly conserved motif in the C terminal sequence of PINK1. Interestingly, the c.1617G>C substitution is absent in 192 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Our findings have shown that the p.L539F is a novel mutation located in the C terminal sequence of the PINK1 protein that could be pathogenic and responsible for a clinical phenotype resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease with rapid progression and early cognitive impairment. PMID:27413743

  19. PINK1 and Parkin cooperatively protect neurons against constitutively active TRP channel-induced retinal degeneration in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z; Ren, S; Jiang, Y; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has an important role in regulating numerous cellular activities. However, extremely high levels of intracellular calcium can lead to neurotoxicity, a process commonly associated with degenerative diseases. Despite the clear role of calcium cytotoxicity in mediating neuronal cell death in this context, the pathological mechanisms remain controversial. We used a well-established Drosophila model of retinal degeneration, which involves the constitutively active TRPP365 channels, to study calcium-induced neurotoxicity. We found that the disruption of mitochondrial function was associated with the degenerative process. Further, increasing autophagy flux prevented cell death in TrpP365 mutant flies, and this depended on the PINK1/Parkin pathway. In addition, the retinal degeneration process was also suppressed by the coexpression of PINK1 and Parkin. Our results provide genetic evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction has a key role in the pathology of cellular calcium neurotoxicity. In addition, the results demonstrated that maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis via PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitochondrial quality control can potentially alleviate cell death in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27054334

  20. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007). PMID:27494150

  1. Biotechnological and agronomic potential of endophytic pink-pigmented methylotrophic Methylobacterium spp.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Camargo Neves, Aline Aparecida; Santos, Daiene Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria, which are able to synthesize carotenoids and grow on reduced organic compounds containing one carbon (C1), such as methanol and methylamine. Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, these bacteria are able to colonize different habitats, such as soil, water, and sediment, and different host plants as both endophytes and epiphytes. In plant colonization, the frequency and distribution may be influenced by plant genotype or by interactions with other associated microorganisms, which may result in increasing plant fitness. In this review, different aspects of interactions with the host plant are discussed, including their capacity to fix nitrogen, nodule the host plant, produce cytokinins, auxin and enzymes involved in the induction of systemic resistance, such as pectinase and cellulase, and therefore plant growth promotion. In addition, bacteria belonging to this group can be used to reduce environmental contamination because they are able to degrade toxic compounds, tolerate high heavy metal concentrations, and increase plant tolerance to these compounds. Moreover, genome sequencing and omics approaches have revealed genes related to plant-bacteria interactions that may be important for developing strains able to promote plant growth and protection against phytopathogens. PMID:25861650

  2. A pseudorandom pink noise for the computer-based measurements of linear responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugawa, Tohru; Sakurai, Katsumi; Mitsui, Takahisa

    1998-07-01

    We propose a nonbinary pseudorandom sequence for the measurement of linear responses. Compared with a maximal length shift register sequence (m sequence), this sequence is more suitable for digital processing based on computers; with the use of discrete Fourier transforms, the response functions are reproduced without approximations from digitally sampled data because the input power spectrum is pink, i.e., completely flat in a given frequency range and 0 otherwise. In practice, the new sequence is simply the sum of harmonics with arbitrary phases and is produced readily with digital wave form generators. For reducing the peak power of this sequence, the amplitude distribution is better to be bimodal rather than Gaussian. For demonstrating its feasibility with common digital hardware, the magnetic resonance of Rb atoms in a sub-MHz region was measured successfully. With the use of the fast Fourier transform algorithm, our software task was only 0.4% of that for the cross-correlational calculation based on an m sequence.

  3. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This project is to identify and map cotton fields in the southern deserts of California. Cotton in the Imperial, Coachella, and Palo Verde Valleys is heavily infested by the pink bollworm which affects both the quantity and quality of cotton produced. In California the growing season of cotton is regulated by establishing planting and plowdown dates. These procedures ensure that the larvae, whose diapause or resting period occurs during the winter months, will have no plant material on which to feed, thus inhibiting spring moth emergence. the underflight data from the U-2 aircraft has shound that it is possible to detect the differences between a growing, a defoliated, and plowed down field providing the locations of the fields are known. The ERTS-1 MSS data are being analyzed using an I2S optical color combiner to determine which combinations of dates and colors will identify cotton fields and thus provide the data needed to produce maps of the fields for the forthcoming season.

  4. An overlooked pink species of land iguana in the Galápagos

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Gabriele; Fabiani, Anna; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard L.; Snell, Heidi M.; Tapia, Washington; Sbordoni, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    Despite the attention given to them, the Galápagos have not yet finished offering evolutionary novelties. When Darwin visited the Galápagos, he observed both marine (Amblyrhynchus) and land (Conolophus) iguanas but did not encounter a rare pink black-striped land iguana (herein referred to as “rosada,” meaning “pink” in Spanish), which, surprisingly, remained unseen until 1986. Here, we show that substantial genetic isolation exists between the rosada and syntopic yellow forms and that the rosada is basal to extant taxonomically recognized Galápagos land iguanas. The rosada, whose present distribution is a conundrum, is a relict lineage whose origin dates back to a period when at least some of the present-day islands had not yet formed. So far, this species is the only evidence of ancient diversification along the Galápagos land iguana lineage and documents one of the oldest events of divergence ever recorded in the Galápagos. Conservation efforts are needed to prevent this form, identified by us as a good species, from extinction. PMID:19124773

  5. Complementation Analyses for 45 Mutations Encompassing the Pink-Eyed Dilution (P) Locus of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Russell, L. B.; Montgomery, C. S.; Cacheiro, NLA.; Johnson, D. K.

    1995-01-01

    The homozygous and heterozygous phenotypes are described and characterized for 45 new pink-eyed dilution (p) locus mutations, most of them radiation-induced, that affect survival at various stages of mouse development. Cytogenetically detectable aberrations were found in three of the new p mutations (large deletion, inversion, translocation), with band 7C involved in each case. The complementation map developed from the study of 810 types of compound heterozygotes identifies five functional units: jls and jlm (two distinct juvenile-fitness functions, the latter associated with neuromuscular defects), pl-1 and pl-2 (associated with early-postimplantation and preimplantation death, respectively), and nl [neonatal lethality associated with cleft palate (the frequency of rare ``escapers'' from this defect varied with the genotype)]. Orientation of these units relative to genetic markers is as follows: centromere, Gas-2, pl-1, jls, jlm p, nl (equatable to cp1 = Gabrb3); pl-2 probably resides in the c-deletion complex. pl-1 does not mask preimplantation lethals between Gas2 and p; and no genes affecting survival are located between p and cp1. The alleles specifying mottling or darker pigment (generically, p(m) and p(x), respectively) probably do not represent deletions of p-coding sequences but could be small rearrangements involving proximal regulatory elements. PMID:8601493

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Dai, Hanyang; Bai, Lixin

    2016-05-01

    Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key pest in many cotton-growing countries of the world. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the pink bollworm P. gossypiella was determined, which is 15,202 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KM225795) containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial gene and an A + T-rich region. The gene order of P. gossypiella mtDNA was different from the insect ancestral gene order in the translocation of trnM, as shared by previously sequenced lepidopteran mtDNAs. The protein-coding genes (PCGs) have typical mitochondrial start codons ATN, with the exception of COI, Nad5, which uses the start codons CGA, GTT. Eight PCGs stop with complete termination codons (TAA), whereas five PCGs use incomplete stop codon T. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Like other insects, the control region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 309 bp and an A + T content of 94.8%, which is the most AT-rich region and comparatively simple, with little evidence of long tandem repeats, but harbors a conserved structure combining the motif ATAGA and a 18-bp poly-T stretch. PMID:25231711

  7. Genetic change for earlier migration timing in a pink salmon population.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Gharrett, Anthony J; Tallmon, David A

    2012-09-22

    To predict how climate change will influence populations, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms, particularly microevolution and phenotypic plasticity, that allow populations to persist in novel environmental conditions. Although evidence for climate-induced phenotypic change in populations is widespread, evidence documenting that these phenotypic changes are due to microevolution is exceedingly rare. In this study, we use 32 years of genetic data (17 complete generations) to determine whether there has been a genetic change towards earlier migration timing in a population of pink salmon that shows phenotypic change; average migration time occurs nearly two weeks earlier than it did 40 years ago. Experimental genetic data support the hypothesis that there has been directional selection for earlier migration timing, resulting in a substantial decrease in the late-migrating phenotype (from more than 30% to less than 10% of the total abundance). From 1983 to 2011, there was a significant decrease--over threefold--in the frequency of a genetic marker for late-migration timing, but there were minimal changes in allele frequencies at other neutral loci. These results demonstrate that there has been rapid microevolution for earlier migration timing in this population. Circadian rhythm genes, however, did not show any evidence for selective changes from 1993 to 2009. PMID:22787027

  8. Genetic homogeneity in the commercial pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis revealed by COI barcoding gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, S. S. A.; Terossi, M.; Costa, R. C.; Mantelatto, F. L.

    2015-12-01

    The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis is one of the most commercially exploited species in Brazil's South and Southeastern regions. Specific information about the status of its genetic variation is necessary to promote more effective management procedures. The genetic variation of the population of F. paulensis was investigated in five localities along southern and southeastern coast of Brazil. Sampling was performed with a commercial fishing boat. Total genomic DNA was extracted from abdominal muscle tissues and was used to DNA amplification by PCR. The COI gene was used as a DNA barcoding marker. The 570 bp COI gene sequences were obtained from all 45 individuals. The haplotype network showed no genetic variability among the population stocks, which was confirmed by Molecular Variance Analysis. The final alignment showed that inside species there is haplotype sharing among the sampled localities, since one haplotype is shared by 38 individuals belonging to all the five sampled regions, with no biogeographic pattern. This result is reasonable since there are no geographical barriers or habitat disjunction that might serve as a barrier to gene flow among the sampled localities. Possible reasons and consequences of the genetic homogeneity found are discussed. The results complement ecological studies concerning the offseason: since it is a single stock, the same protection strategy can be applied. However, the genetic homogeneity found in this study combined with the intensive fishery effort and the species biology can result in severe consequences for the F. paulensis.

  9. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004;24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

  10. Effect of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Nyboer, Megan E; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Sollome, James; Colletto, Nick; Antilla, Larry; Dennehy, Timothy J; Staten, Robert T; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2006-06-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to transgenic crops producing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could reduce male response to pheromone traps. Such costs would cause underestimation of resistance frequency if monitoring was based on analysis of males caught in pheromone traps. To develop a DNA-based resistance monitoring program for pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), we compared the response to pheromone traps of males with and without cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). When irradiated males from two hybrid laboratory strains with an intermediate frequency of resistance alleles were released in large field cages, the probability of capture in pheromone traps was not lower for males with resistance alleles than for males without resistance alleles. These results suggest that analysis of trapped males would not underestimate the frequency of resistance. As the time males spent in traps in the field increased from 3 to 15 d, the success of DNA amplification declined from 100 to 30%. Thus, the efficiency of a DNA-based resistance monitoring program would be improved by analyzing males remaining in traps for 3 d or less. PMID:16813335

  11. Biotechnological and Agronomic Potential of Endophytic Pink-Pigmented Methylotrophic Methylobacterium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Aparecida Camargo Neves, Aline; Santos, Daiene Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria, which are able to synthesize carotenoids and grow on reduced organic compounds containing one carbon (C1), such as methanol and methylamine. Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, these bacteria are able to colonize different habitats, such as soil, water, and sediment, and different host plants as both endophytes and epiphytes. In plant colonization, the frequency and distribution may be influenced by plant genotype or by interactions with other associated microorganisms, which may result in increasing plant fitness. In this review, different aspects of interactions with the host plant are discussed, including their capacity to fix nitrogen, nodule the host plant, produce cytokinins, auxin and enzymes involved in the induction of systemic resistance, such as pectinase and cellulase, and therefore plant growth promotion. In addition, bacteria belonging to this group can be used to reduce environmental contamination because they are able to degrade toxic compounds, tolerate high heavy metal concentrations, and increase plant tolerance to these compounds. Moreover, genome sequencing and omics approaches have revealed genes related to plant-bacteria interactions that may be important for developing strains able to promote plant growth and protection against phytopathogens. PMID:25861650

  12. The Tarawera eruption, Lake Rotomahana, and the origin of the Pink and White Terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keam, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    This chapter introduces the historical and geographical background for the scientific studies at Tarawera and Lake Rotomahana in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand as detailed in this Special Issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. It also presents the results of some original investigations. These are based partly on the large body of historical information that exists about the 1886 Tarawera eruption and the geothermal system at Rotomahana, and partly on the results of dedicated geological studies by other researchers within the Okataina Volcanic Centre where the historical events took place. Specifically, the new material here presented includes a detailed analysis of a previously almost neglected narrative by the only observer to witness the 1886 eruption from the southeast of the erupting craters and leave an account of his observations. The importance of a co-operative interplay between pre-existing tectonic deformation and its responses to strong seismic activity induced by magmatic intrusion is emphasised as being a major determinant in the course of the eruption, and as the main trigger of the eruption explosions that were audible throughout half of the land area of New Zealand. The chapter then concentrates on showing how the recent geological studies, in conjunction with ideas on the architecture of geysers, permit an explanation to be given as to how the unique Pink and White Terraces came to be formed.

  13. Evaluation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria for phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Jayashree, Shanmugam; Vadivukkarasi, Ponnusamy; Anand, Kirupanithi; Kato, Yuko; Seshadri, Sundaram

    2011-08-01

    Thirteen pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) strains isolated from Adyar and Cooum rivers in Chennai and forest soil samples in Tamil Nadu, India, along with Methylobacterium extorquens, M. organophilum, M. gregans, and M. komagatae were screened for phosphate solubilization in plates. P-solubilization index of the PPFMs grown on NBRIP-BPB plates for 7 days ranged from 1.1 to 2.7. The growth of PPFMs in tricalcium phosphate amended media was found directly proportional to the glucose concentration. Higher phosphate solubilization was observed in four strains MSF 32 (415 mg l(-l)), MDW 80 (301 mg l(-l)), M. komagatae (279 mg l(-l)), and MSF 34 (202 mg l(-l)), after 7 days of incubation. A drop in the media pH from 6.6 to 3.4 was associated with an increase in titratable acidity. Acid phosphatase activity was more pronounced in the culture filtrate than alkaline phosphatase activity. Adherence of phosphate to densely grown bacterial surface was observed under scanning electron microscope after 7-day-old cultures. Biochemical characterization and screening for methanol dehydrogenase gene (mxaF) confirmed the strains as methylotrophs. The mxaF gene sequence from MSF 32 clustered towards M. lusitanum sp. with 99% similarity. This study forms the first detailed report on phosphate solubilization by the PPFMs. PMID:21445558

  14. Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2011-09-15

    The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 μg(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. PMID:21807199

  15. Complementation analyses for 45 mutations encompassing the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.B.; Montgomery, C.S.; Cacheiro, N.L.A.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    The homozygous and heterozygous phenotypes are described and characterized for 45 new pink-eyed dilution (p) locus mutations, most of them radiation-induced, that affect survival at various stages of mouse development. Cytogenetically detectable aberrations were found in three of the new p mutations (large deletion, inversion, translocation), with band 7C involved in each case. The complementation map developed from the study of 810 types of compound heterozygotes identifies five functional units: jls and jlm (two distinct juvenile-fitness functions, the latter associated with neuromuscular defects), pl-1 and pl-2 (associated with early-postimplantation and preimplantation death, respectively), and nl [neonatal lethality associated with cleft palate (the frequency of rare {open_quotes}escapers{close_quotes} from this defect varied with the genotype)]. Orientation of these units relative to genetic markers is as follows: centromere, Gas-2, pl-1, jls, jlm p, nl (equatable to cp1= Gabrb3); pl-2 probably resides in the c-deletion complex. pl-1 does not mask preimplantation lethals between Gas2 and p; and no genes affecting survival are located between p and cp1. The alleles specifying mottling or darker pigment (generically, p{sup m} and p{sup x}, respectively) probably do not represent deletions of p-coding sequences but could be small rearrangements involving proximal regulatory elements. 43 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Sea level budget in the Bay of Bengal (2002-2014) from GRACE and altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusche, J.; Uebbing, B.; Rietbroek, R.; Shum, C. K.; Khan, Z. H.

    2016-02-01

    Sea level rise is perceived as a major threat to the densely populated coast of the Bay of Bengal. Addressing future rise requires understanding the present-day sea level budget. Using a novel method and data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite, we partition altimetric sea level rise (6.1 mm/a over 2002-2014) into mass and steric components. We find that current mass trends in the Bay of Bengal are slightly above global mean, while steric trends appear much larger: 2.2-3.1 mm/a if we disregard a residual required to close the budget, and 4.3-4.6 mm/a if, as an upper bound, we attribute this residual entirely to steric expansion. Our method differs from published approaches in that it explains altimetry and GRACE data in a least squares inversion, while mass anomalies are parameterized through gravitationally self-consistent fingerprints, and steric expansion through EOFs. We validate our estimates by comparing to Argo and modeling for the Indian Ocean, and by comparing total water storage change (TWSC) for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins to the conventional GRACE approach. We find good agreement for TWSC, and reasonable agreement for steric heights, depending on the ocean region and Argo product. We ascribe differences to weaknesses of the Argo data, but we also find the inversion to be to some extent sensitive with respect to the EOFs. Finally, combining our estimates with CMIP5-simulations, we estimate that Bay of Bengal absolute sea level may rise for additional 37 cm under the RCP4.5 scenario and 40 cm under RCP8.5 until 2050, with respect to 2005.

  17. Exudativory in the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Swapna, N; Radhakrishna, Sindhu; Gupta, Atul K; Kumar, Ajith

    2010-02-01

    In this study we estimated the extent of exudativory in Nycticebus bengalensis and examined whether exudates can be considered as fallback foods. This study was carried out in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern India, in winter (December-February) and summer (March and April). We estimated time-activity budget using instantaneous sampling and used continuous focal animal sampling to record all instances and durations of feeding, over a total of 177 hr. Feeding accounted for 22.3+/-2.2% of the activity budget, with no seasonal difference. Bengal slow lorises fed on exudates, nectar, fruit, bark, invertebrates and avian eggs. In addition to scraping they also obtained exudates by gouging holes into the bark of trees. In winter, lorises almost exclusively fed on exudates (94.3% of winter feeding time). In summer, exudates (67.3%) and nectar from one species (22.3%) dominated the diet. This study identifies the Bengal slow loris as the most exudativorous loris. Exudates rather than being a staple fallback food, seem to be a preferred, patchily distributed and common food in the diet of the Bengal slow loris. Exudativory in this species is characterized by high selectivity among species and seasonal variation, which may be related to variations in productivity of exudates and their chemical composition. An understanding of these factors is necessary for predicting the response of this species to human disturbance such as logging. This study also underscores the importance of protecting some of the common species such as Terminalia belerica on which the loris feeds during periods of scarcity. PMID:19937974

  18. The Stacked Channel-Levee Systems at the Middle Bengal Fan Imaged by High Resolution Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, T.; Spiess, V.; Breitzke, M.; Huebscher, C.

    2001-12-01

    The Bengal Fan is the largest submarine fan on Earth and covers the whole Bay of Bengal. The fan is built up by the sediment load of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which drain the Himalayan and react to tectonic and climatic changes on land. Therefore the Bengal Fan is well suited to study the linkage between processes on land and the marine sedimentary record. The sediment reaches the deep sea through a canyon deeply incised into the shelf, acting as a temporary trap. Turbidity currents transport the sediment episodically on the fan building successively several channel-levee systems, but only one channel is active at a time. In 1997 during R/V Sonne Cruise SO 125 to the Bay of Bengal, the morphology and structure of the Bengal Fan were studied at different distances from the shelf. In addition, the seismic data were used for an ODP drilling proposal "Drilling in the Bengal Fan" by France-Lanord, Spiess, Molnar & Curray. A main objective of the SO 125 Cruise was the investigation of the middle Bengal Fan at 16.5° N, especially of the architecture of the active channel-levee system. A closely spaced grid of Parasound sediment echosounder, Hydrosweep Swath Sounder and very high-resolution seismic data were collected in the vicinity of the active channel, completed by two long W-E Profiles to the west and the east of the active channel. As seismic sources a watergun with frequencies between 200 and 1600 Hz and a GI Gun with frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz were used in an alternating operation mode. At the middle Bengal Fan, the active channel is characterised by a high sinuosity and an exceptionally low gradient. By a combined Parasound and Hydrosweep survey more than 20 cut-off loops could be identified. The sedimentation on the levees varies strongly and depends on the relative position to the channel loops. The base of the active channel is characterised by high amplitude reflections in the seismic data, which are interpreted as coarse-grained sediments

  19. Benzyladenine and gibberellin treatment of developing "Pink Lady" apples results in mature fruits with a thicker cuticle comprising clusters of epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, Edna; Stern, Raphael A; Ginzberg, Idit

    2015-07-01

    A mixture of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins GA4 plus GA7 applied to "Pink Lady" apple at early phenological stages was previously shown to result in an immediate increase in epidermal cell density and associated reduction in calyx-end cracking disorder in the mature fruit, implying a long-term effect of the BA + GA4+7 mixture. Here, we analyzed the anatomical changes in the mature peel at the calyx end 210 days after full bloom (DAFB), following application of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) at the cell-division phase of fruit development, 21-50 DAFB. Experiments were conducted in northern Israel, and the PGRs were applied as the commercial formulation Superlon™ (Fine Agrochemicals Ltd.), composed of 19 g l(-1) BA and 19 g l(-1) GA4+7. Trees were sprayed with 0.025, 0.1, or 0.2 % (v/v) Superlon™. The most obvious phenomenon was the presence of epidermal cell clusters within the cuticular matrix that were detached from the native epidermal layer located at the bottom of the cuticle and which could not be detected in the untreated control fruits. Treatment with 20 mg l(-1) BA + GA4+7 (0.1 % Superlon™) resulted in a markedly thicker cuticle, a higher percentage of detached epidermal cells within the cuticular membrane and a significant reduction in calyx-end cracking at harvest. The presence of cuticle-embedded epidermal cell clusters may have contributed to strengthening the peel by adding more cell-wall components, thickening the cuticle layer and possibly enhancing crack repair. PMID:25433445

  20. Seasonal cycles in biogenic production and export in Northern Bay of Bengal sediment traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Heather M.; Arevalos, Alicia; Burke, Andrea; Ziveri, Patrizia; Mortyn, Graham; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Unger, Daniela

    2007-03-01

    Sediment traps in the northern and north central Bay of Bengal are characterized by highly seasonal fluxes and unusually high efficiency of organic carbon export. However, the mechanism for high export production remains under debate. To evaluate the relationships between production in the photic zone and export processes responsible for the fluxes into the traps, over an annual cycle we examine a series of indicators of production regime set in surface waters. These indicators include communities of planktic foraminifera and coccolithophores, stable isotopic chemistry of foraminifera and coccoliths, and the Sr/Ca ratios in coccoliths. Coccolith and foraminiferal assemblages confirm that the Bay of Bengal is a region of high productivity. Coccolithophore communities are dominated to an unusually high degree (90%) by the lower photic zone dweller Florisphaera profunda, a species adapted to high-nutrient and low-light conditions typical of stratified waters like those induced by the strong halocline in the Bay of Bengal. Cyclonic eddy pumping and strong winds during the southwest monsoon (SWM) increase the relative abundance of upwelling indicator species like foraminifera Globigerina bulloides and the upper photic coccolithophores Globigerina oceanica and Emiliania huxleyi. However, while upwelling and eddy pumping do coincide with high opal and coccolith export, in both traps peak organic carbon export precedes the onset of eddy pumping and upwelling indicators. These data suggest an alternate mode of production in the Bay of Bengal, which is not driven by upwelling but rather high production deeper in the water column, probably by taxa adapted to lower light levels. In both traps, the pulses of organic carbon export coincide with elevated fluxes of planktonic foraminifera, which likely reflect increased primary production. Consequently, while major export pulses of organic carbon coincide with pulses of lithogenic export, the pulses of organic carbon export are

  1. Predicting wind field in the Bay of Bengal from scatterometer observations using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kumar, Raj; Basu, Sujit

    2007-02-01

    A technique based on genetic algorithm (GA) is applied for predicting wind field in the Bay of Bengal (BOB) using satellite scatterometer observations. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is used for compressing the spatial variability into a set of eigenmodes. The time series of each principal component (PC) is subjected to singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and GA is applied to the resulting filtered time series. The forecast PCs are weighted by the spatial eigenmodes for computing forecast wind fields. Predictions made up to 5 days in advance are found to be superior to forecast by persistence method.

  2. Inbreeding effects on palmar dermatoglyphic characters in three endogamous social groups of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Banik, S Datta

    2014-02-01

    The present study reports inbreeding effects on mean palmar dermatoglyphic characteristics: triradial count on palm, maximal atd angle, adt angle, td ridge count, ab ridge count, main line index (MLI) and ab ridge breadth. Samples were drawn from adult males belonging to three endogamous sections representing Hindu caste Telaga of Kharagpur (West Midnapore), Ansari Muslims of Nandigram (East Midnapore) and Sheik-Sunni Muslims of Braddhaman in West Bengal, India. Consistent trend of higher mean triradial number, adt angle, and lower mean td ridge count, ab ridge count, and ab ridge breadth was observed in inbred sections compared to their non-inbred relatives in three social groups. PMID:24182450

  3. Atp13a2 expression in the periaqueductal gray is decreased in the Pink1 -/- rat model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Stevenson, Sharon A; Ciucci, Michelle R

    2016-05-16

    Vocal communication deficits are common in Parkinson disease (PD). Widespread alpha-synuclein pathology is a common link between familial and sporadic PD, and recent genetic rat models based on familial genetic links increase the opportunity to explore vocalization deficits and their associated neuropathologies. Specifically, the Pink1 knockout (-/-) rat presents with early, progressive motor deficits, including significant vocal deficits, at 8 months of age. Moreover, this rat model exhibits alpha-synuclein pathology compared to age-matched non-affected wildtype (WT) controls. Aggregations are specifically dense within the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a brainstem region involved in the coordination of emotional and volitional control of vocalizations. Here, we investigated changes in gene expression within the PAG at 8 months of age in Pink1 -/- rats compared to WT. Our data demonstrate that Pink1 -/- rat mRNA expression levels of alpha-synuclein are comparable to WT. However, Pink1 -/- rats show significantly decreased levels of Atp13a2, a transmembrane lysosomal P5-type ATPase suggesting a potential mechanism for the observed abnormal aggregation. We found no difference in the expression of glucocerebrosidase (Gba) or the CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (Cflar). Further, we show that mRNA expression levels of dopaminergic markers including Th, D1 and D2 receptor as well as GABA signaling markers including Gaba-A and glutamate decarboxylase 2 (Gad2) do not differ between genotypes. However, we found that glutamate decarboxylase 1 (Gad1) is significantly reduced in this PD model suggesting possible disruption of neurotransmission within the PAG. These results are the first to suggest the hypothesis that alpha-synuclein aggregation in this model is not a result of increased transcription, but rather a deficit in the breakdown and clearance, and that the observed vocal deficits may be related to impaired neural transmission. Altogether, these findings are

  4. Visceral smooth muscle α-actin deficiency associated with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a Bengal cat (Felis catus x Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Imai, D M; Miller, J L; Leonard, B C; Bach, J; Drees, R; Steinberg, H; Teixeira, L B C

    2014-05-01

    An adult Bengal cat (Felis catus × Prionailurus bengalensis) with a prolonged history of partial anorexia, regurgitation, and weight loss and a clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic diagnosis of persistent megaesophagus and gastrointestinal ileus was submitted for necropsy. The intestinal tract was diffusely distended by gas and fluid with appreciable loss of muscle tone and an absence of luminal obstruction, consistent with the clinical history of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Histologically, the autonomic nervous system was intact, but the smooth muscle within the gastrointestinal wall exhibited a marked basophilia that was most pronounced in the jejunum. Immunohistochemistry for neurofilament, synaptophysin, CD117, and desmin demonstrated that the number of myenteric ganglia, number of interstitial cells, and leiomyocyte desmin content were similar when compared with the unaffected age- and species-matched control. Immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle α-actin demonstrated a striking loss of immunoreactivity, predominantly in the circular layer of the jejunum, that corresponded with the tinctorial change in leiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of myofibrils, loss of organelle polarity, and significantly larger central mitochondria (megamitochondria) in affected leiomyocytes, as well as nonspecific degenerative changes. Although the presence of a primary leiomyopathy and a causal relationship could not be confirmed in this case, leiomyopathies are considered a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in human medicine, and loss of smooth muscle α-actin immunoreactivity is one recognized marker for intestinal dysmotility. PMID:23774747

  5. Methods to Mark Termites with Protein for Mark-Release-Recapture and Mark-Capture Type Studies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-release-recapture (MRR) and mark-capture type studies. Qualitative laboratory studies were conducted to de...

  6. The research of laser marking control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  7. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector for those tanks; and...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector for those tanks; and...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls and controls whose... specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector for those tanks; and...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose function... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1555 - Control markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1555 Control markings. (a) Each cockpit control, other than primary flight controls or control whose... any tanks in a specific sequence, that sequence must be marked on, or adjacent to, the selector...

  16. DSN tracking system: Mark III-77

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaney, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Deep Space Network tracking system is described. Revisions of subsystem Mark III-75 are briefly outlined, and the currently used multimission support subsystem Mark III-77 is described. Tracking functions performed are given as well.

  17. 46 CFR 160.028-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Signal Pistols for Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.028-5 Marking. (a) General. Each signal pistol shall be permanently and legibly marked with its serial...

  18. 46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... cushions shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will...

  19. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  20. 46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... cushions shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will...

  1. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  2. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  3. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  4. 46 CFR 160.048-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) Each buoyant cushion must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof... waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while...

  5. Consumption demand of juvenile pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska in relation to prey biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Alison D.; Beauchamp, David A.; Armstrong, Janet L.; Blikshteyn, Mikhail; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Davis, Nancy D.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Moss, Jamal H.; Myers, Katherine W.; Walker, Robert V.

    2005-01-01

    Prince William Sound hatcheries release over 600 million pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry each year. The effect of the additional consumption demand by hatchery fish on prey biomass in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska is unknown. The objectives of this study were to: (1) use bioenergetics models to compare spatial and temporal variation in the consumption demand and growth efficiency of hatchery and wild juvenile pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska between May and October 2001; and (2) compare localized population-level consumption in each region to the standing stock biomass of coexisting prey. In order to achieve observed growth, juvenile pink salmon consumed at 64-107% of their theoretical maximum consumption rate. Individual juvenile pink salmon consumed an average of 366.5 g of prey from marine entry through October of their first growing season. Growth efficiency ranged from 18.9% to 33.8% over the model simulation period. Juvenile salmon that migrated to the Gulf of Alaska grew more efficiently than those that remained in Prince William Sound until August, but after August juvenile salmon in Prince William Sound grew more efficiently than those in the Gulf of Alaska due to differences in prey quality between regions. Temperatures did not vary much between regions; thus differences in the thermal experience of juvenile pink salmon did not affect growth, consumption, and growth efficiency as much as the effects of different prey quality. Consumption demand by juvenile pink salmon exceeded the average standing stock biomass of key prey (large copepods, pteropods, hyperiid amphipods, and larvaceans) during some months. Our results are consistent with advection and production of these prey replenishing the forage base, or the reliance of individual pink salmon on high-density prey patches that occur at finer temporal scales than we were capable of sampling.

  6. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have...

  7. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

  8. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

  9. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

  10. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

  11. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this...

  12. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they...

  13. 27 CFR 19.752 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marks. 19.752 Section 19... Marks. (a) Fuel alcohol. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must place a conspicuous and permanent warning mark or label on each container of 55 gallons or less of fuel alcohol that the proprietor...

  14. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an application to register a certification mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall include...

  15. 27 CFR 19.752 - Marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marks. 19.752 Section 19... Marks. (a) Fuel alcohol. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must place a conspicuous and permanent warning mark or label on each container of 55 gallons or less of fuel alcohol that the proprietor...

  16. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  17. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an application to register a collective mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall specify...

  18. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an application to register a certification mark under section 1(a) of the Act, the application shall include...

  19. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an application to register a service mark, the application shall specify and contain all the elements required...

  20. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an application to register a service mark, the application shall specify and contain all the elements required...