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Sample records for marked gastric distension

  1. Severe gastric distension in seven patients with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Del Beccaro, M A; McLaughlin, J F; Polage, D L

    1991-10-01

    This is a report of two children who had severe recurrent gastric distension and vomiting, and five who experienced severe gastric distension without vomiting. Two of the five died during an episode of acute gastric distension. All had marked nutritional depletion, and severe spastic quadriplegia due to either cerebral palsy or acquired brain injury. None of the patients had significant gastroesophageal reflux. Positioning the patients in the left lateral decubitus position temporarily relieved their obstructions. Complete resolution of the distension and/or vomiting did not occur until after adequate weight gain. Loss of fat stores may lead to this type of recurrent gastric distension. PMID:1743416

  2. Response of canine lower esophageal sphincter to gastric distension.

    PubMed

    Franzi, S J; Martin, C J; Cox, M R; Dent, J

    1990-09-01

    The aim of this study was to localize the region of the stomach responsible for triggering distension-induced transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR). The canine stomach was partitioned into subsegments by a row of buttressed sutures. This separated either the fundus from the lesser curve or the proximal stomach from the antrum. After 1 mo each region was progressively distended while gastroesophageal pressures were monitored. At the time of the first TLESR, gastric wall tension was estimated from the bag pressure and volume. Distension of the intact stomach, lesser curve, or proximal stomach in 12 dogs produced a progressive increase in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, which was interrupted at low gastric wall tension (29, 35, and 40 mmHg.cm, respectively) by a superimposed TLESR. Background LES pressure fell progressively with distension of the antrum but was unchanged by distension of the fundus alone. Both the fundus and antrum had significantly higher thresholds for triggering TLESR (96 and 105 mmHg.cm). In another two dogs truncal vagotomy performed at the time of gastric partitioning prevented both the change in background LES pressure, and the triggering of TLESR, associated with proximal gastric and antral distension. We conclude that the subcardiac region of the stomach is primarily responsible for triggering TLESR induced by distension and that the effect on background LES pressure depends on the region distended. PMID:2399982

  3. Effects of gastric distension and infusion of umami and bitter taste stimuli on vagal afferent activity.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Murat, Chloé; Rosazza, Matthew; Still, Liz

    2011-10-24

    Until recently, sensory nerve pathways from the stomach to the brain were thought to detect distension and play little role in nutritional signaling. Newer data have challenged this view, including reports on the presence of taste receptors in the gastrointestinal lumen and the stimulation of multi-unit vagal afferent activity by glutamate infusions into the stomach. However, assessing these chemosensory effects is difficult because gastric infusions typically evoke a distension-related vagal afferent response. In the current study, we recorded gastric vagal afferent activity in the rat to investigate the possibility that umami (glutamate, 150 mM) and bitter (denatonium, 10 mM) responses could be dissociated from distension responses by adjusting the infusion rate and opening or closing the drainage port in the stomach. Slow infusions of saline (5 ml over 2 min, open port) produced no significant effects on vagal activity. Using the same infusion rate, glutamate or denatonium solutions produced little or no effects on vagal afferent activity. In an attempt to reproduce a prior report that showed distention and glutamate responses, we produced a distension response by closing the exit port. Under this condition, response to the infusion of glutamate or denatonium was similar to saline. In summary, we found little or no effect of gastric infusion of glutamate or denatonium on gastric vagal afferent activity that could be distinguished from distension responses. The current results suggest that sensitivity to umami or bitter stimuli is not a common property of gastric vagal afferent fibers. PMID:21925651

  4. Gastric wall ischemia following massive gastric distension due to peptic pyloric stenosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tatiana; Freitas, Carla; Pinto-de-Sousa, João

    2016-01-01

    Gastric necrosis is a rare entity mainly due to the rich collateral blood flow the stomach is supplied by. Acute gastric dilation is one of the described underlying causes, and although not fully understood, many potential alterations, such as vascular compression, herniation, volvulus, acute necrotizing gastritis, complications after abdominal surgery, anorexia, bulimia nervosa, trauma, exposure to caustic materials, diabetes, medications, infections, debilitating chronic illness, gastric outlet obstruction, aerophagia and acute pancreatitis have been described. In this report, we present a case of partial gastric ischemia with necrosis and consequent perforation of the lesser curvature of the stomach, as a result of gastric outlet obstruction due to pyloric stenosis. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. An atypical gastrectomy and a Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty were performed. We emphasize the need for the quick recognition of this condition and for the urgent management because of the high mortality rate associated with undiagnosed gastric necrosis. PMID:26851051

  5. Gastric wall ischemia following massive gastric distension due to peptic pyloric stenosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Tatiana; Freitas, Carla; Pinto-de-Sousa, João

    2016-01-01

    Gastric necrosis is a rare entity mainly due to the rich collateral blood flow the stomach is supplied by. Acute gastric dilation is one of the described underlying causes, and although not fully understood, many potential alterations, such as vascular compression, herniation, volvulus, acute necrotizing gastritis, complications after abdominal surgery, anorexia, bulimia nervosa, trauma, exposure to caustic materials, diabetes, medications, infections, debilitating chronic illness, gastric outlet obstruction, aerophagia and acute pancreatitis have been described. In this report, we present a case of partial gastric ischemia with necrosis and consequent perforation of the lesser curvature of the stomach, as a result of gastric outlet obstruction due to pyloric stenosis. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. An atypical gastrectomy and a Heineke–Mikulicz pyloroplasty were performed. We emphasize the need for the quick recognition of this condition and for the urgent management because of the high mortality rate associated with undiagnosed gastric necrosis. PMID:26851051

  6. Computer-simulated biopsy marking system for endoscopic surveillance of gastric lesions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiling; Wang, Bin; Sun, Leimin; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Kan; Wu, Jiaguo; Kim, John J; Liu, Jiquan; Dai, Ning; Duan, Huilong; Si, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic tattoo with India ink injection for surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions is technically cumbersome and may not be durable. The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of a novel, computer-simulated biopsy marking system (CSBMS) developed for the endoscopic marking of gastric lesions. Twenty-five patients with history of gastric intestinal metaplasia received both CSBMS-guided marking and India ink injection in five points in the stomach at index endoscopy. A second endoscopy was performed at three months. Primary outcome was accuracy of CSBMS (distance between CSBMS probe-guided site and tattoo site measured by CSBMS). The mean accuracy of CSBMS at angularis was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm, antral lesser curvature 5.7 ± 1.4 mm, antral greater curvature 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, antral anterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm, and antral posterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm. CSBMS (2.3 ± 0.9 versus 12.5 ± 4.6 seconds; P = 0.02) required less procedure time compared to endoscopic tattooing. No adverse events were encountered. CSBMS accurately identified previously marked gastric sites by endoscopic tattooing within 1 cm on follow-up endoscopy. PMID:25954747

  7. Widespread osteoblastic metastases and marked elevation of CA19-9 as a presentation of signet ring cell gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Asaf; Bejar, Jacob; Schiff, Elad; Dotan, Yaniv

    2016-01-01

    Widespread osteoblastic metastases, as well as marked elevations of CA19-9 and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), are the initial manifestations of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. CT Imaging revealed diffuse sclerotic metastases in the axial skeleton. It was only following gastric biopsy that the primary site of metastatic bone tumor was identified. Recent studies suggest that early diagnosis of cancer origin, including tumor molecular profiling, may dictate specific therapy, improve prognosis and increase patient survival rates. PMID:27034800

  8. Trop2 marks transient gastric fetal epithelium and adult regenerating cells after epithelial damage

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Vallone, Valeria; Leprovots, Morgane; Strollo, Sandra; Vasile, Gabriela; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frederick; Vassart, Gilbert; Garcia, Marie-Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse fetal intestinal progenitors lining the epithelium prior to villogenesis grow as spheroids when cultured ex vivo and express the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 as a marker. Here, we report the characterization of Trop2-expressing cells from fetal pre-glandular stomach, growing as immortal undifferentiated spheroids, and their relationship with gastric development and regeneration. Trop2+ cells generating gastric spheroids differed from adult glandular Lgr5+ stem cells, but appeared highly related to fetal intestinal spheroids. Although they shared a common spheroid signature, intestinal and gastric fetal spheroid-generating cells expressed organ-specific transcription factors and were committed to intestinal and glandular gastric differentiation, respectively. Trop2 expression was transient during glandular stomach development, being lost at the onset of gland formation, whereas it persisted in the squamous forestomach. Undetectable under homeostasis, Trop2 was strongly re-expressed in glands after acute Lgr5+ stem cell ablation or following indomethacin-induced injury. These highly proliferative reactive adult Trop2+ cells exhibited a transcriptome displaying similarity with that of gastric embryonic Trop2+ cells, suggesting that epithelium regeneration in adult stomach glands involves the partial re-expression of a fetal genetic program. PMID:26989172

  9. Pneumoperitoneum secondary to a perforated gastric ulcer in a cat.

    PubMed

    Lykken, Jennifer D; Brisson, Brigitte A; Etue, Sheila M

    2003-06-15

    A 7-year-old domestic cat was examined because of a history of weight loss, intermittent diarrhea, and anorexia of 6 months' duration. Results of physical examination were normal except for marked abdominal tension. Results of a CBC and serum biochemistry profile were unremarkable. Severe pneumoperitoneum was noted radiographically, and abdominocentesis yielded 640 mL of air. Abdominal distension recurred 1 day after abdominocentesis. Exploratory laparotomy was performed 3 days after recurrence of abdominal distension and revealed a gastric perforation along the greater curvature of the stomach with omental and pancreatic adhesions at the site of perforation. Mild local peritoneal inflammation was also noted. A partial gastrectomy was performed to resect the lesion, and histologic examination confirmed a severe perforating ulcer. The gastric wall adjacent to the ulcer was histologically normal. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriologic cultures of abdominal swab specimens were negative for bacterial growth. The cat was discharged 4 days after surgery and clinically normal at suture removal. PMID:12830863

  10. Abdominal Distension and Vascular Collapse.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Gina; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal distension, confusion and vascular collapse. The emergent radiologic imaging obtained showed massive bilateral adrenal enlargement, but despite the initial clinical suspicion of possible overwhelming sepsis and/or massive abdominal/intralesional hemorrhage, lab tests based obtained rapidly confirmed the diagnosis of acute Addisonian crisis which responded dramatically to adrenocorticoid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The patient's established history of metastatic lung cancer confirmed this as a case of metastatic massive bilateral adrenal metastases with an initial presentation of acute adrenal insufficiency which is uncommon in the setting of metastatic carcinomatosis but more typically associated with lymphomas. Recognition of this clinical possibility is vital to enable rapid diagnosis and consequent life saving therapy. PMID:27328473

  11. Immature Gastric Teratoma in a Newborn: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Yadav, Hemant; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Srivastava, Divya; Chandana, Abha; Prakash, Sant

    2016-01-01

    A case of immature gastric teratoma in a neonate is being reported here. The neonate was presented with abdominal mass and distension and managed with excision of mass; the patient is doing fine postoperatively. PMID:27123405

  12. Esophagogastric junction distensibility in hiatus hernia.

    PubMed

    Lottrup, C; McMahon, B P; Ejstrud, P; Ostapiuk, M A; Funch-Jensen, P; Drewes, A M

    2016-07-01

    Hiatus hernia is known to be an important risk factor for developing gastroesophageal reflux disease. We aimed to use the endoscopic functional lumen imaging probe (EndoFLIP) to evaluate the functional properties of the esophagogastric junction. EndoFLIP assessments were made in 30 patients with hiatus hernia and Barrett's esophagus, and in 14 healthy controls. The EndoFLIP was placed straddling the esophagogastric junction and the bag distended stepwise to 50 mL. Cross-sectional areas of the bag and intra-bag pressures were recorded continuously. Measurements were made in the separate sphincter components and hiatus hernia cavity. EndoFLIP measured functional aspects such as sphincter distensibility and pressure of all esophagogastric junction components and visualized all hiatus hernia present at endoscopy. The lower esophageal sphincter in hiatus hernia patients had a lower pressure (e.g. 47.7 ± 13.0 vs. 61.4 ± 19.2 mm Hg at 50-mL distension volume) and was more distensible (all P < 0.001) than the common esophagogastric junction in controls. In hiatus hernia patients, the crural diaphragm had a lower pressure (e.g. 29.6 ± 10.1 vs. 47.7 ± 13.0 mm Hg at 50-mL distension volume) and was more distensible (all P < 0.001) than the lower esophageal sphincter. There was a significant association between symptom scores in patients and EndoFLIP assessment. Conclusively, EndoFLIP was a useful tool. To evaluate the presence of a hiatus hernia and to measure the functional properties of the esophagogastric junction. Furthermore, EndoFLIP distinguished the separate esophagogastric junction components in hiatus hernia patients, and may help us understand the biomechanics of the esophagogastric junction and the mechanisms behind hiatal herniation. PMID:25789842

  13. Aortic Distensibility in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Turkbey, Evrim B.; Redheuil, Alban; Backlund, Jye-Yu C.; Small, Alexander C.; Cleary, Patricia A.; Lachin, John M.; Lima, Joao A.C.; Bluemke, David A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between long-term glycemia, traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and ascending aortic stiffness in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight hundred seventy-nine subjects in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study were evaluated. The stiffness/distensibility of the ascending thoracic aorta (AA) was measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Associations of AA distensibility and CVD risk factors, mean HbA1c, and cardiovascular complications including macroalbuminuria were assessed using multivariate linear regression models. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 50 ± 7 years (47% women, mean diabetes duration of 28 years). Over 22 years of follow-up, 27% of participants had cardiovascular complications. After adjusting for gender and cohort, AA distensibility was lower with increasing age, mean systolic blood pressure, LDL, and HbA1c measured over an average of 22 years (−26.3% per 10 years, −11.0% per 10 mmHg SBP, −1.8% per 10 mg/dL of LDL, and −9.3% per unit mean HbA1c [%], respectively). Patients with macroalbuminuria had 25% lower AA distensibility compared with those without (P < 0.0001). Lower AA distensibility also was associated with greater ratio of left ventricular mass to volume (−3.4% per 0.1 g/mL; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate strong adverse effects of hypertension, chronic hyperglycemia and macroalbuminuria on AA stiffness in type 1 diabetes in the DCCT/EDIC cohort. PMID:23474588

  14. Uterine distension differentially affects remodelling and distensibility of the uterine vasculature in non-pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Osol, George; Barron, Carolyn; Mandalà, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy the mammalian uterine circulation undergoes significant expansive remodelling necessary for normal pregnancy outcome. The underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that myometrial stretch actively stimulates uterine vascular remodelling by developing a new surgical approach to induce unilateral uterine distension in non-pregnant rats. Three weeks after surgery, which consisted of an infusion of medical-grade silicone into the uterine lumen, main and mesometrial uterine artery and vein length, diameter and distensibility were recorded. Radial artery diameter, distensibility and vascular smooth muscle mitotic rate (Ki67 staining) were also measured. Unilateral uterine distension resulted in significant increases in the length of main uterine artery and vein and mesometrial segments but had no effect on vessel diameter or distensibility. In contrast, there were significant increases in the diameter of the radial arteries associated with the distended uterus. These changes were accompanied by reduced arterial distensibility and increased vascular muscle hyperplasia. In summary, this is the first report to show that myometrial stretch is a sufficient stimulus to induce significant remodelling of uterine vessels in non-pregnant rats. Moreover, the results indicate differential regulation of these growth processes as a function of vessel size and type. PMID:22781934

  15. Distensibility in human veins as affected by 5 weeks of repeated elevations of local transmural pressure.

    PubMed

    Kölegård, Roger; Eiken, Ola

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of repeated increments in local intravascular pressure (pressure training; PT) on (1) distensibility in two arm veins, and (2) pain in the arm induced by markedly increased intravascular pressure. Elevation of venous distending pressure (DP) in an arm was induced by placing the subject (n = 8) in a pressure chamber with one arm protruding to the outside via a port in the chamber door, and increasing chamber pressure. During 5 weeks, venous DP in one arm was repeatedly (3 × 40 min/week) increased (65-105 mmHg). Pressure-distension relationships were determined in the brachial and cephalic veins by measuring diameter changes by ultrasonography during stepwise increments in DP to 180 mmHg. In the brachial vein, the diameter change in response to an increase in DP from 30 to 180 mmHg (distensibility) was reduced (P < 0.05) in the pressure-trained arm (11%) compared to that in the control arm before (23%) and after (21%) PT. The cephalic vein showed a similar response with a reduced (P < 0.05) distensibility in the pressure-trained arm (20%) compared to that in the control arm before (29%) and after (25%) PT. At any given DP, arm pain was less (P < 0.05) in the pressure-trained arm than in the control arm before and after PT, presumably reflecting the reduced venous distensibility in the pressure-trained arm. The results support the concept that the distensibility of venous walls adapts to meet the demands imposed by the prevailing local transmural pressures. PMID:21461927

  16. Acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in an adult treated laparoscopically after endoscopic reduction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Omata, Jiro; Utsunomiya, Katsuyuki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Takahata, Risa; Miyasaka, Nobuo; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yamagishi, Yoji; Fukumura, Makiko; Kitagawa, Daiki; Konno, Mitsuhiko; Okusa, Yasushi; Murayama, Michinori

    2016-12-01

    A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain, fullness, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with mild epigastric tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed massive gastric distension and plain computed tomography (CT) a markedly enlarged stomach filled with gas and fluid. A large volume of gastric contents was suctioned out via a nasogastric (NG) tube. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a grossly distended stomach with displacement of the antrum above the gastroesophageal junction, and the spleen was dislocated inferiorly. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series showed the greater curvature to be elevated and the gastric fundus to be lower than normal. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was diagnosed. GI endoscopy showed a distortion of the gastric anatomy with difficulty intubating the pylorus. Various endoscopic maneuvers were required to reposition the stomach, and the symptoms showed immediate and complete solution. GI fluoroscopy was performed 3 days later. Initially, most of the contrast medium accumulated in the fundus, which was drawn prominently downward, and then began flowing into the duodenum with anteflexion. Elective laparoscopic surgery was performed 1 month later. The stomach was in its normal position, but the fundus was folded posteroinferiorly. The spleen attached to the fundus was normal in size but extremely mobile. We diagnosed a wandering spleen based on the operative findings. Gastropexy was performed for the treatment of gastric volvulus and wandering spleen. The patient remained asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 24 months. This report describes a rare adult case of acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen. Because delay in treatment can result in lethal complications, it is critical to provide a prompt and correct diagnosis and surgical intervention. We advocate laparoscopic surgery after endoscopic reduction because

  17. Distension of the uterus induces HspB1 expression in rat uterine smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    White, B G; MacPhee, D J

    2011-11-01

    The uterine musculature, or myometrium, demonstrates tremendous plasticity during pregnancy under the influences of the endocrine environment and mechanical stresses. Expression of the small stress protein heat shock protein B1 (HspB1) has been reported to increase dramatically during late pregnancy, a period marked by myometrial hypertrophy caused by fetal growth-induced uterine distension. Thus, using unilaterally pregnant rat models and ovariectomized nonpregnant rats with uteri containing laminaria tents to induce uterine distension, we examined the effect of uterine distension on myometrial HspB1 expression. In unilaterally pregnant rats, HspB1 mRNA and Ser(15)-phosphorylated HspB1 (pSer(15) HspB1) protein expression were significantly elevated in distended gravid uterine horns at days 19 and 23 (labor) of gestation compared with nongravid horns. Similarly, pSer(15) HspB1 protein in situ was only readily detectable in the distended horns compared with the nongravid horns at days 19 and 23; however, pSer(15) HspB1 was primarily detectable in situ at day 19 in membrane-associated regions, while it had primarily a cytoplasmic localization in myometrial cells at day 23. HspB1 mRNA and pSer(15) HspB1 protein expression were also markedly increased in ovariectomized nonpregnant rat myometrium distended for 24 h with laminaria tents compared with empty horns. Therefore, uterine distension plays a major role in the stimulation of myometrial HspB1 expression, and increased expression of this small stress protein could be a mechanoadaptive response to the increasing uterine distension that occurs during pregnancy. PMID:21900647

  18. Nebivolol increases arterial distensibility in vivo.

    PubMed

    McEniery, Carmel M; Schmitt, Matthias; Qasem, Ahmad; Webb, David J; Avolio, Alberto P; Wilkinson, Ian B; Cockcroft, John R

    2004-09-01

    Arterial stiffness is a key determinant of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. beta-Blockers appear to be less effective than other drugs in improving outcome in hypertensive patients, and a potential explanation may be that beta-blockers are less effective in reducing arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to assess the direct effect of beta-blockade on pulse wave velocity (PWV), a robust measure of arterial distensibility, using a local, ovine, hind-limb model. In addition, we hypothesized that the vasodilating beta-blocker nebivolol, but not atenolol, would increase arterial distensibility in vivo. All studies were conducted in anesthetized sheep. PWV was recorded in vivo using a dual pressure-sensing catheter placed in the common iliac artery. Intraarterial infusion of nebivolol reduced PWV by 6+/-3% at the higher dose (P<0.001), but did not alter mean arterial pressure (change of -1+/-3 mm Hg, P=0.1). In contrast, atenolol had no effect on PWV (P=0.11) despite a small drop in mean pressure (change of -5+/-3 mm Hg, P<0.01). Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate led to a dose-dependent fall in PWV, and 2 nmol/min produced a similar reduction in PWV to the higher dose of nebivolol (500 nmol/min). The effect of nebivolol on PWV was significantly attenuated during coinfusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (P=0.003) and also during coinfusion of butoxamine (P=0.02). These results demonstrate that nebivolol, but not atenolol, increases arterial distensibility. This effect of nebivolol is mediated through the release of NO via a beta2 adrenoceptor-dependent mechanism. Thus, nebivolol may be of benefit in conditions of increased large artery stiffness, such as isolated systolic hypertension. PMID:15262912

  19. Arterial Stiffness, Distensibility, and Strain in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Esra Akyüz; Serin, Halil İbrahim; Khosroshahi, Hashem E.; Kılıç, Mahmut; Ekim, Meral; Beysel, Perihan; Geçit, U. Aliye; Domur, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that since asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, it could lead to the early development of atherosclerosis in childhood-onset asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate arterial stiffness, distensibility, and strain of different peripheral arteries, the parameters of which can be used to detect atherosclerosis in asthmatic children. Material/Methods We studied 22 pediatric patients with asthma and 18 healthy children. Fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels were evaluated to exclude children with diabetes and hyperlipidemia, which are risk factors for atherosclerosis. Renal, carotid, and brachial arteries diameters were measured. Using the measured data, stiffness, distensibility, and strain of the arteries of all children were calculated. Results Pulse pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, cholesterols, and glucose levels of the obese individuals were similar to the controls. In carotid arteries there were no statistical differences regarding stiffness, distensibility, and strain. According to multiple ANCOVA analysis, distensibility and strain of right and left brachial arteries and right renal artery were higher, whereas right renal artery stiffness was lower in asthmatic children than in controls. Approximately one-fifth of the change in the left and right brachial arteries and right renal artery distensibility and strain and a small portion of the change in the right renal artery stiffness were associated with asthma. In contrast, left renal artery distensibility, strain, and stiffness were not associated with asthma. Conclusions Peripheral arteries had higher distensibility and strain, and lower stiffness in asthmatic children than in controls. PMID:26803723

  20. Increased distensibility in dependent veins following prolonged bedrest.

    PubMed

    Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2009-07-01

    Displacement of blood to the lower portion of the body that follows a postural transition from recumbent to erect is augmented by a prolonged period of recumbency (bedrest). Information is scarce as to what extent this augmented blood-volume shift to dependent veins is attributable to increased distensibility of the veins. Accordingly, we studied the effect of 5 weeks of horizontal bedrest on the pressure-distension relationship in limb veins. Elevation of venous distending pressure was induced by exposure of the body except the tested limb to supra-atmospheric pressure with the subject seated in a pressure chamber with one arm, or supine with a lower leg, protruding through a hole in the chamber door. Diameter changes in response to an increase of intravenous pressure (distensibility) from 60 to about 140 mmHg were measured in the brachial and posterior tibial veins using ultrasonographic techniques. Prior to bedrest, the distensibility was substantially less in the tibial than in the brachial vein. Bedrest increased (P < 0.01) pressure distension in the tibial vein by 86% from 7 +/- 3% before to 13 +/- 3% after bedrest. In the brachial vein, bedrest increased (P < 0.05) pressure distension by 36% from 14 +/- 5% before to 19 +/- 5% after bedrest. Thus, removal of the gravity-dependent pressure components that act along the blood vessels in erect posture increases the distensibility of dependent veins. PMID:19347352

  1. Mechanical ventilation causes airway distension with proinflammatory sequelae in mice.

    PubMed

    Nickles, Hannah T; Sumkauskaite, Migle; Wang, Xin; Wegner, Ingmar; Puderbach, Michael; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2014-07-01

    The pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury has predominantly been attributed to overdistension or mechanical opening and collapse of alveoli, whereas mechanical strain on the airways is rarely taken into consideration. Here, we hypothesized that mechanical ventilation may cause significant airway distension, which may contribute to the pathological features of ventilator-induced lung injury. C57BL/6J mice were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated at tidal volumes of 6, 10, or 15 ml/kg body wt. Mice were imaged by flat-panel volume computer tomography, and central airways were segmented and rendered in 3D for quantitative assessment of airway distension. Alveolar distension was imaged by intravital microscopy. Functional dead space was analyzed in vivo, and proinflammatory cytokine release was analyzed in isolated, ventilated tracheae. CT scans revealed a reversible, up to 2.5-fold increase in upper airway volume during mechanical ventilation compared with spontaneous breathing. Airway distension was most pronounced in main bronchi, which showed the largest volumes at tidal volumes of 10 ml/kg body wt. Conversely, airway distension in segmental bronchi and functional dead space increased almost linearly, and alveolar distension increased even disproportionately with higher tidal volumes. In isolated tracheae, mechanical ventilation stimulated the release of the early-response cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. Mechanical ventilation causes a rapid, pronounced, and reversible distension of upper airways in mice that is associated with an increase in functional dead space. Upper airway distension is most pronounced at moderate tidal volumes, whereas higher tidal volumes redistribute preferentially to the alveolar compartment. Airway distension triggers proinflammatory responses and may thus contribute relevantly to ventilator-induced pathologies. PMID:24816486

  2. Rumen distension and contraction influence feed preference by sheep.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Stott, R

    2009-01-01

    Distension of the rumen limits feed intake by livestock. Ruminal dysfunctions due to bloat, which causes distension by accumulation of excessive gas within the rumen, also reduce feeding. We hypothesized that excessive levels of rumen distension cause feed aversions and that preference increases for feeds eaten in association with recovery from bloat. To test these hypotheses, we determined whether 12 commercial crossbred lambs (average initial BW of 43 +/- 2 kg) could associate ingestion of specific feeds with the consequences of increased intraruminal pressure and its subsidence. Six of the lambs were fitted with rumen cannulas and offered ground alfalfa for 30 min after a rubber balloon was inserted into the rumen of each animal and distended with air to volumes of 1.8, 2.5, or 4.5 L. Subsequently, balloons were deflated and alfalfa was offered again for a second period of 30 min. Feed intake was not affected when the balloon was not distended (P = 0.45 to 0.93), but distension reduced feed intake (P < 0.001) in direct proportion to the magnitude of distension at all 3 volumes (R(2) = 0.70). Relief from distension promoted a compensatory increase in feed intake (P = 0.006). During conditioning to determine if lambs acquired a preference for a feed associated with recovery from distension, fistulated lambs were offered novel feeds: wheat bran (group 1; n = 3) and beet pulp (group 2; n = 3), and the balloon was distended for 30 min. Feeds were then switched and the balloons were deflated (recovery). Control lambs (n = 6) received the same feeding protocol without the balloons. Lambs formed strong aversions to feeds associated with distension and preferred feeds associated with recovery (P = 0.001 to P = 0.10). No preferences or avoidances were observed in control lambs conditioned without rumen distension (P = 0.17 to P = 0.87). Thus, rumen distension and recovery from distension induced feed aversions and preferences, respectively, which may be critical in

  3. Postprandial blood glucose response in relation to gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2009-10-01

    Glucostatic appetite regulation has numerous determinants, among others: cephalic phase digestion, gastric emptying and absorption, together influencing postprandial blood glucose responses and satiety. This short communication presents and reviews studies of gastric emptying, antral distension and postprandial glucose response and their relation to reports of satiety in healthy non-obese over night fasting subjects. PMID:19607867

  4. Feasibility of esophagogastric junction distensibility measurement during Nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Ilczyszyn, A; Botha, A J

    2014-01-01

    Increased esophagogastric junction distensibility has been implicated in the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Previous authors have demonstrated a reduction in distensibility following anti-reflux surgery, but the changes during the operation are not clear. Our study aimed to ascertain the feasibility of measuring intraoperative distensibility changes and to assess if this would have potential to modify the operation. Seventeen patients with GERD were managed in a standardized manner consisting of preoperative assessment with symptom scoring, endoscopy, 24 hours pH studies, and manometry. Patients then underwent laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with intraoperative distensibility measurement using an EndoFLIP EF-325 functional luminal imaging probe (Crospon Ltd, Galway, Ireland). This device utilizes impedance planimetry technology to measure cross-sectional area and distensibility within a balloon-tipped catheter. This is inflated at the esophagogastric junction to fixed distension volumes. Thirty-second median cross-sectional area and intraballoon pressure measurements were recorded at 30 and 40 mL balloon distensions. Measurement time points were initially after induction of anesthesia, after pneumoperitoneum, after hiatal mobilization, after hiatal repair, after fundoplication, and finally pre-extubation. Postoperatively, patients continued on protocol and were discharged after a two-night stay tolerating a sloppy diet. Patients with a hiatus hernia on high-resolution manometry had a significantly higher initial esophagogastric junction distensibility index (DI) than those without. Hiatus repair and fundoplication resulted in a significant overall reduction in the median DI from the initial to final recordings (30 mL balloon distension reduction of 3.26 mm(2) /mmHg (P = 0.0087), 40 mL balloon distension reduction of 2.39 mm(2) /mmHg [P = 0.0039]). There was also a significant reduction in the DI after pneumoperitoneum, hiatus

  5. Gastric Duplication Cyst Presenting as Acute Abdomen: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are rare variety of gastrointestinal duplications. Sometimes they may present with complications like hemorrhage, infection, perforation, volvulus, intussusception and rarely neoplastic changes in the gastric duplication cyst. We present one and half year old male child who developed sudden abdominal distension with pain and fever for two days. Ultrasound revealed a cystic mass in the hypochondrium and epigastric regions. On exploration an infected and perforated gastric duplication cyst was found. Surgical excision of most part of cyst wall with mucosal stripping of the rest was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of gastric duplication cyst. Early surgical intervention can result in good outcome. PMID:22953249

  6. Multum non multa: airway distensibility by forced oscillations.

    PubMed

    Mermigkis, Charalampos; Schiza, Sophia E; Panagou, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Airway distensibility although appears to be unaffected by airway smooth muscle tone probably related to airway remodelling, after bronchodilator treatment is significantly increased in subjects with asthma. We assessed airway distensibity and its first moment derivative in two patients with mild intermittent asthma and normal spirometry. The increase in airway distensibility after bronchodilation measured at the tidal volume range during quiet breathing by forced oscillations was not accompanied by a change in its first moment, while the latter showed a significant increase in a second patient after anti-inflammatory treatment. It appears that airway distensibility is sensitive to reduction of bronchial smooth muscle tone after bronchodilation, but in addition its first moment might provide information on a change of both bronchial smooth muscle tone and small airways inflammation. PMID:27374218

  7. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlGhamdi, Salem; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:24707411

  8. Gastric dysreflexia after acute experimental spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tong, M.; Holmes, G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gastric reflexes are mediated mainly by vago-vagal reflex circuits in the caudal medulla. Despite the fact that brainstem vago-vagal circuitry remains intact after spinal cord injury (SCI), patients with SCI at the cervical level most often present gastric stasis with an increased risk of reflux and aspiration of gastric contents. Using a miniature strain gauge sutured to the gastric surface; we tested gastric motility and reflexive gastric relaxation following oesophageal distension (oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex) in animals 3 days after a severe spinal contusion at either the third or ninth thoracic spinal segment (acute T3- or T9 SCI, respectively). Both basal gastric motility and the oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex were significantly diminished in animals with T3 SCI. Conversely, both basal gastric motility and the oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex were not significantly reduced in T9 SCI animals compared to controls. The reduced gastric motility and oesophageal-gastric reflex in T3 SCI rats was not ameliorated by celiac sympathectomy. Our results show that gastric stasis following acute SCI is independent of altered spinal sympathetic input to the stomach caudal to the lesion. Our data suggest that SCI may alter the sensitivity of vagal reflex function, perhaps by interrupting ascending spinosolitary input to brainstem vagal nuclei. PMID:19126185

  9. Evaluating peripheral arterial volume distensibility by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Xu, Guan; Wei, Xinbin; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Stiffness of arteries, especially small arteries, is an important marker for many diseases and a good parameter to evaluate the risks of cardiovascular problems. In this research, we proposed a new method for measurement of local arterial distensibility by using photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) technology. Taking advantages from its excellent sensitivity and high spatial resolution, PAM can evaluate the morphology and volume change of a small artery accurately without involving any contrast agent. When working in the linear elastic range of a vessel, measuring the initial and the distended diameters of the vessel before and after pressure change facilitates quantitative assessment of vessel distensibility. The preliminary experiment on well-controlled gel phantoms demonstrates the feasibility of this technology.

  10. Transitional Flow in an Arteriovenous Fistula: Effect of Wall Distensibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Transitional flow and the subsequent pressure and shear stress fluctuations are thought to be causative in the fistula failure. Since 50% of fistulae require surgical intervention before year one, understanding the altered hemodynamic stresses is an important step toward improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of a patient-specific model of a functioning fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Rigid wall simulations and fluid-structure interaction simulations using an in-house finite element solver for the wall deformations were performed and compared. In both the rigid and distensible wall cases, transitional flow is computed in fistula as evidenced by aperiodic high frequency velocity and pressure fluctuations. The spectrum of the fluctuations is much more narrow-banded in the distensible case, however, suggesting a partial stabilizing effect by the vessel elasticity. As a result, the distensible wall simulations predict shear stresses that are systematically 10-30% lower than the rigid cases. We propose a possible mechanism for stabilization involving the phase lag in the fluid work needed to deform the vessel wall. Support from an NIDDK R21 - DK08-1823.

  11. Active reactions of the rabbit ear artery to distension.

    PubMed

    Speden, R N

    1984-06-01

    Changes in the external diameter of active arteries, excised from the rabbit ear, were recorded following jumps in pressure within the arteries. The arteries were either spontaneously active or were constricted with noradrenaline. Active arteries dilated when the transmural pressure was jumped from 60 to 100 mmHg, but the dilatation was largely, sometimes completely, overcome by compensatory constriction within 1-2 min. Varying the constriction from 15 to 80% of the maximal constriction had no effect on the ability of the arteries to counteract distension. An average of 90 +/- 2% of the distension was overcome in 2 min and this was achieved against increases in stress (force/wall cross-sectional area) on the muscle of not less than 74%. Jumps in pressure rarely enhanced constriction and then only when constriction was slight (less than 15% of maximal). Restoring the transmural pressure to 60 from 100 mmHg produced a transient constriction when the initial constriction was less than 50% of the maximal constriction. The sequence of counteraction of distension and transient constriction on reversing the pressure jump was reproducible for many hours. Increasing constriction of the arteries first decreased and then, at maximal constriction, suppressed all transient changes in diameter. Smaller jumps in pressure produced less dilatation which was more readily prevented by increasing constriction. These results show that the wall of the ear artery possesses a pressure-sensitive, negative feed-back mechanism which minimized changes in diameter following jumps in pressure. PMID:6747877

  12. Airway distension promotes leukocyte recruitment in rat tracheal circulation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lina H K; Wagner, Elizabeth M

    2003-11-01

    Mechanical distortion of blood vessels is known to activate endothelial cells. Whether airway distension likewise activates the vascular endothelium within the airway wall is unknown. Using intravital microscopy in the rat trachea, we investigated if airway distention with the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) caused leukocyte recruitment to the airway. Tracheal postcapillary venules were visualized and leukocyte kinetics monitored in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats (80 breaths/minute, 6 ml/kg VT, 1 cm H(2)O PEEP). Leukocyte rolling velocity (Vwbc) and the number of adherent cells were not altered with normal ventilation over the course of 2 hours. Ventilation with sustained PEEP (8 cm H(2)O for 1 hour reduced Vwbc and increased adhesion, reaching a maximum at 1 hour of PEEP. Intermittent (2x and 5x) 8 cm H(2)O PEEP also induced a similar reduction in Vwbc, accompanied by an increase in adhesion. However, leukocyte recruitment after airway distension is localized to the airways because increased PEEP did not induce leukocyte recruitment in the mesenteric microcirculation or when PEEP was applied to the lung distal to the site of measurement. Pretreatment with endothelin receptor and selectin inhibitors blocked the effects of distension on leukocyte recruitment, suggesting their involvement in the proinflammatory response. PMID:12869357

  13. Using computed tomography scans to develop an ex-vivo gastric model

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Jerome A; O’Sullivan, Gerard; Pandit, Abhay S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to use abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans to non-invasively quantify anthropometrical data of the human stomach and to concomitantly create an anatomically correct and distensible ex-vivo gastric model. Thirty-three abdominal CT scans of human subjects were obtained and were imported into reconstruction software to generate 3D models of the stomachs. Anthropometrical data such as gastric wall thickness, gastric surface area and gastric volume were subsequently quantified. A representative 3D computer model was exported into a selective laser sintering (SLS) rapid prototyping machine to create an anatomically correct solid gastric model. Subsequently, a replica wax template of the SLS model was created. A negative mould was offset around the wax template such that the offset distance was equivalent to that of the gastric wall thickness. A silicone with similar mechanical properties to the human stomach was poured into the offset. The lost wax manufacturing technique was employed to create a hollow distensible stomach model. 3D computer gastric models were generated from the CT scans. A hollow distensible silicone ex-vivo gastric model with similar compliance to that of the human stomach was created. The anthropometrical data indicated that there is no significant relationship between BMI and gastric surface area or gastric volume. There were inter- and intra-group differences between groups with respect to gastric wall thickness. This study demonstrates that abdominal CT scans can be used to both non-invasively determine gastric anthropometrical data as well as create realistic ex-vivo stomach models. PMID:17457968

  14. Determinants of symptom pattern in idiopathic severely delayed gastric emptying: gastric emptying rate or proximal stomach dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Karamanolis, G; Caenepeel, P; Arts, J; Tack, J

    2007-01-01

    Background Idiopathic gastroparesis is a syndrome characterised by severely delayed gastric emptying of solids without an obvious underlying organic cause. Although delayed gastric emptying is traditionally considered the mechanism underlying the symptoms in these patients, poor correlations with symptom severity have been reported. Aims To investigate proximal stomach function and to study the correlation of delayed gastric emptying and proximal stomach dysfunction with symptom pattern and severity in idiopathic gastroparesis. Methods 58 consecutive patients (19 men, mean (standard deviation) age 41 (2) years) with severely delayed solid gastric emptying (gastric half‐emptying time (t1/2)>109 min) without an organic cause were recruited. They filled out a symptom‐severity questionnaire and underwent a gastric barostat study for assessment of gastric sensitivity and accommodation. Correlation of these mechanisms with symptom pattern and overall symptom severity (sum of individual symptoms) was analysed. Results At two different cut‐off levels for gastric emptying (upper limit of normal t1/2 up to 1.5 and 2 times), no significant change in symptom pattern occurred. 25 (43%) patients had impaired accommodation, and this was associated with higher prevalence of early satiety (p<0.005) and weight loss (p = 0.009). 17 (29%) patients had hypersensitivity to gastric distension, and this was associated with higher prevalences of epigastric pain (p = 0.005), early satiety (p = 0.04) and weight loss (p<0.005). Overall symptom severity was not correlated with gastric emptying or accommodation, but only with sensitivity to gastric distension (R = −0.3898, p = 0.003) and body weight (R = −0.4233, p = 0.001). Conclusions In patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, the symptom pattern is determined by proximal stomach dysfunction rather than by the severity of delayed emptying. PMID:16840507

  15. [Supraglottic airway devices in emergency medicine : impact of gastric drainage].

    PubMed

    Mann, V; Mann, S T; Alejandre-Lafont, E; Röhrig, R; Weigand, M A; Müller, M

    2013-04-01

    This case report describes a life-saving use of a supraglottic airway device (LT-D™-Larynxtubus, VBM Medizintechnik, Sulz, Germany) in an out-of-hospital emergency patient suffering from severe traumatic brain injury. Mechanical ventilation with the laryngeal tube was complicated by repeated airway obstructions and pronounced gastric distension with air as a consequence of oropharyngeal leakage. In this situation pulmonary ventilation of the patient was compromised so that emergency endotracheal intubation became necessary in the resuscitation area with vital indications. In this context the status of supraglottic airway devices in emergency medicine is discussed as well as the reasons for the gastric distension. Besides the immediate drastic consequences of gastric distension with respect to pulmonary ventilation, potential deleterious non-pulmonary consequences of this complication are highlighted. The clinical relevance of the described complications as well as the associated possibility of an optimized position control necessitate the recommendation only to use second generation supraglottic airway devices with integrated gastric access in (out-of-hospital) emergency medicine. PMID:23494024

  16. Determination of membrane tension during balloon distension of intestine.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, H; Kassab, G S; Fung, Y C

    2004-09-01

    During the last decades, it has become increasingly common to make balloons distension in visceral organs in vivo. In particular this is true for studies of gastrointestinal motor function and biomechanics. Balloon distension is often used for assessment of small intestinal compliance and tension based on Laplace's law for cylindrical pressure pipes. This commonly used law is valid only when the balloon-distended intestine is cylindrical. Experimentally, it is seen that the diameter of the balloon-distended intestine is not a constant, but variable in the axial direction. Hence, it is necessary to improve Laplace's law for intestinal investigation. In this paper we develop the framework for determination of the tension distribution in circumferential and longitudinal direction during balloon distension. When the radii of curvature are measured from a photograph of the intestinal profile, then the membrane stress resultants can be computed everywhere in the intestine in contact with the balloon from the equations of equilibrium. The experimental data were obtained from small intestinal segments from five pigs and three guinea pigs. Papaverine was injected before the animals were sacrificed to relax the intestinal smooth muscle. The segments were immersed in a bath with calcium-free Krebs solution with dextran and EGTA. A balloon was distended in the lumen with pressures up to 15 cmH2O in the pigs and 10 cmH2O in the guinea pigs and radii were measured along the z-axis. The tension in circumferential direction had its maximum approximately 25% away from the middle of the balloon. The circumferential tension was 2-3 times higher than the longitudinal tension. In conclusion when we know the shape of the intestine, we can compute the circumferential and longitudinal components of tension. The large variation in tensions along the z axis must be considered when performing balloon distension studies in the gastrointestinal tract for studying physiological and

  17. Functional oesophago-gastric junction imaging

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Barry P; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Gregersen, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Despite its role in disease there is still no definitive method to assess oesophago-gastric junction competence (OGJ). Traditionally the OGJ has been assessed using manometry with lower oesophageal sphincter pressure as the indicator. More recently this has been shown not to be a very reliable marker of sphincter function and competence against reflux. Disorders such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and to a lesser extend achalasia still effects a significant number of patients. This review looks at using a new technique known as impedance planimetry to profile the geometry and pressure in the OGJ during distension of a bag. The data gathered can be reconstructed into a dynamic representation of OGJ action. This has been shown to provide a useful representation of the OGJ and to show changes to the competence of the OGJ in terms of compliance and distensibility as a result of endoluminal therapy. PMID:16718804

  18. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat

  19. Pathologic aerophagia: a rare cause of chronic abdominal distension

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Cestari, Ana Beatriz C.S.S.; da Silva, Orli Carvalho; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Firme, Livia Honorato

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adolescent with pathologic aerophagia, a rare condition caused by excessive and inappropriate swallowing of air and to review its treatment and differential diagnoses. Case description: An 11-year-old mentally impaired blind girl presenting serious behavior problems and severe developmental delay with abdominal distension from the last 8 months. Her past history included a Nissen fundoplication. Abdominal CT and abdominal radiographs showed diffuse gas distension of the small bowel and colon. Hirschsprung's disease was excluded. The distention was minimal at the moment the child awoke and maximal at evening, and persisted after control of constipation. Audible repetitive and frequent movements of air swallowing were observed. The diagnosis of pathologic aerophagia associated to obsessive-compulsive disorder and developmental delay was made, but pharmacological treatment was unsuccessful. The patient was submitted to an endoscopic gastrostomy, permanently opened and elevated relative to the stomach. The distention was resolved, while maintaining oral nutrition. Comments: Pathologic aerophagia is a rare self-limiting condition in normal children exposed to high levels of stress and may be a persisting problem in children with psychiatric or neurologic disease. In this last group, the disease may cause serious complications. Pharmacological and behavioral treatments are ill-defined. Severe cases may demand surgical strategies, mainly decompressive gastrostomy. PMID:26100594

  20. Perineal Distensibility Using Epi-no in Twin Pregnancies: Comparative Study with Singleton Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Kubotani, Juliana Sayuri; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Soares, Vanessa Cardoso Marques; Elito Júnior, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare perineal distensibility between women with twin and singleton pregnancies and to correlate these women's perineal distensibility with anthropometric data. This prospective cross-sectional case-control study was conducted among nulliparous women, of whom 20 were pregnant with twins and 23 with a single fetus. Perineal distensibility was evaluated in the third trimester by means of Epi-no, which was introduced into the vagina and inflated up to the maximum tolerable limit. It was then withdrawn while inflated and its circumference was measured. The unpaired Student's t-test was used to compare perineal distensibility in the two groups and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to correlate the pregnant women's perineal distensibility with their anthropometric data. There was no difference in perineal distensibility between the twin group (16.51 ± 2.05 cm) and singleton group (16.13 ± 1.67 cm) (P = 0.50). There was a positive correlation between perineal distensibility and abdominal circumference (r = 0.36; P = 0.01). The greater the abdominal circumference was, the greater the perineal distensibility was, regardless of whether the pregnancy was twin or singleton. PMID:25006476

  1. Putrefactive rigor: apparent rigor mortis due to gas distension.

    PubMed

    Gill, James R; Landi, Kristen

    2011-09-01

    Artifacts due to decomposition may cause confusion for the initial death investigator, leading to an incorrect suspicion of foul play. Putrefaction is a microorganism-driven process that results in foul odor, skin discoloration, purge, and bloating. Various decompositional gases including methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen will cause the body to bloat. We describe 3 instances of putrefactive gas distension (bloating) that produced the appearance of inappropriate rigor, so-called putrefactive rigor. These gases may distend the body to an extent that the extremities extend and lose contact with their underlying support surface. The medicolegal investigator must recognize that this is not true rigor mortis and the body was not necessarily moved after death for this gravity-defying position to occur. PMID:20375836

  2. Laparoscopic management of a gastric perforation after snare removal of a gastric leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, B L; Yuan, R H; Wong, J M; Yu, S C

    1998-05-01

    A 67-year-old man with a history of myocardial infarction, who had been suffering intermittent epigastric pain and tarry stool for nine months, was referred to our hospital with a suspected gastric tumor. The panendoscopy showed a round, hard submucosal tumor at the greater curvature of the upper gastric body, near the fundus. An ulcer scar was observed on the surface of the tumor. Polypectomy using snare cauterization was carried out. However, severe abdominal pain and abdominal distension developed. A chest radiograph revealed bilateral subphrenic free air. Due to the high risk in this patient, laparoscopic repair of the gastric perforation was carried out using an Endo-GIA instrument. The postoperative course was uneventful. Feeding started on the third postoperative day, and the patient was discharged on the eighth day. A follow-up panendoscopy two months later showed a well-healed scar. PMID:9689521

  3. [Gastric rupture after ingestion of liquid nitrogen].

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Nielsen, Casper; Christensen, Peter

    2009-02-01

    A 28-year-old male was admitted to hospital with severe abdominal distension and subcutaneous emphysema after ingesting 15 ml liquid nitrogen to produce an impressive burp. A rupture of the stomach at the lesser curvature was sutured by laparotomy. Peroperative gastroscopy showed no signs of cold-induced lesions. Liquid nitrogen boils at -196 degrees C. When heated to body temperature, it instantly expands 700 times, in this case predictably leading to gastric rupture. Therefore, any oral intake of even small amounts of liquid nitrogen should be avoided. PMID:19210943

  4. Choroidal and cutaneous metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shoichiro; Nishida, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Yoshito; Ezaki, Hisao; Yamada, Takuya; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Nakai, Kei; Yakushijin, Takayuki; Watabe, Kenji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Nishida, Kohji; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Choroidal or cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer is rare. Gastrointestinal cancer was found in only 4% in patients with uveal metastasis. Choroidal metastasis from gastric cancer was reported in two cases in earlier literature. The frequency of gastric cancer as a primary lesion was 6% in cutaneous metastasis of men, and cutaneous metastasis occurs in 0.8% of all gastric cancers. We report a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with visual disorder in his left eye and skin pain on his head as his initial symptoms. These symptoms were diagnosed to be caused by choroidal and cutaneous metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Two cycles of chemotherapy consisted of oral S-1 and intravenous cisplatin (SPIRITS regimen); this was markedly effective to reduce the primary gastric lesion and almost all the metastatic lesions. PMID:23538460

  5. Distensibility of the Esophagogastric Junction Assessed with the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe (FLIP™) in Achalasia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfino, John E.; de Ruigh, Annemijn; Nicodème, Frédéric; Xiao, Yinglian; Boris, Lubomyr; Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP), measures esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility (cross sectional area/luminal pressure) during volume-controlled distension. The aim of this study was to apply this tool to the assessment of the EGJ in untreated and treated achalasia patients and to compare EGJ distensibility with other diagnostic tools utilized in managing achalasia. Methods Findings from FLIP, high-resolution manometry (HRM), timed barium esophagram, and symptom assessment by Eckardt Score (ES) were compared in 54 achalasia patients (23 untreated, 31 treated). Twenty healthy volunteers underwent FLIP as a comparator group. The EGJ distensibility index (EGJ-DI) was defined at the ‘waist’ of the FLIP bag during volumetric distension, expressed in mm2/mmHg. The ES was used to gauge treatment outcome: good response < 3 or poor response ≥ 3. Key Results Of the 31 treated patients, 17 had good and 14 poor treatment response. The EGJ-DI was significantly different among groups, greatest in the control subjects and least in the untreated patients; patients with good treatment response had significantly greater EGJ-DI than untreated or patients with poor response. The correlations between EGJ-DI and ES and integrated relaxation pressure on HRM were significant. Conclusion The FLIP provided a useful measure of EGJ distensibility in achalasia patients that correlated with symptom severity. The measurement of EGJ distensibility was complementary to existing tests suggesting a potentially important role in the clinical management of achalasia. PMID:23413801

  6. Pressure distension in leg vessels as influenced by prolonged bed rest and a pressure habituation regimen.

    PubMed

    Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Kölegård, Roger

    2016-06-15

    Bed rest increases pressure distension in arteries, arterioles, and veins of the leg. We hypothesized that bed-rest-induced deconditioning of leg vessels is governed by the removal of the local increments in transmural pressure induced by assuming erect posture and, therefore, can be counteracted by intermittently increasing local transmural pressure during the bed rest. Ten men underwent 5 wk of horizontal bed rest. A subatmospheric pressure (-90 mmHg) was intermittently applied to one lower leg [pressure habituation (PH) leg]. Vascular pressure distension was investigated before and after the bed rest, both in the PH and control (CN) leg by increasing local distending pressure, stepwise up to +200 mmHg. Vessel diameter and blood flow were measured in the posterior tibial artery and vessel diameter in the posterior tibial vein. In the CN leg, bed rest led to 5-fold and 2.7-fold increments (P < 0.01) in tibial artery pressure-distension and flow responses, respectively, and to a 2-fold increase in tibial vein pressure distension. In the PH leg, arterial pressure-distension and flow responses were unaffected by bed rest, whereas bed rest led to a 1.5-fold increase in venous pressure distension. It thus appears that bed-rest-induced deconditioning of leg arteries, arterioles, and veins is caused by removal of gravity-dependent local pressure loads and may be abolished or alleviated by a local pressure-habituation regimen. PMID:27079693

  7. Effects of octreotide on responses to colorectal distension in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Su, X; Burton, M; Gebhart, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—It has been suggested that the analgesic effect of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in visceral pain involves peripheral mechanisms. We evaluated the effect of octreotide on responses to noxious colorectal distension in rats.
METHODS—In a behavioural study, pressor and electromyographic responses to colorectal distension were evaluated before and after intravenous or intrathecal administration of octreotide. In pelvic nerve afferent fibre recordings, responses of mechanosensitive fibres innervating the colon to noxious colorectal distension (80 mm Hg, 30 seconds) were tested before and after octreotide.
RESULTS—Octreotide was ineffective in attenuating responses to colorectal distension in either normal or acetic acid inflamed colon when administered intravenously but attenuated responses when given intrathecally. Administration of octreotide over a broad dose range (0.5 µg/kg to 2.4 mg/kg) did not alter responses of afferent fibres to noxious colorectal distension in untreated, or acetic acid or zymosan treated colons.
CONCLUSIONS—In the rat, octreotide has no peripheral (pelvic nerve) modulatory action in visceral nociception. The antinociceptive effect of octreotide in this model of visceral nociception is mediated by an action at central sites.


Keywords: octreotide; colorectal distension; electromyographic responses; afferent fibres; visceral pain; analgesic effect; rat PMID:11302968

  8. Gastric culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years) School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 ... immune system. The final results of the gastric culture test may take several weeks. Your provider will ...

  9. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Position paper update: gastric lavage for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila) . 2013;51(3); 140-146. ... 2012:chap 49. Zeringe M, Fowler GC. Gastrointesinal decontamination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger & Fowler's ...

  10. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  11. Regional Variation of Distal Esophagus Distensibility Assessed Using the Functional Luminal Imaging Probe (FLIP)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiyue; Nicodème, Frédéric; Boris, Lubomyr; Lin, Chen-Yuan; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variation of esophageal distensibility in normal subjects using a novel multichannel functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP). Methods Ten healthy subjects (4 male, age 21–49 years) were evaluated during endoscopy with a high-resolution impedance planimetry probe (FLIP) positioned through the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and distal 10cm of the esophageal body. Stepwise bag distensions using 5 ml increments from 0 to 60 mL were conducted and simultaneous measurements of cross-sectional area (CSA) and the associated intrabag pressure from each subject were analyzed using a customized MATLAB™ program. The distensibility along the esophagus was determined and compared between the EGJ and interval locations at 2–5 cm and 6–10 cm above the EGJ. Results The pressure-CSA relationship was nearly linear among sites at lower pressures (0 to 7.5 mmHg) and reached a distension plateau at pressures ranging from 8 to 24 mmHg. The location of greatest distensibility was 4 cm above the EGJ. Although the CSAs of individual recording loci were not significantly different, there was a significant difference between the mean CSAs when comparing the region 2 to 5 cm proximal to EGJ to that 6 to 10 cm proximal to the EGJ. Conclusions There were significant regional differences in distensibility along the distal esophagus with lower values in the proximal part compared to more distal part. The greatest distensibility was noted to occur at about 4 cm above the EGJ in close proximity to the location of the contractile deceleration point and phrenic ampulla. PMID:23965159

  12. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. PMID:27053648

  13. A psychophysiological study in humans using phasic colonic distension as a noxious visceral stimulus.

    PubMed

    Ness, T J; Metcalf, A M; Gebhart, G F

    1990-12-01

    Psychophysiological experiments were performed in 9 humans using constant-pressure, phasic, graded distention (30 sec, 20-70 mm Hg) of the sigmoid colon as a visceral stimulus. Reliable cardiovascular (pressor), respiratory and visceromotor responses in addition to reports of pressure/pain sensations were evoked by colonic distension in 8 of the 9 subjects. The pressure/pain sensations were referred to the lower abdomen, lower back and perineum and their intensity quantified using a visual analogue scale. Responses to colonic distension were graded and increased with repeated distensions at the same intensity (60 mm Hg). The area of referral as indicated by subject drawings increased with repeated distensions as did the intensity of the subjects' sensory and affective descriptors of the sensation. Five of the subjects differentiated between 'pressure' and 'pain' sensations evoked by colonic distension; the intensity of the 'pain' sensation accelerated during the distending stimulus whereas the 'pressure' sensation was typically stable or adapting during the distending stimulus. PMID:2293146

  14. The clinical effect of hydraulic distension plus manual therapy on patients with frozen shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Kwang-Il; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to develop a clinical protocol for the treatment of frozen shoulder using applied hydraulic distension plus manual therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 60 patients in group A were treated with hydraulic distension plus manual therapy, and 61 in group B were treated with hydraulic distension alone. Treatment effects were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (pain and satisfaction), and active range of motion of the shoulder (forward flexion, internal and external rotation) before treatments and at 2, 6, 12, 24 weeks, and 1 year after the last injections. [Results] Patients in group A achieved faster pain relief and better satisfaction than patients in group B during the 6 weeks after treatment. However, no significant difference in VAS was observed between the groups at final follow-up. AROM of the shoulder was improved at final follow-up in both groups. [Conclusion] Hydraulic distension plus manual therapy provided faster pain relief, a higher level of patient satisfaction, and an earlier improvement in AROM of the shoulder than hydraulic distension alone in patients with frozen shoulder.

  15. Marking Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Teachers say that they would gladly teach a day in the classroom if at the end of the day they could leave and have no marking. There is a common staffroom perception that mathematics teachers have it easy when it comes to marking. In arts subjects, setting an essay can be a fairly straightforward matter--a one-line question may suffice--but…

  16. Involvement of leukotrienes in acute gastric damage.

    PubMed

    Boughton-Smith, N K

    1989-01-01

    The leukotrienes have potent inflammatory actions which could be of importance in gastric mucosal integrity. In animals, LTC4 produces vasoconstriction in the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, acute gastric damage produced by ethanol is accompanied by marked increases in the mucosal formation of LTC4 and LTB4. Depending on the extent of protection, prostaglandins either have no effect or prevent the increases in leukotriene formation which accompany ethanol-induced damage. Various non-specific inhibitors of leukotriene synthesis prevent ethanol and indomethacin-induced damage to the gastric mucosa. However, a novel selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (BW A4C) had no effect on these models of acute gastric damage at doses which completely inhibited gastric mucosal leukotriene synthesis. These studies cast doubt on the role of the leukotrienes in these models of acute gastric damage. However, the potent biological actions of the leukotrienes may be of importance in the pathogenesis of other forms of gastric damage, or as mediators of chronic gastric ulceration or inflammation. PMID:2657289

  17. Distensibility and pain of the uterine cervix evaluated by novel techniques.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Hans; Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2016-07-01

    The article serves to review the literature on the human uterine cervix based on a new distension technology named functional luminal imaging probe. This technology was originally developed to study the biomechanical competence of the gastro-esophageal junction where it provides a geometric profile of the lumen during distension, which can be related to sensory data. We searched and reviewed publications on cervical distention from 2002. The functional luminal imaging probe technology has been used for studying the mechanical and mechano-sensory properties of the cervix in non-pregnant women. In early pregnant women and in term pregnant women, the technique provides geometric measurements from the whole cervical canal during distension, which changes dramatically during pregnancy. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the technique predicts the outcome of labor induction better than the Bishop score does. The functional luminal imaging probe technology has potential as a research tool as well as for clinical use in gynecology and obstetrics. PMID:26946059

  18. Esophageal Distensibility as a Measure of Disease Severity in Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Nicodème, Frédéric; Hirano, Ikuo; Chen, Joan; Robinson, Kenika; Lin, Zhiyue; Xiao, Yinglian; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Kwasny, Mary J; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims The aim of this study was to assess whether measurements of esophageal distensibility, made by high-resolution impedance planimetry, correlated with important clinical outcomes in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Methods Seventy patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (50 male, ages 18–68) underwent endoscopy with esophageal biopsy collection and high-resolution impedance planimetry using the functional lumen-imaging probe. The patients were followed prospectively for an average of 9.2 months (range 3–14 months), and the risk of food impaction, requirement for dilation; symptom severity during the follow-up period was determined from medical records. Esophageal distensibility metrics and the severity of mucosal eosinophilia at baseline were compared between patients presenting with and without food impaction and those requiring or not requiring esophageal dilation. Logistic regression and stratification assessments were used to assess the predictive value of esophageal distensibility metrics in assessing risk of food impaction, the need for dilation, and continued symptoms. Results Patients with prior food impactions had significantly lower distensibility plateau (DP) values than those with solid food dysphagia alone. Additionally, patients sustaining food impaction and requiring esophageal dilation during the follow-up period had significantly lower DP values than those who did not. The severity of mucosal eosinophilia did not correlate with risk for food impaction, the requirement for dilation during follow up, or DP values. Conclusions Reduced esophageal distensibility predicts risk for food impaction and the requirement for esophageal dilation in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. The severity of mucosal eosinophilia was not predictive of these outcomes and had a poor correlation with esophageal distensibility. PMID:23591279

  19. Regional aortic distensibility and its relationship with age and aortic stenosis: a computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dennis T L; Narayan, Om; Leong, Darryl P; Bertaso, Angela G; Maia, Murilo G; Ko, Brian S H; Baillie, Timothy; Seneviratne, Sujith K; Worthley, Matthew I; Meredith, Ian T; Cameron, James D

    2015-06-01

    Aortic distensibility (AD) decreases with age and increased aortic stiffness is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The association of severe aortic stenosis (AS) with AD in different aortic regions has not been evaluated. Elderly subjects with severe AS and a cohort of patients without AS of similar age were studied. Proximal aortic cross-sectional-area changes during the cardiac cycle were determined using retrospective-ECG-gating on 128-detector row computed-tomography. Using oscillometric-brachial-blood-pressure measurements, the AD at the ascending-aorta (AA), proximal-descending-aorta (PDA) and distal-descending-aorta (DDA) was determined. Linear mixed effects modelling was used to determine the association of age and aortic stenosis on regional AD. 102 patients were evaluated: 36 AS patients (70-85 years), 24 AS patients (>85 years) and 42 patients without AS (9 patients <50 years, 20 patients between 51-70 years and 13 patients 70-85 years). When comparing patients 70-85 years, AA distensibility was significantly lower in those with AS compared to those without AS (0.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 1.1, P = 0.03) while there was no difference in the PDA (1.0 ± 1.1 vs. 1.0 ± 1.2, P = 0.26) and DDA (1.1 ± 1.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.8, P = 0.97). In patients without AS, AD decreased with age in all aortic regions (P < 0.001). The AA in patients <50 years were the most distensible compared to other aortic regions. There is regional variation in aortic distensibility with aging. Patients with aortic stenosis demonstrated regional differences in aortic distensibility with lower distensibility demonstrated in the proximal ascending aorta compared to an age-matched cohort. PMID:25855464

  20. Influence of trimebutine on inflammation- and stress-induced hyperalgesia to rectal distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Lacheze, C; Coelho, A M; Fioramonti, J; Buéno, L

    1998-08-01

    The effects of trimebutine and its major metabolite, N-desmethyltrimebutine on inflammation- and stress-induced rectal hyperalgesia have been evaluated in rats fitted with electrodes implanted in the longitudinal striated muscle of the abdomen. Intermittent rectal distension was performed before and 3 days after induction of rectal inflammation by local infusion of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (in ethanol). Stress consisted of 2h partial restraint and rectal distension was performed before and 30min after the end of the partial restraint session. The animals were treated intraperitoneally with trimebutine or desmethyltrimebutine (5, 10 or 20mgkg(-1)) or vehicle 15min before rectal distension. Naloxone (1mgkg(-1)) or saline was injected subcutaneously before trimebutine and desmethyltrimebutine. Before treatment trimebutine at the highest dose (20mgkg(-1)) reduced the abdominal response to rectal distension for the highest volume of distension (1.6mL) whereas desmethyltrimebutine was inactive. After rectocolitis the abdominal response to rectal distension was enhanced and trimebutine at 5mgkg(-1) reduced and at 10 mgkg(-1) suppressed inflammation-induced hyperalgesia, an effect reversed by naloxone. Desmethyltrimebutine was inactive. Stress-induced hypersensitivity was attenuated or suppressed, or both, by trimebutine and desmethyltrimebutine at doses of 5, 10 or 20mgkg(-l); greater efficacy was observed for desmethyltrimebutine and the effects were not reversed by naloxone. It was concluded that trimebutine and desmethyltrimebutine are active against inflammation- and stress-induced rectal hyperalgesia but act differently. The effect of trimebutine on inflammation-induced hyperalgesia is mediated through opioid receptors. PMID:9751458

  1. Renal clearance studies of effect of left atrial distension in the dog.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the water diuresis of left atrial distension in 16 dogs on the basis of clearance studies employing hydration, chronic and acute salt loading, deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess, and distal tubular nephron blockade with diuretics. The diuresis was found in hydrated and salt-loaded dogs and was independent of DOCA and presumed renin depletion. It was not found in five dogs after distal tubular blockade. No significant reproducible saluresis was ever documented. The water diuresis was always stopped by exogenous vasopressin (seven dogs). Antidiuretic hormone inhibition with distal tubular nephron water permeability changes appears to be the sole mechanism of the diuresis of left atrial distension in the dog.

  2. Spontaneous intradural disc herniation with focal distension of the subarachnoid space in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Barnoon, Itai; Chai, Orit; Srugo, Itai; Peeri, Dana; Konstantin, Lilach; Brenner, Ori; Shamir, Merav H.

    2012-01-01

    Myelo-computed tomography of a paraparetic 14-year-old dog revealed subarachnoid distension with an intradural filling defect above the T13–L1 disc space. T12–L1 hemilaminectomy followed by durotomy allowed removal of a large piece of degenerated disc material that compressed the spinal parenchyma. Full return to function was achieved 10 days post-surgery. The distension was likely secondary to the intradural herniation, and is a rare and distinct finding. PMID:23633713

  3. The interaction between noradrenaline activation and distension activation of the rabbit ear artery.

    PubMed

    Speden, R N; Warren, D M

    1986-06-01

    Excised, pressurized segments of the rabbit ear artery have been used to examine the interaction between the transmural pressure and constriction of arteries by extraluminal noradrenaline. The bath temperature was kept at 32-33 degrees C to suppress instability and spontaneity of constriction. Fast, reproducible jumps in pressure were obtained by using a microcomputer to control an electropneumatic transducer. The arteries did not react actively to transmural pressure changes unless already activated by noradrenaline. Active arteries responded to distension by a pressure jump with a reproducible compensatory constriction which was unaffected by tetrodotoxin. The counteraction of distension was due primarily to enhanced activation of the muscle. Distension activation decreased with increasing constriction. Utilization of the force-generating capacity of the arteries either remained unchanged at 20-30% or, in one experiment, increased slightly when constriction against a transmural pressure of 60 mmHg was increased from 20 to 75% of maximal by raising the noradrenaline concentration. When the transmural pressure was 90 mmHg, the 35-55% utilization of the force-generating capacity either remained constant or fell as constriction was increased. Most of the force-generating capacity was available for counteracting the distension of moderately constricted arteries (less than 40% of maximal) produced by a 60-90 mmHg jump. More than 78% of the maximum capacity was used in attempting to overcome the distension when it was maintained by computer-controlled increases in transmural pressure. The moderate constrictions were produced with noradrenaline concentrations which were 500-10,000 times lower than that used to maximally activate the arteries. The rabbit ear artery possesses a powerful, distension-sensitive mechanism that acts to minimize diameter changes initiated by transmural pressure jumps. The diameter of the active artery was determined by a combination of

  4. Stretch Marks

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes that can go with bodybuilding. People who use steroid-containing skin creams or ointments (such as hydrocortisone) for more than a few weeks may also get stretch marks. So might people who have to ... surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual ...

  5. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  6. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  7. A novel in vivo approach to assess radial and axial distensibility of large and intermediate pulmonary artery branches.

    PubMed

    Bellofiore, A; Henningsen, J; Lepak, C G; Tian, L; Roldan-Alzate, A; Kellihan, H B; Consigny, D W; Francois, C J; Chesler, N C

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary arteries (PAs) distend to accommodate increases in cardiac output. PA distensibility protects the right ventricle (RV) from excessive increases in pressure. Loss of PA distensibility plays a critical role in the fatal progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) toward RV failure. However, it is unclear how PA distensibility is distributed across the generations of PA branches, mainly because of the lack of appropriate in vivo methods to measure distensibility of vessels other than the large, conduit PAs. In this study, we propose a novel approach to assess the distensibility of individual PA branches. The metric of PA distensibility we used is the slope of the stretch ratio-pressure relationship. To measure distensibility, we combined invasive measurements of mean PA pressure with angiographic imaging of the PA network of six healthy female dogs. Stacks of 2D images of the PAs, obtained from either contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) or computed tomography digital subtraction angiography (CT-DSA), were used to reconstruct 3D surface models of the PA network, from the first bifurcation down to the sixth generation of branches. For each branch of the PA, we calculated radial and longitudinal stretch between baseline and a pressurized state obtained via acute embolization of the pulmonary vasculature. Our results indicated that large and intermediate PA branches have a radial distensibility consistently close to 2%/mmHg. Our axial distensibility data, albeit affected by larger variability, suggested that the PAs distal to the first generation may not significantly elongate in vivo, presumably due to spatial constraints. Results from both angiographic techniques were comparable to data from established phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ex vivo mechanical tests, which can only be used in the first branch generation. Our novel method can be used to characterize PA distensibility in PAH patients undergoing

  8. Functional luminal imaging probe topography: an improved method for characterizing esophageal distensibility in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, Peter J.; Xiao, Yinglian; Nicodème, Frédéric; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Hirano, Ikuo; Pandolfino, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to develop a new method for analysis and presentation of esophageal distensibility data using high-resolution impedance planimetry recordings during a volume-controlled distention. Methods: Two control subjects and six patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) with stricture, narrow caliber or normal endoscopy according to EndoFLIP studies were included for analysis. Median filtering and pulse detection techniques were applied to the pressure signal and a wavelet decomposition technique was applied to the 16 channels of raw esophageal diameter data to reduce vascular artifact, respiratory effect and remove esophageal contraction interference. These data were used to generate a functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) topography plot that describes regional variation of cross-sectional area (CSA). A previously developed computer program was used to calculate and model the CSA-pressure data to derive the slope of line fitting and distension plateau for each individual subject. The results were compared among the four endoscopic phenotypes. Results: Patients with EoE and normal endoscopy had similar esophageal distensibility parameters to those of normal controls whereas patients with EoE and stricture or narrow caliber had much lower distensibility than patients with EoE and normal endoscopy. The FLIP topography plots provided a global assessment of the esophageal distensibility along the axial plane of measurement that differentiated patients with varying degrees of endoscopic abnormality. Conclusions: New techniques can be leveraged to improve data analysis and presentation using EndoFLIP assessment of the esophageal body in EoE. These techniques may be helpful in defining clinically relevant phenotypes and guiding treatment strategies and should be helpful in structuring future outcome trials. PMID:23503784

  9. Assessment of local pulse wave velocity in arteries using 2D distension waveforms.

    PubMed

    Meinders, J M; Kornet, L; Brands, P J; Hoeks, A P

    2001-10-01

    The reciprocal of the arterial pulse wave velocity contains crucial information about the mechanical characteristics of the arterial wall but is difficult to assess noninvasively in vivo. In this paper, a new method to assess local pulse wave velocity (PWV) is presented. To this end, multiple adjacent distension waveforms are determined simultaneously along a short arterial segment, using a single 2D-vessel wall tracking system with a high frame rate (651 Hz). Each B-mode image consists of 16 echo lines spanning a total width of 15.86 mm. Dedicated software has been developed to extract the end-diastolic diameter from the B-mode image and the distension waveforms from the underlying radiofrequency (rf) information for each echo-line. The PWV is obtained by determining the ratio of the temporal and spatial gradient of adjacent distension velocity waveforms. The proposed method is verified in a phantom and in the common carotid artery (CCA) of humans. Phantom experiments show a high concordance between the PWV obtained from 2D distension velocity waveforms (4.21 +/- 0.02 m/s) and the PWV determined using two pressure catheters (4.26 +/- 0.02 m/s). Assuming linear spatial gradients, the PWV can also be obtained in vivo for CCA and averages to 5.5 +/- 1.5 m/s (intersubject variation, n = 23), which compares well to values found in literature. Furthermore, intrasubject PWV compares well with those calculated using the Bramwell-Hill equation. It can be concluded that the PWV can be obtained from the spatial and temporal gradient if the spatial gradient is linear over the observed length of the artery, i.e. the artery should be homogenous in diameter and distension and the influence of reflections must be small. PMID:12051275

  10. Gastric Carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Borch, Kurt; Ahrén, Bo; Ahlman, Håkan; Falkmer, Sture; Granérus, Göran; Grimelius, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. Background: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. Methods: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. Results: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. Conclusion: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids. PMID:15973103

  11. Right internal jugular vein distensibility appears to be a surrogate marker for inferior vena cava vein distensibility for evaluating fluid responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Broilo, Fabiano; Meregalli, Andre; Friedman, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the respiratory variation of the inferior vena cava diameter (∆DIVC) and right internal jugular vein diameter (∆DRIJ) are correlated in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods This study was a prospective clinical analysis in an intensive care unit at a university hospital. Thirty-nine mechanically ventilated patients with hemodynamic instability were included. ∆DIVC and ∆DRIJ were assessed by echography. Vein distensibility was calculated as the ratio of (A) Dmax - Dmin/Dmin and (B) Dmax - Dmin/ mean of Dmax - Dmin and expressed as a percentage. Results ∆DIVC and ∆DRIJ were correlated by both methods: (A) r = 0.34, p = 0.04 and (B) r = 0.51, p = 0.001. Using 18% for ∆DIVC, indicating fluid responsiveness by method (A), 16 patients were responders and 35 measurements showed agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.80). The area under the ROC curve was 0.951 (95%CI 0.830 - 0.993; cutoff = 18.92). Using 12% for ∆DIVC, indicating fluid responsiveness by method (B), 14 patients were responders and 32 measurements showed agreement (weighted Kappa = 0.65). The area under the ROC curve was 0.903 (95%CI 0.765 - 0.973; cut-off value = 11.86). Conclusion The respiratory variation of the inferior vena cava and the right internal jugular veins are correlated and showed significant agreement. Evaluation of right internal jugular vein distensibility appears to be a surrogate marker for inferior vena cava vein distensibility for evaluating fluid responsiveness. PMID:26465243

  12. Polar Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02155 Polar Markings

    These bright and dark markings occurred near the end of summer in the south polar region. The dark material is likely dust that has been freed of frost cover.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -76.3N, Longitude 84.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Role of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 in gastric accommodation in conscious guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Junichi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Kondo, Takashi; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio; Miwa, Hiroto

    2012-04-01

    We report the establishment of a new model for measuring gastric tone and liquid meal-induced accommodation in conscious guinea pigs and the role played by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). An indwelling polyethylene bag was placed in proximal stomachs of 5-week-old male Hartley guinea pigs. Gastric tone was measured by distending the bag and recording changes in intrabag pressure at various volumes. Gastric accommodation was measured by administering liquid meals and recording intrabag pressure over time. N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (a nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor), atropine sulfate (atropine) (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) (a TRPA1 agonist), or theophylline-7-(N-4-isopropylphenyl) acetamide (HC-030031) (a selective TRPA1 antagonist) was administered 15 to 60 min before measurement. Gastric tone was increased by stepwise distension of the bag and was further significantly increased by L-NAME and significantly decreased by atropine. A liquid meal (15% w/v; 1.7 kcal) significantly decreased intrabag pressure 5 to 20 min after administration, indicating gastric accommodation; this was completely suppressed by L-NAME and further enhanced by atropine. AITC significantly increased gastric tone; this increase was decreased by HC-030031 and atropine. A combination of AITC and L-NAME significantly increased gastric tone compared with L-NAME alone. HC-030031 alone significantly decreased gastric tone. Liquid meal-induced gastric accommodation was significantly suppressed by pretreatment with AITC. We established a new model for measuring gastric tone and accommodation in conscious guinea pigs. TRPA1 activation suppresses gastric accommodation by increasing gastric tone through cholinergic neuronal pathways. PMID:22262922

  14. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  15. Chronic gastric volvulus: is it so rare?

    PubMed

    Bautista-Casasnovas, A; Varela-Cives, R; Fernandez-Bustillo, J M; Estévez Martínez, E; Prada Arias, M; Villanueva Jeremias, A; Pavón Belinchon, P; Peña Guitian, J

    2002-04-01

    Gastric volvulus has traditionally been considered a rare entity in children, and standard texts on paediatrics typically make scant reference to it. In our experience, however, careful radiographic study of children with digestive symptoms reveals gastric volvulus to be more frequent than is commonly thought. We report 52 cases of this disorder, and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. Material and Methods. We performed a retrospective study of all children treated for chronic gastric volvulus in our department since 1976. Results. All 52 patients (27 boys, 25 girls) were term infants, mean age 2.8 months at diagnosis. The principal symptoms were crying and colic (90 %), vomiting and nausea (67 %). The mean age at onset of symptoms was 1.1 months. Diagnosis was in all cases on the basis of upper intestinal transit studies. The most frequent radiological signs were high greater curvature (87 %) and greater curvature crossing the oesophagus (83 %). Nine of the 52 children underwent primary surgery. The remaining 43 patients underwent conservative (i.e. postural) treatment; 11 of these patients showed no significant improvement and thus underwent surgery. We performed 20 surgical interventions (19 simple anterior gastropexies and one a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy). All patients showed good recovery after surgery. Conclusion. Careful examination of patients with vomiting, abdominal distension, gastro-oesophageal reflux, colic, crying, retarded growth, sleep problems, anxiety, and even repeated respiratory infections will reveal chronic gastric volvulus with greater frequency than has traditionally been thought. We believe that this entity is often undetected, and that, as a result, it is often inappropriately treated. PMID:12015655

  16. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis. We critically examine the rationale behind specific GEMMs, chemical carcinogens, dietary promoters, Helicobacter infection, and direct mutagenesis of relevant oncogenes and tumor suppressor that have been developed to study gastric cancer pathogenesis. Despite species differences, more efficient and effective models to test specific genes and pathways disrupted in human gastric carcinogenesis have yet to emerge. As we better understand these species differences, "humanized" versions of mouse models will more closely approximate human gastric cancer pathogenesis. Towards that end, epigenetic marks on chromatin, the gut microbiota, and ways of manipulating the immune system will likely move center stage, permitting greater overlap between rodent and human cancer phenotypes thus providing a unified progression model. PMID:27573785

  17. Quantification of pulmonary arterial wall distensibility using parameters extracted from volumetric micro-CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Roger H.; Karau, Kelly L.; Molthen, Robert C.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    1999-09-01

    Stiffening, or loss of distensibility, of arterial vessel walls is among the manifestations of a number of vascular diseases including pulmonary arterial hypertension. We are attempting to quantify the mechanical properties of vessel walls of the pulmonary arterial tree using parameters derived from high-resolution volumetric x-ray CT images of rat lungs. The pulmonary arterial trees of the excised lungs are filled with a contrast agent. The lungs are imaged with arterial pressures spanning the physiological range. Vessel segment diameters are measured from the inlet to the periphery, and distensibilities calculated from diameters as a function of pressure. The method shows promise as an adjunct to other morphometric techniques such as histology and corrosion casting. It possesses the advantages of being nondestructive, characterizing the vascular structures while the lungs are imaged rapidly and in a near-physiological state, and providing the ability to associate mechanical properties with vessel location in the intact tree hierarchy.

  18. Atrial distension of isolated rabbit hearts and release of atrial natriuretic factor

    SciTech Connect

    Synhorst, D.P.; Gutkowska, J. Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec )

    1988-08-01

    Interventions that increase atrial pressures in humans or laboratory animals release atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) into the circulation. The authors studied the relation between distension of the right or left atrium and release of ANF in retrograde-perfused isolated rabbit hearts. A fluid-filled balloon within the right or left atrium was inflated to a mean pressure of 5, 10, 15, or 20 mmHg, and ANF in the cardiac effluent was measured by radioimmunoassay. The slope of the regression line relating ANF release to atrial distending pressure was steeper for the left than right atrium, indicating that, at comparable increases in mean pressures, the left atrium releases more ANF than does the right atrium. Left atrial tissue concentration ANF was greater than right atrial. In contrast to previous studies showing right atrial dominance in rats, the left atria of isolated, perfused rabbit hearts contain more ANF and release more in response to atrial distension.

  19. Vigorous physical activity and carotid distensibility in young and mid-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Quan L; Blizzard, Christopher L; Raitakari, Olli; Sharman, James E; Magnussen, Costan G; Dwyer, Terence; Juonala, Markus; Kähönen, Mika; Venn, Alison J

    2015-05-01

    Although physical activity (PA) improves arterial distensibility, it is unclear which type of activity is most beneficial. We aimed to examine the association of different types of PA with carotid distensibility (CD) and the mechanisms involved. Data included 4503 Australians and Finns aged 26-45 years. Physical activity was measured by pedometers and was self-reported. CD was measured using ultrasound. Other measurements included resting heart rate (RHR), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure, biomarkers and anthropometry. Steps/day were correlated with RHR (Australian men r = -0.10, women r = - 0.14; Finnish men r = -0.15, women r = -0.11; P<0.01), CRF and biochemical markers, but not with CD. Self-reported vigorous leisure-time activity was more strongly correlated with RHR (Australian men r = -0.23, women r = -0.19; Finnish men r = -0.20, women r = -0.13; P < 0.001) and CRF, and was correlated with CD (Australian men r = 0.07; Finnish men r = 0.07, women r = 0.08; P < 0.05). This relationship of vigorous leisure-time activity with CD was mediated by RHR independently of potential confounders. In summary, vigorous leisure-time PA but not total or less intensive PA was associated with arterial distensibility in young to mid-aged adults. Promotion of vigorous PA is therefore recommended among this population. RHR was a key intermediary factor explaining the relationship between vigorous PA and arterial distensibility. PMID:25693850

  20. Occult gastric cancer with distant metastasis proven by random gastric biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyuk; Lim, Kyu-Hyoung; Song, Seo-Young; Lee, Hui-Young; Park, Sung Chul; Kang, Chang Don; Lee, Sung Joon; Choi, Dong Wook; Park, Sung Bae; Ryu, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Krukenberg tumor, a rare metastatic ovarian tumor arising from gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma mainly, tends to occur in premenopausal females. Finding the origin of a Krukenberg tumor is crucial for determining prognosis. In Eastern countries, the most common origin of Krukenberg tumor is stomach cancer, which is generally diagnosed via endoscopic biopsy to investigate an abnormal mucosal lesion. Here, we describe a case of huge adnexal mass in a 33-year-old woman who presented with abdominal distension. Two independent endoscopic examinations performed by experts in two tertiary university hospitals revealed no abnormal mucosal lesion. The patient was diagnosed with a Krukenberg tumor according to findings from random endoscopic biopsies taken from normal-looking gastric mucosa in our hospital. It is very rare to be diagnosed via a random biopsy in cases where three well-trained endoscopists had not found any mucosal lesion previously. Thus, in this case, random biopsy was helpful in finding the origin of a Krukenberg tumor. PMID:27122678

  1. Submucosal reflexes: distension-evoked ion transport in the guinea pig distal colon.

    PubMed

    Frieling, T; Wood, J D; Cooke, H J

    1992-07-01

    Muscle-stripped segments of distal colon from guinea pigs were mounted in modified flux chambers to determine the effect of distension on mucosal secretion. Ion secretion was monitored as changes in short-circuit current (Isc). Distending forces were pressure gradients established by controlled reduction in liquid volume of the submucosal compartment of the chamber. Volume removal for 10 s or 5 min evoked a monophasic or biphasic increase in Isc, which returned to baseline within 5-20 min. The amplitude of the response correlated with the volume removed and was reduced by bumetanide and Cl-free solutions but not by tetraethylammonium or amiloride. Tetrodotoxin and atropine also suppressed the response. Neither the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist ICS 205-930, or the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor piroxicam altered the response. Addition of prostaglandin D2 to the submucosal bath significantly enhanced the response. The results suggest that distension of the colon evokes anion secretion by activation of reflex circuits with cholinergic neurons and muscarinic synapses. Prostaglandins and 5-hydroxytryptamine acting at 5-HT3 receptors appear not to be signal substances in the reflex pathway, which evokes the secretory response to distension. PMID:1636721

  2. Limb venous distension evokes sympathetic activation via stimulation of the limb afferents in humans.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; McQuillan, Patrick M; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2012-08-15

    We have recently shown that a saline infusion in the veins of an arterially occluded human forearm evokes a systemic response with increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure. In this report, we examined whether this response was a reflex that was due to venous distension. Blood pressure (Finometer), heart rate, and MSNA (microneurography) were assessed in 14 young healthy subjects. In the saline trial (n = 14), 5% forearm volume normal saline was infused in an arterially occluded arm. To block afferents in the limb, 90 mg of lidocaine were added to the same volume of saline in six subjects during a separate visit. To examine whether interstitial perfusion of normal saline alone induced the responses, the same volume of albumin solution (5% concentration) was infused in 11 subjects in separate studies. Lidocaine abolished the MSNA and blood pressure responses seen with saline infusion. Moreover, compared with the saline infusion, an albumin infusion induced a larger (MSNA: Δ14.3 ± 2.7 vs. Δ8.5 ± 1.3 bursts/min, P < 0.01) and more sustained MSNA and blood pressure responses. These data suggest that venous distension activates afferent nerves and evokes a powerful systemic sympathoexcitatory reflex. We posit that the venous distension plays an important role in evoking the autonomic adjustments seen with postural stress in human subjects. PMID:22707559

  3. Reduction of lung distensibility in acromegaly after suppression of growth hormone hypersecretion.

    PubMed

    García-Río, F; Pino, J M; Díez, J J; Ruíz, A; Villasante, C; Villamor, J

    2001-09-01

    Whether the growth of the lungs in acromegaly is due to alveolar hypertrophy or alveolar hyperplasia is a subject of debate. To discriminate these hypotheses, we compared pulmonary distensibility and diffusing capacity among 11 patients with active acromegaly and 11 matched control subjects, evaluating the response of pulmonary distensibility and diffusing capacity to suppression of growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion. We performed lineal and exponential analyses of quasistatic pressure-volume curves. Patients with active acromegaly had a greater TLC, lung compliance, and shape constant, K, than did normal subjects. We found no significant differences between the study groups in carbon monoxide diffusing capacity or diffusing capacity per unit of alveolar volume. After treatment, patients with inactive acromegaly showed a reduced TLC (6.95 +/- 1.40 [mean +/- SD] L versus 6.35 +/- 1.23 L), reduced lung compliance (3.61 +/- 0.90 L/kPa versus 2.36 +/- 0.79 L/ kPa), reduced K coefficient (2.62 +/- 0.65 kPa(-)(1) versus 1.35 +/- 0.40 kPa(-)(1)), and increased maximal recoil pressure (1.74 +/- 0.38 kPa versus 2.28 +/- 0.25 kPa). We conclude that the increased lung distensibility with normal diffusion capacity demonstrated in patients with active acromegaly, which was partly reversible after suppression of GH hypersecretion, suggests that lung growth in acromegaly may result from an increase in alveolar size. PMID:11549545

  4. Developing Repair Materials for Stress Urinary Incontinence to Withstand Dynamic Distension

    PubMed Central

    Hillary, Christopher J.; Roman, Sabiniano; Bullock, Anthony J.; Green, Nicola H; Chapple, Christopher R.; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Background Polypropylene mesh used as a mid-urethral sling is associated with severe clinical complications in a significant minority of patients. Current in vitro mechanical testing shows that polypropylene responds inadequately to mechanical distension and is also poor at supporting cell proliferation. Aims and Objectives Our objective therefore is to produce materials with more appropriate mechanical properties for use as a sling material but which can also support cell integration. Methods Scaffolds of two polyurethanes (PU), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) and co-polymers of the two were produced by electrospinning. Mechanical properties of materials were assessed and compared to polypropylene. The interaction of adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) with the scaffolds was also assessed. Uniaxial tensiometry of scaffolds was performed before and after seven days of cyclical distension. Cell penetration (using DAPI and a fluorescent red cell tracker dye), viability (AlamarBlue assay) and total collagen production (Sirius red assay) were measured for ADSC cultured on scaffolds. Results Polypropylene was stronger than polyurethanes and PLA. However, polypropylene mesh deformed plastically after 7 days of sustained cyclical distention, while polyurethanes maintained their elasticity. Scaffolds of PU containing PLA were weaker and stiffer than PU or polypropylene but were significantly better than PU scaffolds alone at supporting ADSC. Conclusions Therefore, prolonged mechanical distension in vitro causes polypropylene to fail. Materials with more appropriate mechanical properties for use as sling materials can be produced using PU. Combining PLA with PU greatly improves interaction of cells with this material. PMID:26981860

  5. An epidemiologic analysis of mortality and gastric cancer in Newfoundland

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, C. J.; Fodor, J. G.; Canning, E.

    1973-01-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study of general mortality and of deaths attributable to gastric cancer was undertaken in Newfoundland. General mortality as well as gastric cancer mortality was highest on the east coast and lowest in the northwest region. A close correspondence between general mortality and the geomorphology of the island was observed. Marked regional variations in gastric cancer mortality were observed, with consistently higher death rates being reported for the peninsula between Conception and Trinity Bays and other eastern sectors. No regular differences between rural versus urban mortality rates were observed for gastric cancer. The death rate for males was double that for females, and a slight downward trend in gastric cancer mortality from 1930 to 1971 was observed. This study reveals that gastric cancer mortality is high, by international comparisons, in Newfoundland, but is less than in the highest risk countries (Japan, Chile, Iceland). ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 4 PMID:4704906

  6. Esophagogastric junction distensibility measurements during Heller myotomy and POEM for achalasia predict postoperative symptomatic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Ezra N.; Soper, Nathaniel J.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Hirano, Ikuo; Boris, Lubomyr; Nicodème, Frédéric; Lin, Zhiyue; Hungness, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is a novel diagnostic tool that can be used to measure esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility. In this study we performed intraoperative FLIP measurements during laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) and peroral esophageal myotomy (POEM) for treatment of achalasia and evaluated the relationship between EGJ distensibility and postoperative symptoms. Methods Distensibility index (DI) (defined as the minimum cross-sectional area at the EGJ divided by distensive pressure) was measured with FLIP at two time points during LHM and POEM: 1) at baseline after induction of anesthesia, and 2) after operation completion. Results Measurements were performed in 20 patients undergoing LHM and 36 undergoing POEM. Both operations resulted in an increase in DI, although this increase was larger with POEM (7±3.1 vs. 5.1±3.4mm2/mmHg, p<.05). The two patients (both LHM) with the smallest increases in DI (1 and 1.6mm2/mmHg) both had persistent symptoms postoperatively and, overall, LHM patients with larger increases in DI had lower postoperative Eckardt scores. In the POEM group, there was no correlation between change in DI and symptoms; however, all POEM patients experienced an increase in DI of >3mm2/mmHg. When all patients were divided into thirds based on final DI, none in the lowest DI group (<6mm2/mmHg) had symptoms suggestive of reflux (i.e., GerdQ score >7), as compared with 20% in the middle third (6–9mm2/mmHg) and 36% in the highest third (>9mm2/mmHg). Patients within an “ideal” final DI range (4.5–8.5 mm2/mmHg) had optimal symptomatic outcomes (i.e. Eckardt≤1 and GerdQ≤7) in 88% of cases, compared with 47% in those with a final DI above or below that range (p<.05). Conclusions Intraoperative EGJ distensibility measurements with FLIP were predictive of postoperative symptomatic outcomes. These results provide initial evidence that FLIP has the potential to act as a useful calibration tool during operations

  7. Adenosine A1 receptors mediate the intracisternal injection of orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2016-03-15

    We have recently demonstrated that orexin acts centrally through the brain orexin 1 receptors to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension in conscious rats. Adenosine signaling is capable of inducing an antinociceptive action against somatic pain; however, the association between changes in the adenosinergic system and visceral pain perception has not been investigated. In the present study, we hypothesized that the adenosinergic system may be involved in visceral nociception, and thus, adenosine signaling may mediate orexin-induced visceral antinociception. Visceral sensation was evaluated based on the colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Subcutaneous (0.04-0.2mg/rat) or intracisternal (0.8-4μg/rat) injection of N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) agonist, increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR in a dose-dependent manner, thereby suggesting that CPA acts centrally in the brain to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension. Pretreatment with theophylline, an adenosine antagonist, or 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine, an A1R antagonist, subcutaneously injected potently blocked the centrally injected CPA- or orexin-A-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest that adenosinergic signaling via A1Rs in the brain induces visceral antinociception and that adenosinergic signaling is involved in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. PMID:26944127

  8. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  9. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  10. Carotid artery intima-media thickness and distensibility in children and adolescents: reference values and role of body dimensions.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Anke; Kracht, Daniela; Bayazit, Aysun K; Deveci, Murat; Duzova, Ali; Krmar, Rafael T; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Niemirska, Anna; Oguz, Berna; Schmidt, Bernhard M W; Sözeri, Betul; Querfeld, Uwe; Melk, Anette; Schaefer, Franz; Wühl, Elke

    2013-09-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid artery distensibility are reliable screening methods for vascular alterations and the assessment of cardiovascular risk in adult and pediatric cohorts. We sought to establish an international reference data set for the childhood and adolescence period and explore the impact of developmental changes in body dimensions and blood pressure (BP) on carotid wall thickness and elasticity. cIMT, the distensibility coefficient, the incremental modulus of elasticity, and the stiffness index β were assessed in 1155 children aged 6 to 18 years and sex-specific reference charts normalized to age or height were constructed from 1051 nonobese and nonhypertensive children. The role of body dimensions, BP, and family history, as well as the association between cIMT and distensibility, was investigated. cIMT increased and distensibility decreased with age, height, body mass index, and BP. A significant sex difference was apparent from the age of 15 years. Age- and height-normalized cIMT and distensibility values differed in children who are short or tall for their age. By stepwise multivariate analysis, standardized systolic BP and body mass index were independently positively associated with cIMT SD scores (SDS). Systolic BP SDS independently predicted all distensibility measures. Distensibility coefficient SDS was negatively and β SDS positively associated with cIMT SDS, whereas incremental modulus of elasticity was independent of cIMT. Morphological and functional aspects of the common carotid artery are particularly influenced by age, body dimensions, and BP. The reference charts established in this study allow to accurately compare vascular phenotypes of children with chronic conditions with those of healthy children. PMID:23817494

  11. Stress and strain analysis of contractions during ramp distension in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian; Gregersen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated morphological and biomechanical remodeling in the intestine proximal to an obstruction. The present study aimed to obtain stress and strain thresholds to initiate contraction and the maximal contraction stress and strain in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments. Partial obstruction and sham operations were surgically created in mid-jejunum of male guinea pigs. The animals survived 2, 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively. Animals not being operated on served as normal controls. The segments were used for no-load state, zero-stress state and distension analyses. The segment was inflated to 10 cmH2O pressure in an organ bath containing 37°C Krebs solution and the outer diameter change was monitored. The stress and strain at the contraction threshold and at maximum contraction were computed from the diameter, pressure and the zero-stress state data. Young’s modulus was determined at the contraction threshold. The muscle layer thickness in obstructed intestinal segments increased up to 300%. Compared with sham-obstructed and normal groups, the contraction stress threshold, the maximum contraction stress and the Young’s modulus at the contraction threshold increased whereas the strain threshold and maximum contraction strain decreased after 7 days obstruction (P<0.05 and 0.01). In conclusion, in the partially obstructed intestinal segments, a larger distension force was needed to evoke contraction likely due to tissue remodeling. Higher contraction stresses were produced and the contraction deformation (strain) became smaller. PMID:21632056

  12. Role of nitric oxide in gastric motor and sensory functions in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, S D; Vergeer, M; Heisterkamp, S H; Tytgat, G N J; Boeckxstaens, G E E

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Impaired accommodation and hypersensitivity to distension of the proximal stomach are considered to be important factors in the pathogenesis of dyspeptic complaints. As fundus relaxing agents may be effective in the treatment of these symptoms, insight into the mediators involved in fundic accommodation and associated perceptual responses is important. Therefore, we studied the effect of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition by NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) on fundic tone, postprandial sensations, and gastric perception in healthy volunteers. Subjects and methods: Eighteen healthy volunteers participated in a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised study. They underwent a gastric barostat study to evaluate the effect of l-NMMA on meal and distension induced sensations and on fundic relaxation in response to oral meal intake, intraduodenal lipid, and glucagon administration. Results: Compared with placebo, l-NMMA decreased fundic volume after oral meal intake (438 (55) v 304 (67) ml; n=8; p<0.05) and during intraduodenal lipid infusion (384 (37) v 257 (43) ml; n=10; p<0.05) but not after glucagon injection (570 (62) v 540 (52) ml; n=4; p=0.4). In addition, basal fundic volume was significantly reduced by l-NMMA. Scores for nausea and satiation were decreased by l-NMMA after oral meal intake but not during intraduodenal lipid infusion. Perception scores to gastric distension were not altered by l-NMMA. Conclusions: NO is involved in maintaining basal fundic tone and in meal induced fundic relaxation in humans, but not in visceral perception. PMID:12117882

  13. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2011-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being a local carcinogen not only in esophageal but also in gastric cancer. Accordingly, acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages has recently been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. Microbes are responsible for the bulk of acetaldehyde production from ethanol both in saliva and Helicobacter pylori-infected and achlorhydric stomach. Acetaldehyde is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke and it readily dissolves into saliva during smoking. Many foodstuffs and 'non-alcoholic' beverages are important but unrecognized sources of local acetaldehyde exposure. The cumulative cancer risk associated with increasing acetaldehyde exposure suggests the need for worldwide screening of the acetaldehyde levels of alcoholic beverages and as well of the ethanol and acetaldehyde of food produced by fermentation. The generally regarded as safe status of acetaldehyde should be re-evaluated. The as low as reasonably achievable principle should be applied to the acetaldehyde of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and food. Risk groups with ADH-and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms, H. pylori infection or achlorhydric atrophic gastritis, or both, should be screened and educated in this health issue. L-cysteine formulations binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde locally in the stomach provide new means for intervention studies. PMID:21401890

  14. Sox2 Suppresses Gastric Tumorigenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Abby; Huebner, Aaron J; Sulahian, Rita; Anselmo, Anthony; Xu, Xinsen; Flattery, Kyle; Desai, Niyati; Sebastian, Carlos; Yram, Mary Anna; Arnold, Katrin; Rivera, Miguel; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bronson, Roderick; Bass, Adam J; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2016-08-16

    Sox2 expression marks gastric stem and progenitor cells, raising important questions regarding the genes regulated by Sox2 and the role of Sox2 itself during stomach homeostasis and disease. By using ChIP-seq analysis, we have found that the majority of Sox2 targets in gastric epithelial cells are tissue specific and related to functions such as endoderm development, Wnt signaling, and gastric cancer. Unexpectedly, we found that Sox2 itself is dispensable for gastric stem cell and epithelial self-renewal, yet Sox2(+) cells are highly susceptible to tumorigenesis in an Apc/Wnt-driven mouse model. Moreover, Sox2 loss enhances, rather than impairs, tumor formation in Apc-deficient gastric cells in vivo and in vitro by inducing Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription and upregulating intestinal metaplasia-associated genes, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed phenotype. Together, these data identify Sox2 as a context-dependent tumor suppressor protein that is dispensable for normal tissue regeneration but restrains stomach adenoma formation through modulation of Wnt-responsive and intestinal genes. PMID:27498859

  15. Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, M.; Land, C. E.; Uemura, Y.; Tokudome, T.; Tanaka, S.; Sato, E.

    1993-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be related to lymphoid tumors and some types of epithelial tumors, including lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma with marked lymphocytic stroma. In this study, prevalence of EBV involvement in gastric cancer, and characteristics of tumors with such involvement, were investigated by EBV-encoded RNA 1 in situ hybridization applied to paraffin sections, including the tumor and adjacent gastric tissue, from 999 gastric carcinomas observed in 970 consecutive cases from a large Japanese hospital. EBV involvement occurred in 6.9 percent of lesions, a significantly lower proportion than has been observed in a North American series. Involvement was significantly more frequent among males, in tumors in the upper part of the stomach, and in adenocarcinomas of the moderately differentiated tubular and poorly differentiated solid or medullary types. Almost all carcinomas with marked lymphoid stroma were EBV-positive. Positive lesions were characterized by the presence of uniform hybridized signals in almost all carcinoma cells and by their absence from adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Images Figure 1 PMID:8238241

  16. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - gastric tissue; Biopsy - gastric tissue ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be considered normal if it does not show certain bacteria. Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  17. NKX6.3 controls gastric differentiation and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hwan; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Olga; Choi, Sung Sook; Lee, Eun Kyung; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Young; Park, Won Sang

    2015-09-29

    NKX6.3 transcription factor is known to be an important regulator in gastric mucosal epithelial differentiation. The present study aimed to investigate whether NKX6.3 acts as an essential tumor suppressor in gastric carcinogenesis. Absent or reduced protein expression and decreased DNA copy number and mRNA transcript of the NKX6.3 gene were frequently observed in gastric cancers. Overexpression of NKX6.3 in AGSNKX6.3 and MKN1NKX6.3 cells markedly arrested cell proliferation by inhibiting cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis through both death receptor- and mitochondrial-pathways. In addition, stable NKX6.3 transfectants increased the expression of gastric differentiation markers, including SOX2 and Muc5ac, and decreased the expression of intestinal differentiation markers, CDX2 and Muc2. In ChIP-cloning and sequencing analyses, NKX6.3 coordinated a repertoire of target genes, some of which are clearly associated with cell cycle, differentiation and death. In particular, NKX6.3 transcriptional factor was found to bind specifically to the upstream sequences of GKN1, a gastric-specific tumor suppressor, and dramatically increase expression of the latter. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between NKX6.3 and GKN1 expression in non-cancerous gastric mucosae. Thus, these data suggest that NKX6.3 may control the fate of gastric mucosal cells and function as a gastric tumor suppressor. PMID:26314965

  18. Esophagogastric junction distensibility measurements during hydraulic dilation therapy in achalasia patients.

    PubMed

    Kappelle, Wouter F W; Bogte, Auke; Siersema, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility is predictive of long-term clinical success after achalasia treatment. A new commercially available hydraulic dilation balloon is capable of measuring EGJ opening diameters whilst simultaneously dilating the EGJ. Deployed alongside the endoscope under direct visualization, it is used for dilation of the lower esophageal sphincter in patients with achalasia. Impedance measurement electrodes are incorporated in the catheter shaft in the dilation balloon, which allows measuring the diameter of the EGJ and displaying it in real time before, during and after dilation. This obviates the need for fluoroscopy during the dilation procedure. The extent of recoil of the EGJ after dilation potentially provides a measurement that could be incorporated into a clinical rule for predicting therapeutic success after dilation. PMID:26679629

  19. Model for vocalization by a bird with distensible vocal cavity and open beak.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Neville H; Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A

    2006-02-01

    Some birds make use of a distensible oral cavity to produce nearly pure-tone song. Songbirds such as the Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) have a muscularly distended oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity between the top of the trachea and the open beak. The present paper analyzes the acoustics of this vocal system. It is shown that the resonance of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity, vented through the beak, introduces a dominant peak in the radiation efficiency, the frequency of which can be adjusted by varying the volume of the cavity, the beak gape, and perhaps the position of the tongue in the mouth. To produce nearly pure-tone song, the bird adjusts the frequency of this peak to coincide with the fundamental of the syringeal oscillation. The present paper provides the acoustical analysis underlying this behavior. PMID:16521762

  20. Update on gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Maria; Stanley, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Although less common than oesophageal variceal haemorrhage, gastric variceal bleeding remains a serious complication of portal hypertension, with a high associated mortality. In this review we provide an update on the aetiology, classification and management of gastric varices, including acute bleeding, prevention of rebleeding and primary prophylaxis. We describe the optimum management strategies for gastric varices including drug, endoscopic and radiological therapies, focusing on recent published evidence. PMID:24891929

  1. Nitric oxide synthase promotes distension-induced tracheal venular leukocyte adherence.

    PubMed

    Moldobaeva, Aigul; Rentsendorj, Otgonchimeg; Jenkins, John; Wagner, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The process of leukocyte recruitment to the airways in real time has not been extensively studied, yet airway inflammation persists as a major contributor to lung pathology. We showed previously in vivo, that neutrophils are recruited acutely to the large airways after periods of airway distension imposed by the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Given extensive literature implicating products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in lung injury after ventilatory over-distension, we questioned whether similar mechanisms exist in airway post-capillary venules. Yet, endothelial nitric oxide has been shown to be largely anti-inflammatory in other systemic venules. Using intravital microscopy to visualize post-capillary tracheal venules in anesthetized, ventilated mice, the number of adherent leukocytes was significantly decreased in eNOS-/- mice under baseline conditions (2±1 cell/60 min observation) vs wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (7±2 cells). After exposure to PEEP (8 cmH2O for 1 min; 5 times), adherent cells increased significantly (29±5 cells) in WT mice while eNOS-/- mice demonstrated a significantly decreased number of adherent cells (11±4 cells) after PEEP. A similar response was seen when thrombin was used as the pro-inflammatory stimulus. In addition, mouse tracheal venular endothelial cells studied in vitro after exposure to cyclic stretch (18% elongation) or thrombin both demonstrated increased p-selectin expression that was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) and excess BH4. In vivo treatment with the ROS inhibitor NACA or co-factor BH4 abolished completely the PEEP-induced leukocyte adherence. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory stimuli cause leukocyte recruitment to tracheal endothelium in part due to eNOS uncoupling. PMID:25181540

  2. Nitric Oxide Synthase Promotes Distension-Induced Tracheal Venular Leukocyte Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Moldobaeva, Aigul; Rentsendorj, Otgonchimeg; Jenkins, John; Wagner, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The process of leukocyte recruitment to the airways in real time has not been extensively studied, yet airway inflammation persists as a major contributor to lung pathology. We showed previously in vivo, that neutrophils are recruited acutely to the large airways after periods of airway distension imposed by the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Given extensive literature implicating products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in lung injury after ventilatory over-distension, we questioned whether similar mechanisms exist in airway post-capillary venules. Yet, endothelial nitric oxide has been shown to be largely anti-inflammatory in other systemic venules. Using intravital microscopy to visualize post-capillary tracheal venules in anesthetized, ventilated mice, the number of adherent leukocytes was significantly decreased in eNOS-/- mice under baseline conditions (2±1 cell/60 min observation) vs wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (7±2 cells). After exposure to PEEP (8 cmH2O for 1 min; 5 times), adherent cells increased significantly (29±5 cells) in WT mice while eNOS-/- mice demonstrated a significantly decreased number of adherent cells (11±4 cells) after PEEP. A similar response was seen when thrombin was used as the pro-inflammatory stimulus. In addition, mouse tracheal venular endothelial cells studied in vitro after exposure to cyclic stretch (18% elongation) or thrombin both demonstrated increased p-selectin expression that was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) and excess BH4. In vivo treatment with the ROS inhibitor NACA or co-factor BH4 abolished completely the PEEP-induced leukocyte adherence. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory stimuli cause leukocyte recruitment to tracheal endothelium in part due to eNOS uncoupling. PMID:25181540

  3. Daily assessment of arterial distensibility in a pediatric population before and after smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Fanos, Vassilios; Crisafulli, Antonio; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor associated with increased stiffness of the large arteries in adulthood. This study aimed to 1) evaluate arterial distensibility and echocardiographic measures in adolescent smokers before and after participation in a successful smoking cessation program and to 2) compare the findings obtained with data from a control population of healthy non-smokers. METHODS: A total of 31 young smoking subjects (58.1% male; range: 11-18 years old; mean: 16.5±1.4 years old; mean tobacco consumption: 2.6±0.6 years) were examined before commencing and after taking part for at least 1 year in a smoking cessation program (mean: 1.4±0.3 years). Arterial stiffness was measured using the previously validated QKd100-60 method. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and transthoracic echocardiography were also performed. RESULTS: (Smokers before abuse cessation vs. smokers after abuse cessation) systolic blood pressure: p<0.004; diastolic blood pressure: p<0.02; mean blood pressure: p<0.01; QKd100-60 value: 183±5 vs. 196±3 msec, p<0.009; p = ns for all echocardiographic parameters. (Smokers after abuse cessation vs. controls) systolic blood pressure: p<0.01; diastolic blood pressure: p<0.03; mean blood pressure: p<0.02; QKd100-60 value: 196±3 vs. 203±2 msec, p<0.04; p<0.02, p<0.01, and p<0.05 for the interventricular septum, posterior wall, and left ventricular mass, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite successful participation in a smoking cessation program, arterial distensibility improved but did not normalize. This finding underlines the presence of the harmful effect of arterial rigidity in these individuals, despite their having quit smoking and their young ages, thus resulting in the subsequent need for a lengthy follow-up period. PMID:24714828

  4. Case of gastric intestinal metaplasia in an old patient with previous gastric surgery.

    PubMed

    Kadurei, Firas; Alboraie, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    An 87-year-old woman with multiple medical disorders presented with dyspeptic symptoms of long duration. She has a history of peptic ulcer disease for which she has partial gastrectomy (Billroth I) in the past. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was performed which revealed erythematous mucosa in the lower part of the gastric remnant with areas of whitish mucosal patches in the distal stomach close to the gastroduodenal anastomosis. Biopsies were taken from the whitish mucosal patches and sent for histopathological examination. The result of the biopsy confirmed the presence of marked intestinal metaplasia. This case report summarises the presentation, diagnoses and treatment of gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM). PMID:27558191

  5. Influence of abuse history on gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, B; Van Oudenhove, L; Fischler, B; Vandenberghe, J; Caenepeel, P; Janssens, J; Tack, J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders have elevated rates of sexual or physical abuse, which may be associated with altered rectal sensorimotor function in irritable bowel syndrome. The aim was to study the association between abuse history and gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia (FD). We studied gastric sensorimotor function with barostat (sensitivity, compliance and accommodation) and gastric emptying test in 233 consecutive FD patients from a tertiary care centre (162 women, mean age 41.6 +/- 0.9). Patients filled out self-report questionnaires on history of sexual and physical abuse during childhood or adulthood. Eighty-four patients (out of 198, 42.4%) reported an overall history of abuse [sexual and physical in respectively 30.0% (60/200) and 20.3% (42/207)]. FD patients reporting general as well as severe childhood sexual abuse have significantly lower discomfort thresholds during gastric distension [respectively 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 7.5 +/- 1.0 mmHg above minimal distending pressure (MDP), P = 0.014 and 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 6.6 +/- 1.2 mmHg above MDP, P = 0.007]. The corresponding intra-balloon volume was also significantly lower (respectively 579 +/- 21 vs 422 +/- 59 mL, P = 0.013 and 579 +/- 19 vs 423 +/- 79 mL, P = 0.033). Gastric accommodation was significantly more pronounced in patients reporting rape during adulthood (91 +/- 12 vs 130 +/- 40 mL, P = 0.016). Abuse history was not associated with differences in gastric emptying. A history of abuse is associated with alterations in gastric sensorimotor function in FD. Particularly sexual abuse, rather than physical abuse, may influence gastric sensitivity and motor function. PMID:18694440

  6. Autopsy findings for a case of acute gastric volvulus in a child.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Shuji; Murakami, Tomonori; Kakizaki, Eiji; Ikemura, Mayumi; Nakagawa, Yasuhisa; Kiyofuji, Yuma; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Nata, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    Acute gastric volvulus resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome was determined to be the cause of death in a 4-year-old girl who presented with abdominal distension. At about 1AM on the day of her death, she was brought to our emergency medical center. Physical examination and plain abdominal X-ray revealed pronounced gastric dilatation. A decompression procedure was performed, followed by observation. She went into cardiopulmonary arrest around 1PM on the same day and died. Postmortem investigation, including an autopsy and computed tomography (CT), was performed to determine the cause of death. The findings included that the stomach was severely distended. Evidence was seen of mucosal hemorrhage in the gastric mucosa on the greater curvature side, which was thinned in places but without perforation. No necrosis of the gastric mucosa was observed; reversible changes were evident on histopathological examination. The postmortem CT images suggested that the pyloric region was positioned cranioventrally to the cardiac region. None of the findings indicated sudden blockage, and the cause of death was determined to be acute gastric volvulus resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome. The abnormal placement of the organs was difficult to determine based on physical examination alone; postmortem CT and careful examination were helpful in conducting the autopsy in this case. PMID:25957510

  7. New frontiers in gut nutrient sensor research: monosodium L-glutamate added to a high-energy, high-protein liquid diet promotes gastric emptying: a possible therapy for patients with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Zai, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Nagoshi, Atsuto; Maeda, Masaki; Kawamura, Osamu; Mori, Masatomo

    2010-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia is a clinical syndrome that features abdominal symptoms centered in the upper abdomen without an organic basis. Three possible mechanisms of gastric dysfunction could be related to functional dyspepsia: 1) delayed gastric emptying, 2) impaired gastric accommodation to food intake, and 3) hypersensitivity to gastric distention. Delayed gastric emptying has been suggested to lead to prolonged antral distension that causes dyspeptic symptoms. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore a focal point of debate about anorexia caused by dyspepsia, and prokinetic agents are often administered in Japan for its treatment. Recently, we found that addition of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to a high-energy liquid diet rich in casein promoted gastric emptying in healthy men. Therefore, another potential method to improve delayed gastric emptying could be enhancement of chemosensors that activate the autonomic nervous system innervating the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, enrichment with glutamate promoted gastric emptying after intake of a high-protein meal, suggesting that free glutamate is important for protein digestion and that MSG may be helpful for management of delayed gastric emptying in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:20093786

  8. Changes in patients’ symptoms and gastric emptying after Helicobacter pylori treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Geng, Chang-Hui; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yan-Lin; Tong, Li-Quan; Gao, Ping; Gao, Yue-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changes in clinical symptoms and gastric emptying and their association in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. METHODS: Seventy FD patients were enrolled and divided into 2 groups Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative group (28 patients), and H. pylori-positive group (42 patients). Patients in the H. pylori-positive group were further randomly divided into groups: H. pylori-treatment group (21 patients) and conventional treatment group (21 patients). Seventy two healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The proximal and distal stomach area was measured by ultrasound immediately after patients took the test meal, and at 20, 40, 60 and 90 min; then, gastric half-emptying time was calculated. The incidence of symptoms and gastric half-emptying time between the FD and control groups were compared. The H. pylori-negative and conventional treatment groups were given conventional treatment: domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The H. pylori-treatment group was given H. pylori eradication treatment + conventional treatment: lansoprazole 30 mg once daily, clarithromycin 0.5 g twice daily and amoxicillin 1.0 g twice daily for 1 wk, then domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The incidence of symptoms and gastric emptying were compared between the FD and control groups. The relationship between dyspeptic symptoms and gastric half-emptying time in the FD and control groups were analyzed. Then total symptom scores before and after treatment and gastric half-emptying time were compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS: The incidence of abdominal pain, epigastric burning sensation, abdominal distension, nausea, belching, and early satiety symptoms in the FD group were significantly higher than in the control group (50.0% vs 20.8%; 37.1% vs 12.5%; 78.6% vs 44.4%; 45.7% vs 22.2%; 52.9% vs 15.3%; 57.1% vs 19.4%; all P < 0.05). The gastric half-emptying times of the proximal end, distal end, and the whole stomach in the FD group were slower than in the

  9. [The effects of various gastrokinetic drugs on gastric emptying].

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, H

    1990-02-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of various gastrokinetic drugs on gastric emptying and the sites of their action in the stomach, changes in gastric emptying after administration of these drugs were determined in healthy adults by means of radioisotopic technique, by setting 3 regions of interest, i.e., the whole stomach, the proximal area and the antral area. Following results were obtained. 1. With metoclopramide administration, no particular movement of gastric contents was found for several minutes after ingestion. Once the movement of emptying was initiated, the gastric contents were transferred more efficiently from the proximal area to the antral area in comparison with the corresponding movement observed in persons given no metoclopramide. On the other hand, the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum exceeded the inflow from the proximal area to the antral area. 2. With domperidon administration, transfer of gastric contents was markedly increased, but the outflow from the antral area did not exceed the inflow. Domperidone caused overall facilitation of gastric emptying, mainly by enhancing the emptying movement in the proximal area. 3. With aclatonium napadisilate administration, marked transfer of the gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was noted, and the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum was equal to the inflow within 10 min, then exceeded the inflow. 4. With trimebutine maleate administration, transfer of gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was conspicuous, and the outflow from the antral area exceeded the increased inflow, resulting in overall faciliation of gastric emptying. PMID:2255123

  10. Binge Eating Leading to Acute Gastric Dilatation, Ischemic Necrosis and Rupture -A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, Manish; Khare, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Sumanta; Marhual, Jogesh Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rarely encountered clinical scenario in our day to day practice. This is very rapidly progressing condition and can lead to ischemic necrosis and perforation/rupture of the stomach. It could be fatal if not timely intervened. We report such a case of a 17-year-old, otherwise healthy boy, who presented with pain and distension of abdomen following binge eating episode after 24 hours of prolonged fasting. On exploration, stomach was dilated with necrosis and perforation at fundus near greater curvature. He was managed with excision of all the devitalized area and primary repair with feeding jejunostomy. The case is presented due to its rarity. Acute gastric dilatation (AGD) leading to ischemic necrosis and perforation because of binge eating episode in an otherwise healthy person is an exceptional occurrence with only few cases reported in literature. The clinician should be aware of this condition for prompt and appropriate management. PMID:27134932

  11. Binge Eating Leading to Acute Gastric Dilatation, Ischemic Necrosis and Rupture –A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Sumanta; Marhual, Jogesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rarely encountered clinical scenario in our day to day practice. This is very rapidly progressing condition and can lead to ischemic necrosis and perforation/rupture of the stomach. It could be fatal if not timely intervened. We report such a case of a 17-year-old, otherwise healthy boy, who presented with pain and distension of abdomen following binge eating episode after 24 hours of prolonged fasting. On exploration, stomach was dilated with necrosis and perforation at fundus near greater curvature. He was managed with excision of all the devitalized area and primary repair with feeding jejunostomy. The case is presented due to its rarity. Acute gastric dilatation (AGD) leading to ischemic necrosis and perforation because of binge eating episode in an otherwise healthy person is an exceptional occurrence with only few cases reported in literature. The clinician should be aware of this condition for prompt and appropriate management. PMID:27134932

  12. [Aerophagia due to noninvasive mechanical ventilation: a first manifestation of silent gastric carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mayoralas Alises, S; Gómez Mendieta, M A; Díaz Lobato, S

    2003-07-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) techniques have proven useful in treating patients with respiratory insufficiency of various etiologies. The problems most frequently associated with this ventilatory technique are the appearance of nasal and oropharyngeal dryness, pressure sores where the nasal mask touches the skin, ocular irritation due to air leakage and epistaxis. Aerophagia appears in up to half the patients with NIV and may lead to discontinuing treatment. Drugs that accelerate gastrointestinal transit, changes in the respirator settings or changing the ventilatory modality may help to ameliorate the problem. When the symptoms arising from abdominal distension due to NIV are intense and persistent, the coexistence of an underlying abdominal pathology must be ruled out. We report the cases of two patients with these characteristics in whom gastroscopy revealed gastric carcinoma. We think that patients with persistent symptoms of aerophagia that cannot be controlled by the usual measures should undergo endoscopic exploration to rule out silent gastric disease. PMID:12846962

  13. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Aslanian, M E; Sharp, C R; Garneau, M S

    2014-10-01

    A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency. PMID:24871205

  14. Lateral hypothalamic lesions cause gastric injury by stimulating gastric contractility.

    PubMed

    Garrick, T; Grijalva, C V; Trauner, M

    1993-07-01

    Changes in gastric contractility following lateral hypothalamic (LH) lesions with and without bilateral cervical vagotomy were measured in urethan-anesthetized rats. LH lesions were induced with direct current passed through stereotaxically placed electrodes. Gastric contractility was recorded continuously for 4 h with acutely implanted strain gauge force transducers and analyzed by computer. LH lesions consistently stimulated gastric contractility and caused more gastric mucosal injury than control conditions. Vagotomy blocked both gastric mucosal injury and high-amplitude gastric contractions. In rats with LH lesions and exogenously infused intragastric hydrochloric acid, atropine methyl nitrate inhibited high-amplitude gastric contractions and gastric erosions. These findings indicate that LH lesions stimulate vagally mediated high-amplitude gastric contractions, which, in the presence of hydrochloric acid, cause gastric mucosal erosions. PMID:8338162

  15. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  16. Bacterial overgrowth and diversification of microbiota in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianhua; Xin, Yongning; Geng, Changxin; Tian, Zibin; Yu, Xinjuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Microbiota is potentially linked to the development of cancer. However, the features of microbiota in gastric cancer remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the gastric microbiota in cancer. Methods A total of 315 patients, including 212 patients with chronic gastritis and 103 patients with gastric cancer, were enrolled in the study. The bacterial load of gastric mucosa was determined using quantitative PCR. To analyze the biodiversity, structure, and composition of microbiota, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from 12 patients were pyrosequenced. The sequences were processed and subsequently analyzed. Results The amount of bacteria in gastric mucosa was estimated to be 6.9×108 per gram tissue on average. It was higher in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients (7.80±0.71) compared with those uninfected (7.59±0.57, P=0.005). An increased bacterial load up to 7.85±0.70 was detected in gastric cancer compared with chronic gastritis (P=0.001). The unweighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the structure of microbiota in gastric cancer was more diversified. Five genera of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities were enriched in gastric cancer. The weighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the presence of Helicobacter pylori markedly altered the structure of microbiota, but had little influence on the relative proportions of the other members in the microbiota. Conclusion Findings from this study indicated an altered microbiota in gastric cancer with increased quantity of bacteria, diversified microbial communities, and enrichment of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities. These alterations could contribute toward the gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26657453

  17. Not all gastric masses are gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Michael; Tsai, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer metastasising to the gastrointestinal tract normally does not occur. However, as clinicians, we must be aware that lung adenocarcinoma, as in all cancers, can and will metastasise to any part of the body. We describe a case of a patient with a presumed primary gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath due to pleural effusion. Pathology from the pleural effusion was positive for primary lung adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed that the patient's gastric mass was misdiagnosed as gastric adenocarcinoma. We correctly diagnosed the mass as metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. This was very significant because the patient was transitioning to palliative care with possible tube feeding. After the correct diagnosis, her management drastically changed and her health improved. Clinical, pathological and medical management of lung cancer metastasis to the stomach are discussed. PMID:26976833

  18. Experimental gastric ulcers induced by immobilization and electric shock of rats and their pharmacotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodin, O. N.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of development of experimental gastric ulcers, induced in rats by combined immobilization and electric shock, was analyzed pharmacologically with peripheral neurotropic agents. It is concluded that: (1) The most marked preventive effect in the development of the experimentally induced gastric ulcers was displayed by agents capable of blocking the ascending activation system of the reticular formation. (2) Sympathetic fibers, which disrupt the trophism of the gastric wall, form the efferent portion of the reflex arc. (3) Gastric secretion does not appear to be the primary cause of ulceration.

  19. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  20. On Your Marks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines the application of field, rink, track, and court markings and explains why the use of proper materials and some knowledge of science is important. Specific issues when using marking paints and dyes are addressed. (GR)

  1. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  2. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  3. [Double ricochet marks].

    PubMed

    Sellier, K

    1987-01-01

    When bullets are flying stably and ricochet on a surface, only one mark is produced. In contrast yawing bullets can produce a double mark if the angle of incidence is sufficiently small (less than or equal to 5 degrees). Distances up to 15 cm were seen between the two marks. PMID:3660953

  4. Smooth muscle in human bronchi is disposed to resist airway distension.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Morgan; Henry, Cyndi; Couture, Christian; Marsolais, David; King, Gregory G; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Bossé, Ynuk

    2016-07-15

    Studying airway smooth muscle (ASM) in conditions that emulate the in vivo environment within which the bronchi normally operate may provide important clues regarding its elusive physiological function. The present study examines the effect of lengthening and shortening of ASM on tension development in human bronchial segments. ASM from each bronchial segment was set at a length approximating in situ length (Linsitu). Bronchial tension was then measured during a slow cyclical strain (0.004Hz, from 0.7Linsitu to 1.3Linsitu) in the relaxed state and at graded levels of activation by methacholine. In all cases, tension was greater at longer ASM lengths, and greater during lengthening than shortening. The threshold of methacholine concentration that was required for ASM to account for bronchial tension across the entire range of ASM lengths tested was on average smaller by 2.8 logs during lengthening than during shortening. The length-dependency of ASM tension, together with this lower threshold of methacholine concentration during lengthening versus shortening, suggest that ASM has a greater ability to resist airway dilation during lung inflation than to narrow the airways during lung deflation. More than serving to narrow the airway, as has long been thought, these data suggest that the main function of ASM contraction is to limit airway wall distension during lung inflation. PMID:27095271

  5. Effects of Wall Distensibility in Hemodynamic Simulations of an Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    McGah, Patrick M.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Beach, Kirk W.; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e. mechanical homeostasis. The current study presents fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of a patient-specific model of a mature arteriovenous fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. The FSI results are compared with previously published data of the same model but with rigid walls. Ultrasound-derived wall motion measurements are also used to validate the FSI simulations of the wall motion. Very large time-averaged shear stresses, 10–15 Pa, are calculated at the fistula anastomosis in the FSI simulations, values which are much larger than what is typically thought to be the normal homeostatic shear stress in the peripheral vasculature. Although this result is systematically lower by as much as 50% compared to the analogous rigid-walled simulations, the inclusion of distensible vessel walls in hemodynamic simulations does not reduce the high anastomotic shear stresses to “normal” values. Therefore, rigid-walled analyses may be acceptable for identifying high shear regions of arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:24037281

  6. Chronic Gastric Volvulus with Laparoscopic Gastropexy after Endoscopic Reduction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Yeon; Park, Jung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is an uncommon clinical entity. There are three types of gastric volvulus; organoaxial, mesenteroaxial and combined type. This condition can lead to a closed-loop obstruction or strangulation. Traditional surgical therapy for gastric volvulus is based on an open approach. Here we report a successful case of a patient with chronic gastric volvulus with a laparoscopic treatment. A 79-year-old woman came to the emergency department with epigastric pain accompanied by nausea for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography revealed markedly distended stomach with transposition of gastroesophageal Junction and gastric antrum. Barium meal study revealed presence of the antrum was folded over 180 degrees that was located above gastroesophageal junction. We attempted an endoscopic reduction, but it was unsuccessful. The patient got laparoscopic anterior gastropexy. Based on our result, laparoscopic gastropexy can be considered as a good choice of the treatment for gastric volvulus. PMID:26161290

  7. Micro-CT image-derived metrics quantify arterial wall distensibility reduction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Roger H.; Karau, Kelly L.; Molthen, Robert C.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2000-04-01

    We developed methods to quantify arterial structural and mechanical properties in excised rat lungs and applied them to investigate the distensibility decrease accompanying chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Lungs of control and hypertensive (three weeks 11% O2) animals were excised and a contrast agent introduced before micro-CT imaging with a special purpose scanner. For each lung, four 3D image data sets were obtained, each at a different intra-arterial contrast agent pressure. Vessel segment diameters and lengths were measured at all levels in the arterial tree hierarchy, and these data used to generate features sensitive to distensibility changes. Results indicate that measurements obtained from 3D micro-CT images can be used to quantify vessel biomechanical properties in this rat model of pulmonary hypertension and that distensibility is reduced by exposure to chronic hypoxia. Mechanical properties can be assessed in a localized fashion and quantified in a spatially-resolved way or as a single parameter describing the tree as a whole. Micro-CT is a nondestructive way to rapidly assess structural and mechanical properties of arteries in small animal organs maintained in a physiological state. Quantitative features measured by this method may provide valuable insights into the mechanisms causing the elevated pressures in pulmonary hypertension of differing etiologies and should become increasingly valuable tools in the study of complex phenotypes in small-animal models of important diseases such as hypertension.

  8. Occupation and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J F; Podas, T

    2003-05-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations-for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  9. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ... panel on weight loss surgery: executive report update. Obesity . 2009;17:842-62. PMID: 19396063 www.ncbi. ...

  10. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  11. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  12. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  13. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... diversion with duodenal switch Dumping syndrome References Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald ...

  14. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Roumina; Monappa, Vidya; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs) account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up. PMID:27162596

  15. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Roumina; Monappa, Vidya; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-05-01

    Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs) account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up. PMID:27162596

  16. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, H; Perry, A; Stewart, C J; Jones, R; Krishnan, A; Robertson, A G; Bourke, S; Doe, S; Cummings, S P; Anderson, A; Forrest, T; Griffin, S M; Brodlie, M; Pearson, J; Ward, C

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  17. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-momani, H.; Perry, A.; Stewart, C. J.; Jones, R.; Krishnan, A.; Robertson, A. G.; Bourke, S.; Doe, S.; Cummings, S. P.; Anderson, A.; Forrest, T.; Griffin, S. M.; Brodlie, M.; Pearson, J.; Ward, C.

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  18. Increased carotid intima-media thickness and reduced distensibility in human class III obesity: independent and differential influences of adiposity and blood pressure on the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Xiao L; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B; Dart, Anthony M; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2) and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m(2)). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133(+)/KDR(+) angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10(-3)kpa(-1)vs. 29.91±12.37 10(-3)kpa(-1), P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m(2). In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity. PMID:23342053

  19. Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Reduced Distensibility in Human Class III Obesity: Independent and Differential Influences of Adiposity and Blood Pressure on the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Xiao L.; Michell, Danielle; Lee, Sabrina; Skilton, Michael R.; Nair, Rajesh; Dixon, John B.; Dart, Anthony M.; Chin-Dusting, Jaye

    2013-01-01

    Carotid intima-media-thickness (cIMT) and carotid distensibility (distensibility), structural and functional properties of carotid arteries respectively, are early markers, as well as strong predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The characteristic of these two parameters in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2 (Class III obesity), however, are largely unknown. The present study was designed to document cIMT and distensibility in this population and to relate these to other factors with established association with CVD in obesity. The study included 96 subjects (65 with BMI>40.0 kg/m2 and 31, age- and gender-matched, with BMI of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m2). cIMT and distensibility were measured by non-invasive high resolution ultrasonography, circulatory CD133+/KDR+ angiogenic cells and endothelial microparticles (EMP) by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of adipokines, growth factors and cytokines by Luminex immunoassay kits. The study results demonstrated increased cIMT (0.62±0.11 mm vs. 0.54±0.08 mm, P = 0.0002) and reduced distensibility (22.52±10.79 10−3kpa−1 vs. 29.91±12.37 10−3kpa−1, P<0.05) in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2. Both cIMT and distensibility were significantly associated with traditional CVD risk factors, adiposity/adipokines and inflammatory markers but had no association with circulating angiogenic cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, elevated plasma EMP levels in individuals with BMI>40.0 kg/m2. In conclusion, cIMT is increased and distensibility reduced in Class III obesity with the changes predominantly related to conventional CVD risk factors present in this condition, demonstrating that both cIMT and distensibility remain as CVD markers in Class III obesity. PMID:23342053

  20. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls. PMID:26562229

  1. Pulse pressure waveform estimation using distension profiling with contactless optical probe.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Tânia; Santos, Inês; Oliveira, Tatiana; Vaz, Pedro; Pereira, Telmo; Santos, Helder; Pereira, Helena; Correia, Carlos; Cardoso, João

    2014-11-01

    The pulse pressure waveform has, for long, been known as a fundamental biomedical signal and its analysis is recognized as a non-invasive, simple, and resourceful technique for the assessment of arterial vessels condition observed in several diseases. In the current paper, waveforms from non-invasive optical probe that measures carotid artery distension profiles are compared with the waveforms of the pulse pressure acquired by intra-arterial catheter invasive measurement in the ascending aorta. Measurements were performed in a study population of 16 patients who had undergone cardiac catheterization. The hemodynamic parameters: area under the curve (AUC), the area during systole (AS) and the area during diastole (AD), their ratio (AD/AS) and the ejection time index (ETI), from invasive and non-invasive measurements were compared. The results show that the pressure waveforms obtained by the two methods are similar, with 13% of mean value of the root mean square error (RMSE). Moreover, the correlation coefficient demonstrates the strong correlation. The comparison between the AUCs allows the assessment of the differences between the phases of the cardiac cycle. In the systolic period the waveforms are almost equal, evidencing greatest clinical relevance during this period. Slight differences are found in diastole, probably due to the structural arterial differences. The optical probe has lower variability than the invasive system (13% vs 16%). This study validates the capability of acquiring the arterial pulse waveform with a non-invasive method, using a non-contact optical probe at the carotid site with residual differences from the aortic invasive measurements. PMID:25169470

  2. Lung distensibility and airway function in intermediate alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (Pi MZ).

    PubMed Central

    Tattersall, S F; Pereira, R P; Hunter, D; Blundell, G; Pride, N B

    1979-01-01

    We examined the role of intermediate alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency in predisposing to abnormalities of lung distensibility and airway function in 20 heterozygotes (Pi MZ) who were individually matched with a control Pi M subject of similar age, height, and smoking habits drawn from the same male, working population. There were no significant differences between the heterozygotes and their controls in the results of spirometry, maximum expiratory flow-volume curves (breathing air), single breath nitrogen test, arterialised capillary blood oxygen pressure, or single breath carbon monoxide transfer. Additional studies were made in 12 of the pairs of Pi MZ and Pi M subjects. Comparison of maximum expiratory flow-volume curves breathing air and 80% helium-20% oxygen showed no differences between the Pi MZ and Pi M subjects. Although airway function was similar in the two groups, four of 12 Pi MZ subjects showed abnormalities of the pressure-volume curve of the lung (reduction in lung recoil pressure, abnormal shape factor, increase in functional residual capacity). Abnormalities of washout of a helium-sulphur hexafluoride gas mixture, of a type previously described as characteristic of emphysema, were found in two of the men with abnormal pressure-volume curves. The results suggest that Pi MZ subjects have an increased susceptibility to alveolar abnormalities without increased abnormalities of airway function; this may explain the increased frequency of emphysema at necropsy despite many studies showing no predisposition to abnormal airway function in life. The functional changes we observed would be unlikely to cause symptoms. The risk of disablement from chronic lung disease appears to be only slightly enhanced by intermediate alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:316207

  3. Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal distension-induced visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Baskın, Veysel; Bilge, S. Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Güzel, Hasan; İlkaya, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effectiveness in colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral pain model. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley (250–300 g) rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and chlorpromazine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Two bipolar Teflon-coated Ni/Cr wire electrodes (80-M diameter) were placed in the abdominal external oblique muscle for the recording of electromyography. Jugular vein catheter was placed for the administration of drugs. CRD method was applied to evaluate of visceral pain. All drugs (paracetamol, meloxicam, metamizole, and dexketoprofen) administered intravenously. Results: Paracetamol 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg did not change the visceromotor response (VMR) when compare with the control group. Meloxicam 2 and 4 mg/kg showed no effect but at doses of 6 mg/kg meloxicam significantly ([51.9 ± 6.4%] [P < 0.001]) decreased VMR compared with the control group. Metamizole 200 mg/kg did not change responses but dose of 400 and 600 mg/kg metamizole reduced VMR. Dexketoprofen 2 and 4 mg/kg did not cause a change in VMR but 6 mg/kg dose significantly reduced response compared with the control group ([43.9 ± 3.9%, 36.8 ± 2.8%, 34.8 ± 2.5%, 42.1 ± 4.8%, 40.7 ± 3.5%, 36.4 ± 2.7%, and 26.1 ± 2.2%]; from 10 min to 70 min, respectively, [P < 0.05]). Conclusion: Metamizole, dexketoprofen and meloxicam show antinociceptive effect with different duration of action on CRD-induced visceral pain model. This condition can be explained due to different chemical structures and different mechanisms which play a role in modulation of pain. PMID:27114637

  4. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  5. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  6. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Gastric Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  7. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  8. GASTRIC MOTOR DISTURBANCES IN PATIENTS WITH IDIOPATHIC RAPID GASTRIC EMPTYING

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Manduca, Armando; Lake, David S.; Fidler, Jeff; Edwards, Phillip; Grimm, Roger C.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The mechanisms of “idiopathic” rapid gastric emptying, which is associated with functional dyspepsia and functional diarrhea, are not understood. Our hypotheses were that increased gastric motility and reduced postprandial gastric accommodation contribute to rapid gastric emptying. Methods Fasting and postprandial (300kCal nutrient meal) gastric volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 20 healthy people and 17 with functional dyspepsia; 7 had normal and 10 had rapid gastric emptying. In 17 healthy people and patients, contractility was analyzed by spectral analysis of a time-series of gastric cross-sectional areas. Logistic regression models analyzed whether contractile parameters, fasting volume, and postprandial volume change could discriminate between health and patients with normal or rapid gastric emptying. Results While upper gastrointestinal symptoms were comparable, patients with rapid emptying had a higher (p = 0.002) body mass index (BMI) than normal gastric emptying. MRI visualized propagating contractions at ~ 3 cpm in healthy people and patients. Compared to controls (0.16 ± 0.02, Mean ± SEM), the amplitude of gastric contractions in the entire stomach was higher (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.0) in patients with rapid (0.24 ± 0.03) but not normal gastric emptying (0.10 ± 0.03). Similar differences were observed in the distal stomach. However, the propagation velocity, fasting gastric volume, and the postprandial volume change were not significantly different between patients and controls. Conclusions MRI provides a noninvasive and refined assessment of gastric volumes and contractility in humans. Increased gastric contractility may contribute to rapid gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia. PMID:21470342

  9. Gastric dysrhythmias and transient sleep impairment in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Lin; Lin, Hans Hsienhong

    2004-02-01

    Studies have shown that impaired sleep quality is associated with exacerbation of gastrointestinal problems. The aim of this study was to measure gastric myoelectrical activity and visceral perception to fullness before and after a water load in healthy volunteers with or without transient sleep impairment. Twenty-eight male subjects (mean age, 39.3 years; range, 14-58 years) were studied. The subjective sleep quality was measured by visual analogue scale (bad [0] to very good [100]. Gastric myoelectrical activity was recorded and analyzed before and after the subjects ingested water until full. Subjects were stratified into two groups, i.e., with impaired sleep quality (Group A [Gr-A]; n = 15; mean age, 35.1 years) and with fine sleep quality (Group B [Gr-B]; n = 13; mean age, 40.7 years). Gr-A subjects ingested less water (514 +/- 21 ml) compared to the Gr-B subjects (621 +/- 50 ml: P < 0.05). After ingestion of the water load, Gr-A had significantly less 2.5- to 3.75-cpm activity (28.0 +/- 4%) by 21-30 min and more tachygastric activity (28 +/- 2 and 30 +/- 4%) by 11-30 min compared with Gr-B (43 +/- 5, 20 +/- 2, and 18 +/- 2%, respectively; P < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between sleep quality and the percentage of power in the normal range by 21-30 min after the water load (r = 0.5, P < 0.01). In contrast, a negative correlation was observed between sleep quality and tachygastric activity by 11-20 min (r = -0.4, P < 0.05) and 21-30 min (r = -0.4, P < 0.05) after ingestion of water. Transient sleep impairment is associated with increases in gastric dysrhythmia and altered perception to gastric distension in response to the water load. The study provides a potential clue that transient sleep impairment might influence gastric myoelectrical functioning in healthy individuals. PMID:15104354

  10. Effect of psychotropic drugs on gastric ulcers induced by immobilization: Increased protective effect of amitriptyline caused by chlordiazepoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, J. E.; Huerlimann, A.

    1980-01-01

    Amitriptyline, but not chlordiazepoxide, protects rats from the occurrence of gastric erosions and ulcers following immobilization. When, however, chlordiazepoxide is given together with amitriptyline the protective effect of the latter is markedly increased.

  11. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  12. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  13. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  14. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  15. 46 CFR 108.661 - Unit markings: Draft marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unit markings: Draft marks. 108.661 Section 108.661... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.661 Unit markings: Draft marks. (a) Each unit must have draft marks for each foot of immersion— (1) If the unit is a surface unit, on both the...

  16. Effect of gastric acid suppressants on human gastric motility

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, H; Urbain, J; Knight, L; Brown, K; Trate, D; Miller, M; Maurer, A; Fisher, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—The effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on gastric emptying is controversial. 
Aims—To determine the effects of ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole on gastric motility and emptying. 
Patients and methods—Fifteen normal subjects underwent simultaneous antroduodenal manometry, electrogastrography (EGG), and gastric emptying with dynamic antral scintigraphy (DAS). After 30 minutes of fasting manometry and EGG recording, subjects received either intravenous saline, ranitidine, or famotidine, followed by another 30 minutes recording and then three hours of postprandial recording after ingestion of a radiolabelled meal. Images were obtained every 10-15 minutes for three hours to measure gastric emptying and assess antral contractility. Similar testing was performed after omeprazole 20 mg daily for one week. 
Results—Fasting antral phase III migrating motor complexes (MMCs) were more common after ranitidine (9/15 subjects, 60%), famotidine (12/15, 80%), and omeprazole (8/12, 67%) compared with placebo (4/14, 29%; p<0.05). Postprandially, ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole slowed gastric emptying, increased the amplitude of DAS contractions, increased the EGG power, and increased the antral manometric motility index. 
Conclusions—Suppression of gastric acid secretion with therapeutic doses of gastric acid suppressants is associated with delayed gastric emptying but increased antral motility. 

 Keywords: gastric motility; gastric emptying; histamine H2 receptor antagonists; proton pump inhibitors; gastric acid secretion; scintigraphy PMID:9536950

  17. HOTTIP and HOXA13 are oncogenes associated with gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuai; Liu, Junsong; Guo, Shaochun; He, Shicai; Qiu, Guanglin; Lu, Jing; Wang, Jin; Fan, Lin; Zhao, Wei; Che, Xiangming

    2016-06-01

    A long non-coding RNA named HOTTIP (HOXA transcript at the distal tip) coordinates the activation of various 5' HOXA genes which encode master regulators of development through targeting the WDR5/MLL complex. HOTTIP acts as an oncogene in several types of cancers, whereas its biological function in gastric cancer has never been studied. In the present study, we investigated the role of HOTTIP in gastric cancer. We found that HOTTIP was upregulated in gastric cancer cell lines. Knockdown of HOTTIP in gastric cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, downregulation of HOTTIP led to decreased expression of homeobox protein Hox-A13 (HOXA13) in gastric cancer cell lines. HOXA13 was involved in HOTTIP‑induced malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer cells. Our data showed that the levels of HOTTIP and HOXA13 were both markedly upregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with their counterparts in non-tumorous tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of HOTTIP and HOXA13 were both higher in gastric cancer which was poorly differentiated, at advanced TNM stages and exhibited lymph node-metastasis. Spearman analyses indicated that HOTTIP and HOXA13 had a highly positive correlation both in non-tumor mucosae and cancer lesions. Collectively, these findings suggest that HOTTIP and HOXA13 play important roles in gastric cancer progression and provide a new insight into therapeutic treatment for the disease. PMID:27108607

  18. Gastric Lgr5(+) stem cells are the cellular origin of invasive intestinal-type gastric cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Bin; Yang, Guan; Zhu, Liang; Tang, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Chong; Ju, Zhenyu; Yang, Xiao; Teng, Yan

    2016-07-01

    The cellular origin of gastric cancer remains elusive. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is the first identified marker of gastric stem cells. However, the role of Lgr5(+) stem cells in driving malignant gastric cancer is not fully validated. Here, we deleted Smad4 and PTEN in murine gastric Lgr5(+) stem cells by the inducible Cre-LoxP system and marked mutant Lgr5(+) stem cells and their progeny with Cre-reporter Rosa26(tdTomato). Rapid onset and progression from microadenoma and macroscopic adenoma to invasive intestinal-type gastric cancer (IGC) were found in the gastric antrum with the loss of Smad4 and PTEN. In addition, invasive IGC developed at the murine gastro-forestomach junction, where a few Lgr5(+) stem cells reside. In contrast, Smad4 and PTEN deletions in differentiated cells, including antral parietal cells, pit cells and corpus Lgr5(+) chief cells, failed to initiate tumor growth. Furthermore, mutant Lgr5(+) cells were involved in IGC growth and progression. In the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) database, an increase in LGR5 expression was manifested in the human IGC that occurred at the gastric antrum and gastro-esophageal junction. In addition, the concurrent deletion of SMAD4 and PTEN, as well as their reduced expression and deregulated downstream pathways, were associated with human IGC. Thus, we demonstrated that gastric Lgr5(+) stem cells were cancer-initiating cells and might act as cancer-propagating cells to contribute to malignant progression. PMID:27091432

  19. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

  20. An extended proximal esophageal myotomy is necessary to normalize EGJ distensibility during Heller myotomy for achalasia, but not POEM

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Ezra N.; Soper, Nathaniel J.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Boris, Lubomyr; Nicodème, Frédéric; Lin, Zhiyue; Hungness, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Background For laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), the optimal myotomy length proximal to the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is unknown. In this study, we used a functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) to measure EGJ distensibility changes resulting from variable proximal myotomy lengths during LHM and peroral esophageal myotomy (POEM). Methods Distensibility index (DI) (defined as the minimum cross-sectional area at the EGJ divided by pressure) was measured with FLIP after each operative step. During LHM and POEM, each patient’s myotomy was performed in two stages: first, a myotomy ablating only the EGJ complex was created (EGJ-M), extending from 2cm proximal to the EGJ, to 3cm distal to it. Next, the myotomy was lengthened 4cm further cephalad to create an extended proximal myotomy (EP-M). Results Measurements were performed in 12 patients undergoing LHM and 19 undergoing POEM. LHM resulted in an overall increase in DI (1.6 ±1 vs. 6.3 ±3.4 mm2/mmHg, p<.001). Creation of an EGJ-M resulted in a small increase (1.6 to 2.3 mm2/mmHg, p<.01) and extension to an EP-M resulted in a larger increase (2.3 to 4.9 mm2/mmHg, p<.001). This effect was consistent, with 11 (92%) patients experiencing a larger increase after EP-M than after EGJ-M. Fundoplication resulted in a decrease in DI and deinsufflation an increase. POEM resulted in an increase in DI (1.3 ±1 vs. 9.2 ±3.9 mm2/mmHg, p<.001). Both creation of the submucosal tunnel and performing an EGJ-M increased DI, whereas lengthening of the myotomy to an EP-M had no additional effect. POEM resulted in a larger overall increase from baseline than LHM (7.9 ±3.5 vs. 4.7 ±3.3 mm2/mmHg, p<.05). Conclusions During LHM, an extended proximal myotomy was necessary to normalize distensibility, whereas during POEM, a myotomy confined to the EGJ complex was sufficient. In this cohort, POEM resulted in a larger overall increase in EGJ distensibility. PMID:24853854

  1. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; ŁaŸniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spychała, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  2. Ames Fellows Award - Mark

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Hans Mark is a leading expert in the fields of aerospace design and national defense policy. From 1969 to 1977, he served as Director of the NASA Ames Research Center. During his tenure, Ames b...

  3. Levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2016-02-01

    Levodopa possesses antinociceptive actions against several somatic pain conditions. However, we do not know at this moment whether levodopa is also effective to visceral pain. The present study was therefore performed to clarify whether levodopa is effective to visceral pain and its mechanisms. Visceral sensation was evaluated by colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Subcutaneously (80 mg/rat) or intracisternally (2.5 μg/rat) administered levodopa significantly increased the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR in conscious rats. The dose difference to induce the antinociceptive action suggests levodopa acts centrally to exert its antinociceptive action against colonic distension. While neither sulpiride, a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, nor SCH23390, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist by itself changed the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR, the intracisternally injected levodopa-induced antinociceptive action was significantly blocked by pretreatment with subcutaneously administered sulpiride but not SCH23390. Treatment with intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, significantly blocked the subcutaneously administered levodopa-induced antinociceptive action. These results suggest that levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain. PMID:26883457

  4. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  5. Melanoma with gastric metastases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W; Bhatia, Abhijit S; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  6. Quality of life in gastric cancer prior to gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Svedlund, J; Sullivan, M; Sjödin, I; Liedman, B; Lundell, L

    1996-04-01

    A growing number of surgical trials include quality of life variables in the overall assessment of outcomes. This is believed to broaden the criteria for choice of treatment and the evaluation of treatment regimens. The present study is a baseline evaluation of the health-related quality of life in patients with gastric cancer facing surgery. The quality of life in these patients was related to that of other patient groups referred for surgical interventions and general population groups. Our study included 103 consecutive patients with carcinoma of the stomach considered amenable to a curative major surgical procedure. The quality of life evaluation was based on a battery of questionnaires, covering general body symptoms, mood level and functional limitations. Patients with gastric cancer reported more neurasthenic complaints such as reduced sexual interest, insomnia and poor appetite as well as a lower mood level than the general population. The gastric cancer group also showed a markedly lower mood level in comparison with a group of cancer survivors 2-3 years after diagnosis and patients with intermittent claudication. The mental well-being of gastric cancer patients matched that of cancer survivors with one or more recurrences. Overall, 25% of the gastric cancer patients reported functional limitations regarded as clinically significant. Patients with intermittent claudication reported more and patients with small cell lung cancer markedly more limitations. We conclude that although patients with gastric cancer showed a low level of limitations on average, problems in the areas of sleep/rest, home management and, especially, eating were frequently reported. PMID:8998494

  7. Meetings with Mark Vishik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikinskaya, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Mark Iosifovich Vishik was my husband Vladimir Chepyzhov's advisor during his years as a student in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics at Moscow State University, and afterwards they worked together for almost 30 years. This is why I knew him personally while not being a mathematician myself: we sometimes talked on the phone, and met during common trips and a few holidays. In his last years, after the death of his devoted wife who was also his best friend, my husband and I decided to visit Mark regularly in order to comfort him in his loneliness, and many other of his friends did the same. I can say without exaggeration that Mark loved to talk with me about everyday matters, to reminisce about his wife Asya Moiseevna, their friends and relatives, to tell stories of his youth and the wonderful encounters that had so enriched his life. We had the idea to write down our conversations and publish them as a book. Unfortunately, few such conversations lay ahead. The last one took place in January 2010. We did not write a book, but we did write an article [1], which was published in English in the form of an interview with Mark. The present article is based on our conversations with Mark. Here I will try to recount his memories about people who played an important role in his life.

  8. EARLY ORAL RE-FEEDING ON ONCOLOGY PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO GASTRECTOMY FOR GASTRIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    LAFFITTE, Andressa Madalozo; POLAKOWSKI, Camila Brandão; KATO, Massakazu

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no advantage in maintaining patients on oral fasting after gastrointestinal elective resection. The early feeding up to 48 h can be beneficial, because it reduces infectious complications and hospital stay. Aim: Evaluate the evolution and tolerance of early oral diet in postoperative period after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: Anthropometric assessment was performed on the day of surgery, weight, height, body mass index and weight loss were measured. Acceptance of diet was evaluated as food intake (amount accepted) and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distension, postoperative complications and hospital stay. Results: The sample consisted of 23 patients, 17 with partial gastrectomy and six with total gastrectomy. In the assessment of nutritional status 9% were malnourished, 54.5% normal weight, 9% overweight and 27.2% obese, but 54% had weight loss. There was good acceptance of the diet in 96,9% of the sample. Nausea and abdominal distension were present in 4,3% and 65.2% constipation. Surgical complications according to the Clavien scalle, 13% had grade V, 4.3% grade IIIA, 8.7% grade I and 73% did not have complications. The length of hospital stay was 5±2.2 days. Conclusion: Early postoperative re-feeding in total and partial gastrectomy was well tolerated by patients. PMID:26537147

  9. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  10. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  11. Effect of free dietary glutamate on gastric secretion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zolotarev, Vasiliy; Khropycheva, Raisa; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio

    2009-07-01

    The amino acid, L-glutamate, which is abundant in many foodstuffs, is a potent stimulator of gastric vagal afferents. The aim of the study was to evaluate a role of dietary glutamate in neuroendocrine control of gastric secretion of acid, pepsinogen, and fluid. In mongrel dogs with small gastric pouches surgically prepared according to Pavlov (vagally innervated) or Heidenhain (vagally decentralized), secretion in a pouch was induced by infusion into the main stomach of an amino acid-rich diet lacking glutamate (Elental) or the same diet supplemented with monosodium glutamate (MSG). Having no effect alone, MSG (100 mM) potentiated secretion induced by Elental both in Pavlov and Heidenhain models. In the Pavlov pouch, the effect of MSG was markedly reduced after i.v. injection of granisetron, an antagonist of 5-HT(3) receptors. In the Heidenhain model, MSG enhanced the stimulatory effect of pentagastrin (1 microg/kg, s.c.). In conclusion, dietary glutamate at doses not exceeding its common concentrations in foods substantially potentiates gastric phase secretion induced by stimulation of gastric mucosa with an amino acid-rich diet or by administration of pentagastrin. The effect of glutamate is partially mediated via serotonin secretion and stimulation of 5-HT(3) receptors. PMID:19686114

  12. Decreased gastric secretory functions in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Takebe, K; Imamura, K; Miyazawa, T; Ishii, M; Kudoh, K; Terada, A; Machida, K; Kikuchi, H; Kasai, F

    1994-06-01

    A total of 37 subjects consisted of 10 healthy subjects (Group III), 15 diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy (Group II), and 12 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy including gastroparesis in 6 cases (Group I). All three groups were comparable in age. In order to clarify the gastric function in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy, secretion of serum gastrin, gastric secretory function, endoscopic Congo red test of fundic glands, and coefficiency of variance of electrocardiographic beat-to-beat intervals (C.V. R-R) were examined. In Group I, 5 patients had hypergastrinemia, but its elevation was inhibited when an acid solution was injected into the stomach. Gastric secretion and C.V. R-R were markedly lower in Group I, compared with Groups II and III. In Group I, the area of fundic glands (parietal cells) was reduced considerably. The C.V. R-R was significantly correlated with fasting serum gastrin concentration and with maximal acid output. From these results, in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy (vagal neuropathy), gastric acid secretion in response to tetragastrin stimulation was lowered with a reduction in area of fundic gland distribution. Hypergastrinemia may reflect a negative feedback mechanism responding to decreased acidity of gastric content in the antrum. PMID:7817384

  13. Stromal-Based Signatures for the Classification of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Uhlik, Mark T; Liu, Jiangang; Falcon, Beverly L; Iyer, Seema; Stewart, Julie; Celikkaya, Hilal; O'Mahony, Marguerita; Sevinsky, Christopher; Lowes, Christina; Douglass, Larry; Jeffries, Cynthia; Bodenmiller, Diane; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Fischl, Anthony; Gerald, Damien; Xue, Qi; Lee, Jee-Yun; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Sui, Yunxia; Desai, Keyur; Doman, Thompson; Aggarwal, Amit; Carter, Julia H; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Jaminet, Shou-Ching; Ginty, Fiona; Nasir, Aejaz; Nagy, Janice A; Dvorak, Harold F; Benjamin, Laura E

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of metastatic gastric cancer typically involves chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies targeting HER2 (ERBB2) and VEGFR2 (KDR). However, reliable methods to identify patients who would benefit most from a combination of treatment modalities targeting the tumor stroma, including new immunotherapy approaches, are still lacking. Therefore, we integrated a mouse model of stromal activation and gastric cancer genomic information to identify gene expression signatures that may inform treatment strategies. We generated a mouse model in which VEGF-A is expressed via adenovirus, enabling a stromal response marked by immune infiltration and angiogenesis at the injection site, and identified distinct stromal gene expression signatures. With these data, we designed multiplexed IHC assays that were applied to human primary gastric tumors and classified each tumor to a dominant stromal phenotype representative of the vascular and immune diversity found in gastric cancer. We also refined the stromal gene signatures and explored their relation to the dominant patient phenotypes identified by recent large-scale studies of gastric cancer genomics (The Cancer Genome Atlas and Asian Cancer Research Group), revealing four distinct stromal phenotypes. Collectively, these findings suggest that a genomics-based systems approach focused on the tumor stroma can be used to discover putative predictive biomarkers of treatment response, especially to antiangiogenesis agents and immunotherapy, thus offering an opportunity to improve patient stratification. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2573-86. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197264

  14. Recent patterns in gastric cancer: a global overview.

    PubMed

    Bertuccio, Paola; Chatenoud, Liliane; Levi, Fabio; Praud, Delphine; Ferlay, Jacques; Negri, Eva; Malvezzi, Matteo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Until the mid-1990s, gastric cancer has been the first cause of cancer death worldwide, although rates had been declining for several decades and gastric cancer has become a relatively rare cancer in North America and in most Northern and Western Europe, but not in Eastern Europe, Russia and selected areas of Central and South America or East Asia. We analyzed gastric cancer mortality in Europe and other areas of the world from 1980 to 2005 using joinpoint regression analysis, and provided updated site-specific incidence rates from 51 selected registries. Over the last decade, the annual percent change (APC) in mortality rate was around -3, -4% for the major European countries. The APC were similar for the Republic of Korea (APC = -4.3%), Australia (-3.7%), the USA (-3.6%), Japan (-3.5%), Ukraine (-3%) and the Russian Federation (-2.8%). In Latin America, the decline was less marked, but constant with APC around -1.6% in Chile and Brazil, -2.3% in Argentina and Mexico and -2.6% in Colombia. Cancers in the fundus and pylorus are more common in high incidence and mortality areas and have been declining more than cardia gastric cancer. Steady downward trends persist in gastric cancer mortality worldwide even in middle aged population, and hence further appreciable declines are likely in the near future. PMID:19382179

  15. Reduced gastric acid production in burn shock period and its significance in the prevention and treatment of acute gastric mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Yang, Zhong-Cheng; Li, Ao; Cheng, De-Chang

    2000-02-01

    AIM:To investigate the changes of gastric acid production and its mechanism in shock period of severe burn in rats.METHODS:A rat model with 30% TBSA full thickness burn injury was employed and the gastric acid production,together with gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and energy charge (EC) were measured serially within 48h postburn.RESULTS:The gastric acid production in the acute shock period was markedly inhibited after severe burn injury.At the 3rd h postburn,the gastric juice volume, total acidity and acid output were already significantly decreased (P < 0.01 =, and reached the lowest point, 0.63mL/L ± 0.20mL/L, 10.81mmol/L ± 2.58mmol/L and 2.23mmol/h ± 0.73mmol/h respectively, at the 12th h postburn. Although restored to some degree 24h after thermal injury, the variables above were still statistically lower, compared with those of control animals at the 48th h postburn. The GMBF and EC were also significantly reduced after severe burns, consistent with the trend of gastric acid production changes.CONCLUSION:Gastric acid production, as well as GMBF and EC was predominantly decreased in the early postburn stage, suggesting that gastric mucosal ischemia and hypoxia with resultant disturbance in energy metabolism, but not gastric acid proper, might be the decisive factor in the pathogenesis of AGML after thermal injury, and that the preventive use of anti-acid drugs during burn shock period was unreasonable in some respects. Therefore, taking effective measures to improve gastric mucosal blood perfusion as early as possible postburn might be more preferable for the AGML prevention and treatment. PMID:11819529

  16. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists ... stomach (gastric) cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel ...

  17. Acute gastric dilatation causing fatal outcome in a young female with eating disorder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Seung-Mok; Kim, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old female with a history of bulimia nervosa came to the emergency room due to severe abdominal pain after excessive eating five hours previously. On arrival at the emergency room, extreme abdominal distension was detected and the patient's legs changed color. Computed tomography suggested severe gastric dilatation, so abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected and an emergent laparotomy was supposed to be conducted. Though anesthesia was induced without event, abrupt hemodynamic collapse developed just after the operation started. In spite of active resuscitation for 29 min, the patient did not recover and expired. As the incidence of eating disorders is increasing, anesthesiologists should keep in mind the possibility of abdominal compartment syndrome in patients with a recent history of binge eating, and prepare optimal anesthetic and resuscitation remedies against sudden deteriorations of a patient's condition. PMID:25844140

  18. Acute gastric dilatation causing fatal outcome in a young female with eating disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Youm, Seung-Mok; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong Rim

    2015-04-01

    A 21-year-old female with a history of bulimia nervosa came to the emergency room due to severe abdominal pain after excessive eating five hours previously. On arrival at the emergency room, extreme abdominal distension was detected and the patient's legs changed color. Computed tomography suggested severe gastric dilatation, so abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected and an emergent laparotomy was supposed to be conducted. Though anesthesia was induced without event, abrupt hemodynamic collapse developed just after the operation started. In spite of active resuscitation for 29 min, the patient did not recover and expired. As the incidence of eating disorders is increasing, anesthesiologists should keep in mind the possibility of abdominal compartment syndrome in patients with a recent history of binge eating, and prepare optimal anesthetic and resuscitation remedies against sudden deteriorations of a patient's condition. PMID:25844140

  19. Large simple hepatic cysts leading to gastric fundal varices in a noncirrhotic patient.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Nao; Yano, Hiroko; Sugimachi, Keishi; Tanaka, Junko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Saeki, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Shuichi; Mimori, Koshi; Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Ikebe, Masahiko; Morita, Masaru; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Mu, Shinsuke; Higashi, Hidefumi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2013-11-01

    A 74-year-old noncirrhotic woman presented with abdominal distension and pain in the right hypochondrium. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated multiple large simple liver cysts occupying the right lobe of the liver, the largest of which was 19 cm in diameter. Gastric varices were enhanced in the fundus of the stomach. The patient underwent surgery to deroof the hepatic cysts with ablation using argon beam coagulation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed that the portal hypertensive gastropathy was ameliorated after the operation; however, the fundal varices were only slightly decreased. After the operation, we observed that the hepatic vein waveform gradually changed from a gently curved pattern to a normal triphasic pattern. We treated the fundal varices with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration 3 months after the initial operation. We describe our successful treatment of this rare case and discuss the utility of hepatic vein waveform analysis in the study of portal hypertension. PMID:24620641

  20. Gastric metastasis from salivary duct carcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Kanefumi; Takeno, Shinsuke; Nimura, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Yoshikazu; Sueta, Takayuki; Maki, Kenji; Kayashima, Yoshiyuki; Shiwaku, Hironari; Kato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present a very rare case of gastric metastasis mimicking primary gastric cancer in a patient who had undergone surgery for salivary duct carcinoma. Presentation of case A 67-year-old man had been diagnosed as having right parotid cancer and had undergone a right parotidectomy and lymph node dissection. The histological diagnosis was salivary duct carcinoma. One year after the surgery, a positron emission tomography–computed tomography scan using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) revealed an abnormal uptake of FDG in the left cervical, mediastinal, paraaortic, and cardiac lymph nodes; stomach; and pancreas. On gastroduodenoscopy, there was a huge, easily bleeding ulcer mimicking primary gastric cancer at the upper body of the stomach. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the primary gastric cancer and the metastatic tumor using gastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. Because of the uncontrollable bleeding from the gastric cancer, we performed an emergency palliative total gastrectomy. On histological examination, the gastric lesion was found to be metastatic carcinoma originating from the salivary duct carcinoma. Discussion In the presented case, we could not diagnose the gastric metastasis originating from the salivary duct carcinoma even by endoscopic biopsy. This is because the histological appearance of salivary duct carcinoma is similar to that of high-grade adenocarcinoma, thus, resembling primary gastric cancer. Conclusion When we perform endoscopic examination of patients with malignant neoplasias, a possibility of metastatic gastric cancer should be taken into consideration. PMID:27085106

  1. Does Measurement of Esophagogastric Junction Distensibility by EndoFLIP Predict Therapy-responsiveness to Endoluminal Fundoplication in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Fabiënne G M; Keszthelyi, Daniel; Bouvy, Nicole D; Masclee, Ad A M; Conchillo, José M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), an increased esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility has been described. Assessment of EGJ distensibility with the endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP) technique might identify patients responsive to transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF), whereas postoperative measurement of EGJ distensibility might provide insight into the antireflux mechanism of TIF. Therefore, we investigated the value of the EndoFLIP technique in GERD patients treated by TIF. Methods Forty-two GERD patients underwent EGJ distensibility measurement before TIF using the EndoFLIP technique. In a subgroup of 25 patients, EndoFLIP measurement was repeated both postoperative and at 6 months follow-up. Treatment outcome was assessed according to esophageal acid exposure time (AET; objective outcome) and symptom scores (clinical outcome) 6 months after TIF. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative EGJ distensibility (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03–0.78; P = 0.023) and preoperative AET (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42–0.90; P = 0.013) were independent predictors for objective treatment outcome but not for clinical outcome after TIF. The best cut-off value for objective outcome was 2.3 mm2/mmHg for preoperative EGJ distensibility and 11% for preoperative AET. EGJ distensibility decreased direct postoperative from 2.0 (1.2–3.3) to 1.4 (1.0–2.2) mm2/mmHg (P = 0.014), but increased to 2.2 (1.5–3.0) at 6 months follow-up (P = 0.925, compared to preoperative). Conclusions Preoperative EGJ distensibility and preoperative AET were independent predictors for objective treatment outcome but not for clinical outcome after TIF. According to our data, the EndoFLIP technique has no added value either in the preoperative diagnostic work-up or in the post-procedure evaluation of endoluminal antireflux therapy. PMID:25742904

  2. Gastric Aspiration Models

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Bruce A.; Alluri, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The procedures described below are for producing gastric aspiration pneumonitis in mice with alterations for rats and rabbits described parenthetically. We use 4 different injury vehicles delivered intratracheally to investigate the inflammatory responses to gastric aspiration: Normal saline (NS) as the injury vehicle controlNS + HCl, pH = 1.25 (acid)NS + gastric particles, pH ≈ 5.3 (part.)NS + gastric particles + HCl, pH = 1.25 (acid + part.) The volume, pH, and gastric particle concentration all affect the resulting lung injury. In mice, we generally use an injury volume of 3.6 ml/kg (rat: 1.2 ml/kg, rabbit: 2.4 ml/kg), an injury pH (for the acid-containing vehicles) of 1.25, and a gastric particulate concentration (in the particulate-containing vehicles) of 10 mg/ml (rat: 40 mg/ml). In our hands this results in a maximal, non-lethal lung injury with ≤ 10% mortality for the most injurious vehicle (i.e., acid + part.) The maximum tolerable particulate concentration needs to be determined empirically for any new strains to be used, especially in genetically-altered mice, because an altered inflammatory response may have detrimental affects on mortality. We have extensive experience utilizing these procedures in the outbred strain, CD-1, as well as many genetically-altered inbred stains on the C57BL/6 background. Choice of strain should be carefully considered, especially in terms of strain-specific immune bias, to assure proper data interpretation. The size of the mouse should be ≥ 20 g at the time of injury. Smaller mice can be attempted, if necessary, but the surgical manipulation becomes increasingly more difficult and the surgery survival rate decreases substantially. There are no size or strain constraints for rat and rabbit models, but we generally use Long-Evans rats at 250–300 g and New Zealand White rats at ≈ 2 kg at the time of initial injury.

  3. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters. PMID:23812778

  4. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  5. Effects of EGFR Inhibitor on Helicobacter pylori Induced Gastric Epithelial Pathology in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Jean E.; Jeremy, Anthony H.T.; Duval, Cedric; Dixon, Michael F.; Danjo, Kazuma; Carr, Ian M.; Pritchard, D. Mark; Robinson, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori transactivates the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and predisposes to gastric cancer development in humans and animal models. To examine the importance of EGFR signalling to gastric pathology, this study investigated whether treatment of Mongolian gerbils with a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, EKB-569, altered gastric pathology in chronic H. pylori infection. Gerbils were infected with H. pylori and six weeks later received either EKB-569-supplemented, or control diet, for 32 weeks prior to sacrifice. EKB-569-treated H. pylori-infected gerbils had no difference in H. pylori colonisation or inflammation scores compared to infected animals on control diet, but showed significantly less corpus atrophy, mucous metaplasia and submucosal glandular herniations along with markedly reduced antral and corpus epithelial proliferation to apoptosis ratios. EKB-569-treated infected gerbils had significantly decreased abundance of Cox-2, Adam17 and Egfr gastric transcripts relative to infected animals on control diet. EGFR inhibition by EKB-569 therefore reduced the severity of pre-neoplastic gastric pathology in chronically H. pylori-infected gerbils. EKB-569 increased gastric epithelial apoptosis in H. pylori-infected gerbils which counteracted some of the consequences of increased gastric epithelial cell proliferation. Similar chemopreventative strategies may be useful in humans who are at high risk of developing H. pylori- induced gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:25437333

  6. Increased programmed death-ligand-1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y-Y; Lin, C-W; Cheng, K-S; Lin, C; Wang, Y-M; Lin, I-T; Chou, Y-H; Hsu, P-N

    2010-01-01

    B7-H1 [programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1)] is a B7-family member that binds to programmed death-1 (PD-1). Recently, deficiency of PD-L1 has been demonstrated to result in accelerated gastric epithelial cell damage in gastritis, and PD-L1 is suggested to play a critical role in regulating T cell homeostasis. Here, we aimed to gain more insight into gastric PD-L1 expression, regulation and function during Helicobacter pylori infection. PD-L1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells was analysed using Western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis. Furthermore, co-culture experiments of human gastric epithelial cells with primary human T cells or Jurkat T cells were conducted. PD-L1 expression in primary human gastric epithelial cells was strongly enhanced by H. pylori infection and activated T cells, and augmented markedly by further stimulation with interferon-γ or tumour necrosis factor-α. Moreover, PD-L1 expression in gastric epithelial cells significantly induced apoptosis of T cells. Our results indicate that a novel bidirectional interaction between human gastric epithelial cells and lymphocytes modulates PD-L1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells, contributing to the unique immunological properties of the stomach. PMID:20646001

  7. Airbag bounce marks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  8. Fathoming Mark Twain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggar, Joanna

    1988-01-01

    Relates the efforts of completing two collections of the works and papers of Mark Twain. Describes the combined efforts of the University of Iowa and the University of California to publish both a scholarly edition and a reader's edition devoted to Twain. (KO)

  9. Teaching with Mark Dion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  10. Digitally Marking RSA Moduli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.M.

    2000-10-09

    The moduli used in RSA (see [5]) can be generated by many different sources. The generator of that modulus (assuming a single entity generates the modulus) knows its factorization. They would have the ability to forge signatures or break any system based on this moduli. If a moduli and the RSA parameters associated with it were generated by a reputable source, the system would have higher value than if the parameters were generated by an unknown entity. So for tracking, security, confidence and financial reasons it would be beneficial to know who the generator of the RSA modulus was. This is where digital marking comes in. An RSA modulus ia digitally marked, or digitally trade marked, if the generator and other identifying features of the modulus (such as its intended user, the version number, etc.) can be identified and possibly verified by the modulus itself. The basic concept of digitally marking an RSA modulus would be to fix the upper bits of the modulus to this tag. Thus anyone who sees the public modulus can tell who generated the modulus and who the generator believes the intended user/owner of the modulus is.

  11. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  12. Marking Advanced Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Michael

    1978-01-01

    A list of points to aid essay writers is suggested as the basis of a marking system for the teacher of English as a foreign language. The checklist, obtained from a book on higher education by Ruth Beard, can be adapted to the English as a foreign language situation. (SW)

  13. Double Marking Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published the report of an independent panel of experts into maintaining standards at Advanced Level (A-Level). One of its recommendations was for: limited experimental double marking of scripts in subjects such as English to determine whether the strategy would significantly reduce errors…

  14. Gastric cancer review

    PubMed Central

    Carcas, Lauren Peirce

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

  15. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  16. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  17. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  18. Oesophageal and gastric obstruction in a cocaine body packer.

    PubMed

    Hantson, P; Capron, A; Maillart, J-F

    2014-10-01

    While the management of asymptomatic body packers is mainly conservative, few individuals will require surgery for acute toxicity related to packets rupture, intestinal obstruction or very slow progression of the packages. Obstruction of the lower oesophagus or stomach is not frequently reported. We report the case of a 49-year-old woman who had ingested 92 cocaine-containing packages. She was admitted to the hospital after opioid syndrome related to the intake of morphine and codeine to decrease intestinal transit. The presence of more than 80 packages was suspected in the stomach on the initial abdomen computed tomography. Due to the absence of progression of the packages after four days of well-conducted laxative therapy and to major gastric distension at abdomen tomography, surgery was decided and gastrotomy allowed the evacuation of 80 packages that were still present in the stomach or in the lower oesophagus. In addition, 12 other packages had been retrieved either after laxative therapy (9) or by evacuation via the anal canal (3) after palpation of the intestine during the surgical procedure. No complication was observed. PMID:25287802

  19. Comparison of gastric and other bowel perforations in preterm infants: a review of 20 years' experience in a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Kyung; Shim, So Yeon; Cho, Su Jin; Lee, Sun Wha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, we aimed to review the clinical presentation of preterm infants with gastrointestinal perforations and compare the clinical features of gastric perforation with other intestinal perforations. Methods The medical records of preterm neonates with pneumoperitoneum, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1994 and December 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Results Twenty-one preterm infants underwent exploratory laparotomy to investigate the cause of the pneumoperitoneum. The sample consisted of five patients (23.8%) with gastric perforation and 16 patients (76.2%) with intestinal perforation. No statistical differences were found in the birth history and other perinatal factors between the two groups. Underlying necrotizing enterocolitis, bilious vomiting, and paralytic ileus preceding the perforation were statistically more common in the intestinal perforation group. All preterm infants with gastric perforation survived to discharge; however, six preterm infants with intestinal perforation expired during treatment in the NICU. In the gastric perforation group, sudden pneumoperitoneum was the most common finding, and the mean age at diagnosis was 4.4±1.7 days of life. The location and size of the perforations varied, and simple closure or partial gastrectomy was performed. Conclusion Patients with gastric perforation did not have a common clinical finding preceding the perforation diagnosis. Although mortality in previous studies was high, all patients survived to discharge in the present study. When a preterm infant aged less than one week presents with sudden abdominal distension and pneumoperitoneum, gastric perforation should first be excluded. Prompt exploratory laparotomy will increase the survival rates of these infants. PMID:26388893

  20. Mark Twain on phrenology.

    PubMed

    Stone, James L

    2003-12-01

    Mark Twain was a noted 19th century American writer and humorist. He often elaborated upon the personalities of his characters, and his observational skills reflected a strong interest in psychology. Similarly, he found an interest in phrenology, a pseudoscience that purported to characterize personality traits according to elevations or depressions on the head. Twain's style is clearly reflected in the interesting essay he wrote regarding his personal experience with phrenology. PMID:14633308

  1. G tolerance vis-à-vis pressure-distension and pressure-flow relationships of leg arteries.

    PubMed

    Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor; Sundblad, Patrik; Kölegård, Roger

    2012-10-01

    During increased gravitoinertial (G) load in the head-to-foot direction, pressures in dependent vascular beds are commonly raised to levels capable of distending precapillary vessels, which, in turn, may reduce arterial pressure, and hence compromise the capacity to withstand G load (G tolerance). We hypothesized that distensibility in precapillary leg vessels would be lower in a group of subjects possessing high G tolerance (H; n = 7; relaxed G tolerance = 6.6 ± 0.8 G) than in a group with low G tolerance (L; n = 8; G tolerance = 3.9 ± 0.3 G). The groups were matched with regard to gender, age, weight, height, and resting arterial pressure. Arterial pressure-distension and pressure-flow experiments were performed with the subject supine in a pressure chamber with a lower leg protruding to the outside. Increased intravascular pressure in the blood vessels of the outside leg was accomplished by stepwise increasing chamber pressure to 240 mmHg. Diameter and flow in the posterior tibial artery were measured by ultrasonographic/Doppler techniques. Pressure-induced increments in arterial diameter and flow were more pronounced (p < 0.03) in the L (14.1 ± 4.2% and 32 ± 21 ml/min respectively) than in the H (1.7 ± 5.0% and 1.6 ± 25 ml/min) group, and the pressure thresholds at which these increments commenced were lower (by 52 and 48 mmHg, respectively) in the L than in the H group (p < 0.04). Negative correlations were observed between G tolerance and the increments in diameter and flow (p < 0.02). Thus, the wall stiffness of precapillary leg vessels is greater in individuals with high relaxed G tolerance; whether a causal relationship exists remains to be established. PMID:22350358

  2. Dehydroeffusol effectively inhibits human gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with low toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenming; Meng, Mei; Zhang, Bin; Du, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng Cao, Zhifei

    2015-09-01

    Accumulated data has shown that various vasculogenic tumor cells, including gastric cancer cells, are able to directly form tumor blood vessels via vasculogenic mimicry, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tumors, and facilitating progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Therefore, tumor vasculogenic mimicry is a rational target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. However, effective antitumor vasculogenic mimicry-targeting drugs are not clinically available. In this study, we purified 2,7-dihydroxyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene, termed dehydroeffusol, from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Juncus effusus L., and found that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and in vivo with very low toxicity. Dehydroeffusol significantly suppressed gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecular mechanistic studies revealed that dehydroeffusol markedly inhibited the expression of a vasculogenic mimicry master gene VE-cadherin and reduced adherent protein exposure on the cell surface by inhibiting gene promoter activity. In addition, dehydroeffusol significantly decreased the expression of a key vasculogenic gene matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in gastric cancer cells, and diminished MMP2 protease activity. Together, our results showed that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with very low toxicity, suggesting that dehydroeffusol is a potential drug candidate for anti-gastric cancer neovascularization and anti-gastric cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Dehydroeffusol markedly inhibits gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry. • Dehydroeffusol suppresses the expression of vasculogenic mimicry key gene VE-cadherin. • Dehydroeffusol decreases the MMP2 expression and activity in gastric cancer cells. • Dehydroeffusol is a potential anti-cancer drug candidate with very low toxicity.

  3. Pathology and Genetics of Syndromic Gastric Polyps.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Wood, Laura D; Offerhaus, G Johan; Arnold, Christina A; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Gastric polyps are found in 1% to 4% of patients undergoing gastroscopy. The vast majority are sporadic, but some gastric polyps indicate an underlying syndrome. Gastric polyps can manifest in each of the gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, including the recently described gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach syndrome. In addition, gastric polyps occur in Lynch syndrome and in a few rare conditions that are not primarily gastrointestinal. While some of these syndromes are clearly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, others are not. Interestingly, even in disorders with a well-established risk of gastric cancer, the neoplastic potential and the precursor status of these gastric polyps are not always clear. Although rare, recognition of syndromic gastric polyps is important for individual patient management. These conditions also serve as important models to study gastric homeostasis and gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:26721304

  4. Effects of sofalcone on necrotizing agents-induced gastric lesions and on endogenous prostaglandins in rats stomachs.

    PubMed

    Saziki, R; Arai, I; Isobe, Y; Hirose, H; Aihara, H

    1984-11-01

    Attempts were made to investigate the effect of 2'-carboxymethoxy-4,4'-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy) chalcone (sofalcone) on necrotizing agents-induced gastric lesions and on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-like activity of the gastric tissue in rats. Sofalcone, 100 mg/kg i.p. and 300 mg/kg p.o., markedly suppressed 0.6 N HCl- or 100% EtOH-induced gastric lesions. Sofalcone, 100 mg/kg i.p., also significantly suppressed 0.2N NaOH-induced gastric lesions. Sofalcone suppressed 0.6 N HCl-induced gastric lesions with both oral and intraperitoneal routes, and the effect was particularly marked at 60 min. A dose of 100 mg/kg i.p. showed suppression lasting for up to 300 min. 0.6 N HCl-induced gastric lesions were significantly aggravated by indomethacin treatment (10 mg/kg s.c.). Oral sofalcone (300 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the aggravation of gastric lesions by indomethacin given before and after sofalcone, but the i.p. (100 mg/kg) did not show significant suppression in the case of pretreatment with indomethacin. PGs-like activity in the gastric tissue was increased in both of the fundus and the antrum by the administration of sofalcone without any dose-dependency. The increase was continuous and lasted for 6 h in the fundus of the stomach. PMID:6597872

  5. The influence of acute or chronic nicotine treatment on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Cho, C H; Chen, B W; Hui, W M; Lam, S K

    1990-01-01

    The influences of acute or chronic nicotine pretreatment on ethanol-induced changes on gastric secretion, mucosal blood flow (GMBF), and glandular mucosal damage were studied in anesthetized rats. Ethanol administration decreased gastric acid secretion and GMBF, which were accompanied by a marked increase in gastric mucosal damage. Acute nicotine incubation 2 or 4 mg dose-dependently elevated both the titratable acid in the luminal solution and the gastric secretory volume; it also prevented the depressive action on GMBF and gastric mucosal damage in ethanol-treated animals. Chronic nicotine treatment for 10 days reduced the inhibitory action of ethanol on gastric acid secretion; the higher dose (25 micrograms/ml drinking water) potentiated the decrease of GMBF and the ulcerogenic property of ethanol. However, chronic treatment with the lower dose (5 micrograms/ml drinking water) had the opposite effects; it also markedly increased the gastric secretory volume. It is concluded that acute nicotine pretreatment elevates, whereas chronic nicotine pretreatment differentially affects GMBF. These effects could account for their protective or preventive actions on ethanol ulceration. The increase in nonacid gastric secretory volume by nicotine could partially explain its antiulcer effect. Furthermore, the acid secretory state of the stomach appears unrelated to the ulcerogenic property of ethanol. PMID:2295286

  6. Gastric Emptying After Pickle-Juice Ingestion in Rested, Euhydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Mack, Gary W.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Small volumes of pickle juice (PJ) relieve muscle cramps within 85 seconds of ingestion without significantly affecting plasma variables. This effect may be neurologic rather than metabolic. Understanding PJ's gastric emptying would help to strengthen this theory. Objective: To compare gastric emptying and plasma variables after PJ and deionized water (DIW) ingestion. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men (age  =  25.4 ± 0.7 years, height  =  177.1 ± 1.6 cm, mass  =  78.1 ± 3.6 kg). Intervention(s): Rested, euhydrated, and eunatremic participants ingested 7 mL·kg−1 body mass of PJ or DIW on separate days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Gastric volume was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion (using the phenol red dilution technique). Percentage changes in plasma volume and plasma sodium concentration were measured preingestion (−45 minutes) and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion. Results: Initial gastric volume was 624.5 ± 27.4 mL for PJ and 659.5 ± 43.8 mL for DIW (P > .05). Both fluids began to empty within the first 5 minutes (volume emptied: PJ  =  219.2 ± 39.1 mL, DIW  =  305.0 ± 40.5 mL, P < .05). Participants who ingested PJ did not empty further after the first 5 minutes (P > .05), whereas in those who ingested DIW, gastric volume decreased to 111.6 ± 39.9 mL by 30 minutes (P < .05). The DIW group emptied faster than the PJ group between 20 and 30 minutes postingestion (P < .05). Within 5 minutes of PJ ingestion, plasma volume decreased 4.8% ± 1.6%, whereas plasma sodium concentration increased 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L−1 (P < .05). Similar changes occurred after DIW ingestion. Calculated plasma sodium content was unchanged for both fluids (P > .05). Conclusions: The initial decrease in gastric volume with both fluids is likely attributable to gastric distension. Failure of the PJ group to empty afterward is likely due to PJ

  7. Case Marking Strategies in Kope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John

    Case marking strategies in Kope, a Papuan language of Papua New Guinea, are analyzed in light of previous claims that most Papuan languages have one strategy for marking core relations and another for marking peripheral relations. A brief grammatical overview illustrates how core and peripheral relations are marked in Kope, including nominal case…

  8. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  9. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Maaroos, H I

    1994-01-01

    In connection with longitudinal ulcer studies and the demonstration of Helicobacter pylori as the main cause of chronic gastritis, new aspects of gastric ulcer recurrences and healing become evident. This extends the possibilities to prognosticate the course of gastric ulcer and to use more effective treatment. PMID:7937016

  10. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736, Pliva, Croatia). Full and distended stomach, and vascular response.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Brcic, L; Blagaic, A B; Zoricic, I; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Radic, B; Keller, N; Sipos, K; Jakir, A; Udovicic, M; Tonkic, A; Kokic, N; Turkovic, B; Mise, S; Anic, T

    2006-12-01

    Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, safe in clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease (PL 10, PLD 116, PLD 14736, Pliva, Croatia)) has a particular cytoprotective/adaptive cytoprotective activity. The cytoprotective/adaptive cytoprotection researches largely neglect that stomach distension could per se jeopardize the mucosal integrity, with constantly stretched mucosa and blood vessels, and sphincters more prone for reflux induction. After absolute alcohol instillation in fully distended rat stomach, gastric, esophageal and duodenal lesions occur. Throughout next 3 min, left gastric artery blood vessels clearly disappear at the serosal site, indicative for loss of vessels both integrity and function. Contrary, constant vessels presentation could predict the beneficial effect of applied agent. After pentadecapeptide BPC 157 instillation into the stomach the vessels presentation remains constant, and lesions of stomach, esophagus, and duodenum are inhibited. Standards (atropine, ranitidine, omeprazole) could only slightly improve the vessels presentation compared to control values, and they have only a partial effect on the lesions. In this review we emphasize BPC 157 unusual stability, and some of its important effects: effectiveness against various lesions in gastrointestinal tract, on nitric oxide (NO)-system, and NO-agents effects, on somatosensory neurons, salivary glands function, recovery of AMP-ADP-ATP system, endothelium protection, effect on endothelin, and on angiogenesis promotion. It also antagonizes other alcohol effects, including acute and chronic intoxication. Given peripherally, it counteracts the consequence of central dopamine system disturbances (receptor blockade), and induces serotonin release in substantia nigra. Therapeutic potential of BPC 157 as a cytoprotective agent is also seen in its capability to heal various wounds. Given directly into the stomach, BPC 157 instantly recovers disturbed lower esophageal

  11. Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying and ultrasonographic assessment of antral area: relation to appetite.

    PubMed Central

    Hveem, K; Jones, K L; Chatterton, B E; Horowitz, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound measurement of gastric emptying has potential advantages over scintigraphy, but there is little information about its accuracy. AIMS: The relation between ultrasonographic measurements of antral area and (a) scintigraphic measurements of gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of liquids (b) postprandial satiation, were evaluated. SUBJECTS: Seven normal volunteers were studied. METHOD: Each subject drank 75 g dextrose dissolved in 350 ml of water (300 kcal) or beef soup (20 kcal), both labelled with technetium-99m sulphur colloid on separate days and had measurement of gastric emptying by scintigraphy and ultrasound. RESULTS: Scintigraphic and ultrasound 50% emptying times (T50s) were comparable and longer (p < 0.001) for dextrose than soup mean (SEM) (dextrose 107 (16) min v 108 (18) min, soup 24 (4) min v 23 (5) min). There were close correlations between scintigraphic and ultrasound T50s (dextrose r = 0.94, p < 0.005, soup r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and between the time at which the distal stomach content decreased from its maximum value by 50% (measured scintigraphically) and the ultrasound T50 (dextrose r = 0.95, p < 0.005, soup r = 0.99, p < 0.0001). In contrast, there was no significant relation between the distal stomach content when expressed as a percentage of the maximum content in the total stomach and the ultrasound T50. After dextrose, fullness was related (r = 0.92, p < 0.01) to the postprandial increase in antral area measured by ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound measurements of gastric emptying are: (a) of comparable sensitivity to scintigraphy in quantifying emptying of both low and high nutrient liquids (b) correlate with postprandial satiation, suggesting that the latter may be mediated by antral distension. PMID:8984016

  12. Efficacy of ipamorelin, a ghrelin mimetic, on gastric dysmotility in a rodent model of postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Tyler, Karl; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Pietra, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background Delayed gastric emptying is a common disorder with few effective therapeutic options. The goal of this study was to investigate whether ipamorelin, a synthetic peptidomimetic that acts on the ghrelin receptor, accelerates gastric emptying in a rodent model of gastroparesis induced by abdominal surgery and intestinal manipulation. Methods Fasted adult male rats were subjected to laparotomy and intestinal manipulation. Following the surgery rats received ipamorelin (0.014–0.14 µmol/kg) or vehicle control via intravenous administration. Gastric emptying was measured by the percent of total recovered radioactivity remaining in the stomach 15 minutes after intragastric gavage of 1.5 mL of 99mTc (technicium-99m) sulfur colloid in 0.5% methylcellulose. In a separate group of rats subjected to laparotomy and intestinal manipulation, the gastric fundus was isolated and tissue segments were suspended in an organ bath to assess the effect of ipamorelin (1 µM) on gastric smooth muscle contractility induced by acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation. Results Abdominal surgery caused a delay in gastric emptying with 78% ± 5% of the meal remaining in the stomach in vehicle controls. Ipamorelin (0.014 µmol/kg intravenous) resulted in a significant acceleration (P < 0.05 vs vehicle-treated rat) of gastric emptying with 52% ± 11% of the meal remaining in the stomach compared to nonsurgical control animals with 44% ± 6%. Following abdominal surgery and intestinal manipulation, isolated preparations of gastric smooth muscle exhibited a marked inhibition of acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation-induced contractile responses, which were reversed by ipamorelin and ghrelin. Conclusion These results suggest that ipamorelin accelerates gastric emptying in a rodent model of postoperative ileus through the stimulation of gastric contractility by activating a ghrelin receptor-mediated mechanism involving cholinergic excitatory neurons.

  13. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:26771139

  14. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-01

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:26771139

  15. Variations of Weight Loss Following Gastric Bypass and Gastric Band

    PubMed Central

    Puzziferri, Nancy; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Livingston, Edward H.; Carmody, Thomas J.; Provost, David A.; Rush, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare and describe the weight loss outcomes from gastric bypass and gastric band so as to define the variation of excess weight loss (EWL) among individual patients, the time to onset of effect, and the durability of weight loss in severely obese adults. Summary Background Data Gastric bypass and gastric band are the most common operations for obesity performed in the United States, but few reports have compared these 2 procedures. Methods Patients (N = 1733, aged 18–65 years) met National Institutes of Health criteria for obesity surgery and underwent either gastric bypass or gastric band between March 1997 and November 2006. The selection of bypass versus band was based on patient/surgeon discussion. The evaluable sample consisted of 1518 patients. The percentage of EWL was assessed over 2 years. Successful weight loss was defined a priori as ≥40% EWL in each of four 6-month postoperative measurement periods. The analyses included a mixed model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) model with repeated measures. Odds ratios and descriptive analyses were also provided. Results Gastric bypass was associated with less individual variation in weight loss than gastric band. Both procedures were associated with a significant EWL benefit (Treatment Group effect P < 0.0001), but they differed in terms of time to effect (Treatment Group × Period interaction effect P < 0.0001). The mean EWL for gastric bypass was greater at each measurement period (6, 12, 18, 24 months) compared with gastric band (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, at each of the postoperative measurement periods within each treatment group (bypass and band), the mean EWL was greater for those who had preoperative body mass index (BMI) ≤50 kg/m2 than for those who had preoperative BMI >50 kg/m2 (P < 0.0001). Gastric bypass was consistently associated with a greater likelihood of at least a 40% EWL in each of the 6-month postoperative measurement periods (GEE, P < 0.0001). The odds ratio

  16. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Yun, Nari; Han, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2014-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101) on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25610477

  17. Extended Essay Marking on Screen: Is Examiner Marking Accuracy Influenced by Marking Mode?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Hopkin, Rebecca; Shiell, Hannah; Bell, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, large-scale educational assessment agencies are shifting the mode of school examination marking towards having examiners mark examination scripts on screen rather than on paper. This shift has prompted questions about whether the mode of marking might influence examiner marking accuracy, particularly in relation to…

  18. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A; Al Kharusi, Suad S; Al Bahrani, Bassim J; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-09-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  19. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A.; Al Kharusi, Suad S.; Al Bahrani, Bassim J.; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-01-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  20. Chromosome band 16q24 is frequently deleted in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mori, Y; Matsunaga, M; Abe, T; Fukushige, S; Miura, K; Sunamura, M; Shiiba, K; Sato, M; Nukiwa, T; Horii, A

    1999-05-01

    We have analysed the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome bands 16q22-q24 in 24 primary gastric cancer tissues and found three regions of frequent allelic loss (16q22, 16q24.1-q24.3 and 16q24.3). The region for the most frequent allelic loss (63%) was in 16q24.1-q24.3. LOH of this region had no relationship with histological subtype, but a significant association between LOH and microscopic lymphangial invasion was observed. Although not significant, vascular and gastric wall invasions are also associated with LOH. The region includes the locus for the H-cadherin gene. Therefore we examined the genetic and epigenetic alterations of this gene. Markedly reduced expression was observed in gastric cancer cell lines compared with that of normal gastric mucosa. However, no mutation was found in this gene in any of the gastric cancer tissues or the gastric cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we analysed the methylation status of the 5'-flanking region of the gene, but no significant association was found. We suggest that some other tumour suppressor gene(s) in 16q24.1-q24.3 may be responsible for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:10408866

  1. Helicobacter pylori chronic infection and mucosal inflammation switches the human gastric glycosylation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Nairn, Alison V.; Rosa, Mitche dela; Ferreira, Rui M.; Junqueira-Neto, Susana; Freitas, Daniela; Gomes, Joana; Oliveira, Patrícia; Santos, Marta R.; Marcos, Nuno T.; Xiaogang, Wen; Figueiredo, Céu; Oliveira, Carla; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Carneiro, Fátima; Moremen, Kelley W.; David, Leonor; Reis, Celso A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori exploits host glycoconjugates to colonize the gastric niche. Infection can persist for decades promoting chronic inflammation, and in a subset of individuals lesions can silently progress to cancer. This study shows that H. pylori chronic infection and gastric tissue inflammation result in a remodeling of the gastric glycophenotype with increased expression of sialyl-Lewis a/x antigens due to transcriptional up-regulation of the B3GNT5, B3GALT5, and FUT3 genes. We observed that H. pylori infected individuals present a marked gastric local proinflammatory signature with significantly higher TNF-α levels and demonstrated that TNF-induced activation of the NF-kappaB pathway results in B3GNT5 transcriptional up-regulation. Furthermore, we show that this gastric glycosylation shift, characterized by increased sialylation patterns, favors SabA-mediated H. pylori attachment to human inflamed gastric mucosa. This study provides novel clinically relevant insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying H. pylori modulation of host glycosylation machinery, and phenotypic alterations crucial for life-long infection. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways here identified as responsible for gastric mucosa increased sialylation, in response to H. pylori infection, can be exploited as drug targets for hindering bacteria adhesion and counteract the infection chronicity. PMID:26144047

  2. Dehydroeffusol effectively inhibits human gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with low toxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenming; Meng, Mei; Zhang, Bin; Du, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng; Cao, Zhifei

    2015-09-01

    Accumulated data has shown that various vasculogenic tumor cells, including gastric cancer cells, are able to directly form tumor blood vessels via vasculogenic mimicry, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tumors, and facilitating progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Therefore, tumor vasculogenic mimicry is a rational target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. However, effective antitumor vasculogenic mimicry-targeting drugs are not clinically available. In this study, we purified 2,7-dihydroxyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene, termed dehydroeffusol, from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Juncus effusus L., and found that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and in vivo with very low toxicity. Dehydroeffusol significantly suppressed gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecular mechanistic studies revealed that dehydroeffusol markedly inhibited the expression of a vasculogenic mimicry master gene VE-cadherin and reduced adherent protein exposure on the cell surface by inhibiting gene promoter activity. In addition, dehydroeffusol significantly decreased the expression of a key vasculogenic gene matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in gastric cancer cells, and diminished MMP2 protease activity. Together, our results showed that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with very low toxicity, suggesting that dehydroeffusol is a potential drug candidate for anti-gastric cancer neovascularization and anti-gastric cancer therapy. PMID:25982451

  3. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer using endoscopy with Fuji Intelligent Color Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Jie; Shen, Lei; Luo, He-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Demarcation of early gastric cancers is sometimes unclear. Indigo carmine chromoendoscopy has usually been used as a diagnostic method for tumor margins as it enhances mucosal irregularities and differences in color. Fuji Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE), a recently developed virtual chromoendoscopic system, can explore the entire mucosal surface (of structures and vessels). Here we report a case of a patient with early gastric cancer who underwent a successful endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using endoscopy with FICE. A 58-year-old man with early gastric cancer underwent an ESD. Demarcation of the lesion was not clear through normal endoscopy. Therefore, an endoscopy was performed with FICE, which clearly revealed the demarcation. An ESD was carried out after spots were marked circumferentially. We identified the positional relationship between the demarcation and all markings on the magnifying model. A resection of the lesion was performed on the area outside the markings. Finally, the lesion was Histopathologically diagnosed as a well-differentiated adeno-carcinoma confined in the mucosal region, and the margins were free from carcinoma. FICE, especially combined with the magnifying model, is useful in the identification of the demarcation of early gastric cancer. This method may be useful in increasing the rate of complete resection by ESD for early gastric cancer. PMID:23386167

  4. [Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hatogai, Ken; Doi, Toshihiko

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer has been classified based on the pathological characteristics including microscopic configuration and growth pattern. Although these classifications have been used in studies investigating prognosis and recurrence pattern, they are not considered for decisions regarding the therapeutic strategy. In the ToGA study, trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, demonstrated clinical efficacy for gastric cancer with HER2 overexpression or HER2 gene amplification. Based on these findings of the ToGA study, the definition of HER2-positive gastric cancer was established. Thereafter, several molecular targeted agents, including agents targeting other receptor tyrosine kinases, have been investigated in gastric cancer. However, to date no biomarker, except HER2, has been established. Based on the recent technological development in the field of gene analysis, a comprehensive molecular evaluation of gastric cancer was performed as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, and a new molecular classification was proposed that divided gastric cancer into the following 4 subtypes: tumors positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite instability tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Each subtype has specific molecular alterations including gene mutation and amplification, DNA methylation, and protein overexpression. Additionally, some subtypes were suggested to be correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics or as targets of some molecular targeted agents that are currently under development. The new molecular classification is expected to be a roadmap for patient stratification and clinical trials on molecular targeted therapies in gastric cancer. PMID:27067842

  5. Other Helicobacters and gastric microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Chloë; Schulz, Christian; Smet, Annemieke; Malfertheiner, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-09-01

    This article aimed to review the literature from 2015 dealing with gastric and enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). A summary of the gastric microbiota interactions with H. pylori is also presented. An extensive number of studies were published during the last year and have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with NHPH. These infections are increasingly reported in human patients, including infections with H. cinaedi, mainly characterized by severe bacteremia. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be the most reliable technique for identification of NHPH at species level. Presence of NHPH in laboratory animals may influence the outcome of experiments, making screening and eradication desirable. Vaccination based on UreB proteins or bacterial lysate with CCR4 antagonists as well as oral glutathione supplementation may be promising strategies to dampen the pathogenic effects associated with gastric NHPH infections. Several virulent factors such as outer membrane proteins, phospholipase C-gamma 2, Bak protein, and nickel-binding proteins are associated with colonization of the gastric mucosae and development of gastritis. The development of high-throughput sequencing has led to new insights in the gastric microbiota composition and its interaction with H. pylori. Alterations in the gastric microbiota caused by the pH-increasing effect of a H. pylori infection may increase the risk for gastric cancer. PMID:27531542

  6. Traffic Noise Exposure Increases Gastric Pepsin Secretion in Rat.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Azam; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Rouhbakhsh, Nematollah; Sotudeh, Masoud; Salimi, Ehsan; Barzegar Behrooz, Amir

    2016-03-01

    Noise is considered as one of the most severe sources of environmental and workplace constraints. Many noise effects are well known on immune function, hormonal levels, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study, our aim is to evaluate the effects of traffic noise exposure on basal and stimulated gastric pepsin secretion. 48 male rats were exposed to traffic noise (86 dB) for a short term of (8h/day for 1 day) and a long term of (8h/day for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) as well as a control group. The gastric contents were collected by the wash-out technique. Pepsin secretion was measured by employing the Anson method. Histological studies were carried out on the epithelial layer. The corticosteroid hormone was measured in the serum for the stress augmentation. The present finding indicated no changes in pepsin secretion content in the short term, but in the 14 and 21 days traffic noise exposure, basal gastric pepsin secretion increased markedly compared to the control group. Histological results showed that the number of oxyntic glands and cell nuclei decreased in comparison with the control group while the thickness of the epithelial layer increases. In addition, the corticosterone levels increase in all groups in comparison with the control. It seems that the increase of gastric pepsin secretion is due to the description and translation processes in the peptic cells and needs enough time for completion. PMID:27107524

  7. The Mark 3 Haploscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, T. A.; Williams, R. E.; Kuether, C. L.; Logar, N. D.; Wyman-Cornsweet, D.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-operated binocular vision testing device was developed as one part of a system designed for NASA to evaluate the visual function of astronauts during spaceflight. This particular device, called the Mark 3 Haploscope, employs semi-automated psychophysical test procedures to measure visual acuity, stereopsis, phoria, fixation disparity, refractive state and accommodation/convergence relationships. Test procedures are self-administered and can be used repeatedly without subject memorization. The Haploscope was designed as one module of the complete NASA Vision Testing System. However, it is capable of stand-alone operation. Moreover, the compactness and portability of the Haploscope make possible its use in a broad variety of testing environments.

  8. Gastric Emptying in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Rayner, Chris K; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by a diminished homeostatic regulation of physiologic functions, including slowing of gastric emptying. Gastric and small intestinal motor and humoral mechanisms in humans are complex and highly variable: ingested food is stored, mixed with digestive enzymes, ground into small particles, and delivered as a liquefied form into the duodenum at a rate allowing efficient digestion and absorption. In healthy aging, motor function is well preserved whereas deficits in sensory function are more apparent. The effects of aging on gastric emptying are relevant to the absorption of oral medications and the regulation of appetite, postprandial glycemia, and blood pressure. PMID:26195094

  9. Longitudinal displacement of the carotid wall and cardiovascular risk factors: associations with aging, adiposity, blood pressure and periodontal disease independent of cross-sectional distensibility and intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Zahnd, Guillaume; Vray, Didier; Sérusclat, André; Alibay, Djhianne; Bartold, Mark; Brown, Alex; Durand, Marion; Jamieson, Lisa M; Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; O'Dea, Kerin; Moulin, Philippe; Celermajer, David S; Skilton, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    The recently discovered longitudinal displacement of the common carotid arterial wall (i.e., the motion along the same plane as the blood flow), may be associated with incident cardiovascular events and represents a novel and relevant clinical information. At present, there have only been a few studies that have been conducted to investigate this longitudinal movement. We propose here a method to assess noninvasively the wall bi-dimensional (two-dimensional [2-D], cross-sectional and longitudinal) motion and present an original approach that combines a robust speckle tracking scheme to guidance by minimal path contours segmentation. Our method is well suited to large clinical population studies as it does not necessitate strong imaging prerequisites. The aim of this study is to describe the association between the longitudinal displacement of the carotid arterial wall and cardiovascular risk factors, among which periodontal disease. Some 126 Indigenous Australians with periodontal disease, an emerging risk factor, and 27 healthy age- and sex-matched non-indigenous control subjects had high-resolution ultrasound scans of the common carotid artery. Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial wall 2-D motion were then assessed using our method in ultrasound B-mode sequences. Carotid longitudinal displacement was markedly lower in the periodontal disease group than the control group (geometric mean (IQR): 0.15 mm (0.13) vs. 0.42 mm (0.30), respectively; p < 0.0001), independent of cardiovascular risk factors, cross-sectional distensibility and carotid intima-media thickness (p < 0.0001). A multivariable model indicated that the strongest correlates of carotid longitudinal displacement in adults with periodontal disease were age (β-coefficient = -.235, p = .03), waist (β-coefficient = -.357, p = 0.001), and pulse pressure (β-coefficient = .175, p = 0.07), independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, cross-sectional distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Carotid

  10. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management. PMID:27126070

  11. Hippocampal microglial activation and glucocorticoid receptor down-regulation precipitate visceral hypersensitivity induced by colorectal distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Zhao, Bing-Xue; Hua, Rong; Kang, Jie; Shao, Bo-Ming; Carbonaro, Theresa M; Zhang, Yong-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is a common characteristic in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other disorders with visceral pain. Although the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity remains speculative due to the absence of pathological changes, the long-lasting sensitization in neuronal circuitry induced by early life stress may play a critical role beyond the digestive system even after complete resolution of the initiating event. The hippocampus integrates multiple sources of afferent inputs and sculpts integrated autonomic outputs for pain and analgesia regulation. Here, we examined the hippocampal mechanism in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity with a rat model induced by neonatal and adult colorectal distensions (CRDs). Neither neonatal nor adult CRD evoked behavioral abnormalities in adulthood; however, adult re-exposure to CRD induced persistent visceral hypersensitivity, depression-like behaviors, and spatial learning impairment in rats that experienced neonatal CRD. Rats that experienced neonatal and adult CRDs presented a decrease in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) immunofluorescence staining and protein expression, and increases in hippocampal microglial activation and cytokine (IL-1β and TNF-α) accumulation. The decrease in hippocampal GR expression and increase in hippocampal IL-1β and TNF-α accumulation could be prevented by hippocampal local infusion of minocycline, a microglial inhibitor. These results suggest that neonatal CRD can increase the vulnerability of hippocampal microglia, and adult CRD challenge facilitates the hippocampal cytokine release from the sensitized microglia, which down-regulates hippocampal GR protein expression and, subsequently, precipitates visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26656865

  12. Improvement of distension and mural visualization of bowel loops using neutral oral contrasts in abdominal computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Jahanbakhsh; Davoudi, Yasmin; Taghavi, Mina; Pezeshki Rad, Masoud; Moghadam, Amien Mahajeri

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess and compare the image quality of 4% sorbitol and diluted iodine 2% (positive oral contrast agent) in abdomino-pelvic multi-detector computed tomography. METHODS: Two-hundred patients, referred to the Radiology Department of a central educational hospital for multi-detector row abdominal-pelvic computed tomography, were randomly divided into two groups: the first group received 1500 mL of 4% sorbitol solution as a neutral contrast agent, while in the second group 1500 mL of meglumin solution as a positive contrast agent was administered in a one-way randomized prospective study. The results were independently reviewed by two radiologists. Luminal distension and mural thickness and mucosal enhancement were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16 and the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: Use of neutral oral contrast agent significantly improved visualization of the small bowel wall thickness and mural appearance in comparison with administration of positive contrast agent (P < 0.01). In patients who received sorbitol, the small bowel showed better distention compared with those who received iodine solution as a positive contrast agent (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of the study demonstrated that oral administration of sorbitol solution allows better luminal distention and visualization of mural features than iodine solution as a positive contrast agent. PMID:25550995

  13. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... laboratory test that examines the tissue sample for bacteria and other organisms that can cause disease. ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be ... Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  14. Gastric cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Hilmar; Marques, Miguel S; Zietlow, Rike; Meyer, Thomas F; Machado, Jose C; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) results from a multistep process that is influenced by Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic susceptibility of the host, as well as of other environmental factors. GC results from the accumulation of numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, leading to dysregulation of multiple signaling pathways, which disrupt the cell cycle and the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. For this special issue, we have selected to review last year's advances related to three main topics: the cell of origin that initiates malignant growth in GC, the mechanisms of direct genotoxicity induced by H. pylori infection, and the role of aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs in GC transformation. The understanding of the molecular basis of GC development is of utmost importance for the identification of novel targets for GC prevention and treatment. PMID:27531537

  15. [Gastric duplication of 3 observations].

    PubMed

    Bugallo, M; Carauni, D; Serra, E; De los Reyes, C; Briend, S; Valdovinos, B; Lanari, A

    2000-01-01

    Gástric duplicación si an infrequent congenital malformation present in both, neonatal period and childhood, and exceptionally during adulthood. We present here there cases of gastric duplication from patients of different ages, in which it was not possible to make diagnosis before surgery. In all of them cystic form was the predominating one, without communication with gastric lumen (cavity). Diagnosis was performed after laparotomy and histopathological examination. PMID:11086515

  16. Distinctive striatal dopamine signaling after dieting and gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hesse, Swen; Horstmann, Annette; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-05-01

    Highly palatable and/or calorically dense foods, such as those rich in fat, engage the striatum to govern and set complex behaviors. Striatal dopamine signaling has been implicated in hedonic feeding and the development of obesity. Dieting and bariatric surgery have markedly different outcomes on weight loss, yet how these interventions affect central homeostatic and food reward processing remains poorly understood. Here, we propose that dieting and gastric bypass produce distinct changes in peripheral factors with known roles in regulating energy homeostasis, resulting in differential modulation of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuits. Enhancement of intestinal fat metabolism after gastric bypass may also modify striatal dopamine signaling contributing to its unique long-term effects on feeding behavior and body weight in obese individuals. PMID:25887491

  17. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

  18. Targeted therapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexandra; Ristimäki, Ari

    2015-05-01

    Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although chemotherapy prolongs survival and improves quality of life, the survival of gastric cancer patients with advanced disease is short. Thanks to recent insights into the molecular pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis, new targeted treatment options have become available for gastric cancer patients. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeted to HER-2, was shown to improve survival of advanced gastric cancer patients harboring HER-2 overexpression due to gene amplification in their tumor cells, and is currently also explored in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Another agent with promising results in clinical trials is ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2. No clear survival benefit, however, were experienced with agents targeting EGFR (cetuximab, panitumumab), VEGF-A (bevacizumab), or mTOR (everolimus). Drugs targeting c-MET/HGF are currently under investigation in biomarker-selected cohorts, with promising results in early clinical trials. This review will summarize the current status of targeted treatment options in gastric cancer. PMID:25706252

  19. Gastric control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P H; McHugh, P R; Moran, T H; Stephenson, J D

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of gastric emptying leads to enhanced satiety and this mechanism may contribute to the undereating observed after administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) and fenfluramine, and in patients with anorexia nervosa. Pyloric smooth muscle bears specific CCK receptors and the evidence suggests that a major site of action for CCK satiety is in the periphery. CCK receptors are widespread in the neonatal rat stomach but not in the brain and over the first two weeks of life binding in the stomach decreases and that in the brain increases. This and the finding that independent ingestion as well as gastric emptying are inhibited by CCK at birth suggest the stomach as its likely site of action in the neonatal rat. Fenfluramine inhibits feeding in animals and in patients with bulimia nervosa. In monkeys, fenfluramine inhibits gastric emptying and this action correlates with its feeding inhibition. Patients with anorexia nervosa who are acutely starving and rats maintained on a restricted diet have delayed gastric emptying. Anorexic patients showed abnormal reporting of both hunger and satiety, and, together with those with bulimia nervosa, often associated gastric contents with symptoms of eating disorder, indicating disturbed interpretation of gastric signals. PMID:3065484

  20. Genetics and gastric cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Lu, Fang; Zeng, Sha; Sun, Suqing; Lu, Li; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer has high morbidity and mortality in China. It is ranked first in malignant tumors of the digestive system. Its etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, but they may be associated with a variety of factors. Genetic susceptibility genes have become a research hotspot in China. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of gastric cancer can facilitate achieving individualized prevention and developing more effective methods to reduce clinical adverse consequences, which has important clinical significance. Genetic susceptibility results from the influence of genetic factors or specific genetic defects that endow an individual’s offspring with certain physiological and metabolic features that are prone to certain diseases. Currently, studies on the genetic susceptibility genes of gastric cancer have become a hotspot. The purpose is to screen for the etiology of gastric cancer, search for gene therapy methods, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of gastric cancer. This article reviews the current progress of studies on genetic susceptibility genes for gastric cancer. PMID:26309491

  1. [Effect of adrenergic beta blockers on hemodynamics, diastolic relaxation and distensibility of left-ventricular myocardium in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Moroz, V A; Gladchenko, A R; Latoguz, I K; Khimenko, P L

    1991-01-01

    Altogether 32 patients were investigated by catheterization of the left ventricular cavity with volume loading of 76% solution of verographin++ administered at 0.65 ml per kg body mass. beta-blockade with preliminary i.v. administration of 5 mg obsidan or 10 mg cordanum was shown to improve myocardial diastolic function as a result of improved myocardial distensibility in CHD patients. PMID:1673730

  2. Curcumin Blocks Naproxen-Induced Gastric Antral Ulcerations through Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Activation of Enzymatic Scavengers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jin, Soojung; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-08-28

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, which is used for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study was undertaken to determine the protective effect of curcumin against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations in rats. Different doses (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of curcumin or vehicle (curcumin, 0 mg/kg) were pretreated for 3 days by oral gavage, and then gastric mucosal lesions were caused by 80 mg/kg naproxen applied for 3 days. Curcumin significantly inhibited the naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcer area and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin markedly increased activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, 100 mg/kg curcumin completely protected the gastric mucosa against the loss in the enzyme, resulting in a drastic increase of activities of radical scavenging enzymes up to more than the level of untreated normal rats. Histological examination obviously showed that curcumin prevents naproxen-induced gastric antral ulceration as a result of direct protection of the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that curcumin blocks naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations through prevention of lipid peroxidation and activation of radical scavenging enzymes, and it may offer a potential remedy of gastric antral ulcerations. PMID:27197667

  3. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do. PMID:26566288

  4. Caerulein and morphine in a model of visceral pain. Effects on the hypotensive response to renal pelvis distension in the rat.

    PubMed

    Brasch, H; Zetler, G

    1982-05-01

    In pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats (60 mg/kg, i.p.) renal pelvis distension with a pressure of 80 cm H2O caused a decline in mean arterial blood pressure. This pressure response, which disappeared rapidly after cessation of the distension, was used to study the effects of analgesic drugs known to be effective in renal colic pain in man. Morphine (0.75 and 1 mg/kg, s.c.) and the decapeptide caerulein (1.6, 4 and 8 microgram/kg, s.c.) abolished the pressure response. The effects of the largest doses lasted for at least 30 min. Ineffective in this respect were (a) desulphated caerulein (40 microgram/kg, s.c.) and (b) additional doses of pentobarbital (20 and 40 mg/kg, s.c.). This shows (a) the importance of the sulphated tyrosine (known from previous studies on central effects) and (b) the missing influence of the depth of anaesthesia. Naloxone (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) abolished the effect of morphine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) but failed to influence that of caerulein (8 microgram/kg, s.c.). Even a fourfold dose of naloxone (2 mg/kg, s.c.) did not weaken the effect of caerulein. Naloxone, per se, was ineffective. These results suggest different mechanisms of the present effects of morphine and caerulein. It appears that renal pelvis distension in the anaesthetized rat can serve as a model of renal colic. PMID:7110376

  5. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  6. Protective effects of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiming; Liao, Huijun; Liu, Yuhong; Zheng, Yifeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Su, Zuqing; Zhang, Xie; Lai, Zhengquan; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Su, Ziren

    2015-01-01

    We examined the protective effect of pogostone (PO), a chemical constituent isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Administration of PO at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion effectively protected the stomach from ulceration. The gastric lesions were significantly ameliorated by all doses of PO as compared to the vehicle group. Pre-treatment with PO prevented the oxidative damage and the decrease of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content. In addition, PO pretreatment markedly increased the mucosa levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), relative to the vehicle group. In the mechanistic study, significant elevation of non-protein-sulfhydryl (NP-SH) was observed in the gastric mucosa pretreated by PO. Analysis of serum cytokines indicated that PO pretreatment obviously elevated the decrease of interleukin-10 (IL-10) level, while markedly mitigated the increment of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretions in ethanol-induced rats. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that PO could exert a gastro-protective effect against gastric ulceration, and the underlying mechanism might be associated with the stimulation of PGE2, improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status, as well as preservation of NP-SH. PMID:25481373

  7. The gastroprotective effect of Memora nodosa roots against experimental gastric ulcer in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Dayane M; Martins, José L R; Florentino, Iziara F; Oliveira, Danillo R; Fajemiroye, James O; Tresnvenzol, Leonice M F; Paula, José R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-07-11

    Memora nodosa is popularly known as "caroba" and widely found in the Cerrado regions of Brazil. In traditional medicine, the leaves and stems are used for the healing of external ulcer and the roots for abdominal pain. This study investigated the effect of ethanolic roots extract of Memora nodosa (EMN) on the gastric mucosa of mice. In the indomethacin induced gastric ulcer model, the treatments of the animals with EMN at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., markedly reduced the index of lesions. In the gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol and cold restraint-stress the previous treatment with EMN at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 69% and 43% of protection, respectively. Seven days after food-restriction, the animals treated with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o.) showed reduction in the index of lesion by 65% as compared to control group. The intraduodenal administration of EMN (300 mg/kg) did not alter the gastric acid secretion parameters. The treatment with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o.) did not alter glutathione levels (GSH), but showed an increase of adhered gastric mucus as compared to the control group with lesion. These results showed that EMN has gastroprotective activity probably due with an increase of adhered gastric mucus. PMID:27411070

  8. Schlafen 4-expressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells are induced during murine gastric metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; Hayes, Michael M; Photenhauer, Amanda; Eaton, Kathryn A; Li, Qian; Ocadiz-Ruiz, Ramon; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-08-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection triggers neoplastic transformation of the gastric mucosa in a small subset of patients, but the risk factors that induce progression to gastric metaplasia have not been identified. Prior to cancer development, the oxyntic gastric glands atrophy and are replaced by metaplastic cells in response to chronic gastritis. Previously, we identified schlafen 4 (Slfn4) as a GLI1 target gene and myeloid differentiation factor that correlates with spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that migration of SLFN4-expressing cells from the bone marrow to peripheral organs predicts preneoplastic changes in the gastric microenvironment. Lineage tracing in Helicobacter-infected Slfn4 reporter mice revealed that SLFN4+ cells migrated to the stomach, where they exhibited myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) markers and acquired the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. SLFN4+ MDSCs were not observed in infected GLI1-deficient mice. Overexpression of sonic hedgehog ligand (SHH) in infected WT mice accelerated the appearance of SLFN4+ MDSCs in the gastric corpus. Similarly, in the stomachs of H. pylori-infected patients, the human SLFN4 ortholog SLFN12L colocalized to cells that expressed MDSC surface markers CD15+CD33+HLA-DRlo. Together, these results indicate that SLFN4 marks a GLI1-dependent population of MDSCs that predict a shift in the gastric mucosa to a metaplastic phenotype. PMID:27427984

  9. Bisabolol-induced gastroprotection against acute gastric lesions: role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and KATP+ channels.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, S B; Leal, L K A M; Nogueira, N A P; Pinto, N A N; Campos, A R

    2009-12-01

    The effects of Matricaria recutita and alpha-bisabolol, a bioactive component from Chamomile species, were investigated against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol (96%, 1 mL per animal) in rats. The effects of M. recutita extract and alpha-bisabolol on gastric mucosal damage were assessed by determination of changes in mean gastric lesion area. Mechanistic studies were carried out at with 100 mg=kg alpha-bisabolol. We further examined the possible participation of prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and KATP+ channels in its mechanism. M. recutita reduced gastric damage in all doses tested. Alpha-bisabolol at oral doses of 50 and 100 mg=kg markedly attenuated the gastric lesions induced by ethanol to the extent of 87% and 96%, respectively. Pretreatments with the nitric oxide antagonist N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (10 mg=kg, i.p.) or with indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, failed to block effectively the gastroprotective effect of alpha-bisabolol. Furthermore, the alpha-bisabolol effect was significantly reduced in rats pretreated with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of KATP+ channel activation. Thus we provide evidence that alpha-bisabolol reduces the gastric damage induced by ethanol, at least in part, by the mechanism of activation of KATP+ channels. PMID:20041801

  10. Piperlongumine as a direct TrxR1 inhibitor with suppressive activity against gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Xia, Yiqun; Ji, Jiansong; Chen, Weiqian; Zhang, Jinsan; Chen, Xi; Rajamanickam, Vinothkumar; Chen, Gaozhi; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Lingfeng; Wang, Yifeng; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2016-05-28

    Piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid isolated from the fruit of long pepper, is known to selectively kill tumor cells while sparing their normal counterparts. However, the cellular target and potent anticancer efficacy of PL in numerous types of human cancer cells have not been fully defined. We report here that PL may interact with the thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), an important selenocysteine (Sec)-containing antioxidant enzyme, to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. By inhibiting TrxR1 activity and increasing intracellular ROS levels, PL induces a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human gastric cancer cells. Importantly, knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes cells to PL treatment, and PL displays synergistic lethality with GSH inhibitors (BSO and Erastin) against gastric cancer cells. In vivo, PL treatment markedly reduces the TrxR1 activity and tumor cell burden. Remarkably, TrxR1 was significantly overexpressed in gastric cancer cell lines and human gastric cancer tissues. Targeting TrxR1 with PL thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of PL and provides an in-depth insight into the action of PL in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26963494