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Sample records for markina jri saar

  1. Geothermal reservoir properties of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) sediments in the Saar Nahe Basin (South-West Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretz, A.; Bär, K.; Sass, I.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) in the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Saar-Nahe-Basin (Germany) has been shown in large scale regional studies. To further assess the geothermal potential of the different lithostratigraphical units and facies types within this Variscan intramontane basin, knowledge of their thermophysical and hydraulic properties is indispensable. Where the Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous molasse basin, the top of the up to two kilometers thick Permocarboniferous deposits is located at a depth of one to three kilometers and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. Therefore, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150°C, making it suitable for geothermal power production. Lithologically the Permocarboniferous deposits consist of different formations and facies types including fine, middle and coarse grained sandstones, arcosic sandstones, siltstones, volcanics and carbonates. Within the framework of the study presented here, outcrop analogue studies west of the Graben in the Saar-Nahe-Basin, and east of the Graben in the Wetterau and the Wetterau-Fulda-Basin are conducted. Each lithostratigraphic formation and lithofacies type is sampled in various outcrops to generate a statistically sufficient amount of samples of the different sedimentary rocks in order to determine their petrophysical, sedimentological and geochemical characteristics. The petrophysical parameters measured include the porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and uniaxial compressive strength. So far, the petrophysical properties of samples of more than 70 locations have been measured in our lab facilities, showing a clear correlation with the facies type. Excluding the coarse grained sandstones of the Donnersberg formation at the beginning of the Nahe-subgroup of the Upper Rotliegend, the geothermal reservoir properties are more suitable in the Glan-subgroup of the Lower

  2. The adult plant rust resistance loci Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 are important determinants of partial resistance to powdery mildew in bread wheat line Saar.

    PubMed

    Lillemo, M; Asalf, B; Singh, R P; Huerta-Espino, J; Chen, X M; He, Z H; Bjørnstad, A

    2008-05-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is a major disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that can be controlled by resistance breeding. The CIMMYT bread wheat line Saar is known for its good level of partial and race non-specific resistance, and the aim of this study was to map QTLs for resistance to powdery mildew in a population of 113 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between Saar and the susceptible line Avocet. The population was tested over 2 years in field trials at two locations in southeastern Norway and once in Beijing, China. SSR markers were screened for association with powdery mildew resistance in a bulked segregant analysis, and linkage maps were created based on selected SSR markers and supplemented with DArT genotyping. The most important QTLs for powdery mildew resistance derived from Saar were located on chromosomes 7DS and 1BL and corresponded to the adult plant rust resistance loci Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29. A major QTL was also located on 4BL with resistance contributed by Avocet. Additional QTLs were detected at 3AS and 5AL in the Norwegian testing environments and at 5BS in Beijing. The population was also tested for leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistance and leaf tip necrosis in Mexico. QTLs for these traits were detected on 7DS and 1BL at the same positions as the QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, and confirmed the presence of Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 in Saar. The powdery mildew resistance gene at the Lr34/Yr18 locus has recently been named Pm38. The powdery mildew resistance gene at the Lr46/Yr29 locus is designated as Pm39. PMID:18347772

  3. Aromatized arborane/fernane hydrocarbons as molecular indicators of floral changes in Upper Carboniferous/Lower Permian strata of the Saar-Nahe Basin, southwestern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliex, M.; Hagemann, H. W.; Püttmann, W.

    1994-11-01

    Thirty-seven coal samples of Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian age from three boreholes in the Saar-Nahe Basin, Germany, have been studied by organic geochemical and coal petrological methods. The investigations were aimed at the recognition of floral changes in the Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian strata. The results show that compositional changes in the extracts are only partly caused by variations in coalification. Specific aromatic hydrocarbons appear in Upper Westphalian D coal seams and increase in concentration up to the Rotliegendes. The dominant compound has been identified by mass spectrometry and NMR-spectroscopy as 5-methyl-10-(4-methylpentyl)-des- A-25-norarbora(ferna)-5,7,9-triene (MATH) and always occurs associated with 25-norarbora(ferna)-5,7,9-triene. Both compounds are thought to originate from isoarborinol, fernene-3β-ol, or fernenes. The strongly acidic conditions during deposition of the coals might have induced the 4,5-cleavage combined with a methyl-shift in an arborane/fernane-type pentacyclic precursor yielding the MATH. Based on petrological investigations, palynomorphs related to early Gymnospermopsida such as Pteridospermales and Coniferophytes ( Cordaitales and Coniferales) increased in abundance in the strata beginning with the Upper Westphalian D concomitant with the above mentioned biomarkers. The results suggest the arborane/fernane derivatives originate from the plant communities producing these palynomorphs.

  4. Fluvial sedimentary styles and associated depositional environments in the buntsandstein west of river rhine in saar area and pfalz (F.R. Germany) and vosges (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachroth, Wolfgang

    The Buntsandstein west of river Rhine in Saar area, Pfalz and Vosges consists of three fluvial magnacycles which are characterized by different associated non-alluvial environments. The stratigraphic sequence is divided by several unconformities reflecting tectonic movements which were connected with periods of extension of the depositional area. Two major phases and two minor events are recognized by the evaluation of the Pfalz unconformity and the Lothringen unconformity, and the Leuter unconformity and the Saar unconformity, respectively. The Lower Buntsandstein (including Zechstein) compries the first magnacycle and is built up of alluvial-fan deposits, fluvial braidplain sediments and marine to lagoonal deposits. Some aeolian sands as well as several palaeosols are also present. The palaeolandscape consists of alluvial fans seaming the margin of the basin and fluvial braidplains reaching from the toes of the fan belt to the centre of the depositional area which is occupied by a lagoonal sea that partially evolves into a playa-lake with progressive refreshment. The Middle Buntsandstein comprises the second magnacycle and is composed of an alternation of aeolian Dünnschichten and fluvial Felsbänke. The third facies are alluvial-fan deposits of palaeogeographically restricted distribution along the margins of the basin. The aeolian Dünnschichten originate in the marginal parts of chott-type depressions (in comparison with the recent Chott Djerid in Tunesia) where rising ground water moistens the dry sediments that are laid down on the playa floor and thus allows their enhanced preservation. In dry periods, wind-blown sand is spread out as plane sheets or as migrating wind ripple trains, or accumulates to barchanoid-type dunes that advance across the flat. Depending on supply of sand, all stages of transition between dune fields with only narrow interdune corridors between the ridges and interdune playas with isolated widely-spaced dunes are developed. The

  5. The Accentuation of Intransitive Sentences in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, David

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the accentuation of two types of sentence in English: (1) straightforward intransitive sentences, and (2) intransitive sentences embedded in the frame "It's just NP noun phrase[ V verb[-ing." Modifications to Gussenhoven's (1983) Sentence Accent Assignment Rule (SAAR) are suggested based on large groups of exceptions of the SAAR.…

  6. High-resolution airborne gravity imaging over James Ross Island (West Antarctica)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jones, P.C.; Smellie, J.L.; Ghidella, M.; Corr, H. F. J.; Zakrajsek, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    James Ross Island (JRI) exposes a Miocene-Recent alkaline basaltic volcanic complex that developed in a back-arc, east of the northern Antarctic Peninsula. JRI has been the focus of several geological studies because it provides a window on Neogene magmatic processes and paleoenvironments. However, little is known about its internal structure. New airborne gravity data were collected as part of the first high-resolution aerogeophysical survey flown over the island and reveal a prominent negative Bouguer gravity anomaly over Mt Haddington. This is intriguing as basaltic volcanoes are typically associated with positive Bouguer anomalies, linked to underlying mafic intrusions. The negative Bouguer anomaly may be associated with a hitherto unrecognised low-density sub-surface body, such as a breccia-filled caldera, or a partially molten magma chamber.

  7. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings, such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  8. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings. Such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  9. Mars Global Surveyor: Aerobraking and Observations Support Using a Mars Global Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Harberle, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. Using a global atmospheric circulation model for Mars, the focus of this JRI has been to provide support for the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft aerobraking activities and interpretation guidance of preliminary observations. ne primary atmospheric model applied in this investigation has been a high-top version of the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Comparisons with an atmospheric model designed primarily for engineering purposes (Mars-GRAM) has also been carried out. From a suite of MGCM simulations, we have assessed plausible spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric density at high altitudes (e.g., 70-110 km) for seasonal dates and locations during Phase 1 aerobraking. Diagnostic tools have been developed to analyze circulation fields from the MGCM simulations, and these tools have been applied in the creation of a Mars climate catalogue database. Throughout Phase 1 aerobraking activities, analysis products have been provided to the MGS aerobraking atmospheric advisory group (AAG). Analyses of circulation variability at the coupling level between the MGCM and a Mars thermospheric global circulation model (MTGCM) has also been assessed. Finally, using a quasi-geostrophic dynamical formulation with the MGCM simulations, diagnosis of breaking planetary (Rossby) waves in Mars' middle atmosphere has been carried out. Titles of papers presented at scientific workshops and seminars, and a publication in the scientific literature are provided.

  10. Mars Global Surveyor: Aerobraking and Observations Support Using a Mars Global Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. Using a global atmospheric circulation model for Mars, the focus of this JRI has been to provide support for the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft aerobraking activities and interpretation guidance of preliminary observations. The primary atmospheric model applied in this investigation has been a high-top version of the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Comparisons with an atmospheric model designed primarily for engineering purposes (Mars-GRAM) has also been carried out. From a suite of MGCM simulations, we have assessed plausible spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric density at high altitudes (e.g., 70-1 10 km) for seasonal dates and locations during Phase 1 aerobraking. Diagnostic tools have been developed to analyze circulation fields from the MGCM simulations, and these tools have been applied in the creation of a Mars climate catalogue database. Throughout Phase I aerobraking activities, analysis products have been provided to the MGS aerobraking atmospheric advisory group (AAG). Analyses of circulation variability at the coupling level between the MGCM and a Mars thermospheric global circulation model (MTGCM) has also been assessed. Finally, using a quasi-geostrophic dynamical formulation with the MGCM simulations, diagnosis of breaking planetary (Rossby) waves in Mars middle atmosphere has been carried out. Titles of papers presented at scientific workshops and seminars, and a publication in the scientific literature are provided.

  11. Mars Global Surveyor: Aerobraking and Observations Support Using a Mars Global Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. Using a global atmospheric circulation model for Mars, the focus of this JRI has been to provide support for the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft aerobraking activities and interpretation guidance of preliminary observations. The primary atmospheric model applied in this investigation has been a high-top version of the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Comparisons with an atmospheric model designed primarily for engineering purposes (Mars-GRAM) has also been carried out. From a suite of MGCM simulations, we have assessed plausible spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric density at high altitudes (e.g., 70-110 km) for seasonal dates and locations during Phase I aerobraking. Diagnostic tools have been developed to analyze circulation fields from the MGCM simulations, and these tools have been applied in the creation of a Mars climate catalogue database. Throughout Phase I aerobraking activities, analysis products have been provided to the MGS aerobraking atmospheric advisory group (AAG). Analyses of circulation variability at the coupling level between the MGCM and a Mars thermospheric global circulation model (MTGCM) has also been assessed. Finally, using a quasi-geostrophic dynamical formulation with the MGCM simulations, diagnosis of breaking planetary (Rossby) waves in Mars' middle atmosphere has been carried out. Titles of papers presented at scientific workshops and seminars, and a publication in the scientific literature are provided.

  12. Intraseasonal and Interannual Variability of Mars Present Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate the nature of intraseasonal and interannual variability of Mars'present climate. We have applied a three-dimensional climate model based on the full hydrostatic primitive equations to determine the spatial, but primarily, the temporal structures of the planet's large-scale circulation as it evolves during a given seasonal advance, and, over multi-annual cycles. The particular climate model applies simplified physical parameterizations and is computationally efficient. It could thus easily be integrated in a perpetual season or advancing season configuration, as well as over many Mars years. We have assessed both high and low-frequency components of the circulation (i.e., motions having periods of Omicron(2-10 days) or greater than Omicron(10 days), respectively). Results from this investigation have explored the basic issue whether Mars' climate system is naturally 'chaotic' associated with nonlinear interactions of the large-scale circulation-regardless of any allowance for year-to-year variations in external forcing mechanisms. Titles of papers presented at scientific conferences and a manuscript to be submitted to the scientific literature are provided. An overview of a areas for further investigation is also presented.

  13. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Cen- ter and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical "cores" of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. ne two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical "simple physics" parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  14. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical "cores" of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. The two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical "simple physics" parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  15. An Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Global Atmospheric Circulation Models for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. The focus of this JRI has been to evaluate the dynamical 'cores' of two global atmospheric circulation models for Mars that are in operation at the NASA Ames Research Center. The two global circulation models in use are fundamentally different: one uses spherical harmonics in its horizontal representation of field variables; the other uses finite differences on a uniform longitude-latitude grid. Several simulations have been conducted to assess how the dynamical processors of each of these circulation models perform using identical 'simple physics' parameterizations. A variety of climate statistics (e.g., time-mean flows and eddy fields) have been compared for realistic solstitial mean basic states. Results of this research have demonstrated that the two Mars circulation models with completely different spatial representations and discretizations produce rather similar circulation statistics for first-order meteorological fields, suggestive of a tendency for convergence of numerical solutions. Second and higher-order fields can, however, vary significantly between the two models.

  16. Patulin in grape must and new, still fermenting wine (Federweißer).

    PubMed

    Majerus, P; Hain, J; Kölb, C

    2008-09-01

    Extreme differences in temperature were anticipating a high mycotoxin contamination of the 2006 vintage. 96 samples of different grapes and must qualities of the producing region Mosel-Saar-Ruwer as well as Federweißer from retail sales were analyzed for patulin according to EN 14177, whereat the fermentation of the must was stopped by addition of sodium azide. PMID:23604748

  17. Superintegrable deformations of superintegrable systems: Quadratic superintegrability and higher-order superintegrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rañada, Manuel F.

    2015-04-01

    The superintegrability of four Hamiltonians H r ˜ = λ H r , r = a, b, c, d, where Hr are known Hamiltonians and λ is a certain function defined on the configuration space and depended on a parameter κ, is studied. The new Hamiltonians, and the associated constants of motion Jri, i = 1, 2, 3, are continous functions of the parameter κ. The first part is concerned with separability and quadratic superintegrability (the integrals of motion are quadratic in the momenta) and the second part is devoted to the existence of higher-order superintegrability. The results obtained in the second part are related with the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz and the Post-Winternitz systems.

  18. Engineering of a multi-station shoulder simulator.

    PubMed

    Smith, Simon L; Li, Lisa; Joyce, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    This work aimed to engineer a multi-station shoulder simulator in order to wear test shoulder prostheses using recognized shoulder activities of daily living. A bespoke simulator was designed, built and subject to commissioning trials before a first wear test was conducted. Five JRI Orthopaedics Reverse Shoulder VAIOS 42 mm prostheses were tested for 2.0 million cycles and a mean wear rate and standard deviation of 14.2 ± 2.1 mm(3)/10(6) cycles measured for the polymeric glenoid components. This result when adjusted for prostheses diameters and test conditions showed excellent agreement with results from hip simulator studies of similar materials in a lubricant of bovine serum. The Newcastle Shoulder Simulator is the first multi-station shoulder simulator capable of applying physiological motion and loading for typical activities of daily living. PMID:27160564

  19. Soil thermal properties at two different sites on James Ross Island in the period 2012/13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Láska, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    James Ross Island (JRI) is the largest island in the eastern part of the Antarctic Peninsula. Ulu Peninsula in the northern part of JRI is considered the largest ice free area in the Maritime Antarctica region. However, information about permafrost on JRI, active layer and its soil properties in general are poorly known. In this study, results of soil thermal measurements at two different sites on Ulu Peninsula are presented between 1 April 2012 and 30 April 2013. The study sites are located (1) on an old Holocene marine terrace (10 m a. s. l.) in the closest vicinity of Johann Gregor Mendel (JGM) Station and (2) on top of a volcanic plateau named Johnson Mesa (340 m a. s. l.) about 4 km south of the JGM Station. The soil temperatures were measured at 30 min interval using platinum resistance thermometers Pt100/8 in two profiles up to 200 cm at JGM Station and 75 cm at Johnson Mesa respectively. Decagon 10HS volumetric water content sensors were installed up 30 cm at Johnson Mesa to 50 cm at JGM Station, while Hukseflux HFP01 soil heat flux sensors were used for direct monitoring of soil physical properties at 2.5 cm depth at both sites. The mean soil temperature varied between -5.7°C at 50 cm and -6.3°C at 5 cm at JGM Station, while that for Johnson Mesa varied between -6.9°C at 50 cm and -7.1°C at 10 cm. Maximum active layer thickness estimated from 0 °C isotherm reached 52 cm at JGM Station and 50 cm at Johnson Mesa respectively which corresponded with maximum observed annual temperature at 50 cm at both sites. The warmest part of both profiles detected at 50 cm depth corresponded with maximum thickness of active layer, estimated from 0°C isotherm, reached 52 cm at JGM Station and 50 cm at Johnson Mesa respectively. Volumetric water content at 5 cm varied around 0.25 m3m-3 at both sites. The slight increase to 0.32 m3m-3 was observed at JGM Station at 50 cm and at Johnson Mesa at 30 cm depth. Soil texture analysis showed distinctly higher share of coarser

  20. Continued rapid glacier recession following the 1995 collapse of the Prince Gustav Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Scambos, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    We use optical satellite imagery (ASTER and Landsat) to document changes in the Prince Gustav Ice Shelf (PGIS) and its tributary glaciers before and after its 1995 collapse. Interpretation of a pre-collapse Landsat 4-5 TM image acquired in February 1988 shows that the ice shelf was fed primarily by Sjogren Glacier from the Antarctic Peninsula and by Rhoss Glacier from James Ross Island (JRI). In 1988, the PGIS contained numerous structural discontinuities (rifts and crevasses), which collectively indicate that ice-shelf break-up had commenced at least seven years before collapse. Meltwater ponds and streams were also common across its surface. After the ice shelf collapsed, Rhoss Glacier became a tidewater glacier and has since experienced rapid and continued recession. Between January 2001 and December 2006 (six to eleven years after the collapse of the PGIS), the front of Rhoss Glacier receded a total of 13.6 km. We conclude that where tributary glaciers become tidewater glaciers they react to ice-shelf removal by rapid and continued recession and that the response time of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula to ice-shelf removal is measured on annual to decadal timescales. This rapid recession, coupled with previously documented tributary glacier thinning and acceleration, indicates that Antarctic Peninsula glaciers are extremely sensitive to ice-shelf collapse.

  1. Development of JSTAMP-Works/NV and HYSTAMP for Multipurpose Multistage Sheet Metal Forming Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu

    2005-08-01

    Since 1996, Japan Research Institute Limited (JRI) has been providing a sheet metal forming simulation system called JSTAMP-Works packaged the FEM solvers of LS-DYNA and JOH/NIKE, which might be the first multistage system at that time and has been enjoying good reputation among users in Japan. To match the recent needs, "faster, more accurate and easier", of process designers and CAE engineers, a new metal forming simulation system JSTAMP-Works/NV is developed. The JSTAMP-Works/NV packaged the automatic healing function of CAD and had much more new capabilities such as prediction of 3D trimming lines for flanging or hemming, remote control of solver execution for multi-stage forming processes and shape evaluation between FEM and CAD. On the other way, a multi-stage multi-purpose inverse FEM solver HYSTAMP is developed and will be soon put into market, which is approved to be very fast, quite accurate and robust. Lastly, authors will give some application examples of user defined ductile damage subroutine in LS-DYNA for the estimation of material failure and springback in metal forming simulation.

  2. Micro-Pressure Sensors for Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catling, David C.

    1996-01-01

    The joint research interchange effort was directed at the following principal areas: u further development of NASA-Ames' Mars Micro-meteorology mission concept as a viable NASA space mission especially with regard to the science and instrument specifications u interaction with the flight team from NASA's New Millennium 'Deep-Space 2' (DS-2) mission with regard to selection and design of micro-pressure sensors for Mars u further development of micro-pressure sensors suitable for Mars The research work undertaken in the course of the Joint Research Interchange should be placed in the context of an ongoing planetary exploration objective to characterize the climate system on Mars. In particular, a network of small probes globally-distributed on the surface of the planet has often been cited as the only way to address this particular science goal. A team from NASA Ames has proposed such a mission called the Micrometeorology mission, or 'Micro-met' for short. Surface pressure data are all that are required, in principle, to calculate the Martian atmospheric circulation, provided that simultaneous orbital measurements of the atmosphere are also obtained. Consequently, in the proposed Micro-met mission a large number of landers would measure barometric pressure at various locations around Mars, each equipped with a micro-pressure sensor. Much of the time on the JRI was therefore spent working with the engineers and scientists concerned with Micro-met to develop this particular mission concept into a more realistic proposition.

  3. Is there a linkage between bioaccumulation and the effects of alkylphenols on male breams (Abramis brama)?

    PubMed

    Klein, Roland; Bartel, Martina; He, Xiaohua; Müller, Josef; Quack, Markus

    2005-05-01

    There was some evidence from a previous study that estrogenic disruptors, like alkylphenols, could effect fish in the small River Saar of Southwestern Germany. Concentrations of 4NP and 4NP1EO found in breams (Abramis brama) in the Saar River were much higher than those found in other sampling sites of the German Environmental Specimen Bank, including those from sampling sites in the Rivers Elbe, Rhine, Mulde, and Saale and in Lake Belau. We studied the relationship between accumulation and effect using vitellogenin (vtg) and a hepatosomatic index (HSI) of estrogenic effects and by measuring concentrations of AP and APE accumulated in breams caught at six sampling sites in the River Saar and one in the River Mosel. To link these results with those of the previous study we standardized our sampling efforts to obtain comparable data. Elevated vtg levels were found in the breams at all sampling sites near to or downstream of sewage plant discharges, whereas low vtg levels corresponded to sampling sites not influenced by municipal waste water. While HSI values did not correspond to the location of sampling sites, there was a weak but statistically significant correlation to vtg concentrations. Concentrations of four AP and APE were much more lower, as in the previous study, and were neither linked with sewage treatment plant discharges nor correlated with vtg levels. In conclusion, a linkage between accumulation and the effects of AP and APE could not be established, but the relationship between elevated vtg concentrations and municipal waste water, which contains other important endocrine disruptors, was clear. PMID:15721884

  4. Simultaneous selection for yield-related traits and susceptibility to Fusarium head blight in spring wheat RIL population

    PubMed Central

    Wiśniewska, Halina; Surma, Maria; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Adamski, Tadeusz; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Belter, Jolanta; Majka, Maciej; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Krajewski, Paweł; Sawikowska, Aneta; Lenc, Leszek; Baturo-Cieśniewska, Anna; Łukanowski, Aleksander; Góral, Tomasz; Sadowski, Czesław

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium, is a fungal disease that occurs in wheat and can cause significant yield and grain quality losses. The present paper examines variation in the resistance of spring wheat lines derived from a cross between Zebra and Saar cultivars. Experiments covering 198 lines and parental cultivars were conducted in three years, in which inoculation with Fusarium culmorum was applied. Resistance levels were estimated by scoring disease symptoms on kernels. In spite of a similar reaction of parents to F. culmorum infection, significant differentiation between lines was found in all the analyzed traits. Seven molecular markers selected as linked to FHB resistance QTLs gave polymorphic products for Zebra and Saar: Xgwm566, Xgwm46, Xgwm389, Xgwm533, Xgwm156, Xwmc238, and Xgwm341. Markers Xgwm389 and Xgwm533 were associated with the rate of Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) as well as with kernel weight per spike and thousand kernel weight in control plants. Zebra allele of marker Xwmc238 increased kernel weight per spike and thousand kernel weight both in control and infected plants, whereas Zebra allele of marker Xgwm566 reduced the percentage of FDK and simultaneously reduced the thousand kernel weight in control and infected plants. PMID:27162499

  5. Simultaneous selection for yield-related traits and susceptibility to Fusarium head blight in spring wheat RIL population.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Halina; Surma, Maria; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Adamski, Tadeusz; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Belter, Jolanta; Majka, Maciej; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Krajewski, Paweł; Sawikowska, Aneta; Lenc, Leszek; Baturo-Cieśniewska, Anna; Łukanowski, Aleksander; Góral, Tomasz; Sadowski, Czesław

    2016-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium, is a fungal disease that occurs in wheat and can cause significant yield and grain quality losses. The present paper examines variation in the resistance of spring wheat lines derived from a cross between Zebra and Saar cultivars. Experiments covering 198 lines and parental cultivars were conducted in three years, in which inoculation with Fusarium culmorum was applied. Resistance levels were estimated by scoring disease symptoms on kernels. In spite of a similar reaction of parents to F. culmorum infection, significant differentiation between lines was found in all the analyzed traits. Seven molecular markers selected as linked to FHB resistance QTLs gave polymorphic products for Zebra and Saar: Xgwm566, Xgwm46, Xgwm389, Xgwm533, Xgwm156, Xwmc238, and Xgwm341. Markers Xgwm389 and Xgwm533 were associated with the rate of Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) as well as with kernel weight per spike and thousand kernel weight in control plants. Zebra allele of marker Xwmc238 increased kernel weight per spike and thousand kernel weight both in control and infected plants, whereas Zebra allele of marker Xgwm566 reduced the percentage of FDK and simultaneously reduced the thousand kernel weight in control and infected plants. PMID:27162499

  6. Characterization and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river bank soils.

    PubMed

    Pies, Carmen; Hoffmann, Burkhard; Petrowsky, Jelena; Yang, Yi; Ternes, Thomas A; Hofmann, Thilo

    2008-08-01

    Elevated PAH concentrations were detected in bank soils along the Mosel and Saar Rivers in Germany. Information on the identification of PAH sources in this area however remains unclear. This study was able to characterize the PAH sources by application of several approaches, including consideration of the distribution patterns of 45 PAHs (including 16 EPA PAHs and some alkyl PAHs), specific PAH ratios, distribution patterns of n-alkanes and principal component analysis (PCA). In addition, the efficiency of the tested approaches was assessed. The results from the application of the various source identification methods showed that pyrogenic PAHs dominate soil samples collected upstream of the confluence of the Mosel and Saar Rivers, and petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs dominate samples downstream of the confluence. Based on the analysis of reference materials and organic petrography, the petrogenic input was found to be dominated by coal particles. More detailed information on the petrogenic sources was provided by the n-alkane analyses. The current study concludes that to accurately determine the origin of PAHs, several identification methods must be applied. PMID:18513782

  7. Aromatized arborane/fernane hydrocarbons as biomarkers for cordaites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auras, Stefan; Wilde, Volker; Scheffler, Kay; Hoernes, Stephan; Kerp, Hans; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2006-12-01

    Previous palaeobotanical and palynological studies on coals from Euramerican Pennsylvanian (≡ Late Carboniferous) coal basins indicate a major change in coal-swamp floras, especially at the Westphalian Stephanian (≈Kasimovian Gzhelian, according to Geological Time Scale 2004) boundary. A flora dominated by arborescent lycophytes was replaced by a vegetation dominated by marattialean tree ferns in various Euramerican coal basins. Earlier combined palynological and organic geochemical studies on Westphalian/Stephanian coals and shales from the Saar-Nahe Basin (Germany) revealed that the distribution of aromatized arborane/fernane hydrocarbons in solvent extracts reflects the increasing importance of seed plants, especially cordaites (extinct group of gymnosperms), conifers and pteridosperms. However, the biological source of the precursor molecules could not be specified. To clarify if the arborane/fernane derivatives MATH, MAPH, DAPH 1, and DAPH 2 in Westphalian/Stephanian coals can be assigned to one of the three potential source plant groups, we analyzed coals, sediments and fossil plant remains from different Euramerican locations with respect to their biomarker composition and stable carbon isotopic composition. Thereby, stable carbon isotopic ratios showed only insignificant variations between Westphalian and Stephanian samples and proved to be an unsuitable tool to describe floral changes during the Westphalian/Stephanian of the Saar-Nahe Basin. In contrast, we were able to show for the first time that MATH, MAPH, DAPH 1 and DAPH 2 are prominent constituents only in extracts of cordaitean macrofossils and can therefore be regarded as biomarkers for this group of gymnosperms.

  8. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  9. Modeling of long-duration two-ribbon flares on M dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, G.; Pallavicini, R.; Kopp, R. A.

    1988-07-01

    A time-dependent model of magnetic reconnection for the decay phase of solar two-ribbon flares is applied to long-duration stellar flares observed by the Einstein and Exosat observatories on the stars EQ Peg and Prox Cen. It is shown that the model reproduces correctly the energy release rate and temporal evolution during the decay phase of the observed events. It is concluded that the observed behavior is consistent with the interpretation of these flares as stellar counterparts of solar two-ribbon flares. In addition, taking into account recent measurements of stellar magnetic fields by Saar and Linsky (1985), it is shown that the agreement between the data and the analytical model results in a well-defined set of physical parameters for the emitting region.

  10. New measurements of photospheric magnetic fields in late-type stars and emerging trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, S. H.; Linsky, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic fields of late-type stars are measured using the method of Saar et al. (1986). The method includes radiative transfer effects and compensation for line blending; the photospheric magnetic field parameters are derived by comparing observed and theoretical line profiles using an LTE code that includes line saturation and full Zeeman pattern. The preliminary mean active region magnetic field strengths (B) and surface area coverages for 20 stars are discussed. It is observed that there is a trend of increasing B towards the cooler dwarfs stars, and the linear correlation between B and the equipartition value of the magnetic field strength suggests that the photospheric gas pressure determines the photospheric magnetic field strengths. A tendency toward larger filling factors at larger stellar angular velocities is also detected.

  11. Thermal tracing of flow and transport in fractured media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Borgne, T.; Klepikova, M.; Goderniaux, P.; Bour, O.; Read, T.; Hochreutener, R.; Boschero, V.; Lavenant, N.; Bense, V.

    2012-12-01

    Flow in fractured media is known to be very heterogeneous, both at the fracture scale where aperture fluctuations can imply significant flow channeling, and at the scale of fracture networks, which are characterized by a large distribution of fracture lengths and transmissivities. The coexistence of fast pathways and stagnation zones, dominated by diffusive transport, implies broad residence time distributions. The characterization of flow and transport patterns from pumping or tracer tests in such system is a strongly under-constrained inverse problem. The coupling of several types of data is a possible way to reduce the associated uncertainty. Temperature is a parameter that may have a good potential for providing new constraints on flow heterogeneity, as discussed in recent reviews (Anderson, 2005, Saar, 2011). Furthermore, recent technical developments, such as distributed temperature sensing, allow measuring temperature with high accuracy and fine spatial resolution. Temperature anomalies can be either naturally induced by flow heterogeneities or created by injection of a hot or cold tracer. In the first case, the natural geothermal gradient is perturbed locally by fracture upflow (positive anomaly) or downflow (negative anomaly). Using a borehole scale model of flow and heat transport, we show that perturbed borehole temperature profiles can be used to estimate vertical borehole flow profiles (Klepikova et al., 2011). Thus, we propose a methodology to inverse temperature profiles under ambient, single borehole and cross borehole pumping conditions for estimating fracture hydraulic and connectivity properties. We then discuss the interest of using thermal tracer tests compared to classical tracer tests. We conducted a series of thermal and solute tracer tests at the fractured crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur, France. Thermal tracer tests were performed by injecting continuously 50 degrees Celsius water in a fracture located at 50 meters depth. The breakthrough

  12. Usutu virus in Italy: an emergence or a silent infection?

    PubMed

    Savini, Giovanni; Monaco, Federica; Terregino, Calogero; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Bano, Luca; Pinoni, Chiara; De Nardi, Roberta; Bonilauri, Paolo; Pecorari, Monica; Di Gialleonardo, Luigina; Bonfanti, Lebana; Polci, Andrea; Calistri, Paolo; Lelli, Rossella

    2011-08-01

    A two year study (2008-2009) was carried out to monitor the Usutu virus (USUV) circulation in Italy. Sentinel horses and chickens, wild birds and mosquitoes were sampled and tested for the presence of USUV and USUV antibodies within the WND National Surveillance plan. Seroconversion evidenced in sentinel animals proved that in these two years the virus has circulated in Tuscany, Emilia Romagna, Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions. In Veneto USUV caused a severe blackbird die-off disease involving at least a thousand birds. Eleven viral strains were detected in organs of 9 blackbirds (52.9%) and two magpies (0.5%) originating from Veneto and Emilia Romagna regions. USUV was also detected in a pool of Culex pipiens caught in Tuscany. According to the alignment of the NS5 partial sequences, no differences between the Italian USUV strains isolated from Veneto, Friuli and Emilia Romagna regions were observed. The Italian North Eastern strain sequences were identical to those of the strain detected in the brain of a human patient and shared a high similarity with the isolates from Vienna and Budapest. Conversely, there were few differences between the Italian strains which circulated in the North Eastern regions and the USUV strain detected in a pool of C. pipiens caught in Tuscany. A high degree of similarity at both nucleotide and amino acid level was also found when the full genome sequence of the Italian North Eastern isolate was compared with that of the strains circulating in Europe. The North Eastern Italian strain sequence exhibited 97% identity to the South African reference strain SAAR-1776. The deduced amino acid sequences of the Italian strain differed by 10 and 11 amino-acids from the Budapest and Vienna strains, respectively, and by 28 from the SAAR-1776 strain. According to this study two strains of USUVs are likely to have circulated in Italy between 2008 and 2009. They have developed strategies of adaptation and evolution to spread into new areas

  13. Arrhythmic risk stratification after myocardial infarction using ambulatory electrocardiography signal averaging.

    PubMed

    Roche, Frédéric; DaCosta, Antoine; Karnib, Ibrahim; Triomphe, Géraldine; Roche, Christian; Isaaz, Karl; Geyssant, André; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude

    2002-05-01

    Ambulatory ECG had been proposed to examine the amplified high resolution signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG). Clinical investigations are required to confirm the predictive value of such a high resolution technique in arrhythmic risk stratification. The prognostic value of ambulatory Holter SAECG was evaluated in 108 postinfarction patients for the purpose of predicting the occurrence of serious arrhythmic (SARR) events (sudden cardiac death [SCD], VT, or VF) in comparison with classical real-time SAECG. During the 42+/-8 months of follow-up, the sudden cardiac death mortality was 4.6% (five deaths), six (5.6%) patients had VT, and one (0.9%) VF. QRSd was found to be the most predictive parameter using ROC curves analysis for SAAR + outcome (W = 0.833 and W = 0.803 for 25-250 Hz and 40-250 Hz filters, respectively) followed by RMS (W = 0.766 and W = 0.721) and LAS (W = 0.759, W = 0.709) (all P < 0.01). Abnormal Holter SAECG for 25 and 40-Hz LP filter were significant predictors of SARR+ by log-rank test (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). This study confirms that valuable prognostic information can be obtained from the ambulatory high resolution ECG technique and that Holter SAECG may predict arrhythmic risk in a postinfarction population. PMID:12049370

  14. Effect of Tool Offset and Tool Rotational Speed on Enhancing Mechanical Property of Al/Mg Dissimilar FSW Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Ke; Wang, Xiaona; Yao, Junshan; Yang, Qi; Zhang, Lanting; Shan, Aidang

    2013-08-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a promising solid-state joining technique for producing effective welds between Al alloy and Mg alloy. However, previously reported Al/Mg dissimilar FSW joints generally have limited strength or barely any ductility with relatively high strength, which was blamed on the brittle intermetallics formed during welding. In this study, effective joints with comparably high strength (163 MPa) and large elongation (~6 pct) were obtained. Three crucial/weak zones were identified in the welds: (1) Al/Mg bottom interface (BI) zone that resulted from the insufficient materials' intermixing and interdiffusion; (2) banded structure (BS) zone which contains intermetallic particles possibly formed by constitutional liquation; and (3) softened Al alloy to the retreating side (SAA-RS) zone due to the dissolution and coarsening of the strengthening precipitates. Three fracture modes observed in the tensile specimens perpendicular to the weld seam were found closely related to these zones. Their microstructure evolution with the change of tool rotational speed and tool offset was characterized and the consequent effect on the fracture mode alteration was studied. It turned out that enhancing the strengths of all these zones, but keeping the strength of the SAA lowest, is an effective way for enhancing ductility while keeping comparatively high strength in Al/Mg FSW joints. Also, suggestions for further improving the mechanical property of the Al/Mg dissimilar FSW joints were made accordingly for practical applications.

  15. Laser surgery for Zenker's diverticulum: European combined study.

    PubMed

    Papaspyrou, Giorgos; Schick, Bernhard; Papaspyrou, Spyros; Wiegand, Susanne; Al Kadah, Basel

    2016-01-01

    Surgical intervention is the gold standard of treatment for Zenker's diverticulum. The aim of this study was to examine the role of laser surgery in a large number of patients with this pathological entity. The data of 91 consecutive patients treated due to Zenker's diverticulum with the aid of CO2 laser in three institutions (Homburg/Saar and Marburg, Germany/Athens, Greece) during the last 10 years were retrospectively analyzed. Parameters examined were sex, age, preoperative symptoms, length of operation and complications, revision surgery necessity and degree of patient satisfaction. All patients had a minimum follow-up of one year. Dysphagia was the most common preoperative symptom (78 %). The most common minor complication was dental injury (6.6 %), but a serious complication in form of emphysema was observed in only two patients (2.2 %). A surgical revision was necessary in 8 (8.8 %) of the treated patients. The majority of treated patients was free of symptoms (86.8 %), or presented mild symptoms (9.9 %) one year after intervention, and only three patients (3.3 %) were dissatisfied. Our study shows that laser treatment of Zenker's diverticulum is an efficient operative technique associated with low complications rates and significant improvement of patients' symptoms in most of the examined cases. PMID:25567345

  16. Effect of ship locking on sediment oxygen uptake in impounded rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorke, A.; McGinnis, D. F.; Maeck, A.; Fischer, H.

    2012-12-01

    In the majority of large river systems, flow is regulated and/or otherwise affected by operational and management activities, such as ship locking. The effect of lock operation on sediment-water oxygen fluxes was studied within a 12.9 km long impoundment at the Saar River (Germany) using eddy-correlation flux measurements. The continuous observations cover a time period of nearly 5 days and 39 individual locking events. Ship locking is associated with the generation of surges propagating back and forth through the impoundment which causes strong variations of near-bed current velocity and turbulence. These wave-induced flow variations cause variations in sediment-water oxygen fluxes. While the mean flux during time periods without lock operation was 0.5 ± 0.1 g m-2 d-1, it increased by about a factor of 2 to 1.0 ± 0.5 g m-2 d-1within time periods with ship locking. Following the daily schedule of lock operations, fluxes are predominantly enhanced during daytime and follow a pronounced diurnal rhythm. The driving force for the increased flux is the enhancement of diffusive transport across the sediment-water interface by bottom-boundary layer turbulence and perhaps resuspension. Additional means by which the oxygen budget of the impoundment is affected by lock-induced flow variations are discussed.

  17. Mechanical behaviour of standardized, endoskeleton-including hip spacers implanted into composite femurs

    PubMed Central

    Thielen, T.; Maas, S.; Zuerbes, A.; Waldmann, D.; Anagnostakos, K.; Kelm, J.

    2009-01-01

    Two-stage reconstruction using an antibiotic loaded cement spacer is the preferred treatment method of late hip joint infections. Hip spacers maintain stability of the joint and length of the limb during treatment period. However, as the material strength of bone cement (PMMA) is limited, spacer fractures led to serious complications in the past. This study investigated the load capacity of custom made hip spacers, developed at the 'Klinik für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie' (Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg / Saar, Germany), and implanted into composite femurs. In a quasi-static test, non-reinforced spacers tolerated hip joint loads of about 3000 N, whereas reinforced spacers with titanium-grade-two endoskeletons doubled this load up to 6000 N. Even for cyclic loading, endoskeleton-including hip spacers tolerated loads of >4500 N with 500,000 load cycles. Thus, an endoskeleton-including spacer should provide a mobile and functional joint through the treatment course. A generated FE-model was used to determine the fracture stresses and allows for further sensitivity analysis. PMID:19834594

  18. Quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes and runoff generation in Spanish and German vineyards.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo Comino, J; Iserloh, T; Lassu, T; Cerdà, A; Keestra, S D; Prosdocimi, M; Brings, C; Marzen, M; Ramos, M C; Senciales, J M; Ruiz Sinoga, J D; Seeger, M; Ries, J B

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to enable a quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes in European vineyards using the same methodology and equipment. The study was conducted in four viticultural areas with different characteristics (Valencia and Málaga in Spain, Ruwer-Mosel valley and Saar-Mosel valley in Germany). Old and young vineyards, with conventional and ecological planting and management systems were compared. The same portable rainfall simulator with identical rainfall intensity (40mmh(-1)) and sampling intervals (30min of test duration, collecting the samples at 5-min-intervals) was used over a circular test plot with 0.28m(2). The results of 83 simulations have been analysed and correlation coefficients were calculated for each study area to identify the relationship between environmental plot characteristics, soil texture, soil erosion, runoff and infiltration. The results allow for identification of the main factors related to soil properties, topography and management, which control soil erosion processes in vineyards. The most important factors influencing soil erosion and runoff were the vegetation cover for the ecological German vineyards (with 97.6±8% infiltration coefficients) and stone cover, soil moisture and slope steepness for the conventional land uses. PMID:27265730

  19. Deep reflection seismic data along the central part of the European Geotraverse in Germany: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wever, T. h.; Meissner, R.; Sadowiak, P.; Dekorp Group

    1990-04-01

    Deep reflection seismic data collected in Germany during the last three decades allow an insight into the structure of the Variscan crust in Germany. Although the crustal thickness is relatively constant, reflection data revealed important internal structures. Most profiles show a poorly reflective upper crust (disregarding fault zones) while its lower part is characterized by many flat-lying reflections. But also dipping reflections in the upper and lower crust have been observed on DEKORP reflection lines. Beneath the geothermal anomaly of Urach an updoming of the reflective lower crust coinciding with a pronounced low-velocity body can be observed. Near the suture zones between Moldanubian, Saxothuringian and Rhenohercynian abundant diffractions appear in the middle and lower crust. One exception is found in the west where post-Variscan developments created the deep Saar-Nahe-trough. The North Variscan Deformation Front exhibits thin-skinned tectonics west of the Rhine while farther east more steeply dipping fault zones are observed. In the North German Basin, just north of the Variscides, an industrial north-south profile shows strong bands of reflections from both midcrustal and Moho levels. The distance between these bands becomes smaller to the north. An industrial west-east line of 90 km length in Schleswig-Holstein, south of Kiel, shows a thinning of the crust of about 6 km towards the North Sea, although the Moho is not faulted. The sediments reach down to at least 15 km.

  20. Reconstruction of Pseudomariopteris busquetii, a vine-like Late Carboniferous-Early Permian pteridosperm.

    PubMed

    Krings, M; Kerp, H; Taylor, E L; Taylor, T N

    2001-05-01

    The growth habit of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian pteridosperm Pseudomariopteris busquetii is reconstructed based on compression material from the upper Stephanian of the Blanzy-Montceau and Commentry Basins (Massif Central, France), and the upper Rotliegend of the Saar-Nahe Basin (Nahe Group, N 4, Rheinland Pfalz, Germany). Pseudomariopteris busquetii was a medium-sized, vine- to liana-like plant with slender stems to which small bipartite fronds were attached. What is most interesting is that the species used at least two different strategies to both anchor and support the plant body. Most specimens possess specialized climber hooks developed from apical extensions of the pinna axes, indicating that the fronds were used to attach the plant. A few specimens suggest that the stem may also have had some capacity for attachment. In the absence of suitable supports, however, P. busquetii was apparently able to grow in dense stands or thickets in which the individual plants supported each other. PMID:11353702

  1. Endonasal modification of the frontal sinus drainage type IIb according to Draf.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Schick, B

    2015-08-01

    The description of different endonasal drainage options (type I, II and III according to Draf) and their successful use in numerous patients has reached a milestone in frontal sinus surgery. We herein describe a modification of an endonasal frontal sinus drainage type IIb with the additional removal of the lower part of the frontal sinus septum without opening the frontal recess of the other side and without resection of the nasal septum. The modified endonasal endoscopic frontal sinus drainage type IIb was performed on 9 patients at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar between 02/2011 and 6/2013 after having gained patients' consent. Follow-ups with endoscopic examination were performed after 6, 12 and 24 months (median follow-up: 14 months). Endonasal endoscopic opening of the frontal sinus was achieved in all patients. Endoscopic examination 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery revealed patent frontal sinus drainage in 8 patients. The frontal sinus drainage could not be visualized endoscopically in one patient who was free of symptoms for 24 months and where a ventilated frontal sinus was proven radiologically by computed tomography. The study demonstrates the option to additionally remove the lower part of the inter-frontal septum with a frontal sinus drainage type IIb. As the number of patients treated by this modified frontal sinus type IIb drainage is limited, further investigations are needed to define the value of a modified frontal sinus drainage type IIb. PMID:25294052

  2. The concept of a hierarchical cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujić, P. V.

    2003-10-01

    The idea of a hierachically structured cosmos can be traced back to the Presocratic Hellada. In the fifth century BC Anaxagoras from Clazomenae developed an idea of a sort of fractal material world, by introducing the concept of seeds (spermata), or homoeomeries as Aristotle dubbed it later (Grujić 2001). Anaxagoras ideas have been grossly neglected during the Middle Ages, to be invoked by a number of post-Renaissance thinkers, like Leibniz, Kant, etc, though neither of them referred to their Greek predecessor. But the real resurrections of the hierarchical paradigm started at the beginning of the last century, with Fournier and Charlier (Grujić 2002). Second half of the 20th century witnessed an intensive development of the theoretical models based on the (multi)fractal paradigm, as well as a considerable body of the observational evidence in favour of the hierarchical cosmos (Saar 1988). We overview the state of the art of the cosmological fractal concept, both within the astrophysical (Sylos Labini et al 1998), methodological (Ribeiro 2001) and epistemological (Ribeiro and Videira 1998) context.

  3. Seasonal variability in Tibetan seismicity 1991-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph-Flagg, N. G.; Day, J.; Burgmann, R.; Manga, M.

    2013-12-01

    Seismicity in the High Himalaya in Nepal (Bollinger et al., GRL, 2007, Bettinelli et al., EPSL, 2008), the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California (Christiansen et al., 2007), Mt. Hochstaufen in Germany (Hainzl et al., 2006), and some Cascade Range volcanoes (Christiansen et al., GRL, 2005; Saar and Manga, EPSL, 2003) shows seasonal modulation. From 1991 to 2013, seismicity throughout the ~500 km by ~1000 km Tibetan Plateau also appears to be modulated with 66% more shallow (depth < 20km) earthquakes in spring and fall than in the summer and winter. This variation cannot be explained by seasonal changes in seismic network coverage or triggering by (or occurrence of) large magnitude earthquakes. Significant foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan dominate the seismic record from 2008 to 2009 and those years are not considered in the statistical analysis. The Tibetan seismicity, although weaker, is very similar to the modulation observed in Nepal and in the locked section of the San Andreas fault at Parkfield. To explain this biannual signal, we assess the possible effects of hydrologic loading (and unloading), pore pressure diffusion, fault plane orientation, evapotranspiration, earth tides, and atmospheric pressure. The similarity in seasonal signals throughout the area suggests that many faults on the Tibetan Plateau are critically stressed and sensitive to small transient stresses.

  4. Removing Activity-Related Radial Velocity Noise to Improve Extrasolar Planet Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, Steven; Lindstrom, David M. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We have made significant progress towards the proposal goals of understanding the causes and effects of magnetic activity-induced radial velocity (v_r) jitter and developing methods for correcting it. In the process, we have also made some significant discoveries in the fields of planet-induced stellar activity, planet detection methods, M dwarf convection, starspot properties, and magnetic dynamo cycles. We have obtained super high resolution (R approximately 200,000), high S / N (greater than 300) echelle study of joint line bisector and radial velocity variations using the McDonald 2-D coude. A long observing run in October 2002 in particular was quite successful (8 clear nights). We now have close to three years of data, which begins to sample a good fraction of the magnetic cycle timescales for some of our targets (e.g., kappa Ceti; P_cyc = 5.6 yrs). This will be very helpful in unraveling the complex relationships between plage and radial velocity (v-r) changes which we have uncovered. Preliminary analysis (Saar et al. 2003) of the data in hand, reveals correlations between median line bisector displacement and v_r. The correlation appears to be specific the the particular star being considered, probably since it is a function of both spectral type and rotation rate. Further analysis and interpretation will be in the context of evolving plage models and is in progress.

  5. [Malignancies in families of children with cancer].

    PubMed

    Graf, N; Breitenmoser, M; Jobke, A; Kaatsch, P

    1990-01-01

    We examined the frequency and kind of cancer in families with a child having a neoplasm at the Universitätskinderklinik Homburg/Saar, at the Universitätskinderklinik Freiburg and at the Institut für Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz. The following could be shown: 1. There is no difference in the distribution of various kinds of cancer in children, whether they have relatives with cancer or not. 2. It is necessary to examine the family history repeatedly to obtain an accurate documentation of familial cancer. 3. Cancer in familial members did occur in a third of all families on an average. 4. Independently of the diagnosis of the child, in most families only one additional family member did have cancer. 5. The majority of relatives with cancer are grandparents. 6. Cancer of the lung and of the breast are the most frequent kinds of neoplasms occurring in family members. 7. Comparing the most frequent kinds of neoplasms in family members in this study with the distribution of cancer in adults, it is obviously, that there is a higher percentage of leukemia and brain tumors in relatives of children with cancer than is expected. 8. Typical tumor constellations can be found in affected families like breast cancer and soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:2395314

  6. Quantitative comparison of soil erosion, runoff and infiltration coefficients using the same small portable rainfall simulator in German and Spanish vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Iserloh, Thomas; Lassu, Tamás; Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Concepción Ramos, María; Brings, Christine; María Senciales, José; Damián Ruiz Sinoga, José; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    Small portable rainfall simulations have been used for decades to compare and quantify the relationship between the factors influencing runoff generation and soil erosion. Though, the comparability of these researches is problematic due to the different simulators and methods applied. In order to enable a quantitative comparison of the soil erosion processes of four study areas (Valencia and Málaga in Spain, Ruwer-Mosel valley and Saar-Mosel valley in Germany) similar type of portable rainfall simulator (with a square metal frame of 0.45 m x 0.45 m, one nozzle Lechler 460 608, four telescopic aluminium legs, a rubber tarpaulin to avoid wind influences, a circular test plot with 0.28m2) with similar methodology (rainfall intensity of 40 mm h-1, during 30 minutes of time duration, collecting the samples with intervals of 5 minutes) was used. Older and younger vineyards with conventional and ecological planting system were being compared with each other. All together the results of 77 simulations have been analysed and additionally the Spearman's Correlation Coefficient was calculated for each study area to identify the relationship between the different parameters.

  7. Integration of porosity, connectivity and permeability measurements to determine syn-eruptive degassing processes during a sub-plinian basaltic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Simone; Gurioli, Lucia; Colombier, Matthieu; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Roche, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Degassing of the volatile phases is considered to have a major control on the eruption dynamics, particularly in controlling shifts between explosive and extrusive eruption styles. The sub-plinian eruption of the basaltic monogenetic La Vache and Lassolas cone complex in the Chaîne des Puys, France, about 8600 years ago, was an unusual large event that raises the question of the processes that controlled the explosivity of non-differentiated magma and the evolution of this sub-plinian event. This study combines the results of density, porosity, connectivity and permeability measurements of juvenile clasts to determine the state of vesiculation and the presence of open degassing pathways within the melt prior to fragmentation. The volume of connected vesicles is measured using a Helium-Pycnometer, while permeability measurements are conducted using a permeameter recently built at the Laboratoire Magma et Volcans, following Takeuchi et al. (2008). The permeameter has broad measurement ranges of pressure difference (101-105 Pa) and gas-flow rate (10-9-10-5 m3/s). These ranges enable us to measure viscous (Darcian) permeability in the range of 10-17-10-9 m2 for 1 centimetre-scale samples (such as scoria clasts) using the Forchheimer equation (Rust and Cashman, 2004) that accounts for inertial effects caused by non-laminar flow at high gas flow rates. This technique is a relatively new approach to determine the permeability of quenched samples. The integration of porosity and connectivity measurements provides information about the percentage of connected and isolated vesicles, with the connected vesicles forming potential degassing pathways. Our results show that the permeability and the vesicularity of the La Vache and Lassolas pyroclasts correlate very well, defining a trend that is also shown by the permeability data derived from the literature for the Cascades (Saar and Manga, 1999) and the Ambrym volcano (Polacci et al., 2012). The connectivity data of the

  8. Multicomponent CO2-Brine Simulations of Fluid and Heat Transfer in Sedimentary-Basin Geothermal Systems: Expanding Geothermal Energy Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, M. O.; Randolph, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    In a carbon dioxide plume geothermal (CPG) system, carbon dioxide (CO2) is pumped into existing high-permeability geologic formations that are overlain by a low-permeability caprock. The resulting CO2 plume largely displaces native formation fluid and is heated by the natural in-situ heat and background geothermal heat flux. A portion of the heated CO2 is piped to the surface to produce power and/or to provide heat for direct use before being returned to the geologic reservoir. Non-recoverable CO2 in the subsurface is geologically sequestered, serving as a CO2 sink. As such, this approach results in a geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. We present results of calculations concerning geothermal power plant efficiencies and energy production rates in both traditional reservoir-based systems and engineered geothermal systems (EGS) when CO2, rather than water, is used as the subsurface working fluid. While our previous studies have examined geologic systems with established CO2 plumes, we focus here on multicomponent (CO2 + brine) systems. Numerical simulations (e.g., Randolph and Saar, Geophysical Research Letters, 2011) indicate that CPG systems provide several times the heat energy recovery of similar water-based systems. Furthermore, the CPG method results in higher geothermal heat extraction efficiencies than both water- and CO2-based EGS. Therefore, CPG should further extend the applicability of geothermal energy utilization to regions with subsurface temperatures and heat flow rates that are even lower than those that may be added due to switching from water- to CO2-based EGS. Finally, simulations at present suggest that multicomponent effects - e.g., buoyant flow as CO2 rises over denser brine - may enhance heat extraction in CPG systems compared to traditional water-based geothermal approaches.

  9. Possible Role of a Cell Surface Carbohydrate in Evolution of Resistance to Viral Infections in Old World Primates

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Idalia A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to inactivation of the α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1, or the α1,3GT gene) approximately 28 million years ago, the carbohydrate αGal (Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc) is not expressed on the cells of Old World monkeys and apes (including humans) but is expressed in all other mammals. The proposed selective advantage of this mutation for these primates is the ability to produce anti-Gal antibodies, which may be an effective immune component in neutralizing αGal-expressing pathogens. However, loss of α1,3GT expression may have been advantageous by providing natural resistance against viral pathogens that exploited the α1,3GT pathway or cell surface αGal for infection. Infections of paired cell lines with differential expression of α1,3GT showed that Sindbis viruses (SINV) preferentially replicate in α1,3GT-positive cells, whereas herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) preferentially grow in cells lacking α1,3GT. Viral growth and spread correlated with the ability of the different viruses to successfully initiate infection in the presence or absence of α1,3GT expression. GT knockout (KO) suckling mice infected with SINV strains (AR339 and S.A.AR86) experienced significant delay in onset of disease symptoms and mortality compared to wild-type (WT) B6 suckling mice. In contrast, HSV-2-infected GT KO mice had higher viral titers in spleen and liver and exhibited significantly more focal hepatic necrosis than WT B6 mice. This study demonstrates that α1,3GT activity plays a role in the course of infections for certain viruses. Furthermore, this study has implications for the evolution of resistance to viral infections in primates. PMID:23740988

  10. Borosilicate alteration associated with U-Mo-Zn and Ag-Au-Zn deposits in volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Y.; Maury, R.

    1995-10-01

    Borosilicate alteration is developed in many uranium-molybdenum-zinc deposits in volcanic piles such as at Novazza (Italy), Novoveska Huta (Slovakia), Ben Lomond (Queensland, Australia), the Saar-Nahe basin (Germany), the Shengyuan district (China), and at many deposits in Russia. These uranium-molybdenum-zinc deposits share similar styles of alteration with silver-gold-zinc deposits in volcanic rocks, like those of the Humboldt Range (Nevada, USA), the Basin district (Montana, USA) and Equity Mine (British Columbia, Canada). In thick volcanic piles, fluid-rock interaction commonly develops under the influence of convective hydrothermal systems. In borosilicate-bearing systems the alteration is characterized by changes in borosilicate mineralogy and chemistry under mesothermal conditions. Zonal distribution of different compositions of tourmaline can be observed including regular increases of alkali deficiency in the X(3a) site from peripheral (chlorite-epidote-prehnite) to internal (sericite and/or pyrophyllite) alteration zones. In the central part of these systems tourmaline is absent and the alteration assemblage is characterized by an andalusitedumortierite-quartz association. Such changes in mineral assemblage are related to an increase in temperature from 250 to 350 400 °C and to decreases in pH and Eh, from the outer toward the inner parts of the hydrothermal system. The zonation of the borosilicate-bearing alteration systems is similar to that of aluminosilicate-bearing hydrothermal systems (muscovite, pyrophyllite, andalusite) developed in volcanic rocks. A kaolinite-alunitejasperoid assemblage is generally associated with the borosilicate alteration, and seems related to a late hydrothermal phase mainly located in graben structures.

  11. Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

    2012-02-02

    We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

  12. Cervical lymphadenopathy: study of 251 patients.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Popov, Hristo Hristov; Schick, Bernhard; Knöbber, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    Correct diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy is often a great challenge. The objective of this case study is to describe the distribution of the most common causes of unclear neck swellings presented in an ENT-Department and to evaluate the clinical history, examination and laboratory findings. In a retrospective study at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Homburg/Saar, 251 patients were enrolled with clinical and ultrasound signs of cervical lymphadenopathy as well as lymph node extirpation for histopathological evaluation. 127 patients (50.6 %) had a histological malignant finding. The distribution of the most common pathological conditions was as follows: Non-specific reactive hyperplasia n = 89 (35.5 %), metastases n = 86 (34.3 %), lymphoma n = 41 (16.3 %), granulomatous lesions n = 15 (6 %), abscess formations n = 5 (2 %), necrotic lymphadenitis and Castleman's disease one case of each, lymph node with normal architecture n = 7 (2.8 %), and neck masses mimicking lymphadenopathy n = 6 cases (2.4 %). The following factors identified by multivariate logistic regression were significantly associated to malignant lymphadenopathy: increasing age, generalized lymphadenopathy and history of malignant disorder, fixed neck masses and increasing diameter in ENT examination, bulky lesion, absence of hilus, blurred outer contour, protective role of the long form and decreasing Solbiati-index values by ultrasound B-Mode gray scale examination. Level II contained more benign lymphatic lesions, while the malignancy rate in level IV and V was enhanced. Laboratory parameters significantly associated to malignancies were CRP, LDH and thrombocytopenia. Patients with persisting cervical lymphadenopathy and over 3 weeks of antibiotic treatment should be considered for early biopsy, especially if some of the risk factors, pointed out in this study, are present. PMID:25294051

  13. Quantitative analysis of soil erosion in ecologically and conventionally cultivated vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, Alexander; Brings, Christine; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    Long term observations of soil erosion in vineyards showed that they are generally stable. But the soil erosion rates reach very varying dimensions by the increased occurrence of extreme rainfall events or under the influence of different soil and vineyard management. To identify the differences between an ecologically (with natural vegetation cover under and around the vines) and conventionally cultivated vineyard, in 2014 six sediment traps were installed on a south-west exposed slope of the Rhenish Slate Mountains, West Germany. The research area is part of Saar terrace (around 180 meter high above sea level), a tributary of the Moselle, so the substrate is made of clay stone and gravel sand. Sediment traps allow in-situ measurements during a natural rainfall event. By dint of them the overland flow and sediment can be collected. The sediment traps were placed in a row in the middle of the slope, in the steepest part (averaged 23°). They were emptied weekly. Runoff and sediments were divided by the gravimetric filtering method. The results show more collected runoff and sediment in the conventional vineyard than in the ecological. The sum of the runoffs amounts to 75 liter in the conventional vineyard, 29 liter for the ecological old and 0.73 liter for the ecological young vineyard. The amount of sediment of conventional vineyard (403 g) was five times higher than in the ecological one (79 g). The causes lay in the low vegetation cover and existing traffic lines in the conventional vineyard. But the highest sediment concentration has been detected in the ecological young vineyard.

  14. Benzotriazole UV stabilizers in sediments, suspended particulate matter and fish of German rivers: New insights into occurrence, time trends and persistency.

    PubMed

    Wick, Arne; Jacobs, Björn; Kunkel, Uwe; Heininger, Peter; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) are widely applied in plastics to prevent discoloration and to enhance product stability. This study describes for the first time the occurrence of nine different lipophilic BUVSs (UV-326, UV-320, UV-329, UV-350, UV-328, UV-327, UV-928, UV-234 and UV-360) in sediment, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bream liver samples of German rivers. All investigated BUVSs were detected in sediments and SPM at concentrations in the low ng/g dry weight (dw) range. The so far rarely analyzed compound UV-360 as well as UV-326 were the predominant BUVSs in sediments and SPM from the river Rhine reaching maximum concentrations of 62 and 44 ng/g dw, respectively. Five BUVSs were also confirmed to bioaccumulate in bream liver, but neither UV-360 nor UV-326 was detected above the limit of quantification (LOQ). In contrast, highest concentrations in bream liver were determined for UV-327 (65 ng/g dw) and UV-328 (40 ng/g dw). A retrospective time trend analysis of BUVSs in SPM from two sites (river Rhine, 2005 to 2013; river Saar, 2006 to 2013) revealed increasing contamination levels of UV-329 and decreasing levels of UV-320 and UV-350. At one site (river Rhine) time trends of BUVS concentrations were also investigated in bream liver (1995-2013) and supported a considerably reduced exposure to UV-350. A first assessment of the environmental fate of BUVSs by sediment-water batch systems revealed a rapid partitioning into the sediment and no considerable degradation within 100 d. PMID:26874322

  15. Rainfall simulation experiments in ecological and conventional vineyards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, Alexander; Brings, Christine; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Iserloh, Thomas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    In October 2014, the Trier University started a measurement series, which defines, compares and evaluates the behavior of runoff and soil erosion with different farming productions in vineyards. The research area is located in Kanzem, a traditional wine village in the Saar Valley (Rheinland-Palatinate, Germany). The test fields show different cultivation methods: ecological (with natural vegetation cover under and around the vines) and conventional cultivated rows of wine. By using the small portable rainfall simulator of Trier University it shall be proved if the assumption that there is more runoff and soil erosion in the conventional part than in the ecological part of the tillage system. Rainfall simulations assess the generation of overland flow, soil erosion and infiltration. So, a trend of soil erosion and runoff of the different cultivation techniques are noted. The objective of this work is to compare the geomorphological dynamics of two different tillage systems. Therefore, 30 rainfall simulations plots were evenly distributed on a west exposition hillside with different slope angels (8-25°), vegetation- and stone-covers. In concrete, the plot surface reaches from strongly covered soil across lithoidal surfaces to bare soil often with compacted lanes of typical using machines. In addition, by using the collected substrate, an estimation and distribution of the grain size of the eroded material shall be given. The eroded substrate is compared to soil samples of the test plots. The first results have shown that there is slightly more runoff and soil erosion in the ecological area than on the conventional part of the vineyard.

  16. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  17. Neotectonic activity in and around the southwestern Rhenish shield (West Germany): indications of a levelling comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoulin, A.; Pissart, A.; Zippelt, K.

    1995-09-01

    Precise levelling data are re-examined in the southwestern Rhenish shield and its foreland by comparing them analytically along levelling profiles. Instead of generalizing regional vertical movement trends, this method emphasizes the activity of individual structural elements, which can be located with a high accuracy. It is shown that present-day vertical motions concentrate on fractures which cut the massif into a number of tectonic blocks. These undergo more or less independent movements. Significant measured displacements range from 1 to 3.5 cm over an average 20-year period and correspond mostly to aseismic slip. High displacements are found near pre-existing faults, sometimes also zones of joint concentration which are favourably oriented with respect to the current regional stress field. In the Mosel area, SW-NE-trending faults are predominantly reactivated as reverse faults. The motion inferred for the Hunsrück border fault is also consistent with the compressive regime presently observed in that area, with σ1 oriented to the northwest. The direction of vertical motions along the western border fault of the upper Rhine graben changes from south to north in relation to the different azimuths of the central and northern segments of the graben, inducing a S-N-oriented transition from compressional to extensional shear. Within the graben itself, some N160°E-trending normal faults are identified, one of them having probably ruptured in a swarm of microearthquaks not long before the second survey was performed. The western Saar-Nahe trough is characterized by N-S-oriented fractures which cannot be related to mapped faults but show a close connection with photolineaments.

  18. Development of Methodologies For The Analysis of The Efficiency of Flood Reduction Measures In The Rhine Basin On The Basis of Reference Floods (deflood)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahe, P.; Herpertz, D.; Buiteveld, H.; Busch, N.; Engel, H.; Helbig, A.; Naef, F.; Wilke, K.

    After some years of extreme flooding in the 1990s extended efforts were made to im- prove flood protection by means of an integrated river basin management. Part of this strategy is the implementation of decentralised flood reduction measures (FRM). With this in mind, the CHR/IRMA-SPONGE Project DEFLOOD was initiated. By estab- lishing a set of methodological tools this project aims at making a step further towards a quantitative hydrological evaluation of the effects of local FRM on flood generation in large river basins. The basin of the River Mosel and in particular, the basin of its tributary Saar served as case study area for testing the methodological approach. A framework for an integrated river basin modelling approach (FIRM U Flood Reduc- tion) based on generation of hydrometeorological reference conditions, precipitation- runoff modelling and flood routing procedures was set up. In this approach interfaces to incorporate the results of scenario calculations by meso-scale hydrological mod- elling are defined in order to study the downstream propagation of the effect of decen- tralised flood reduction measures including the potential retention along minor rivers in large rivers. Examples for scenario calculations are given. Based on the experience gained the strategy for the use of the methodological framework within the context of river basin management practice are identified. The application of the methodol- ogy requires a set of actions which has to be installed in the Rhine/Meuse basins. The recommendations suggest that - beside progress in hydrological modelling - a base of knowledge needs to be built up and administered which encompasses hydrologically relevant information on the actual state and prospected developments in the River Rhine basin. Furthermore, problem-oriented hydrological process studies in selected small-scale river basins ought to be carried out. Based on these studies conceptual meso-scale modelling approaches can be improved and

  19. Lost in the Dark: A proto-history of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.; History 1

    2016-01-01

    Einasto, Kaasik, and Saar (published in Nature, in case you are thinking of more Meddelande). I feel enormous respect and affection for Vera Rubin and Fritz Zwicky, but the published papers as are they are.

  20. Hydrological Catchment Similarity Assessment in Geum River Catchments, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Ara; Park, Kisoon; Lee, Hyosang

    2013-04-01

    Similarity measure of catchments is essential for regionalization studies, which provide in depth analysis in hydrological response and flood estimations at ungauged catchments. However, this similarity measure is often biased to the selected catchments and is notclearly explained in hydrological sense. This study applied a type of hydrological similarity distance measure-Flood Estimation Handbook to 25 Geum river catchments, Korea. Three Catchment Characteristics, Area (A)-Annual precipitation (SAAR)-SCS Curve Number (CN), are used in Euclidian distance measures. Furthermore, six index of Flow Duration Curve (ILow:Q275/Q185, IDrought:Q355/Q185, IFlood:Qmax/Q185, IAbundant:Q95/Q185, IFloodDuration:Q10/Q355 and IRiverRegime:Qmax/Qmin) are applied to clustering analysis of SPSS. The catchments' grouping of hydrological similarity measures suggests three groups: H1 (Cheongseong, Gidae, Bukil, Oksan, Seockhwa, Habgang and Sangyeogyo), H2 (Cheongju, Guryong, Ugon, Boksu, Useong and Seokdong) and H3 (Muju, Yangganggyo and YongdamDam). The four catchments (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, DaecheongDam and Indong) are not grouped in this study. The clustering analysis of FDC provides four Groups; CFDC1 (Muju, YongdamDam, Yangganggyo, DaecheongDam, Cheongseong, Gidae, Seokhwa, Bukil, Habgang, Cheongju, Oksan, Yuseong and Guryong), CFDC2 (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, Boksu, Indong, Nonsan, Seokdong, Ugon, Simcheon, Useong and Sangyeogyo), CFDC3 (Songcheon) and CFDC4 (Tanbu). The six catchments (out of seven) of H1 are grouped in CFDC1, while Sangyeogyo is grouped in CFDC2. The four catchments (out of six) of H2 are also grouped in CFDC2, while Cheongju and Guryong are grouped in CFDC1. The catchments of H3 are categorized in CFDC1. The authors examine the results (H1, H2 and H3) of similarity measure based on catchment physical descriptors with results (CFDC1 and CFDC2) of clustering based on catchment hydrological response. The results of hydrological similarity measures are supported by

  1. Solar and Stellar Flares over Time: Effects on Hosted Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; DeWarf, Laurence E.; Engle, Scott G.; Gropp, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The effects of flares from the Sun on Earth and other solar-system planets are presented. Also discussed are the flare properties of cooler, commonplace main-sequence K-M stars. Data from our "Sun in Time" program are used to study the flare properties of the Sun and solar-type stars from youth to old age. These studies are based on ground-based observations, UV and X-ray space missions (IUE & HST, ROSAT & Chandra) as well as a wealth of data from the Kepler Mission. The ultra-high precision photometry available from the Kepler Mission (and K2) has made it possible to study starspots, flare properties, and rotations of thousands of G, K, M stars. Superflares (defined as E > 10+33 ergs ~X-100 flares) on hundreds of mostly G and K stars have been found. (See e.g. Shibayama et al. 2013; Maehara et al. 2015; Notsu et al. 2013/15; Saar et al. 2015; Guinan et al. 2015). Using our Age-Rotation relations, we determine correlations of flares properties of the Sun and solar-type over a wide range of ages. We also compare these flare histories with the cooler, more common K- and M-type stars. The analysis of these datasets imply that the young Sun had numerous, very powerful flares that may have played major roles the evolution of the early atmospheres of Earth and other terrestrial planets. The strong X-UV fluxes and proton fluences from flares and associated plasmas from coronal mass ejection events can greatly affect the photochemistry of planetary atmospheres as well as ionizing and possibly eroding their atmospheres. Some examples are given. Also discussed are the effects of superflares from the present Sun on the Earth. Even though solar superflares are rarer (~1 per 300-500 yrs) than from the young Sun (> 1-2 per year), they could cause significant damage to our communication and satellite systems, electrical networks, and threaten the lives of astronauts in space..This research is supported by grants from NSF/RUI and NASA: NSF, AST 1009903; Chandra GO2-13020X, HST GO

  2. [Equestrian accidents in children].

    PubMed

    Giebel, G; Braun, K; Mittelmeier, W

    1993-11-01

    In a retrospective study we reviewed 262 horse riding related injuries in children younger than 16 which were treated between 1975 and 1989 at the Section of Traumatology in the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Homburg/Saar. In 155 of these accidents, detailed information was gained via a questionnaire. The typical patient profile was that of young female equestrians with little experience and little weekly riding practice, without practicing falling-exercises and warming up often using different horses. At the time of the accident only 59% were wearing a head protection. Most accidents happened in the summer months in the afternoon during leisure riding on a large familiar horse in the riding hall. Apart from the typical accidents like falling of the horse (64.9%) and falling with the horse (5.7%) accidents in handling the horse were of special significance: Kick by horse's hoof (11.8%), being stepped by horse (3.8%), horsebite (7.3%) and injuries of horse's bridle had their own pattern of injuries. Injuries of the distal parts of the upper extremity are preeminent in falling of the horse, whilst in falling with the horse head injuries and shoulder injuries are preeminent. Remarkably often injuries of kick by horse's hoof were causing sometimes even dangerous head injuries (41.6%). Overall in horse riding related injuries in childhood superficial soft tissue injuries (48.6%) and fractures (30.6%) were predominant. Fractures of the clavicle which are well known as a riding injury proved to be typical for a fall with the horse, whilst a fractured vertebra was only seen once amongst the 262 children treated. The severity of the injuries was lower than expected: In 85.1% of all the injuries only one body region was injured, 90.1% could be assigned to an injury severity score (ISS) of 1-3. Ponyriders had less severe injuries than riders of large horses. One fatal accident happened in handling a horse, in these situations preventive measures are often

  3. Mercury levels and trends (1993-2009) in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from German surface waters.

    PubMed

    Lepom, Peter; Irmer, Ulrich; Wellmitz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Mercury concentrations have been analysed in bream (Abramis brama L.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) collected at 17 freshwater sites in Germany from 1993-2009 and 1994-2009, respectively, within the German Environmental Specimen programme. Mercury concentrations in bream ranged from 21 to 881 ng g(-1) wet weight with lowest concentrations found at the reference site Lake Belau and highest in fish from the river Elbe and its tributaries. Statistical analysis revealed site-specific differences and significant decreasing temporal trends in mercury concentrations at most of the sampling sites. The decrease in mercury levels in bream was most pronounced in fish from the river Elbe and its tributary Mulde, while in fish from the river Saale mercury levels increased. Temporal trends seem to level off in recent years. Mercury concentrations in zebra mussels were much lower than those in bream according to their lower trophic position and varied by one order of magnitude from 4.1 to 42 ng g(-1) wet weight (33-336 ng g(-1) dry weight). For zebra mussels, trend analyses were performed for seven sampling sites at the rivers Saar and Elbe of which three showed significant downward trends. There was a significant correlation of the geometric mean concentrations in bream and zebra mussel over the entire study period at each sampling site (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.892, p=0.00002). A comparison of the concentrations in bream with the environmental quality standard (EQS) of 20 ng g(-1) wet weight set for mercury in biota by the EU showed that not a single result was in compliance with this limit value, not even those from the reference site. Current mercury levels in bream from German rivers exceed the EQS by a factor 4.5-20. Thus, piscivorous top predators are still at risk of secondary poisoning by mercury exposure via the food chain. It was suggested focusing monitoring of mercury in forage fish (trophic level 3 or 4) for compliance checking with the EQS for

  4. Role of Yield Stress in Magma Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Davaille, A.; Kurita, K.

    2012-04-01

    Magmas are essentially multiphase material composed of solid crystals, gaseous bubbles and silicate liquids. They exhibit various types of drastic change in rheology with variation of mutual volumetric fractions of the components. The nature of this variable rheology is a key factor in controlling dynamics of flowing magma through a conduit. Particularly the existence of yield stress in flowing magma is expected to control the wall friction and formation of density waves. As the volumetric fraction of solid phase increases yield stress emerges above the critical fraction. Several previous studies have been conducted to clarify this critical value of magmatic fluid both in numerical simulations and laboratory experiments ([Lejeune and Pascal, 1995], [Saar and Manga 2001], [Ishibashi and Sato 2010]). The obtained values range from 13.3 to 40 vol%, which display wide variation and associated change in rheology has not been clarified well. In this presentation we report physical mechanism of emergence of yield stress in suspension as well as the associated change in the rheology based on laboratory experiments using analog material. We utilized thermogel aqueous suspension as an analog material of multiphase magma. Thermogel, which is a commercial name for poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) undergoes volumetric phase change at the temperature around 35C:below this temperature the gel phase absorbs water and swells while below this it expels water and its volume shrinks. Because of this the volumetric fraction of gel phase systematically changes with temperature and the concentration of gel powder. The viscosity measured at lower stress drastically decreases across this phase change with increasing temperature while the viscosity at higher stress does not exhibit large change across the transition. We have performed a series of rheological measurements focusing on the emergence of yield stress on this aqueous suspension. Since the definition of yield stress is not

  5. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2015-11-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  6. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  7. Late-Variscan rare metal ore deposition and plume-related magmatism in the eastern European Variscides (D, CZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    includes a range of mafic calc-alkaline and shoshonitic rock types, and lamprophyres (spessartites and camptonites) with age data between 300-270 Ma. The Mid-European Variscides show a large number of Permo-Carboniferous magmatic complexes with similar ages (Halle Volcanic Complex, Saar-Nahe Basin, Thuringian Forest, Harz Mts., Northwest-Saxonian Volcanic Complexes, bimodal volcanic rocks of the Sub-Erzgebirge basin and the Rhyolite Complex of Tharandt as well as Li-F-Sn small intrusion granites and lamprophyric intrusions in the Erzgebirge. It is important to note that the late-Variscan W-Mo, Sn-W-Mo, Ag-bearing Sn-In-base metal, Ag-Sb-base metal, and U mineralizations in the Erzgebirge-Krušné hory are spatially and temporal associated with intrusion centers of Permo-Carboniferous post-collisional mafic and rhyolitic (sub)volcanic bimodal magmatism (315-290 Ma) along deep-rooted NW-SE fault zones, especially at the intersections with NE-SW, E-W, and N-S major regional structural zones. The bimodal lamprophyre-rhyolite assemblage in the Erzgebirge / Sub-Erzgebirge basin area was formed during intracontinental rifting in a 'Fast Extension' setting by melting of a metasomatic enriched mantle source. The emplacement of fluid-enriched lamprophyres and F-rich rhyolitic intrusions at the same time is probably associated with decompression melting of updoming asthenosphere which is possibly associated with the above mentioned mantle plume.

  8. Quantitative analysis of gully erosion under forest conditions versus a windfall area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brings, Christine; Willger, Heribert; Bielen, Rainer; Ries, Johannes B.

    2013-04-01

    Along the eastern border of the Trier-Luxembourg basin, in the range of lower Saar River valley there are sandstone belonging to the middle and upper formations of Bunter Sandstein (Lower Triassic) form a cuesta scarp which is more than 100 m in height. The slope of the cuesta scarp is dissected by small valleys and up to ten meter deep gullies. It is assumed that these gullies are already developed in the 16th century by grinding wood and have deepened by the increased agricultural use. In the course of the reforestation in the 2nd half of the 19th century, they have stabilized again. In the winter of 2010/2011 a storm cut a path through the wooded area and laid bare the old gullies. After the event, the area has been arranged and cleared by Harvester. In the late summer of 2011, the reforestation with deciduous trees took place. Now the question arises whether the formerly stable gullies have become active? Observations show that sandstone slopes respond extraordinarily sensitive to human intervention and lead to relief changes. The aim of this investigation is a quantitative analysis of sheet and gully erosion under forest conditions versus a windfall area in the German low mountain range. Over two years, the surface runoff and soil erosion were measured on eight test plots with the application of sediment traps. For comparison, three sediment traps were applied under forest and five in the windthrow area. The sediment traps are located on the side slopes and at the head of each gully. The precipitation measurements were made with a totalisator with high-resolution electronic weighing system and integrated digital data collector. The results clearly show a higher runoff and soil erosion on the windthrow areas in contrast to the forest areas. Furthermore, an increase of instability of the windfall areas after machining by Harvester can be observed. In the years 2011 and 2012 the erosion and the runoff are on the forest land approximately constant, while runoff

  9. Contrasting Permo - Carboniferous Evolution of Resita and Sirinia - Presacina Basins (South Carpathians, Romania); an overview.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatu, M.; Seghedi, I.; Nutu, L. M.; Nicolae, I.

    2009-04-01

    - sinistral shear fault system adjacent to the Tornquist - Teisseyre Line, which induced the fragmentation of Variscan fold belt. With this process was associated the formation of many transtensional pull-apart continental - lacustrian sedimentary basins and intra-continental rifts in which or in adjacent areas the intrusive - extrusive magmatism was widespread and where the deep crustal fractures were active. From climatic point of view the main consequence of continue convergence between Laurasia and Gondwana is the transition from relatively wet regime during Stephanian to arid during the Permian induced by the elevation of the equatorial highlands Variscan fold belt was acted as a precipitation barrier for the whole territory located to the north. Tacking into account of all these aspects, the Resita domain presents the similarities in the lithological composition with Autun Basin and the Sirinia - Presacina zone displays many common features with Saar - Nahe and Thuringian Forest Basins and North German/Polish Depression. This work started during PALEOCLIM project (grant ANCS - PN2, 31-063/2007), which is gratefully acknowledged. References Nastaseanu S. 1987. In: Flügel E., Sassi F. & Grecula P. (eds): Pre-Variscan and Variscan events in the Alpine-Mediterranean mountain belts. - Mineralia Slovaca. Alfa Bratislava, 371-378. Stollhofen H., Frommherz B., Stanistreet I. G. 1999. J. Geol. Soc. London 156, 801-808. Ziegler P. A. 1990. Shell Int. Petrol. Mij. Dist. Geol. Soc. Publ. House, Bath, 1-239.