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Sample records for marmoset inferior colliculus

  1. Serotonin in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura M; Thompson, Ann M; Pollak, George D

    2002-06-01

    It has been recognized for some time that serotonin fibers originating in raphe nuclei are present in the inferior colliculi of all mammalian species studied. More recently, serotonin has been found to modulate the responses of single inferior colliculus neurons to many types of auditory stimuli, ranging from simple tone bursts to complex species-specific vocalizations. The effects of serotonin are often quite strong, and for some neurons are also highly specific. A dramatic illustration of this is that serotonin can change the selectivity of some neurons for sounds, including species-specific vocalizations. These results are discussed in light of several theories on the function of serotonin in the IC, and of outstanding issues that remain to be addressed. PMID:12117504

  2. Inferior Colliculus Lesions Impair Eyeblink Conditioning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John H.; Halverson, Hunter E.; Hubbard, Erin M.

    2007-01-01

    The neural plasticity necessary for acquisition and retention of eyeblink conditioning has been localized to the cerebellum. However, the sources of sensory input to the cerebellum that are necessary for establishing learning-related plasticity have not been identified completely. The inferior colliculus may be a source of sensory input to the…

  3. A periodic network of neurochemical modules in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Chernock, Michelle L; Larue, David T; Winer, Jeffery A

    2004-02-01

    A new organization has been found in shell nuclei of rat inferior colliculus. Chemically specific modules with a periodic distribution fill about half of layer 2 of external cortex and dorsal cortex. Modules contain clusters of small glutamic acid decarboxylase-positive neurons and large boutons at higher density than in other inferior colliculus subdivisions. The modules are also present in tissue stained for parvalbumin, cytochrome oxidase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase, and acetylcholinesterase. Six to seven bilaterally symmetrical modules extend from the caudal extremity of the external cortex of the inferior colliculus to its rostral pole. Modules are from approximately 800 to 2200 microm long and have areas between 5000 and 40,000 microm2. Modules alternate with immunonegative regions. Similar modules are found in inbred and outbred strains of rat, and in both males and females. They are absent in mouse, squirrel, cat, bat, macaque monkey, and barn owl. Modules are immunonegative for glycine, calbindin, serotonin, and choline acetyltransferase. The auditory cortex and ipsi- and contralateral inferior colliculi project to the external cortex. Somatic sensory influences from the dorsal column nuclei and spinal trigeminal nucleus are the primary ascending sensory input to the external cortex; ascending auditory input to layer 2 is sparse. If the immunopositive modular neurons receive this input, the external cortex could participate in spatial orientation and somatic motor control through its intrinsic and extrinsic projections. PMID:14759566

  4. Combination-sensitive neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, D H; Wenstrup, J J

    1995-10-01

    We examined whether neurons in the inferior colliculus of the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii) are combination sensitive, responding to both low- and high-frequency components of the bat's sonar signal. These neurons, previously reported in the thalamus and cortex, analyze sonar target features including distance. Of 82 single units and 36 multiple units from the 58-112 kHz representations of the inferior colliculus, most (86%) displayed sensitivity to low-frequency sounds that was tuned in the range of the fundamental biosonar component (24-31 kHz). All histologically localized units were in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). There were two major types of combination-sensitive influences. Many neurons were facilitated by low-frequency sounds and selective for particular delays between the low- and high-frequency components. In other neurons, the low-frequency signal was inhibitory if presented simultaneously or a few milliseconds prior to the high-frequency signal. The results indicate that mechanisms creating specialized frequency comparisons and delay sensitivity in combination-sensitive neurons operate at the ICC or below. Since combination sensitivity or multipeaked tuning curves occur in the auditory systems of many species, ICC neurons in these animals may also respond to species-specific frequency combinations. PMID:8974996

  5. Subcortical input heterogeneity in the mouse inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Geis, H-Rüdiger A P; van der Heijden, Marcel; Borst, J Gerard G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous intracellular recordings of nearby neocortical neurons have demonstrated that their membrane potentials are highly correlated. The correlation between the spiking activity of nearby neocortical neurons may be much smaller, suggesting that inputs are more similar than outputs. Much less is known about the similarity of inputs in subcortical sensory areas. Here we investigate this question by making simultaneous whole-cell recordings from neighbouring neurons in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus. No evidence for monosynaptic connections between neighbouring cells was observed, suggesting that integration of afferent signals plays a more important role than local processing. The correlation between frequency response areas of neighbouring cells varied but, surprisingly, neighbouring cells were on average not more similar in their responses to tones than non-neighbouring neurons. This large micro-heterogeneity suggests a sparse representation of acoustic features within the dorsal cortex. PMID:21727222

  6. Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nevue, Alexander A; Elde, Cameron J; Perkel, David J; Portfors, Christine V

    2015-01-01

    The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF). All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing. PMID:26834578

  7. Tinnitus-Related Changes in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Joel I.; Coomber, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is highly complex, diverse, and difficult to treat, in part due to the fact that the underlying causes and mechanisms remain elusive. Tinnitus is generated within the auditory brain; however, consolidating our understanding of tinnitus pathophysiology is difficult due to the diversity of reported effects and the variety of implicated brain nuclei. Here, we focus on the inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain structure that integrates the vast majority of ascending auditory information and projects via the thalamus to the auditory cortex. The IC is also a point of convergence for corticofugal input and input originating outside the auditory pathway. We review the evidence, from both studies with human subjects and from animal models, for the contribution the IC makes to tinnitus. Changes in the IC, caused by either noise exposure or drug administration, involve fundamental, heterogeneous alterations in the balance of excitation and inhibition. However, differences between hearing loss-induced pathology and tinnitus-related pathology are not well understood. Moreover, variability in tinnitus induction methodology has a significant impact on subsequent neural and behavioral changes, which could explain some of the seemingly contradictory data. Nonetheless, the IC is likely involved in the generation and persistence of tinnitus perception. PMID:25870582

  8. Serotonin shifts first-spike latencies of inferior colliculus neurons.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura M; Pollak, George D

    2005-08-24

    Many studies of neuromodulators have focused on changes in the magnitudes of neural responses, but fewer studies have examined neuromodulator effects on response latency. Across sensory systems, response latency is important for encoding not only the temporal structure but also the identity of stimuli. In the auditory system, latency is a fundamental response property that varies with many features of sound, including intensity, frequency, and duration. To determine the extent of neuromodulatory regulation of latency within the inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain auditory nexus, the effects of iontophoretically applied serotonin on first-spike latencies were characterized in the IC of the Mexican free-tailed bat. Serotonin significantly altered the first-spike latencies in response to tones in 24% of IC neurons, usually increasing, but sometimes decreasing, latency. Serotonin-evoked changes in latency and spike count were not always correlated but sometimes occurred independently within individual neurons. Furthermore, in some neurons, the size of serotonin-evoked latency shifts depended on the frequency or intensity of the stimulus, as reported previously for serotonin-evoked changes in spike count. These results support the general conclusion that changes in latency are an important part of the neuromodulatory repertoire of serotonin within the auditory system and show that serotonin can change latency either in conjunction with broad changes in other aspects of neuronal excitability or in highly specific ways. PMID:16120790

  9. Visual modulation of auditory responses in the owl inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Joseph F; Knudsen, Eric I

    2009-06-01

    The barn owl's central auditory system creates a map of auditory space in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX). Although the crucial role visual experience plays in the formation and maintenance of this auditory space map is well established, the mechanism by which vision influences ICX responses remains unclear. Surprisingly, previous experiments have found that in the absence of extensive pharmacological manipulation, visual stimuli do not drive neural responses in the ICX. Here we investigated the influence of dynamic visual stimuli on auditory responses in the ICX. We show that a salient visual stimulus, when coincident with an auditory stimulus, can modulate auditory responses in the ICX even though the same visual stimulus may elicit no neural responses when presented alone. For each ICX neuron, the most effective auditory and visual stimuli were located in the same region of space. In addition, the magnitude of the visual modulation of auditory responses was dependent on the context of the stimulus presentation with novel visual stimuli eliciting consistently larger response modulations than frequently presented visual stimuli. Thus the visual modulation of ICX responses is dependent on the characteristics of the visual stimulus as well as on the spatial and temporal correspondence of the auditory and visual stimuli. These results demonstrate moment-to-moment visual enhancements of auditory responsiveness that, in the short-term, increase auditory responses to salient bimodal stimuli and in the long-term could serve to instruct the adaptive auditory plasticity necessary to maintain accurate auditory orienting behavior. PMID:19321633

  10. Direction Selectivity Mediated by Adaptation in the Owl's Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Motion direction is a crucial cue for predicting future states in natural scenes. In the auditory system, the mechanisms that confer direction selectivity to neurons are not well understood. Neither is it known whether sound motion is encoded independently of stationary sound location. Here we investigated these questions in neurons of the owl's external nucleus of the inferior colliculus, where auditory space is represented in a map. Using a high-density speaker array, we show that the preferred direction and the degree of direction selectivity can be predicted by response adaptation to sounds moving over asymmetric spatial receptive fields. At the population level, we found that preference for sounds moving toward frontal space increased with eccentricity in spatial tuning. This distribution was consistent with larger receptive-field asymmetry in neurons tuned to more peripheral auditory space. A model of suppression based on spatiotemporal summation predicted the observations. Thus, response adaptation and receptive-field shape can explain direction selectivity to acoustic motion and an orderly distribution of preferred direction. PMID:24305813

  11. Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nevue, Alexander A.; Elde, Cameron J.; Perkel, David J.; Portfors, Christine V.

    2016-01-01

    The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF). All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing. PMID:26834578

  12. Functional role of the human inferior colliculus in binaural hearing.

    PubMed

    Litovsky, Ruth Y; Fligor, Brian J; Tramo, Mark J

    2002-03-01

    Psychophysical experiments were carried out in a rare case involving a 48 year old man (RJC) with a small traumatic hemorrhage of the right dorsal midbrain, including the inferior colliculus (IC). RJC had normal audiograms bilaterally, but there was a marked decrease in wave V amplitude on click-evoked brainstem auditory evoked potentials following left ear stimulation. RJC demonstrated a deficit in sound localization identification when the loudspeakers lay within the auditory hemifield contralateral to his IC lesion. Errors showed a consistent bias towards the hemifield ipsilateral to the lesion. Echo suppression was abnormally weak compared with that seen in control subjects, but only for sources contralateral to the lesion. Finally, speech intelligibility tests showed normal ability to benefit from spatial separation of target and competing speech sources. These results suggest that: (1) localizing sounds within a given hemifield relies on the integrity of the contralateral IC, (2) unilateral IC lesions give the illusion that sound sources in the 'bad' hemifield are displaced towards the 'good' hemifield, (3) the IC mediates aspects of echo suppression, and (4) lesion in the IC does not impede spatial release from masking in speech intelligibility, possibly due to that ability being more heavily mediated by cortical regions. PMID:12031527

  13. Spectral and Temporal Modulation Tradeoff in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Francisco A.; Read, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    The cochlea encodes sounds through frequency-selective channels that exhibit low-pass modulation sensitivity. Unlike the cochlea, neurons in the auditory midbrain are tuned for spectral and temporal modulations found in natural sounds, yet the role of this transformation is not known. We report a distinct tradeoff in modulation sensitivity and tuning that is topographically ordered within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC). Spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) were obtained with 16-channel electrodes inserted orthogonal to the isofrequency lamina. Surprisingly, temporal and spectral characteristics exhibited an opposing relationship along the tonotopic axis. For low best frequencies (BFs), units were selective for fast temporal and broad spectral modulations. A systematic progression was observed toward slower temporal and finer spectral modulation sensitivity at high BF. This tradeoff was strongly reflected in the arrangement of excitation and inhibition and, consequently, in the modulation tuning characteristics. Comparisons with auditory nerve fibers show that these trends oppose the pattern imposed by the peripheral filters. These results suggest that spectrotemporal preferences are reordered within the tonotopic axis of the CNIC. This topographic organization has profound implications for the coding of spectrotemporal features in natural sounds and could underlie a number of perceptual phenomena. PMID:20018831

  14. Serotonergic modulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Obara, Nobuyuki; Kamiya, Haruyuki; Fukuda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) transmits the ascending auditory signal to the thalamic medial geniculate nucleus. Previous studies have reported that serotonergic input originating from the raphe nuclei has a strong influence on signal processing within the central nucleus of the IC. To identify the cellular target for the serotonergic modulation in the IC, we examined the effect of serotonin as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine on spontaneous GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) recorded with whole-cell recordings.Consistent with earlier studies, we confirmed that serotonin robustly enhanced the frequency, but not amplitude, of GABAergic sIPSCs. It should be noted that the application of fluvoxamine alone marginally increased the frequency of GABAergic sIPSCs. These findings suggest that serotonin is endogenously released even in slice preparations, and it negatively modulates the tone of activity of inhibitory neurons within IC. We also examined the effect of serotonin and fluvoxamine on glycinergic sIPSCs and found that serotonin has a significantly weaker effect on glycinergic sIPSCs than on GABAergic sIPSCs. The differential sensitivity of the GABAergic and glycinergic sIPSCs to serotonin implies that serotonergic input plays a specific role in auditory information processing.Moreover, it suggests that the serotonergic input may contribute to pathological conditions such as tinnitus. PMID:24573204

  15. Lagged cells in the inferior colliculus of the awake ferret

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Barak; Marvit, Peter; Depireux, Didier A

    2010-01-01

    Neurons in primary auditory cortex (AI) encode complex features of the spectral content of sound, such as direction selectivity. Recent findings of temporal symmetry in AI predict a specific organization of the subcortical input into cortex that contributes to the emergence of direction selectivity. We demonstrate two sub-populations of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, which differ in their steady-state temporal response profile: lagged and non-lagged. The lagged cells (23%) are shifted in temporal phase with respect to non-lagged cells and are characterized by an “inhibition first” and delayed excitation in their spectro-temporal receptive fields. Non-lagged cells (77%) have a canonical “excitation first” response. However, we find no difference in the response onset latency to pure tone stimuli between the two sub-populations. Given the homogeneity of tonal response latency, we predict that these lagged cells receive inhibitory input mediated by cortical feedback projections. PMID:20092554

  16. Tonotopic changes in GABA receptor expression in guinea pig inferior colliculus after partial unilateral hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Dong, S; Rodger, J; Mulders, W H A M; Robertson, D

    2010-06-25

    Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the topographic distribution of the alpha1 subunit of the GABA receptor (GABRA1) in guinea pig inferior colliculus after treatments that caused a unilateral loss of peripheral neural sensitivity in the high-frequency regions of the cochlea. Both forms of treatment (direct mechanical lesion of the cochlea and acoustic overstimulation) resulted in a significant decrease in GABRA1 labeling in regions of the contralateral inferior colliculus in which high-frequency sound stimuli are represented. This localized region of reduced inhibitory receptor expression corresponds to the region in which hyperactivity of inferior colliculus neurons has been shown to develop after such treatments. The results strengthen the notion of a causal link between reduced GABRA1 expression and neural hyperactivity in central auditory nuclei and provide a possible mechanism for the development of phantom auditory sensations, or tinnitus. PMID:20438718

  17. Cytoarchitectural and functional abnormalities of the inferior colliculus in sudden unexplained perinatal death.

    PubMed

    Lavezzi, Anna M; Pusiol, Teresa; Matturri, Luigi

    2015-02-01

    The inferior colliculus is a mesencephalic structure endowed with serotonergic fibers that plays an important role in the processing of acoustic information. The implication of the neuromodulator serotonin also in the aetiology of sudden unexplained fetal and infant death syndromes and the demonstration in these pathologies of developmental alterations of the superior olivary complex (SOC), a group of pontine nuclei likewise involved in hearing, prompted us to investigate whether the inferior colliculus may somehow contribute to the pathogenetic mechanism of unexplained perinatal death. Therefore, we performed in a wide set of fetuses and infants, aged from 33 gestational weeks to 7 postnatal months and died of both known and unknown cause, an in-depth anatomopathological analysis of the brainstem, particularly of the midbrain. Peculiar neuroanatomical and functional abnormalities of the inferior colliculus, such as hypoplasia/structural disarrangement and immunonegativity or poor positivity of serotonin, were exclusively found in sudden death victims, and not in controls. In addition, these alterations were frequently related to dysgenesis of connected structures, precisely the raphé nuclei and the superior olivary complex, and to nicotine absorption in pregnancy. We propose, on the basis of these results, the involvement of the inferior colliculus in more important functions than those related to hearing, as breathing and, more extensively, all the vital activities, and then in pathological conditions underlying a sudden death in vulnerable periods of the autonomic nervous system development, particularly associated to harmful risk factors as cigarette smoking. PMID:25674737

  18. Responses from two firing patterns in inferior colliculus neurons to stimulation of the lateral lemniscus dorsal nucleus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Ning-Yu; Wang, Yan-Jun; Xu, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Jin-Feng; Bai, Yun-Fei; Dai, Jin-Sheng; Zhao, Jing-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid neurons (GABAergic neurons) in the inferior colliculus are classified into various patterns based on their intrinsic electrical properties to a constant current injection. Although this classification is associated with physiological function, the exact role for neurons with various firing patterns in acoustic processing remains poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed characteristics of inferior colliculus neurons in vitro, and recorded responses to stimulation of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Seven inferior colliculus neurons were tested and were classified into two firing patterns: sustained-regular (n = 4) and sustained-adapting firing patterns (n = 3). The majority of inferior colliculus neurons exhibited slight changes in response to stimulation and bicuculline. The responses of one neuron with a sustained-adapting firing pattern were suppressed after stimulation, but recovered to normal levels following application of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist. One neuron with a sustained-regular pattern showed suppressed stimulation responses, which were not affected by bicuculline. Results suggest that GABAergic neurons in the inferior colliculus exhibit sustained-regular or sustained-adapting firing patterns. Additionally, GABAergic projections from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to the inferior colliculus are associated with sound localization. The different neuronal responses of various firing patterns suggest a role in sound localization. A better understanding of these mechanisms and functions will provide better clinical treatment paradigms for hearing deficiencies. PMID:27335563

  19. Responses from two firing patterns in inferior colliculus neurons to stimulation of the lateral lemniscus dorsal nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-ting; Wang, Ning-yu; Wang, Yan-jun; Xu, Zhi-qing; Liu, Jin-feng; Bai, Yun-fei; Dai, Jin-sheng; Zhao, Jing-yi

    2016-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid neurons (GABAergic neurons) in the inferior colliculus are classified into various patterns based on their intrinsic electrical properties to a constant current injection. Although this classification is associated with physiological function, the exact role for neurons with various firing patterns in acoustic processing remains poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed characteristics of inferior colliculus neurons in vitro, and recorded responses to stimulation of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Seven inferior colliculus neurons were tested and were classified into two firing patterns: sustained-regular (n = 4) and sustained-adapting firing patterns (n = 3). The majority of inferior colliculus neurons exhibited slight changes in response to stimulation and bicuculline. The responses of one neuron with a sustained-adapting firing pattern were suppressed after stimulation, but recovered to normal levels following application of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist. One neuron with a sustained-regular pattern showed suppressed stimulation responses, which were not affected by bicuculline. Results suggest that GABAergic neurons in the inferior colliculus exhibit sustained-regular or sustained-adapting firing patterns. Additionally, GABAergic projections from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to the inferior colliculus are associated with sound localization. The different neuronal responses of various firing patterns suggest a role in sound localization. A better understanding of these mechanisms and functions will provide better clinical treatment paradigms for hearing deficiencies. PMID:27335563

  20. Adaptive adjustment of connectivity in the inferior colliculus revealed by focal pharmacological inactivation.

    PubMed

    Gold, J I; Knudsen, E I

    2001-04-01

    In the midbrain sound localization pathway of the barn owl, a map of auditory space is synthesized in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) and transmitted to the optic tectum. Early auditory experience shapes these maps of auditory space in part by modifying the tuning of the constituent neurons for interaural time difference (ITD), a primary cue for sound-source azimuth. Here we show that these adaptive modifications in ITD tuning correspond to changes in the pattern of connectivity within the inferior colliculus. We raised owls with an acoustic filtering device in one ear that caused frequency-dependent changes in sound timing and level. As reported previously, device rearing shifted the representation of ITD in the ICX and tectum but not in the primary source of input to the ICX, the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). We applied the local anesthetic lidocaine (QX-314) iontophoretically in the ICC to inactivate small populations of neurons that represented particular values of frequency and ITD. We measured the effect of this inactivation in the optic tecta of a normal owl and owls raised with the device. In the normal owl, inactivation at a critical site in the ICC eliminated responses in the tectum to the frequency-specific ITD value represented at the site of inactivation in the ICC. The location of this site was consistent with the known pattern of ICC-ICX-tectum connectivity. In the device-reared owls, adaptive changes in the representation of ITD in the tectum corresponded to dramatic and predictable changes in the locations of the critical sites of inactivation in the ICC. Given that the abnormal representation of ITD in the tectum depended on frequency and was likely conveyed directly from the ICX, these results suggest that experience causes large-scale, frequency-specific adjustments in the pattern of connectivity between the ICC and the ICX. PMID:11287481

  1. Serotonin modulates responses to species-specific vocalizations in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura M; Pollak, George D

    2005-06-01

    Neuromodulators such as serotonin are capable of altering the neural processing of stimuli across many sensory modalities. In the inferior colliculus, a major midbrain auditory gateway, serotonin alters the way that individual neurons respond to simple tone bursts and linear frequency modulated sweeps. The effects of serotonin are complex, and vary among neurons. How serotonin transforms the responses to spectrotemporally complex sounds of the type normally heard in natural settings has been poorly examined. To explore this issue further, the effects of iontophoretically applied serotonin on the responses of individual inferior colliculus neurons to a variety of recorded species-specific vocalizations were examined. These experiments were performed in the Mexican free-tailed bat, a species that uses a rich repertoire of vocalizations for the purposes of communication as well as echolocation. Serotonin frequently changed the number of recorded calls that were capable of evoking a response from individual neurons, sometimes increasing (15% of serotonin-responsive neurons), but usually decreasing (62% of serotonin-responsive neurons), this number. A functional consequence of these serotonin-evoked changes would be to change the population response to species-specific vocalizations. PMID:15830241

  2. An Overrepresentation of High Frequencies in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus Supports the Processing of Ultrasonic Vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A; Shepard, Kathryn N; Miranda, Jason A; Liu, Robert C; Lesica, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Mice are of paramount importance in biomedical research and their vocalizations are a subject of interest for researchers across a wide range of health-related disciplines due to their increasingly important value as a phenotyping tool in models of neural, speech and language disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the auditory processing of vocalizations in mice are not well understood. The mouse audiogram shows a peak in sensitivity at frequencies between 15-25 kHz, but weaker sensitivity for the higher ultrasonic frequencies at which they typically vocalize. To investigate the auditory processing of vocalizations in mice, we measured evoked potential, single-unit, and multi-unit responses to tones and vocalizations at three different stages along the auditory pathway: the auditory nerve and the cochlear nucleus in the periphery, and the inferior colliculus in the midbrain. Auditory brainstem response measurements suggested stronger responses in the midbrain relative to the periphery for frequencies higher than 32 kHz. This result was confirmed by single- and multi-unit recordings showing that high ultrasonic frequency tones and vocalizations elicited responses from only a small fraction of cells in the periphery, while a much larger fraction of cells responded in the inferior colliculus. These results suggest that the processing of communication calls in mice is supported by a specialization of the auditory system for high frequencies that emerges at central stations of the auditory pathway. PMID:26244986

  3. Dopamine D2-Like Receptors Modulate Unconditioned Fear: Role of the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Colombo, Ana Caroline; Muthuraju, Sangu; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2014-01-01

    Background A reduction of dopamine release or D2 receptor blockade in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic system clearly reduces conditioned fear. Injections of haloperidol, a preferential D2 receptor antagonist, into the inferior colliculus (IC) enhance the processing of unconditioned aversive information. However, a clear characterization of the interplay of D2 receptors in the mediation of unconditioned and conditioned fear is still lacking. Methods The present study investigated the effects of intra-IC injections of the D2 receptor-selective antagonist sulpiride on behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM), auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) to loud sounds recorded from the IC, fear-potentiated startle (FPS), and conditioned freezing. Results Intra-IC injections of sulpiride caused clear proaversive effects in the EPM and enhanced AEPs induced by loud auditory stimuli. Intra-IC sulpiride administration did not affect FPS or conditioned freezing. Conclusions Dopamine D2-like receptors of the inferior colliculus play a role in the modulation of unconditioned aversive information but not in the fear-potentiated startle response. PMID:25133693

  4. An Overrepresentation of High Frequencies in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus Supports the Processing of Ultrasonic Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A.; Shepard, Kathryn N.; Miranda, Jason A.; Liu, Robert C.; Lesica, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Mice are of paramount importance in biomedical research and their vocalizations are a subject of interest for researchers across a wide range of health-related disciplines due to their increasingly important value as a phenotyping tool in models of neural, speech and language disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the auditory processing of vocalizations in mice are not well understood. The mouse audiogram shows a peak in sensitivity at frequencies between 15-25 kHz, but weaker sensitivity for the higher ultrasonic frequencies at which they typically vocalize. To investigate the auditory processing of vocalizations in mice, we measured evoked potential, single-unit, and multi-unit responses to tones and vocalizations at three different stages along the auditory pathway: the auditory nerve and the cochlear nucleus in the periphery, and the inferior colliculus in the midbrain. Auditory brainstem response measurements suggested stronger responses in the midbrain relative to the periphery for frequencies higher than 32 kHz. This result was confirmed by single- and multi-unit recordings showing that high ultrasonic frequency tones and vocalizations elicited responses from only a small fraction of cells in the periphery, while a much larger fraction of cells responded in the inferior colliculus. These results suggest that the processing of communication calls in mice is supported by a specialization of the auditory system for high frequencies that emerges at central stations of the auditory pathway. PMID:26244986

  5. Spectral integration in the inferior colliculus: role of glycinergic inhibition in response facilitation.

    PubMed

    Wenstrup, J; Leroy, S A

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the contribution of glycinergic inhibition to the time-sensitive spectral integration performed by neurons in the inferior colliculus of the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii). These neurons are sometimes called combination-sensitive because they display facilitatory (or inhibitory) responses to the combination of distinct spectral elements in sonar or social vocalizations. Present in a wide range of vertebrates, their temporally and spectrally selective integration is thought to endow them with the ability to discriminate among social vocalizations or to analyze particular cues concerning sonar targets. The mechanisms that underlie these responses or the sites in the auditory system where they are created are not known. We examined combination-sensitive neurons that are facilitated by the presentation of two different harmonic elements of the bat's sonar call and echo. Responses of 24 single units were recorded before and during local application of strychnine, an antagonist of glycinergic inhibition. For each of the 24 units, strychnine application eliminated or greatly reduced temporally sensitive facilitation. There was no difference in this effect for neurons tuned to frequencies associated with the frequency-modulated or the constant-frequency sonar components. These results are unusual because glycine is considered to be an inhibitory neurotransmitter, but here it appears to be essential for the expression of combination-sensitive facilitation. The findings provide strong evidence that facilitatory combination-sensitive response properties present throughout the mustached bat's auditory midbrain, thalamus, and cortex originate through neural interactions in the inferior colliculus. PMID:11157095

  6. GABAA-Mediated Inhibition Modulates Stimulus-Specific Adaptation in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, David; Hernández, Olga; Covey, Ellen; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect novel sounds in a complex acoustic context is crucial for survival. Neurons from midbrain through cortical levels adapt to repetitive stimuli, while maintaining responsiveness to rare stimuli, a phenomenon called stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). The site of origin and mechanism of SSA are currently unknown. We used microiontophoretic application of gabazine to examine the role of GABAA-mediated inhibition in SSA in the inferior colliculus, the midbrain center for auditory processing. We found that gabazine slowed down the process of adaptation to high probability stimuli but did not abolish it, with response magnitude and latency still depending on the probability of the stimulus. Blocking GABAA receptors increased the firing rate to high and low probability stimuli, but did not completely equalize the responses. Together, these findings suggest that GABAA-mediated inhibition acts as a gain control mechanism that enhances SSA by modifying the responsiveness of the neuron. PMID:22479591

  7. Temporal properties of inferior colliculus neurons to photonic stimulation in the cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaodong; Young, Hunter; Matic, Agnella Izzo; Zirkle, Whitney; Rajguru, Suhrud; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) may be beneficial in auditory prostheses because of its spatially selective activation of spiral ganglion neurons. However, the response properties of single auditory neurons to INS and the possible contributions of its optoacoustic effects are yet to be examined. In this study, the temporal properties of auditory neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of guinea pigs in response to INS were characterized. Spatial selectivity of INS was observed along the tonotopically organized ICC. Trains of laser pulses and trains of acoustic clicks were used to evoke single unit responses in ICC of normal hearing animals. In response to INS, ICC neurons showed lower limiting rates, longer latencies, and lower firing efficiencies. In deaf animals, ICC neurons could still be stimulated by INS while unresponsive to acoustic stimulation. The site and spatial selectivity of INS both likely shaped the temporal properties of ICC neurons. PMID:26311831

  8. Responses to amplitude modulated infrared stimuli in the guinea pig inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Young, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Responses of units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig were recorded with tungsten electrodes. The set of data presented here is limited to high stimulus levels. The effect of changing the modulation frequency and the modulation depth was explored for acoustic and laser stimuli. The selected units responded to sinusoidal amplitude modulated (AM) tones, AM trains of clicks, and AM trains of laser pulses with a modulation of their spike discharge. At modulation frequencies of 20 Hz, some units tended to respond with 40 Hz to the acoustic stimuli, but only at 20 Hz for the trains of laser pulses. For all modes of stimulation the responses revealed a dominant response to the first cycle of the modulation, with decreasing number of action potential during successive cycles. While amplitude modulated tone bursts and amplitude modulated trains of acoustic clicks showed similar patterns, the response to trains of laser pulses was different. PMID:25075264

  9. Auditory cortex controls sound-driven innate defense behaviour through corticofugal projections to inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiaorui R.; Liang, Feixue; Zingg, Brian; Ji, Xu-ying; Ibrahim, Leena A.; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

    2015-01-01

    Defense against environmental threats is essential for animal survival. However, the neural circuits responsible for transforming unconditioned sensory stimuli and generating defensive behaviours remain largely unclear. Here, we show that corticofugal neurons in the auditory cortex (ACx) targeting the inferior colliculus (IC) mediate an innate, sound-induced flight behaviour. Optogenetic activation of these neurons, or their projection terminals in the IC, is sufficient for initiating flight responses, while the inhibition of these projections reduces sound-induced flight responses. Corticocollicular axons monosynaptically innervate neurons in the cortex of the IC (ICx), and optogenetic activation of the projections from the ICx to the dorsal periaqueductal gray is sufficient for provoking flight behaviours. Our results suggest that ACx can both amplify innate acoustic-motor responses and directly drive flight behaviours in the absence of sound input through corticocollicular projections to ICx. Such corticofugal control may be a general feature of innate defense circuits across sensory modalities. PMID:26068082

  10. Development of intrinsic connectivity in the central nucleus of the mouse inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Joshua; Nguyen, Tuan; Kandler, Karl

    2014-11-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) in the mammalian midbrain is the major subcortical auditory integration center receiving ascending inputs from almost all auditory brainstem nuclei as well as descending inputs from the thalamus and cortex. In addition to these extrinsic inputs, the IC also contains a dense network of local, intracollicular connections, which are thought to provide gain control and contribute to the selectivity for complex acoustic features. However, in contrast to the organization of extrinsic IC afferents, the development and functional organization of intrinsic connections in the IC has remained poorly understood. Here we used laser-scanning photostimulation with caged glutamate to characterize the spatial distribution and strength of local synaptic connections in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of newborn mice until after hearing onset (P2-P22). We demonstrate the presence of an extensive excitatory and inhibitory intracollicular network already at P2. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic maps to individual IC neurons formed continuous maps that largely overlapped with each other and that were aligned with the presumed isofrequency axis of the central nucleus of the IC. Although this characteristic organization was present throughout the first three postnatal weeks, the size of input maps was developmentally regulated as input maps underwent an expansion during the first week that was followed by a dramatic refinement after hearing onset. These changes occurred in parallel for excitatory and inhibitory input maps. However, the functional elimination of intrinsic connections was greater for excitatory than for inhibitory connections, resulting in a predominance of intrinsic inhibition after hearing onset. PMID:25378168

  11. Development of Intrinsic Connectivity in the Central Nucleus of the Mouse Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Joshua; Nguyen, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) in the mammalian midbrain is the major subcortical auditory integration center receiving ascending inputs from almost all auditory brainstem nuclei as well as descending inputs from the thalamus and cortex. In addition to these extrinsic inputs, the IC also contains a dense network of local, intracollicular connections, which are thought to provide gain control and contribute to the selectivity for complex acoustic features. However, in contrast to the organization of extrinsic IC afferents, the development and functional organization of intrinsic connections in the IC has remained poorly understood. Here we used laser-scanning photostimulation with caged glutamate to characterize the spatial distribution and strength of local synaptic connections in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of newborn mice until after hearing onset (P2-P22). We demonstrate the presence of an extensive excitatory and inhibitory intracollicular network already at P2. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic maps to individual IC neurons formed continuous maps that largely overlapped with each other and that were aligned with the presumed isofrequency axis of the central nucleus of the IC. Although this characteristic organization was present throughout the first three postnatal weeks, the size of input maps was developmentally regulated as input maps underwent an expansion during the first week that was followed by a dramatic refinement after hearing onset. These changes occurred in parallel for excitatory and inhibitory input maps. However, the functional elimination of intrinsic connections was greater for excitatory than for inhibitory connections, resulting in a predominance of intrinsic inhibition after hearing onset. PMID:25378168

  12. Deactivation of the inferior colliculus by cooling demonstrates intercollicular modulation of neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Orton, Llwyd D.; Poon, Paul W. F.; Rees, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The auditory pathways coursing through the brainstem are organized bilaterally in mirror image about the midline and at several levels the two sides are interconnected. One of the most prominent points of interconnection is the commissure of the inferior colliculus (CoIC). Anatomical studies have revealed that these fibers make reciprocal connections which follow the tonotopic organization of the inferior colliculus (IC), and that the commissure contains both excitatory and, albeit fewer, inhibitory fibers. The role of these connections in sound processing is largely unknown. Here we describe a method to address this question in the anaesthetized guinea pig. We used a cryoloop placed on one IC to produce reversible deactivation while recording electrophysiological responses to sounds in both ICs. We recorded single units, multi-unit clusters and local field potentials (LFPs) before, during and after cooling. The degree and spread of cooling was measured with a thermocouple placed in the IC and other auditory structures. Cooling sufficient to eliminate firing was restricted to the IC contacted by the cryoloop. The temperature of other auditory brainstem structures, including the contralateral IC and the cochlea were minimally affected. Cooling below 20°C reduced or eliminated the firing of action potentials in frequency laminae at depths corresponding to characteristic frequencies up to ~8 kHz. Modulation of neural activity also occurred in the un-cooled IC with changes in single unit firing and LFPs. Components of LFPs signaling lemniscal afferent input to the IC showed little change in amplitude or latency with cooling, whereas the later components, which likely reflect inter- and intra-collicular processing, showed marked changes in form and amplitude. We conclude that the cryoloop is an effective method of selectively deactivating one IC in guinea pig, and demonstrate that auditory processing in the IC is strongly influenced by the other. PMID:23248587

  13. Regional and laminar distribution of cortical neurons projecting to either superior or inferior colliculus in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1995-01-01

    Retrograde tracer substances were injected into either the inferior or the superior colliculus in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi (Insectivora), to reveal the laminar and regional distribution of corticotectal cells and to correlate the labeled areas with architectural data. The tenrecs, taken from our breeding colony, have one of the least differentiated cerebral cortices among mammals, and experimental investigations of such brains are important for the understanding of the evolution and intrinsic organization of the more highly differentiated cerebral cortex in other placental mammals. Following injections into the inferior colliculus, cortical neurons were labeled bilaterally, with an ipsilateral predominance. Most labeled cells were found in the caudolateral hemisphere, area 4 as defined by Rehkämper (1981); some were in the somatosensorimotor cortex, as defined in a previous study. The labeled neurons in area 4 were located in layers V and VI, forming two bands of cells separated from each other by a poorly labeled interspace. A further subdivision of this presumed auditory region could not be achieved. This entire area was also weakly labeled following tracer injections into the superior colliculus. The labeled cells, however, were restricted to layer V of the ipsilateral side. The most consistent sites of labeled cells following injections into the superior colliculus were found in layer V of the ipsilateral caudomedial hemisphere, Rehkämper's caudal area 3, and the transitional zone adjacent to the retrosplenial cortex. This area is small in comparison to the entire region that was found in this study to project to the superior colliculus. The superior colliculus also receives projections from the ipsilateral sensorimotor and cingulate cortices. The latter projections are particularly striking in comparison to other mammals because they originate from along the entire rostrocaudal extent of the cingulate/retrosplenial region. PMID

  14. Different serotonin receptor agonists have distinct effects on sound-evoked responses in inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura M

    2006-11-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin has a complex set of effects on the auditory responses of neurons within the inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain auditory nucleus that integrates a wide range of inputs from auditory and nonauditory sources. To determine whether activation of different types of serotonin receptors is a source of the variability in serotonergic effects, four selective agonists of serotonin receptors in the serotonin (5-HT) 1 and 5-HT2 families were iontophoretically applied to IC neurons, which were monitored for changes in their responses to auditory stimuli. Different agonists had different effects on neural responses. The 5-HT1A agonist had mixed facilitatory and depressive effects, whereas 5-HT1B and 5-HT2C agonists were both largely facilitatory. Different agonists changed threshold and frequency tuning in ways that reflected their effects on spike count. When pairs of agonists were applied sequentially to the same neurons, selective agonists sometimes affected neurons in ways that were similar to serotonin, but not to other selective agonists tested. Different agonists also differentially affected groups of neurons classified by the shapes of their frequency-tuning curves, with serotonin and the 5-HT1 receptors affecting proportionally more non-V-type neurons relative to the other agonists tested. In all, evidence suggests that the diversity of serotonin receptor subtypes in the IC is likely to account for at least some of the variability of the effects of serotonin and that receptor subtypes fulfill specialized roles in auditory processing. PMID:16870843

  15. The serotonin releaser fenfluramine alters the auditory responses of inferior colliculus neurons.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ian C; Hurley, Laura M

    2007-06-01

    Local direct application of the neuromodulator serotonin strongly influences auditory response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), but endogenous stores of serotonin may be released in a distinct spatial or temporal pattern. To explore this issue, the serotonin releaser fenfluramine was iontophoretically applied to extracellularly recorded neurons in the IC of the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis). Fenfluramine mimicked the effects of serotonin on spike count and first spike latency in most neurons, and its effects could be blocked by co-application of serotonin receptor antagonists, consistent with fenfluramine-evoked serotonin release. Responses to fenfluramine did not vary during single applications or across multiple applications, suggesting that fenfluramine did not deplete serotonin stores. A predicted gradient in the effects of fenfluramine with serotonin fiber density was not observed, but neurons with fenfluramine-evoked increases in latency occurred at relatively greater recording depths compared to other neurons with similar characteristic frequencies. These findings support the conclusion that there may be spatial differences in the effects of exogenous and endogenous sources of serotonin, but that other factors such as the identities and locations of serotonin receptors are also likely to play a role in determining the dynamics of serotonergic effects. PMID:17339086

  16. A function for binaural integration in auditory grouping and segregation in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kyle T; Shackleton, Trevor M; Magezi, David A; Palmer, Alan R

    2015-03-15

    Responses of neurons to binaural, harmonic complex stimuli in urethane-anesthetized guinea pig inferior colliculus (IC) are reported. To assess the binaural integration of harmonicity cues for sound segregation and grouping, responses were measured to harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies presented to each ear. Simultaneously gated harmonic stimuli with fundamental frequencies of 125 Hz and 145 Hz were presented to the left and right ears, respectively, and recordings made from 96 neurons with characteristic frequencies >2 kHz in the central nucleus of the IC. Of these units, 70 responded continuously throughout the stimulus and were excited by the stimulus at the contralateral ear. The stimulus at the ipsilateral ear excited (EE: 14%; 10/70), inhibited (EI: 33%; 23/70), or had no significant effect (EO: 53%; 37/70), defined by the effect on firing rate. The neurons phase locked to the temporal envelope at each ear to varying degrees depending on signal level. Many of the cells (predominantly EO) were dominated by the response to the contralateral stimulus. Another group (predominantly EI) synchronized to the contralateral stimulus and were suppressed by the ipsilateral stimulus in a phasic manner. A third group synchronized to the stimuli at both ears (predominantly EE). Finally, a group only responded when the waveform peaks from each ear coincided. We conclude that these groups of neurons represent different "streams" of information but exhibit modifications of the response rather than encoding a feature of the stimulus, like pitch. PMID:25540219

  17. Effects of unilateral acoustic trauma on tinnitus-related spontaneous activity in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Ropp, Tessa-Jonne F; Tiedemann, Kerrie L; Young, Eric D; May, Bradford J

    2014-12-01

    This study describes the long-term effects of sound-induced cochlear trauma on spontaneous discharge rates in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). As in previous studies, single-unit recordings in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed pervasive increases in spontaneous discharge rates. Based on differences in their sources of input, it was hypothesized that physiologically defined neural populations of the auditory midbrain would reveal the brainstem sources that dictate ICC hyperactivity. Abnormal spontaneous activity was restricted to target neurons of the ventral cochlear nucleus. Nearly identical patterns of hyperactivity were observed in the contralateral and ipsilateral ICC. The elevation in spontaneous activity extended to frequencies well below and above the region of maximum threshold shift. This lack of frequency organization suggests that ICC hyperactivity may be influenced by regions of the brainstem that are not tonotopically organized. Sound-induced hyperactivity is often observed in animals with behavioral signs of tinnitus. Prior to electrophysiological recording, rats were screened for tinnitus by measuring gap pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (GPIASR). Rats with positive phenotypes did not exhibit unique patterns of ICC hyperactivity. This ambiguity raises concerns regarding animal behavioral models of tinnitus. If our screening procedures were valid, ICC hyperactivity is observed in animals without behavioral indications of the disorder. Alternatively, if the perception of tinnitus is strictly linked to ongoing ICC hyperactivity, our current behavioral approach failed to provide a reliable assessment of tinnitus state. PMID:25255865

  18. Hyperactivity following unilateral hearing loss in characterized cells in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Vogler, D P; Robertson, D; Mulders, W H A M

    2014-04-18

    Hyperactivity (increased spontaneous firing rates) following cochlear trauma and hearing loss has been well documented in the inferior colliculus (IC). This hyperactivity is associated with frequency regions in the IC that are closely related to regions of peripheral hearing loss. In other auditory nuclei, notably cochlear nucleus, hyperactivity has been shown to be more prevalent in particular cell types but this has not been investigated in the IC. Single-neuron spontaneous firing rates were recorded in the IC of animals after acoustic trauma (10-kHz tone at 124dB for 2h) and in sham surgery controls. Single-neuron recordings were made 2weeks later. Evoked responses to ipsi- and contralateral sound were used for classification. Classifications were based on peri-stimulus time histograms, input-output functions, frequency response areas and monaural/binaural responses. Results showed increased spontaneous firing rates in the IC following trauma, in regions corresponding to the frequencies at which there was peripheral hearing loss (12-20kHz). Most response categories, with the exception of cells showing an onset response classification, showed a significantly increased average spontaneous firing rate. These data suggest that hyperactivity in the IC is not confined to a particular response type in contrast to findings in the cochlear nucleus. This may be the result of factors intrinsic to the IC, or because of convergent input to the IC from a range of other auditory structures. PMID:24468107

  19. ON and OFF inhibition as mechanisms for forward masking in the inferior colliculus: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Gai, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Masking effects of a preceding stimulus on the detection or perception of a signal have been found in several sensory systems in mammals, including humans and rodents. In the auditory system, it has been hypothesized that a central "OFF-inhibitory" mechanism, which is generated by neurons that respond after a sound is terminated, may contribute to the observed psychophysics. The present study constructed a systems model for the inferior colliculus that includes major ascending monaural and binaural auditory pathways. The fundamental characteristics of several neuron types along the pathways were captured by Hodgkin-Huxley models with specific membrane and synaptic properties. OFF responses were reproduced with a model of the superior paraolivary nucleus containing a hyperpolarization-activated h current and a T-type calcium current. When the gap between the end of the masker and the onset of the signal was large, e.g., >5 ms, OFF inhibition generated strong suppressive effects on the signal response. For smaller gaps, an additional inhibitory source, which was modeled as ON inhibition from the contralateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, showed the potential of explaining the psychophysics. Meanwhile, the effect of a forward masker on the binaural sensitivity to a low-frequency signal was examined, which was consistent with previous psychophysical findings related to sound localization. PMID:26912597

  20. Decreased norepinephrine (NE) uptake in cerebral cortex and inferior colliculus of genetically epilepsy prone (GEP) rats

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, R.A.; Rigler-Daugherty, S.K.; Long, G.; Jobe, P.C.; Wade, D.R.

    1986-03-01

    GEP rats are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to seizures caused by a variety of stimuli, most notably sound. Pharmacological treatments that reduce the synaptic concentration of NE increase seizure severity in GEP rats while elevations in NE have the opposite effect. GEP rats also display a widespread deficit in brain NE concentration suggesting that their increased seizure susceptibility is related to a deficit in noradrenergic transmission. The authors have compared the kinetics of /sup 3/H-NE uptake in the P/sub 2/ synaptosomal fraction isolated from the cerebral cortex of normal and GEP-rats. Although the apparent Kms were not significantly different (Normal +/- SEM:0.37 +/- 0.13..mu..M; GEP +/- SEM: 0.29 +/- 0.07..mu..M), the Vmax for GEP rats was 48% lower than that of normal rats (Normal +/- SEM: 474 +/- 45 fmole/mg/4min; GEP +/- SEM: 248 +/- 16 fmole/mg/4min). Because of the possible role of the inferior colliculus (IC) in the initiation of sound-induced seizures in GEP rats, the authors measured synaptosomal NE uptake in the IC using a NE concentration of 50 nM. The IC synaptosomal NE uptake was found to be 35% lower in GEP than in normal rats. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a deficit in noradrenergic transmission is related to the increased seizure susceptibility of GEP rats.

  1. Neuronal morphology in subdivisions of the inferior colliculus of chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Niederleitner, Bertram; Luksch, Harald

    2012-05-01

    The avian inferior colliculus (IC), also referred to as the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd), is an auditory midbrain nucleus that converges auditory cues from tonotopically organized brainstem nuclei. This information is relayed onto the optic tectum on the one hand and to nucleus ovoidalis on the other hand. Morphologically, there has been considerable debate about the number and nomenclature of the subnuclei within the IC. Here, we provide morphological characteristics of single cells in five IC subnuclei in chicken. The cellular structure within the IC was studied by whole-cell patch technique and biocytin iontophoresis. In addition, histological staining was performed, to delineate the borders between subnuclei of the IC. We were able to discriminate between 5 subnuclei: the core of the central nucleus (ICCc), the medial and lateral shell of the central nucleus (ICCms and ICCls), the external nucleus (ICX) and the superficial nucleus (ICS) of the IC. Our findings suggest the existence of at least two different morphologies of neurons with two subtypes each. The IC in chicken is a largely homogenous nucleus in terms of neuronal anatomy on a cellular level. However, its compartmentation into diversified subnuclei with different neurophysiological characteristics suggests a complex system to process auditory information. The auditory system in chicken is not as hypertrophied as in specialists such as the barn owl, but appears to have comparable connectivity and cellular morphology. PMID:22525356

  2. Preservation of spectrotemporal tuning between the nucleus laminaris and the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Christianson, G Björn; Peña, José Luis

    2007-05-01

    Performing sound recognition is a task that requires an encoding of the time-varying spectral structure of the auditory stimulus. Similarly, computation of the interaural time difference (ITD) requires knowledge of the precise timing of the stimulus. Consistent with this, low-level nuclei of birds and mammals implicated in ITD processing encode the ongoing phase of a stimulus. However, the brain areas that follow the binaural convergence for the computation of ITD show a reduced capacity for phase locking. In addition, we have shown that in the barn owl there is a pooling of ITD-responsive neurons to improve the reliability of ITD coding. Here we demonstrate that despite two stages of convergence and an effective loss of phase information, the auditory system of the anesthetized barn owl displays a graceful transition to an envelope coding that preserves the spectrotemporal information throughout the ITD pathway to the neurons of the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. PMID:17314241

  3. Noise reduction of coincidence detector output by the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Christianson, G Björn; Peña, José Luis

    2006-05-31

    A recurring theme in theoretical work is that integration over populations of similarly tuned neurons can reduce neural noise. However, there are relatively few demonstrations of an explicit noise reduction mechanism in a neural network. Here we demonstrate that the brainstem of the barn owl includes a stage of processing apparently devoted to increasing the signal-to-noise ratio in the encoding of the interaural time difference (ITD), one of two primary binaural cues used to compute the position of a sound source in space. In the barn owl, the ITD is processed in a dedicated neural pathway that terminates at the core of the inferior colliculus (ICcc). The actual locus of the computation of the ITD is before ICcc in the nucleus laminaris (NL), and ICcc receives no inputs carrying information that did not originate in NL. Unlike in NL, the rate-ITD functions of ICcc neurons require as little as a single stimulus presentation per ITD to show coherent ITD tuning. ICcc neurons also displayed a greater dynamic range with a maximal difference in ITD response rates approximately double that seen in NL. These results indicate that ICcc neurons perform a computation functionally analogous to averaging across a population of similarly tuned NL neurons. PMID:16738236

  4. Inhibition sensitive to interaural time difference in the barn owl's inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Albeck, Y

    1997-07-01

    In spontaneously active neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the barn owl, a stimulus-driven discharge was followed by a quiescent period lasting tens of milliseconds before the spontaneous activity resumed. The more favorable the interaural time difference, the longer the quiet period. The duration of the quiescent period also depended on stimulus frequency. Frequencies different from the neuron's best frequency induced shorter quiescent periods, although they could elicit similar rates of impulses. Also, the duration of the quiescent period was independent of interaural intensity difference. Thus, the quiet period is not due to an after-hyperpolarization but was an inhibitory effect that depended on the activity of other neurons. In some neurons, discharge continued after the stimulus without a quiescent period and gradually decayed over a period of 50-100 ms past the stimulus offset. The similarity between the quiescent period of the neurons mentioned above and the time course of the poststimulus discharge in these neurons suggests that these neurons serve as inhibitory interneurons. PMID:9259240

  5. A function for binaural integration in auditory grouping and segregation in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Shackleton, Trevor M.; Magezi, David A.; Palmer, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Responses of neurons to binaural, harmonic complex stimuli in urethane-anesthetized guinea pig inferior colliculus (IC) are reported. To assess the binaural integration of harmonicity cues for sound segregation and grouping, responses were measured to harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies presented to each ear. Simultaneously gated harmonic stimuli with fundamental frequencies of 125 Hz and 145 Hz were presented to the left and right ears, respectively, and recordings made from 96 neurons with characteristic frequencies >2 kHz in the central nucleus of the IC. Of these units, 70 responded continuously throughout the stimulus and were excited by the stimulus at the contralateral ear. The stimulus at the ipsilateral ear excited (EE: 14%; 10/70), inhibited (EI: 33%; 23/70), or had no significant effect (EO: 53%; 37/70), defined by the effect on firing rate. The neurons phase locked to the temporal envelope at each ear to varying degrees depending on signal level. Many of the cells (predominantly EO) were dominated by the response to the contralateral stimulus. Another group (predominantly EI) synchronized to the contralateral stimulus and were suppressed by the ipsilateral stimulus in a phasic manner. A third group synchronized to the stimuli at both ears (predominantly EE). Finally, a group only responded when the waveform peaks from each ear coincided. We conclude that these groups of neurons represent different “streams” of information but exhibit modifications of the response rather than encoding a feature of the stimulus, like pitch. PMID:25540219

  6. Periodotopy in the gerbil inferior colliculus: local clustering rather than a gradient map

    PubMed Central

    Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A.; Lesica, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Periodicities in sound waveforms are widespread, and shape important perceptual attributes of sound including rhythm and pitch. Previous studies have indicated that, in the inferior colliculus (IC), a key processing stage in the auditory midbrain, neurons tuned to different periodicities might be arranged along a periodotopic axis which runs approximately orthogonal to the tonotopic axis. Here we map out the topography of frequency and periodicity tuning in the IC of gerbils in unprecedented detail, using pure tones and different periodic sounds, including click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) noise and iterated rippled noise. We found that while the tonotopic map exhibited a clear and highly reproducible gradient across all animals, periodotopic maps varied greatly across different types of periodic sound and from animal to animal. Furthermore, periodotopic gradients typically explained only about 10% of the variance in modulation tuning between recording sites. However, there was a strong local clustering of periodicity tuning at a spatial scale of ca. 0.5 mm, which also differed from animal to animal. PMID:26379508

  7. Stimulus-specific adaptation in the inferior colliculus of the mouse: anesthesia and spontaneous activity effects.

    PubMed

    Duque, Daniel; Malmierca, Manuel S

    2015-11-01

    Rapid behavioral responses to unexpected events in the acoustic environment are critical for survival. Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is the process whereby some auditory neurons respond better to rare stimuli than to repetitive stimuli. Most experiments on SSA have been performed under anesthesia, and it is unknown if SSA sensitivity is altered by the anesthetic agent. Only a direct comparison can answer this question. Here, we recorded extracellular single units in the inferior colliculus of awake and anesthetized mice under an oddball paradigm that elicits SSA. Our results demonstrate that SSA is similar, but not identical, in the awake and anesthetized preparations. The differences are mostly due to the higher spontaneous activity observed in the awake animals, which also revealed a high incidence of inhibitory receptive fields. We conclude that SSA is not an artifact of anesthesia and that spontaneous activity modulates neuronal SSA differentially, depending on the state of arousal. Our results suggest that SSA may be especially important when nervous system activity is suppressed during sleep-like states. This may be a useful survival mechanism that allows the organism to respond to danger when sleeping. PMID:25115620

  8. Sodium salicylate reduces the level of GABAB receptors in the rat's inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Butt, S; Ashraf, F; Porter, L A; Zhang, H

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sodium salicylate (SS) can cause hearing abnormalities through affecting the central auditory system. In order to understand central effects of the drug, we examined how a single intraperitoneal injection of the drug changed the level of subunits of the type-B γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAB receptor) in the rat's inferior colliculus (IC). Immunohistochemical and western blotting experiments were conducted three hours following a drug injection, as previous studies indicated that a tinnitus-like behavior could be reliably induced in rats within this time period. Results revealed that both subunits of the receptor, GABABR1 and GABABR2, reduced their level over the entire area of the IC. Such a reduction was observed in both cell body and neuropil regions. In contrast, no changes were observed in other brain structures such as the cerebellum. Thus, a coincidence existed between a structure-specific reduction in the level of GABAB receptor subunits in the IC and the presence of a tinnitus-like behavior. This coincidence likely suggests that a reduction in the level of GABAB receptor subunits was involved in the generation of a tinnitus-like behavior and/or used by the nervous system to restore normal hearing following application of SS. PMID:26705739

  9. The development of frequency representation in the inferior colliculus of the kitten.

    PubMed

    Webster, W R; Martin, R L

    1991-09-01

    While morphologically the kitten's cochlea matures first at the basal or high-frequency region, behavioural and physiological evidence suggests that it responds first to low-frequency sound. Explanations of this paradox include the suggestion that the spatial representation of frequency within the cochlea changes as a function of age. We have used the [14C]-2-deoxyglucose technique to study the development of frequency representation in the central auditory system of the kitten. We report here that while the locations within the inferior colliculus (IC) where high- and mid-frequency sounds are represented shift markedly between 10 and 35 days of age, the location where low-frequency sound is represented does not alter. The IC representation of low frequencies is adult-like by 10 days of age but that of higher frequencies continues to mature until as many as 35 days. Despite its morphological immaturity with respect to other regions, the apex of the cochlea appears to be the first region to become tuned to those frequencies to which it is tuned in the adult. We found little labelling at 5 and 7 days of age to 75-80 dB stimuli, but it is quite possible that the high-frequency region might respond to very intense low frequencies before 10 days of age. to very intense low frequencies before 10 days of age. PMID:1752796

  10. Distribution of GABAergic cells in the inferior colliculus that project to the thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Mellott, Jeffrey G.; Foster, Nichole L.; Nakamoto, Kyle T.; Motts, Susan D.; Schofield, Brett R.

    2014-01-01

    A GABAergic component has been identified in the projection from the inferior colliculus (IC) to the medial geniculate body (MG) in cats and rats. We sought to determine if this GABAergic pathway exists in guinea pig, a species widely used in auditory research. The guinea pig IC contains GABAergic cells, but their relative abundance in the IC and their relative contributions to tectothalamic projections are unknown. We identified GABAergic cells with immunochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and determined that ~21% of IC neurons are GABAergic. We then combined retrograde tracing with GAD immunohistochemistry to identify the GABAergic tectothalamic projection. Large injections of Fast Blue, red fluorescent beads or FluoroGold were deposited to include all subdivisions of the MG. The results demonstrate a GABAergic pathway from each IC subdivision to the ipsilateral MG. GABAergic cells constitute ~22% of this ipsilateral pathway. In addition, each subdivision of the IC had a GABAergic projection to the contralateral MG. Measured by number of tectothalamic cells, the contralateral projection is about 10% of the size of the ipsilateral projection. GABAergic cells constitute about 20% of the contralateral projection. In summary, the results demonstrate a tectothalamic projection in guinea pigs that originates in part from GABAergic cells that project ipsilaterally or contralaterally to the MG. The results show similarities to both rats and cats, and carry implications for the role of GABAergic tectothalamic projections vis-à-vis the presence (in cats) or near absence (in rats and guinea pigs) of GABAergic interneurons in the MG. PMID:24744703

  11. Periodotopy in the gerbil inferior colliculus: local clustering rather than a gradient map.

    PubMed

    Schnupp, Jan W H; Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A; Lesica, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Periodicities in sound waveforms are widespread, and shape important perceptual attributes of sound including rhythm and pitch. Previous studies have indicated that, in the inferior colliculus (IC), a key processing stage in the auditory midbrain, neurons tuned to different periodicities might be arranged along a periodotopic axis which runs approximately orthogonal to the tonotopic axis. Here we map out the topography of frequency and periodicity tuning in the IC of gerbils in unprecedented detail, using pure tones and different periodic sounds, including click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) noise and iterated rippled noise. We found that while the tonotopic map exhibited a clear and highly reproducible gradient across all animals, periodotopic maps varied greatly across different types of periodic sound and from animal to animal. Furthermore, periodotopic gradients typically explained only about 10% of the variance in modulation tuning between recording sites. However, there was a strong local clustering of periodicity tuning at a spatial scale of ca. 0.5 mm, which also differed from animal to animal. PMID:26379508

  12. Inhibition shapes selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus of awake mice

    PubMed Central

    Mayko, Zachary M.; Roberts, Patrick D.; Portfors, Christine V.

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for integration of auditory information as it receives ascending projections from a variety of brainstem nuclei as well as descending projections from the thalamus and auditory cortex. The ascending projections are both excitatory and inhibitory and their convergence at the IC results in a microcircuitry that is important for shaping responses to simple, binaural, and modulated sounds in the IC. Here, we examined the role inhibition plays in shaping selectivity to vocalizations in the IC of awake, normal-hearing adult mice (CBA/CaJ strain). Neurons in the IC of mice show selectivity in their responses to vocalizations, and we hypothesized that this selectivity is created by inhibitory microcircuitry in the IC. We compared single unit responses in the IC to pure tones and a variety of ultrasonic mouse vocalizations before and after iontophoretic application of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and glycine receptor (GlyR) antagonists. The most pronounced effects of blocking GABAAR and GlyR on IC neurons were to increase spike rates and broaden excitatory frequency tuning curves in response to pure tone stimuli, and to decrease selectivity to vocalizations. Thus, inhibition plays an important role in creating selectivity to vocalizations in the IC. PMID:23087616

  13. Excitatory, inhibitory and facilitatory frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus of hearing impaired mice.

    PubMed

    Felix, Richard A; Portfors, Christine V

    2007-06-01

    Individuals with age-related hearing loss often have difficulty understanding complex sounds such as basic speech. The C57BL/6 mouse suffers from progressive sensorineural hearing loss and thus is an effective tool for dissecting the neural mechanisms underlying changes in complex sound processing observed in humans. Neural mechanisms important for processing complex sounds include multiple tuning and combination sensitivity, and these responses are common in the inferior colliculus (IC) of normal hearing mice. We examined neural responses in the IC of C57Bl/6 mice to single and combinations of tones to examine the extent of spectral integration in the IC after age-related high frequency hearing loss. Ten percent of the neurons were tuned to multiple frequency bands and an additional 10% displayed non-linear facilitation to the combination of two different tones (combination sensitivity). No combination-sensitive inhibition was observed. By comparing these findings to spectral integration properties in the IC of normal hearing CBA/CaJ mice, we suggest that high frequency hearing loss affects some of the neural mechanisms in the IC that underlie the processing of complex sounds. The loss of spectral integration properties in the IC during aging likely impairs the central auditory system's ability to process complex sounds such as speech. PMID:17412539

  14. Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, C.-P.; Rajguru, S. M.; Matic, A. I.; Moreno, E. L.; Fishman, A. J.; Robinson, A. M.; Suh, E.; Walsh, J. T., Jr.

    2011-10-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has received considerable attention over the last few years. It provides an alternative method to artificially stimulate neurons without electrical current or the introduction of exogenous chromophores. One of the primary benefits of INS could be the improved spatial selectivity when compared with electrical stimulation. In the present study, we have evaluated the spatial selectivity of INS in the acutely damaged cochlea of guinea pigs and compared it to stimulation with acoustic tone pips in normal-hearing animals. The radiation was delivered via a 200 µm diameter optical fiber, which was inserted through a cochleostomy into the scala tympani of the basal cochlear turn. The stimulated section along the cochlear spiral ganglion was estimated from the neural responses recorded from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). ICC responses were recorded in response to cochlear INS using a multichannel penetrating electrode array. Spatial tuning curves (STCs) were constructed from the responses. For INS, approximately 55% of the activation profiles showed a single maximum, ~22% had two maxima and ~13% had multiple maxima. The remaining 10% of the profiles occurred at the limits of the electrode array and could not be classified. The majority of ICC STCs indicated that the spread of activation evoked by optical stimuli is comparable to that produced by acoustic tone pips.

  15. Synaptic response patterns of neurons in the cortex of rat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Evans, M S; Faingold, C L

    1999-11-01

    The present study examined synaptic potentials of neurons in inferior colliculus (IC) cortex slice and the roles of GABA and glutamate receptors in generating these potentials. Multipolar (82%) and elongated (18%) cells were observed with intracellular biocytin staining. Electrical stimulation of the IC commissure (CoIC) elicited only inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) (10% of cells), only excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) (51%), or both (38%). IPSPs were elicited at lower thresholds and shorter latencies than EPSPs (mean: 1.6+/-1.2 ms) and IPSPs were observed in all neurons following membrane depolarization. Short-latency EPSPs were blocked by non-NMDA receptor antagonists, and longer-latency EPSPs were blocked by NMDA antagonists. CoIC stimulation evoked short-latency IPSPs (mean: 0.55+/-0.33 ms) in 48% of neurons, and the IPSPs persisted despite glutamate receptor blockade, which implies monosynaptic inhibitory input. A GABA(A) antagonist blocked IPSPs and paired pulse inhibition of EPSPs, suggesting GABA(A) receptor mediation. A GABA(B) antagonist reduced paired pulse inhibition of IPSPs, suggesting GABA(B) receptor modulation. Thus, GABA-mediated inhibition plays a critical role in shaping synaptic responses of IC cortex neurons. Normal GABAergic function in IC has been shown to be important in acoustic coding, and reduced efficacy of GABA function in IC neurons is critical in IC pathophysiology in presbycusis, tinnitus and audiogenic seizures. PMID:10545630

  16. Frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus: nonlinearity and binaural interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jane J.; Young, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    The tuning, binaural properties, and encoding characteristics of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) were investigated to shed light on nonlinearities in the responses of these neurons. Results were analyzed for three types of neurons (I, O, and V) in the CNIC of decerebrate cats. Rate responses to binaural stimuli were characterized using a 1st- plus 2nd-order spectral integration model. Parameters of the model were derived using broadband stimuli with random spectral shapes (RSS). This method revealed four characteristics of CNIC neurons: (1) Tuning curves derived from broadband stimuli have fixed (i. e., level tolerant) bandwidths across a 50–60 dB range of sound levels; (2) 1st-order contralateral weights (particularly for type I and O neurons) were usually larger in magnitude than corresponding ipsilateral weights; (3) contralateral weights were more important than ipsilateral weights when using the model to predict responses to untrained noise stimuli; and (4) 2nd-order weight functions demonstrate frequency selectivity different from that of 1st-order weight functions. Furthermore, while the inclusion of 2nd-order terms in the model usually improved response predictions related to untrained RSS stimuli, they had limited impact on predictions related to other forms of filtered broadband noise [e. g., virtual-space stimuli (VS)]. The accuracy of the predictions varied considerably by response type. Predictions were most accurate for I neurons, and less accurate for O and V neurons, except at the lowest stimulus levels. These differences in prediction performance support the idea that type I, O, and V neurons encode different aspects of the stimulus: while type I neurons are most capable of producing linear representations of spectral shape, type O and V neurons may encode spectral features or temporal stimulus properties in a manner not easily explained with the low-order model. Supported by NIH grant DC00115. PMID:23675323

  17. Intracellular Recordings From Combination-Sensitive Neurons in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Diana Coomes; Voytenko, Sergiy; Gans, Donald; Galazyuk, Alexander; Wenstrup, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    In vertebrate auditory systems, specialized combination-sensitive neurons analyze complex vocal signals by integrating information across multiple frequency bands. We studied combination-sensitive interactions in neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC) of awake mustached bats, using intracellular somatic recording with sharp electrodes. Facilitated combinatorial neurons are coincidence detectors, showing maximum facilitation when excitation from low- and high-frequency stimuli coincide. Previous work showed that facilitatory interactions originate in the IC, require both low and high frequency–tuned glycinergic inputs, and are independent of glutamatergic inputs. These results suggest that glycinergic inputs evoke facilitation through either postinhibitory rebound or direct depolarizing mechanisms. However, in 35 of 36 facilitated neurons, we observed no evidence of low frequency–evoked transient hyperpolarization or depolarization that was closely related to response facilitation. Furthermore, we observed no evidence of shunting inhibition that might conceal inhibitory inputs. Since these facilitatory interactions originate in IC neurons, the results suggest that inputs underlying facilitation are electrically segregated from the soma. We also recorded inhibitory combinatorial interactions, in which low frequency sounds suppress responses to higher frequency signals. In 43% of 118 neurons, we observed low frequency–evoked hyperpolarizations associated with combinatorial inhibition. For these neurons, we conclude that low frequency–tuned inhibitory inputs terminate on neurons primarily excited by high-frequency signals; these inhibitory inputs may create or enhance inhibitory combinatorial interactions. In the remainder of inhibited combinatorial neurons (57%), we observed no evidence of low frequency–evoked hyperpolarizations, consistent with observations that inhibitory combinatorial responses may originate in lateral lemniscal nuclei. PMID:18497365

  18. The representation of sound localization cues in the barn owl's inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Singheiser, Martin; Gutfreund, Yoram; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The barn owl is a well-known model system for studying auditory processing and sound localization. This article reviews the morphological and functional organization, as well as the role of the underlying microcircuits, of the barn owl's inferior colliculus (IC). We focus on the processing of frequency and interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD). We first summarize the morphology of the sub-nuclei belonging to the IC and their differentiation by antero- and retrograde labeling and by staining with various antibodies. We then focus on the response properties of neurons in the three major sub-nuclei of IC [core of the central nucleus of the IC (ICCc), lateral shell of the central nucleus of the IC (ICCls), and the external nucleus of the IC (ICX)]. ICCc projects to ICCls, which in turn sends its information to ICX. The responses of neurons in ICCc are sensitive to changes in ITD but not to changes in ILD. The distribution of ITD sensitivity with frequency in ICCc can only partly be explained by optimal coding. We continue with the tuning properties of ICCls neurons, the first station in the midbrain where the ITD and ILD pathways merge after they have split at the level of the cochlear nucleus. The ICCc and ICCls share similar ITD and frequency tuning. By contrast, ICCls shows sigmoidal ILD tuning which is absent in ICCc. Both ICCc and ICCls project to the forebrain, and ICCls also projects to ICX, where space-specific neurons are found. Space-specific neurons exhibit side peak suppression in ITD tuning, bell-shaped ILD tuning, and are broadly tuned to frequency. These neurons respond only to restricted positions of auditory space and form a map of two-dimensional auditory space. Finally, we briefly review major IC features, including multiplication-like computations, correlates of echo suppression, plasticity, and adaptation. PMID:22798945

  19. Representation of interaural time difference in the central nucleus of the barn owl's inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Takahashi, T; Konishi, M

    1987-10-01

    This paper investigates the role of the central nucleus of the barn owl's inferior colliculus in determination of the sound-source azimuth. The central nucleus contains many neurons that are sensitive to interaural time difference (ITD), the cue for azimuth in the barn owl. The response of these neurons varies in a cyclic manner with the ITD of a tone or noise burst. Response maxima recur at integer multiples of the period of the stimulating tone, or, if the stimulus is noise, at integer multiples of the period corresponding to the neuron's best frequency. Such neurons can signal, by means of their relative spike rate, the phase difference between the sounds reaching the left and right ears. Since an interaural phase difference corresponds to more than one ITD, these neurons represent ITD ambiguously. We call this phenomenon phase ambiguity. The central nucleus is tonotopically organized and its neurons are narrowly tuned to frequency. Neurons in an array perpendicular to isofrequency laminae form a physiological and anatomical unit; only one ITD, the array-specific ITD, activates all neurons in an array at the same relative level. We, therefore, may say that, in the central nucleus, an ITD is conserved in an array of neurons. Array-specific ITDs are mapped and encompass the entire auditory space of the barn owl. Individual space-specific neurons of the external nucleus, which receive inputs from a wide range of frequency channels (Knudsen and Konishi, 1978), are selective for a unique ITD. Space-specific neurons do not show phase ambiguity when stimulated with noise (Takahashi and Konishi, 1986). Space-specific neurons receive inputs from arrays that are selective for the same ITD. The collective response of the neurons in an array may be the basis for the absence of phase ambiguity in space-specific neurons. PMID:3668618

  20. Pharmacological specialization of learned auditory responses in the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D E; Knudsen, E I

    1998-04-15

    Neural tuning for interaural time difference (ITD) in the optic tectum of the owl is calibrated by experience-dependent plasticity occurring in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX). When juvenile owls are subjected to a sustained lateral displacement of the visual field by wearing prismatic spectacles, the ITD tuning of ICX neurons becomes systematically altered; ICX neurons acquire novel auditory responses, termed "learned responses," to ITD values outside their normal, pre-existing tuning range. In this study, we compared the glutamatergic pharmacology of learned responses with that of normal responses expressed by the same ICX neurons. Measurements were made in the ICX using iontophoretic application of glutamate receptor antagonists. We found that in early stages of ITD tuning adjustment, soon after learned responses had been induced by experience-dependent processes, the NMDA receptor antagonist D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5) preferentially blocked the expression of learned responses of many ICX neurons compared with that of normal responses of the same neurons. In contrast, the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) blocked learned and normal responses equally. After long periods of prism experience, preferential blockade of learned responses by AP-5 was no longer observed. These results indicate that NMDA receptors play a preferential role in the expression of learned responses soon after these responses have been induced by experience-dependent processes, whereas later in development or with additional prism experience (we cannot distinguish which), the differential NMDA receptor-mediated component of these responses disappears. This pharmacological progression resembles the changes that occur during maturation of glutamatergic synaptic currents during early development. PMID:9526024

  1. Projections of the cochlear nuclei and nucleus laminaris to the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T T; Konishi, M

    1988-08-01

    The barn owl determines the directions from which sounds emanate by computing the interaural differences in the timing and intensity of sounds. These cues for sound localization are processed in independent channels originating at nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus angularis (NA), the cochlear nuclei. The cells of NM are specialized for encoding the phase of sounds in the ipsilateral ear. The cells of NA are specialized for encoding the intensity of sounds in the ipsilateral ear. NM projects solely, bilaterally, and tonotopically to nucleus laminaris (NL). NL and NA project to largely nonoverlapping zones in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc), thus forming hodological subdivisions in which time and intensity information may be processed. The terminal field of NL occupies a discrete zone in the rostromedial portion of the contralateral ICc, which we have termed the "core" of ICc. The terminal field of NA surrounds the core of ICc and thus forms a "shell" around it. The projection from NL to the core conserves tonotopy. Low-frequency regions of NL project to the dorsal portions of the core whereas higher-frequency regions project to more ventral portions. This innervation pattern is consistent with earlier physiological studies of tonotopy. Physiological studies have also suggested that NL and the core of ICs contain a representation of the location of a sound source along the horizontal axis. Our data suggest that the projection from NL to the core preserves spatiotopy. Thus, the dorsal portion of NL on the left, which contains a representation of eccentric loci in the right hemifield, innervates the area of the right ICc core that represents eccentric right loci. The more ventral portion of the left NL, which represents loci close to the vertical meridian, innervates the more rostral portions of the right core, which also represents loci near the vertical meridian. PMID:2463286

  2. Distribution within the barn owl's inferior colliculus of neurons projecting to the optic tectum and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Ben J

    2005-11-01

    Behavioral studies in barn owls indicate that both the optic tectum (OT) and the auditory arcopallium (AAr) mediate sound localization through the presence of neurons that respond only when sound comes from a circumscribed direction in space. The early stages of the computations leading to these so-called space-specific neurons are shared in a common brainstem pathway, which then splits at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC) such that the last computational stage is thought to be duplicated. The study presented here addresses whether the space-specific neurons in OT and AAr are indeed partially independent of each other by using anatomical methods more precise than those used in previous studies. Specifically, projection neurons in IC were retrogradely labelled with injections of fluorescein- and rhodamine-conjugated dextran amines into OT and nucleus ovoidalis (OV), the thalamic nucleus leading to AAr. By labelling the OT-projecting and OV-projecting neurons in the same owl, it was confirmed that neurons in IC project to either OV or OT but not both. However, although a segregation was generally observed between the medially positioned OV-projecting neurons and the laterally positioned OT-projecting neurons, there was also a slight overlap between the two populations. Moreover, electrolytic lesions demarcating physiological tuning properties indicate that many OV-projecting neurons are within the area containing space-specific neurons. These results highlight the need for more detailed studies elucidating the microcircuitry and corresponding physiology of IC, such as have been done in the cortices of the mammalian cerebellum and cerebrum. PMID:16175562

  3. Immunocytochemical profiles of inferior colliculus neurons in the rat and their changes with aging

    PubMed Central

    Ouda, Ladislav; Syka, Josef

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) plays a strategic role in the central auditory system in relaying and processing acoustical information, and therefore its age-related changes may significantly influence the quality of the auditory function. A very complex processing of acoustical stimuli occurs in the IC, as supported also by the fact that the rat IC contains more neurons than all other subcortical auditory structures combined. GABAergic neurons, which predominantly co-express parvalbumin (PV), are present in the central nucleus of the IC in large numbers and to a lesser extent in the dorsal and external/lateral cortices of the IC. On the other hand, calbindin (CB) and calretinin (CR) are prevalent in the dorsal and external cortices of the IC, with only a few positive neurons in the central nucleus. The relationship between CB and CR expression in the IC and any neurotransmitter system has not yet been well established, but the distribution and morphology of the immunoreactive neurons suggest that they are at least partially non-GABAergic cells. The expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) (a key enzyme for GABA synthesis) and calcium binding proteins (CBPs) in the IC of rats undergoes pronounced changes with aging that involve mostly a decline in protein expression and a decline in the number of immunoreactive neurons. Similar age-related changes in GAD, CB, and CR expression are present in the IC of two rat strains with differently preserved inner ear function up to late senescence (Long-Evans and Fischer 344), which suggests that these changes do not depend exclusively on peripheral deafferentation but are, at least partially, of central origin. These changes may be associated with the age-related deterioration in the processing of the temporal parameters of acoustical stimuli, which is not correlated with hearing threshold shifts, and therefore may contribute to central presbycusis. PMID:23049499

  4. The representation of sound localization cues in the barn owl's inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Singheiser, Martin; Gutfreund, Yoram; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The barn owl is a well-known model system for studying auditory processing and sound localization. This article reviews the morphological and functional organization, as well as the role of the underlying microcircuits, of the barn owl's inferior colliculus (IC). We focus on the processing of frequency and interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD). We first summarize the morphology of the sub-nuclei belonging to the IC and their differentiation by antero- and retrograde labeling and by staining with various antibodies. We then focus on the response properties of neurons in the three major sub-nuclei of IC [core of the central nucleus of the IC (ICCc), lateral shell of the central nucleus of the IC (ICCls), and the external nucleus of the IC (ICX)]. ICCc projects to ICCls, which in turn sends its information to ICX. The responses of neurons in ICCc are sensitive to changes in ITD but not to changes in ILD. The distribution of ITD sensitivity with frequency in ICCc can only partly be explained by optimal coding. We continue with the tuning properties of ICCls neurons, the first station in the midbrain where the ITD and ILD pathways merge after they have split at the level of the cochlear nucleus. The ICCc and ICCls share similar ITD and frequency tuning. By contrast, ICCls shows sigmoidal ILD tuning which is absent in ICCc. Both ICCc and ICCls project to the forebrain, and ICCls also projects to ICX, where space-specific neurons are found. Space-specific neurons exhibit side peak suppression in ITD tuning, bell-shaped ILD tuning, and are broadly tuned to frequency. These neurons respond only to restricted positions of auditory space and form a map of two-dimensional auditory space. Finally, we briefly review major IC features, including multiplication-like computations, correlates of echo suppression, plasticity, and adaptation. PMID:22798945

  5. Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the inferior colliculus influences intrastriatal haloperidol-induced catalepsy.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, P; Viana, M B; Barbosa-Silva, R C; Tonelli, L C; Melo-Thomas, L

    2014-07-15

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is an important midbrain relay station for the integration of descending and ascending auditory information. In addition, it has also been implicated in the processing of acoustic information of aversive nature, as well as in sensory-motor gating. There is evidence that glutamate-mediated mechanisms at the IC level influence haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The present study investigated the influence of glutamate-mediated mechanisms in the IC on catalepsy induced by intrastriatal microinjection of haloperidol (10 μg/0.5 μl). Male Wistar rats received bilateral intracollicular microinjections of the glutamate receptor agonist NMDA (10 or 20 nmol/0.5 μl), the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 (15 or 30 nmol/0.5 μl) or physiological saline (0.5 μl), followed by bilateral microinjections of haloperidol (10 μg/0.5 μl) or vehicle (0.5 μl) into the dorso-rostral or ventro-rostral striatum. The catalepsy test was performed positioning both forepaws of the rats on an elevated horizontal wooden bar and recording the time during which the animal remained in this position. The results showed that the administration of physiological saline in the IC followed by the microinjection of haloperidol in the dorso-rostral region of the striatum was not able to induce catalepsy. However, when the bilateral administration of NMDA into the IC was followed by microinjection of haloperidol into the dorso-rostral striatum, catalepsy was observed. The microinjection of haloperidol into the ventro-rostral striatum induced catalepsy, counteracted by previous administration of MK-801 into the IC. These findings suggest that glutamate-mediated mechanisms in the IC can influence the intrastriatal haloperidol-induced catalepsy and that the IC plays an important role as a sensorimotor interface. PMID:24667361

  6. Intralaminar stimulation of the inferior colliculus facilitates frequency-specific activation in the auditory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allitt, B. J.; Benjaminsen, C.; Morgan, S. J.; Paolini, A. G.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Auditory midbrain implants (AMI) provide inadequate frequency discrimination for open set speech perception. AMIs that can take advantage of the tonotopic laminar of the midbrain may be able to better deliver frequency specific perception and lead to enhanced performance. Stimulation strategies that best elicit frequency specific activity need to be identified. This research examined the characteristic frequency (CF) relationship between regions of the auditory cortex (AC), in response to stimulated regions of the inferior colliculus (IC), comparing monopolar, and intralaminar bipolar electrical stimulation. Approach. Electrical stimulation using multi-channel micro-electrode arrays in the IC was used to elicit AC responses in anaesthetized male hooded Wistar rats. The rate of activity in AC regions with CFs within 3 kHz (CF-aligned) and unaligned CFs was used to assess the frequency specificity of responses. Main results. Both monopolar and bipolar IC stimulation led to CF-aligned neural activity in the AC. Altering the distance between the stimulation and reference electrodes in the IC led to changes in both threshold and dynamic range, with bipolar stimulation with 400 µm spacing evoking the lowest AC threshold and widest dynamic range. At saturation, bipolar stimulation elicited a significantly higher mean spike count in the AC at CF-aligned areas than at CF-unaligned areas when electrode spacing was 400 µm or less. Bipolar stimulation using electrode spacing of 400 µm or less also elicited a higher rate of elicited activity in the AC in both CF-aligned and CF-unaligned regions than monopolar stimulation. When electrodes were spaced 600 µm apart no benefit over monopolar stimulation was observed. Furthermore, monopolar stimulation of the external cortex of the IC resulted in more localized frequency responses than bipolar stimulation when stimulation and reference sites were 200 µm apart. Significance. These findings have implications for the

  7. Temporal features of spectral integration in the inferior colliculus: effects of stimulus duration and rise time.

    PubMed

    Gans, Donald; Sheykholeslami, Kianoush; Peterson, Diana Coomes; Wenstrup, Jeffrey

    2009-07-01

    This report examines temporal features of facilitation and suppression that underlie spectrally integrative responses to complex vocal signals. Auditory responses were recorded from 160 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of awake mustached bats. Sixty-two neurons showed combination-sensitive facilitation: responses to best frequency (BF) signals were facilitated by well-timed signals at least an octave lower in frequency, in the range 16-31 kHz. Temporal features and strength of facilitation were generally unaffected by changes in duration of facilitating signals from 4 to 31 ms. Changes in stimulus rise time from 0.5 to 5.0 ms had little effect on facilitatory strength. These results suggest that low frequency facilitating inputs to high BF neurons have phasic-on temporal patterns and are responsive to stimulus rise times over the tested range. We also recorded from 98 neurons showing low-frequency (11-32 kHz) suppression of higher BF responses. Effects of changing duration were related to the frequency of suppressive signals. Signals<23 kHz usually evoked suppression sustained throughout signal duration. This and other features of such suppression are consistent with a cochlear origin that results in masking of responses to higher, near-BF signal frequencies. Signals in the 23- to 30-kHz range-frequencies in the first sonar harmonic-generally evoked phasic suppression of BF responses. This may result from neural inhibitory interactions within and below IC. In many neurons, we observed two or more forms of the spectral interactions described here. Thus IC neurons display temporally and spectrally complex responses to sound that result from multiple spectral interactions at different levels of the ascending auditory pathway. PMID:19403742

  8. Mechanisms of spectral and temporal integration in the mustached bat inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Wenstrup, Jeffrey James; Nataraj, Kiran; Sanchez, Jason Tait

    2012-01-01

    This review describes mechanisms and circuitry underlying combination-sensitive response properties in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Combination-sensitive neurons, performing a type of auditory spectro-temporal integration, respond to specific, properly timed combinations of spectral elements in vocal signals and other acoustic stimuli. While these neurons are known to occur in the auditory forebrain of many vertebrate species, the work described here establishes their origin in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Focusing on the mustached bat, we review several major findings: (1) Combination-sensitive responses involve facilitatory interactions, inhibitory interactions, or both when activated by distinct spectral elements in complex sounds. (2) Combination-sensitive responses are created in distinct stages: inhibition arises mainly in lateral lemniscal nuclei of the auditory brainstem, while facilitation arises in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the midbrain. (3) Spectral integration underlying combination-sensitive responses requires a low-frequency input tuned well below a neuron's characteristic frequency (ChF). Low-ChF neurons in the auditory brainstem project to high-ChF regions in brainstem or IC to create combination sensitivity. (4) At their sites of origin, both facilitatory and inhibitory combination-sensitive interactions depend on glycinergic inputs and are eliminated by glycine receptor blockade. Surprisingly, facilitatory interactions in IC depend almost exclusively on glycinergic inputs and are largely independent of glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs. (5) The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), the lateral lemniscal nuclei, and the IC play critical roles in creating combination-sensitive responses. We propose that these mechanisms, based on work in the mustached bat, apply to a broad range of mammals and other vertebrates that depend on temporally sensitive integration of information across the audible spectrum. PMID:23109917

  9. Monaural and Binaural Inhibition Underlying Duration-Tuned Neurons in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Riziq; Casseday, John H.; Covey, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) in the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) arise from a combination of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Previous research has shown that the inhibition responsible for creating DTNs has a shorter latency than that of excitation and lasts longer than the stimulus duration. We used monotic and dichotic paired tone stimulation and recorded responses of DTNs from the IC of the bat to assess the relative contributions of each ear in forming duration-tuned circuits. The stimulus consisted of a short best duration (BD) excitatory tone and a longer duration nonexcitatory (NE) tone. In the monotic condition, when the BD and NE tones were presented to the contralateral ear and were sufficiently close in time, the NE tone always suppressed spikes evoked by the BD tone. In the dichotic condition, when the BD tone was presented to the contralateral ear and the NE tone to the ipsilateral ear, half of DTNs no longer showed spike suppression to the NE tone. Of those DTNs with suppression in both conditions, the latency of the inhibition was shorter and the duration of the inhibition was longer in the monotic condition. Therefore, in the monotic condition, DTNs received a contralaterally evoked inhibitory input that preceded the excitatory input to the same neuron. In the dichotic condition, DTNs received an ipsilaterally evoked inhibitory input that was weaker, longer in latency, and shorter in duration than the inputs from the contralateral ear. These findings indicate that the neural mechanisms that create DTNs in the IC are monaural. PMID:24403148

  10. Classification of frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus reveals continua not discrete classes

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Alan R; Shackleton, Trevor M; Sumner, Christian J; Zobay, Oliver; Rees, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    A differential response to sound frequency is a fundamental property of auditory neurons. Frequency analysis in the cochlea gives rise to V-shaped tuning functions in auditory nerve fibres, but by the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway, neuronal receptive fields display diverse shapes that reflect the interplay of excitation and inhibition. The origin and nature of these frequency receptive field types is still open to question. One proposed hypothesis is that the frequency response class of any given neuron in the IC is predominantly inherited from one of three major afferent pathways projecting to the IC, giving rise to three distinct receptive field classes. Here, we applied subjective classification, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and other objective statistical measures, to a large population (2826) of frequency response areas from single neurons recorded in the IC of the anaesthetised guinea pig. Subjectively, we recognised seven frequency response classes (V-shaped, non-monotonic Vs, narrow, closed, tilt down, tilt up and double-peaked), that were represented at all frequencies. We could identify similar classes using our objective classification tools. Importantly, however, many neurons exhibited properties intermediate between these classes, and none of the objective methods used here showed evidence of discrete response classes. Thus receptive field shapes in the IC form continua rather than discrete classes, a finding consistent with the integration of afferent inputs in the generation of frequency response areas. The frequency disposition of inhibition in the response areas of some neurons suggests that across-frequency inputs originating at or below the level of the IC are involved in their generation. PMID:23753527

  11. Effect of current focusing on the sensitivity of inferior colliculus neurons to amplitude-modulated stimulation.

    PubMed

    George, Shefin S; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Fallon, James B

    2016-09-01

    In multichannel cochlear implants (CIs), current is delivered to specific electrodes along the cochlea in the form of amplitude-modulated pulse trains, to convey temporal and spectral cues. Our previous studies have shown that focused multipolar (FMP) and tripolar (TP) stimulation produce more restricted neural activation and reduced channel interactions in the inferior colliculus (IC) compared with traditional monopolar (MP) stimulation, suggesting that focusing of stimulation could produce better transmission of spectral information. The present study explored the capability of IC neurons to detect modulated CI stimulation with FMP and TP stimulation compared with MP stimulation. The study examined multiunit responses of IC neurons in acutely deafened guinea pigs by systematically varying the stimulation configuration, modulation depth, and stimulation level. Stimuli were sinusoidal amplitude-modulated pulse trains (carrier rate of 120 pulses/s). Modulation sensitivity was quantified by measuring modulation detection thresholds (MDTs), defined as the lowest modulation depth required to differentiate the response of a modulated stimulus from an unmodulated one. Whereas MP stimulation showed significantly lower MDTs than FMP and TP stimulation (P values <0.05) at stimulation ≤2 dB above threshold, all stimulation configurations were found to have similar modulation sensitivities at 4 dB above threshold. There was no difference found in modulation sensitivity between FMP and TP stimulation. The present study demonstrates that current focusing techniques such as FMP and TP can adequately convey amplitude modulation and are comparable to MP stimulation, especially at higher stimulation levels, although there may be some trade-off between spectral and temporal fidelity with current focusing stimulation. PMID:27306672

  12. Dopamine modulates auditory responses in the inferior colliculus in a heterogeneous manner.

    PubMed

    Gittelman, Joshua X; Perkel, David J; Portfors, Christine V

    2013-10-01

    Perception of complex sounds such as speech is affected by a variety of factors, including attention, expectation of reward, physiological state, and/or disorders, yet the mechanisms underlying this modulation are not well understood. Although dopamine is commonly studied for its role in reward-based learning and in disorders, multiple lines of evidence suggest that dopamine is also involved in modulating auditory processing. In this study, we examined the effects of dopamine application on neuronal response properties in the inferior colliculus (IC) of awake mice. Because the IC contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, we predicted that dopamine would modulate auditory responses in the IC. We recorded single-unit responses before, during, and after the iontophoretic application of dopamine using piggyback electrodes. We examined the effects of dopamine on firing rate, timing, and probability of bursting. We found that application of dopamine affected neural responses in a heterogeneous manner. In more than 80 % of the neurons, dopamine either increased (32 %) or decreased (50 %) firing rate, and the effects were similar on spontaneous and sound-evoked activity. Dopamine also either increased or decreased first spike latency and jitter in almost half of the neurons. In 3/28 neurons (11 %), dopamine significantly altered the probability of bursting. The heterogeneous effects of dopamine observed in the IC of awake mice were similar to effects observed in other brain areas. Our findings indicate that dopamine differentially modulates neural activity in the IC and thus may play an important role in auditory processing. PMID:23835945

  13. Natural Vocalizations in the Mammalian Inferior Colliculus are Broadly Encoded by a Small Number of Independent Multi-Units.

    PubMed

    Lyzwa, Dominika; Herrmann, J Michael; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2015-01-01

    How complex natural sounds are represented by the main converging center of the auditory midbrain, the central inferior colliculus, is an open question. We applied neural discrimination to determine the variation of detailed encoding of individual vocalizations across the best frequency gradient of the central inferior colliculus. The analysis was based on collective responses from several neurons. These multi-unit spike trains were recorded from guinea pigs exposed to a spectrotemporally rich set of eleven species-specific vocalizations. Spike trains of disparate units from the same recording were combined in order to investigate whether groups of multi-unit clusters represent the whole set of vocalizations more reliably than only one unit, and whether temporal response correlations between them facilitate an unambiguous neural representation of the vocalizations. We found a spatial distribution of the capability to accurately encode groups of vocalizations across the best frequency gradient. Different vocalizations are optimally discriminated at different locations of the best frequency gradient. Furthermore, groups of a few multi-unit clusters yield improved discrimination over only one multi-unit cluster between all tested vocalizations. However, temporal response correlations between units do not yield better discrimination. Our study is based on a large set of units of simultaneously recorded responses from several guinea pigs and electrode insertion positions. Our findings suggest a broadly distributed code for behaviorally relevant vocalizations in the mammalian inferior colliculus. Responses from a few non-interacting units are sufficient to faithfully represent the whole set of studied vocalizations with diverse spectrotemporal properties. PMID:26869890

  14. Natural Vocalizations in the Mammalian Inferior Colliculus are Broadly Encoded by a Small Number of Independent Multi-Units

    PubMed Central

    Lyzwa, Dominika; Herrmann, J. Michael; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    How complex natural sounds are represented by the main converging center of the auditory midbrain, the central inferior colliculus, is an open question. We applied neural discrimination to determine the variation of detailed encoding of individual vocalizations across the best frequency gradient of the central inferior colliculus. The analysis was based on collective responses from several neurons. These multi-unit spike trains were recorded from guinea pigs exposed to a spectrotemporally rich set of eleven species-specific vocalizations. Spike trains of disparate units from the same recording were combined in order to investigate whether groups of multi-unit clusters represent the whole set of vocalizations more reliably than only one unit, and whether temporal response correlations between them facilitate an unambiguous neural representation of the vocalizations. We found a spatial distribution of the capability to accurately encode groups of vocalizations across the best frequency gradient. Different vocalizations are optimally discriminated at different locations of the best frequency gradient. Furthermore, groups of a few multi-unit clusters yield improved discrimination over only one multi-unit cluster between all tested vocalizations. However, temporal response correlations between units do not yield better discrimination. Our study is based on a large set of units of simultaneously recorded responses from several guinea pigs and electrode insertion positions. Our findings suggest a broadly distributed code for behaviorally relevant vocalizations in the mammalian inferior colliculus. Responses from a few non-interacting units are sufficient to faithfully represent the whole set of studied vocalizations with diverse spectrotemporal properties. PMID:26869890

  15. BOLD fMRI study of ultrahigh frequency encoding in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Patrick P; Zhang, Jevin W; Chan, Russell W; Leong, Alex T L; Wu, Ed X

    2015-07-01

    Many vertebrates communicate with ultrahigh frequency (UHF) vocalizations to limit auditory detection by predators. The mechanisms underlying the neural encoding of such UHF sounds may provide important insights for understanding neural processing of other complex sounds (e.g. human speeches). In the auditory system, sound frequency is normally encoded topographically as tonotopy, which, however, contains very limited representation of UHFs in many species. Instead, electrophysiological studies suggested that two neural mechanisms, both exploiting the interactions between frequencies, may contribute to UHF processing. Neurons can exhibit excitatory or inhibitory responses to a tone when another UHF tone is presented simultaneously (combination sensitivity). They can also respond to such stimulation if they are tuned to the frequency of the cochlear-generated distortion products of the two tones, e.g. their difference frequency (cochlear distortion). Both mechanisms are present in an early station of the auditory pathway, the midbrain inferior colliculus (IC). Currently, it is unclear how prevalent the two mechanisms are and how they are functionally integrated in encoding UHFs. This study investigated these issues with large-view BOLD fMRI in rat auditory system, particularly the IC. UHF vocalizations (above 40kHz), but not pure tones at similar frequencies (45, 55, 65, 75kHz), evoked robust BOLD responses in multiple auditory nuclei, including the IC, reinforcing the sensitivity of the auditory system to UHFs despite limited representation in tonotopy. Furthermore, BOLD responses were detected in the IC when a pair of UHF pure tones was presented simultaneously (45 & 55kHz, 55 & 65kHz, 45 & 65kHz, 45 & 75kHz). For all four pairs, a cluster of voxels in the ventromedial side always showed the strongest responses, displaying combination sensitivity. Meanwhile, voxels in the dorsolateral side that showed strongest secondary responses to each pair of UHF pure tones

  16. Spatial selectivity and binaural responses in the inferior colliculus of the great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Volman, S F; Konishi, M

    1989-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the processing of auditory cues for sound localization in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Previous studies have shown that the barn owl, whose ears are asymmetrically oriented in the vertical plane, has a 2-dimensional, topographic representation of auditory space in the external division of the inferior colliculus (ICx). As in the barn owl, the great horned owl's ICx is anatomically distinct and projects to the optic tectum. Neurons in ICx respond over only a small range of azimuths (mean = 32 degrees), and azimuth is topographically mapped. In contrast to the barn owl, the great horned owl has bilaterally symmetrical ears and its receptive fields are not restricted in elevation. The binaural cues available for sound localization were measured both with cochlear microphonic recordings and with a microphone attached to a probe tube in the auditory canal. Interaural time disparity (ITD) varied monotonically with azimuth. Interaural intensity differences (IID) also changed with azimuth, but the largest IIDs were less than 15 dB, and the variation was not monotonic. Neither ITD nor IID varied systematically with changes in the vertical position of a sound source. We used dichotic stimulation to determine the sensitivity of ICx neurons to these binaural cues. Best ITD of ICx units was topographically mapped and strongly correlated with receptive-field azimuth. The width of ITD tuning curves, measured at 50% of the maximum response, averaged 72 microseconds. All ICx neurons responded only to binaural stimulation and had nonmonotonic IID tuning curves. Best IID was weakly, but significantly, correlated with best ITD (r = 0.39, p less than 0.05). The IID tuning curves, however, were broad (mean 50% width = 24 dB), and 67% of the units had best IIDs within 5 dB of 0 dB IID. ITD tuning was sensitive to variations in IID in the direction opposite to that expected for time-intensity trading, but the magnitude of this effect was only

  17. NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors in auditory transmission in the barn owl inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D E; Knudsen, E I

    1994-10-01

    The pharmacology of auditory responses in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the barn owl was investigated by iontophoresis of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists into two different functional subdivisions of the IC, the external nucleus (ICx) and the lateral shell of the central nucleus (lateral shell), both of which carry out important computations in the processing of auditory spatial information. Combined application of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) and the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-5-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) significantly reduced auditory-evoked spikes at all sites in these two subdivisions, and completely eliminated responses at many locations. This suggests that excitatory amino acid receptors mediate the bulk, if not all, of auditory responses in the ICx and lateral shell. NMDA and non-NMDA receptors contributed differently to auditory responses in the two subdivisions. In the ICx, AP5 significantly reduced the number of auditory-evoked spikes at every site tested. On average, AP5 eliminated 55% of auditory-evoked spikes at multiunit sites and 64% at single-unit sites in this structure. In contrast, in the lateral shell, AP5 significantly reduced responses at less than half the sites tested, and, on average, AP5 eliminated only 19% of spikes at multiunit sites and 25% at single-unit sites. When the magnitude of response blockade produced by AP5 at individual multiunit sites was normalized to adjust for site-to-site differences in the efficacy of iontophoresed AP5 and CNQX, AP5 blockade was still significantly greater in the ICx than the lateral shell. CNQX application strongly reduced responses in both subdivisions. These data suggest that NMDA receptor currents make a major contribution to auditory responses in the ICx, while they make only a small contribution to auditory responses in the lateral shell. Non-NMDA receptor currents, on the other hand, contribute to auditory responses in both

  18. Topographical projection from the superior colliculus to the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus in the ferret: convergence of visual and auditory information.

    PubMed

    Doubell, T P; Baron, J; Skaliora, I; King, A J

    2000-12-01

    The normal maturation of the auditory space map in the deeper layers of the ferret superior colliculus (SC) depends on signals provided by the superficial visual layers, but it is unknown where or how these signals influence the developing auditory responses. Here we report that tracer injections in the superficial layers label axons with en passant and terminal boutons, both in the deeper layers of the SC and in their primary source of auditory input, the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (nBIC). Electron microscopy confirmed that biocytin-labelled SC axons form axodendritic synapses on nBIC neurons. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine in the nBIC resulted in anterograde labelling in the deeper layers of the SC, as well as retrogradely labelled superficial and deep SC neurons, whose distribution varied systematically with the rostrocaudal placement of the injection sites in the nBIC. Topographical order in the projection from the SC to the ipsilateral nBIC was confirmed using fluorescent microspheres. We demonstrated the existence of functional SC-nBIC connections by making whole-cell current-clamp recordings from young ferret slices. Both monosynaptic and polysynaptic EPSPs were generated by electrical stimulation of either the superficial or deep SC layers. In addition to unimodal auditory units, both visual and bimodal visual-auditory units were recorded in the nBIC in vivo and their incidence was higher in juvenile ferrets than in adults. The SC-nBIC circuit provides a potential means by which visual and other sensory or premotor signals may be delivered to the nBIC to calibrate the representation of auditory space. PMID:11122340

  19. Development of the projection from the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus to the superior colliculus in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Nodal, Fernando R; Doubell, Timothy P; Jiang, Ze D; Thompson, Ian D; King, Andrew J

    2005-05-01

    Neurons in the deeper layers of the superior colliculus (SC) have spatially tuned receptive fields that are arranged to form a map of auditory space. The spatial tuning of these neurons emerges gradually in an experience-dependent manner after the onset of hearing, but the relative contributions of peripheral and central factors in this process of maturation are unknown. We have studied the postnatal development of the projection to the ferret SC from the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (nBIC), its main source of auditory input, to determine whether the emergence of auditory map topography can be attributed to anatomical rewiring of this projection. The pattern of retrograde labeling produced by injections of fluorescent microspheres in the SC on postnatal day (P) 0 and just after the age of hearing onset (P29), showed that the nBIC-SC projection is topographically organized in the rostrocaudal axis, along which sound azimuth is represented, from birth. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine-fluorescein into the nBIC at different ages (P30, 60, and 90) labeled axons with numerous terminals and en passant boutons throughout the deeper layers of the SC. This labeling covered the entire mediolateral extent of the SC, but, in keeping with the pattern of retrograde labeling following microsphere injections in the SC, was more restricted rostrocaudally. No systematic changes were observed with age. The stability of the nBIC-SC projection over this period suggests that developmental changes in auditory spatial tuning involve other processes, rather than a gross refinement of the projection from the nBIC. PMID:15791643

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging confirms forward suppression for rapidly alternating sounds in human auditory cortex but not in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Christian Harm; Dykstra, Andrew R; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Forward suppression at the level of the auditory cortex has been suggested to subserve auditory stream segregation. Recent results in non-streaming stimulation contexts have indicated that forward suppression can also be observed in the inferior colliculus; whether this holds for streaming-related contexts remains unclear. Here, we used cardiac-gated fMRI to examine forward suppression in the inferior colliculus (and the rest of the human auditory pathway) in response to canonical streaming stimuli (rapid tone sequences comprised of either one repetitive tone or two alternating tones). The first stimulus is typically perceived as a single stream, the second as two interleaved streams. In different experiments using either pure tones differing in frequency or bandpass-filtered noise differing in inter-aural time differences, we observed stronger auditory cortex activation in response to alternating vs. repetitive stimulation, consistent with the presence of forward suppression. In contrast, activity in the inferior colliculus and other subcortical nuclei did not significantly differ between alternating and monotonic stimuli. This finding could be explained by active amplification of forward suppression in auditory cortex, by a low rate (or absence) of cells showing forward suppression in inferior colliculus, or both. PMID:26899342

  1. Astrocytic Connexin Distributions and Rapid, Extensive Dye Transfer Via Gap Junctions in the Inferior Colliculus: Implications for [14C]Glucose Metabolite Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Kelly K.; Gandhi, Gautam K.; Thrash, Jarrod; Cruz, Nancy F.; Dienel, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    The inferior colliculus has the highest rates of blood flow and metabolism in brain, and functional metabolic activity increases markedly in response to acoustic stimulation. However, brain imaging with [1- and 6-14C]glucose greatly underestimates focal metabolic activation that is readily detected with [14C]deoxyglucose, suggesting that labeled glucose metabolites are quickly dispersed and released from highly activated zones of the inferior colliculus. To evaluate the role of coupling of astrocytes via gap junctions in dispersal of molecules within the inferior colliculus, the present study assessed the distribution of connexin (Cx) proteins in the inferior colliculus and spreading of Lucifer yellow from single microinjected astrocytes in slices of adult rat brain. Immunoreactive Cx43, Cx30, and Cx26 were heterogeneously distributed; the patterns for Cx43 and Cx 30 differed and were similar to those of immunoreactive GFAP and S100β, respectively. Most Cx43 was phosphorylated in resting and acoustically stimulated rats. Dye spreading revealed an extensive syncytial network that included thousands of cells and perivasculature endfeet; with 8% Lucifer yellow VS and a 5-min diffusion duration, about 6,100 astrocytes (range 2,068–11,939) were labeled as far as 1–1.5 mm from the injected cell. The relative concentration of Lucifer yellow fell by 50% within 0.3–0.8 mm from the injected cell with a 5-min diffusion interval. Perivascular dye labeling was readily detectable and often exceeded dye levels in nearby neuropil. Thus, astrocytes have the capability to distribute intracellular molecules quickly from activated regions throughout the large, heterogeneous syncytial volume of the inferior colliculus, and rapid trafficking of labeled metabolites would degrade resolution of focal metabolic activation. PMID:17600824

  2. Dual 5-HT mechanisms in basolateral and central nuclei of amygdala in the regulation of the defensive behavior induced by electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Carlos Eduardo; Castilho, Vanessa Moreno; de Souza e Silva, Maria Angélica; Brandão, Marcus L

    2002-11-30

    Regulatory mechanisms in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) serves as a filter for unconditioned and conditioned aversive information that ascend to higher structures from the brainstem whereas the central nucleus (CeA) is the main output for the resultant defense reaction. We have shown that neural substrates in the inferior colliculus are activated by threatening stimuli of acoustic nature and have important functional links with the amygdala. In this work, we examined the influence of lesions with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) of these nuclei of amygdala on the aversive responses induced by electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus. Thus, rats were implanted with an electrode in the CeA of the inferior colliculus for the determination of the thresholds of alertness, freezing and escape responses. Each rat also bore a cannula implanted in the BLA or CeA for injection of 5,7-DHT (8.0 microg/0.8 microl) or its vehicle. The data obtained show that CeA lesions increase the thresholds of aversive responses whereas BLA lesions decrease the thresholds of these responses. From this evidence it is suggested that defensive behavior induced by activation of the neural substrates of aversion in the inferior colliculus seems to depend on the integrity of the amygdala. BLA regulates the input and CeA functions as the output for these aversive states generated at brainstem level. It is likely that aversive information ascending from the inferior colliculus may receive either inhibitory or excitatory influences of 5-HT mechanisms in the BLA or CeA, respectively. PMID:12431748

  3. Topographic projection from the optic tectum to the auditory space map in the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Hyde, P S; Knudsen, E I

    2000-05-29

    In the barn owl (Tyto alba), the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) contains a map of auditory space that is calibrated by visual experience. The source of the visually based instructive signal to the ICX is unknown. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine and Fluoro-Gold in the ICX retrogradely labelled neurons in layers 8-15 of the ipsilateral optic tectum (OT) that could carry this instructive signal. This projection was point-to-point and in register with the feed-forward, auditory projection from the ICX to the OT. Most labelled neurons were in layers 10-11, and most were bipolar. Tripolar, multipolar, and unipolar neurons were also observed. Multipolar neurons had dendrites that were oriented parallel to the tectal laminae. In contrast, most labelled bipolar and tripolar neurons had dendrites oriented perpendicular to the tectal laminae, extending superficially into the retino-recipient laminae and deep into the auditory recipient laminae. Therefore, these neurons were positioned to receive both visual and auditory information from particular locations in space. Biocytin injected into the superficial layers of the OT labelled bouton-laden axons in the ICX. These axons were generally finer than, but had similar bouton densities as, feed-forward auditory fibers in the ICX, labelled by injections of biocytin into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). These data demonstrate a point-to-point projection from the OT to the ICX that could provide a spatial template for calibrating the auditory space map in the ICX. PMID:10813778

  4. Antioxidant Treatments Recover the Alteration of Auditory-Evoked Potentials and Reduce Morphological Damage in the Inferior Colliculus after Perinatal Asphyxia in Rat.

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Miren; Arteaga, Olatz; Montalvo, Haizea; Alvarez, Antonia; Hilario, Enrique; Martinez-Ibargüen, Agustin

    2016-03-01

    Maturation of the auditory pathway is dependent on the central nervous system myelination and it can be affected by pathologies such as neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. Our aim was to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway and to visualize, by histological and cellular methods, the damage to the brainstem using a neonatal rat model of HI brain injury. To carry out this morphofunctional evaluation, we studied the effects of the administration of the antioxidants nicotine, melatonin, resveratrol and docosahexaenoic acid after hypoxia-ischemia on the inferior colliculus and the auditory pathway. We found that the integrity of the auditory pathway in the brainstem was altered as a consequence of the HI insult. Thus, the auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed increased I-V and III-V wave latencies. At a histological level, HI altered the morphology of the inferior colliculus neurons, astrocytes and oligodendricytes, and at a molecular level, the mitochondria membrane potential and integrity was altered during the first hours after the HI and reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity is increased 12 h after the injury in the brainstem. Following antioxidant treatment, ABR interpeak latency intervals were restored and the body and brain weight was recovered as well as the morphology of the inferior colliculus that was similar to the control group. Our results support the hypothesis that antioxidant treatments have a protective effect on the functional changes of the auditory pathway and on the morphological damage which occurs after HI insult. PMID:25990815

  5. Differences in the strength of cortical and brainstem inputs to SSA and non-SSA neurons in the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Yaneri A.; Udeh, Adanna; Dutta, Kelsey; Bishop, Deborah; Malmierca, Manuel S.; Oliver, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    In an ever changing auditory scene, change detection is an ongoing task performed by the auditory brain. Neurons in the midbrain and auditory cortex that exhibit stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) may contribute to this process. Those neurons adapt to frequent sounds while retaining their excitability to rare sounds. Here, we test whether neurons exhibiting SSA and those without are part of the same networks in the inferior colliculus (IC). We recorded the responses to frequent and rare sounds and then marked the sites of these neurons with a retrograde tracer to correlate the source of projections with the physiological response. SSA neurons were confined to the non-lemniscal subdivisions and exhibited broad receptive fields, while the non-SSA were confined to the central nucleus and displayed narrow receptive fields. SSA neurons receive strong inputs from auditory cortical areas and very poor or even absent projections from the brainstem nuclei. On the contrary, the major sources of inputs to the neurons that lacked SSA were from the brainstem nuclei. These findings demonstrate that auditory cortical inputs are biased in favor of IC synaptic domains that are populated by SSA neurons enabling them to compare top-down signals with incoming sensory information from lower areas. PMID:25993334

  6. Activation of the serotonin 1A receptor alters the temporal characteristics of auditory responses in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura M

    2007-11-21

    Serotonin, like other neuromodulators, acts on a range of receptor types, but its effects also depend on the functional characteristics of the neurons responding to receptor activation. In the inferior colliculus (IC), an auditory midbrain nucleus, activation of a common serotonin (5-HT) receptor type, the 5-HT 1A receptor, depresses auditory-evoked responses in many neurons. Whether these effects occur differentially in different types of neurons is unknown. In the current study, the effects of iontophoretic application of the 5-HT 1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT on auditory responses were compared with the characteristic frequencies (CFs), recording depths, and control first-spike latencies of the same group of IC neurons. The 8-OH-DPAT-evoked change in response significantly correlated with first-spike latency across the population, so that response depressions were more prevalent in longer-latency neurons. The 8-OH-DPAT-evoked change in response did not correlate with CF or with recording depth. 8-OH-DPAT also altered the temporal characteristics of spike trains in a subset of neurons that fired multiple spikes in response to brief stimuli. For these neurons, activation of the 5-HT 1A receptor suppressed lagging spikes proportionally more than initial spikes. These results suggest that the 5-HT 1A receptor, by affecting the timing of the responses of both individual neurons and the neuron population, shifts the temporal profile of evoked activity within the IC. PMID:17916336

  7. Deep brain stimulation of the inferior colliculus: a possible animal model to study paradoxical kinesia observed in some parkinsonian patients?

    PubMed

    Melo-Thomas, Liana; Thomas, Uwe

    2015-02-15

    The inferior colliculus (IC) plays an important role in the normal processing of the acoustic message and is also involved in the filtering of acoustic stimuli of aversive nature. The neural substrate of the IC can also influence haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Considering that (i) paradoxical kinesia, observed in some parkinsonian patients, seems to be dependent of their emotional state and (ii) deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents an alternative therapeutic route for the relief of parkinsonian symptoms, the present study investigated the consequence of DBS at the IC on the catalepsy induced by haloperidol in rats. Additionally, we investigated if DBS of the IC can elicit motor responses in anesthetized rats and whether DBS elicits distinct neural firing patterns of activity at the dorsal cortex (DCIC) or central nucleus (CNIC) of the IC. A significant reduction of the catalepsy response was seen in rats previously given haloperidol and receiving DBS at the IC. In addition, electrical stimulation to the ventral part of the CNIC induced immediate motor responses in anesthetized rats. The neuronal spontaneous activity was higher at the ventral part of the CNIC than the dorsal part. DBS to the ventral part but not to the dorsal part of the CNIC increased the spike rate at neurons a few hundred microns away from the stimulation site. It is possible that the IC plays a role in the sensorimotor gating activated by emotional stimuli, and that DBS at the IC can be a promising new animal model to study paradoxical kinesia in rats. PMID:25446814

  8. Target representation of naturalistic echolocation sequences in single unit responses from the inferior colliculus of big brown bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Mark I.; Simmons, James A.

    2005-11-01

    Echolocating big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit trains of frequency-modulated (FM) biosonar signals whose duration, repetition rate, and sweep structure change systematically during interception of prey. When stimulated with a 2.5-s sequence of 54 FM pulse-echo pairs that mimic sounds received during search, approach, and terminal stages of pursuit, single neurons (N=116) in the bat's inferior colliculus (IC) register the occurrence of a pulse or echo with an average of <1 spike/sound. Individual IC neurons typically respond to only a segment of the search or approach stage of pursuit, with fewer neurons persisting to respond in the terminal stage. Composite peristimulus-time-histogram plots of responses assembled across the whole recorded population of IC neurons depict the delay of echoes and, hence, the existence and distance of the simulated biosonar target, entirely as on-response latencies distributed across time. Correlated changes in pulse duration, repetition rate, and pulse or echo amplitude do modulate the strength of responses (probability of the single spike actually occurring for each sound), but registration of the target itself remains confined exclusively to the latencies of single spikes across cells. Modeling of echo processing in FM biosonar should emphasize spike-time algorithms to explain the content of biosonar images.

  9. The frequency organization of the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig: A [14C]-2-deoxyglucose study.

    PubMed

    Martin, R L; Webster, W R; Servière, J

    1988-06-01

    The [14C]-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) technique was used to study the frequency organization of the inferior colliculus (IC) of the guinea pig. Discrete regions of heightened 2-DG labelling were observed in the ICs of animals exposed to a variety of pure-tone stimuli. Regions associated with 1, 4, 10 and 19 kHz pure tones were described and displayed in three-dimensional representations. The IC of the guinea pig was found to be arranged as a series of sheet-like, iso-frequency planes that extend throughout the nucleus from its caudal to its rostral pole. Iso-frequency planes associated with low frequencies are located dorsolaterally in the nucleus and those associated with higher frequencies are located progressively more ventromedially. The predominant orientation, in the frontal plane, of all iso-frequency planes is oblique from dorsomedial to ventrolateral. Most planes, however, twist about their caudal-to-rostral axis in a caudal-to-rostral, horizontal-to-vertical direction. The extent to which each plane twists is frequency-dependent; planes associated with low frequencies twist most and those associated with high frequencies do not twist at all. PMID:3384759

  10. Neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rat show stimulus-specific adaptation for frequency, but not for intensity

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Daniel; Wang, Xin; Nieto-Diego, Javier; Krumbholz, Katrin; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to a low-intensity probe sound tend to be suppressed by a preceding high-intensity adaptor sound. Nevertheless, rare low-intensity deviant sounds presented among frequent high-intensity standard sounds in an intensity oddball paradigm can elicit an electroencephalographic mismatch negativity (MMN) response. This has been taken to suggest that the MMN is a correlate of true change or “deviance” detection. A key question is where in the ascending auditory pathway true deviance sensitivity first emerges. Here, we addressed this question by measuring low-intensity deviant responses from single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized rats. If the IC exhibits true deviance sensitivity to intensity, IC neurons should show enhanced responses to low-intensity deviant sounds presented among high-intensity standards. Contrary to this prediction, deviant responses were only enhanced when the standards and deviants differed in frequency. The results could be explained with a model assuming that IC neurons integrate over multiple frequency-tuned channels and that adaptation occurs within each channel independently. We used an adaptation paradigm with multiple repeated adaptors to measure the tuning widths of these adaption channels in relation to the neurons’ overall tuning widths. PMID:27066835

  11. Two crossed axonal projections contribute to binaural unmasking of frequency-following responses in rat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Ma, Tianfang; Wang, Qian; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2009-11-01

    Frequency-following responses (FFRs) are sustained potentials based on phase-locked neural activities elicited by low- to medium-frequency periodical sound waveforms. Human brainstem FFRs, which are able to encode some critical acoustic features of speech, can be unmasked by binaural processing. However, the underlying unmasking mechanisms have not previously been reported. In rats, most neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) exhibit binaural responses which are affected by axonal projections from both the contralateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and the contralateral IC. The present study investigated whether the contralateral DNLL and the contralateral IC modulate binaural unmasking of FFRs recorded in the rat IC. The results show that IC FFRs to the rat pain call (chatter) were enhanced by local injection of the excitatory glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) into the contralateral DNLL but were reduced by KYNA injection into the contralateral IC. Introducing a disparity between the interaural time difference (ITD) of the FFR-eliciting chatter and the ITD of the masking noise enhanced IC FFRs. Moreover, the ITD-disparity-induced FFR enhancement was weakened by injection of KYNA into either the contralateral DNLL or the contralateral IC when the ipsilateral chatter preceded the contralateral chatter. Thus, binaural hearing can improve IC FFRs against noise masking. More importantly, both inhibitory projections from the contralateral DNLL and excitatory projections from the contralateral IC modulate IC FFRs and play a role in forming binaural unmasking of IC FFRs. PMID:19840111

  12. Wisteria Floribunda Agglutinin-Labeled Perineuronal Nets in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus, Thalamic Reticular Nucleus and Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Fader, Sarah M; Imaizumi, Kazuo; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Lee, Charles C

    2016-01-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix molecules that are associated with the closing of the critical period, among other functions. In the adult brain, PNNs surround specific types of neurons, however the expression of PNNs in the auditory system of the mouse, particularly at the level of the midbrain and forebrain, has not been fully described. In addition, the association of PNNs with excitatory and inhibitory cell types in these structures remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression of PNNs in the inferior colliculus (IC), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and primary auditory cortex (A1) of the mouse brain by labeling with wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA). To aid in the identification of inhibitory neurons in these structures, we employed the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-Venus transgenic mouse strain, which robustly expresses an enhanced yellow-fluorescent protein (Venus) natively in nearly all gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory neurons, thus enabling a rapid and unambiguous assessment of inhibitory neurons throughout the nervous system. Our results demonstrate that PNNs are expressed throughout the auditory midbrain and forebrain, but vary in their local distribution. PNNs are most dense in the TRN and least dense in A1. Furthermore, PNNs are preferentially associated with inhibitory neurons in A1 and the TRN, but not in the IC of the mouse. These data suggest regionally specific roles for PNNs in auditory information processing. PMID:27089371

  13. Dichotic sound localization properties of duration-tuned neurons in the inferior colliculus of the big brown bat

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Riziq; Aubie, Brandon; Faure, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies on duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) from the mammalian auditory midbrain have typically evoked spiking responses from these cells using monaural or free-field acoustic stimulation focused on the contralateral ear, with fewer studies devoted to examining the electrophysiological properties of duration tuning using binaural stimulation. Because the inferior colliculus (IC) receives convergent inputs from lower brainstem auditory nuclei that process sounds from each ear, many midbrain neurons have responses shaped by binaural interactions and are selective to binaural cues important for sound localization. In this study, we used dichotic stimulation to vary interaural level difference (ILD) and interaural time difference (ITD) acoustic cues and explore the binaural interactions and response properties of DTNs and non-DTNs from the IC of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). Our results reveal that both DTNs and non-DTNs can have responses selective to binaural stimulation, with a majority of IC neurons showing some type of ILD selectivity, fewer cells showing ITD selectivity, and a number of neurons showing both ILD and ITD selectivity. This study provides the first demonstration that the temporally selective responses of DTNs from the vertebrate auditory midbrain can be selective to binaural cues used for sound localization in addition to having spiking responses that are selective for stimulus frequency, amplitude, and duration. PMID:24959149

  14. Interactions between opioid-peptides-containing pathways and GABA(A)-receptors-mediated systems modulate panic-like-induced behaviors elicited by electric and chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Fabrício; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2006-08-01

    Aiming to clarify the effect of interactive interconnections between the endogenous opioid peptides-neural links and GABAergic pathways on panic-like responses, in the present work, the effect of the peripheral and central administration of morphine or the non-specific opioid receptors antagonist naloxone was evaluated on the fear-induced responses (defensive attention, defensive immobility and escape behavior) elicited by electric and chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus. Central microinjections of opioid drugs in the inferior colliculus were also performed followed by local administration of the GABA(A)-receptor antagonist bicuculline. The defensive behavior elicited by the blockade of GABAergic receptors in the inferior colliculus had been quantitatively analyzed, recording the number of crossing, jump, rotation and rearing, in each minute, during 30 min, in the open-field test. The opioid receptors stimulation with morphine decreased the defensive attention, the defensive immobility and escape behavior thresholds, and the non-specific opioid receptors blockade caused opposite effects, enhancing the defensive behavior thresholds. These effects were corroborated by either the stimulation or the inhibition of opioid receptors followed by the GABA(A) receptor blockade with bicuculline, microinjected into the inferior colliculus. There was a significant increase in the diverse fear-induced responses caused by bicuculline with the pretreatment of the inferior colliculus with morphine, and the opposite effect was recorded after the pretreatment of the inferior colliculus nuclei with naloxone followed by bicuculline local administration. These findings suggest an interaction between endogenous opioid-peptides-containing connections and GABA(A)-receptor-mediated system with direct influence on the organization of the panic-like or fear-induced responses elaborated in the inferior colliculus during critical emotional states. PMID:16797498

  15. The level and distribution of the GABABR1 and GABABR2 receptor subunits in the rat's inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Lena; Khan, Aziz N.; Butt, Sehrish; Patel, Chirag R.; Zhang, Huiming

    2012-01-01

    The type B γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAB receptor) is an important neurotransmitter receptor in the midbrain auditory structure, the inferior colliculus (IC). A functional GABAB receptor is a heterodimer consisting of two subunits, GABABR1 and GABABR2. Western blotting and immunohistochemical experiments were conducted to examine the expression of the two subunits over the IC including its central nucleus, dorsal cortex, and external cortex (ICc, ICd, and ICx). Results revealed that the two subunits existed in both cell bodies and the neuropil throughout the IC. The two subunits had similar regional distributions over the IC. The combined level of cell body and neuropil labeling was higher in the ICd than the other two subdivisions. Labeling in the ICc and ICx was stronger in the dorsal than the ventral regions. In spite of regional differences, no defined boundaries were formed between different areas. For both subunits, the regional distribution of immunoreactivity in the neuropil was parallel to that of combined immunoreactivity in the neuropil and cell bodies. The density of labeled cell bodies tended to be higher but sizes of cell bodies tended to be smaller in the ICd than in the other subdivisions. No systematic regional changes were found in the level of cell body immunoreactivity, except that GABABR2-immunoreactive cell bodies in the ICd had slightly higher optic density (OD) than in other regions. Elongated cell bodies existed throughout the IC. Many labeled cell bodies along the outline of the IC were oriented in parallel to the outline. No strong tendency of orientation was found in labeled cell bodies in ICc. Regional distributions of the subunits in ICc correlated well with inputs to this subdivision. Our finding regarding the contrast in the level of neuropil immunoreactivity among different subdivisions is consistent with the fact that the GABAB receptor has different pre- and postsynaptic functions in different IC regions. PMID:23189044

  16. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure.

    PubMed

    Heeringa, A N; van Dijk, P

    2014-06-01

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration, which is reflected in a decreased amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). This suggests that, despite normal auditory thresholds, central auditory processing may be abnormal. We recorded changes in central auditory processing following a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed for 1 h to a pure tone of 11 kHz (124 dB sound pressure level). Hearing thresholds, amplitudes of ABR waves I and IV, and spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates in the inferior colliculus (IC) were assessed immediately, one week, two weeks, and four weeks post exposure. Hearing thresholds were elevated immediately following overexposure, but recovered within one week. The amplitude of the ABR wave I was decreased in all sound-exposed animals for all test periods. In contrast, the ABR wave IV amplitude was only decreased immediately after overexposure and recovered within a week. The proportion of IC units that show inhibitory responses to pure tones decreased substantially up to two weeks after overexposure, especially when stimulated with high frequencies. The proportion of excitatory responses to low frequencies was increased. Spontaneous activity was unaffected by the overexposure. Despite rapid normalization of auditory thresholds, our results suggest an increased central gain following sound exposure and an abnormal balance between excitatory and inhibitory responses in the midbrain up to two weeks after overexposure. These findings may be associated with hyperacusis after a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. PMID:24650953

  17. Dual sensitivity of inferior colliculus neurons to ITD in the envelopes of high-frequency sounds: experimental and modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Devore, Sasha; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Human listeners are sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs) in the envelopes of sounds, which can serve as a cue for sound localization. Many high-frequency neurons in the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) are sensitive to envelope-ITDs of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) sounds. Typically, envelope-ITD-sensitive IC neurons exhibit either peak-type sensitivity, discharging maximally at the same delay across frequencies, or trough-type sensitivity, discharging minimally at the same delay across frequencies, consistent with responses observed at the primary site of binaural interaction in the medial and lateral superior olives (MSO and LSO), respectively. However, some high-frequency IC neurons exhibit dual types of envelope-ITD sensitivity in their responses to SAM tones, that is, they exhibit peak-type sensitivity at some modulation frequencies and trough-type sensitivity at other frequencies. Here we show that high-frequency IC neurons in the unanesthetized rabbit can also exhibit dual types of envelope-ITD sensitivity in their responses to SAM noise. Such complex responses to SAM stimuli could be achieved by convergent inputs from MSO and LSO onto single IC neurons. We test this hypothesis by implementing a physiologically explicit, computational model of the binaural pathway. Specifically, we examined envelope-ITD sensitivity of a simple model IC neuron that receives convergent inputs from MSO and LSO model neurons. We show that dual envelope-ITD sensitivity emerges in the IC when convergent MSO and LSO inputs are differentially tuned for modulation frequency. PMID:24155013

  18. The three-dimensional frequency organization of the inferior colliculus of the cat: a 2-deoxyglucose study.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; Webster, W R; Martin, R L

    1997-02-01

    The 3-dimensional (3-D) functional organization of the cat's inferior colliculus (IC) was examined using the 2-deoxyglucose method. Animals were dichotically stimulated with pure tone stimuli at an intensity of 80 dB SPL. Autoradiographic sections from these animals, cut in the three standard planes, were serially reconstructed to reveal the 3-D topography of the isofrequency sheets of labelling. In all 3-D reconstructions, the isofrequency sheets extend rostrocaudally through the IC with the rostral aspect of the sheet being situated more ventral than its caudal aspect. In the mediolateral dimensions, sheets are angled at between 40 degrees and 60 degrees to the horizontal, running from a dorsomedial to a ventrolateral position. The low-frequency sheets (0.5 and 2 kHz) are dorsolaterally convex and situated in the dorsolateral region of the IC. The 4 and 10 kHz isofrequency sheets have a helical structure and are situated in the mid-region of the IC. The high-frequency sheets (20 and 30 kHz) are dorsolaterally concaved and situated in the ventromedial region of the IC. The topography of these isofrequency sheets generally agree with, and extended our knowledge of, the tonotopic organization of the IC as derived from electrophysiological studies. The functional organization revealed by the 2-deoxyglucose method only partially correlated with the neural laminae in the anatomical models of the IC proposed by Rockel and Jones [J. Comp. Neurol. 147 (1973) 11-60] and Oliver and Morest [J. Comp. Neurol. 222 (1984) 237-264]. It is therefore concluded that the neural laminar organization of the IC may not be a necessary substrate for the tonotopic organization seen the IC. PMID:9119767

  19. Descending projections from auditory cortex to excitatory and inhibitory cells in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Mellott, Jeffrey G.; Bickford, Martha E.; Schofield, Brett R.

    2014-01-01

    Descending projections from the auditory cortex (AC) terminate in subcortical auditory centers from the medial geniculate nucleus (MG) to the cochlear nucleus, allowing the AC to modulate the processing of acoustic information at many levels of the auditory system. The nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (NBIC) is a large midbrain auditory nucleus that is a target of these descending cortical projections. The NBIC is a source of several auditory projections, including an ascending projection to the MG. This ascending projection appears to originate from both excitatory and inhibitory NBIC cells, but whether the cortical projections contact either of these cell groups is unknown. In this study, we first combined retrograde tracing and immunochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, a marker of GABAergic cells) to identify GABAergic and non-GABAergic NBIC projections to the MG. Our first result is that GAD-immunopositive cells constitute ~17% of the NBIC to MG projection. We then used anterograde labeling and electron microscopy to examine the AC projection to the NBIC. Our second result is that cortical boutons in the NBIC form synapses with round vesicles and asymmetric synapses, consistent with excitatory effects. Finally, we combined fluorescent anterograde labeling of corticofugal axons with immunochemistry and retrograde labeling of NBIC cells that project to the MG. These final results suggest first that AC axons contact both GAD-negative and GAD-positive NBIC cells and, second, that some of cortically-contacted cells project to the MG. Overall, the results imply that corticofugal projections can modulate both excitatory and inhibitory ascending projections from the NBIC to the auditory thalamus. PMID:25339870

  20. Noise-induced hyperactivity in the inferior colliculus: its relationship with hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, N. F.; Licari, F. G.; Klapchar, M.; Elkin, R. L.; Gao, Y.; Chen, G.

    2012-01-01

    Intense noise exposure causes hyperactivity to develop in the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and inferior colliculus (IC). It has not yet been established whether the IC hyperactivity is driven by hyperactivity from extrinsic sources that include the DCN or instead is maintained independently of this input. We have investigated the extent to which IC hyperactivity is dependent on input from the contralateral DCN by comparing recordings of spontaneous activity in the IC of noise-exposed and control hamsters before and after ablation of the contralateral DCN. One group of animals was binaurally exposed to intense sound (10 kHz, 115 dB SPL, 4 h), whereas the control group was not. Both groups were studied electrophysiologically 2–3 wk later by first mapping spontaneous activity along the tonotopic axis of the IC to confirm induction of hyperactivity. Spontaneous activity was then recorded at a hyperactive IC locus over two 30-min periods, one with DCNs intact and the other after ablation of the contralateral DCN. In a subset of animals, activity was again mapped along the tonotopic axis after the time course of the activity was recorded before and after DCN ablation. Following recordings, the brains were fixed, and histological evaluations were performed to assess the extent of DCN ablation. Ablation of the DCN resulted in major reductions of IC hyperactivity. Levels of postablation activity in exposed animals were similar to the levels of activity in the IC of control animals, indicating an almost complete loss of hyperactivity in exposed animals. The results suggest that hyperactivity in the IC is dependent on support from extrinsic sources that include and may even begin with the DCN. This finding does not rule out longer term compensatory or homeostatic adjustments that might restore hyperactivity in the IC over time. PMID:22552192

  1. Recovery cycle times of inferior colliculus neurons in the awake bat measured with spike counts and latencies

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Riziq; Aubie, Brandon; Fazel-Pour, Siavosh; Faure, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Neural responses in the mammalian auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus; IC) arise from complex interactions of synaptic excitation, inhibition, and intrinsic properties of the cell. Temporally selective duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) in the IC are hypothesized to arise through the convergence of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs offset in time. Synaptic inhibition can be inferred from extracellular recordings by presenting pairs of pulses (paired tone stimulation) and comparing the evoked responses of the cell to each pulse. We obtained single unit recordings from the IC of the awake big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) and used paired tone stimulation to measure the recovery cycle times of DTNs and non-temporally selective auditory neurons. By systematically varying the interpulse interval (IPI) of the paired tone stimulus, we determined the minimum IPI required for a neuron's spike count or its spike latency (first- or last-spike latency) in response to the second tone to recover to within ≥50% of the cell's baseline count or to within 1 SD of it's baseline latency in response to the first tone. Recovery times of shortpass DTNs were significantly shorter than those of bandpass DTNs, and recovery times of bandpass DTNs were longer than allpass neurons not selective for stimulus duration. Recovery times measured with spike counts were positively correlated with those measured with spike latencies. Recovery times were also correlated with first-spike latency (FSL). These findings, combined with previous studies on duration tuning in the IC, suggest that persistent inhibition is a defining characteristic of DTNs. Herein, we discuss measuring recovery times of neurons with spike counts and latencies. We also highlight how persistent inhibition could determine neural recovery times and serve as a potential mechanism underlying the precedence effect in humans. Finally, we explore implications of recovery times for DTNs in the context of bat hearing and

  2. Auditory cortical axons contact commissural cells throughout the guinea pig inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Kyle T; Sowick, Colleen S; Schofield, Brett R

    2013-12-01

    Projections from auditory cortex (AC) affect how cells in both inferior colliculi (IC) respond to acoustic stimuli. The large projection from the AC to the ipsilateral IC is usually credited with the effects in the ipsilateral IC. The circuitry underlying effects in the contralateral IC is less clear. The direct projection from the AC to the contralateral IC is relatively small. An unexplored possibility is that the large ipsilateral cortical projection contacts the substantial number of cells in the ipsilateral IC that project through the commissure to the contralateral IC. Apparent contacts between cortical boutons and commissural cells were identified in the left IC after injection of different fluorescent tracers into the left AC and the right IC. Commissural cells were labeled throughout the left IC, and many (23-34%) appeared to be contacted by cortical axons. In the central nucleus, both disc-shaped and stellate cells were contacted. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) were used to identify GABAergic commissural cells. The majority (>86%) of labeled commissural cells were GAD-immunonegative. Despite low numbers of GAD-immunopositive commissural cells, some of these cells were contacted by cortical boutons. Nonetheless, most cortically contacted commissural cells were GAD-immunonegative (i.e., presumably glutamatergic). We conclude that auditory cortical axons contact primarily excitatory commissural cells in the ipsilateral IC that project to the contralateral IC. These corticocollicular contacts occur in each subdivision of the ipsilateral IC, suggesting involvement of commissural cells throughout the IC. This pathway - from AC to commissural cells in the ipsilateral IC - is a prime candidate for the excitatory effects of activation of the auditory cortex on responses in the contralateral IC. Overall this suggests that the auditory corticofugal pathway is integrated with midbrain commissural connections. PMID:24140579

  3. Functional Microarchitecture of the Mouse Dorsal Inferior Colliculus Revealed through In Vivo Two-Photon Calcium Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barnstedt, Oliver; Keating, Peter; Weissenberger, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is an obligatory relay for ascending auditory inputs from the brainstem and receives descending input from the auditory cortex. The IC comprises a central nucleus (CNIC), surrounded by several shell regions, but the internal organization of this midbrain nucleus remains incompletely understood. We used two-photon calcium imaging to study the functional microarchitecture of both neurons in the mouse dorsal IC and corticocollicular axons that terminate there. In contrast to previous electrophysiological studies, our approach revealed a clear functional distinction between the CNIC and the dorsal cortex of the IC (DCIC), suggesting that the mouse midbrain is more similar to that of other mammals than previously thought. We found that the DCIC comprises a thin sheet of neurons, sometimes extending barely 100 μm below the pial surface. The sound frequency representation in the DCIC approximated the mouse's full hearing range, whereas dorsal CNIC neurons almost exclusively preferred low frequencies. The response properties of neurons in these two regions were otherwise surprisingly similar, and the frequency tuning of DCIC neurons was only slightly broader than that of CNIC neurons. In several animals, frequency gradients were observed in the DCIC, and a comparable tonotopic arrangement was observed across the boutons of the corticocollicular axons, which form a dense mesh beneath the dorsal surface of the IC. Nevertheless, acoustically responsive corticocollicular boutons were sparse, produced unreliable responses, and were more broadly tuned than DCIC neurons, suggesting that they have a largely modulatory rather than driving influence on auditory midbrain neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Due to its genetic tractability, the mouse is fast becoming the most popular animal model for sensory neuroscience. Nevertheless, many aspects of its neural architecture are still poorly understood. Here, we image the dorsal auditory midbrain and its

  4. Temporal resolution of neurons in cat inferior colliculus to intracochlear electrical stimulation: effects of neonatal deafening and chronic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Snyder, R; Leake, P; Rebscher, S; Beitel, R

    1995-02-01

    1. Cochlear implants have been available for > 20 yr to profoundly deaf adults who have lost their hearing after acquiring language. The success of these cochlear prostheses has encouraged the application of implants in prelingually deaf children as young as 2 yr old. To further characterize the consequences of chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation (ICES) on the developing auditory system, the temporal-response properties of single neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) were recorded in deafened anesthetized cats. 2. The neurons were excited by unilateral ICES with the use of a scala tympani stimulating electrode implanted in the left cochlea. The electrodes were modeled after those used in cochlear implant patients. Responses of 443 units were recorded extracellularly in the contralateral (right) IC with the use of tungsten microelectrodes. Recordings were made in three groups of adult animals: neonatally deafened/chronically stimulated animals (192 units), neonatally deafened/unstimulated animals (80 units), and adult-deafened/prior normal-hearing animals (171 units). The neonatally deafened cats were deafened by multiple intramuscular injections of neomycin sulfate and never developed demonstrable hearing. Most of the deafened, chronically stimulated animals were implanted at 6 wk of age and stimulated at suprathreshold levels for 4 h/day for 3-6 mo. The unstimulated animals were implanted as adults at least 2 wk before the acute physiological experiment and were left unstimulated until the acute experiment was conducted. Prior-normal adults were deafened and implanted at least 2 wk before the acute experiment. 3. IC units were isolated with the use of a search stimulus consisting of three cycles of a 100-Hz sinusoid. Most units responded to sinusoidal stimulation with either an onset response or a sustained response. Onset units were the predominant unit found in the external nucleus, whereas sustained units were found almost exclusively in the central

  5. Effect of monaural and binaural stimulation on cytoplasmic RNA content in cells of the central nucleus of the cat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Shmigidina, G N

    1981-01-01

    A cytophotometric study of sections stained with gallocyanin and chrome alum showed that monaural stimulation for 2 h and binaural stimulation for 1.5 h with rhythmic noise signals led to a marked increase in the cytoplasmic RNA content per cell in the principal and large multipolar neurons of the dorsal and ventral parts of the ventrolateral region of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. The increase in cytoplasmic RNA content in the principal cells of the ipsi- and contralateral parts of this nucleus relative to the stimulated ear in the case of monaural stimulation and the increase in RNA content in response to binaural stimulation suggests a uniform distribution of bilaterally converging connections from the lower nuclei of the auditory system on the principal cells. The increase in cytoplasmic RNA in the large multipolar cells of the contralateral central nucleus in response to monaural stimulation is evidence of the predominantly contralateral projection to these cells. The results are evidence of convergence of binaural influences on the principal and large multipolar cells of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. PMID:6173796

  6. Neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological study of opioid pathways in the mesencephalic tectum: effect of mu(1)- and kappa-opioid receptor blockade on escape behavior induced by electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Osaki, M Y; Castellan-Baldan, L; Calvo, F; Carvalho, A D; Felippotti, T T; de Oliveira, R; Ubiali, W A; Paschoalin-Maurin, T; Elias-Filho, D H; Motta, V; da Silva, L A; Coimbra, N C

    2003-12-01

    Deep layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC), the dorsal and ventral periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), and inferior colliculus (IC) are midbrain structures involved in the generation of defensive behavior. beta-Endorphin and Leu-enkephalin are some neurotransmitters that may modulate such behavior in mammals. Light microscopy immunocytochemistry with streptavidin method was used for the localization of the putative cells of defensive behavior with antibodies for endogenous opioids in rat brainstem. Midbrain structures showed positive neurons to beta-endorphin and Leu-enkephalin in similar distributions in the experimental animals, but we also noted the presence of varicose fibers positive to endogenous opioids in the PAG. Neuroanatomical techniques showed varicose fibers from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus to ventral aspects of the PAG, at more caudal levels. Naloxonazine and nor-binaltorphimine, competitive antagonists that block mu(1)- and kappa-opioid receptors, were then used in the present work to investigate the involvement of opioid peptide neural system in the control of the fear-induced reactions evoked by electrical stimulation of the neural substrates of the inferior colliculus. The fear-like responses were measured by electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, eliciting the escape behavior, which is characterized by vigorous running and jumping. Central administration of opioid antagonists (2.5 microg/0.2 microl and 5.0 microg/0.2 microl) was performed in non-anesthetized animals (Rattus norvegicus), and the behavioral manifestations of fear were registered after 10 min, 2 h, and 24 h of the pretreatment. Naloxonazine caused an increase of the defensive threshold, as compared to control, suggesting an antiaversive effect of the antagonism on mu(1)-opioid receptor. This finding was corroborated with central administration of nor-binaltorphimine, which also induced a decrease of the fear-like responses

  7. Functional organization of mustached bat inferior colliculus: I. Representation of FM frequency bands important for target ranging revealed by 14C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography and single unit mapping.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, W E; Frisina, R D; Gooler, D M

    1989-06-01

    The representation in the inferior colliculus of the frequency modulated (FM) components of the first (25-30 kHz) and second (50-60 kHz) harmonic of the sonar signal of the mustached bat, which may be important for target range processing, was investigated by using the 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) technique and single-unit mapping. In the 2-DG experiments, bats presented with second harmonic FM stimuli alone showed uptake of label in specific regions of the central nucleus and dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus, and the nucleus of the brachium. In the central nucleus, a dorsoventrally and mediolaterally elongated slab at the caudal border of the anterolateral division was observed. Labeling in the dorsal cortex was contiguous with this band. Bats stimulated with pairs of first and second harmonic FM stimuli separated by short time delays showed similar patterns of labeling, with the addition of another dorsoventrally elongated region of uptake in the more rostral part of the anterolateral division, associated with label in the dorsal cortex. By comparison to control cases exposed to delayed pairs of first and third harmonic signals, or to a second harmonic constant-frequency tone burst at the bat's reference frequency (ca. 60 kHz), we deduced that this additional region of uptake was attributable to the first harmonic FM component. To elucidate further the details of the tonotopic organization and to correlate the frequency representation with anatomical features of the IC, fine-grained maps of single-unit best frequencies were obtained in the central nucleus. Isofrequency contours were reconstructed by computer from five bats after focal, iontophoretic injection of horseradish peroxidase to locate the penetrations and trace connections of the FM2 area. We found that the tissue volume representing FM2 frequencies (50-60 kHz) showed approximately a sixfold overrepresentation for this frequency band. This region occupied most of the caudal portion of the anterolateral

  8. Cortical Auditory Deafferentation Induces Long-Term Plasticity in the Inferior Colliculus of Adult Rats: Microarray and qPCR Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Cheryl; Herrero-Turrión, M. Javier; Merchán, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The cortico-collicular pathway is a bilateral excitatory projection from the cortex to the inferior colliculus (IC). It is asymmetric and predominantly ipsilateral. Using microarrays and RT-qPCR we analyzed changes in gene expression in the IC after unilateral lesions of the auditory cortex, comparing the ICs ipsi- and contralateral to the lesioned side. At 15 days after surgery there were mainly changes in gene expression in the IC ipsilateral to the lesion. Regulation primarily involved inflammatory cascade genes, suggesting a direct effect of degeneration rather than a neuronal plastic reorganization. Ninety days after the cortical lesion the ipsilateral IC showed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in apoptosis and axonal regeneration combined with a down-regulation of genes involved in neurotransmission, synaptic growth, and gap junction assembly. In contrast, the contralateral IC at 90 days post-lesion showed an up-regulation in genes primarily related to neurotransmission, cell proliferation, and synaptic growth. There was also a down-regulation in autophagy and neuroprotection genes. These findings suggest that the reorganization in the IC after descending pathway deafferentation is a long-term process involving extensive changes in gene expression regulation. Regulated genes are involved in many different neuronal functions, and the number and gene rearrangement profile seems to depend on the density of loss of the auditory cortical inputs. PMID:23233834

  9. Determining auditory-evoked activities from multiple cells in layer 1 of the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus of mice by in vivo calcium imaging.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsufumi; Hirose, Junichi; Murase, Kazuyuki; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2014-11-24

    Layer 1 of the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus (DCIC) is distinguished from other layers by its cytoarchitecture and fiber connections. However, the information of the sound types represented in layer 1 of the DCIC remains unclear because placing electrodes on such thin structures is challenging. In this study, we utilized in vivo calcium imaging to assess auditory-evoked activities in multiple cells in layer 1 of DCIC and to characterize sound stimuli producing strong activity. Most cells examined showed strong responses to broad-band noise and low-frequency tone bursts of high sound intensity. In some cases, we successfully obtained frequency response areas, which are receptive fields to tone frequencies and intensities, and ~30% of these showed V-shape tunings. This is the first systematic study to record auditory responses of cells in layer 1 of DCIC. These results indicate that cells in this area are selective to tones with low frequency, implying the importance of such auditory information in the neural circuitry of layer 1 of DCIC. PMID:25278189

  10. Intensity and frequency functions of [14C]2-deoxyglucose labelling in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in the cat.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; Webster, W R; Martin, R L

    1997-02-01

    The frequency organization of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in the anesthetised cat was quantitatively mapped using [14C]2-deoxyglucose. From a standardised rostrocaudal region of the ICC, the position of peak selective labelling along the tonotopic axis closely conformed to the reported tonotopic organization of this nucleus. The position of the peak was found not to significantly change its position along the tonotopic axis with increasing stimulus intensity. However, the amplitude of peak uptake and width of selective labelling were shown to monotonically increase with increase in stimulus intensity. The increase in width of selective labelling, about the position of peak uptake, showed a slight asymmetry toward the high-frequency regions of the ICC. A 2-DG frequency-position function for the ICC, similar to that for the cochlea, enabled the width of 2-DG bands to be expressed in terms of their frequency spread along the tonotopic axis. This inturn enabled 2-DG tuning curves to be plotted which, when compared to electrophysiologically determined tuning curves, showed marked similarities. The minimum threshold and width (Q10) of these 2-DG tuning curves fell within the range reported for single units in the cat auditory pathway. PMID:9119768

  11. The commissure of the inferior colliculus shapes frequency response areas in rat: an in vivo study using reversible blockade with microinjection of kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Malmierca, Manuel S; Hernández, Olga; Falconi, Atilio; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A; Merchán, Miguel; Rees, Adrian

    2003-12-01

    The commissure of the inferior colliculus (CoIC) interconnects corresponding frequency-band laminae in the two inferior colliculi (ICs). Although the CoIC has been studied neurophysiologically in vitro, the effect of the CoIC on the responses of IC neurons to physiological stimuli has not been addressed. In this study, we injected the glutamate receptor blocker kynurenic acid into one IC while recording the frequency response areas (FRAs) of neurons in the other, to test the hypothesis that frequency response properties of IC neurons are influenced by commissural inputs from the contralateral IC. Following blockade of the commissure, 10 of 12 neurons tested exhibited an increase or a decrease in their FRAs. In most neurons (9/12) the response area changed in the same direction, irrespective of whether the neuron was stimulated monaurally (at the ear contralateral to the recorded IC) or binaurally. In one neuron, blockade of the CoIC resulted in an expansion of the response area under binaural stimulation and a contraction under monaural stimulation. In the remaining two units, no effect was observed. Changes in response areas that exceeded the criterion ranged between 17 and 80% of control values with monaural stimulation, and 35 and 77% with binaural stimulation. Area changes could also be accompanied by changes in spike rate and monotonicity. From our observation that FRAs contract following commissure block, we infer that the commissure contains excitatory fibres. The expansion of response areas in other cases, however, suggests that the commissure also contains inhibitory fibres, or that its effects are mediated by disynaptic as well as monosynaptic circuits. The small sample size precludes a definitive conclusion as to which effect predominates. We conclude that inputs from the contralateral IC projecting via the CoIC influence the spectral selectivity and response gain of neurons in the IC. PMID:14508633

  12. Experience-dependent plasticity in the inferior colliculus: a site for visual calibration of the neural representation of auditory space in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Brainard, M S; Knudsen, E I

    1993-11-01

    The optic tectum (homolog of the superior colliculus) contains mutually aligned neural maps of auditory and visual space. During development, the organization of the auditory map is guided by spatial information provided by vision: barn owls raised wearing prismatic spectacles, which optically shift the visual field and the visual map in the optic tectum, develop an auditory map that is shifted by an approximately equivalent amount, such that alignment between the two maps is preserved (Knudsen and Brainard, 1991). In this study we investigated whether this shift in the auditory map is intrinsic to the optic tectum or whether it reflects plasticity at an earlier stage in the auditory pathway. Owls were raised wearing prismatic spectacles that displaced the visual field by 23 degrees to the left or right. This manipulation alters the normal correspondence between locations in the visual field and interaural time difference (ITD), the primary cue for the azimuth of a sound source. In normal owls and in owls with at least 150 d of prism experience, extracellular unit recordings were used to assess the representations of ITD at anatomically and physiologically defined sites in the optic tectum and in the two prior stages of the auditory pathway, the external and central nuclei of the inferior colliculus (ICx and ICc). In the optic tectum of normal owls, the values of ITD to which units responded most strongly (best ITDs) varied systematically with the azimuths of unit visual receptive fields (VRFs). In the prism-reared owls, best ITDs were shifted from normal toward the values of ITD produced by sounds at the locations of the units' optically displaced VRFs. In the ICx of prism-reared owls, the representation of ITD also was shifted from normal, by an amount and in a direction that could completely account for the shift in ITD measured in the optic tectum. At some sites in the ICx, the shift in ITD tuning was apparent within the first 7-8 msec of the response; shifted

  13. The auditory response properties of single-on and double-on responders in the inferior colliculus of the leaf-nosed bat, Hipposideros armiger.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zi-Ying; Tang, Jia; Jen, Philip Hung-Sun; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the response properties of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) of the CF-FM (constant frequency-frequency-modulated) bat, Hipposideros armiger using CF, FM and CF-FM sounds as stimuli. All 169 IC neurons recorded are tonotopically organized along the dorsoventral axis of the IC. Collicular neurons have V-shaped or upper-threshold frequency tuning curves. Those neurons tuned at the predominant second harmonic have extremely sharp frequency tuning curves and low minimum thresholds. Collicular neurons typically discharge impulses to both CF and FM sounds. However, when stimulated with CF-FM sounds, most (76%) neurons only discharge impulses to the onset of CF-FM sounds (single-on responders). The remaining neurons (24%) discharge impulses to both CF and FM components (double-on responders) of CF-FM sounds. The double-on responders have higher minimum threshold and longer latency to the FM component than to the CF component of CF-FM sounds. Our data show that the FM component of the CF-FM sounds contributes significantly in shaping the discharge pattern, latency and number of impulses of IC neurons. The present study suggests that using CF-FM sounds to study auditory response properties of the CF-FM bat may be essential for a better understanding of echo analysis by the CF-FM in the real world. Because the double-on responders have shorter response latency than single-on responders, we speculate that these two types of responders may be best suited for echo analysis during different phases of hunting. PMID:19835849

  14. Recovery cycles of single-on and double-on neurons in the inferior colliculus of the leaf-nosed bat, Hipposideros armiger.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jia; Fu, Zi-Ying; Jen, Philip Hung-Sun; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2011-04-18

    Our previous study showed that when stimulated with constant frequency-frequency modulation (CF-FM) sounds, neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the CF-FM bat, Hipposideros armiger, either only discharged impulses to the onset of CF-FM sounds (76%, single-on neurons) or to the onset of both CF and FM components of CF-FM sounds (24%, double-on neuron) (Fu et al., 2010). The present paper reports the recovery cycles of these two types of neurons using paired CF, FM and CF-FM sounds as stimuli. Both types of neurons had similar recovery cycle for CF sounds but had the shortest recovery cycle for FM sounds. Whereas single-on neurons had similar recovery cycle for CF and CF-FM sounds, double-on neurons had longer recovery cycle for CF sounds than for CF-FM sounds. In addition, double-on neurons had significantly shorter recovery cycles than single-on neurons for FM and CF-FM sounds. Most neurons did not respond to the second sound when each pair of sounds overlapped. However, when stimulated with paired CF-FM sounds, 3 single-on and 7 double-on neurons discharged to the second sound even when both sounds overlapped. As such, they had "cyclic" recovery cycles that varied between maximum and minimum with inter-pulse intervals. Possible mechanisms underlying the different recovery cycles of these neurons are proposed. Possible biological significance of these neurons in relation to responding to varied pulse repetition rate during hunting is discussed. PMID:21338589

  15. Ephrin-B2 reverse signaling is required for topography but not pattern formation of lateral superior olivary inputs to the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Matthew M; Kavianpour, Sarah M; Gabriele, Mark L

    2013-05-01

    Graded and modular expressions of Eph-ephrins are known to provide positional information for the formation of topographic maps and patterning in the developing nervous system. Previously we have shown that ephrin-B2 is expressed in a continuous gradient across the tonotopic axis of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC), whereas patterns are discontinuous and modular in the lateral cortex of the IC (LCIC). The present study explores the involvement of ephrin-B2 signaling in the development of projections to the CNIC and LCIC arising from the lateral superior olivary nuclei (LSO) prior to hearing onset. Anterograde and retrograde fluorescent tracing methods in neonatal fixed tissue preparations were used to compare topographic mapping and the establishment of LSO layers/modules in wild-type and ephrin-B2(lacZ/+) mice (severely compromised reverse signaling). At birth, pioneer LSO axons occupy the ipsilateral IC in both groups but are delayed contralaterally in ephrin-B2(lacZ/+) mutants. By the onset of hearing, both wild-type and mutant projections form discernible layers bilaterally in the CNIC and modular arrangements within the ipsilateral LCIC. In contrast, ephrin-B2(lacZ/+) mice lack a reliable topography in LSO-IC projections, suggesting that fully functional ephrin-B2 reverse signaling is required for normal projection mapping. Taken together, these ephrin-B2 findings paired with known coexpression of EphA4 suggest the importance of these signaling proteins in establishing functional auditory circuits prior to experience. PMID:23042409

  16. Organization and trade-off of spectro-temporal tuning properties of duration-tuned neurons in the mammalian inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, James A.; Farzan, Faranak; Fremouw, Thane; Sayegh, Riziq; Covey, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Neurons throughout the mammalian central auditory pathway respond selectively to stimulus frequency and amplitude, and some are also selective for stimulus duration. First found in the auditory midbrain or inferior colliculus (IC), these duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) provide a potential neural mechanism for encoding temporal features of sound. In this study, we investigated how having an additional neural response filter, one selective to the duration of an auditory stimulus, influences frequency tuning and neural organization by recording single-unit responses and measuring the dorsal-ventral position and spectral-temporal tuning properties of auditory DTNs from the IC of the awake big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). Like other IC neurons, DTNs were tonotopically organized and had either V-shaped, U-shaped, or O-shaped frequency tuning curves (excitatory frequency response areas). We hypothesized there would be an interaction between frequency and duration tuning in DTNs, as electrical engineering theory for resonant filters dictates a trade-off in spectral-temporal resolution: sharp tuning in the frequency domain results in poorer resolution in the time domain and vice versa. While the IC is a more complex signal analyzer than an electrical filter, a similar operational trade-off could exist in the responses of DTNs. Our data revealed two patterns of spectro-temporal sensitivity and spatial organization within the IC: DTNs with sharp frequency tuning and broad duration tuning were located in the dorsal IC, whereas cells with wide spectral tuning and narrow temporal tuning were found in the ventral IC. PMID:24572091

  17. Binaural interaction in low-frequency neurons in inferior colliculus of the cat. I. Effects of long interaural delays, intensity, and repetition rate on interaural delay function.

    PubMed

    Kuwada, S; Yin, T C

    1983-10-01

    Detailed, quantitative studies were made of the interaural phase sensitivity of 197 neurons with low best frequency in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the barbiturate-anesthetized cat. We analyzed the responses of single cells to interaural delays in which tone bursts were delivered to the two ears via sealed earphones and the onset of the tone to one ear with respect to the other was varied. For most (80%) cells the discharge rate is a cyclic function of interaural delay at a period corresponding to that of the stimulating frequency. The cyclic nature of the interaural delay curve indicates that these cells are sensitive to the interaural phase difference. These cells are distributed throughout the low-frequency zone of the IC, but they are less numerous in the medial and caudal zones. Cells with a wide variety of response patterns will exhibit interaural phase sensitivities at stimulating frequencies up to 3,100 Hz, although above 2,500 Hz the number of such cells decrease markedly. Using dichotic stimuli we could study the cell's sensitivity to the onset delay and interaural phase independently. The large majority of IC cells respond only to changes in interaural phase, with no sensitivity to the onset delay. However, a small number (7%) of cells exhibit a sensitivity to the onset delay as well as to the interaural phase disparity, and most of these cells show an onset response. The effects of changing the stimulus intensity equally to both ears or of changing the interaural intensity difference on the mean interaural phase were studied. While some neurons are not affected by level changes, others exhibit systematic phase shifts for both average and interaural intensity variations, and there is a continuous distribution of sensitivities between these extremes. A few cells also showed systematic changes in the shape of the interaural delay curves as a function of interaural intensity difference, especially at very long delays. These shifts can be interpreted as a

  18. Quantitative analyses of axonal endings in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and distribution of 3H-labeling after injections in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Oliver, D L

    1985-07-15

    Quantitative analyses of electron microscopic (EM) autoradiographs were used to identify the afferents from the dorsal cochlear nucleus in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) in the cat. In order to localize the sources of radioactivity, material from axonal transport experiments was analyzed by means of a hypothetical grain procedure which takes the cross-scatter of beta particles into account. Measurements of the synaptic vesicles in axonal endings and a cluster analysis were used to identify different groups of endings. In order to determine which types of endings arise in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, axonal endings labeled after axonal transport and unlabeled endings were characterized and compared to the groups defined by the cluster analysis. Axonal endings with round synaptic vesicles were labeled with more than 2 grains/micron2 which was about 30% of the radioactivity in the central nucleus of the IC. This was six to seven times greater than if the radioactivity had been randomly distributed. Other tissue compartments usually had less radioactivity. Some myelinated and unmyelinated axons were labeled, but, as a group they had lower amounts of radioactivity than predicted by random labeling. In most cases, only low levels of activity were found in glial and postsynaptic structures. Five groups of axonal endings in the medial part of the central nucleus were identified by an analysis which clustered similar types of endings. The variance of the longest axis, the mean diameter, the variance of area, and the mean area of the synaptic vesicles were the variables most useful in distinguishing these five groups. Axonal endings with round synaptic vesicles were classified as either small, or large, or very large, while endings with pleomorphic vesicles were either large or small. Using measurements of the cross-sectional diameter of dendritic microtubules, samples of digitized axonal endings from normal and experimental cases were normalized and

  19. Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Seizure Susceptibility is Associated with an Upregulation of CaV1.3 Channels in the Rat Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Akinfiresoye, Luli R.; Allard, Joanne S.; Lovinger, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We previously reported increased current density through L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV1) channels in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons during alcohol withdrawal. However, the molecular correlate of this increased CaV1 current is currently unknown. Methods: Rats received three daily doses of ethanol every 8 hours for 4 consecutive days; control rats received vehicle. The IC was dissected at various time intervals following alcohol withdrawal, and the mRNA and protein levels of the CaV1.3 and CaV1.2 α1 subunits were measured. In separate experiments, rats were tested for their susceptibility to alcohol withdrawal–induced seizures (AWS) 3, 24, and 48 hours after alcohol withdrawal. Results: In the alcohol-treated group, AWS were observed 24 hours after withdrawal; no seizures were observed at 3 or 48 hours. No seizures were observed at any time in the control-treated rats. Compared to control-treated rats, the mRNA level of the CaV1.3 α1 subunit was increased 1.4-fold, 1.9-fold, and 1.3-fold at 3, 24, and 48 hours, respectively. In contrast, the mRNA level of the CaV1.2 α1 subunit increased 1.5-fold and 1.4-fold at 24 and 48 hours, respectively. At 24 hours, Western blot analyses revealed that the levels of the CaV1.3 and CaV1.2 α1 subunits increased by 52% and 32%, respectively, 24 hours after alcohol withdrawal. In contrast, the CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 α1 subunits were not altered at either 3 or 48 hours during alcohol withdrawal. Conclusions: Expression of the CaV1.3 α1 subunit increased in parallel with AWS development, suggesting that altered L-type CaV1.3 channel expression is an important feature of AWS pathogenesis. PMID:25556199

  20. Encoding of the amplitude modulation of pulsatile electrical stimulation in the feline cochlear nucleus by neurons in the inferior colliculus; effects of stimulus pulse rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreery, Douglas; Han, Martin; Pikov, Victor; Yadav, Kamal; Pannu, Satinderpall

    2013-10-01

    Objectives. Persons without a functional auditory nerve cannot benefit from cochlear implants, but some hearing can be restored by an auditory brainstem implant (ABI) with stimulating electrodes implanted on the surface of the cochlear nucleus (CN). Most users benefit from their ABI, but speech recognition tends to be poorer than for users of cochlear implants. Psychophysical studies suggest that poor modulation detection may contribute to the limited performance of ABI users. In a cat model, we determined how the pulse rate of the electrical stimulus applied within or on the CN affects temporal and rate encoding of amplitude modulation (AM) by neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Approach. Stimulating microelectrodes were implanted chronically in and on the cats' CN, and multi-site recording microelectrodes were implanted chronically into the ICC. Encoding of AM pulse trains by neurons in the ICC was characterized as vector strength (VS), the synchrony of neural activity with the AM, and as the mean rate of neuronal action potentials (neuronal spike rate (NSR)). Main results. For intranuclear microstimulation, encoding of AM as VS was up to 3 dB greater when stimulus pulse rate was increased from 250 to 500 pps, but only for neuronal units with low best acoustic frequencies, and when the electrical stimulation was modulated at low frequencies (10-20 Hz). For stimulation on the surface of the CN, VS was similar at 250 and 500 pps, and the dynamic range of the VS was reduced for pulse rates greater than 250 pps. Modulation depth was encoded strongly as VS when the maximum stimulus amplitude was held constant across a range of modulation depth. This ‘constant maximum’ protocol allows enhancement of modulation depth while preserving overall dynamic range. However, modulation depth was not encoded as strongly as NSR. Significance. The findings have implications for improved sound processors for present and future ABIs. The performance of

  1. µ- and κ-Opioid receptor activation in the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter differentially modulates panic-like behaviours induced by electrical and chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Twardowschy, André; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic tectum (MT) provokes defensive responses in both humans and rodents. During an emotional aversive state, some convergent studies have also demonstrated the existence of a complex interaction between endogenous opioid peptide- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing connections during fear-induced responses. It has been proposed that opioid neurons exert an influence on GABAergic interneurons, which, in turn, exert inhibitory tonic control on the mesencephalic excitatory pathways. Thus, opioid peptides can disinhibit neurons that are tonically inhibited by GABA, therefore, modulating the expression of defensive behavioural reactions. In the present work, we used both electric stimulation and microinjections of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline in the inferior colliculus (IC) of Wistar rats in combination with microinjections of µ- and κ-opioid receptor selective agonists into the dorsal columns of periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG) to evaluate the effects on panic-like behaviours elicited by IC electrical and chemical stimulation. The present results showed that neurochemical lesions of the dPAG caused a significant impairment in the organisation of defensive responses by IC neurons, reducing the duration [t(14)=3.0; p<0.01] of defensive immobility and the duration [t(14)=2.8; p<0.05] and frequency [t(14)=2.5; p<0.05] of escape. Paradoxically, treating the dPAG with the µ-opioid receptor agonist met-enkephalin caused a significant reduction of panic-like behaviours induced by both electrical and chemical stimulation of the IC, increasing the escape behaviour threshold [F(2,23)=13.5; p<0.001] and decreasing the frequency [F(3,36)=11.7; p<0.001] and duration [F(3,36)=11.6; p<0.001] of escape and the duration of defensive immobility [F(3,36)=16.1; p<0.05]. In contrast, treating the dPAG with the κ-opioid receptor agonist salvinorin-A increased the frequency [F(3,36)=12.4; p<0.01] and

  2. Neurobehavioral development of common marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Braun, Katarina M; Emborg, Marina E

    2016-03-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys are a resource for biomedical research and their use is predicted to increase due to the suitability of this species for transgenic approaches. Identification of abnormal neurodevelopment due to genetic modification relies upon the comparison with validated patterns of normal behavior defined by unbiased methods. As scientists unfamiliar with nonhuman primate development are interested to apply genomic editing techniques in marmosets, it would be beneficial to the field that the investigators use validated methods of postnatal evaluation that are age and species appropriate. This review aims to analyze current available data on marmoset physical and behavioral postnatal development, describe the methods used and discuss next steps to better understand and evaluate marmoset normal and abnormal postnatal neurodevelopment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 141-158, 2016. PMID:26502294

  3. Neurobehavioral Development of Common Marmoset Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Braun, Katarina M.; Emborg, Marina E.

    2016-01-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys are a resource for biomedical research and their use is predicted to increase due to the suitability of this species for transgenic approaches. Identification of abnormal neurodevelopment due to genetic modification relies upon the comparison with validated patterns of normal behavior defined by unbiased methods. As scientists unfamiliar with nonhuman primate development are interested to apply genomic editing techniques in marmosets, it would be beneficial to the field that the investigators use validated methods of postnatal evaluation that are age and species appropriate. This review aims to analyze current available data on marmoset physical and behavioral postnatal development, describe the methods used and discuss next steps to better understand and evaluate marmoset normal and abnormal postnatal neurodevelopment PMID:26502294

  4. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. PMID:26864754

  5. Exploring the Superior Colliculus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The superior colliculus plays an important role in the translation of sensory signals that encode the location of objects in space into motor signals that encode vectors of the shifts in gaze direction called saccades. Since the late 1990s, our two laboratories have been applying whole cell patch-clamp techniques to in vitro slice preparations of rodent superior colliculus to analyze the structure and function of its circuitry at the cellular level. This review describes the results of these experiments and discusses their contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for sensorimotor integration in the superior colliculus. The experiments analyze vertical interactions between its superficial visuosensory and intermediate premotor layers and propose how they might contribute to express saccades and to saccadic suppression. They also compare and contrast the circuitry within each of these layers and propose how this circuitry might contribute to the selection of the targets for saccades and to the build-up of the premotor commands that precede saccades. Experiments also explore in vitro the roles of extrinsic inputs to the superior colliculus, including cholinergic inputs from the parabigeminal and parabrachial nuclei and GABAergic inputs from the substantia nigra pars reticulata, in modulating the activity of the collicular circuitry. The results extend and clarify our understanding of the multiple roles the superior colliculus plays in sensorimotor integration. PMID:19710376

  6. Effects of neonatal enucleation on the functional organization of the superior colliculus in the golden hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, R W

    1980-01-01

    1. The responses of visual, auditory and somatosensory superior collicular neurones were investigated using extracellular single unit recording techniques in hamsters which were subjected to the removal of one eye on the day of birth. 2. Neonatal enucleation resulted in a marked increase in the region of the colliculus from which visual neurones activated by stimulation of the ipsilateral eye could be recorded. In most cases the visuotopic representation in the colliculus ipsilateral to the remaining eye mirrored that observed in the contralateral tectum along both the rostrocaudal and mediolateral axes: in both colliculi temporal retina projected rostrally and inferior retina medially. In some animals, however, there appeared to be a dual mapping of the remaining eye onto the ipsilateral tectum. In these hamsters the central portion of the visual field was represented twice along the rostrocaudal axis of colliculus. 3. No changes in the topography of the somatosensory and auditory representations in the tectum were observed following neonatal enucleation. 4. The laminar distribution of visual neurones in the ipsilateral colliculus was markedly altered in the neonatally enucleated hamsters. Very few exclusively visual units were encountered in the layers ventral to the stratum opticum and almost all of the visual cells recorded in the ipsilateral colliculus were isolated within 150 microM of the tectal surface. 5. In the posterior half of the ipsilateral tectum a large number of extravisually responsive cells were encountered in the stratum griseum superficiale and stratum opticum. This was not the case in the colliculus contralateral to the remaining eye, nor has it ever been observed in normal hamsters. 6. Recordings from animals subjected to both neonatal enucleation and acute bilateral removal of somatosensory and auditory cortex indicated that the projections from these areas to the colliculus were not essential to the observed changes in laminar organization

  7. Active immunization against renin in normotensive marmoset

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, J.B.; Guettier, C.; Philippe, M.; Galen, F.X.; Corvol, P.; Menard, J.

    1987-06-01

    Primate renins (human and monkey) are very similar. We used pure human renin to immunize marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and thereby produce a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensinogen reaction. After a control period of 2 months, five male marmosets, on their usual sodium-poor diet, were immunized against pure human renin by three subcutneous injections of 30 ..mu..g each, with complete and then incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Three marmosets were injected with adjuvant only and served as controls. Blood sampling and blood pressure measurements were performed weekly. After the third injection, the five marmosets immunized against renin developed a high titer of renin antibodies (50% binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human renin at a dilution of greater than or equal to 1:10,000). The antibodies inhibited the enzymatic activity of both marmoset and human renins. At the same time, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly. Plasma renin enzyme activity was undetectable in the animals. Plasma aldosterone decreased significantly. After 1-4 months with low blood pressure, a normal urinary output, and a normal plasma creatinine, the five marmosets became sick and died within one month. At autopsy an immunological renal disease, characterize by the presence of immunoglobulin and macrophage infiltration colocalized with renin, was found. No immunoglobulin was detectable in extrarenal vessels or in other organs. These experiments demonstrate that, in this primate, a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensin system can be achieved by active immunization against homologous renin, but this blockade is associated with the development of an autoimmune disease localized in the kidney.

  8. Internal capsule stroke in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Puentes, S; Kaido, T; Hanakawa, T; Ichinohe, N; Otsuki, T; Seki, K

    2015-01-22

    White matter (WM) impairment and motor deficit after stroke are directly related. However, WM injury mechanisms and their relation to motor disturbances are still poorly understood. In humans, the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) irrigates the internal capsule (IC), and stroke to this region can induce isolated motor impairment. The goal of this study was to analyze whether AChA occlusion can injure the IC in the marmoset monkey. The vascular distribution of the marmoset brain was examined by colored latex perfusion and revealed high resemblance to the human brain anatomy. Next, a new approach to electrocoagulate the AChA was developed and chronic experiments showed infarction compromising the IC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning (day 4) and histology (day 11). Behavioral analysis was performed using a neurologic score previously developed and our own scoring method. Marmosets showed a decreased score that was still evident at day 10 after AChA electrocoagulation. We developed a new approach able to induce damage to the marmoset IC that may be useful for the detailed study of WM impairment and behavioral changes after stroke in the nonhuman primate. PMID:25453768

  9. Marmosets: A Neuroscientific Model of Human Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Freiwald, Winrich A; Leopold, David A; Mitchell, Jude F; Silva, Afonso C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-04-20

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has garnered interest recently as a powerful model for the future of neuroscience research. Much of this excitement has centered on the species' reproductive biology and compatibility with gene editing techniques, which together have provided a path for transgenic marmosets to contribute to the study of disease as well as basic brain mechanisms. In step with technical advances is the need to establish experimental paradigms that optimally tap into the marmosets' behavioral and cognitive capacities. While conditioned task performance of a marmoset can compare unfavorably with rhesus monkey performance on conventional testing paradigms, marmosets' social behavior and cognition are more similar to that of humans. For example, marmosets are among only a handful of primates that, like humans, routinely pair bond and care cooperatively for their young. They are also notably pro-social and exhibit social cognitive abilities, such as imitation, that are rare outside of the Apes. In this Primer, we describe key facets of marmoset natural social behavior and demonstrate that emerging behavioral paradigms are well suited to isolate components of marmoset cognition that are highly relevant to humans. These approaches generally embrace natural behavior, which has been rare in conventional primate testing, and thus allow for a new consideration of neural mechanisms underlying primate social cognition and signaling. We anticipate that through parallel technical and paradigmatic advances, marmosets will become an essential model of human social behavior, including its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27100195

  10. Divergent and point-to-point connections in the commissural pathway between the inferior colliculi

    PubMed Central

    Malmierca, Manuel S; Hernández, Olga; Antunes, Flora M; Rees, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The commissure of the inferior colliculus interconnects the left and right sides of the auditory midbrain and provides the final opportunity for interaction between the two sides of the auditory pathway at the subcortical level. Although the functional properties of the commissure are beginning to be revealed, the topographical organization of its connections is unknown. A combination of neuroanatomical tracing studies, 3D reconstruction, and neuronal density maps was used to study the commissural connections in rat. The results demonstrate that commissural neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus send a divergent projection to the equivalent frequency-band laminae in the central nucleus and dorsal and lateral cortices on the opposite side. The density of this projection, however, is weighted toward a point that matches the position of the tracer injection; consistent with a point-to-point emphasis in the wiring pattern. In the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus there may be two populations of neurons that project across the commissure, one projecting exclusively to the frequency-band laminae in the central nucleus and the other projecting diffusely to the dorsal cortex. Neurons in the lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus make only a very weak contribution to the commissural pathway. The point-to-point pattern of connections permits interactions between specific regions of corresponding frequency-band laminae, whereas the divergent projection pattern could subserve integration across the lamina. J. Comp. Neurol. 514:226–239, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19296464

  11. Cryopreservation of ovaries from neonatal marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Hideyuki H; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-07-29

    The ovary of neonatal nonhuman primates contains the highest number of immature oocytes, but its cryopreservation has not yet been sufficiently investigated in all life stages. In the current study, we investigated cryodamage after vitrification/warming of neonatal ovaries from a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). A Cryotop was used for cryopreservation of whole ovaries. The morphology of the vitrified/warmed ovaries was found to be equivalent to that of fresh ovaries. No significant difference in the number of oocytes retaining normal morphology per unit area in histological sections was found between the two groups. In an analysis of dispersed cells from the ovaries, however, the cell viability of the vitrified/warmed group tended to be decreased. The results of a comet assay showed no significant differences in DNA damage. These results show that cryopreservation of neonatal marmoset ovaries using vitrification may be useful as a storage system for whole ovaries. PMID:26876597

  12. Cryopreservation of ovaries from neonatal marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Hideyuki H.; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    The ovary of neonatal nonhuman primates contains the highest number of immature oocytes, but its cryopreservation has not yet been sufficiently investigated in all life stages. In the current study, we investigated cryodamage after vitrification/warming of neonatal ovaries from a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). A Cryotop was used for cryopreservation of whole ovaries. The morphology of the vitrified/warmed ovaries was found to be equivalent to that of fresh ovaries. No significant difference in the number of oocytes retaining normal morphology per unit area in histological sections was found between the two groups. In an analysis of dispersed cells from the ovaries, however, the cell viability of the vitrified/warmed group tended to be decreased. The results of a comet assay showed no significant differences in DNA damage. These results show that cryopreservation of neonatal marmoset ovaries using vitrification may be useful as a storage system for whole ovaries. PMID:26876597

  13. Viral Vector-Based Dissection of Marmoset GFAP Promoter in Mouse and Marmoset Brains

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Nobutaka; Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Kishi, Shoji; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are small in diameter, diffuse easily in the brain, and represent a highly efficient means by which to transfer a transgene to the brain of a large animal. A major demerit of AAV vectors is their limited accommodation capacity for transgenes. Thus, a compact promoter is useful when delivering large transgenes via AAV vectors. In the present study, we aimed to identify the shortest astrocyte-specific GFAP promoter region that could be used for AAV-vector-mediated transgene expression in the marmoset brain. The 2.0-kb promoter region upstream of the GFAP gene was cloned from the marmoset genome, and short promoters (1.6 kb, 1.4 kb, 0.6 kb, 0.3 kb and 0.2 kb) were obtained by progressively deleting the original 2.0-kb promoter from the 5’ end. The short promoters were screened in the mouse cerebellum in terms of their strength and astrocyte specificity. We found that the 0.3-kb promoter maintained 40% of the strength of the original 2.0-kb promoter, and approximately 90% of its astrocyte specificity. These properties were superior to those of the 1.4-kb, 0.6-kb (20% promoter strength) and 0.2-kb (70% astrocyte specificity) promoters. Then, we verified whether the 0.3-kb GFAP promoter retained astrocyte specificity in the marmoset cerebral cortex. Injection of viral vectors carrying the 0.3-kb marmoset GFAP promoter specifically transduced astrocytes in both the cerebral cortex and cerebellar cortex of the marmoset. These results suggest that the compact 0.3-kb promoter region serves as an astrocyte-specific promoter in the marmoset brain, which permits us to express a large gene by AAV vectors that have a limited accommodation capacity. PMID:27571575

  14. Systemic AA amyloidosis in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Ludlage, E; Murphy, C L; Davern, S M; Solomon, A; Weiss, D T; Glenn-Smith, D; Dworkin, S; Mansfield, K G

    2005-03-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate native to Brazil that has been used extensively in biomedical research. A retrospective analysis of archived hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections and clinical records was conducted at the New England Primate Research Center on 86 marmosets more than 1 year of age that were euthanized during the past decade because of morbidity and failure to thrive. Approximately 17% (15 of 86) were found to have amyloid deposits in one or more organs, including the liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, and intestine. This material was shown by amino acid sequence analysis to be composed of serum amyloid A (SAA)-related protein. This type of amyloidosis, designated AA or "secondary," is associated typically with an inflammatory process that induces elevated levels of the SAA amyloidogenic precursor molecule. Notably, there were no significant pathologic differences or other distinguishing features in animals with amyloid versus those without; furthermore, on the basis of the limited number of serum specimens available for analysis, the SAA concentrations in the two groups were comparable, thus suggesting the possible inheritable nature of the disorder. In this respect, the common marmoset provides a unique experimental model for study of the pathogenesis and treatment of AA and other forms of systemic amyloidosis. PMID:15753464

  15. Active Vision in Marmosets: A Model System for Visual Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John H.; Miller, Cory T.

    2014-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small-bodied New World primate, offers several advantages to complement vision research in larger primates. Studies in the anesthetized marmoset have detailed the anatomy and physiology of their visual system (Rosa et al., 2009) while studies of auditory and vocal processing have established their utility for awake and behaving neurophysiological investigations (Lu et al., 2001a,b; Eliades and Wang, 2008a,b; Osmanski and Wang, 2011; Remington et al., 2012). However, a critical unknown is whether marmosets can perform visual tasks under head restraint. This has been essential for studies in macaques, enabling both accurate eye tracking and head stabilization for neurophysiology. In one set of experiments we compared the free viewing behavior of head-fixed marmosets to that of macaques, and found that their saccadic behavior is comparable across a number of saccade metrics and that saccades target similar regions of interest including faces. In a second set of experiments we applied behavioral conditioning techniques to determine whether the marmoset could control fixation for liquid reward. Two marmosets could fixate a central point and ignore peripheral flashing stimuli, as needed for receptive field mapping. Both marmosets also performed an orientation discrimination task, exhibiting a saturating psychometric function with reliable performance and shorter reaction times for easier discriminations. These data suggest that the marmoset is a viable model for studies of active vision and its underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:24453311

  16. Motor Functions of the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Neeraj J.; Katnani, Husam A.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) and its nonmammalian homolog, the optic tectum, constitute a major node in processing sensory information, incorporating cognitive factors, and issuing motor commands. The resulting action—to orient toward or away from a stimulus—can be accomplished as an integrated movement across oculomotor, cephalomotor, and skeletomotor effectors. The SC also participates in preserving fixation during intersaccadic intervals. This review highlights the repertoire of movements attributed to SC function and analyzes the significance of results obtained from causality-based experiments (microstimulation and inactivation). The mechanisms potentially used to decode the population activity in the SC into an appropriate movement command are also discussed. PMID:21456962

  17. Cognitive bias, hand preference and welfare of common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dianne J; Rogers, Lesley J

    2015-01-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have hand preferences for grasping pieces of food and holding them while eating and these are stable throughout adult life. We report here that left-handed marmosets have negative cognitive bias compared to right-handed marmosets. Twelve marmosets were trained to expect a food reward from a bowl with a black lid and not from one with a white lid, or vice versa. In probe tests with ambiguous, grey-lidded bowls a left-handed group (N=7) were less likely to remove the lid to inspect the bowl than a right-handed group (N=5). This difference between left- and right-handed marmosets was not dependent on rate of learning, sex or age. In fact, hand-preference was not associated with rate of learning the task. Furthermore, retrospective examination of colony records of 39 marmosets revealed that more aggression was directed towards left- than right-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference, which can be measured easily, could serve as an indicator of cognitive bias and may signal a need for particular care in laboratory environments. We explain the results by arguing that hand preference reflects more frequent (or dominant) use of the opposite hemisphere and this predisposes individuals to behave differently. PMID:25813746

  18. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  19. Vocal Development: How Marmoset Infants Express Their Feelings.

    PubMed

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2016-05-23

    A new study shows that vocal sequences produced by newborn marmoset monkeys are driven by slow fluctuations in physiological state; the results shed light on the evolution of vocal communication between newborns and parents. PMID:27218851

  20. The use of glucocorticoids in marmoset wasting syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Otovic, Pete; Smith, Shanequa; Hutchinson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Marmoset wasting syndrome (MWS) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in captive marmosets, and thus far no reliable treatment has been found. Glucocorticoids are used widely to treat inflammatory conditions of the GI tract such as human and feline inflammatory bowel disease, which, such as MWS, are histologically characterized by chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation in the intestines. Budesonide is a glucocorticoid with few reported side effects due to the majority of it being metabolized into inactive compounds by the liver before entering the systemic circulation. Method Eleven marmosets presented with antemortem signs consistent with MWS and were treated with oral prednisone or budesonide for 8 weeks. Results The marmosets in our study demonstrated a significant increase in both weight and albumin levels (relative to pre-treatment values) after glucocorticoid therapy. Conclusions Glucocorticoids are an effective therapy to ameliorate the clinical signs associated with MWS with minimal side effects. PMID:25614344

  1. Functional topography of converging visual and auditory inputs to neurons in the rat superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Skaliora, Irini; Doubell, Timothy P; Holmes, Nicholas P; Nodal, Fernando R; King, Andrew J

    2004-11-01

    We have used a slice preparation of the infant rat midbrain to examine converging inputs onto neurons in the deeper multisensory layers of the superior colliculus (dSC). Electrical stimulation of the superficial visual layers (sSC) and of the auditory nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (nBIC) evoked robust monosynaptic responses in dSC cells. Furthermore, the inputs from the sSC were found to be topographically organized as early as the second postnatal week and thus before opening of the eyes and ear canals. This precocious topography was found to be sculpted by GABAA-mediated inhibition of a more widespread set of connections. Tracer injections in the nBIC, both in coronal slices as well as in hemisected brains, confirmed a robust projection originating in the nBIC with distinct terminals in the proximity of the cell bodies of dSC neurons. Combined stimulation of the sSC and nBIC sites revealed that the presumptive visual and auditory inputs are summed linearly. Finally, whereas either input on its own could manifest a significant degree of paired-pulse facilitation, temporally offset stimulation of the two sites revealed no synaptic interactions, indicating again that the two inputs function independently. Taken together, these data provide the first detailed intracellular analysis of convergent sensory inputs onto dSC neurons and form the basis for further exploration of multisensory integration and developmental plasticity. PMID:15229210

  2. Binocular interaction in the cat's superior colliculus.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, N; Blakemore, C; Cynader, M

    1975-01-01

    1. Binocularly driven neurones with small receptive fields near the area centralis were recorded in the cat's superior colliculus. 2. Binocular interaction was tested by stimulating both eyes simultaneously with a single moving stimulus at various retinal disparities. 3. Collicular cells in general showed strong summation or even facilitation when the images of the stimulus were in exact correspondence on the receptive fields, sometimes with occlusion when they were out of register. The range of retinal disparity over which there was additive interaction could be as little as 1 or 2 deg, almost as narrow as for the most precisely tuned neurones in the visual cortex. Even cells with large receptive fields sometimes showed a narrow range of binocular interaction. 4. Non-directional cells generally exhibited weaker summation and broader disparity selectivity than did direction-selective cells. 5. Some neurones with virtually no response to a stimulus in one of the eyes can exhibit marked binocular interaction. Other apparently monocular cells show little or no binocular interaction. 6. The disparity of the centres of the receptive fields was measured after correcting for small eye movements, which were assessed by two different techniques. For 132 cells the measured distribution of horizontal disparity (range 4.5 deg; S.D. 0.93 deg) was significantly broader than that of vertical disparity (range 2.2 deg; S.D. 0.52 deg). Sources of error in these measurements are considered. 7. The results are discussed in relation to the known connexions between visual cortex and superior colliculus and the possible role of the latter in the regulation of eye movements. PMID:1133788

  3. The marmoset monkey as a model for visual neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jude F.; Leopold, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been valuable as a primate model in biomedical research. Interest in this species has grown recently, in part due to the successful demonstration of transgenic marmosets. Here we examine the prospects of the marmoset model for visual neuroscience research, adopting a comparative framework to place the marmoset within a broader evolutionary context. The marmoset’s small brain bears most of the organizational features of other primates, and its smooth surface offers practical advantages over the macaque for areal mapping, laminar electrode penetration, and two-photon and optical imaging. Behaviorally, marmosets are more limited at performing regimented psychophysical tasks, but do readily accept the head restraint that is necessary for accurate eye tracking and neurophysiology, and can perform simple discriminations. Their natural gaze behavior closely resembles that of other primates, with a tendency to focus on objects of social interest including faces. Their immaturity at birth and routine twinning also makes them ideal for the study of postnatal visual development. These experimental factors, together with the theoretical advantages inherent in comparing anatomy, physiology, and behavior across related species, make the marmoset an excellent model for visual neuroscience. PMID:25683292

  4. Neural interactions in unilateral colliculus and between bilateral colliculi modulate auditory signal processing

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Hui-Xian; Cheng, Liang; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2013-01-01

    In the auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. There are widespread neural interactions in unilateral (one) IC and between bilateral (two) ICs that could modulate auditory signal processing such as the amplitude and frequency selectivity of IC neurons. These neural interactions are either inhibitory or excitatory, and are mostly mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. However, the majority of interactions are inhibitory while excitatory interactions are in the minority. Such unbalanced properties between excitatory and inhibitory projections have an important role in the formation of unilateral auditory dominance and sound location, and the neural interaction in one IC and between two ICs provide an adjustable and plastic modulation pattern for auditory signal processing. PMID:23626523

  5. Vocalization Induced CFos Expression in Marmoset Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; DiMauro, Audrey; Pistorio, Ashley; Hendry, Stewart; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2010-01-01

    All non-human primates communicate with conspecifics using vocalizations, a system involving both the production and perception of species-specific vocal signals. Much of the work on the neural basis of primate vocal communication in cortex has focused on the sensory processing of vocalizations, while relatively little data are available for vocal production. Earlier physiological studies in squirrel monkeys had shed doubts on the involvement of primate cortex in vocal behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify areas of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cortex that are potentially involved in vocal communication. In this study, we quantified cFos expression in three areas of marmoset cortex – frontal, temporal (auditory), and medial temporal – under various vocal conditions. Specifically, we examined cFos expression in these cortical areas during the sensory, motor (vocal production), and sensory–motor components of vocal communication. Our results showed an increase in cFos expression in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex as well as the medial and lateral belt areas of auditory cortex in the vocal perception condition. In contrast, subjects in the vocal production condition resulted in increased cFos expression only in dorsal premotor cortex. During the sensory–motor condition (antiphonal calling), subjects exhibited cFos expression in each of the above areas, as well as increased expression in perirhinal cortex. Overall, these results suggest that various cortical areas outside primary auditory cortex are involved in primate vocal communication. These findings pave the way for further physiological studies of the neural basis of primate vocal communication. PMID:21179582

  6. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with bilateral inferior collicular hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging brain

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Maya; Sivadasan, Ajith; Alexander, Mathew; Patil, Anil Kumar B.

    2012-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus. An 8-year-old boy presented with progressive behavioral changes, cognitive decline and myoclonic jerks, progressing to a bed bound state over 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in the subcortical areas of the left occipital lobe and brachium of the inferior colliculus on both sides. EEG showed bilateral, synchronous periodic discharges. Serum/cerebrospinal fluid measles IgG titer was significantly positive. The overall features were suggestive of SSPE. MRI finding of bilateral inferior colliculus changes on MRI without significant involvement of other commonly involved areas suggests an uncommon/rare imaging pattern of SSPE. PMID:23349608

  7. Marmosets as model species in neuroscience and evolutionary anthropology.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith M; Finkenwirth, Christa

    2015-04-01

    Marmosets are increasingly used as model species by both neuroscientists and evolutionary anthropologists, but with a different rationale for doing so. Whereas neuroscientists stress that marmosets share many cognitive traits with humans due to common descent, anthropologists stress those traits shared with marmosets - and callitrichid monkeys in general - due to convergent evolution, as a consequence of the cooperative breeding system that characterizes both humans and callitrichids. Similarities in socio-cognitive abilities due to convergence, rather than homology, raise the question whether these similarities also extend to the proximate regulatory mechanisms, which is particularly relevant for neuroscientific investigations. In this review, we first provide an overview of the convergent adaptations to cooperative breeding at the psychological and cognitive level in primates, which bear important implications for our understanding of human cognitive evolution. In the second part, we zoom in on two of these convergent adaptations, proactive prosociality and social learning, and compare their proximate regulation in marmosets and humans with regard to oxytocin and cognitive top down regulation. Our analysis suggests considerable similarity in these regulatory mechanisms presumably because the convergent traits emerged due to small motivational changes that define how pre-existing cognitive mechanisms are quantitatively combined. This finding reconciles the prima facie contradictory rationale for using marmosets as high priority model species in neuroscience and anthropology. PMID:25242577

  8. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-01-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. PMID:24850892

  9. Vocal premotor activity in the superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Shiva R; Moss, Cynthia F

    2007-01-01

    Chronic neural recordings were taken from the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of echolocating bats while they were engaged in one of two distinct behavioral tasks: virtual target amplitude discrimination (VTAD) and real oscillating target tracking (ROTT). In the VTAD task, bats used a limited range of sonar call features to discriminate the amplitude category of echoes, whereas in the ROTT task, the bat produced dynamically modulated sonar calls to track a moving target. Newly developed methods for chronic recordings in unrestrained, behaving bats reveal two consistent bouts of SC neural activity preceding the onset of sonar vocalizations in both tasks. A short lead bout occurs tightly coupled to vocal onset (VTAD, -5.1 to -2.2 ms range, -3.6 +/- 0.7 ms mean lead time; ROTT, -3.0 to + 0.4 ms range, -1.2 +/- 1.3 ms mean lead time), and this activity may play a role in marking the time of each sonar emission. A long lead bout in SC activity occurs earlier and spreads over a longer interval (VTAD, -40.6 to -8.4 ms range, -22.2 +/- 3.9 ms mean lead time; ROTT, -29.8 to -7.1 ms range, -17.5 +/- 9.1 ms mean lead time) when compared with short lead events. In the goal-directed ROTT task, the timing of long lead event times vary with the bat's sonar call duration. This finding, along with behavioral studies demonstrating that bats adjust sonar call duration as they track targets at changing distance, suggests the bat SC contributes to range-dependent adjustments of sonar call duration. PMID:17202477

  10. Helminths of wild hybrid marmosets (Callithrix sp.) living in an environment with high human activity.

    PubMed

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Fuzessy, Lisieux Franco; e Silva, Vinicius Herold Dornelas; da Silva, Fernanda de Fátima Rodrigues; Junior, Moacir Carretta; Silva, Ita de Oliveira; Souza, Vanner Boere

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna in hybrid, non-native marmosets, through analysis of fecal samples. The study involved 51 marmosets (genus Callithrix) from five groups living in places with levels of human impact in Viçosa-MG. The marmosets were caught using a multiple-entrance trap and were anaesthetized. Feces were collected, refrigerated and analyzed by means of the sedimentation technique (Hoffmann-Pons-Janner). Eggs and parasites were identified, but not counted. Most of the marmosets (86%) were parasitized by at least one genus of helminths. Among the infected marmosets, 37% presented co-infection. The intestinal helminths comprised four different taxa: Primasubulura jacchi, Ancylostomatidae, Prosthenorchis sp. and Dilepididae. P. jacchi and Ancylostomatidae had higher prevalences (> 80% and > 40%, respectively) and were found in all marmoset groups. Dilepididae species were found in almost all the groups, but only accounted for around 30% of the marmosets. Prosthenorchis sp. showed a relatively low prevalence (< 10%) and was only found in one group. Although two parasites are commonly found in marmosets and other primates (P. jacchi and Prosthenorchis sp.), our study is the first record for Ancylostomatidae and Dilepididae. Factors like marmosets' feeding behavior and their contact with humans and other species of nonhuman primates seem to be determinants of infection among marmosets. PMID:24142171

  11. Bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma.

    PubMed

    Sahemey, R; Warfield, A T; Ahmed, S

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas are the most common benign osteoclastic tumours of the paranasal sinuses. However, nasal cavity and turbinate osteomas are extremely rare. Only nine middle turbinate, three inferior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported to date. The present case report describes the management and follow-up of symptomatic bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma.A 60-year-old female presented with symptoms of bilateral nasal obstruction and right-sided epiphora. Radiological investigation found hypertrophic bony changes involving both inferior turbinates. The patient was managed successfully by endoscopic inferior turbinectomies in order to achieve a patent airway, with no further recurrence of tumour after 3 months postoperatively.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. We describe a safe and minimally invasive method of tumour resection, which has a better cosmetic outcome compared with other approaches. PMID:27534890

  12. Fatal measles infection in marmosets pathogenesis and prophylaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, P; Lorenz, D; Klutch, M J; Vickers, J H; Ennis, F A

    1980-01-01

    Moustached marmosets (Saguinus mystax) were infected intranasally with either of two low-passaged, wildlike strains of measles virus, strain Edmonston or strain JM. The infection resulted in 25 and 100% mortality, respectively, 12 to 14 days after infection. Clinical signs, gross pathological findings, and histology lacked the characteristic features of measles in other primates. A deficient immune response and widespread gastroenterocolitis appeared to be the main causes for the fatal outcome. Fluorescent-antibody staining detected large amounts of measles antigen in lymphatic tissues, the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, the salivary glands, pancreas, liver, kidney, and other visceral tissues. Live attenuated or inactivated measles vaccine proved equally effective in preventing fatal measles in marmosets. Challenge with live virus of animals which were primed 1 year previously with inactivated alum-absorbed vaccine resulted in a precipitous response, with a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibody titers. This vigorous booster response suggests the existence of a primary deficiency in lymphocyte cooperation in marmosets, which upon adequate priming is followed by extensive clonal expansion and antibody synthesis. Marmosets appear to be the most susceptible primate species to measles infection. They are capable of distinguishing differences in virulence of virus strains with a level of sensitivity not available in other animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6769812

  13. Individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling in common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; Thomas, A. Wren

    2013-01-01

    Many vocalizations are encoded with a diversity of acoustic information about the signal producer. Amongst this information content are social categories related to the identity of the caller that are important for determining if and how a signal receiver may interact with that individual. Here we employed a novel playback method in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to test individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling. These experiments utilized custom, interactive playback software that effectively engaged subjects in antiphonal calling using vocalizations produced by a single individual and presented ‘probe’ vocalization stimuli representing a different individual at specific points within bouts of calling. The aim here was to test whether marmosets would recognize that the probe stimulus was a phee call produced by a different individual. Data indicated that marmosets were able to detect the change in caller identity; subjects produced significantly fewer antiphonal call responses to probe than control stimuli and, in some conditions, exhibited a shorter latency to produce the vocal response. These data suggest that marmosets recognize the identity of the individual during bouts of antiphonal calling. Furthermore, these results provide a methodological foundation for implementing the probe playback procedure to examine a broader range of social categorization during vocal interactions. PMID:22277952

  14. Rabies in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Favoretto, S. R.; de Mattos, C. C.; Morais, N. B.; Alves Araújo, F. A.; de Mattos, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    A new Rabies virus variant, with no close antigenic or genetic relationship to any known rabies variants found in bats or terrestrial mammals in the Americas, was identified in association with human rabies cases reported from the state of Ceará, Brazil, from 1991 to 1998. The marmoset, Callithrix jacchus acchus, was determined to be the source of exposure. PMID:11747745

  15. SUPERIOR COLLICULUS LESIONS AND FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS FROM RAT CORTEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally assumed that the primary response of the rat flash evoked potential (FEP) is activated by a retino-geniculate pathway, and that the second response reflects input to the cortex by way of the superior colliculus (SC) or other brainstem structures. In the present st...

  16. Protein tyrosine phosphatases expression during development of mouse superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Jacqueline; Horvat-Bröcker, Andrea; Illes, Sebastian; Zaremba, Angelika; Knyazev, Piotr; Ullrich, Axel; Faissner, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators of different processes during development of the central nervous system. However, expression patterns and potential roles of PTPs in the developing superior colliculus remain poorly investigated. In this study, a degenerate primer-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach was used to isolate seven different intracellular PTPs and nine different receptor-type PTPs (RPTPs) from embryonic E15 mouse superior colliculus. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 11 PTPs (TC-PTP, PTP1C, PTP1D, PTP-MEG2, PTP-PEST, RPTPJ, RPTPε, RPTPRR, RPTPσ, RPTPκ and RPTPγ) were further analyzed in detail in superior colliculus from embryonic E13 to postnatal P20 stages by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Each of the 11 PTPs exhibits distinct spatiotemporal regulation of mRNAs and proteins in the developing superior colliculus suggesting their versatile roles in genesis of neuronal and glial cells and retinocollicular topographic mapping. At E13, additional double-immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of PTPs in collicular nestin-positive neural progenitor cells and RC-2-immunoreactive radial glia cells, indicating the potential functional importance of PTPs in neurogenesis and gliogenesis. PMID:19727691

  17. Electrophysiologic Responses in Hamster Superior Colliculus Evoked by Regenerating Retinal Axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keirstead, S. A.; Rasminsky, M.; Fukuda, Y.; Carter, D. A.; Aguayo, A. J.; Vidal-Sanz, M.

    1989-10-01

    Autologous peripheral nerve grafts were used to permit and direct the regrowth of retinal ganglion cell axons from the eye to the ipsilateral superior colliculus of adult hamsters in which the optic nerves had been transected within the orbit. Extracellular recordings in the superior colliculus 15 to 18 weeks after graft insertion revealed excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses to visual stimulation. The finding of light-induced responses in neurons in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus close to the graft indicates that axons regenerating from axotomized retinal ganglion cells can establish electrophysiologically functional synapses with neurons in the superior colliculus of these adult mammals.

  18. Do marmosets care to share? Oxytocin treatment reduces prosocial behavior toward strangers

    PubMed Central

    Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Cavanaugh, Jon; Harnisch, April M.; Thompson, Breanna E.; French, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperatively-breeding and socially-monogamous primates, like marmosets and humans, exhibit high levels of social tolerance and prosociality toward others. Oxytocin (OXT) generally facilitates prosocial behavior, but there is growing recognition that OXT modulation of prosocial behavior is shaped by the context of social interactions and by other motivational states such as arousal or anxiety. To determine whether prosociality varies based on social context, we evaluated whether marmoset donors (Callithrix penicillata) preferentially rewarded pairmates versus opposite-sex strangers in a prosocial food-sharing task. To examine potential links among OXT, stress systems, and prosociality, we evaluated whether pretrial cortisol levels in marmosets altered the impact of OXT on prosocial responses. Marmosets exhibited spontaneous prosociality toward others, but they did so preferentially toward strangers compared to their pairmates. When donor marmosets were treated with marmoset-specific Pro8-OXT, they exhibited reduced prosociality toward strangers compared to marmosets treated with saline or consensus-mammalian Leu8-OXT. When pretrial cortisol levels were lower, marmosets exhibited higher prosociality toward strangers. These findings demonstrate that while marmosets show spontaneous prosocial responses toward others, they do so preferentially toward opposite-sex strangers. Cooperative breeding may be associated with the expression of prosociality, but the existence of a pair-bond between marmoset partners appears to be neither necessary nor sufficient for the expression of spontaneous prosocial responses. Further, high prosociality toward strangers is significantly reduced in marmosets treated with Pro8-OXT, suggesting that OXT does not universally enhance prosociality, but, rather OXT modulation of prosocial behavior varies depending on social context. PMID:25934057

  19. Do marmosets care to share? Oxytocin treatment reduces prosocial behavior toward strangers.

    PubMed

    Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Harnisch, April M; Thompson, Breanna E; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-05-01

    Cooperatively-breeding and socially-monogamous primates, like marmosets and humans, exhibit high levels of social tolerance and prosociality toward others. Oxytocin (OXT) generally facilitates prosocial behavior, but there is growing recognition that OXT modulation of prosocial behavior is shaped by the context of social interactions and by other motivational states such as arousal or anxiety. To determine whether prosociality varies based on social context, we evaluated whether marmoset donors (Callithrix penicillata) preferentially rewarded pairmates versus opposite-sex strangers in a prosocial food-sharing task. To examine potential links among OXT, stress systems, and prosociality, we evaluated whether pretrial cortisol levels in marmosets altered the impact of OXT on prosocial responses. Marmosets exhibited spontaneous prosociality toward others, but they did so preferentially toward strangers compared to their pairmates. When donor marmosets were treated with marmoset-specific Pro(8)-OXT, they exhibited reduced prosociality toward strangers compared to marmosets treated with saline or consensus-mammalian Leu(8)-OXT. When pretrial cortisol levels were lower, marmosets exhibited higher prosociality toward strangers. These findings demonstrate that while marmosets show spontaneous prosocial responses toward others, they do so preferentially toward opposite-sex strangers. Cooperative breeding may be associated with the expression of prosociality, but the existence of a pair-bond between marmoset partners appears to be neither necessary nor sufficient for the expression of spontaneous prosocial responses. Furthermore, high prosociality toward strangers is significantly reduced in marmosets treated with Pro(8)-OXT, suggesting that OXT does not universally enhance prosociality, but, rather OXT modulation of prosocial behavior varies depending on social context. PMID:25934057

  20. Use of the Common Marmoset to Study Burkholderia mallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Stephen B.; Mead, Daniel G.; Shaffer, Teresa L.; Estes, D. Mark; Michel, Frank; Quinn, Frederick D.; Hogan, Robert J.; Lafontaine, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted bacterium that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir. The organism causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by B. mallei typically occurs via the respiratory or percutaneous route, and the most common manifestations are life-threatening pneumonia and bacteremia. Glanders is difficult to diagnose and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There is no vaccine to protect against B. mallei and there is concern regarding its use as a biothreat agent. Thus, experiments were performed to establish a non-human primate model of intranasal infection to study the organism and develop countermeasures. Groups of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were inoculated intranasally with B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and monitored for clinical signs of illness for up to 13 days. We discovered that 83% of marmosets inoculated with doses of 2.5 X 104 to 2.5 X 105 bacteria developed acute lethal infection within 3–4 days. Signs of disease were severe and included lethargy, inappetence, conjunctivitis, mucopurulent and hemorrhagic nasal discharges, and increased respiratory effort with abdominal lifts. Burkholderia mallei was cultured from the lungs, spleen and liver of these animals, and pathologic examination of tissues revealed lesions characteristic of glanders. Challenge experiments also revealed that 91% of animals infected with doses ranging from 25 to 2.5 X 103 bacteria exhibited mild non-specific signs of illness and were culture negative. One marmoset inoculated with 2.5 X 103 organisms developed moderate signs of disease and reached humane end-points 8 days post-infection. The liver and spleen of this animal were colonized with the agent and pathological analysis of tissues showed nasal, splenic and hepatic lesions. Taken together, these data indicate that the marmoset is a suitable model to study respiratory infection by B. mallei. PMID

  1. Motion dependence of smooth pursuit eye movements in the marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Nicholas J.; Miller, Cory T.

    2015-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements stabilize slow-moving objects on the retina by matching eye velocity with target velocity. Two critical components are required to generate smooth pursuit: first, because it is a voluntary eye movement, the subject must select a target to pursue to engage the tracking system; and second, generating smooth pursuit requires a moving stimulus. We examined whether this behavior also exists in the common marmoset, a New World primate that is increasingly attracting attention as a genetic model for mental disease and systems neuroscience. We measured smooth pursuit in two marmosets, previously trained to perform fixation tasks, using the standard Rashbass step-ramp pursuit paradigm. We first measured the aspects of visual motion that drive pursuit eye movements. Smooth eye movements were in the same direction as target motion, indicating that pursuit was driven by target movement rather than by displacement. Both the open-loop acceleration and closed-loop eye velocity exhibited a linear relationship with target velocity for slow-moving targets, but this relationship declined for higher speeds. We next examined whether marmoset pursuit eye movements depend on an active engagement of the pursuit system by measuring smooth eye movements evoked by small perturbations of motion from fixation or during pursuit. Pursuit eye movements were much larger during pursuit than from fixation, indicating that pursuit is actively gated. Several practical advantages of the marmoset brain, including the accessibility of the middle temporal (MT) area and frontal eye fields at the cortical surface, merit its utilization for studying pursuit movements. PMID:25867740

  2. Angular momentum and arboreal stability in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Chadwell, Brad A; Young, Jesse W

    2015-04-01

    Despite the importance that concepts of arboreal stability have in theories of primate locomotor evolution, we currently lack measures of balance performance during primate locomotion. We provide the first quantitative data on locomotor stability in an arboreal primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), predicting that primates should maximize arboreal stability by minimizing side-to-side angular momentum about the support (i.e., Lsup ). If net Lsup becomes excessive, the animal will be unable to arrest its angular movement and will fall. Using a novel, highly integrative experimental procedure we directly measured whole-body Lsup in two adult marmosets moving along narrow (2.5 cm diameter) and broad (5 cm diameter) poles. Marmosets showed a strong preference for asymmetrical gaits (e.g., gallops and bounds) over symmetrical gaits (e.g., walks and runs), with asymmetrical gaits representing >90% of all strides. Movement on the narrow support was associated with an increase in more "grounded" gaits (i.e., lacking an aerial phase) and a more even distribution of torque production between the fore- and hind limbs. These adjustments in gait dynamics significantly reduced net Lsup on the narrow support relative to the broad support. Despite their lack of a well-developed grasping apparatus, marmosets proved adept at producing muscular "grasping" torques about the support, particularly with the hind limbs. We contend that asymmetrical gaits permit small-bodied arboreal mammals, including primates, to expand "effective grasp" by gripping the substrate between left and right limbs of a girdle. This model of arboreal stability may hold important implications for understanding primate locomotor evolution. PMID:25523444

  3. Controlled movement processing: superior colliculus activity associated with countermanded saccades.

    PubMed

    Paré, Martin; Hanes, Doug P

    2003-07-23

    We investigated whether the monkey superior colliculus (SC), an important midbrain structure for the regulation of saccadic eye movements, contains neurons with activity patterns sufficient to control both the cancellation and the production of saccades. We used a countermanding task to manipulate the probability that, after the presentation of a stop signal, the monkeys canceled a saccade that was planned in response to an eccentric visual stimulus. By modeling each animal's behavioral responses, with a race between GO and STOP processes leading up to either saccade initiation or cancellation, we estimated that saccade cancellation took on average 110 msec. Neurons recorded in the superior colliculus intermediate layers during this task exhibited the discharge properties expected from neurons closely involved in behavioral control. Both saccade- and fixation-related discharged differently when saccades were counter-manded instead of executed, and the time at which they changed their activity preceded the behavioral estimate of saccade cancellation obtained from the same trials by 10 and 13 msec, respectively. Furthermore, these intervals exceed the minimal amount of time needed for SC activity to influence eye movements. The additional observation that saccade-related neurons discharged significantly less when saccades were countermanded instead of executed suggests that saccades are triggered when these neurons reach a critical activation level. Altogether, these findings provide solid evidence that the superior colliculus contains the necessary neural signals to be directly involved in the decision process that regulates whether a saccade is to be produced. PMID:12878689

  4. Functional Connectivity Hubs and Networks in the Awake Marmoset Brain

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Annabelle M.; Yen, Cecil Chern-Chyi; Notardonato, Lucia; Ross, Thomas J.; Volkow, Nora D.; Yang, Yihong; Stein, Elliot A.; Silva, Afonso C.; Tomasi, Dardo

    2016-01-01

    In combination with advances in analytical methods, resting-state fMRI is allowing unprecedented access to a better understanding of the network organization of the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that this architecture may incorporate highly functionally connected nodes, or “hubs”, and we have recently proposed local functional connectivity density (lFCD) mapping to identify highly-connected nodes in the human brain. Here, we imaged awake nonhuman primates to test whether, like the human brain, the marmoset brain contains FC hubs. Ten adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were acclimated to mild, comfortable restraint using individualized helmets. Following restraint training, resting BOLD data were acquired during eight consecutive 10 min scans for each subject. lFCD revealed prominent cortical and subcortical hubs of connectivity across the marmoset brain; specifically, in primary and secondary visual cortices (V1/V2), higher-order visual association areas (A19M/V6[DM]), posterior parietal and posterior cingulate areas (PGM and A23b/A31), thalamus, dorsal and ventral striatal areas (caudate, putamen, lateral septal nucleus, and anterior cingulate cortex (A24a). lFCD hubs were highly connected to widespread areas of the brain, and further revealed significant network-network interactions. These data provide a baseline platform for future investigations in a nonhuman primate model of the brain’s network topology. PMID:26973476

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Cerebellum in Common Marmoset Exposed to Methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yueting; Yamamoto, Megumi; Figeys, Daniel; Ning, Zhibin; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-07-01

    The cerebellum is known as the major target regions of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity, but the mechanisms are still not fully understood. We studied the effects of MeHg exposure in the cerebellum of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) using a shotgun proteomic approach with liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A total of 1000 common proteins were identified in all samples, and 102 proteins were significantly differentially expressed in the cerebellum of common marmoset with orally dosed MeHg (1.5 mg MeHg/kg body weight for 2 weeks) compared with those of the control group. Functional enrichment analysis and pathway predictions showed that the differentially expressed proteins were involved in carbohydrate derivative metabolic process, ion transport including synaptic transmission, cell development, and calcium signaling pathway. Cellular component enrichment analysis showed that they were mainly distributed in plasma membrane, excitatory synapse, and synaptic membrane. These results indicate that synaptic transmission and calcium signaling pathways are the core functions affected by MeHg. We found a total of 21 novel proteins affected by MeHg in synaptic transmission and calcium signaling pathways. DLG4: (PSD95) and MIR-19A/MIR-19B were found to be potential key targets leading to the multiple effects of MeHg neurotoxicity. These results show the global effects of MeHg on cellular functions and pathways leading to neurological deficits in common marmoset. PMID:25809596

  6. Metabolic Characterization of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Liang, Yongliang; Uppal, Karan; Soltow, Quinlyn A.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution metabolomics has created opportunity to integrate nutrition and metabolism into genetic studies to improve understanding of the diverse radiation of primate species. At present, however, there is very little information to help guide experimental design for study of wild populations. In a previous non-targeted metabolomics study of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), Rhesus macaques, humans, and four non-primate mammalian species, we found that essential amino acids (AA) and other central metabolites had interspecies variation similar to intraspecies variation while non-essential AA, environmental chemicals and catabolic waste products had greater interspecies variation. The present study was designed to test whether 55 plasma metabolites, including both nutritionally essential and non-essential metabolites and catabolic products, differ in concentration in common marmosets and humans. Significant differences were present for more than half of the metabolites analyzed and included AA, vitamins and central lipid metabolites, as well as for catabolic products of AA, nucleotides, energy metabolism and heme. Three environmental chemicals were present at low nanomolar concentrations but did not differ between species. Sex and age differences in marmosets were present for AA and nucleotide metabolism and warrant additional study. Overall, the results suggest that quantitative, targeted metabolomics can provide a useful complement to non-targeted metabolomics for studies of diet and environment interactions in primate evolution. PMID:26581102

  7. Connections of the superior colliculus with the tegmentum and the cerebellum in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1997-06-01

    Different tracer substances were injected into the superior colliculus (CoS) in order to study its afferents and efferents with the meso-rhombencephalic tegmentum, the precerebellar nuclei and the cerebellum in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec. The overall pattern of tectal connectivity in tenrec was similar to that in other mammals, as, e.g. the efferents to the contralateral paramedian reticular formation. Similarly the origin of the cerebello-tectal projection in mainly the lateral portions of the tenrec's cerebellar nuclear complex corresponded to the findings in species with little binocular overlap. In comparison to other mammals, however, the tenrec showed a consistent projection to the ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus, in addition to the classical contralateral tecto-olivary projection. The tenrec's CoS also appeared to receive an unusually prominent monoaminergic input particularly from the substantia nigra, pars compacta. There was a reciprocal tecto-parabigeminal projection, a distinct nuclear aggregation of parabigeminal neurons, however, was difficult to identify. The dorsal lemniscal nucleus did not show perikaryal labeling in contrast to the paralemniscal region. Similar to the cat but unlike the rat there were a few neurons in the nucleus of the central acoustic tract. Unlike the cat, but similar to the rat there was a distinct, predominantly ipsilateral projection to the magnocellular reticular field known to project spinalward. PMID:9220470

  8. Development of Metabolic Function Biomarkers in the Common Marmoset, Callithrix jacchus

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Toni E.; Colman, Ricki J.; Tardif, Suzette D.; Sosa, Megan E.; Wegner, Fredrick H.; Wittwer, Daniel J.; Shrestha, Hemanta

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic assessment of a nonhuman primate model of metabolic syndrome and obesity requires the necessary biomarkers specific to the species. While the rhesus monkey has a number of specific assays for assessing metabolic syndrome, the marmoset does not. Furthermore, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has a small blood volume that necessitates using a single blood volume for multiple analyses. The common marmoset holds a great potential as an alternative primate model for the study of human disease but assay methods need to be developed and validated for the biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. Here we report on the adaptation, development and validation of commercially available immunoassays for common marmoset samples in small volumes. We have performed biological validations for insulin, adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin to demonstrate the use of these biomarkers in examining metabolic syndrome and other related diseases in the common marmoset. PMID:23447060

  9. Diencephalic connections of the superior colliculus in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1996-10-01

    Using different tracer substances the pathways connecting the superior colliculus with the diencephalon were studied in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a nocturnal insectivore with tiny eyes, a small and little differentiated superior colliculus and a visual cortex with no obvious fourth granular layer. The most prominent tecto-thalamic projection terminated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The entire region receiving contralateral retinal afferents was labeled with variable density. In addition, there was a widespread, homogeneously distributed collicular input to the lateralis posterior-pulvinar complex and a distinct tectal projection to the suprageniculate nucleus. The latter projections were bilateral with a clear ipsilateral predominance. Among the intra- and paralaminar nuclei the centralis lateralis complex was most heavily labeled on both sides, followed by the nucleus centralis medialis. The paralamellar portion of the nucleus medialis dorsalis and the nucleus parafascicularis received sparse projections. A clear projection to the nucleus ventralis medialis could not be demonstrated but its presence was not entirely excluded either. There were also projections to medial thalamic nuclei, particularly the reuniens complex and the nucleus paraventricularis thalami. The main tecto-subthalamic target regions were the zona incerta, the dorsal hypothalamus and distinct subdivisons of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus. These regions also gave rise to projections to the superior colliculus, as did the intergeniculate leaflet. The pathways oriented toward the visual or frontal cortex and the projections possibly involved in limbic and circadian mechanisms were compared with the connectivity patterns reported in mammals with more differentiated brains. Particular attention was given to the tenrec's prominent tecto-geniculate projection, the presumed W- or K-pathway directed toward the supragranular layers. PMID:8911930

  10. Dexrazoxane Abrogates Acute Doxorubicin Toxicity in Marmoset Ovary1

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Sana M.; Ringelstetter, Ashley K.; Elsarrag, Mazin Z.; Abbott, David H.; Roti, Elon C. Roti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preservation of ovarian function following chemotherapy for nonovarian cancers is a formidable challenge. For prepubescent girls, the only option to prevent chemotherapy damage to the ovary is ovarian tissue cryopreservation, an experimental procedure requiring invasive surgeries to harvest and reimplant tissue, which carries the risk of cancer reintroduction. Drugs that block the primary mechanism of chemotherapy insult, such as dexrazoxane (Dexra) in the context of anthracycline chemotherapy, provide a novel approach for ovarian protection and have the potential to overcome current limitations to oncofertility treatment. Dexra is a catalytic topoisomerase 2 inhibitor that protects the mouse ovary from acute doxorubicin (DXR) chemotherapy toxicity in vitro by preventing DXR-induced DNA damage and subsequent gammaH2AX activation. To translate acute DXR ovarian insult and Dexra protection from mouse to nonhuman primate, freshly obtained marmoset ovarian tissue was cultured in vitro and treated with vehicle or 20 μM Dexra 1 h prior to 50 nM DXR. Cultured ovarian tissue was harvested at 2, 4, or 24 h post-DXR treatment. Dexra prevented DXR-induced DNA double-strand breaks as quantified by the neutral comet assay. DXR treatment for 24 h increased gammaH2AX phosphorylation, specifically increasing the number of foci-positive granulosa cells in antral follicles, while Dexra pretreatment inhibited DXR-induced gammaH2AX phosphorylation foci formation. Additionally, Dexra pretreatment trended toward attenuating DXR-induced AKT1 phosphorylation and caspase-9 activation as assayed by Western blots of ovarian tissue lysates. The combined findings suggest Dexra prevents primary DXR-induced DNA damage, the subsequent cellular response to DNA damage, and may diminish early apoptotic signaling in marmoset ovarian tissue. This study provides initial translation of Dexra protection against acute ovarian DXR toxicity from mice to marmoset monkey tissue. PMID:25609833

  11. Oestradiol modulation of cognition in adult female marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Chang, Jeemin; Metevier, Christina M.; LaClair, Matthew; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Ferris, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) provides many advantages over traditional rodent and macaque species as a model for human aging and may be very valuable to study the effects of sex steroids on cognitive and brain aging. We present the first study examining the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function in female marmosets. Adult monkeys (3-5 years of age) were trained to a specific learning criterion on a battery of cognitive tasks preoperatively (object discrimination, delayed response with increasing delays and detour reaching with opaque box) and tested on different versions of these tasks (object reversals, delayed response with randomised delays and detour reaching with clear box) following ovariectomy and simultaneous implantation with 17β-oestradiol (E2, n=6) or blank (n=6) Silastic capsules. Acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position task with a 1s delay was also administered following completion of these tests. E2-treated monkeys were significantly impaired on the second Reversal and showed an increase in perseverative responding from Reversals 1 to 3. Their performance also tended to be worse than that of control monkeys on the Delayed Response task. Performance acquisition on the DMP tended to be better in E2-treated relative to control monkeys, but the group difference did not reach statistical significance. No effect of treatment was detected for Detour Reaching or affiliative behaviours. Overall, the findings indicate that E2 compromises performance on prefrontally-mediated tasks. The suggestion that E2 may improve acquisition on tasks dependent on the hippocampus will require further validation. These results are discussed in the context of dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling. We conclude that the marmoset is a useful new primate model to examine the effects of oestrogens on cognitive function. PMID:24617856

  12. Dexrazoxane abrogates acute doxorubicin toxicity in marmoset ovary.

    PubMed

    Salih, Sana M; Ringelstetter, Ashley K; Elsarrag, Mazin Z; Abbott, David H; Roti, Elon C Roti

    2015-03-01

    Preservation of ovarian function following chemotherapy for nonovarian cancers is a formidable challenge. For prepubescent girls, the only option to prevent chemotherapy damage to the ovary is ovarian tissue cryopreservation, an experimental procedure requiring invasive surgeries to harvest and reimplant tissue, which carries the risk of cancer reintroduction. Drugs that block the primary mechanism of chemotherapy insult, such as dexrazoxane (Dexra) in the context of anthracycline chemotherapy, provide a novel approach for ovarian protection and have the potential to overcome current limitations to oncofertility treatment. Dexra is a catalytic topoisomerase 2 inhibitor that protects the mouse ovary from acute doxorubicin (DXR) chemotherapy toxicity in vitro by preventing DXR-induced DNA damage and subsequent gammaH2AX activation. To translate acute DXR ovarian insult and Dexra protection from mouse to nonhuman primate, freshly obtained marmoset ovarian tissue was cultured in vitro and treated with vehicle or 20 μM Dexra 1 h prior to 50 nM DXR. Cultured ovarian tissue was harvested at 2, 4, or 24 h post-DXR treatment. Dexra prevented DXR-induced DNA double-strand breaks as quantified by the neutral comet assay. DXR treatment for 24 h increased gammaH2AX phosphorylation, specifically increasing the number of foci-positive granulosa cells in antral follicles, while Dexra pretreatment inhibited DXR-induced gammaH2AX phosphorylation foci formation. Additionally, Dexra pretreatment trended toward attenuating DXR-induced AKT1 phosphorylation and caspase-9 activation as assayed by Western blots of ovarian tissue lysates. The combined findings suggest Dexra prevents primary DXR-induced DNA damage, the subsequent cellular response to DNA damage, and may diminish early apoptotic signaling in marmoset ovarian tissue. This study provides initial translation of Dexra protection against acute ovarian DXR toxicity from mice to marmoset monkey tissue. PMID:25609833

  13. Common marmoset CD117+ hematopoietic cells possess multipotency.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Shin; Nunomura, Satoshi; Mori, Shuya; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Itoh, Toshio; Takabayashi, Shuji; Okada, Yoshinori; Yahata, Takashi; Shiina, Takashi; Katoh, Hideki; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tani, Kenzaburo; Ando, Kiyoshi; Yagita, Hideo; Habu, Sonoko; Sasaki, Erika; Kametani, Yoshie

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of the hematopoiesis of non-human primates is important to clarify the evolution of primate-specific hematopoiesis and immune regulation. However, the engraftment and development of the primate hematopoietic system are well-documented only in humans and are not clear in non-human primates. Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset, CM) is a New World monkey with a high rate of pregnancy and small size that lives in closed colonies. As stem cell factor (SCF) is an essential molecule for hematopoietic stem cell development in mice and humans, we focused on CD117, the SCF receptor, and examined whether CD117-expressing cells possess the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell characteristics of newborn marmoset-derived hematopoietic cells that can develop into T cells and B cells. When CD117(+) cell fractions of the bone marrow were transplanted into immunodeficient NOD (non-obese diabetic)/Shi-scid, common γc-null (NOG) mice, these cells engrafted efficiently in the bone marrow and spleens of the NOG mice. The CD117(+) cells developed into myeloid lineage cells, CD20(+) B cells and CD3(+) T cells, which could express CM cytokines in vivo. The development of B cells did not precede that of T cells. The development of CD8(+) T cells was dominant in NOG mice. The engraftment was comparable for both CD117(+)CD34(+) cells and CD117(+)CD34(-) cells. These results suggest that the CD117(+) cell fraction can differentiate into all three cell lineages, and the development of marmoset immunity in the xenogeneic environment follows diverse developmental pathways compared with human immunity. PMID:25977306

  14. Inferior alveolar nerve repositioning.

    PubMed

    Louis, P J

    2001-09-01

    Nerve repositioning is a viable alternative for patients with an atrophic edentulous posterior mandible. Patients, however, should be informed of the potential risks of neurosensory disturbance. Documentation of the patient's baseline neurosensory function should be performed with a two-point discrimination test or directional brush stroke test preoperatively and postoperatively. Recovery of nerve function should be expected in 3 to 6 months. The potential for mandibular fracture when combining nerve repositioning with implant placement also should be discussed with the patient. This can be avoided by minimizing the amount of buccal cortical plate removal during localization of the nerve and maintaining the integrity of the inferior cortex of the mandible. Additionally, avoid overseating the implant, thus avoiding stress along the inferior border of the mandible. The procedure does allow for the placement of longer implants, which should improve implant longevity. Patients undergoing this procedure have expressed overall satisfaction with the results. Nerve repositioning also can be used to preserve the inferior alveolar nerve during resection of benign tumors or cysts of the mandible. This procedure allows the surgeon to maintain nerve function in situations in which the nerve would otherwise have to be resected. PMID:11665379

  15. Common marmoset embryonic stem cell can differentiate into cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Hao; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Li Weizhen; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Onizuka, Takeshi; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Ohno, Yohei; Sasaki, Erika; Kimura, Kensuke; Hakuno, Daihiko

    2008-05-09

    Common marmoset monkeys have recently attracted much attention as a primate research model, and are preferred to rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys due to their small bodies, easy handling and efficient breeding. We recently reported the establishment of common marmoset embryonic stem cell (CMESC) lines that could differentiate into three germ layers. Here, we report that our CMESC can also differentiate into cardiomyocytes and investigated their characteristics. After induction, FOG-2 was expressed, followed by GATA4 and Tbx20, then Nkx2.5 and Tbx5. Spontaneous beating could be detected at days 12-15. Immunofluorescent staining and ultrastructural analyses revealed that they possessed characteristics typical of functional cardiomyocytes. They showed sinus node-like action potentials, and the beating rate was augmented by isoproterenol stimulation. The BrdU incorporation assay revealed that CMESC-derived cardiomyocytes retained a high proliferative potential for up to 24 weeks. We believe that CMESC-derived cardiomyocytes will advance preclinical studies in cardiovascular regenerative medicine.

  16. Diminished adult neurogenesis in the marmoset brain precedes old age

    PubMed Central

    Leuner, Benedetta; Kozorovitskiy, Yevgenia; Gross, Charles G.; Gould, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    With aging there is a decline in the number of newly generated neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In rodents and tree shrews, this age-related decrease in neurogenesis is evident long before the animals become aged. No previous studies have investigated whether primates exhibit a similar decline in hippocampal neurogenesis with aging. To investigate this possibility, young to middle aged adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were injected with BrdU and perfused 3 weeks later. The number of newly generated cells in the subgranular zone/granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus was significantly lower in older animals and decreased linearly with age. A similar age-related decline in new cells was observed in the subventricular zone but not in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus. These data demonstrate that a substantial decrease in neurogenesis occurs before the onset of old age in the adult marmoset brain, suggesting the possibility that similar alterations occur in the human brain. PMID:17940008

  17. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level. PMID:24285889

  18. Mirror Neurons in a New World Monkey, Common Marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Wataru; Banno, Taku; Miyakawa, Naohisa; Abe, Hiroshi; Goda, Naokazu; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neurons respond when executing a motor act and when observing others' similar act. So far, mirror neurons have been found only in macaques, humans, and songbirds. To investigate the degree of phylogenetic specialization of mirror neurons during the course of their evolution, we determined whether mirror neurons with similar properties to macaques occur in a New World monkey, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The ventral premotor cortex (PMv), where mirror neurons have been reported in macaques, is difficult to identify in marmosets, since no sulcal landmarks exist in the frontal cortex. We addressed this problem using “in vivo” connection imaging methods. That is, we first identified cells responsive to others' grasping action in a clear landmark, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), under anesthesia, and injected fluorescent tracers into the region. By fluorescence stereomicroscopy, we identified clusters of labeled cells in the ventrolateral frontal cortex, which were confirmed to be within the ventrolateral frontal cortex including PMv after sacrifice. We next implanted electrodes into the ventrolateral frontal cortex and STS and recorded single/multi-units under an awake condition. As a result, we found neurons in the ventrolateral frontal cortex with characteristic “mirror” properties quite similar to those in macaques. This finding suggests that mirror neurons occur in a common ancestor of New and Old World monkeys and its common properties are preserved during the course of primate evolution. PMID:26696817

  19. Relaxin supports implantation and early pregnancy in the marmoset monkey.

    PubMed

    Einspanier, Almuth; Lieder, Kai; Husen, Bettina; Ebert, Katja; Lier, Susanne; Einspanier, Ralf; Unemori, Elaine; Kemper, Martina

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that relaxin is an important factor supporting implantation, two approaches have been carried out using a human-relevant animal model, the marmoset monkey. First, uterine mRNA transcription and protein expression during the implantation phase in the conceptive and nonconceptive cycles were examined. Second, functional parameters were analyzed to assess the in vivo effects of exogenous applied relaxin throughout implantation. Relaxin and its receptor, RXFP1, were highly upregulated shortly before and during the physical process of implantation, indicating that relaxin is an important factor for remodeling and immunotolerance. The action of relaxin on the uterus was accompanied by an increase of estrogen-associated factors and macrophage infiltration, suggesting redundant systems necessary for successful implantation. The data from relaxin-treated animals supported those obtained from naive tissues in terms of increases in angiogenesis as well as earlier and faster growth of the uterus and placenta in the relaxin-treated marmoset monkey group, resulting in parturition 7-10 days earlier than the control group, but not pathological. In general, relaxin is very effective in preparing the endometrium for implantation. These findings should encourage further clinical research regarding introducing relaxin for pathological pregnancies, such as early pregnancy failure or insufficient placenta. PMID:19416176

  20. Reunion behavior after social separation is associated with enhanced HPA recovery in young marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jack H; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Hochfelder, Benjamin; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-07-01

    The relationships that offspring develop with caregivers can exert a powerful influence on behavior and physiology, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In many mammalian species, offspring-caregiver relationships are largely limited to interactions with mother. Marmoset monkeys receive care in early life from multiple classes of caregivers in addition to the mother, including fathers and siblings. We evaluated whether affiliative social interactions with family members in marmosets were associated with differences in cortisol reactivity to a short-term social separation stressor, and whether these variations in affiliative interactions upon reunion predicted how well marmosets subsequently regulated HPA axis function after cessation of the stressor. Marmosets were separated from the family for 8h at three developmental time points (6-, 12-, and 18-months of age), and interactions of the separated marmoset with the family group were recorded during reunion. Urinary cortisol was measured prior to social separation, every 2h during the separation, and on the morning after separation. Heightened cortisol reactivity during social separation did not predict affiliative social behavior upon reunion but higher rates of grooming and play behavior predicted enhanced HPA regulation. Marmosets with higher rates of grooming and play with family members upon reunion had post-stress cortisol levels closer to preseparation baseline than marmosets with lower rates of affiliative reunion behavior. Combined with previous research showing the early programming effects of social interactions with caregivers, as well as the buffering effect of a close social partner during stress, the current study highlights the high degree of behavioral and HPA adaptability to social stressors across development in marmoset monkeys. PMID:25900596

  1. [The marmoset in biomedical research. Value of this primate model for cardiovascular studies].

    PubMed

    Michel, J B; Mahouy, G

    1990-03-01

    Because of its small size, low cost of maintenance, breeding capabilities in captivity, the marmoset, a New World monkey, appears well suited for clinical and fundamental investigations. The contribution of this laboratory animal in the main areas of biomedical research is succinctly described: viral oncology, infections diseases, immunology, reproduction, toxicology and teratology, odontology, behaviour and neuro-psychopathology. Emphasis is put upon the exceptional interest of the use of marmoset as a biological model in cardiovascular studies. PMID:2110648

  2. Puzzle Feeders and Gum Feeders as Environmental Enrichment for Common Marmosets.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R. Lucille; Roytburd, Luba A.; Newman, John D.

    1999-09-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) are highly social New World monkeys that consume a principally gummivorous and insectivorous diet. We examined the efficacy of two types of foraging devices, Puzzle-Feeders(tm) and gum feeders, as environmental enrichment for marmosets housed singly (n = 16) or in sibling (n = 4) and heterosexual (n = 8) pairs. In experiment 1, marmosets were exposed to each of the two types of foraging devices for three hours, once per week for two weeks. Thirty-minute observations were conducted at the beginning and end of each exposure period. Marmosets in all housing conditions experienced significant reductions in the frequency of stereotyped pacing and significantly less time sitting still while exposed to the foraging devices. Marmosets experienced significantly lower levels of feeder use and significantly more time sitting still at the end of the three-hour exposure than at the beginning. Marmosets that were singly or sibling housed used the devices the most and had the largest reductions in time spent sitting still during enrichment. In experiment 2, singly housed marmosets were given two types of gum feeders, a wooden and a Gumabone(tm) gum feeder, each for a week-long period. Thirty-minute observations were conducted three times per week immediately after loading the feeders with fresh gum. The wooden gum feeders were heavily gouged during the week-long exposure, although significantly less use of both types of gum feeders was observed on the third and fifth days. These results indicated that marmosets in variable social housing conditions can benefit from environmental enrichment additional to social housing, and that foraging enrichment promotes increased non-stereotyped movement and decreased pacing in this species. PMID:12086412

  3. The dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 effectively increases eye blinking count in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Manato; Kiyoshi, Akihiko; Murai, Takeshi; Nakako, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Ikejiri, Masaru; Ogi, Yuji; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2016-03-01

    Eye blinking is a spontaneous behavior observed in all mammals, and has been used as a well-established clinical indicator for dopamine production in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Tourette syndrome [1,2]. Pharmacological studies in humans and non-human primates have shown that dopamine agonists/antagonists increase/decrease eye blinking rate. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have recently attracted a great deal of attention as suitable experimental animals in the psychoneurological field due to their more developed prefrontal cortex than rodents, easy handling compare to other non-human primates, and requirement for small amounts of test drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dopamine D1-4 receptors agonists on eye blinking in common marmosets. Our results show that the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 and the non-selective dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine significantly increased common marmosets eye blinking count, whereas the dopamine D2 agonist (+)-PHNO and the dopamine D3 receptor agonist (+)-PD-128907 produced somnolence in common marmosets resulting in a decrease in eye blinking count. The dopamine D4 receptor agonists PD-168077 and A-41297 had no effect on common marmosets' eye blinking count. Finally, the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 39166 completely blocked apomorphine-induced increase in eye blinking count. These results indicate that eye blinking in common marmosets may be a useful tool for in vivo screening of novel dopamine D1 receptor agonists as antipsychotics. PMID:26675887

  4. Morphology and staining behavior of neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Martina; Curths, Christoph; Dahlmann, Franziska; Wichmann, Judy; Bauer, Natali; Moritz, Andreas; Braun, Armin; Knauf, Sascha; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Gruber-Dujardin, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used as translational animal models for human diseases. However, a comparative study of cytological and histochemical detection methods as well as morphometric and ultrastructural characterization of neutrophils and eosinophils in this species is lacking. Blood samples of house dust mite sensitized and allergen challenged as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged marmosets were analyzed with different cytological and histological staining methods. Furthermore, cell size and number of nuclear segments were compared between neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy was performed to characterize the ultrastructure of granulocytes. Of all applied cytological stains, three allowed differentiation of eosinophils and neutrophils and, thus, reliable quantification in blood smears: May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, Congo Red and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate-Esterase. For histology, Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) could not demonstrate clear differences, whereas Sirius Red, Congo Red, and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate Esterase showed capable results for identification of eosinophils or neutrophils in lung tissue. Morphometry revealed that marmoset neutrophils have more nuclear segments and are slightly larger than eosinophils. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils presented with large homogeneous electron-dense granules without crystalloid cores, while neutrophils were characterized by heterogeneous granules of different size and density. Additionally, sombrero-like vesicles were detected in tissue eosinophils of atopic marmosets, indicative for hypersensitivity-related piecemeal degranulation. In conclusion, we provide a detailed overview of marmoset eosinophils and neutrophils, important for phenotypic characterization of marmoset models for human airway diseases. PMID:27165445

  5. Neighbor effects in marmosets: social contagion of agonism and affiliation in captive Callithrix jacchus.

    PubMed

    Watson, Claire F I; Caldwell, Christine A

    2010-06-01

    Researchers have demonstrated the neighbor effect for affiliative and agonistic neighbor vocalizations in captive chimpanzees. We extend the investigation of the neighbor effect to New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus. We collected data on vocalizations and behaviors of 31 focal individuals and concurrent neighbor vocalization within three behavioral categories: intragroup and intergroup aggression and intragroup affiliation. We investigated whether there was an influence of neighbor vocalizations on focal behavior within the same behavioral category. For data analysis we used approximate randomization of paired-sample t-tests. We found that marmosets performed intergroup aggressive behavior (bristle, anogenital present for neighbor loud shrill only) for significantly longer, and emitted significantly more intergroup agonistic vocalizations (twitter, loud shrill), at a high frequency of intergroup agonistic neighbor vocalizations (twitter, loud shrill) than at low. The marmosets were also significantly more likely to engage in bristle behavior immediately after hearing a neighbor intergroup aggressive call (twitter, loud shrill) than directly beforehand. High neighbor intragroup agonistic calls (chatter) were associated with significantly longer spent in related behavior (composite of: attack, chase, steal food). Affiliative behaviors (share food, grooming invite) were engaged in by marmosets for significantly longer at higher frequencies of affiliative neighbor chirp calls than at low. Marmosets were also significantly more likely to perform food sharing and active affiliative contact immediately after rather than before hearing a neighbor chirp call. Our findings suggest that neighbor vocalizations influence marmoset behavior through social contagion and indicate that the neighbor effect for affiliation and aggression generalizes to the marmoset. PMID:20131362

  6. Purification and partial characterization of α1-proteinase inhibitor in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Parambeth, Joseph Cyrus; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2015-01-01

    Fecal alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) concentration has been to diagnose enteric protein loss in dogs and cats. Chronic lymphocytic enteritis is commonly seen in the marmoset (C. jaccus) and is characterized by hypoalbuminemia. As a prelude to immunoassay development for detecting enteric protein loss, marmoset serum α1-PI was purified using immunoaffinity chromatography and ceramic hydroxyapatite chromatography. Partial characterization was performed by reducing gel electrophoresis and enzyme inhibitory assays. Protein identity was confirmed with peptide mass fingerprinting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Molecular mass, relative molecular mass, and isoelectric point for marmoset α1-PI were 54 kDa, 51677, and 4.8-5.4, respectively. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase inhibitory activity were observed. N-terminal amino acid sequence for marmoset α1-PI was EDPQGDAAQKMDTSHH. In conclusion, marmoset α1-PI was successfully purified from serum with an overall yield of 12% using a rapid and efficient method. Purified marmoset α1-PI has characteristics similar to those of α1-PI reported for other species. PMID:25745866

  7. A quantitative acoustic analysis of the vocal repertoire of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Agamaite, James A; Chang, Chia-Jung; Osmanski, Michael S; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2015-11-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a highly vocal New World primate species, has emerged in recent years as a promising animal model for studying brain mechanisms underlying perception, vocal production, and cognition. The present study provides a quantitative acoustic analysis of a large number of vocalizations produced by marmosets in a social environment within a captive colony. Previous classifications of the marmoset vocal repertoire were mostly based on qualitative observations. In the present study a variety of vocalizations from individually identified marmosets were sampled and multiple acoustic features of each type of vocalization were measured. Results show that marmosets have a complex vocal repertoire in captivity that consists of multiple vocalization types, including both simple calls and compound calls composed of sequences of simple calls. A detailed quantification of the vocal repertoire of the marmoset can serve as a solid basis for studying the behavioral significance of their vocalizations and is essential for carrying out studies that investigate such properties as perceptual boundaries between call types and among individual callers as well as neural coding mechanisms for vocalizations. It can also serve as the basis for evaluating abnormal vocal behaviors resulting from diseases or genetic manipulations. PMID:26627765

  8. Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Alkhouli, Mohamad; Morad, Mohammad; Narins, Craig R; Raza, Farhan; Bashir, Riyaz

    2016-04-11

    Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is an under-recognized entity that is associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. In absence of a congenital anomaly, the most common cause of IVC thrombosis is the presence of an unretrieved IVC filter. Due to the substantial increase in the number of IVC filters placed in the United States and the very low filter retrieval rates, clinicians are faced with a very large population of patients at risk for developing IVC thrombosis. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of data and societal guidelines with regards to the diagnosis and management of IVC thrombosis. This paper aims to enhance the awareness of this uncommon, but morbid, condition by providing a concise, yet comprehensive, review of the etiology, diagnostic approaches, and treatment strategies in patients with IVC thrombosis. PMID:26952909

  9. Histopathological characterization of renal tubular and interstitial changes in 5/6 nephrectomized marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yui; Yamaguchi, Itaru; Myojo, Kensuke; Kimoto, Naoya; Imaizumi, Minami; Takada, Chie; Sanada, Hiroko; Takaba, Katsumi; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-01-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have become a useful animal model, particularly for development of biopharmaceuticals. While various renal failure models have been established in rodents, there is currently no acceptable model in marmosets. We analyzed the damaged renal tubules and tubulointerstitial changes (inflammation and fibrosis) of 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) common marmosets by histopathological/immunohistochemical methods, and compared these findings to those in 5/6 Nx SD rats. In Nx marmosets and rats sacrificed at 5 and 13 weeks after Nx, variously dilated and atrophied renal tubules were seen in the cortex in common; however, the epithelial proliferating activity was much less in Nx marmosets. Furthermore, the degrees of inflammation and fibrosis seen in the affected cortex were more severe and massive in Nx marmosets with time-dependent increase. Interestingly, inflammation in Nx marmosets, of which degree was less in Nx rats, consisted of a large number of CD3-positive T cells and CD20-positive B cells (occasionally forming follicles), and a few CD68-positive macrophages. Based on these findings, lymphocytes might contribute to the progressive renal lesions in Nx marmosets. Fibrotic areas in Nx marmosets comprised myofibroblasts expressing vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), whereas along with vimentin and α-SMA expressions, desmin was expressed in myofibroblasts in Nx rats. This study shows that there are some differences in renal lesions induced by Nx between marmosets and rats, which would provide useful, base-line information for pharmacology and toxicology studies using Nx marmosets. PMID:25446802

  10. Azimuth and envelope coding in the inferior colliculus of the unanesthetized rabbit: effect of reverberation and distance.

    PubMed

    Kuwada, Shigeyuki; Bishop, Brian; Kim, Duck O

    2014-09-15

    Recognition and localization of a sound are the major functions of the auditory system. In real situations, the listener and different degrees of reverberation transform the signal between the source and the ears. The present study was designed to provide these transformations and examine their influence on neural responses. Using the virtual auditory space (VAS) method to create anechoic and moderately and highly reverberant environments, we found the following: 1) In reverberation, azimuth tuning was somewhat degraded with distance whereas the direction of azimuth tuning remained unchanged. These features remained unchanged in the anechoic condition. 2) In reverberation, azimuth tuning and envelope synchrony were degraded most for neurons with low best frequencies and least for neurons with high best frequencies. 3) More neurons showed envelope synchrony to binaural than to monaural stimulation in both anechoic and reverberant environments. 4) The percentage of envelope-coding neurons and their synchrony decreased in reverberation with distance, whereas it remained constant in the anechoic condition. 5) At far distances, for both binaural and monaural stimulation, the neural gain in reverberation could be as high as 30 dB and as much as 10 dB higher than those in the anechoic condition. 6) The majority of neurons were able to code both envelope and azimuth in all of the environments. This study provides a foundation for understanding the neural coding of azimuth and envelope synchrony at different distances in reverberant and anechoic environments. This is necessary to understand how the auditory system processes "where" and "what" information in real environments. PMID:24944219

  11. Neuronal relationships between the dorsal periaqueductal nucleus and the inferior colliculus (nucleus commissuralis) in the cat. A Golgi study.

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, M; Sánchez del Campo, F; Ruiz, A; Smith Agreda, V

    1988-01-01

    Cell types in the dorsal periaqueductal nucleus (PAGd) were studied with the aid of the rapid Golgi method in young cats. The neurons were subdivided into fusiform and stellate types with several varieties of the latter class according to the final destination of their axons. Fusiform neurons send their axons to the neuropil of the Ncom. In turn these neurons receive descending fibres from the nucleus commissuralis (Ncom) which seem to establish axo-dendritic contacts. Also commissural neurons receive contacts from ascending fibres of the PAGd. On the basis of Golgi material it is concluded that particular neuronal types of the PAGd could establish reciprocal connections with neuronal elements of the ventral part of the Ncom. The present study supports the hypothesis that the PAGd could be subdivided into discrete cell groups according to their afferent and efferent projections. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3225218

  12. Inferior epigastric artery pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Avula, SK

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inferior epigastric artery (IEA) pseudoaneurysms are recognised complications of abdominal wall procedures, and a variety of approaches including surgical excision and ligation, percutaneous procedures and conservative management have been employed in treating this rare complication. Methods We describe a case of an IEA pseudoaneurysm diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) angiography, 14 days following a laparoscopic assisted low anterior resection, which was managed successfully with surgical excision and ligation. A review of the literature identified 32 reports of this complication since 1973 with 69% of cases occurring since 2000. Findings The main aetiology of IEA pseudoaneurysm was abdominal surgery (n=20); 65% of cases were attributable to abdominal wound closure or laparoscopic surgery. Two-thirds (66%) of patients presented between 11 and 63 days, and all except 1 case presented with discomfort, abdominal mass or haemodynamic instability. Colour Doppler ultrasonography was the imaging modality of choice (n=18), either alone or in combination with computed tomography and/or angiography. Surgical ligation and excision and percutaneous coil embolisation formed the mainstay of attempted treatments (69%), particularly following treatment failure using an alternative technique. Conclusions The incidence of iatrogenic IEA pseudoaneurysms appears to be increasing. Awareness of this rare complication is of clinical importance to avoid excessive morbidity for affected individuals. PMID:26263930

  13. Bioavailability and Efficacy of Levofloxacin against Francisella tularensis in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)▿

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle; Lever, Mark S.; Dean, Rachel E.; Pearce, Peter C.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Simpson, Andrew J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic and efficacy studies with levofloxacin were performed in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) model of inhalational tularemia. Plasma levofloxacin pharmacokinetics were determined in six animals in separate single-dose and multidose studies. Plasma drug concentrations were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-electrospray ionization. On day 7 of a twice-daily dosing regimen of 40 mg/kg, the levofloxacin half-life, maximum concentration, and area under the curve in marmoset plasma were 2.3 h, 20.9 μg/ml, and 81.4 μg/liter/h, respectively. An efficacy study was undertaken using eight treated and two untreated control animals. Marmosets were challenged with a mean of 1.5 × 102 CFU of Francisella tularensis by the airborne route. Treated animals were administered 16.5 mg/kg levofloxacin by mouth twice daily, based on the pharmacokinetic parameters, beginning 24 h after challenge. Control animals had a raised core body temperature by 57 h postchallenge and died from infection by day 5. All of the other animals survived, remained afebrile, and lacked overt clinical signs. No bacteria were recovered from the organs of these animals at postmortem after culling at day 24 postchallenge. In conclusion, postexposure prophylaxis with orally administered levofloxacin was efficacious against acute inhalational tularemia in the common marmoset. The marmoset appears to be an appropriate animal model for the evaluation of postexposure therapies. PMID:20625157

  14. Strength of hand preference and dual task performance by common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Piddington, T; Rogers, L J

    2013-01-01

    Study of avian and piscine species has shown that animals with stronger lateralization of the brain are able to perform two tasks presented simultaneously better than can animals with weaker lateralization. We investigated whether this might apply also to primates by testing common marmosets to see whether there is a relationship between the strength of hand preference, as an indicator of strength of brain lateralization, and the ability to carry out two tasks simultaneously. A model predator was introduced into the testing room while the marmoset was foraging. Marmosets with stronger hand preferences detected the 'predator' after shorter latency than those with weaker hand preferences. Furthermore, the marmosets with stronger hand preferences produced more mobbing (tsik) vocalizations when they reacted to the predators than did those with weaker hand preferences. There was no such association between hand preference and either latency to respond to the predator or mobbing reaction when the marmosets were not foraging at the time the predator was introduced. Hence, strength of lateralization is associated with the ability to perform foraging and predator detection simultaneously. These results are discussed with reference to the evolution of brain lateralization. PMID:23053795

  15. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia

    PubMed Central

    Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

    2014-01-01

    Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of ‘lower’ primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

  16. α-Synuclein aggregation in the olfactory bulb of middle-aged common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Reona; Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Junko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Inoue, Takashi; Okano, Hirotaka James; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    The synaptic protein α-synuclein has been identified as a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Prior to the formation of Lewy bodies, mislocalization and aggregation of the α-synuclein in brain tissue is frequently observed in various neurodegenerative diseases. Aberrant accumulation and localization of α-synuclein are also observed in the aging human brain, for which reason aging is regarded as a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. To investigate changes in α-synuclein properties in the aging brain, we compared α-synuclein immunoreactivity in brain tissue of young (2-years-old) and middle-aged (6-years-old) common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Our analyses revealed marked changes in α-synuclein immunoreactivity in the olfactory bulb of common marmosets of these age cohorts. Perikaryal α-synuclein aggregations were formed in the olfactory bulb in middle-aged animals. We also observed signals of α-synuclein accumulation in hippocampus in this cohort; however, unlike in the olfactory bulb, hippocampal α-synuclein signals were localized in the synaptic terminals. We did not observe either of these features in younger marmosets, which suggest that aging may play a role in these phenomena. Our results using common marmoset brain corresponded with the observation that the α-synuclein aggregations were first occurred from olfactory bulb in human normal aged and PD brain. Therefore, common marmoset is expected as useful model for α-synuclein pathology. PMID:26643383

  17. Neonatal cortical ablation disrupts multisensory development in superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wan; Jiang, Huai; Stein, Barry E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of cat superior colliculus (SC) neurons to synthesize information from different senses depends on influences from two areas of the cortex: the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES) and the rostral lateral suprasylvian sulcus (rLS). Reversibly deactivating the inputs to the SC from either of these areas in normal adults severely compromises this ability and the SC-mediated behaviors that depend on it. In the present study we found that removal of these areas in neonatal animals precluded the normal development of multisensory SC processes. At maturity there was a substantial decrease in the incidence of multisensory neurons, and those multisensory neurons that did develop were highly abnormal. Their cross-modal receptive field register was severely compromised, as was their ability to integrate cross-modal stimuli. Apparently, despite the impressive plasticity of the neonatal brain, it cannot compensate for the early loss of these cortices. Surprisingly, however, neonatal removal of either AES or rLS had comparatively minor consequences on these properties. At maturity multisensory SC neurons were quite common: they developed the characteristic spatial register among their unisensory receptive fields and exhibited normal adult-like multisensory integration. These observations suggest that during early ontogeny, when the multisensory properties of SC neurons are being crafted, AES and rLS may have the ability to compensate for the loss of one another’s cortico-collicular influences so that normal multisensory processes can develop in the SC. PMID:16267111

  18. Nigral inhibition of GABAergic neurons in mouse superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Katsuyuki; Isa, Kaoru; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Isa, Tadashi

    2008-10-22

    The current dominant concept for the control of saccadic eye movements by the basal ganglia is that release from tonic GABAergic inhibition by the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) triggers burst firings of intermediate gray layer (SGI) neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) to allow saccade initiation. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that SNr cells inhibit excitatory projection neurons in the SGI. Here we show that nigrotectal fibers are connected to local GABAergic neurons in the SGI with a similar frequency to non-GABAergic neurons. This was accomplished by applying neuroanatomical tracing and slice electrophysiological experiments in GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice, in which GABAergic neurons specifically express GFP. We also found that GABA(A), but not GABA(B), receptors subserve nigrotectal transmission. The present results revealed a novel aspect on the role of the basal ganglia in the control of saccades, e.g., the SNr not only regulates burst initiation but also modulates the spatiotemporal properties of premotor neurons via connections to local GABAergic neurons in the SC. PMID:18945914

  19. Topography of covert visual attention in human superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Sucharit; Zughni, Samir; Greene, Clint; Ress, David

    2010-12-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the topography of covert visual attention signals in human superior colliculus (SC), both across its surface and in its depth. We measured the retinotopic organization of SC to direct visual stimulation using a 90° wedge of moving dots that slowly rotated around fixation. Subjects (n = 5) were cued to perform a difficult speed-discrimination task in the rotating region. To measure the retinotopy of covert attention, we used a full-field array of similarly moving dots. Subjects were cued to perform the same speed-discrimination task within a 90° wedge-shaped region, and only the cue rotated around fixation. High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 1.2 mm voxels) data were acquired throughout SC. These data were then aligned to a high-resolution T1-weighted reference volume. The SC was segmented in this volume so that the surface of the SC could be computationally modeled and to permit calculation of a depth map for laminar analysis. Retinotopic maps were obtained for both direct visual stimulation and covert attention. These maps showed a similar spatial distribution to visual stimulation maps observed in rhesus macaque and were in registration with each other. Within the depth of SC, both visual attention and stimulation produced activity primarily in the superficial and intermediate layers, but stimulation activity extended significantly more deeply than attention. PMID:20861435

  20. Optogenetic cholinergic modulation of the mouse superior colliculus in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John A.; Felsen, Gidon

    2015-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) plays a critical role in orienting movements, in part by integrating modulatory influences on the sensorimotor transformations it performs. Many species exhibit a robust brain stem cholinergic projection to the intermediate and deep layers of the SC arising mainly from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), which may serve to modulate SC function. However, the physiological effects of this input have not been examined in vivo, preventing an understanding of its functional role. Given the data from slice experiments, cholinergic input may have a net excitatory effect on the SC. Alternatively, the input could have mixed effects, via activation of inhibitory neurons within or upstream of the SC. Distinguishing between these possibilities requires in vivo experiments in which endogenous cholinergic input is directly manipulated. Here we used anatomical and optogenetic techniques to identify and selectively activate brain stem cholinergic terminals entering the intermediate and deep layers of the awake mouse SC and recorded SC neuronal responses. We first quantified the pattern of the cholinergic input to the mouse SC, finding that it was predominantly localized to the intermediate and deep layers. We then found that optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic terminals in the SC significantly increased the activity of a subpopulation of SC neurons. Interestingly, cholinergic input had a broad range of effects on the magnitude and timing of SC responses, perhaps reflecting both monosynaptic and polysynaptic innervation. These findings begin to elucidate the functional role of this cholinergic projection in modulating the processing underlying sensorimotor transformations in the SC. PMID:26019317

  1. Effect of Reversible Inactivation of Superior Colliculus on Head Movements

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Mark M. G.; Bechara, Bernard; Gandhi, Neeraj J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of limitations in the oculomotor range, many gaze shifts must be accomplished using coordinated movements of the eyes and head. Stimulation and recording data have implicated the primate superior colliculus (SC) in the control of these gaze shifts. The precise role of this structure in head movement control, however, is not known. The present study uses reversible inactivation to gain insight into the role of this structure in the control of head movements, including those that accompany gaze shifts and those that occur in the absence of a change in gaze. Forty-five lidocaine injections were made in two monkeys that had been trained on a series of behavioral tasks that dissociate movements of the eyes and head. Reversible inactivation resulted in clear impairments in the animals’ ability to perform gaze shifts, manifested by increased reaction times, lower peak velocities, and increased durations. In contrast, comparable effects were not found for head movements (with or without gaze shifts) with the exception of a very small increase in reaction times of head movements associated with gaze shifts. Eye-head coordination was clearly affected by the injections with gaze onset occurring relatively later with respect to head onset. Following the injections, the head contributed slightly more to the gaze shift. These results suggest that head movements (with and without gaze shifts) can be controlled by pathways that do not involve SC. PMID:18305088

  2. Evaluation of ultrasonic vocalizations in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as a potential indicator of welfare.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Jaco; van Nijnatten, Tessa J M; Louwerse, Annet L; Baarends, Guus; Arndt, Saskia S; Langermans, Jan A M

    2014-09-01

    The vocal repertoire in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) has been assumed to consist not only of vocalizations audible to humans but also of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). The use of USVs to socially indicate distress has not been evaluated in this species, however. The authors analyzed the ultrasonic vocal repertoire of the common marmoset under normal housing conditions, under various experimental manipulations intended to elicit positive or negative emotional responses and during stressful experiences including blood draw and exposure to a perceived predator. Analysis of the recordings showed that marmosets produced vocalizations with ultrasonic components as part of their normal vocal repertoire, but these vocalizations all have audible components as well. Only 4 of the 13 types of vocalizations had ultrasonic components. These ultrasonic components were not reliably associated with responses to different experimental manipulations, suggesting that they are not used to indicate pain, discomfort or distress. PMID:25141062

  3. Elucidating coding of taste qualities with the taste modifier miraculin in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Vicktoria; Hellekant, Göran

    2006-01-30

    To investigate the relationships between the activity in different types of taste fibers and the gustatory behavior in marmosets, we used the taste modifier miraculin, which in humans adds a sweet taste quality to sour stimuli. In behavioral experiments, we measured marmosets' consumption of acids before and after tongue application of miraculin. In electrophysiological experiments responses of single taste fibers in chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves were recorded before and after tongue application of miraculin. We found that after miraculin marmosets consumed acids more readily. Taste nerve recordings showed that after miraculin taste fibers which usually respond only to sweeteners, S fibers, became responsive to acids. These results further support our hypothesis that the activity in S fibers is translated into a hedonically positive behavioral response. PMID:16377437

  4. The marmoset as a model for the study of primate parental behavior.

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsuko

    2015-04-01

    Parental behavior is important for the development of mammalian offspring. Research on the mechanisms underlying parental behavior, however, has been largely restricted to rodent models. As a consequence, although research on parent-infant relationships has been conducted using macaque monkeys for more than half a century, little is known about the neural mechanisms and brain regions associated with such behaviors in primates. This article reviews parental behavior and its endocrinological mechanisms in marmosets and tamarins, both cooperative breeders in the callitrichid family, and compares these findings with studies of macaque monkeys. The paper examines the similarities and differences between marmosets and humans, and suggests the possibility that marmosets can be a model for future studies of the neural underpinnings and endocrinology underlying human parental behavior. PMID:25575642

  5. Single-born marmosets without hemopoietic chimerism: naturally occurring and induced.

    PubMed

    Gengozian, N; Batson, J S

    1975-01-01

    Marmosets have a high frequency of fraternal twinning, and placental vascular anastomoses between the twin fetuses invariably lead to hemopoietic chimerism. The occasional finding of chimerism in single-born marmosets suggested that in a twin pregnancy one fetus had undergone resorption after contributing hemopoietic stem cells to its twin. In this study non-chimeric single-born marmosets were produced by fallopian tube ligation or surgical relocation of one ovary in breeding females. Further, in an examination of hemopoietic cells from over 50 single-born young from nonoperated females, chimerism occurred less frequently than what one would expect if resorption of a co-twin had occurred after a functional anastomosis had been established. PMID:808628

  6. Development of a novel postnatal neurobehavioral scale for evaluation of common marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Braun, Katarina; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Schneider, Mary; Moore, Colleen F; Emborg, Marina E

    2015-04-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys when compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mullatta) present several advantages for disease modeling, especially transgenic initiatives, as they commonly give birth to twins, which increases sample size, have accelerated development and a shorter life span that facilitates the analysis of the onset of age-related diseases. Yet, no tools are currently available to assess marmoset neurodevelopment during the initial first month of life. Here we report the creation of a novel Primate Postnatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale for marmoset monkeys (PPNAS-M) that was based on currently available scales for human and rhesus monkeys. Twenty-four healthy marmoset infants (12 females, 12 males) from 12 families were evaluated. The infant assessments involved 10-minute testing administered at 15 and 30 days after birth. The PPNAS-M consists of 41 noninvasive tests grouped into 5 testing categories: visual orienting, auditory and spatial orienting, motor responses, righting and body strength, and temperament tests. Testing at these two ages did not affect the overall health of the infants, suggesting that the PPNAS-M is a non-invasive testing tool. Significant maturation was demonstrated by increased scores in each of the five testing categories from postnatal day 15 to 30, with developmental patterns unique to marmosets. Principal component analysis defined 4 item groups (Orientation, State Control, Motor Maturity and Sensory Sensitivity) with 5 variables each. Orientation and State Control factors were highly similar to each other at both ages and correlated highly with previous item groupings used with rhesus macaques. Our results indicate that the PPNAS-M is a useful assessment tool for detecting neuromotor, attention, and temperament status of infant marmosets and that it is sensitive to developmental effects. Further studies to validate the PPNAS-M for the assessment of normal development versus early effects of developmental

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL POSTNATAL NEUROBEHAVIORAL SCALE FOR EVALUATION OF COMMON MARMOSET MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Mary; Moore, Colleen F.; Emborg, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys when compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mullatta) present several advantages for disease modeling, especially transgenic initiatives, as they commonly give birth to twins, which increases sample size, have accelerated development and a shorter life span that facilitates the analysis of the onset of age-related diseases. Yet, no tools are currently available to assess marmoset neurodevelopment during the initial first month of life. Here we report the creation of a novel Primate Postnatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale for marmoset monkeys (PPNAS-M) that was based on currently available scales for human and rhesus monkeys. Twenty-four healthy marmoset infants (12 females, 12 males) from 12 families were evaluated. The infant assessments involved 10-minute testing administered at 15 and 30 days after birth. The PPNAS-M consists of 41 noninvasive tests grouped into 5 testing categories: visual orienting, auditory and spatial orienting, motor responses, righting and body strength, and temperament tests. Testing at these two ages did not affect the overall health of the infants, suggesting that the PPNAS-M is a non-invasive testing tool. Significant maturation was demonstrated by increased scores in each of the five testing categories from postnatal day 15 to 30, with developmental patterns unique to marmosets. Principal component analysis defined 4 item groups (Orientation, State Control, Motor Maturity and Sensory Sensitivity) with 5 variables each. Orientation and State Control factors were highly similar at both ages and correlated highly with previous item groupings used with rhesus macaques. Our results indicate that the PPNAS-M is a useful assessment tool for detecting neuromotor, attention, and temperament status of infant marmosets and that it is sensitive to developmental effects. Further studies to validate the PPNAS-M for the assessment of normal development versus early effects of developmental perturbations

  8. Colonization of collagen scaffolds by adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells of the common marmoset monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Bernemann, Inga; Mueller, Thomas; Blasczyk, Rainer; Glasmacher, Birgit; Hofmann, Nicola

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiate in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. {yields} Marmoset MSCs integrate in collagen type I scaffolds and differentiate excellently into adipogenic cells. {yields} Common marmoset monkey is a suitable model for soft tissue engineering in human regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: In regenerative medicine, human cell replacement therapy offers great potential, especially by cell types differentiated from immunologically and ethically unproblematic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In terms of an appropriate carrier material, collagen scaffolds with homogeneous pore size of 65 {mu}m were optimal for cell seeding and cultivating. However, before clinical application and transplantation of MSC-derived cells in scaffolds, the safety and efficiency, but also possible interference in differentiation due to the material must be preclinically tested. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is a preferable non-human primate animal model for this aim due to its genetic and physiological similarities to the human. Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs were successfully isolated, cultured and differentiated in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages by defined factors. The differentiation capability could be determined by FACS. Specific marker genes for all three cell types could be detected by RT-PCR. Furthermore, MSCs seeded on collagen I scaffolds differentiated in adipogenic lineage showed after 28 days of differentiation high cell viability and homogenous distribution on the material which was validated by calcein AM and EthD staining. As proof of adipogenic cells, the intracellular lipid vesicles in the cells were stained with Oil Red O. The generation of fat vacuoles was visibly extensive distinguishable and furthermore determined on the molecular level by expression of specific marker genes. The results of the study proved both the differential

  9. Sex determination in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Stein, F J

    1978-02-01

    The general morphology of the external genitalia was examined in 43 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth, the scrotum was a small irregular fold of skin on either side of the caudal aspect of the penis. The testes were not present in the scrotum until 8--11 months of age. The scrotum covered the penis in the adult male, was devoid of fur, was covered by pearly while nodules, and presented a median raphe. In the young female, the pudendal pad closely resembled the scrotum of the male. The vulva was pendulous, and the small vestibular opening was located near its most ventral aspect and closely resembled the preputial opening of the male. In the adult female, the pudendal pad was pendulous, was studded with white nodules, and closely resembled the scrotum of the male. Sex determination by casual observation resulted in numerous errors. Accurate sex determination was based on differences in the preputial and vestibular openings, demonstration of the glans penis in the prepuce, and palpation of the testes in the scrotum or inguinal region. PMID:416296

  10. Parturition Signaling by Visual Cues in Female Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Laís Alves Antonio; de Oliveira, Danilo Gustavo Rodrigues; de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Pessoa, Daniel Marques Almeida

    2015-01-01

    New World monkeys have polymorphic color vision, in which all males and some females are dichromats, while most females are trichromats. There is little consensus about which selective pressures fashioned primate color vision, although detection of food, mates and predators has been hypothesized. Behavioral evidence shows that males from different species of Neotropical primates seem to perceive the timing of female conception and gestation, although, no signals fulfilling this function have been identified. Therefore, we used visual models to test the hypothesis that female marmosets show chromatic and/or achromatic cues that may indicate the time of parturition for male and female conspecifics. By recording the reflectance spectra of female marmosets’ (Callithrix jacchus) sexual skin, and running chromatic and achromatic discrimination models, we found that both variables fluctuate during the weeks that precede and succeed parturition, forming “U” and inverted “U” patterns for chromatic and achromatic contrast, respectively. We suggest that variation in skin chroma and luminance might be used by female helpers and dominant females to identify the timing of birth, while achromatic variations may be used as clues by potential fathers to identify pregnancy stage in females and prepare for paternal burdens as well as to detect oestrus in the early post-partum period. PMID:26047350

  11. HIV-1 Adapts To Replicate in Cells Expressing Common Marmoset APOBEC3G and BST2

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Oliva, Alberto; Finzi, Andrés; Haim, Hillel; Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that a major block to HIV-1 replication in common marmosets operates at the level of viral entry and that this block can be overcome by adaptation of the virus in tissue-cultured cells. However, our current studies indicate that HIV-1 encounters additional postentry blocks in common marmoset peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Here, we show that the common marmoset APOBEC3G (A3G) and BST2 proteins block HIV-1 in cell cultures. Using a directed-evolution method that takes advantage of the natural ability of HIV-1 to mutate during replication, we have been able to overcome these blocks in tissue-cultured cells. In the adapted viruses, specific changes were observed in gag, vif, env, and nef. The contribution of these changes to virus replication in the presence of the A3G and BST2 restriction factors was studied. We found that certain amino acid changes in Vif and Env that arise during adaptation to marmoset A3G and BST2 allow the virus to replicate in the presence of these restriction factors. The changes in Vif reduce expression levels and encapsidation of marmoset APOBEC3G, while the changes in Env increase viral fitness and discretely favor cell-to-cell transmission of the virus, allowing viral escape from these restriction factors. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 can infect only humans and chimpanzees. The main reason for this narrow tropism is the presence in many species of dominant-acting factors, known as restriction factors, that block viral replication in a species-specific way. We have been exploring the blocks to HIV-1 in common marmosets, with the ultimate goal of developing a new animal model of HIV-1 infection in these monkeys. In this study, we observed that common marmoset APOBEC3G and BST2, two known restriction factors, are able to block HIV-1 in cell cultures. We have adapted HIV-1 to replicate in the presence of these restriction factors and have characterized the mechanisms of escape. These studies can help in the

  12. A combined histological and MRI brain atlas of the common marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John D.; Kenkel, William M.; Aronoff, Emily C.; Bock, Nicholas A.; Zametkin, Molly R.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2009-01-01

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is of growing importance for research in neuroscience and related fields. In the present work, we describe a combined histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brains of two adult female marmosets. Histological sections were processed from Nissl staining and digitized to produce an atlas in a large format that facilitates visualization of structures with significant detail. Naming of identifiable brain structures was performed utilizing current terminology. The histological sections and a simplified schematic atlas are available online at http://udn.nichd.nih.gov/brainatlas_home.html. PMID:19744521

  13. Stereo Navi 2.0: software for stereotaxic surgery of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Tokuno, Hironobu; Tanaka, Ikuko; Umitsu, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Yasuhisa

    2009-11-01

    Recently, we reported our web-accessible digital brain atlas of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) at http://marmoset-brain.org:2008. Using digital images obtained during construction of this website, we developed stand-alone software for navigation of electrodes or injection needles for stereotaxic electrophysiological or anatomical experiments in vivo. This software enables us to draw lines on exchangeable section images, measure the length and angle of lines, superimpose a stereotaxic reference grid on the image, and send the image to the system clipboard. The software, Stereo Navi 2.0, is freely available at our brain atlas website. PMID:19682507

  14. Spatiotemporal structure of visual receptive fields in macaque superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Churan, Jan; Guitton, Daniel; Pack, Christopher C

    2012-11-01

    Saccades are useful for directing the high-acuity fovea to visual targets that are of behavioral relevance. The selection of visual targets for eye movements involves the superior colliculus (SC), where many neurons respond to visual stimuli. Many of these neurons are also activated before and during saccades of specific directions and amplitudes. Although the role of the SC in controlling eye movements has been thoroughly examined, far less is known about the nature of the visual responses in this area. We have, therefore, recorded from neurons in the intermediate layers of the macaque SC, while using a sparse-noise mapping procedure to obtain a detailed characterization of the spatiotemporal structure of visual receptive fields. We find that SC responses to flashed visual stimuli start roughly 50 ms after the onset of the stimulus and last for on average ~70 ms. About 50% of these neurons are strongly suppressed by visual stimuli flashed at certain locations flanking the excitatory center, and the spatiotemporal pattern of suppression exerts a predictable influence on the timing of saccades. This suppression may, therefore, contribute to the filtering of distractor stimuli during target selection. We also find that saccades affect the processing of visual stimuli by SC neurons in a manner that is quite similar to the saccadic suppression and postsaccadic enhancement that has been observed in the cortex and in perception. However, in contrast to what has been observed in the cortex, decreased visual sensitivity was generally associated with increased firing rates, while increased sensitivity was associated with decreased firing rates. Overall, these results suggest that the processing of visual stimuli by SC receptive fields can influence oculomotor behavior and that oculomotor signals originating in the SC can shape perisaccadic visual perception. PMID:22933722

  15. Serum Albumin and Body Weight as Biomarkers for the Antemortem Identification of Bone and Gastrointestinal Disease in the Common Marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Victoria K.; Shaw, Gillian C.; Sotuyo, Nathaniel P.; Carlson, Cathy S.; Olson, Erik J.; Zink, M. Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Adams, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in research makes it important to diagnose spontaneous disease that may confound experimental studies. Bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are two major causes of morbidity and mortality in captive marmosets, but currently no effective antemortem tests are available to identify affected animals prior to the terminal stage of disease. In this study we propose that bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are associated disease entities in marmosets and aim to establish the efficacy of several economical antemortem tests in identifying and predicting disease. Tissues from marmosets were examined to define affected animals and unaffected controls. Complete blood count, serum chemistry values, body weight, quantitative radiographs, and tissue-specific biochemical markers were evaluated as candidate biomarkers for disease. Bone and gastrointestinal disease were associated, with marmosets being over seven times more likely to have either concurrent bone and gastrointestinal disease or neither disease as opposed to lesions in only one organ system. When used in tandem, serum albumin <3.5 g/dL and body weight <325 g identified 100% of the marmosets affected with concurrent bone and gastrointestinal disease. Progressive body weight loss of 0.05% of peak body weight per day predicted which marmosets would develop disease prior to the terminal stage. Bone tissue-specific tests, such as quantitative analysis of radiographs and serum parathyroid hormone levels, were effective for distinguishing between marmosets with bone disease and those without. These results provide an avenue for making informed decisions regarding the removal of affected marmosets from studies in a timely manner, preserving the integrity of research results. PMID:24324827

  16. Interaural timing cues do not contribute to the map of space in the ferret superior colliculus: a virtual acoustic space study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert A A; Doubell, Timothy P; Nodal, Fernando R; Schnupp, Jan W H; King, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we used individualized virtual acoustic space (VAS) stimuli to investigate the representation of auditory space in the superior colliculus (SC) of anesthetized ferrets. The VAS stimuli were generated by convolving broadband noise bursts with each animal's own head-related transfer function and presented over earphones. Comparison of the amplitude spectra of the free-field and VAS signals and of the spatial receptive fields of neurons recorded in the inferior colliculus with each form of stimulation confirmed that the VAS provided an accurate simulation of sounds presented in the free field. Units recorded in the deeper layers of the SC responded predominantly to virtual sound directions within the contralateral hemifield. In most cases, increasing the sound level resulted in stronger spike discharges and broader spatial receptive fields. However, the preferred sound directions, as defined by the direction of the centroid vector, remained largely unchanged across different levels and, as observed in previous free-field studies, varied topographically in azimuth along the rostrocaudal axis of the SC. We also examined the contribution of interaural time differences (ITDs) to map topography by digitally manipulating the VAS stimuli so that ITDs were held constant while allowing other spatial cues to vary naturally. The response properties of the majority of units, including centroid direction, remained unchanged with fixed ITDs, indicating that sensitivity to this cue is not responsible for tuning to different sound directions. These results are consistent with previous data suggesting that sensitivity to interaural level differences and spectral cues provides the basis for the map of auditory space in the mammalian SC. PMID:16162823

  17. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    PubMed Central

    Turesson, Hjalmar K.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders. PMID:26500583

  18. Contrast imaging ultrasound detects abnormalities in the marmoset ovary.

    PubMed

    Hastings, J M; Morris, K D; Allan, D; Wilson, H; Millar, R P; Fraser, H M; Moran, C M

    2012-12-01

    The development of a functional vascular tree within the primate ovary is critical for reproductive health. To determine the efficacy of contrast agents to image the microvascular environment within the primate ovary, contrast ultrasonography was performed in six reproductive-aged female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) during the late luteal phase of the cycle, following injection of Sonovue™. Regions of interest (ROIs), representing the corpus luteum (CL) and noncorpus luteum ovarian tissue (NCLOT), were selected during gray-scale B-mode ultrasound imaging. The magnitude of backscatter intensity of CL and NCLOT ROIs were calculated in XnView, post hoc: subsequent gamma-variate modeling was implemented in Matlab to determine perfusion parameters. Histological analysis of these ovaries revealed a total of 11 CL, nine of which were identified during contrast ultrasonography. The median enhancement ratio was significantly increased in the CL (5.54AU; 95% CI -2.21-68.71) compared to the NCLOT (2.82AU; 95% CI 2.73-15.06; P < 0.05). There was no difference in time parameters between the CL and NCLOT. An additional avascular ROI was identified in the ovary of Animal 5, both histologically and by ultrasonography. This cystic ROI displayed a markedly lower enhancement ratio (0.79AU) and higher time parameters than mean CL and NCLOT, including time to peak and time to wash out. These data demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of commercially available contrast agents, to differentiate structures within the nonhuman primate ovary. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has a promising future in reproductive medicine. PMID:22890799

  19. Early development of turn-taking with parents shapes vocal acoustics in infant marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daniel Y; Fenley, Alicia R; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-05-01

    In humans, vocal turn-taking is a ubiquitous form of social interaction. It is a communication system that exhibits the properties of a dynamical system: two individuals become coupled to each other via acoustic exchanges and mutually affect each other. Human turn-taking develops during the first year of life. We investigated the development of vocal turn-taking in infant marmoset monkeys, a New World species whose adult vocal behaviour exhibits the same universal features of human turn-taking. We find that marmoset infants undergo the same trajectory of change for vocal turn-taking as humans, and do so during the same life-history stage. Our data show that turn-taking by marmoset infants depends on the development of self-monitoring, and that contingent parental calls elicit more mature-sounding calls from infants. As in humans, there was no evidence that parental feedback affects the rate of turn-taking maturation. We conclude that vocal turn-taking by marmoset monkeys and humans is an instance of convergent evolution, possibly as a result of pressures on both species to adopt a cooperative breeding strategy and increase volubility. PMID:27069047

  20. Establishment of lethal inhalational infection with Francisella tularensis (tularaemia) in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle; Lever, Mark S; Savage, Victoria L; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Pearce, Peter C; Stevens, Daniel J; Simpson, Andrew J H

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility and lethality studies of inhalational tularaemia were undertaken using the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) to determine its suitability as a non-human primate model. Pairs of marmosets were exposed to varying challenge doses of Francisella tularensis by the airborne route and monitored for up to 14 days postchallenge (p.c.). Lethal infection was achieved following a retained dose of less than 10 bacterial colony-forming units (CFU). However, precise LD50 determination was not possible. The model was characterized using a target challenge dose of approximately 100 CFU. Increased core body temperature was the first indicator of disease, at approximately 2.5 days p.c. Overt clinical signs were first observed 12–18 h after the temperature increase. Significantly decreased activity was observed after approximately 3 days. All animals succumbed to infection between 4.5 and 7 days p.c. At postmortem examination, gross pathology was evident in the liver, spleen and lungs of all animals and high bacterial numbers were detected in all the organs assessed. Bacteraemia was demonstrated in all animals postmortem. Histopathological observations included severe suppurative bronchopneumonia, severe multifocal pyogranulomatous hepatitis, splenitis and lymphadenitis. Tularaemia disease progression in the common marmoset therefore appears to be consistent with the disease seen in humans and other animal models. The common marmoset may therefore be considered a suitable model for further studies of inhalational tularaemia. PMID:19335549

  1. Malignant Lymphoma in Cottontop Marmosets after Inoculation with Epstein-Barr Virus

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Thomas; Dechairo, Douglas; Miller, George

    1973-01-01

    Neoplasia resembling human malignant lymphoma, reticulum cell sarcoma type, occurred in cottontop marmosets inoculated with materials containing Epstein-Barr virus. One of four monkeys that received autologous cells transformed in vitro by Epstein-Barr virus developed lymphoma in mesenteric lymph nodes 7.5 months after inoculation. Three of four marmosets inoculated with cell-free Epstein-Barr virus developed lymphoma. The latent period for detectable tumor formation after addition of virus was 31-46 days. Immunosuppressive drugs given with the virus accelerated the course of disease. Nevertheless, malignant lymphoma occurred in an animal given only cell-free virus. Six of eight marmosets inoculated with the virus demonstrated antibodies to the virus. Four marmosets not exposed to the virus, including two that received immunosuppressive drugs, developed neither tumors nor antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus. Virus antigen detectable by immunofluorescence was found in 5% of cells shed from one tumor maintained in organ culture. These results imply that Epstein-Barr virus is capable of inducing malignant lymphoma in at least one primate species. Additional evidence is required before its oncogenic capacity in this host can be accepted without reservation. Images PMID:4354852

  2. Early development of turn-taking with parents shapes vocal acoustics in infant marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daniel Y.; Fenley, Alicia R.; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, vocal turn-taking is a ubiquitous form of social interaction. It is a communication system that exhibits the properties of a dynamical system: two individuals become coupled to each other via acoustic exchanges and mutually affect each other. Human turn-taking develops during the first year of life. We investigated the development of vocal turn-taking in infant marmoset monkeys, a New World species whose adult vocal behaviour exhibits the same universal features of human turn-taking. We find that marmoset infants undergo the same trajectory of change for vocal turn-taking as humans, and do so during the same life-history stage. Our data show that turn-taking by marmoset infants depends on the development of self-monitoring, and that contingent parental calls elicit more mature-sounding calls from infants. As in humans, there was no evidence that parental feedback affects the rate of turn-taking maturation. We conclude that vocal turn-taking by marmoset monkeys and humans is an instance of convergent evolution, possibly as a result of pressures on both species to adopt a cooperative breeding strategy and increase volubility. PMID:27069047

  3. Hunting strategies in wild common marmosets are prey and age dependent.

    PubMed

    Schiel, Nicola; Souto, Antonio; Huber, Ludwig; Bezerra, Bruna M

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the hunting strategies of wild common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to determine whether the strategies differed among animals of different age classes and/or prey type. The study was conducted in a fragment of Atlantic Rain Forest, situated 40 km from Recife (PE/Brazil). Twenty-seven individuals from four social groups were observed. Captured prey items were divided into three categories. The hunting strategies of the common marmosets were ranked into four categories. The acquisition of larger prey (items more than 2.0 cm) involved the appropriate body movements and postures that concealed the approaching marmosets, whereas the acquisition of smaller prey (items under 2.0 cm) involved less concealing behaviors. Furthermore, adults and juveniles (age ≥ 5 months) were more capable of capturing larger prey than were younger (1-2 months) or older infants (3-4 months). Although older infants were successful in capturing certain prey, they often failed when they attempted to capture larger prey that jumped and/or used flight to escape. The results suggest that both the experience of the monkeys and escape behavior of the prey affect predation efficiency in wild common marmosets. PMID:20623501

  4. Airway hyper-responsiveness in lipopolysaccharide-challenged common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Curths, Christoph; Wichmann, Judy; Dunker, Sarah; Windt, Horst; Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Lauenstein, Hans D.; Hohlfeld, Jens; Becker, Tamara; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Braun, Armin; Knauf, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Animal models with a high predictive value for human trials are needed to develop novel human-specific therapeutics for respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine lung-function parameters in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) that can be used to detect pharmacologically or provocation-induced AHR (airway hyper-responsiveness). Therefore a custom-made lung-function device that allows application of defined aerosol doses during measurement was developed. It was hypothesized that LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-challenged marmosets show AHR compared with non-challenged healthy subjects. Invasive plethysmography was performed in 12 anaesthetized orotracheally intubated and spontaneously breathing marmosets. Pulmonary data of RL (lung resistance), Cdyn (dynamic compliance), EF50 (mid-expiratory flow), Poes (oesophageal pressure), MV (minute volume), respiratory frequency (f) and VT (tidal volume) were collected. Measurements were conducted under baseline conditions and under MCh (methacholine)-induced bronchoconstriction. The measurement was repeated with the same group of animals after induction of an acute lung inflammation by intratracheal application of LPS. PDs (provocative doses) of MCh to achieve a certain increase in RL were significantly lower after LPS administration. AHR was demonstrated in the LPS treated compared with the naïve animals. The recorded lung-function data provide ground for pre-clinical efficacy and safety testing of anti-inflammatory substances in the common marmoset, a new translational NHP (non-human primate) model for LPS-induced lung inflammation. PMID:23879175

  5. A comparison of rectal and subcutaneous body temperature measurement in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Cilia, J; Piper, D C; Upton, N; Hagan, J J

    1998-07-01

    Two methods of measuring body temperature were compared in common marmosets. Subcutaneous temperatures were measured remotely via previously implanted subcutaneous microchips (Plexx BV, IPTT-100) prior to measurement of rectal temperature using a conventional rectal probe. Marmosets were treated with saline or the brain penetrant, 5-HT1A/B/D receptor agonist SKF-99101H (3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-4-chloro-5-propoxyindole hemifumarate) (0.3-3 mg/kg SC), which has previously been shown to induce hypothermia in guinea pigs. Body temperature was sampled immediately before drug administration and at 30-min intervals thereafter for a period of 2.5 h. SKF-99101H dose-dependently induced hypothermia in the common marmoset and there was close agreement between rectal and subcutaneous body temperatures, with an average difference in absolute body temperature of 0.26+/-0.02 degrees C. The data show that subcutaneously implanted microchips provide a simple, reliable measure of body temperature in common marmosets which is sensitive to pharmacological intervention, minimizes handling induced stress, and is minimally invasive. PMID:9920530

  6. A simpler primate brain: the visual system of the marmoset monkey

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Samuel G.; Rosa, Marcello G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are diurnal primates with high visual acuity at the center of gaze. Although primates share many similarities in the organization of their visual centers with other mammals, and even other species of vertebrates, their visual pathways also show unique features, particularly with respect to the organization of the cerebral cortex. Therefore, in order to understand some aspects of human visual function, we need to study non-human primate brains. Which species is the most appropriate model? Macaque monkeys, the most widely used non-human primates, are not an optimal choice in many practical respects. For example, much of the macaque cerebral cortex is buried within sulci, and is therefore inaccessible to many imaging techniques, and the postnatal development and lifespan of macaques are prohibitively long for many studies of brain maturation, plasticity, and aging. In these and several other respects the marmoset, a small New World monkey, represents a more appropriate choice. Here we review the visual pathways of the marmoset, highlighting recent work that brings these advantages into focus, and identify where additional work needs to be done to link marmoset brain organization to that of macaques and humans. We will argue that the marmoset monkey provides a good subject for studies of a complex visual system, which will likely allow an important bridge linking experiments in animal models to humans. PMID:25152716

  7. Functional Mapping of Face-Selective Regions in the Extrastriate Visual Cortex of the Marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chia-Chun; Yen, Cecil C.; Ciuchta, Jennifer L.; Papoti, Daniel; Bock, Nicholas A.; Leopold, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex of humans and macaques has specialized regions for processing faces and other visual stimulus categories. It is unknown whether a similar functional organization exists in New World monkeys, such as the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a species of growing interest as a primate model in neuroscience. To address this question, we measured selective neural responses in the brain of four awake marmosets trained to fix their gaze upon images of faces, bodies, objects, and control patterns. In two of the subjects, we measured high gamma-range field potentials from electrocorticography arrays implanted over a large portion of the occipital and inferotemporal cortex. In the other two subjects, we measured BOLD fMRI responses across the entire brain. Both techniques revealed robust, regionally specific patterns of category-selective neural responses. We report that at least six face-selective patches mark the occipitotemporal pathway of the marmoset, with the most anterior patches showing the strongest preference for faces over other stimuli. The similar appearance of these patches to previous findings in macaques and humans, including their apparent arrangement in two parallel pathways, suggests that core elements of the face processing network were present in the common anthropoid primate ancestor living ∼35 million years ago. The findings also identify the marmoset as a viable animal model system for studying specialized neural mechanisms related to high-level social visual perception in humans. PMID:25609630

  8. Serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) as a biochemical marker for wasting marmoset syndrome

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIMOTO, Takuro; NIIMI, Kimie; TAKAHASHI, Eiki

    2016-01-01

    Use of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate experimental animal has increased in recent years. Although wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS) is one of the biggest problems in captive marmoset colonies, the molecular mechanisms, biochemical markers for accurate diagnosis and a reliable treatment remain unknown. In this study, as a first step to finding biochemical marker(s) for the accurate diagnosis of WMS, we conducted blood cell counts, including hematocrit, hemoglobin and platelets, and examined serum chemistry values, including albumin, calcium and levels of serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), using a colony of marmosets with and without weight loss. MMP9 is thought to be an enzyme responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix components and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammatory conditions, such as human and murine inflammatory bowel disease, which, like WMS, are characterized histologically by inflammatory cell infiltrations in the intestines. The values of hematocrit and hemoglobin and levels of serum albumin and calcium in the WMS group were significantly decreased versus the control group. The platelet values and serum MMP9 concentrations were increased significantly in the WMS group compared with the control group. MMP9 could be a new and useful marker for the diagnosis of WMS in addition to hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum albumin and calcium. Our results also indicate that MMP9 could be a useful molecular candidate for treatment. PMID:26876041

  9. Touchscreen assays of learning, response inhibition, and motivation in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Kangas, Brian D; Bergman, Jack; Coyle, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in precision gene editing have led to the emergence of the marmoset as an experimental subject of considerable interest and translational value. A better understanding of behavioral phenotypes of the common marmoset will inform the extent to which forthcoming transgenic mutants are cognitively intact. Therefore, additional information regarding their learning, inhibitory control, and motivational abilities is needed. The present studies used touchscreen-based repeated acquisition and discrimination reversal tasks to examine basic dimensions of learning and response inhibition. Marmosets were trained daily to respond to one of the two simultaneously presented novel stimuli. Subjects learned to discriminate the two stimuli (acquisition) and, subsequently, with the contingencies switched (reversal). In addition, progressive ratio performance was used to measure the effort expended to obtain a highly palatable reinforcer varying in magnitude and, thereby, provide an index of relative motivational value. Results indicate that rates of both acquisition and reversal of novel discriminations increased across successive sessions, but that rate of reversal learning remained slower than acquisition learning, i.e., more trials were needed for mastery. A positive correlation was observed between progressive ratio break point and reinforcement magnitude. These results closely replicate previous findings with squirrel monkeys, thus providing evidence of similarity in learning processes across nonhuman primate species. Moreover, these data provide key information about the normative phenotype of wild-type marmosets using three relevant behavioral endpoints. PMID:26846231

  10. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from newborn marmoset skin fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuehong; Zhang, Yong; Mishra, Anuja; Tardif, Suzette D.; Hornsby, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine. For the application of iPSCs to forms of autologous cell therapy, suitable animal models are required. Among species that could potentially be used for this purpose, nonhuman primates are particularly important, and among these the marmoset offers significant advantages. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the application of iPSC technology to this species, here we derived lines of marmoset iPSCs. Using retroviral transduction with human Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, we derived clones that fulfil critical criteria for successful reprogramming: they exhibit typical iPSC morphology; they are alkaline phosphatase positive; they express high levels of NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 mRNAs, while the corresponding vector genes are silenced; they are immunoreactive for Oct4, TRA-1-81 and SSEA-4; and when implanted into immunodeficient mice they produce teratomas that have derivatives of all three germ layers (endoderm, α-fetoprotein; ectoderm, βIII-tubulin; mesoderm, smooth muscle actin). Starting with a population of 4 × 105 newborn marmoset skin fibroblasts, we obtained ∼100 colonies with iPSC-like morphology. Of these, 30 were expanded sufficiently to be cryopreserved, and of those 8 were characterized in more detail. These experiments provide proof of principle that iPSC technology can be adapted for use in the marmoset, as a future model of autologous cell therapy. PMID:20363201

  11. Simulation of the Inferior Mirage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Mario

    2010-09-01

    A mirage can occur when a continuous variation in the refractive index of the air causes light rays to follow a curved path. As a result, the image we see is displaced from the location of the object. If the image appears higher in the air than the object, it is called a "superior" mirage, while if it appears lower it is called an "inferior" mirage.2 The most common example of an inferior mirage is when, on a hot day, a stretch of dry road off in the distance appears to be wet (see Fig. 1). Many lab activities have been described that simulate the formation of superior mirages. In these demonstrations light beams curve downward as they pass through a nonuni-form fluid.3-6 Much less common are laboratory demonstrations of upward-curving light rays of the kind responsible for inferior mirages. This paper describes a simple version of such a demonstration.

  12. Finite element analysis of performance in the skulls of marmosets and tamarins

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Elizabeth R; Davis, Julian L; Grosse, Ian R; Burrows, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Reliance on plant exudates is a relatively rare dietary specialization among mammals. One well-studied example of closely related exudate feeders is the New World marmosets and tamarins. Whereas marmosets actively gouge tree bark with their incisors to stimulate the flow of sap, tamarins are opportunistic exudate feeders that do not gouge bark. Several studies of the dentaries and jaw adductors indicate that marmosets exhibit specializations for increased gape at the expense of bite force. Few studies, however, have looked to the cranium of marmosets for evidence of functional specializations. Using 3D finite element models of the marmoset Callithrix jacchus and the tamarin Saguinus fuscicollis, we investigated the performance of the cranium under loading regimes that mimicked unilateral molar biting and bark-gouging. We investigated three measures of performance: the efficiency with which muscle force is transferred to bite force, the extent to which the models are stressed (a predictor of failure), and the work expended by muscles as they deform the skull (total strain energy). We found that during molar biting the two models exhibited similar levels of performance, though the Saguinus model had slightly higher mechanical efficiency, a slightly lower state of stress, and expended more energy on deformation. In contrast, under the bark-gouging load, Callithrix exhibited much higher mechanical efficiency than Saguinas, but did so at the expense of more work and higher levels of von Mises stress. This analysis illustrates that differences in the shapes of the skulls of Callithrix and Saguinus confer differences in performance. Whether these aspects of performance are targets of selection awaits broader comparative analyses. PMID:20572898

  13. Interpopulation differences in exudate feeding of pygmy marmosets in Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Yépez, Pablo; de la Torre, Stella; Snowdon, Charles T

    2005-06-01

    Local variations in fruit- and leaf-eating have been reported for some primate species; however, similar variations in exudate-feeding of pygmy marmosets, one of the most specialized neotropical primate species, have not been studied. In our 3-year study of four populations of pygmy marmosets in northeastern Ecuador, we characterized their exudate-feeding behavior by describing the use of exudate sources. We tested whether the use of exudate species was related to ecological factors such as the availability of exudate species in an area. We estimated the daily activity budgets of the groups with 1-hr scan samples and found significant interpopulation differences in the time spent on exudate feeding. We recorded a total of 18 exudate species used in the four populations; however, the populations differed in the total number of species used and in the preferred species. The most commonly used plant species were Sterculia apetala at San Pablo, Cedrela odorata at Sacha, Inga marginata at Amazoonico, and Parkia balslevii at Zancudo. We recorded the presence and abundance of the 18 exudate species in 90-m transects in the home range of each group and in one additional control area that contained no marmosets, for each population. Differences in the most-used exudate species among populations did not appear to be related to the availability of these species in each population, i.e., the marmosets did not use at random the exudate species available within their range, nor did they use more often the exudate species that were more abundant in their home ranges. One implication of our results for conservation is that protecting exudate resources based on data from only one area will not be sufficient to preserve pygmy marmosets in all populations. PMID:15940711

  14. Survey and Experimental Infection of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Inoue, Takashi; Morita, Hanako; Yasuda, Masahiko; Ueno, Masami; Kawai, Kenji; Itoh, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used for biomedical research but can be afflicted with diarrhea-a serious and potentially lethal health problem. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is thought to be the causative pathogen of hemorrhagic typhlocolitis in common marmosets, but the actual incidence of the disease and the relationship between EPEC and hematochezia are unknown. This study investigated the prevalence of EPEC infection in common marmosets and the association between EPEC and hematochezia. A total of 230 stool or rectal swab samples were collected from 230 common marmosets (98 clinically healthy, 85 diarrhea, and 47 bloody stool samples) and tested by culture-based detection and PCR amplification of VT1, VT2, LT, ST, eae, and bfp genes. Healthy animals were divided into three groups (n = 4 each for high and low concentration groups and n = 2 as negative control), and those in the experimental groups were perorally inoculated with a 2-ml of suspension of EPEC R811 strain adjusted to 5 × 108 (high concentration) and 5 × 104 (low concentration) CFU/ ml. Two animals in each group were examined 3 and 14 days post-inoculation (DPI). EPEC was detected in 10 of 98 clinically healthy samples (10.2%), 17 of 85 diarrhea samples (20%), and all 47 bloody stool samples (100%), with a significant difference detected between presence of EPEC and sample status (P < 0.01). Acute hematochezia was observed in all animals of the high-concentration group but not in other groups at 1 or 2 DPI. A histopathological examination revealed the attachment of gram-negative bacilli to epithelial apical membranes and desquamated epithelial cells in the cecum of animals in the high-concentration group at 3 DPI. These findings suggest that EPEC is a causative agent of hemorrhagic typhlocolitis in common marmosets. PMID:27501144

  15. Survey and Experimental Infection of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Inoue, Takashi; Morita, Hanako; Yasuda, Masahiko; Ueno, Masami; Kawai, Kenji; Itoh, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used for biomedical research but can be afflicted with diarrhea—a serious and potentially lethal health problem. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is thought to be the causative pathogen of hemorrhagic typhlocolitis in common marmosets, but the actual incidence of the disease and the relationship between EPEC and hematochezia are unknown. This study investigated the prevalence of EPEC infection in common marmosets and the association between EPEC and hematochezia. A total of 230 stool or rectal swab samples were collected from 230 common marmosets (98 clinically healthy, 85 diarrhea, and 47 bloody stool samples) and tested by culture-based detection and PCR amplification of VT1, VT2, LT, ST, eae, and bfp genes. Healthy animals were divided into three groups (n = 4 each for high and low concentration groups and n = 2 as negative control), and those in the experimental groups were perorally inoculated with a 2-ml of suspension of EPEC R811 strain adjusted to 5 × 108 (high concentration) and 5 × 104 (low concentration) CFU/ ml. Two animals in each group were examined 3 and 14 days post-inoculation (DPI). EPEC was detected in 10 of 98 clinically healthy samples (10.2%), 17 of 85 diarrhea samples (20%), and all 47 bloody stool samples (100%), with a significant difference detected between presence of EPEC and sample status (P < 0.01). Acute hematochezia was observed in all animals of the high-concentration group but not in other groups at 1 or 2 DPI. A histopathological examination revealed the attachment of gram-negative bacilli to epithelial apical membranes and desquamated epithelial cells in the cecum of animals in the high-concentration group at 3 DPI. These findings suggest that EPEC is a causative agent of hemorrhagic typhlocolitis in common marmosets. PMID:27501144

  16. Differential contribution of dietary fat and monosaccharide to metabolic syndrome in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Wachtman, Lynn M.; Kramer, Joshua A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Hachey, Audra; Curran, Elizabeth; Mansfield, Keith G.

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for animal models to study aspects type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis and prevention. While the rhesus macaque is such an established model, the common marmoset has added benefits including reduced zoonotic risks, shorter life span, and a predisposition to birth twins demonstrating chimerism. The marmoset as a model organism for the study of metabolic syndrome has not been fully evaluated. Marmosets fed high-fat or glucose-enriched diets were followed longitudinally to observe effects on morphometric and metabolic measures. Effects on pancreatic histomorphometry and vascular pathology were examined terminally. The glucose–enriched diet group developed an obese phenotype and a prolonged hyperglycemic state evidenced by a rapid and persistent increase in mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HgbA1c) observed as early as week 16. In contrast, marmosets fed a high-fat diet did not maintain an obese phenotype and demonstrated a delayed increase in HgbA1c that did not reach statistical significance until week 40. Consumption of either diet resulted in profound pancreatic islet hyperplasia suggesting a compensation for increased insulin requirements. Although the high fat diet group developed atherosclerosis of increased severity, the presence of lesions correlated with glucose intolerance only in the glucose-enriched diet group. The altered timing of glucose dysregulation, differential contribution to obesity, and variation in vascular pathology suggests mechanisms of effect specific to dietary nutrient content. Feeding nutritionally modified diets to common marmosets recapitulates aspects of metabolic disease and represents a model that may prove instrumental to elucidating the contribution of nutrient excess to disease development. PMID:21164504

  17. An Overview of Models, Methods, and Reagents Developed for Translational Autoimmunity Research in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Jagessar, S. Anwar; Vierboom, Michel; Blezer, Erwin L.A.; Bauer, Jan; Hart, Bert A. ‘t; Kap, Yolanda S.

    2013-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS established in marmosets has proven their value for exploratory research into (etio) pathogenic mechanisms and for the evaluation of new therapies that cannot be tested in lower species because of their specificity for humans. Effective usage of the marmoset in preclinical immunological research has been hampered by the limited availability of blood for immunological studies and of reagents for profiling of cellular and humoral immune reactions. In this paper, we give a concise overview of the procedures and reagents that were developed over the years in our laboratory in marmoset models of the above-mentioned diseases. PMID:23903050

  18. Maturation, fertilization, and development of marmoset monkey oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, R B; Nayudu, P L; Hodges, J K

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate 1) the capacity of in vitro-matured (IVM) marmoset oocytes to be fertilized and to support embryonic development in vitro and 2) oocyte meiotic maturation in relation to in vivo FSH administration, follicle size, and oocyte-cumulus cell status. Pairs of ovaries were collected on Day 4 of the follicular phase from adult females receiving either 1) human FSH (3 IU; n = 5) or 2) control (saline; n = 5) daily for 4 days. Antral follicles were excised from ovaries and separated into classes according to size: class 1 (660-840 microm), class 2 (> 840-1000 microm), class 3 (> 1000-1400 microm), and class 4 (> 1400 microm). A total of 823 partially naked and cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEOs) were released from follicles and cultured in vitro. Cumulus cells remaining after 22 h were removed, metaphase II (MII) oocytes were inseminated with epididymal sperm, and resulting embryos were cultured until developmental arrest. Fluorescence microscopy was used to assess oocyte meiotic and embryo developmental progression. Oocyte germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB)- and MII-competencies increased significantly with follicular size (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively), although they were independent of oocyte-cumulus cell associations. After 24 and 32 h in vitro, 69% and 93%, respectively, of CEOs with MII competence had completed meiotic maturation, and the rate of nuclear maturation increased progressively with follicle size (p < 0.01) and with the association of cumulus cells (p < 0.01). In vivo FSH priming slightly improved oocyte GVB- and MII-competencies (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) and decreased the time required to achieve MII (p < 0.01). IVM oocytes from all follicle sizes fertilized (78-92%) in vitro, with 27% developing to morula- and 4% to blastocyst-stage embryos. This study demonstrates for the first time that IVM New World primate oocytes are able to support advanced preimplantation embryonic development in vitro. Oocyte

  19. Germ cell differentiation in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) during fetal and neonatal life closely parallels that in the human

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, R.T.; Cowan, G.; Morris, K.D.; Anderson, R.A.; Fraser, H.M.; Mckenzie, K.J.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Kelnar, C.J.H.; Saunders, P.T.K.; Sharpe, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are thought to originate from fetal germ cells that fail to differentiate normally, but no animal model for these events has been described. We evaluated the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a model by comparing perinatal germ cell differentiation with that in humans. METHODS Immunohistochemical profiling was used to investigate germ cell differentiation (OCT4, NANOG, AP-2γ, MAGE-A4, VASA, NANOS-1) and proliferation (Ki67) in fetal and neonatal marmoset testes in comparison with the human and, to a lesser extent, the rat. RESULTS In marmosets and humans, differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonia is associated with the gradual loss of pluripotency markers such as OCT4 and NANOG, and the expression of germ cell-specific proteins such as VASA. This differentiation occurs asynchronously within individual cords during fetal and early postnatal life. This contrasts with rapid and synchronous germ cell differentiation within and between cords in the rat. Similarly, germ cell proliferation in the marmoset and human occurs throughout perinatal life, in contrast to rats in which proliferation ceases during this period. CONCLUSIONS The marmoset provides a good model for normal human germ cell differentiation and proliferation. The perinatal marmoset may be a useful model in which to establish factors that lead to failure of normal germ cell differentiation and the origins of TGCT. PMID:18694875

  20. Simultaneous pharmacokinetics evaluation of human cytochrome P450 probes, caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam, in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Inoue, Takashi; Utoh, Masahiro; Toda, Akiko; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    1. Pharmacokinetics of human cytochrome P450 probes (caffeine, racemic warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam) composite, after single intravenous and oral administrations at doses of 0.20 and 1.0 mg kg(-1), respectively, to four male common marmosets were investigated. 2. The plasma concentrations of caffeine and warfarin decreased slowly in a monophasic manner but those of omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam decreased extensively after intravenous and oral administrations, in a manner that approximated those as reported for pharmacokinetics in humans. 3. Bioavailabilities were ∼100% for caffeine and warfarin, but <25% for omeprazole and metoprolol. Bioavailability of midazolam was 4% in marmosets, presumably because of contribution of marmoset P450 3A4 expressed in small intestine and liver, with a high catalytic efficiency for midazolam 1'-hydroxylation as evident in the recombinant system. 4. These results suggest that common marmosets, despite their rapid clearance of some human P450 probe substrates, could be an experimental model for humans and that marmoset P450s have functional characteristics that differ from those of human and/or cynomolgus monkey P450s in some aspects, indicating their importance in modeling in P450-dependent drug metabolism studies in marmosets and of further studies. PMID:26114209

  1. Marmoset cytochrome P450 2J2 mainly expressed in small intestines and livers effectively metabolizes human P450 2J2 probe substrates, astemizole and terfenadine.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Okamoto, Eriko; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    1. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World Monkey, has potential to be a useful animal model in preclinical studies. However, drug metabolizing properties have not been fully understood due to insufficient information on cytochrome P450 (P450), major drug metabolizing enzymes. 2. Marmoset P450 2J2 cDNA was isolated from marmoset livers. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high-sequence identity (91%) with cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes. A phylogenetic tree revealed that marmoset P450 2J2 was evolutionarily closer to cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes, than P450 2J forms in pigs, rabbits, rats or mice. 3. Marmoset P450 2J2 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the small intestine and liver, and to a lesser extent in the brain, lung and kidney. Immunoblot analysis also showed expression of marmoset P450 2J2 protein in the small intestine and liver. 4. Enzyme assays using marmoset P450 2J2 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that marmoset P450 2J2 effectively catalyzed astemizole O-demethylation and terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation, similar to human and cynomolgus monkey P450 2J2 enzymes. 5. These results suggest the functional characteristics of P450 2J2 enzymes are similar among marmosets, cynomolgus monkeys and humans. PMID:26899760

  2. Oxytocin modulates behavioral and physiological responses to a stressor in marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Jon; Carp, Sarah B; Rock, Chelsea M; French, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a major source of stress and can lead to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The presence of a close social partner can reduce the magnitude of the HPA-axis response during a stressor, a phenomenon known as social buffering. The oxytocin (OXT) system has been identified as one candidate for mediating social buffering due to its role in the facilitation of social bonding and the expression of prosocial behavior. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the OXT system contributes to social buffering of HPA-axis activity in response to stressor exposure in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). Male and female marmosets experienced a standardized psychogenic stressor with and without their long-term mate under OXT-treatments (Pro(8)-OXT, Leu(8)-OXT, OXT antagonist, and saline); we assessed HPA-axis activity by measuring urinary cortisol across the stressor. We found that blocking, but not augmenting, the OXT system altered patterns of cortisol and proximity behavior in response to a stressor. We demonstrated that (1) the presence of a mate during a stressor significantly attenuated HPA-axis activity in female, but not male, marmosets; (2) male, but not female, marmosets treated with an OXT antagonist had significantly higher HPA-axis activity across the stressor than when they were treated with saline, suggesting that the OXT system may reduce the stressor-induced rise in cortisol levels; (3) male and female marmosets treated with an OXT antagonist spent significantly less time in close proximity to their mate during the first 30min of the stressor than when they were treated with saline, suggesting that the OXT system may be important for the expression of partner-seeking behavior during a stressor. Thus, the OXT system and social context differentially influenced how the HPA-axis responded to a stressor in male and female marmosets, and may modulate HPA-axis activity by promoting the expression of proximity

  3. Simulation of the Inferior Mirage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A mirage can occur when a continuous variation in the refractive index of the air causes light rays to follow a curved path. As a result, the image we see is displaced from the location of the object. If the image appears higher in the air than the object, it is called a "superior" mirage, while if it appears lower it is called an "inferior"…

  4. [Immune response produced by anti-rabies vaccines in marmosets (Callithrix sp)].

    PubMed

    Andrade, M C; de Oliveira, A N; Romijn, P C; Kimura, L M

    1999-01-01

    In order to evaluate the immune response produced by rabies vaccines in new world nonhuman primates, thirty marmosets (Callithrix sp) were divided into five groups of six individuals and submitted to five different antirabies vaccination schemes using two distinct commercially available animal vaccines. The first was produced in suckling mouse brain (Fuenzalida and Palacios), and the second in NIL-2 cell culture. Post-vaccine serological monitoring was carried out periodically. The results showed that the Fuenzalida and Palacios vaccine was not able to protect the animals when using a single dose or even with a booster. But when submitted to a vaccination routine similar to that used for humans, the marmosets showed detectable antibodies, and only one succumbed to rabies after being challenged. In addition, the vaccine produced in NIL-2 cell culture induced high antibody levels in all vaccinated animals and all animals survived the viral challenge. PMID:10881088

  5. An alternative method of endotracheal intubation of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Thomas, A A; Leach, M C; Flecknell, P A

    2012-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation was carried out in 11 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). A commercially available tilting stand and a Miller laryngoscope blade were used to visualize the larynx. Anaesthesia was induced with alphaxalone (10.6 ± 1.6 mg/kg intramuscularly, followed by 3.2 ± 1.2 mg/kg intravenously). The diameter of the proximal trachea easily fitted an endotracheal tube made from readily available material (a 12 G 'over the needle' catheter). Once the tip of the endotracheal tube was at the level of the vocal folds, the tube had to be gently rotated through a 180° angle in order to pass through the larynx into the trachea. Assessment of the dimensions of the larynx and trachea, and comparison with external anatomical features of the animals (n = 10) showed that the length of the trachea could be predicted by multiplying the craniosacral length of the marmoset by a factor of 0.42. PMID:22048957

  6. The common marmoset genome provides insight into primate biology and evolution.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    We report the whole-genome sequence of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The 2.26-Gb genome of a female marmoset was assembled using Sanger read data (6×) and a whole-genome shotgun strategy. A first analysis has permitted comparison with the genomes of apes and Old World monkeys and the identification of specific features that might contribute to the unique biology of this diminutive primate, including genetic changes that may influence body size, frequent twinning and chimerism. We observed positive selection in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor genes (growth pathways), respiratory complex I genes (metabolic pathways), and genes encoding immunobiological factors and proteases (reproductive and immunity pathways). In addition, both protein-coding and microRNA genes related to reproduction exhibited evidence of rapid sequence evolution. This genome sequence for a New World monkey enables increased power for comparative analyses among available primate genomes and facilitates biomedical research application. PMID:25038751

  7. The common marmoset as an indispensable animal model for immunotherapy development in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kap, Yolanda S; Jagessar, S Anwar; Dunham, Jordon; 't Hart, Bert A

    2016-08-01

    New drugs often fail in the translation from the rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model to human multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we present the marmoset EAE model as an indispensable model for translational research into MS. The genetic heterogeneity of this species and lifelong exposure to chronic latent infections and environmental pathogens create a human-like immune system. Unique to this model is the presence of the pathological hallmark of progressive MS, in particular cortical grey matter lesions. Another great possibility of this model is systemic and longitudinal immune profiling, whereas in humans and mice immune profiling is usually performed in a single compartment (i.e. blood or spleen, respectively). Overall, the marmoset model provides unique opportunities for systemic drug-effect profiling. PMID:27060373

  8. The Common Marmoset Genome Provides Insight into Primate Biology and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A first analysis of the genome sequence of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), assembled using traditional Sanger methods and Ensembl annotation, has permitted genomic comparison with apes and old world monkeys and the identification of specific molecular features that may contribute to the unique biology of this diminutive primate. The common marmoset has a rapid reproductive capacity partly due to prevalence of dizygotic twins. Remarkably, these twins share placental circulation and exchange hematopoietic stem cells in utero, resulting in adults that are hematopoietic chimeras. We observed positive selection or non-synonymous substitutions for genes encoding growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (growth pathways), respiratory complex I (metabolic pathways), immunobiology, and proteases (reproductive and immunity pathways). In addition, both protein-coding and microRNA genes related to reproduction exhibit rapid sequence evolution. This New World monkey genome sequence enables significantly increased power for comparative analyses among available primate genomes and facilitates biomedical research application. PMID:25038751

  9. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in two pet marmosets in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imura, Kei; Chambers, James Kenn; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Yasutsugu

    2014-12-01

    An 8-month-old common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was presented with tic-like symptoms, and a 2-year-old pigmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) was presented with dyspnea and hypersalivation. Both monkeys died within a few days, and necropsies were performed. Histopathological examinations revealed ulcerative stomatitis with epithelial cell swelling and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the oral epithelium of both cases. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, neuronal cell degeneration with intranuclear inclusion bodies was observed. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 antibody revealed virus antigens in both cases. Both animals had been kept as pets with limited exposure to the ambient environment except via their owners. Therefore, herpes simplex virus type-1 was probably acquired from close contact with their owners. PMID:25649955

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Two Pet Marmosets in Japan

    PubMed Central

    IMURA, Kei; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; NOMURA, Shunsuke; SUZUKI, Satoshi; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki; MIWA, Yasutsugu

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was presented with tic-like symptoms, and a 2-year-old pigmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) was presented with dyspnea and hypersalivation. Both monkeys died within a few days, and necropsies were performed. Histopathological examinations revealed ulcerative stomatitis with epithelial cell swelling and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the oral epithelium of both cases. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, neuronal cell degeneration with intranuclear inclusion bodies was observed. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 antibody revealed virus antigens in both cases. Both animals had been kept as pets with limited exposure to the ambient environment except via their owners. Therefore, herpes simplex virus type-1 was probably acquired from close contact with their owners. PMID:25649955

  11. Airway gene transfer in a non-human primate: lentiviral gene expression in marmoset lungs.

    PubMed

    Farrow, N; Miller, D; Cmielewski, P; Donnelley, M; Bright, R; Parsons, D W

    2013-01-01

    Genetic therapies for cystic fibrosis (CF) must be assessed for safety and efficacy, so testing in a non-human primate (NHP) model is invaluable. In this pilot study we determined if the conducting airways of marmosets (n = 2) could be transduced using an airway pre-treatment followed by an intratracheal bolus dose of a VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 based lentiviral (LV) vector (LacZ reporter). LacZ gene expression (X-gal) was assessed after 7 days and found primarily in conducting airway epithelia as well as in alveolar regions. The LacZ gene was not detected in liver or spleen via qPCR. Vector p24 protein bio-distribution into blood was transient. Dosing was well tolerated. This preliminary study confirmed the transducibility of CF-relevant airway cell types. The marmoset is a promising NHP model for testing and translating genetic treatments for CF airway disease towards clinical trials. PMID:23412644

  12. Individual Differences in Metabolic Clearance of S-Warfarin Efficiently Mediated by Polymorphic Marmoset Cytochrome P450 2C19 in Livers.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Kawano, Mirai; Shimizu, Makiko; Toda, Akiko; Utoh, Masahiro; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Marmoset cytochrome P450 2C19, highly homologous to human P450 2C9 and 2C19, has been identified in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a nonhuman primate species used in drug metabolism studies. Although genetic variants in human and macaque P450 2C genes account for the interindividual variability in drug metabolism, genetic variants have not been investigated in the marmoset P450 2C19 In this study, sequencing of P450 2C19 in 24 marmosets identified three variants p.[(Phe7Leu; Ser254Leu; Ile469Thr)], which showed substantially reduced metabolic capacity of S-warfarin compared with the wild-type group in vivo and in vitro. Although mean plasma concentrations of R-warfarin in marmosets determined after chiral separation were similar between the homozygous mutant and wild-type groups up to 24 hours after the intravenous and oral administrations of racemic warfarin, S-warfarin depletion from plasma was significantly faster in the three wild-type marmosets compared with the three homozygous mutant marmosets. These variants, cosegregating in the marmosets analyzed, influenced metabolic activities in 18 marmoset liver microsomes because the homozygotes and heterozygotes showed significantly reduced catalytic activities in liver microsomes toward S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation compared with the wild-type group. Kinetic analysis for S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation indicated that the recombinant P450 2C19 Ser254Leu variant would change the metabolic capacity. These results indicated that the interindividual variability of P450 2C-dependent drug metabolism such as S-warfarin clearance is at least partly accounted for by P450 2C19 variants in marmosets, suggesting that polymorphic P450 2C-dependent catalytic functions are relatively similar between marmosets and humans. PMID:27098744

  13. The Response to Visual Form Deprivation Differs with Age in Marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Troilo, David; Nickla, Debora L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the effects of visual form deprivation by diffuser in marmoset monkey eyes across a range of ages. Methods Twenty-four common marmosets were grouped by onset of deprivation (group 1: 0-39 days, n = 6; group 2: 40-99 days, n = 10; and group 3: 100-200 days, n = 8). Monocular form deprivation was induced with a white translucent diffuser worn for 28 to 88 days (mean durations: group 1, 32 days; group 2, 56 days; and group 3, 51 days). Refractive state, corneal curvature, and vitreous chamber depth were measured after cycloplegia. Both experimental and control eyes were measured multiple times before, during, and after the visual deprivation period. Results Marmosets in all age groups tested were susceptible to visual form deprivation myopia; however, the response to form deprivation was variable and included a majority with axial myopia (n = 15), several nonresponders (n = 4), a single late responder (axial myopia after the end of deprivation period), and several axial hyperopes (n = 4). For all animals that responded with axial myopia, the increase in vitreous chamber depth and myopia was inversely proportional to the age of onset of deprivation (ANOVA, P < 0.05). After the end of the period of deprivation, recovery from myopia by reduction of the axial growth rate was observed in three animals from group 1 and three animals from group 2. Conclusions Form deprivation by diffusers disrupted emmetropization in marmosets over a range of ages. The responses varied among individuals and with age, suggesting that the maturity of the eye may influence the response to visual signals responsible for form deprivation myopia and perhaps emmetropization. Recovery from diffuser-induced form deprivation myopia was apparent in some animals, in contrast to that reported for visual deprivation by lid-suturing, and appears more prevalent in the younger animals. PMID:15914598

  14. In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging of Dendritic Spines in Marmoset Neocortex1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Sadakane, Osamu; Watakabe, Akiya; Ohtsuka, Masanari; Takaji, Masafumi; Sasaki, Tetsuya; Kasai, Masatoshi; Isa, Tadashi; Kato, Go; Nabekura, Junichi; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Keiya; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two-photon microscopy in combination with a technique involving the artificial expression of fluorescent protein has enabled the direct observation of dendritic spines in living brains. However, the application of this method to primate brains has been hindered by the lack of appropriate labeling techniques for visualizing dendritic spines. Here, we developed an adeno-associated virus vector-based fluorescent protein expression system for visualizing dendritic spines in vivo in the marmoset neocortex. For the clear visualization of each spine, the expression of reporter fluorescent protein should be both sparse and strong. To fulfill these requirements, we amplified fluorescent signals using the tetracycline transactivator (tTA)–tetracycline-responsive element system and by titrating down the amount of Thy1S promoter-driven tTA for sparse expression. By this method, we were able to visualize dendritic spines in the marmoset cortex by two-photon microscopy in vivo and analyze the turnover of spines in the prefrontal cortex. Our results demonstrated that short spines in the marmoset cortex tend to change more frequently than long spines. The comparison of in vivo samples with fixed samples showed that we did not detect all existing spines by our method. Although we found glial cell proliferation, the damage of tissues caused by window construction was relatively small, judging from the comparison of spine length between samples with or without window construction. Our new labeling technique for two-photon imaging to visualize in vivo dendritic spines of the marmoset neocortex can be applicable to examining circuit reorganization and synaptic plasticity in primates. PMID:26465000

  15. Modeling Parkinson's disease in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): overview of models, methods, and animal care

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jun-Won; Ahn, Jae-Bum

    2015-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied, popular New World monkey and is used widely in reproductive biology, neuroscience, and drug development, due to its comparative ease of handling, high reproductive efficiency, and its unique behavioral characters. In this review, we discuss the marmoset models in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a neurological movement disorder primarily resulting from a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons with clinical features of tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and akinesia. The most common PD models involve the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 6-hydroxydopamine to study the pathogenesis and to evaluate novel therapies. Following the systemic or local administration of these neurotoxins, the marmosets with very severe Parkinson's symptoms are recommended to be placed in an intensive care unit with artificial feeding to increase survival rate. All procedures with MPTP should be conducted in a special room with enclosed cages under negative-pressure by trained researchers with personal protection. Behavioral tests are conducted to provide an external measure of the brain pathology. Along with several biomarkers, including α-synuclein and DJ-1, non-invasive neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate the functional changes associated with PD. With the recent growing interest in potential and novel therapies such as stem cell and gene therapy for PD in Korea, the marmoset can be considered as a suitable non-human primate model in PD research to bridge the gap between rodent studies and clinical applications. PMID:26755918

  16. IgG+ platelets in the marmoset: their induction, maintenance, and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Gengozian, N.; McLaughlin, C.L.

    1980-06-01

    Immunization of marmosets with platelets from another species of marmoset leads to antibody formation to the donor platelets, deposition of IgG on the host's platelets, and thrombocytopenia. This disease closely resembles posttransfusion purpura of man, which may develop after one or two transfusions of whole blood. The mode of immunization in the marmoset was found to be important: intravenous (i.v.) inoculations were without effect, while intramuscular (i.m.) immunizations led to the disease. Intramuscular inoculations were characterized by formation of 7S antibodies, as measured by indirect immunofluorescent (IF) and complement-dependent platelet cytotoxicity (PC) tests; in contrast, i.v. immunizations, while leading to 7S antibodies by the IF test, yielded only 19S antibodies reactive in the PC assay. The titers were also consistently higher with i.m. immunizations. Antibody was not limited to the donor platelets, but auto- or host-type reactivity was also present; this antibody was in very low titer and could be found only when the animal was thrombocytopenic. A primary finding was the ability to maintain increased deposition of IgG on the host's platelets in the absence of thrombocytopenia by biweekly or monthly inoculations of the donor platelet antigen. The amount of IgG found on platelets of normal and immunized marmosets was comparable to that reported for normal humans and patients with cinical immune thrombocytopenia. Finally, platelet survival studies in animals with IgG+ platelets and normal platelet counts indicated a rapid turnover, suggesting operation of a compensatory mechanism to maintain platelet levels.

  17. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    PubMed

    Debowski, Katharina; Warthemann, Rita; Lentes, Jana; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Dressel, Ralf; Langenstroth, Daniel; Gromoll, Jörg; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80) and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement therapies in

  18. LPS-Induced Lung Inflammation in Marmoset Monkeys – An Acute Model for Anti-Inflammatory Drug Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seehase, Sophie; Lauenstein, Hans-Dieter; Schlumbohm, Christina; Switalla, Simone; Neuhaus, Vanessa; Förster, Christine; Fieguth, Hans-Gerd; Pfennig, Olaf; Fuchs, Eberhard; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Bleyer, Martina; Hohlfeld, Jens M.; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β) were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:22952743

  19. Metabolic consequences of long-term rapamycin exposure on common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Corinna; Salmon, Adam; Strong, Randy; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Javors, Marty; Richardson, Arlan; Tardif, Suzette

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin has been shown to extend lifespan in rodent models, but the effects on metabolic health and function have been widely debated in both clinical and translational trials. Prior to rapamycin being used as a treatment to extend both lifespan and healthspan in the human population, it is vital to assess the side effects of the treatment on metabolic pathways in animal model systems, including a closely related non-human primate model. In this study, we found that long-term treatment of marmoset monkeys with orally-administered encapsulated rapamycin resulted in no overall effects on body weight and only a small decrease in fat mass over the first few months of treatment. Rapamycin treated subjects showed no overall changes in daily activity counts, blood lipids, or significant changes in glucose metabolism including oral glucose tolerance. Adipose tissue displayed no differences in gene expression of metabolic markers following treatment, while liver tissue exhibited suppressed G6Pase activity with increased PCK and GPI activity. Overall, the marmosets revealed only minor metabolic consequences of chronic treatment with rapamycin and this adds to the growing body of literature that suggests that chronic and/or intermittent rapamycin treatment results in improved health span and metabolic functioning. The marmosets offer an interesting alternative animal model for future intervention testing and translational modeling. PMID:26568298

  20. Comparative experimental subcutaneous glanders and melioidosis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle; Salguero, Francisco J; Dean, Rachel E; Ngugi, Sarah A; Smither, Sophie J; Atkins, Timothy P; Lever, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Glanders and melioidosis are caused by two distinct Burkholderia species and have generally been considered to have similar disease progression. While both of these pathogens are HHS/CDC Tier 1 agents, natural infection with both these pathogens is primarily through skin inoculation. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was used to compare disease following experimental subcutaneous challenge. Acute, lethal disease was observed in marmosets following challenge with between 26 and 1.2 × 108 cfu Burkholderia pseudomallei within 22–85 h. The reproducibility and progression of the disease were assessed following a challenge of 1 × 102 cfu of B. pseudomallei. Melioidosis was characterised by high levels of bacteraemia, focal microgranuloma progressing to non-necrotic multifocal solid lesions in the livers and spleens and multi-organ failure. Lethal disease was observed in 93% of animals challenged with Burkholderia mallei, occurring between 5 and 10.6 days. Following challenge with 1 × 102 cfu of B. mallei, glanders was characterised with lymphatic spread of the bacteria and non-necrotic, multifocal solid lesions progressing to a multifocal lesion with severe necrosis and pneumonia. The experimental results confirmed that the disease pathology and presentation is strikingly different between the two pathogens. The marmoset provides a model of the human syndrome for both diseases facilitating the development of medical countermeasures. PMID:25477002

  1. MRI-guided stereotaxic brain surgery in the infant and adult common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Mundinano, Inaki-Carril; Flecknell, Paul A; Bourne, James A

    2016-07-01

    In the past decade, the New World common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has taken a seminal position in neurobiological research, fueled in part by its smooth cortical sheet, which allows cortical areas to be easily accessed by current technologies on the dorsal surface of the brain. In this protocol, we describe a method for the precision placement of agents (e.g., tracers or neurotoxins) into small brain regions of the infant and adult marmoset, using an MRI-guided approach. This strategy uses a protocol for prolonged anesthesia without the need for intubation that we have recently developed, alongside appropriate analgesia and monitoring. The protocol can be readily adapted to be used together with advanced research techniques, such as two-photon microscopy and optical imaging. Including a 5-d postoperative care plan, this protocol takes 7 d to complete. The protocol requires a team of personnel experienced in marmoset care and handling, and small-animal neurosurgery; an assistant for monitoring the animal and assisting with anesthesia; and an MRI technician. PMID:27336707

  2. Variations in male parenting behavior and physiology in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Toni E; Prudom, Shelley L; Zahed, Sofia R

    2009-01-01

    Infant survival and wellbeing is dependent upon good parenting skills. In some species of primates, fathers are necessary to ensure both positive developmental and social outcomes for their offspring. Common marmosets and the related cotton-top tamarin monkeys provide extensive paternal care of multiple offspring and are essential for infant survival. However, we have found significant variation in a father's motivation to respond to infant stimuli. Additionally, marmoset males who are experienced fathers are significantly more motivated to respond to infants and infant stimuli than adult males who have yet to be fathers. Expectant fathers appear to be preparing for their energetic role in infant care by responding with increases in multiple reproductive hormones and showing weight gain during their mate's pregnancy. Male marmosets have been shown to be hormonally responsive to scent signals. Males show increased testosterone shortly after smelling periovulatory scents and lower levels of testosterone following presentation of their own infant's scent. These two inverse testosterone responses combined indicate that paternal males have a flexible system of responding to socially relevant odor cues. Thus males can be ready to mate when their mate is fertile while continuing to be responsive to their infants when these two events occur simultaneously. A male's hormonal and physical responsiveness to parenting may be due to pair bonding between the male and his mate. Examining the variability between males in their behavioral, physical, and hormonal responses to their mate's pregnancy, and infant stimuli provides the means for determining the mechanisms of good parenting in fathers. PMID:19367571

  3. Infection with MERS-CoV Causes Lethal Pneumonia in the Common Marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Feldmann, Friederike; Rasmussen, Angela L.; Okumura, Atsushi; Peng, Xinxia; Thomas, Matthew J.; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Haddock, Elaine; Nagy, Lee; LaCasse, Rachel; Liu, Tingting; Zhu, Jiang; McLellan, Jason S.; Scott, Dana P.; Katze, Michael G.; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a robust disease model is essential for the development of countermeasures for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While a rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV has been established, the lack of uniform, severe disease in this model complicates the analysis of countermeasure studies. Modeling of the interaction between the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein and its receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 predicted comparable interaction energies in common marmosets and humans. The suitability of the marmoset as a MERS-CoV model was tested by inoculation via combined intratracheal, intranasal, oral and ocular routes. Most of the marmosets developed a progressive severe pneumonia leading to euthanasia of some animals. Extensive lesions were evident in the lungs of all animals necropsied at different time points post inoculation. Some animals were also viremic; high viral loads were detected in the lungs of all infected animals, and total RNAseq demonstrated the induction of immune and inflammatory pathways. This is the first description of a severe, partially lethal, disease model of MERS-CoV, and as such will have a major impact on the ability to assess the efficacy of vaccines and treatment strategies as well as allowing more detailed pathogenesis studies. PMID:25144235

  4. Characterization of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells and their changes with aging in common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anqi; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Gao, Hui; Shi, Yuanshuo; Chen, Yuanhong; Zhang, Fuchuang; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wang, Danhan; Gorena, Karla M.; Huang, Changjiang; Tardif, Suzette; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Age is the number one risk factor for breast cancer, yet the underlying mechanisms are unexplored. Age-associated mammary stem cell (MaSC) dysfunction is thought to play an important role in breast cancer carcinogenesis. Non-human primates with their close phylogenetic relationship to humans provide a powerful model system to study the effects of aging on human MaSC. In particular, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) with a relatively short life span is an ideal model for aging research. In the present study, we characterized for the first time the mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells in the common marmoset. The MaSC-enriched cells formed four major types of morphologically distinct colonies when cultured on plates pre-seeded with irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblasts, and were also capable of forming mammospheres in suspension culture and subsequent formation of 3D organoids in Matrigel culture. Most importantly, these 3D organoids were found to contain stem/progenitor cells that can undergo self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. We also observed a significant decrease of luminal-restricted progenitors with age. Our findings demonstrate that common marmoset mammary stem/progenitor cells can be isolated and quantified with established in vitro and in vivo assays used for mouse and human studies. PMID:27558284

  5. Characterization of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells and their changes with aging in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anqi; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Gao, Hui; Shi, Yuanshuo; Chen, Yuanhong; Zhang, Fuchuang; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wang, Danhan; Gorena, Karla M; Huang, Changjiang; Tardif, Suzette; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Age is the number one risk factor for breast cancer, yet the underlying mechanisms are unexplored. Age-associated mammary stem cell (MaSC) dysfunction is thought to play an important role in breast cancer carcinogenesis. Non-human primates with their close phylogenetic relationship to humans provide a powerful model system to study the effects of aging on human MaSC. In particular, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) with a relatively short life span is an ideal model for aging research. In the present study, we characterized for the first time the mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells in the common marmoset. The MaSC-enriched cells formed four major types of morphologically distinct colonies when cultured on plates pre-seeded with irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblasts, and were also capable of forming mammospheres in suspension culture and subsequent formation of 3D organoids in Matrigel culture. Most importantly, these 3D organoids were found to contain stem/progenitor cells that can undergo self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. We also observed a significant decrease of luminal-restricted progenitors with age. Our findings demonstrate that common marmoset mammary stem/progenitor cells can be isolated and quantified with established in vitro and in vivo assays used for mouse and human studies. PMID:27558284

  6. High-field functional magnetic resonance imaging of vocalization processing in marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Sadagopan, Srivatsun; Temiz-Karayol, Nesibe Z.; Voss, Henning U.

    2015-01-01

    Vocalizations are behaviorally critical sounds, and this behavioral importance is reflected in the ascending auditory system, where conspecific vocalizations are increasingly over-represented at higher processing stages. Recent evidence suggests that, in macaques, this increasing selectivity for vocalizations might culminate in a cortical region that is densely populated by vocalization-preferring neurons. Such a region might be a critical node in the representation of vocal communication sounds, underlying the recognition of vocalization type, caller and social context. These results raise the questions of whether cortical specializations for vocalization processing exist in other species, their cortical location, and their relationship to the auditory processing hierarchy. To explore cortical specializations for vocalizations in another species, we performed high-field fMRI of the auditory cortex of a vocal New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Using a sparse imaging paradigm, we discovered a caudal-rostral gradient for the processing of conspecific vocalizations in marmoset auditory cortex, with regions of the anterior temporal lobe close to the temporal pole exhibiting the highest preference for vocalizations. These results demonstrate similar cortical specializations for vocalization processing in macaques and marmosets, suggesting that cortical specializations for vocal processing might have evolved before the lineages of these species diverged. PMID:26091254

  7. Characterization of lesion formation in marmosets following inhalational challenge with different strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michelle; Nunez, Alejandro; Ngugi, Sarah A; Sinclair, Adam; Atkins, Timothy P

    2015-12-01

    The marmoset model of melioidosis was used to explore whether there was any difference in the disease presentation and/or the lesion formation following inhalational challenge with one of four strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei (K96243, 1026b, HBPUB10303a and HBPUB10134a). Marmosets were challenged with a range of bacterial doses and bacterial load, histological and physiological features were determined temporally following lethal disease. Melioidosis presented as an acute, febrile disease with bacteraemia, bacterial dissemination, necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis and pneumonia which was independent of the challenge strain. Generally, there were no major differences in the manifestation of melioidosis following challenge by the different strains of B. pseudomallei; however, there were some differences in the time to death and the severity of the pathological features. The pathological features observed in the liver and spleen of animals challenged with B. pseudomallei strain 1026b were statistically less severe (P < 0.05) and less frequent. However, more severe foci of disease were evident in the lungs of animals challenged with strain 1026b. In all cases, the lesions developed from small areas of bacteria-infected macrophages surrounded by non-infected neutrophils into large lesions with both immune cell types infected. The marmoset model was a useful tool enabling the distinction of subtle difference in the pathological response to B. pseudomallei. PMID:26852689

  8. Functional columns in superior temporal sulcus areas of the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wataru; Tani, Toshiki; Banno, Taku; Miyakawa, Naohisa; Abe, Hiroshi; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2015-12-16

    Cortical areas in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) of primates have been recognized as a part of the 'social brain'. In particular, biological motion stimuli elicit neuronal responses in the STS, indicating their roles in the ability to understand others' actions. However, the spatial organization of functionally identified STS cells is not well understood because it is difficult to identify the precise locations of cells in sulcal regions. Here, using a small New World monkey, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) that has a lissencephalic brain, we investigated the spatial organization of the cells responsive to other's actions in STS. The neural responses to movies showing several types of other's actions were recorded with multicontact linear-array electrodes that had four shanks (0.4 mm spacing), with eight electrode contacts (0.2 mm spacing) for each shank. The four shanks were penetrated perpendicular to the cortical surface. We found that STS cells significantly responded to other's goal-directed actions, such as when an actor marmoset was reaching for and grasping a piece of food. The response profiles to the movies were more similar between the vertically positioned electrodes than horizontally positioned electrodes when the distances between electrodes were matched. This indicates that there are functional columns in the higher-order visual areas in STS of the common marmoset. PMID:26512934

  9. DIFFERENTIAL ENDOCRINE RESPONSES TO INFANT ODORS IN COMMON MARMOSET (Callithrix jacchus) FATHERS

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Toni E.; Peterson, Laura J.; Sosa, Megan E.; Barnard, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Olfactory cues can exert priming effects on many mammalian species. Paternally experienced marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, exposed to direct isolated olfactory contact with their own infant's scent show rapid decreases in testosterone levels within 20 minutes, whereas paternally inexperienced males do not. The following study tests whether there is a differential steroid response to exposure of infant scent from dependent infants (own and novel) and independent infants (own and novel). We examined the serum levels of estradiol, estrone, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and combined estrogens and androgens in eight male marmosets 20 minutes after exposure to isolated infant scent. Testosterone and androgen levels combined were significantly lower with exposure to own infant scent than a novel infant scent when the infants were at a dependent age but not at an independent age. Estrogen levels elevated significantly in response to own infant scent when the infants were at a dependent age but not at an independent age. These results suggest that marmoset fathers are more responsive to priming cues from related infants and hormonal responses from fathers are greatest when the infant is at a dependent age. PMID:21145893

  10. Metabolic consequences of long-term rapamycin exposure on common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Ross, Corinna; Salmon, Adam; Strong, Randy; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Javors, Marty; Richardson, Arlan; Tardif, Suzette

    2015-11-01

    Rapamycin has been shown to extend lifespan in rodent models, but the effects on metabolic health and function have been widely debated in both clinical and translational trials. Prior to rapamycin being used as a treatment to extend both lifespan and healthspan in the human population, it is vital to assess the side effects of the treatment on metabolic pathways in animal model systems, including a closely related non-human primate model. In this study, we found that long-term treatment of marmoset monkeys with orally-administered encapsulated rapamycin resulted in no overall effects on body weight and only a small decrease in fat mass over the first few months of treatment. Rapamycin treated subjects showed no overall changes in daily activity counts, blood lipids, or significant changes in glucose metabolism including oral glucose tolerance. Adipose tissue displayed no differences in gene expression of metabolic markers following treatment, while liver tissue exhibited suppressed G6Pase activity with increased PCK and GPI activity. Overall, the marmosets revealed only minor metabolic consequences of chronic treatment with rapamycin and this adds to the growing body of literature that suggests that chronic and/or intermittent rapamycin treatment results in improved health span and metabolic functioning. The marmosets offer an interesting alternative animal model for future intervention testing and translational modeling. PMID:26568298

  11. Long-term data on reproductive output and longevity in captive female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Ash, Hayley; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M

    2014-11-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is widely used in biomedical research, with many housed for breeding purposes world-wide. Significant variation in reproductive output among females has been found compared to other anthropoid primates. The present study explores this reproductive variation, focusing on potential predictors of dam longevity and litter size, as well as changes over time. Back-record analysis was conducted, yielding litter information and reproductive summaries of 360 dams housed at three UK marmoset colonies over four decades (1970s-2000s). Results revealed differences among the colonies, as well as within colonies over decades, suggesting environment may play an important role. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses revealed significant effects of mean litter size and yearly production on dam longevity. Decade, mean inter-birth interval and mean dam weight were found to be significant factors explaining dam longevity when looking at colonies individually. The most commonly recorded cause of death was "poor condition." Linear regression models found that no reproductive variable was useful in explaining mean litter size, except dam weight at conception, data which was only consistently recorded at one colony. While triplets were common at all three colonies, these larger litters were consistently associated with higher infant mortality, despite human intervention to improve survival. This study increases our understanding of marmoset reproduction, and possible improvements to practical aspects of colony management to enhance survival and welfare are discussed. PMID:24809989

  12. Long-Term Oocyte-Like Cell Development in Cultures Derived from Neonatal Marmoset Monkey Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Fereydouni, Bentolhoda; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Heistermann, Michael; Dressel, Ralf; Lewerich, Lucia; Drummer, Charis; Behr, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    We use the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a preclinical nonhuman primate model to study reproductive and stem cell biology. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary contains numerous primitive premeiotic germ cells (oogonia) expressing pluripotent stem cell markers including OCT4A (POU5F1). This is a peculiarity compared to neonatal human and rodent ovaries. Here, we aimed at culturing marmoset oogonia from neonatal ovaries. We established a culture system being stable for more than 20 passages and 5 months. Importantly, comparative transcriptome analysis of the cultured cells with neonatal ovary, embryonic stem cells, and fibroblasts revealed a lack of germ cell and pluripotency genes indicating the complete loss of oogonia upon initiation of the culture. From passage 4 onwards, however, the cultured cells produced large spherical, free-floating cells resembling oocyte-like cells (OLCs). OLCs strongly expressed several germ cell genes and may derive from the ovarian surface epithelium. In summary, our novel primate ovarian cell culture initially lacked detectable germ cells but then produced OLCs over a long period of time. This culture system may allow a deeper analysis of early phases of female primate germ cell development and—after significant refinement—possibly also the production of monkey oocytes. PMID:26664406

  13. Individual Differences in Gambling Proneness among Rats and Common Marmosets: An Automated Choice Task

    PubMed Central

    Manciocco, Arianna; Vitale, Augusto; Laviola, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Interest is rising for animal modeling of pathological gambling. Using the operant probabilistic-delivery task (PDT), gambling proneness can be evaluated in laboratory animals. Drawing a comparison with rats, this study evaluated the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) using a PDT. By nose- or hand-poking, subjects learnt to prefer a large (LLL, 5-6 pellets) over a small (SS, 1-2 pellets) reward and, subsequently, the probability of occurrence of large-reward delivery was decreased progressively to very low levels (from 100% to 17% and 14%). As probability decreased, subjects showed a great versus little shift in preference from LLL to SS reinforcer. Hence, two distinct subpopulations (“non-gambler” versus “gambler”) were differentiated within each species. A proof of the model validity comes from marmosets' reaction to reward-delivery omission. Namely, depending on individual temperament (“gambler” versus “non-gambler”), they showed either persistence (i.e., inadequate pokes towards LLL) or restlessness (i.e., inadequate pokes towards SS), respectively. In conclusion, the marmoset could be a suitable model for preclinical gambling studies. Implementation of the PDT to species other than rats may be relevant for determining its external validity/generalizability and improving its face/construct validity. PMID:24971360

  14. A New Targeted Model of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in the Common Marmoset.

    PubMed

    Stassart, Ruth Martha; Helms, Gunther; Garea-Rodríguez, Enrique; Nessler, Stefan; Hayardeny, Liat; Wegner, Christiane; Schlumbohm, Christina; Fuchs, Eberhard; Brück, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause for sustained disability in young adults, yet treatment options remain very limited. Although numerous therapeutic approaches have been effective in rodent models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), only few proved to be beneficial in patients with MS. Hence, there is a strong need for more predictive animal models. Within the past decade, EAE in the common marmoset evolved as a potent, alternative model for MS, with immunological and pathological features resembling more closely the human disease. However, an often very rapid and severe disease course hampers its implementation for systematic testing of new treatment strategies. We here developed a new focal model of EAE in the common marmoset, induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunization and stereotactic injections of proinflammatory cytokines. At the injection site of cytokines, confluent inflammatory demyelinating lesions developed that strongly resembled human MS lesions. In a proof-of-principle treatment study with the immunomodulatory compound laquinimod, we demonstrate that targeted EAE in marmosets provides a promising and valid tool for preclinical experimental treatment trials in MS research. PMID:26207848

  15. Resequencing of the common marmoset genome improves genome assemblies and gene-coding sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kengo; Kuroki, Yoko; Kumita, Wakako; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kawai, Jun; Iriki, Atsushi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    The first draft of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) genome was published by the Marmoset Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. The draft was based on whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and the current assembly version is Callithrix_jacches-3.2.1, but there still exist 187,214 undetermined gap regions and supercontigs and relatively short contigs that are unmapped to chromosomes in the draft genome. We performed resequencing and assembly of the genome of common marmoset by deep sequencing with high-throughput sequencing technology. Several different sequence runs using Illumina sequencing platforms were executed, and 181 Gbp of high-quality bases including mate-pairs with long insert lengths of 3, 8, 20, and 40 Kbp were obtained, that is, approximately 60× coverage. The resequencing significantly improved the MGSAC draft genome sequence. The N50 of the contigs, which is a statistical measure used to evaluate assembly quality, doubled. As a result, 51% of the contigs (total length: 299 Mbp) that were unmapped to chromosomes in the MGSAC draft were merged with chromosomal contigs, and the improved genome sequence helped to detect 5,288 new genes that are homologous to human cDNAs and the gaps in 5,187 transcripts of the Ensembl gene annotations were completely filled. PMID:26586576

  16. Indifference of marmosets with prenatal valproate exposure to third-party non-reciprocal interactions with otherwise avoided non-reciprocal individuals.

    PubMed

    Yasue, Miyuki; Nakagami, Akiko; Banno, Taku; Nakagaki, Keiko; Ichinohe, Noritaka; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Autism is characterized by deficits in social interaction and social recognition. Although animal models of autism have demonstrated that model animals engage less in social interaction or attend less to conspecifics than control animals, no animal model has yet replicated the deficit in recognition of complex social interaction as is seen in humans with autism. Here, we show that marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges and those who did not; however, marmosets with foetal exposure to valproic acid (VPA marmosets) did not. In the reciprocal condition, two actors exchanged food equally, while in the non-reciprocal condition, one actor (non-reciprocator) ended up with all food and the other actor with none. After observing these exchanges, the control marmosets avoided receiving food from the non-reciprocator in the non-reciprocal condition. However, the VPA marmosets did not show differential preferences in either condition, suggesting that the VPA marmosets did not discriminate between reciprocal and non-reciprocal interactions. These results indicate that normal marmosets can evaluate social interaction between third-parties, while the VPA marmosets are unable to recognize whether an individual is being reciprocal or not. This test battery can serve as a useful tool to qualify primate models of autism. PMID:26133500

  17. Enhanced visual responses in the superior colliculus and subthalamic nucleus in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rolland, M; Carcenac, C; Overton, P G; Savasta, M; Coizet, V

    2013-11-12

    Striatal dopaminergic denervation leads to a change in afferent activity within the basal ganglia. Coupled with the effect of local dopaminergic denervation in the subthalamic nucleus, this is likely to affect the responsiveness of subthalamic neurons to their hyperdirect inputs in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, in this report, we investigated subthalamic nucleus responses to visual stimuli relayed by one such input - the superior colliculus - in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. We used a protocol where the superior colliculus was selectively unlocked from the inhibitory effect of anesthesia with an injection of bicuculline, attenuating GABAergic inhibition in the colliculus, which arises predominantly from the substantia nigra pars reticulata. We found that visual responses in the superior colliculus were facilitated by partial or total lesions of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, once the colliculus was disinhibited by bicuculline. Responses were faster, larger in amplitude and lasted longer compared to those in control rats. In the subthalamic nucleus, visual responses were also increased in amplitude and magnitude in partial or total lesioned groups. A classic hypothesis in Parkinson's disease suggests that following dopaminergic denervation, the discharge of cells in the substantia nigra pars reticulata increases, thereby intensifying the inhibitory influence that this structure exerts on its targets in the thalamus and brainstem. Our results suggest that neuroadaptations may have taken place within the superior colliculus in order to maintain normal function in the face of increased inhibitory tone coming from the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which once reduced, gave rise to facilitated responding. This facilitated responding in the superior colliculus then appears to lead to facilitated responding in the subthalamic nucleus. PMID:23916713

  18. Inferior mirages: an improved model.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew T

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative model of the inferior mirage is presented, based on a realistic temperature profile in the convective boundary layer, using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The top of the inverted image is determined by the logarithmic part of the profile; the bottom is the apparent horizon, which depends on optical obstruction by roughness elements. These effects of surface roughness are included in the model, which is illustrated with a simulation. The vertical magnification varies throughout the mirage, becoming infinite at Minnaert's ill-named "vanishing line"-which makes green flashes apparent to the naked eye. PMID:25967823

  19. Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Konold, Timm; Spiropoulos, John; Chaplin, Melanie J; Thorne, Leigh; Spencer, Yvonne I; Wells, Gerald AH; Hawkins, Steve AC

    2009-01-01

    Background Histopathological examinations of brains from healthy pigs have revealed localised vacuolar changes, predominantly in the rostral colliculus, that are similar to the neuropil vacuolation featured in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and have been described in pigs challenged parenterally with the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Feedstuff containing BSE-contaminated meat and bone meal (MBM) may have been fed to pigs prior to the ban of mammalian MBM in feed of farmed livestock in the United Kingdom in 1996, but there is no evidence of the natural occurrence of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in the domestic pig. Furthermore, experimental transmission of BSE to pigs by the oral route has been unsuccessful. A study was conducted to investigate whether the localised vacuolar changes in the porcine brain were associated with a transmissible aetiology and therefore biologically significant. Two groups of ten pigs were inoculated parenterally with vacuolated rostral colliculus from healthy pigs either born before 1996 or born after 1996. Controls included ten pigs similarly inoculated with rostral colliculus from New Zealand-derived pigs and nine pigs inoculated with a bovine BSE brain homogenate. Results None of the pigs inoculated with rostral colliculus developed a TSE-like neurological disease up to five years post inoculation when the study was terminated, and disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, was not detected in the brains of these pigs. By contrast, eight of nine BSE-inoculated pigs developed neurological signs, two of which had detectable PrPd by postmortem tests. No significant histopathological changes were detected to account for the clinical signs in the PrPd-negative, BSE-inoculated pigs. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that vacuolation in the porcine rostral colliculus is not caused by a transmissible agent and is probably a clinically insignificant change. The presence of

  20. Corticospinal Tract Tracing in the Marmoset with a Clinical Whole-Body 3T Scanner Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Plas, Benjamin; Bolan, Faye; Boulanouar, Kader; Renaud, Luc; Darmana, Robert; Vaysse, Laurence; Vieu, Christophe; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been described as a powerful tool to depict the architecture of neuronal circuits. In this study we investigated the potential use of in vivo MRI detection of manganese for tracing neuronal projections from the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus). We determined the optimal dose of manganese chloride (MnCl2) among 800, 400, 40 and 8nmol that led to manganese-induced hyperintensity furthest from the injection site, as specific to the corticospinal tract as possible, and that would not induce motor deficit. A commonly available 3T human clinical MRI scanner and human knee coil were used to follow hyperintensity in the corticospinal tract 24h after injection. A statistical parametric map of seven marmosets injected with the chosen dose, 8 nmol, showed the corticospinal tract and M1 connectivity with the basal ganglia, substantia nigra and thalamus. Safety was determined for the lowest dose that did not induce dexterity and grip strength deficit, and no behavioral effects could be seen in marmosets who received multiple injections of manganese one month apart. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time in marmosets, a reliable and reproducible way to perform longitudinal ME-MRI experiments to observe the integrity of the marmoset corticospinal tract on a clinical 3T MRI scanner. PMID:26398500

  1. INTERDEPENDENT SUPERIORITY AND INFERIORITY FEELINGS

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Harrington V.

    1949-01-01

    It is postulated that in neurotic persons who have unrealistic feelings of superiority and inferiority the two are interdependent. This is a departure from the concept of previous observers that either one or the other is primary and its opposite is overcompensation. The author postulates considerable parallelism, with equal importance for each. He submits that the neurotic person forms two logic-resistant compartments for the two opposed self-estimates and that treatment which makes inroads of logic upon one compartment, simultaneously does so upon the other. Two examples are briefly reported. The neurotic benefits sought in exaggeration of capability are the same as those sought in insistence upon inferiority: Presumption of superiority at once bids for approbation and delivers the subject from the need to prove himself worthy of it in dreaded competition; exaggeration of incapability baits sympathy and makes competition unnecessary because failure is conceded. Some of the characteristics of abnormal self-estimates that distinguish them from normal are: Preoccupation with self, resistance to logical explanation of personality problems, inconsistency in reasons for beliefs in adequacy on the one hand and inadequacy on the other, unreality, rationalization of faults, and difficulty and vacillation in the selection of adequate goals. PMID:15390573

  2. Parameters of haematology, clinical chemistry and lipid metabolism in the common marmoset and alterations under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuehnel, F; Grohmann, J; Buchwald, U; Koeller, G; Teupser, D; Einspanier, A

    2012-08-01

    Common marmosets are suitable non-human primate models for many human diseases. Standard values for blood parameters are required to evaluate physiological and pathological situations. Two studies were conducted: study I to determine standard values and study II to examine these under changed housing conditions. In study I, all parameters for clinical chemistry were similar in range for both genders with these specifics: male marmosets had significantly higher total and LDL cholesterol levels than females, whereas the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin were significantly lower than in females. In study II, glucose, lymphocytes and salivary cortisol were significantly lower, and faecal cortisol was increased during the change of housing conditions. In conclusion, standard values for haematology and clinical chemistry for the common marmoset were determined. Further on, parameters that are influenced by relocation stress and its importance for experimental results are described. PMID:22765494

  3. Monocular inhibition reveals temporal and spatial changes in gene expression in the primary visual cortex of marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Nakagami, Yuki; Watakabe, Akiya; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the time course of the expression of several activity-dependent genes evoked by visual inputs in the primary visual cortex (V1) in adult marmosets. In order to examine the rapid time course of activity-dependent gene expression, marmosets were first monocularly inactivated by tetrodotoxin (TTX), kept in darkness for two days, and then exposed to various length of light stimulation. Activity-dependent genes including HTR1B, HTR2A, whose activity-dependency were previously reported by us, and well-known immediate early genes (IEGs), c-FOS, ZIF268, and ARC, were examined by in situ hybridization. Using this system, first, we demonstrated the ocular dominance type of gene expression pattern in V1 under this condition. IEGs were expressed in columnar patterns throughout layers II–VI of all the tested monocular marmosets. Second, we showed the regulation of HTR1B and HTR2A expressions by retinal spontaneous activity, because HTR1B and HTR2A mRNA expressions sustained a certain level regardless of visual stimulation and were inhibited by a blockade of the retinal activity with TTX. Third, IEGs dynamically changed its laminar distribution from half an hour to several hours upon a stimulus onset with the unique time course for each gene. The expression patterns of these genes were different in neurons of each layer as well. These results suggest that the regulation of each neuron in the primary visual cortex of marmosets is subjected to different regulation upon the change of activities from retina. It should be related to a highly differentiated laminar structure of marmoset visual systems, reflecting the functions of the activity-dependent gene expression in marmoset V1. PMID:23576954

  4. The Zona Incerta Regulates Communication between the Superior Colliculus and the Posteromedial Thalamus: Implications for Thalamic Interactions with the Dorsolateral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Glenn D.R.; Smith, Jared B.

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty concerning the circuit connections by which the superior colliculus interacts with the basal ganglia. To address this issue, anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed, respectively, into the superior colliculus and globus pallidus of Sprague-Dawley rats. In this two-tracer experiment, the projections from the superior colliculus terminated densely in the ventral zona incerta (ZIv), but did not overlap the labeled neurons observed in the subthalamic nucleus. In cases in which anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed, respectively, in sensory-responsive sites in the superior colliculus and posteromedial (POm) thalamus, the labeled projections from superior colliculus innervated the ZIv regions that contained the labeled neurons that project to POm. We also confirmed this colliculo–incertal–POm pathway by depositing a mixture of retrograde and anterograde tracers at focal sites in ZIv to reveal retrogradely labeled neurons in superior colliculus and anterogradely labeled terminals in POm. When combined with retrograde tracer injections in POm, immunohistochemical processing proved that most ZIv projections to POm are GABAergic. Consistent with these findings, direct stimulation of superior colliculus evoked neuronal excitation in ZIv and caused inhibition of spontaneous activity in POm. Collectively, these results indicate that superior colliculus can activate the inhibitory projections from ZIv to the POm. This is significant because it suggests that the superior colliculus could suppress the interactions between POm and the dorsolateral striatum, presumably to halt ongoing behaviors so that more adaptive motor actions are selected in response to unexpected sensory events. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT By demonstrating that the zona incerta regulates communication between the superior colliculus and the posteromedial thalamus, we have uncovered a circuit that partly explains the behavioral changes that occur in response to unexpected

  5. Modification of visual response properties in the superior colliculus of the golden hamster following stroboscopic rearing

    PubMed Central

    Chalupa, Leo M.; Rhoades, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    1. Visual response properties of superior collicular neurones were investigated in golden hamsters reared from birth to adulthood in a stroboscopic environment. 2. In comparison to normally reared animals, there was a marked decrease in the incidence of directionally selective cells in the colliculus of the strobe-reared hamsters. This effect was apparent when directional selectivity was determined by either the null criterion or a statistical measure. The reduction in directionally selective cells was found in both superficial and the deep layers of the colliculus. 3. Neurones in strobe-reared hamsters also exhibited a different speed preference distribution from that obtained for normal animals, in that more cells in the restricted hamsters responded only to slow velocities, and less were broadly tuned with regard to the speed of moving stimuli. 4. In addition to the effects obtained in dynamic response properties, there were also changes in the static response properties of superior collicular neurones. These were an increase in the proportion of cells whose responses were not affected by changing the size of a stationary flashed stimulus, and a concomitant decrease in the number of cells demonstrating either partial or complete suppression when the size of a flashed stimulus exceeded the boundaries of the receptive field activating region. Furthermore, while all cells which responded to stationary stimuli in normal animals yielded only phasic responses to stimulus onset and/or offset, in the strobe-reared hamsters eight cells were encountered which responded in a sustained fashion to stationary spots. 5. There was no indication of an increased responsivity in the restricted animals to strobe stimulation, even when a strobe rate identical to that employed in the rearing environment was employed. 6. The results were interpreted as indicating a disruption of normal visual functional organization in the hamster's superior colliculus by an aberrant visual input

  6. Role of the Primate Superior Colliculus in the Control of Head Movements

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Mark M. G.; Bechara, Bernard; Gandhi, Neeraj J.

    2013-01-01

    One important behavioral role for head movements is to assist in the redirection of gaze. However, primates also frequently make head movements that do not involve changes in the line of sight. Virtually nothing is known about the neural basis of these head-only movements. In the present study, single-unit extracellular activity was recorded from the superior colliculus while monkeys performed behavioral tasks that permit the temporal dissociation of gaze shifts and head movements. We sought to determine whether superior colliculus contains neurons that modulate their activity in association with head movements in the absence of gaze shifts and whether classic gaze-related burst neurons also discharge for head-only movements. For 26% of the neurons in our sample, significant changes in average firing rate could be attributed to head-only movements. Most of these increased their firing rate immediately prior to the onset of a head movement and continued to discharge at elevated frequency until the offset of the movement. Others discharged at a tonic rate when the head was stable and decreased their activity, or paused, during head movements. For many putative head cells, average firing rate was found to be predictive of head displacement. Some neurons exhibited significant changes in activity associated with gaze, eye-only, and head-only movements, although none of the gaze-related burst neurons significantly modulated its activity in association with head-only movements. These results suggest the possibility that the superior colliculus plays a role in the control of head movements independent of gaze shifts. PMID:17581848

  7. The Effect of Habitat Acoustics on Common Marmoset Vocal Signal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    MORRILL, RYAN J.; THOMAS, A. WREN; SCHIEL, NICOLA; SOUTO, ANTONIO; MILLER, CORY T.

    2013-01-01

    Noisy acoustic environments present several challenges for the evolution of acoustic communication systems. Among the most significant is the need to limit degradation of spectro-temporal signal structure in order to maintain communicative efficacy. This can be achieved by selecting for several potentially complementary processes. Selection can act on behavioral mechanisms permitting signalers to control the timing and occurrence of signal production to avoid acoustic interference. Likewise, the signal itself may be the target of selection, biasing the evolution of its structure to comprise acoustic features that avoid interference from ambient noise or degrade minimally in the habitat. Here, we address the latter topic for common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) long-distance contact vocalizations, known as phee calls. Our aim was to test whether this vocalization is specifically adapted for transmission in a species-typical forest habitat, the Atlantic forests of northeastern Brazil. We combined seasonal analyses of ambient habitat acoustics with experiments in which pure tones, clicks, and vocalizations were broadcast and rerecorded at different distances to characterize signal degradation in the habitat. Ambient sound was analyzed from intervals throughout the day and over rainy and dry seasons, showing temporal regularities across varied timescales. Broadcast experiment results indicated that the tone and click stimuli showed the typically inverse relationship between frequency and signaling efficacy. Although marmoset phee calls degraded over distance with marked predictability compared with artificial sounds, they did not otherwise appear to be specially designed for increased transmission efficacy or minimal interference in this habitat. We discuss these data in the context of other similar studies and evidence of potential behavioral mechanisms for avoiding acoustic interference in order to maintain effective vocal communication in common marmosets. PMID

  8. Oxytocin is associated with infant-care behavior and motivation in cooperatively breeding marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Finkenwirth, Christa; Martins, Eloisa; Deschner, Tobias; Burkart, Judith M

    2016-04-01

    The neurohormone oxytocin (OT) is positively involved in the regulation of parenting and social bonding in mammals, and may thus also be important for the mediation of alloparental care. In cooperatively breeding marmosets, infants are raised in teamwork by parents and adult and sub-adult non-reproductive helpers (usually older siblings). Despite high intrinsic motivation, which may be mediated by hormonal priming, not all individuals are always equally able to contribute to infant-care due to competition among care-takers. Among the various care-taking behaviors, proactive food sharing may reflect motivational levels best, since it can be performed ad libitum by several individuals even if competition among surplus care-takers constrains access to infants. Our aim was to study the link between urinary OT levels and care-taking behaviors in group-living marmosets, while taking affiliation with other adults and infant age into account. Over eight reproductive cycles, 26 individuals were monitored for urinary baseline OT, care-taking behaviors (baby-licking, -grooming, -carrying, and proactive food sharing), and adult-directed affiliation. Mean OT levels were generally highest in female breeders and OT increased significantly in all individuals after birth. During early infancy, high urinary OT levels were associated with increased infant-licking but low levels of adult-affiliation, and during late infancy, with increased proactive food sharing. Our results show that, in marmoset parents and alloparents, OT is positively involved in the regulation of care-taking, thereby reflecting the changing needs during infant development. This particularly included behaviors that are more likely to reflect intrinsic care motivation, suggesting a positive link between OT and motivational regulation of infant-care. PMID:26836769

  9. Effects of support diameter and compliance on common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) gait kinematics.

    PubMed

    Young, Jesse W; Stricklen, Bethany M; Chadwell, Brad A

    2016-09-01

    Locomotion is precarious in an arboreal habitat, where supports can vary in both diameter and level of compliance. Several previous studies have evaluated the influence of substrate diameter on the locomotor performance of arboreal quadrupeds. The influence of substrate compliance, however, has been mostly unexamined. Here, we used a multifactorial experimental design to investigate how perturbations in both diameter and compliance affect the gait kinematics of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus; N=2) moving over simulated arboreal substrates. We used 3D-calibrated video to quantify marmoset locomotion over a horizontal trackway consisting of variably sized poles (5, 2.5 and 1.25 cm in diameter), analyzing a total of 120 strides. The central portion of the trackway was either immobile or mounted on compliant foam blocks, depending on condition. We found that narrowing diameter and increasing compliance were both associated with relatively longer substrate contact durations, though adjustments to diameter were often inconsistent relative to compliance-related adjustments. Marmosets also responded to narrowing diameter by reducing speed, flattening center of mass (CoM) movements and dampening support displacement on the compliant substrate. For the subset of strides on the compliant support, we found that speed, contact duration and CoM amplitude explained >60% of the variation in substrate displacement over a stride, suggesting a direct performance advantage to these kinematic adjustments. Overall, our results show that compliant substrates can exert a significant influence on gait kinematics. Substrate compliance, and not just support diameter, should be considered a critical environmental variable when evaluating locomotor performance in arboreal quadrupeds. PMID:27582562

  10. Influence of the mother's reproductive state on the hormonal status of daughters in marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii).

    PubMed

    Puffer, Alyssa M; Fite, Jeffrey E; French, Jeffrey A; Rukstalis, Michael; Hopkins, Elizabeth C; Patera, Kimberly J

    2004-09-01

    Behavioral and endocrine suppression of reproduction in subordinate females produces the high reproductive skew that characterizes callitrichid primate mating systems. Snowdon et al. [American Journal of Primatology 31:11-21, 1993] reported that the eldest daughters in tamarin families exhibit further endocrinological suppression immediately following the birth of siblings, and suggested that dominant females exert greater control over subordinate endocrinology during this energetically challenging phase of reproduction. We monitored the endocrine status of five Wied's black tufted-ear marmoset daughters before and after their mother delivered infants by measuring concentrations of urinary estradiol (E(2)), pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG), testosterone (T), and cortisol (CORT). Samples were collected from marmoset daughters 4 weeks prior to and 9 weeks following three consecutive sibling-litter births when the daughters were prepubertal (M=6.1 months of age), peripubertal (M=11.9 months), and postpubertal (M=17.6 months). The birth of infants was associated with reduced ovarian steroid excretion only in the prepubertal daughters. In contrast, ovarian steroid levels tended to increase in the postpubertal daughters. Urinary E(2) and T levels in the postpubertal daughters were 73.8% and 37.6% higher, respectively, in the 3 weeks following the birth of infants, relative to prepartum levels. In addition, peak urinary PdG concentrations in peri- and postpubertal daughters were equivalent to luteal phase concentrations in nonpregnant, breeding adult females, and all of the peri- and postpubertal daughters showed clear ovulatory cycles. Cortisol excretion did not change in response to the reproductive status of the mother, nor did the concentrations change across age. Our data suggest that marmoset daughters of potential breeding age are not hormonally suppressed during the mother's peripartum period or her return to fertility. These findings provide an additional example

  11. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm. PMID:26724713

  12. Patterns on serpentine shapes elicit visual attention in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Wombolt, Jessica R; Caine, Nancy G

    2016-09-01

    Given the prevalence of threatening snakes in the evolutionary history, and modern-day environments of human and nonhuman primates, sensory, and perceptual abilities that allow for quick detection of, and appropriate response to snakes are likely to have evolved. Many studies have demonstrated that primates recognize snakes faster than other stimuli, and it is suggested that the unique serpentine shape is responsible for its quick detection. However, there are many nonthreatening serpentine shapes in the environment (e.g., vines) that are not threatening; therefore, other cues must be used to distinguish threatening from benign serpentine objects. In two experiments, we systematically evaluated how common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) visually attend to specific snake-like features. In the first experiment, we examined if skin pattern is a cue that elicits increased visual inspection of serpentine shapes by measuring the amount of time the marmosets looked into a blind before, during, and after presentation of clay models with and without patterns. The marmosets spent the most time looking at the objects, both serpentine and triangle, that were etched with scales, suggesting that something may be uniquely salient about scales in evoking attention. In contrast, they showed relatively little interest in the unpatterned serpentine and control (a triangle) stimuli. In experiment 2, we replicated and extended the results of experiment 1 by adding additional stimulus conditions. We found that patterns on a serpentine shape generated more inspection than those same patterns on a triangle shape. We were unable to confirm that a scaled pattern is unique in its ability to elicit visual interest; the scaled models elicited similar looking times as line and star patterns. Our data provide a foundation for future research to examine how snakes are detected and identified by primates. Am. J. Primatol. 78:928-936, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27225979

  13. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement: values, problems and applicability in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Mietsch, M; Einspanier, A

    2015-07-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, C. j.) is an established primate model in biomedical research and for human-related diseases. Monitoring of cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) is important for the health surveillance of these experimental animals and the quantification of diseases or pharmaceutical substances influencing BP. Measurement guidelines for C. j. do not exist yet; therefore, the present study was carried out to establish a practicable protocol based on recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM). Furthermore, BP data of 49 marmosets (13.8-202.4 months of age) were obtained via high-definition oscillometry to further knowledge of physiological parameters and gender-related differences in this primate. The thighs proved to be the most suitable measurement localization, since systolic values were less variable (left 4.03 ± 2.90%, right 5.96 ± 2.77%) compared with the tail (12.7 ± 6.96%). BP values were similar in the morning and in the afternoon (P > 0.05). Data were highly reproducible within and between several sessions on three consecutive days (P > 0.05) as well as over the course of 20 months (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the measurement time for females was significantly shorter than for males (5:14 ± 1:59 min versus 6:50 ± 1:58 min, P = 0.007). Measurement recommendations for the common marmoset were successfully established. Standardized values enabled a reliable comparison of BP parameters, e.g. for cardiovascular, toxicological or metabolic research. PMID:25552521

  14. Sustained performance by common marmosets in a delayed matching to position task with variable stimulus presentations.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yumiko; Saiki, Masakado; Inada, Masayuki; Watanabe, Shigeru; Iriki, Atsushi

    2016-01-15

    Working memory is used to solve various cognitive problems by maintaining information for some time and then by refreshing this information after certain purposes are achieved. In the present study, we explored the ability of common marmosets to perform a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task in a controlled environment using operant conditioning. The DMTP task requires the subjects to respond to the sample stimulus and to select one of two comparison stimuli with a position matching that of the sample stimulus after a programmed delay period. Positional arrangement of the sample and comparison stimuli, which were quasi-randomly determined in each trial, was employed to prevent the subjects from using any strategies based on their own body positions or orientations. The delay intervals between presentations of the sample and comparison stimuli were fixed at 0.5 and 1s in the initial phases and were then varied between 5 intervals per delay set (e.g., 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8s) intermixed in a session. The longest delay interval within a set was gradually increased after the marmosets achieved the criterion of each task. The subjects were successfully trained in the procedure and showed accurate performance even following delays of more than 100 s. The response times in the trials suggested that they used different strategies depending on the delay interval length. Thus, the present study shows the robust ability of common marmosets in a task requiring positional memory, which is related to their foraging strategy observed in the wild. PMID:26475508

  15. Comparison of marmoset and human FSH using synthetic peptides of the β-subunit L2 loop region and anti-peptide antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kutteyil, Susha S; Kulkarni, Bhalchandra J; Mojidra, Rahul; Joseph, Shaini; Pathak, Bhakti R; Mahale, Smita D

    2016-06-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone required for female and male gametogenesis in vertebrates. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate monkey, used as animal model in biomedical research. Observations like, requirement of extremely high dose of human FSH in marmosets for superovulation compared to other primates and generation of antibodies in marmoset against human FSH after repeated superovulation cycles, point towards the possibility that FSH-FSH receptor (FSHR) interaction in marmosets might be different than in the humans. In this study we attempted to understand some of these structural differences using FSH peptides and anti-peptide antibody approach. Based on sequence alignment, in silico modeling and docking studies, L2 loop of FSH β-subunit (L2β) was found to be different between marmoset and human. Hence, peptides corresponding to region 32-50 of marmoset and human L2β loop were synthesized, purified and characterized. The peptides displayed dissimilarity in terms of molecular mass, predicted isoelectric point, predicted charge and in the ability to inhibit hormone-receptor interaction. Polyclonal antibodies generated against both the peptides were found to exhibit specific binding for the corresponding peptide and parent FSH in ELISA and Western blotting respectively and exhibited negligible reactivity to cross-species peptide and FSH in ELISA. The anti-peptide antibody against marmoset FSH was also able to detect native FSH in marmoset plasma samples and pituitary sections. In summary, the L2β loop of marmoset and human FSH has distinct receptor interaction ability and immunoreactivity indicating possibility of subtle conformational and biochemical differences between the two regions which may affect the FSH-FSHR interaction in these two primates. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27282136

  16. Development of the first marmoset-specific DNA microarray (EUMAMA): a new genetic tool for large-scale expression profiling in a non-human primate

    PubMed Central

    Datson, Nicole A; Morsink, Maarten C; Atanasova, Srebrena; Armstrong, Victor W; Zischler, Hans; Schlumbohm, Christina; Dutilh, Bas E; Huynen, Martijn A; Waegele, Brigitte; Ruepp, Andreas; de Kloet, E Ronald; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    Background The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), a small non-endangered New World primate native to eastern Brazil, is becoming increasingly used as a non-human primate model in biomedical research, drug development and safety assessment. In contrast to the growing interest for the marmoset as an animal model, the molecular tools for genetic analysis are extremely limited. Results Here we report the development of the first marmoset-specific oligonucleotide microarray (EUMAMA) containing probe sets targeting 1541 different marmoset transcripts expressed in hippocampus. These 1541 transcripts represent a wide variety of different functional gene classes. Hybridisation of the marmoset microarray with labelled RNA from hippocampus, cortex and a panel of 7 different peripheral tissues resulted in high detection rates of 85% in the neuronal tissues and on average 70% in the non-neuronal tissues. The expression profiles of the 2 neuronal tissues, hippocampus and cortex, were highly similar, as indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.96. Several transcripts with a tissue-specific pattern of expression were identified. Besides the marmoset microarray we have generated 3215 ESTs derived from marmoset hippocampus, which have been annotated and submitted to GenBank [GenBank: EF214838 – EF215447, EH380242 – EH382846]. Conclusion We have generated the first marmoset-specific DNA microarray and demonstrated its use to characterise large-scale gene expression profiles of hippocampus but also of other neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. In addition, we have generated a large collection of ESTs of marmoset origin, which are now available in the public domain. These new tools will facilitate molecular genetic research into this non-human primate animal model. PMID:17592630

  17. Inferior vena caval masses identified by echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J. P.; Asher, C. R.; Xu, Y.; Huang, V.; Griffin, B. P.; Stewart, W. J.; Novick, A. C.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The most common cause of an inferior vena caval mass is renal cell carcinoma that extends through the lumen, occurring in 47 of 62 patients (85%). Detection of an inferior vena caval mass affects the surgical approach requiring cardiopulmonary bypass for resection when the mass extends to the heart.

  18. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    PubMed

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  19. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  20. Neuronal MHC Class I Molecules are Involved in Excitatory Synaptic Transmission at the Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses of Marmoset Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingyue; Schlumbohm, Christina; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Flügge, Gabriele; Zhang, Weiqi; Walter, Lutz; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies suggested a role for neuronal major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules in certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of rodents. Here, we report for the first time on the expression pattern and functional properties of MHCI molecules in the hippocampus of a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). We detected a presynaptic, mossy fiber-specific localization of MHCI proteins within the marmoset hippocampus. MHCI molecules were present in the large, VGlut1-positive, mossy fiber terminals, which provide input to CA3 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, whole-cell recordings of CA3 pyramidal neurons in acute hippocampal slices of the common marmoset demonstrated that application of antibodies which specifically block MHCI proteins caused a significant decrease in the frequency, and a transient increase in the amplitude, of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in CA3 pyramidal neurons. These findings add to previous studies on neuronal MHCI molecules by describing their expression and localization in the primate hippocampus and by implicating them in plasticity-related processes at the mossy fiber–CA3 synapses. In addition, our results suggest significant interspecies differences in the localization of neuronal MHCI molecules in the hippocampus of mice and marmosets, as well as in their potential function in these species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10571-010-9510-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20232136

  1. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking.

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gallup, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance, and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioral contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing, and scent-marking. We coded these behaviors from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-min observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday, and afternoon) to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns/h) and very little stretching behavior. For all other behaviors, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status) predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, which almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviors in marmosets. PMID:27563294

  2. Isolation and identification of cultivable Bifidobacterium spp. from the faeces of 5 baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus L.).

    PubMed

    Michelini, Samanta; Modesto, Monica; Oki, Kaihei; Stenico, Verena; Stefanini, Ilaria; Biavati, Bruno; Watanabe, Koichi; Ferrara, Alessia; Mattarelli, Paola

    2015-06-01

    Ninety-two bifidobacterial strains were obtained from the faeces of 5 baby common marmosets, three known species Bifidobacterium aesculapii, Bifidobacterium callithricos and Bifidobacterium reuteri and 4 novel putative bifidobacterial species were retrieved. The occurrence of bifidobacteria in non-human primate babies is described for the first time. PMID:25746741

  3. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance, and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioral contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing, and scent-marking. We coded these behaviors from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-min observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday, and afternoon) to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns/h) and very little stretching behavior. For all other behaviors, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status) predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, which almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviors in marmosets. PMID:27563294

  4. Color responses and their adaptation in human superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dorita H F; Hess, Robert F; Mullen, Kathy T

    2016-09-01

    We use an fMRI adaptation paradigm to explore the selectivity of human responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC) to red-green color and achromatic contrast. We measured responses to red-green (RG) and achromatic (ACH) high contrast sinewave counter-phasing rings with and without adaptation, within a block design. The signal for the RG test stimulus was reduced following both RG and ACH adaptation, whereas the signal for the ACH test was unaffected by either adaptor. These results provide compelling evidence that the human LGN and SC have significant capacity for color adaptation. Since in the LGN red-green responses are mediated by P cells, these findings are in contrast to earlier neurophysiological data from non-human primates that have shown weak or no contrast adaptation in the P pathway. Cross-adaptation of the red-green color response by achromatic contrast suggests unselective response adaptation and points to a dual role for P cells in responding to both color and achromatic contrast. We further show that subcortical adaptation is not restricted to the geniculostriate system, but is also present in the superior colliculus (SC), an oculomotor region that until recently, has been thought to be color-blind. Our data show that the human SC not only responds to red-green color contrast, but like the LGN, shows reliable but unselective adaptation. PMID:27150230

  5. Modeling the Minimal Newborn's Intersubjective Mind: The Visuotopic-Somatotopic Alignment Hypothesis in the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Pitti, Alexandre; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Quoy, Mathias; Gaussier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The question whether newborns possess inborn social skills is a long debate in developmental psychology. Fetal behavioral and anatomical observations show evidences for the control of eye movements and facial behaviors during the third trimester of pregnancy whereas specific sub-cortical areas, like the superior colliculus (SC) and the striatum appear to be functionally mature to support these behaviors. These observations suggest that the newborn is potentially mature for developing minimal social skills. In this manuscript, we propose that the mechanism of sensory alignment observed in SC is particularly important for enabling the social skills observed at birth such as facial preference and facial mimicry. In a computational simulation of the maturing superior colliculus connected to a simulated facial tissue of a fetus, we model how the incoming tactile information is used to direct visual attention toward faces. We suggest that the unisensory superficial visual layer (eye-centered) and the deep somatopic layer (face-centered) in SC are combined into an intermediate layer for visuo-tactile integration and that multimodal alignment in this third layer allows newborns to have a sensitivity to configuration of eyes and mouth. We show that the visual and tactile maps align through a Hebbian learning stage and and strengthen their synaptic links from each other into the intermediate layer. It results that the global network produces some emergent properties such as sensitivity toward the spatial configuration of face-like patterns and the detection of eyes and mouth movement. PMID:23922718

  6. Modeling the minimal newborn's intersubjective mind: the visuotopic-somatotopic alignment hypothesis in the superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Pitti, Alexandre; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Quoy, Mathias; Gaussier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The question whether newborns possess inborn social skills is a long debate in developmental psychology. Fetal behavioral and anatomical observations show evidences for the control of eye movements and facial behaviors during the third trimester of pregnancy whereas specific sub-cortical areas, like the superior colliculus (SC) and the striatum appear to be functionally mature to support these behaviors. These observations suggest that the newborn is potentially mature for developing minimal social skills. In this manuscript, we propose that the mechanism of sensory alignment observed in SC is particularly important for enabling the social skills observed at birth such as facial preference and facial mimicry. In a computational simulation of the maturing superior colliculus connected to a simulated facial tissue of a fetus, we model how the incoming tactile information is used to direct visual attention toward faces. We suggest that the unisensory superficial visual layer (eye-centered) and the deep somatopic layer (face-centered) in SC are combined into an intermediate layer for visuo-tactile integration and that multimodal alignment in this third layer allows newborns to have a sensitivity to configuration of eyes and mouth. We show that the visual and tactile maps align through a Hebbian learning stage and and strengthen their synaptic links from each other into the intermediate layer. It results that the global network produces some emergent properties such as sensitivity toward the spatial configuration of face-like patterns and the detection of eyes and mouth movement. PMID:23922718

  7. Spatial synchronization of visual stimulus-evoked gamma frequency oscillations in the rat superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Baranauskas, Gytis; Svirskis, Gytis; Tkatch, Tatiana

    2016-02-10

    In the superior colliculus, visual stimuli can induce gamma frequency oscillations of neuronal activity. It has been shown that in cats, these oscillations are synchronized over distances of greater than 300 μm that may contribute toward visual information processing. We investigated the spatial properties of such oscillations in a rodent because the availability of molecular tools could enable future studies on the role of these oscillations in visual information processing. Using extracellular electrode array recordings in anesthetized rats, we found that visual stimuli-induced gamma and eta frequency (30-115 Hz) oscillations of the local field potential that were synchronized over distances of ∼ 600 μm. Multiple-unit events were phase locked to the local field potential signal and showed prominent oscillations during OFF responses. The rate of lower than 5 ms cross-electrode coincidences was in line with the response-corrected predictions for each electrode. These data suggest that the synchronized superior colliculus neuronal activity is largely network driven, whereas common synaptic inputs play a minor role. PMID:26735701

  8. In vitro immortalization of marmoset cells with three subgroups of herpesvirus saimiri.

    PubMed Central

    Szomolanyi, E; Medveczky, P; Mulder, C

    1987-01-01

    Sequences within the rightmost 7 kilobases of the unique L DNA of herpesvirus saimiri are required for oncogenicity of the virus. The same DNA region has been found to be highly variable among different strains of herpesvirus saimiri. On the basis of this variability, herpesvirus saimiri strains were classified into groups A, B, and non-A, non-B. Herpesvirus saimiri strains representing the three groups were used successfully for in vitro immortalization of phytohemagglutinin-activated, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-expanded peripheral blood lymphocytes of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Peripheral blood leukocytes could be immortalized from only a subset of common marmosets (5 of 13). All of the immortalized cell lines contained covalently closed circular viral DNA molecules and initially showed a low level of virus production. Cells immortalized by group A and group non-A, non-B strains did not require IL-2 in the medium. However, the only group B immortalized cell line, 473-SMHI, did not grow well in the absence of IL-2. The different characteristics of cell lines immortalized by herpesvirus saimiri strains belonging to different groups may help to elucidate some functions coded by the highly variable DNA region which is involved in the oncogenic process. Images PMID:2822956

  9. The transcriptomes of novel marmoset monkey embryonic stem cell lines reflect distinct genomic features.

    PubMed

    Debowski, Katharina; Drummer, Charis; Lentes, Jana; Cors, Maren; Dressel, Ralf; Lingner, Thomas; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Fuchs, Sigrid; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are useful for the study of embryonic development. However, since research on naturally conceived human embryos is limited, non-human primate (NHP) embryos and NHP ESCs represent an excellent alternative to the corresponding human entities. Though, ESC lines derived from naturally conceived NHP embryos are still very rare. Here, we report the generation and characterization of four novel ESC lines derived from natural preimplantation embryos of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). For the first time we document derivation of NHP ESCs derived from morula stages. We show that quantitative chromosome-wise transcriptome analyses precisely reflect trisomies present in both morula-derived ESC lines. We also demonstrate that the female ESC lines exhibit different states of X-inactivation which is impressively reflected by the abundance of the lncRNA X inactive-specific transcript (XIST). The novel marmoset ESC lines will promote basic primate embryo and ESC studies as well as preclinical testing of ESC-based regenerative approaches in NHP. PMID:27385131

  10. Memory, transmission and persistence of alternative foraging techniques in wild common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Gunhold, Tina; Massen, Jorg J.M.; Schiel, Nicola; Souto, Antonio; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies on traditions in animals have focused almost entirely on the initial transmission phase in captive populations. We conducted an open diffusion field experiment with 13 groups of wild common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus. Seven groups contained individuals that were already familiar with the task (‘push or pull’ box) and thus served as potential models for naïve individuals. Additionally, in four groups one individual was trained for one of the two possible techniques and in two control groups no skilled individuals were present. First, we investigated whether experienced individuals would remember how to solve the task even after 2 years without exposure and whether they would still prefer their learned technique. Second, we tested whether naïve individuals would learn socially from their skilled family members and, more importantly, whether they would use the same technique. Third, we conducted several test blocks to see whether the individual and/or group behaviour would persist over time. Our results show that wild common marmosets were able to memorize, learn socially and maintain preferences of foraging techniques. This field experiment thus reveals a promising approach to studying social learning in the wild and provides the basis for long-term studies on tradition formation. PMID:24910466

  11. Facial expressions in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and their use by conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Caralyn; Kaplan, Gisela

    2013-09-01

    Facial expressions have been studied mainly in chimpanzees and have been shown to be important social signals. In platyrrhine and strepsirrhine primates, it has been doubted that facial expressions are differentiated enough, or the species socially capable enough, for facial expressions to be part of their communication system. However, in a series of experiments presenting olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, we found that common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) displayed an unexpected variety of facial expressions. Especially, olfactory and auditory stimuli elicited obvious facial displays (such as disgust), some of which are reported here for the first time. We asked whether specific facial responses to food and predator-related stimuli might act as social signals to conspecifics. We recorded two contrasting facial expressions (fear and pleasure) as separate sets of video clips and then presented these to cage mates of those marmosets shown in the images, while tempting the subject with food. Results show that the expression of a fearful face on screen significantly reduced time spent near the food bowl compared to the duration when a face showing pleasure was screened. This responsiveness to a cage mate's facial expressions suggests that the evolution of facial signals may have occurred much earlier in primate evolution than had been thought. PMID:23412667

  12. The communicative content of the common marmoset phee call during antiphonal calling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; Mandel, Katherine; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    Vocalizations are a dominant means of communication for numerous species, including nonhuman primates. These acoustic signals are encoded with a rich array of information available to signal receivers that can be used to guide species-typical behaviors. Here we examined the communicative content of common marmoset phee calls, the species-typical long distance contact call, during antiphonal calling. This call type has a relatively stereotyped acoustic structure, consisting of a series of long tonal pulses. Analyses revealed that calls could be reliably classified based on the individual identity and social group of the caller. Our analyses did not, however, correctly classify phee calls recorded under different social contexts, though differences were evident along individual acoustic parameters. Further tests of antiphonal calling interactions showed that spontaneously produced phee calls differ from antiphonal phee calls in their peak and end frequency, which may be functionally significant. Overall, this study shows that the marmoset phee call has a rich communicative content encoded in its acoustic structure available to conspecifics during antiphonal calling exchanges. PMID:20549761

  13. Administration of MPTP to the common marmoset does not alter cortical cholinergic function

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, J.; Petersen, M.; Waters, C.M.; Rose, S.P.; Hunt, S.; Briggs, R.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to common marmosets induced persistent motor deficits and decreased concentrations of dopamine, homovanillic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and (TH)dopamine uptake in the caudate-putamen. There was an 80% reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells in substantia nigra. At 10 days following the start of MPTP administration, the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the thalamus and frontal cortex was unchanged compared with control animals. Similarly, specific (TH)QNB binding was unaltered. At 4-6 weeks following the start of MPTP treatment, choline acetyltransferase activity and (TH)QNB binding in the frontal cortex and thalamus remained unaffected. There was no evidence for cell loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert or alteration in the intensity of staining for acetylcholinesterase. MPTP treatment of the common marmoset produces a nigrostriatal lesion. In contrast, MPTP did not alter cortical cholinergic function and was not neurotoxic to the cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of Meynert.

  14. Metabolome-wide association study of phenylalanine in plasma of common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Walker, Douglas I.; Soltow, Quinlyn A.; Uppal, Karan; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Strobel, Fredrick H.; Pennell, Kurt; Promislow, Daniel E. L.; Jones, Dean P.

    2014-01-01

    Little systematic knowledge exists concerning the impacts of cumulative lifelong exposure, termed the exposome, on requirements for nutrients. Phenylalanine (Phe) is an essential dietary amino acid with an aromatic ring structure similar to endogenous metabolites, dietary compounds and environmental agents. Excess plasma Phe in genetic disease or nutritional deficiency of Phe has adverse health consequences. In principle, structurally similar chemicals interfering with Phe utilization could alter Phe requirement at an individual level. As a strategy to identify components of the exposome that could interfere with Phe utilization, we tested for metabolites correlating with Phe concentration in plasma of a non-human primate species, common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The results of tests for more than 5000 chemical features detected by high-resolution metabolomics showed 17 positive correlations with Phe metabolites and other amino acids. Positive and negative correlations were also observed for 33 other chemicals, which included matches to endogenous metabolites and dietary, microbial and environmental chemicals in database searches. Chemical similarity analysis showed many of the matches had high structural similarity to Phe. Together, the results show that chemicals in marmoset plasma could impact Phe utilization. Such chemicals could contribute to early lifecycle developmental disorders when neurological development is vulnerable to Phe levels. PMID:25526869

  15. The transcriptomes of novel marmoset monkey embryonic stem cell lines reflect distinct genomic features

    PubMed Central

    Debowski, Katharina; Drummer, Charis; Lentes, Jana; Cors, Maren; Dressel, Ralf; Lingner, Thomas; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Fuchs, Sigrid; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are useful for the study of embryonic development. However, since research on naturally conceived human embryos is limited, non-human primate (NHP) embryos and NHP ESCs represent an excellent alternative to the corresponding human entities. Though, ESC lines derived from naturally conceived NHP embryos are still very rare. Here, we report the generation and characterization of four novel ESC lines derived from natural preimplantation embryos of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). For the first time we document derivation of NHP ESCs derived from morula stages. We show that quantitative chromosome-wise transcriptome analyses precisely reflect trisomies present in both morula-derived ESC lines. We also demonstrate that the female ESC lines exhibit different states of X-inactivation which is impressively reflected by the abundance of the lncRNA X inactive-specific transcript (XIST). The novel marmoset ESC lines will promote basic primate embryo and ESC studies as well as preclinical testing of ESC-based regenerative approaches in NHP. PMID:27385131

  16. Metabolome-wide association study of phenylalanine in plasma of common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Go, Young-Mi; Walker, Douglas I; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Uppal, Karan; Wachtman, Lynn M; Strobel, Fredrick H; Pennell, Kurt; Promislow, Daniel E L; Jones, Dean P

    2015-03-01

    Little systematic knowledge exists concerning the impacts of cumulative lifelong exposure, termed the exposome, on requirements for nutrients. Phenylalanine (Phe) is an essential dietary amino acid with an aromatic ring structure similar to endogenous metabolites, dietary compounds and environmental agents. Excess plasma Phe in genetic disease or nutritional deficiency of Phe has adverse health consequences. In principle, structurally similar chemicals interfering with Phe utilization could alter Phe requirement at an individual level. As a strategy to identify components of the exposome that could interfere with Phe utilization, we tested for metabolites correlating with Phe concentration in plasma of a non-human primate species, common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The results of tests for more than 5,000 chemical features detected by high-resolution metabolomics showed 17 positive correlations with Phe metabolites and other amino acids. Positive and negative correlations were also observed for 33 other chemicals, which included matches to endogenous metabolites and dietary, microbial and environmental chemicals in database searches. Chemical similarity analysis showed many of the matches had high structural similarity to Phe. Together, the results show that chemicals in marmoset plasma could impact Phe utilization. Such chemicals could contribute to early lifecycle developmental disorders when neurological development is vulnerable to Phe levels. PMID:25526869

  17. Biomimetic race model of the loop between the superior colliculus and the basal ganglia: Subcortical selection of saccade targets.

    PubMed

    Thurat, Charles; N'Guyen, Steve; Girard, Benoît

    2015-07-01

    The superior colliculus, a laminar structure involved in the retinotopic mapping of the visual field, plays a cardinal role in several cortical and subcortical pathways of the saccadic system. Although the selection of saccade targets has long been thought to be mainly the product of cortical processes, a growing body of evidence hints at the implication of the superior colliculus in selection processes independent from cortical inputs, capable of producing saccades at latencies incompatible with the cortical pathways. This selection ability could be produced firstly by the lateral connections between the neurons of its maps, and secondly by its interactions with the midbrain basal ganglia, already renowned for their role in decision making. We propose a biomimetic population-coded race model of selection based on a dynamic tecto-basal loop that reproduces the observed ability of the superior colliculus to stochastically select between similar stimuli. Our model's selection accuracy depends on the discriminability of the target and the distractors. Our model also offers an explanation for the phenomenon of Remote Distractor Effect based on the lateral connectivity within the basal ganglia circuitry rather than on lateral inhibitions within the collicular maps. Finally, we propose a role for the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus, as stochastic integrators dynamically gated by the selective disinhibition of the basal ganglia channels that is consistent with the recorded activity profiles of these neurons. PMID:25884111

  18. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR A DIAMETER-BASED INNERVATION PATTERN OF THE SUPERIOR COLLICULUS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurophysiological and morphological techniques were used to describe changes in the optic tract and superior colliculus (SC) in response to monocular enucleation. Long-Evans, male, (250g) rats were implanted with chronic bipolar stimulating electrodes located in the optic chiasm...

  19. Quality of maternal and paternal care predicts later stress reactivity in the cooperatively-breeding marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    PubMed

    Birnie, Andrew K; Taylor, Jack H; Cavanaugh, Jon; French, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-01

    Variation in the early postnatal social environment can have lasting effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses. Both rats and macaque monkeys subjected to low quality or abusive maternal care during the early postnatal period have more pronounced HPA responses to environmental stressors throughout development and into adulthood compared to animals reared in higher quality early maternal environments. However, little is known about the relative contributions to HPA stress response styles in developing offspring in species in which offspring care is routinely provided by group members other than the mother, such as in cooperatively breeding mammals. Marmoset monkeys exhibit cooperative offspring rearing, with fathers and older siblings providing care in addition to that provided by the mother. We evaluated the effects of early maternal, paternal, and older sibling care on HPA responses to social separation across development in captive white-faced marmoset offspring (Callithrix geoffroyi). We monitored offspring care by mothers, fathers, and older siblings in marmosets for the first 60 days of life. Later in development, each marmoset experienced three standardized social separation/novelty exposure stressors at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. During separation, we collected urine samples and analyzed them via enzyme immunoassay for cortisol levels. Infants that received higher rates of rejections from the entire family group showed higher cortisol responses to social separation. This relationship was found when mothers, fathers, and older siblings, were analyzed separately as well. No differences in cortisol responses were found between offspring that received high and low rates of carrying or high and low rates of licking and grooming by any group member. In the cooperatively breeding marmoset, early social cues from multiple classes of caregivers may influence HPA stress responses throughout the lifespan. PMID:24099861

  20. Antiviral activity and host gene induction by tamarin and marmoset interferon-α and interferon-γ in the GBV-B primary hepatocyte culture model

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Deborah; Guerra, Bernadette; Lanford, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    GBV-B induces hepatitis in tamarins and marmosets and is a surrogate model for HCV infections. Here, we cloned and characterized the antiviral activity of tamarin and marmoset interferon (IFN)α and IFNγ. Potent antiviral activity was observed for tamarin and marmoset IFNα in primary hepatocyte cultures infected with GBV-B. The antiviral activity was greater in cultures exposed to IFNα prior to GBV-B infection, suggesting that either GBV-B was capable of inhibition of the antiviral activity of exogenous IFNα or that the preexisting endogenous IFN response to the virus reduced efficacy to exogenous IFNα. IFNγ also exhibited antiviral activity in GBV-B infected hepatocytes. The transcriptional response to IFNα in marmoset hepatocytes was characterized using human genome microarrays. Since the GBV-B hepatocyte culture model possesses a functional innate immune response, it will provide opportunities to explore the nature of the antiviral response to a virus closely related to HCV. PMID:19501869

  1. Avoiding spectral leakage in objective detection of auditory steady-state evoked responses in the inferior colliculus of rat using coherence.

    PubMed

    Felix, Leonardo Bonato; Moraes, José Elvano; Miranda de Sá, Antonio Mauricio Ferreira Leite; Yehia, Hani Camille; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra

    2005-06-15

    Local field potentials (LFP) are bioelectric signals recorded from the brain that reflect neural activity in a high temporal resolution. Separating background activity from that evoked by specific somato-sensory input is a matter of great clinical relevance in neurology. The coherence function is a spectral coefficient that can be used as a detector of periodic responses in noisy environments. Auditory steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated tones generate periodic responses in neural networks that may be accessed by means of coherence between the stimulation signal and the LFP recorded from the auditory pathway. Such signal processing methodology was applied in this work to evaluate in vivo, anaesthetized Wistar rats, activation of neural networks due to single carrier sound stimulation frequencies, as well as to evaluate the effect of different modulating tones in the evoked responses. Our results show that an inappropriate choice of sound stimuli modulating frequencies can compromise coherence analysis, e.g. misleading conclusions due to mathematical artefact of signal processing. Two modulating frequency correction protocols were used: nearest integer and nearest prime number. The nearest prime number correction was successful in avoiding spectral leakage in the coherence analysis of steady-state auditory response, as predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:15910985

  2. Fatal attack on black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) by a Boa constrictor: a simultaneous assault on two juvenile monkeys.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Danilo Simonini; dos Santos, Edmilson; Leal, Silvana Gomes; de Jesus, Andrea Karla; Vargas, Waldemir Paixão; Dutra, Irapuan; Barros, Marilia

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first witnessed attack on a marmoset by a constrictor snake. The incident occurred mid-morning in a gallery forest within an altered landscape of the Cerrado region of central Brazil and refers to a fatal attack by a Boa constrictor on two juvenile black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) simultaneously. The snake captured both individuals at a height of ~ 4 m while a group of eight marmosets traveled through the subcanopy. The actual strike was not seen. After 2 min, the boa fell to the ground with both marmosets in its coils and proceeded to kill one animal at a time through constriction. Two adult marmosets immediately descended to where the snake held its victims on the ground and attacked it. The snake showed no apparent reaction, and after ~ 1-2 min, the adults rejoined the remaining group members that were mobbing and vocalizing from 5 to 6 m above. The group left the scene ~ 7 min after the onset of the attack and was not seen again. The snake loosened its coils 10 min after its initial strike, left the two carcasses on the ground and stayed behind a nearby tree. Thus, we are not sure if the victims were in fact ingested. This report confirms that marmosets are vulnerable to boid snakes and capable of highly organized and cooperative antipredation behavior. It also suggests that snakes pose a greater threat to callitrichids than previously thought. PMID:26467338

  3. Origin and terminal distribution of the trigeminal projections to the inferior and superior colliculi in the lesser hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1998-01-01

    The trigemino-tectal projections were investigated with anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques in the Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi. There were prominent contralateral projections to the inferior colliculus (CoI) and the superior colliculus (CoS), each showing its own characteristic pattern of terminations. While the projections to the CoI were confined consistently to a circumscribed region in its ventrolateral, external portion, the projections from particularly the rostral trigeminal subdivision to the CoS were distributed inhomogenously across almost the entire rostro-caudal and mediolateral extents. Comparing these data with the spino-tectal projections published previously, it demonstrates that the somatotopic organization of ascending tectal afferents is more distinct in the CoI than in the CoS. There were roughly twice as many trigeminal neurones projecting to the CoS than to the CoI. This difference might be due to the fact that the cells projecting to CoS were distributed extensively across the trigeminal nuclear complex (peak densities in the principal and interpolar subdivisions), while the neurones projecting to the CoI were largely confined to the interpolar and caudal trigeminal subdivisions. The latter cells were located adjacent to the spinal trigeminal tract; the neurones projecting to the CoS occupied preferentially the ventral trigeminal regions at rostral levels, while from the interpolar subdivision caudalward the labelled cells shifted dorsolaterally. In comparison to other mammals the trigeminal projection to the tenrec's CoI is unique. There is evidence for such a projection in other species too, but it is poorly documented, presumably due to technical reasons. PMID:9753145

  4. Marmosets treated with oxytocin are more socially attractive to their long-term mate

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Jon; Huffman, Michelle C.; Harnisch, April M.; French, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Adult male-female bonds are partly characterized by initiating and maintaining close proximity with a social partner, as well as engaging in high levels of affiliative and sociosexual behavior. Oxytocin (OXT), a neuromodulatory nonapeptide, plays a critical role in the facilitation of social bonding and prosocial behavior toward a social partner (Feldman, 2012). However, less attention has been given to whether augmentation of OXT levels in an individual alters others’ perceptions and behavior toward an OXT-treated social partner. We examined social dynamics in well-established male-female pairs of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) in which one member of the pair was administered an intranasal OXT agonist, an OXT antagonist (OXTA), or saline. OXT treatment did not alter the expression of affiliative toward an untreated partner. However, OXT did significantly influence the expression of proximity and grooming behavior with a treated partner, as a function of OXT treatment and sex. Female interest in initiating and maintaining proximity with a pair-mate was altered by OXT treatment. Untreated female marmosets departed from their saline-treated partner more frequently than they approached them, as indicated by a low proximity index score. However, when males received an intranasal OXT agonist they had a significantly increased proximity index score relative to saline, indicating that their untreated partner approached them more often than they departed from them). Saline-treated females initiated and received equivalent levels of grooming behavior. However, when female marmosets were treated with an OXT agonist their untreated partner groomed them proportionately more often, for a greater total duration, and for more time per bout, than they initiated grooming behavior. These results suggest that intranasal OXT altered male and female marmosets’ stimulus properties in such a way as to increase the amount of grooming behavior that females received from their

  5. Perinatal germ cell development and differentiation in the male marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): similarities with the human and differences from the rat

    PubMed Central

    McKinnell, Chris; Mitchell, Rod T.; Morris, Keith; Anderson, Richard A.; Kelnar, Chris JH.; Wallace, W. Hamish; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is perinatal germ cell (GC) differentiation in the marmoset similar to that in the human? SUMMARY ANSWER In a process comparable with the human, marmoset GC differentiate rapidly after birth, losing OCT4 expression after 5–7 weeks of age during mini-puberty. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Most of our understanding about perinatal GC development derives from rodents, in which all gonocytes (undifferentiated GC) co-ordinately lose expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4 and stop proliferating in late gestation. Then after birth these differentiated GC migrate to the basal lamina and resume proliferation prior to the onset of spermatogenesis. In humans, fetal GC differentiation occurs gradually and asynchronously and OCT4+ GC persist into perinatal life. Failure to switch off OCT4 in GC perinatally can lead to development of carcinoma in situ (CIS), the precursor of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC), for which there is no animal model. Marmosets show similarities to the human, but systematic evaluation of perinatal GC development in this species is lacking. Similarity, especially for loss of OCT4 expression, would support use of the marmoset as a model for the human and for studying CIS origins. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION Testis tissues were obtained from marmosets (n = 4–10 per age) at 12–17 weeks' gestation and post-natal weeks 0.5, 2.5, 5–7, 14 and 22 weeks, humans at 15–18 weeks' gestation (n = 5) and 4–5 weeks of age (n = 4) and rats at embryonic day 21.5 (e21.5) (n = 3) and post-natal days 4, 6 and 8 (n = 4 each). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS Testis sections from fetal and post-natal marmosets, humans and rats were collected and immunostained for OCT4 and VASA to identify undifferentiated and differentiated GC, respectively, and for Ki67, to identify proliferating GC. Stereological quantification of GC numbers, differentiation (% OCT4+ GC) and proliferation were performed in perinatal marmosets and humans. Quantification

  6. Role of the superior colliculus in choosing mixed-strategy saccades.

    PubMed

    Thevarajah, Dhushan; Mikulić, Areh; Dorris, Michael C

    2009-02-18

    Game theory outlines optimal response strategies during mixed-strategy competitions. The neural processes involved in choosing individual strategic actions, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we tested whether the superior colliculus (SC), a brain region critical for generating sensory-guided saccades, is also involved in choosing saccades under strategic conditions. Monkeys were free to choose either of two saccade targets as they competed against a computer opponent during the mixed-strategy game "matching pennies." The accuracy with which presaccadic SC activity predicted upcoming choice gradually increased in the time leading up to the saccade. Probing the SC with suprathreshold stimulation demonstrated that these evolving signals were functionally involved in preparing strategic saccades. Finally, subthreshold stimulation of the SC increased the likelihood that contralateral saccades were selected. Together, our results suggest that motor regions of the brain play an active role in choosing strategic actions rather than passively executing those prespecified by upstream executive regions. PMID:19228954

  7. Distinct Representation and Distribution of Visual Information by Specific Cell Types in Mouse Superficial Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Samuel D.

    2014-01-01

    The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) occupies a critical node in the mammalian visual system; it is one of two major retinorecipient areas, receives visual cortical input, and innervates visual thalamocortical circuits. Nonetheless, the contribution of sSC neurons to downstream neural activity and visually guided behavior is unknown and frequently neglected. Here we identified the visual stimuli to which specific classes of sSC neurons respond, the downstream regions they target, and transgenic mice enabling class-specific manipulations. One class responds to small, slowly moving stimuli and projects exclusively to lateral posterior thalamus; another, comprising GABAergic neurons, responds to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli and projects to multiple areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus. A third class exhibits direction-selective responses and targets deeper SC layers. Together, our results show how specific sSC neurons represent and distribute diverse information and enable direct tests of their functional role. PMID:25274823

  8. Comparison of receptive-field organization of the superior colliculus in Siamese and normal cats

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Nancy; Cynader, Max

    1972-01-01

    1. The superior colliculus has been studied in Siamese and normal cats by recording the responses of single tectal units to visual stimuli. 2. The retinotopic organization of the superior colliculus has been compared in the two breeds. In the normal cat, the contralateral half-field is represented in the central and caudal part of the colliculus, and a vertical strip of the ipsilateral half-field, 15-20° wide, is represented at the anterior tip. The Siamese cat superior colliculus receives an abnormally large projection from the ipsilateral half-field so that units with visual receptive fields which extend as far as 40° into the ipsilateral half-field can be found. The area of the tectal surface devoted to the representation of the ipsilateral half-field is about twice as large in Siamese cats as in normal cats. The enhanced representation of the ipsilateral half-field in Siamese cats is reflected in a displacement of the vertical meridian and the area centralis on the tectal surface. 3. The area centralis in the Siamese cat is located at about the same point on the tectal surface as would be occupied by a point in the visual field about 6-7° contralateral to the area centralis in the normal cat. The smallest receptive fields in both breeds are located near the area centralis. The size of the receptive field for a tectal unit seems to be determined by the retinal location of the receptive field and not by the absolute position of the unit on the tectal surface. 4. The receptive-field characteristics of tectal units show many similarities in the two breeds. The receptive fields of individual units consist of activating regions flanked by suppressive surrounds. Units respond well to stimuli of different shapes and orientation provided they are moving. The optimum stimulus for a given unit can be much smaller than the size of the activating region. About two thirds of the units studied in both breeds show directional selectivity. Most of the units studied in normal

  9. Evidence for a neurotransmitter function of acetylcholine in rabbit superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, T; Illing, R B; Starke, K

    1987-12-01

    Acetylcholinesterase staining and studies on the uptake of [3H]choline into the subsequent efflux of tritium from collicular slices were carried out in order to provide evidence for a neurotransmitter function of acetylcholine in rabbit superior colliculus. Acetylcholinesterase staining was dense and homogeneous in superficial layers whereas the staining was arranged in patches with slightly higher density caudally than rostrally in the intermediate layers. The accumulation of tritium in slices incubated with [3H]choline depended on time, temperature and concentration, and was inhibited by hemicholinium-3. Accumulation was slightly higher in caudal than in rostral slices. Electrical stimulation enhanced tritium outflow from slices preincubated with [3H]choline. Tetrodotoxin and a low calcium medium inhibited the evoked overflow whereas hemicholinium-3 caused an enhancement. Oxotremorine decreased the evoked overflow; atropine prevented this effect. The opioids [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Glycol5]enkephalin, [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin and ethylketocyclazocine caused an inhibition. The effects of the latter two agonists were antagonized by naloxone. The GABAB-receptor-agonist (-)-baclofen decreased the evoked overflow at lower concentrations than GABA, whereas the GABAA-receptor-agonist muscimol was ineffective. Serotonin produced an inhibition which was prevented by metitepin, alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor as well as dopamine-receptor ligands caused no change. It is concluded that in the rabbit superior colliculus the pattern of acetylcholinesterase staining is comparable, but not identical to the distribution in other species. The accumulation of [3H]choline, as well as the tetrodotoxin-sensitive and calcium-dependent overflow of tritium upon electrical stimulation (reflecting presumably release of [3H]acetylcholine) indicate that acetylcholine has a neurotransmitter function in this tissue. The release of [3H]acetylcholine was modulated by various transmitter substances and

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF VIBRISSAL SOMATOSENSORY PROCESSING IN RAT SUPERIOR COLLICULUS ON PREY CAPTURE

    PubMed Central

    FAVARO, P. D. N.; GOUVÊA, T. S.; DE OLIVEIRA, S. R.; VAUTRELLE, N.; REDGRAVE, P.; COMOLI, E.

    2011-01-01

    The lateral part of intermediate layer of superior colliculus (SCl) is a critical substrate for successful predation by rats. Hunting-evoked expression of the activity marker Fos is concentrated in SCl while prey capture in rats with NMDA lesions in SCl is impaired. Particularly affected are rapid orienting and stereotyped sequences of actions associated with predation of fast moving prey. Such deficits are consistent with the view that the deep layers of SC are important for sensory guidance of movement. Although much of the relevant evidence involves visual control of movement, less is known about movement guidance by somatosensory input from vibrissae. Indeed, our impression is that prey contact with whiskers is a likely stimulus to trigger predation. Moreover, SCl receives whisker and orofacial somatosensory information directly from trigeminal complex, and indirectly from zona incerta, parvicelular reticular formation and somatosensory barrel cortex. To better understand sensory guidance of predation by vibrissal information we investigated prey capture by rats after whisker removal and the role of superior colliculus (SC) by comparing Fos expression after hunting with and without whiskers. Rats were allowed to hunt cockroaches, after which their whiskers were removed. Two days later they were allowed to hunt cockroaches again. Without whiskers the rats were less able to retain the cockroaches after capture and less able to pursue them in the event of the cockroach escaping. The predatory behaviour of rats with re-grown whiskers returned to normal. In parallel, Fos expression in SCl induced by predation was significantly reduced in whiskerless animals. We conclude that whiskers contribute to the efficiency of rat prey capture and that the loss of vibrissal input to SCl, as reflected by reduced Fos expression, could play a critical role in predatory deficits of whiskerless rats. PMID:21163336

  11. Glomerulonephritis associated with arteritis in marmosets infected with hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, M.; Kitajima, K.; Yoshizawa, H.; Itoh, Y.; Iwakiri, S.; Shibata, C.; Mayumi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Seven of 8 marmosets (Saguinus oedipus and Saguinus labiatus) injected i.v. with different inocula of hepatitis A virus isolated from patients in the acute phase of disease developed proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with arteritis. The glomerulonephritis was characterized by immunofluorescent and electron-dense deposits and hypercellularity. Although no antigenic component of the glomerular immune complex was detected, this glomerulonephritis and arteritis may be diagnosed morphologically as an immune complex disease. These findings show the possibility of the appearance of exohepatic disease as an immunologically mediated disease in human hepatitis A virus infection. Images Figs. 2-5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Figs. 10-15 Figs. 16-18 PMID:6452891

  12. Grooming as a reward? Social function of grooming between females in cooperatively breeding marmosets

    PubMed Central

    LAZARO-PEREA, CRISTINA; DE FÁTIMA ARRUDA, MARIA; SNOWDON, CHARLES T.

    2006-01-01

    Classical models of grooming predict that subordinate primates will direct grooming towards dominants to receive coalitionary support from them. In contrast, recent reviews suggest that grooming asymmetries can change with social system and ecological conditions and should reflect asymmetries in services provided by different members of the dyad. We studied grooming patterns between females in six wild groups of common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, to investigate the relation between social structure and grooming between females in a cooperatively breeding species. We observed grooming frequently and consistently in all study groups. Breeding females groomed nonbreeding females more than vice versa, and grooming between breeding and nonbreeding females was not related to agonistic behaviour. Our results provide some support to the hypothesis that grooming asymmetries are related to differences in services provided by different group members. We suggest that, in cooperatively breeding systems, breeding females may use grooming as an incentive for helper females to stay in the group. PMID:17237884

  13. Natural and Anthropogenic Hybridization in Two Species of Eastern Brazilian Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata).

    PubMed

    Malukiewicz, Joanna; Boere, Vanner; Fuzessy, Lisieux F; Grativol, Adriana D; de Oliveira E Silva, Ita; Pereira, Luiz C M; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R; Valença, Yuri M; Stone, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    Animal hybridization is well documented, but evolutionary outcomes and conservation priorities often differ for natural and anthropogenic hybrids. Among primates, an order with many endangered species, the two contexts can be hard to disentangle from one another, which carries important conservation implications. Callithrix marmosets give us a unique glimpse of genetic hybridization effects under distinct natural and human-induced contexts. Here, we use a 44 autosomal microsatellite marker panel to examine genome-wide admixture levels and introgression at a natural C. jacchus and C. penicillata species border along the São Francisco River in NE Brazil and in an area of Rio de Janeiro state where humans introduced these species exotically. Additionally, we describe for the first time autosomal genetic diversity in wild C. penicillata and expand previous C. jacchus genetic data. We characterize admixture within the natural zone as bimodal where hybrid ancestry is biased toward one parental species or the other. We also show evidence that São Francisco River islands are gateways for bidirectional gene flow across the species border. In the anthropogenic zone, marmosets essentially form a hybrid swarm with intermediate levels of admixture, likely from the absence of strong physical barriers to interspecific breeding. Our data show that while hybridization can occur naturally, the presence of physical, even if leaky, barriers to hybridization is important for maintaining species genetic integrity. Thus, we suggest further study of hybridization under different contexts to set well informed conservation guidelines for hybrid populations that often fit somewhere between "natural" and "man-made." PMID:26061111

  14. Spatial properties of koniocellular cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    PubMed Central

    White, Andrew J R; Solomon, Samuel G; Martin, Paul R

    2001-01-01

    The receptive field dimensions, contrast sensitivity and linearity of spatial summation of koniocellular (KC), parvocellular (PC) and magnocellular (MC) cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of 11 adult marmosets were measured using achromatic sinusoidal gratings. The receptive field centre diameter of cells in each (PC, KC and MC) class increases with distance from the fovea. There is substantial overlap in centre size between the three cell classes at any eccentricity, but the PC cells have, on average, the smallest centres and the KC cells have the largest. Some PC and KC cells did not respond at all to the grating stimulus. The contrast sensitivity of the receptive field centre mechanism in KC cells decreases in proportion to the centre area. A similar trend was seen for the surround mechanism. These characteristics are common to PC and MC cells, suggesting that they originate at an early stage of visual processing in the retina. The KC cells showed, in general, lower peak evoked discharge rates than PC or MC cells. The spontaneous discharge rate of KC cells was lower than that of PC cells and similar to that of MC cells. The majority of cells in all divisions of the LGN show linear spatial summation. A few cells did show non-linear spatial summation; these cells were predominantly located in the MC and ventral KC layers. The ventral KC layers below and between the MC layers contain cells with larger and more transiently responding receptive fields than cells in the more dorsal KC layers. We conclude that many of the contrast-dependent spatial properties of cells in the marmoset LGN are common to PC, MC and KC cells. The main difference between KC cells and the other two classes is that there is more variability in their response properties, and they are less responsive to high spatial frequencies. PMID:11389209

  15. Natural and Anthropogenic Hybridization in Two Species of Eastern Brazilian Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata)

    PubMed Central

    Malukiewicz, Joanna; Boere, Vanner; Fuzessy, Lisieux F.; Grativol, Adriana D.; de Oliveira e Silva, Ita; Pereira, Luiz C. M.; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R.; Valença, Yuri M.; Stone, Anne C.

    2015-01-01

    Animal hybridization is well documented, but evolutionary outcomes and conservation priorities often differ for natural and anthropogenic hybrids. Among primates, an order with many endangered species, the two contexts can be hard to disentangle from one another, which carries important conservation implications. Callithrix marmosets give us a unique glimpse of genetic hybridization effects under distinct natural and human-induced contexts. Here, we use a 44 autosomal microsatellite marker panel to examine genome-wide admixture levels and introgression at a natural C. jacchus and C. penicillata species border along the São Francisco River in NE Brazil and in an area of Rio de Janeiro state where humans introduced these species exotically. Additionally, we describe for the first time autosomal genetic diversity in wild C. penicillata and expand previous C. jacchus genetic data. We characterize admixture within the natural zone as bimodal where hybrid ancestry is biased toward one parental species or the other. We also show evidence that São Francisco River islands are gateways for bidirectional gene flow across the species border. In the anthropogenic zone, marmosets essentially form a hybrid swarm with intermediate levels of admixture, likely from the absence of strong physical barriers to interspecific breeding. Our data show that while hybridization can occur naturally, the presence of physical, even if leaky, barriers to hybridization is important for maintaining species genetic integrity. Thus, we suggest further study of hybridization under different contexts to set well informed conservation guidelines for hybrid populations that often fit somewhere between “natural” and “man-made.” PMID:26061111

  16. Developmental Origins of Pregnancy Loss in the Adult Female Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Julienne N.; deMartelly, Victoria A.; Layne Colon, Donna G.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of the intrauterine environment on the developmental programming of adult female reproductive success is still poorly understood and potentially underestimated. Litter size variation in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), allows us to model the effects of varying intrauterine environments (e.g. nutrient restriction, exposure to male womb-mates) on the risk of losing fetuses in adulthood. Our previous work has characterized the fetuses of triplet pregnancies as experiencing intrauterine nutritional restriction. Methodology/Principal Findings We used over a decade of demographic data from the Southwest National Primate Research Center common marmoset colony. We evaluated differences between twin and triplet females in the number of pregnancies they produce and the proportion of those pregnancies that ended in fetal loss. We found that triplet females produced the same number of total offspring as twin females, but lost offspring during pregnancy at a significantly higher rate than did twins (38% vs. 13%, p = 0.02). Regardless of their own birth weight or the sex ratio of the litter the experienced as fetuses, triplet females lost more fetuses than did twins. Females with a male littermate experienced a significant increase in the proportion of stillbirths. Conclusions/Significance These striking findings anchor pregnancy loss in the mother’s own fetal environment and development, underscoring a "Womb to Womb" view of the lifecourse and the intergenerational consequences of development. This has important translational implications for understanding the large proportion of human stillbirths that are unexplained. Our findings provide strong evidence that a full understanding of mammalian life history and reproductive biology requires a developmental foundation. PMID:24871614

  17. The repertoire of MHC class I genes in the common marmoset: evidence for functional plasticity.

    PubMed

    van der Wiel, Marit K; Otting, Nel; de Groot, Natasja G; Doxiadis, Gaby G M; Bontrop, Ronald E

    2013-12-01

    In humans, the classical antigen presentation function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is controlled by the human leukocyte antigen HLA -A, HLA-B and HLA-C loci. A similar observation has been made for great apes and Old World monkey species. In contrast, a New World monkey species such as the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) appears to employ the G locus for its classical antigen presentation function. At present, little is known about the classical MHC class I repertoire of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), another New World monkey that is widely used in biomedical research. In the present population study, no evidence has been found for abundant transcription of classical I class genes. However, in each common marmoset, four to seven different G-like alleles were detected, suggesting that the ancestral locus has been subject to expansion. Segregation studies provided evidence for at least two G-like genes present per haplotype, which are transcribed by a variety of cell types. The alleles of these Caja-G genes cluster in separate lineages, suggesting that the loci diversified considerably after duplication. Phylogenetic analyses of the introns confirm that the Caja-G loci cluster in the vicinity of HLA-G, indicating that both genes shared an ancestor. In contrast to HLA-G, Caja-G shows considerable polymorphism at the peptide-binding sites. This observation, together with the lack of detectable transcripts of A and B-like genes, indicates that Caja-G genes have taken over the function of classical class I genes. These data highlight the extreme plasticity of the MHC class I gene system. PMID:24018468

  18. Imitation as Faithful Copying of a Novel Technique in Marmoset Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Voelkl, Bernhard; Huber, Ludwig

    2007-01-01

    Imitative learning has received great attention due to its supposed role in the development of culture and the cognitive demands it poses on the individual. Evidence for imitation in non-human primate species, therefore, could shed light on the early origins of proto-cultural traits in the primate order. Imitation has been defined as the learning of an act by seeing it done or, more specifically, as the copying of a novel or otherwise improbable act. But despite a century of research and the detection of mirror neurons the empirical basis for this most advanced form of observational learning is weak. Few, if any, studies have shown that the observer has learned the response topography, i.e., the specific action by which the response is made. In an experimental set-up we confronted marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) with a conspecific model that was previously trained to open a plastic box in a peculiar way. Employing detailed motion analyses we show that the observers precisely copied the movement patterns of the novel action demonstrated by the model. A discriminant analysis classified 13 out of 14 observer movements (92.86%) as model movements and only one as non-observer movement. This evidence of imitation in non-human primates questions the dominant opinion that imitation is a human-specific ability. Furthermore, the high matching degree suggests that marmosets possess the neuronal mechanism to code the actions of others and to map them onto their own motor repertoire, rather than priming existing motor-templates. PMID:17622356

  19. Long-Term Fidelity of Foraging Techniques in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    GUNHOLD, TINA; RANGE, FRIEDERIKE; HUBER, LUDWIG; BUGNYAR, THOMAS

    2015-01-01

    The formation of behavioral traditions has been considered as one of the main building blocks of culture. Numerous studies on social learning in different animal species provide evidence for their capability of successful transmission of information. However, questions concerning the memory and maintenance of this information have received comparably little attention. After the innovation and initial spread of a novel behavior, the behavior should stabilize and be maintained over time. Otherwise, the behavioral pattern might collapse and no tradition formation would be possible. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term preferences in a two-action manipulation task in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Three captive family groups (23 individuals in total) were trained on one of two possible techniques to open a wooden box and gain access to a food reward, by either pulling or pushing a flap door. The training phase took place in a family group setting, while the test phase was conducted individually. Although the subjects could experience the alternative technique during the test sessions, the majority preferentially used the technique learned in the group setting. Moreover, the subjects were re-tested six times over a period of more than four years, in order to examine the fidelity of their preferences. The longest break without exposure the task lasted for 3.5 years. In all tests, the marmosets showed a similar preference as in the first test block shortly after the training. To our knowledge, this is the first lab study that experimentally demonstrates memory and fidelity of experimentally seeded information in a manipulation task over a time period of several years, supporting the assumption that socially learned foraging techniques can lead to relatively stable behavioral traditions. PMID:25231356

  20. Reversal learning in gonadectomized marmosets with and without hormone replacement: are males more sensitive to punishment?

    PubMed

    LaClair, Matthew; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2016-05-01

    This study examined sex differences in executive function in middle-aged gonadectomized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with or without hormonal replacement. We tested ten castrated male (mean age 5.5 years) marmosets treated with testosterone cypionate (T, n = 5) or vehicle (n = 5) on Reversal Learning, which contributes to cognitive flexibility, and the Delayed Response task, measuring working memory. Their performance was compared to that of 11 ovariectomized females (mean age = 3.7 years) treated with Silastic capsules filled with 17-β estradiol (E2, n = 6) or empty capsules (n = 5), previously tested on the same tasks (Lacreuse et al. in J Neuroendocrinol 26:296-309, 2014. doi: 10.1111/jne.12147). Behavioral observations were conducted daily. Females exhibited more locomotor behaviors than males. Males and females did not differ in the number of trials taken to reach criterion on the reversals, but males had significantly longer response latencies, regardless of hormone replacement. They also had a greater number of refusals than females. Additionally, both control and T-treated males, but not females, had slower responses on incorrect trials, suggesting that males were making errors due to distraction, lack of motivation or uncertainty. Furthermore, although both males and females had slower responding following an incorrect compared to a correct trial, the sex difference in response latencies was disproportionally large following an incorrect trial. No sex difference was found in the Delayed Response task. Overall, slower response latencies in males than females during Reversal Learning, especially during and following an incorrect trial, may reflect greater sensitivity to punishment (omission of reward) and greater performance monitoring in males, compared to females. Because these differences occurred in gonadectomized animals and regardless of hormone replacement, they may be organized early in life. PMID:26909674

  1. mRNA expression profile of serotonin receptor subtypes and distribution of serotonergic terminations in marmoset brain

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Rammohan; Watakabe, Akiya; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    To better understand serotonin function in the primate brain, we examined the mRNA expression patterns of all the 13 members of the serotonin receptor (5HTR) family, by in situ hybridization (ISH) and the distribution of serotonergic terminations by serotonin transporter (SERT) protein immunohistochemical analysis. Ten of the 13 5HTRs showed significant mRNA expressions in the marmoset brain. Our study shows several new features of the organization of serotonergic systems in the marmoset brain. (1) The thalamus expressed only a limited number of receptor subtypes compared with the cortex, hippocampus, and other subcortical regions. (2) In the cortex, there are layer-selective and area-selective mRNA expressions of 5HTRs. (3) Highly localized mRNA expressions of 5HT1F and 5HT3A were observed. (4) There was a conspicuous overlap of the mRNA expressions of receptor subtypes known to have somatodendritic localization of receptor proteins with dense serotonergic terminations in the visual cortex, the central lateral (CL) nucleus of the thalamus, the presubiculum, and the medial mammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. This suggests a high correlation between serotonin availability and receptor expression at these locations. (5) The 5HTRs show differences in mRNA expression pattern between the marmoset and mouse cortices whereas the patterns of both the species were much similar in the hippocampus. We discuss the possible roles of 5HTRs in the marmoset brain revealed by the analysis of their overall mRNA expression patterns. PMID:24904298

  2. The role of androgenic steroids in shaping social phenotypes across the lifespan in male marmosets (Callithrix spp.).

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A

    2013-03-01

    Steroid hormones, particularly androgens and their metabolic derivatives, play a prominent role in shaping morphological, behavioral, and social phenotypes in many organisms, including primates. This paper reviews the endocrine correlates of development in male marmoset monkeys of the genus Callithrix (C. kuhlii and C. geoffroyi). A lifespan developmental perspective is adopted, in which our knowledge of hormone effects and profiles from prenatal periods through old age is described. Prenatal steroid hormones appear to play a prominent role in shaping behavioral and morphological phenotypes both the prepartum and in the early postpartum periods of life, with exposure to high gestational androgen associated with reduced fetal growth and lower levels of juvenile play. Early postnatal elevations in androgen levels in males are ubiquitous in Callithrix, and play a role in the further differentiation of male genital morphology and behavior. Changes in androgens as males approach puberty are similar to the conventional primate pattern, and unlike in female marmosets, gonadal steroidogenesis appears to be independent of social context. In adults, androgens appear to be an important modulator of paternal responsiveness to infants, since androgens are low at times when males typically engage in maximal levels of care, and fathers that care for offspring extensively appear to have lower androgen levels than fathers that are less involved in offspring care. Finally, aging in male marmosets is associated with reduced androgen levels. This reduction appears to be attributable to deficits in central mechanisms, since experimental induction and inhibition of gonadal steroid synthesis and release appears to be normal in older males. Together, these results suggest a complex picture of lifetime involvement of androgens in shaping marmoset phenotypes. PMID:23335110

  3. The atypical antipsychotic blonanserin reverses (+)-PD-128907- and ketamine-induced deficit in executive function in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Manato; Enomoto, Takeshi; Murai, Takeshi; Nakako, Tomokazu; Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Kiyoshi, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Ikejiri, Masaru; Nakayama, Tatsuo; Ogi, Yuji; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2016-05-15

    Antagonism of the dopamine D3 receptor is considered a promising strategy for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia. We have previously reported that the atypical antipsychotic blonanserin, a dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, highly occupies dopamine D3 receptors at its antipsychotic dose range in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of blonanserin on executive function in common marmosets using the object retrieval with detour (ORD) task. The dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist (+)-PD-128907 at 1mg/kg decreased success rate in the difficult trial, but not in the easy trial. Since the difference between the two trials is only cognitive demand, our findings indicate that excess activation of dopamine D3 receptors impairs executive function in common marmosets. Blonanserin at 0.1mg/kg reversed the decrease in success rate induced by (+)-PD-128907 in the difficult trial. This finding indicates that blonanserin has beneficial effect on executive function deficit induced by activation of the dopamine D3 receptor in common marmosets. Next, and based on the glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia, the common marmosets were treated with the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine. Ketamine at sub-anesthetic doses decreased success rate in the difficult trial, but not in the easy trial. Blonanserin at 0.1mg/kg reversed the decrease in success rate induced by ketamine in the difficult trial. The findings of this study suggest that blonanserin might have beneficial effect on executive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26970575

  4. The long-term impact of infant rearing background on the affective state of adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Hayley; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life environment, including temporary family separation, can have a major influence on affective state. Using a battery of tests, the current study compared the performance of adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), reared as infants under 3 different conditions: family-reared twins, family-reared animals from triplet litters where only 2 remain (2stays) and supplementary fed triplets. No significant differences were found in latency to approach and obtain food from a human or a novel object between rearing conditions, suggesting no effect on neophobia. There were no differences in cognitive bias task acquisition time, or proportion of responses to each ambiguous probe. Very minor differences were found in response to the probes, with only supplementary fed marmosets making fewer responses to the middle probe, compared to the probe nearest the rewarded stimuli. Similarly, in a test for anhedonia, no difference was found between rearing conditions in consumption of milkshake at different concentrations. There was just one very small difference in reward motivation, with only supplementary fed triplets demonstrating a lack of preference for milkshake over water at the lowest concentration. This consistent pattern of results suggests that the supplementary feeding of large litters of marmosets at this facility did not have a major effect on welfare, and is unlikely to influence performance in reward-related scientific tasks. Therefore, while family separation is not recommended, this particular practice should be used if it is necessary, such as to reduce infant mortality. Regular positive interactions with humans are also encouraged, to reduce fear and improve welfare of marmosets kept in captivity. PMID:26912940

  5. [Ventricular Septal Perforation after Inferior Myocardial Infarction].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisashi; Nakayama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Hideya; Takahashi, Baku

    2016-07-01

    We report a rare case of ventricular septal perforation (VSP) after inferior myocardial infarction. Surgical repair of VSP after inferior infarction is technically difficult because of its anatomical location. An 81-year-old female presented with dyspnea on the 8th day after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute inferior myocardial infarction. Echocardiography revealed a ventricular septal perforation. Urgent operation was performed. There was a VSP around the base of the ventricular septum. The myocardial infarction extended to the adjacent muscle of the mitral valve annulus. Two bovine pericardial patches were used in the left ventricular cavity. The patches were sewn on the mitral valve annulus which was the only normal tissue in the region. The 1st patch was used to close the VSP directly, and the 2nd patch was sutured to the normal myocardium to exclude the infracted area. No residual shunt flow was observed. The postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:27365060

  6. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  7. [Inferior alveolar nerve repositioning in implant surgery].

    PubMed

    Ardekian, L; Salnea, J; Abu el-Naaj, I; Gutmacher, T; Peled, M

    2001-04-01

    Severe resorption of the posterior mandible possesses one of the most difficult restorative challenges to the implant surgery today. This resorption may prevent the placement of dental implants without the potentially damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. To create the opportunity of insertion dental implants of adequately length in those cases, the technique of nerve repositioning has been advocated. The purpose of this article is to describe two cases of nerve repositioning combined with placement of dental implants. Both cases showed appropriate postoperative healing without damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. The inferior alveolar nerve repositioning technique seems to be an acceptable alternative to augmentation procedure prior to dental implants placement in cases exhibiting atrophic posterior mandibular ridges. PMID:11494807

  8. Tensile properties of the inferior glenohumeral ligament.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, L U; Pollock, R G; Soslowsky, L J; Flatow, E L; Pawluk, R J; Mow, V C

    1992-03-01

    The tensile properties of the inferior glenohumeral ligament have been determined in 16 freshly frozen cadaver shoulders. The inferior glenohumeral ligament was divided into three anatomical regions: a superior band, an anterior axillary pouch, and a posterior axillary pouch. This yielded 48 bone-ligament-bone specimens, which were tested to failure in uniaxial tension. The superior band was consistently the thickest region, averaging 2.79 mm. The thickness of the inferior glenohumeral ligament decreased from antero-superiorly to postero-inferiorly. The resting length of all three anatomical regions was not statistically different. Total specimen strain to failure for all bone-ligament-bone specimens averaged 27%. Variations occurred between the three regions, with the anterior pouch specimens failing at a higher strain (34%) than those from the superior band (24%) or the posterior pouch (23%). Strain to failure for the ligament midsubstance (11%) was found to be significantly less than that for the entire specimen (27%). Thus, larger strain must occur near the insertion sites of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. Stress at failure was found to be nearly identical for the three regions of the ligament, averaging 5.5 MPa. These values are lower than those reported for other soft tissues, such as the anterior cruciate ligament and patellar tendon. The anterior pouch was found to be less stiff than the other two regions, perhaps suggesting that it is composed of more highly crimped collagen fibers. Three failure sites were seen for the inferior glenohumeral ligament: the glenoid insertion (40%), the ligament substance (35%), and the humeral insertion (25%). In addition, significant capsular stretching occurred before failure, regardless of the failure mode. PMID:1740736

  9. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Nuzhat, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses) and group II (third-trimester fetuses), followed by dissection. Result. (1) Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%). In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2) Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3) Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4) Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position. PMID:27313956

  10. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Nuzhat, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses) and group II (third-trimester fetuses), followed by dissection. Result. (1) Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%). In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2) Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3) Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4) Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position. PMID:27313956

  11. Distribution of vasopressin and oxytocin binding sites in the brain and upper spinal cord of the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Schorscher-Petcu, Ara; Dupré, Anouk; Tribollet, Eliane

    2009-09-25

    The aim of this study was to label selectively and to map central vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) binding sites in the common marmoset. [(125)I]VPA, a compound selective in rodents and human for the AVP V(1a) receptor, yielded the same labeling pattern as [(3)H]AVP, thus suggesting that most AVP receptors present in the marmoset brain are of the V(1a) subtype. Numerous areas exhibited AVP binding sites, among which the olfactory bulb, the accumbens nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic, arcuate and ventromedial nuclei, the medial amygdaloid nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract and the cerebral cortex. Binding sites for [(125)I]OTA, a selective OT receptor antagonist in rat and human, were markedly less abundant than [(125)I]VPA ones, and, to a few exceptions, expressed in different areas. Neither AVP, nor OT binding sites were detected in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei identified by neurophysin immunoreactivity. Marked species-related differences were observed in the distribution of both AVP and OT binding sites. Altogether, our data provide a morphological basis to investigate the function of central AVP and OT in the marmoset. PMID:19539696

  12. Diversity of Retinal Ganglion Cells Identified by Transient GFP Transfection in Organotypic Tissue Culture of Adult Marmoset Monkey Retina

    PubMed Central

    Moritoh, Satoru; Komatsu, Yusuke; Yamamori, Tetsuo; Koizumi, Amane

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian retina has more diversity of neurons than scientists had once believed in order to establish complicated vision processing. In the monkey retina, morphological diversity of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) besides dominant midget and parasol cells has been suggested. However, characteristic subtypes of RGCs in other species such as bistratified direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGC) have not yet been identified. Increasing interest has been shown in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkey as a “super-model” of neuroscientific research. Here, we established organotypic tissue culture of the adult marmoset monkey retina with particle-mediated gene transfer of GFP to survey the morphological diversity of RGCs. We successfully incubated adult marmoset monkey retinas for 2 to 4 days ex vivo for transient expression of GFP. We morphologically examined 121 RGCs out of more than 3240 GFP-transfected cells in 5 retinas. Among them, we identified monostratified or broadly stratified ganglion cells (midget, parasol, sparse, recursive, thorny, and broad thorny ganglion cells), and bistratified ganglion cells (recursive, large, and small bistratified ganglion cells [blue-ON/yellow-OFF-like]). By this survey, we also found a candidate for bistratified DSGC whose dendrites were well cofasciculated with ChAT-positive starburst dendrites, costratified with ON and OFF ChAT bands, and had honeycomb-shaped dendritic arbors morphologically similar to those in rabbits. Our genetic engineering method provides a new approach to future investigation for morphological and functional diversity of RGCs in the monkey retina. PMID:23336011

  13. Striatal and extrastriatal dopamine release in the common marmoset brain measured by positron emission tomography and [(18)F]fallypride.

    PubMed

    Ota, Miho; Ogawa, Shintaro; Kato, Koichi; Masuda, Chiaki; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia show greater sensitivity to psychostimulants than healthy subjects. Sensitization to psychostimulants and resultant alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmission in rodents has been suggested as a useful model of schizophrenia. This study sought to examine the use of methylphenidate as a psychostimulant to induce dopamine release and that of [(18)F]fallypride as a radioligand to quantify the release in a primate model of schizophrenia. Four common marmosets were scanned by positron emission tomography twice, before and after methylphenidate challenge, to evaluate dopamine release. Four other marmosets were sensitized by repeated methamphetamine (MAP) administration. Then, they were scanned twice, before and after methylphenidate challenge, to evaluate whether MAP-sensitization induced greater sensitivity to methylphenidate. We revealed a main effect of the methylphenidate challenge but not the MAP pretreatment on the striatal binding potential. These results suggest that methylphenidate-induced striatal dopamine release in the common marmoset could be evaluated by [(18)F]fallypride. PMID:26232153

  14. Efficient in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in common marmosets by novel CD8 monoclonal antibody administration.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Saori; Iwasaki, Yuki; Kaneko, Akihisa; Saito, Akatsuki; Enomoto, Yuki; Higashino, Atsunori; Watanabe, Akino; Suzuki, Juri; Inoue, Kenichi; Kuroda, Teiko; Takada, Masahiko; Ito, Ryoji; Ito, Mamoru; Akari, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to directly demonstrate the roles of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in non-human primates, in vivo depletion of the CD8(+) T cells by administration of a CD8-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) is one of the crucial techniques. Recently, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), which is classified as a New World monkey, has been shown useful as an experimental animal model for various human diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and a number of infectious diseases. Here we show that an anti-marmoset CD8 mAb 6F10, which we have recently established, efficiently depletes the marmoset CD8(+) T lymphocytes in vivo, i.e., the administration of 6F10 induces drastic and specific reduction in the ratio of the CD8(+) T cell subset for at least three weeks or longer. Our finding will help understand the pivotal role of CD8(+) T cells in vivo in the control of human diseases. PMID:23969290

  15. Characteristics of trophoblastic tissue derived from in vitro culture of preimplantation embryos of the common marmoset monkey.

    PubMed

    Summers, P M; Taylor, C T; Hearn, J P

    1987-01-01

    The features of trophoblastic tissue derived from the in vitro culture of marmoset monkey embryos have been described. Long-term trophoblast cultures (in excess of three years in one case) were established from the primary trophoblast monolayer of four of 38 embryos; division of one of these embryos produced two long-term cultures. The trophoblast cells retained their ability to synthesize and secrete chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) during maintenance in vitro and were capable of prolonging the luteal phase when transferred to the uterus of marmosets. A characteristic feature of the cultures was the formation of multiple fluid-filled vesicles enclosed by a single layer of cytotrophoblast cells and attached to the culture dish by a small monolayer of syncytiotrophoblast cells. The tissue was propagated by cutting vesicles into small pieces and placing into a fresh culture dish; attempts to subculture using single-cell suspensions were unsuccessful. These cultures provide a convenient source of marmoset CG for purification as well as an in vitro system for studying other secretory products of primate trophoblast. PMID:3120174

  16. Abundant Occurrence of Basal Radial Glia in the Subventricular Zone of Embryonic Neocortex of a Lissencephalic Primate, the Common Marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    PubMed Central

    Kelava, Iva; Reillo, Isabel; Murayama, Ayako Y.; Kalinka, Alex T.; Stenzel, Denise; Tomancak, Pavel; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Lebrand, Cécile; Sasaki, Erika; Schwamborn, Jens C.; Okano, Hideyuki; Borrell, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors are a hallmark of the developing neocortex. Recent studies described a novel type of SVZ progenitor that retains a basal process at mitosis, sustains expression of radial glial markers, and is capable of self-renewal. These progenitors, referred to here as basal radial glia (bRG), occur at high relative abundance in the SVZ of gyrencephalic primates (human) and nonprimates (ferret) but not lissencephalic rodents (mouse). Here, we analyzed the occurrence of bRG cells in the embryonic neocortex of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus, a near-lissencephalic primate. bRG cells, expressing Pax6, Sox2 (but not Tbr2), glutamate aspartate transporter, and glial fibrillary acidic protein and retaining a basal process at mitosis, occur at similar relative abundance in the marmoset SVZ as in human and ferret. The proportion of progenitors in M-phase was lower in embryonic marmoset than developing ferret neocortex, raising the possibility of a longer cell cycle. Fitting the gyrification indices of 26 anthropoid species to an evolutionary model suggested that the marmoset evolved from a gyrencephalic ancestor. Our results suggest that a high relative abundance of bRG cells may be necessary, but is not sufficient, for gyrencephaly and that the marmoset's lissencephaly evolved secondarily by changing progenitor parameters other than progenitor type. PMID:22114084

  17. Dense understory and absence of capuchin monkeys (Sapajus xanthosternos) predict higher density of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in the Brazilian Northeast.

    PubMed

    Hilário, Renato R; Ferrari, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effects of habitat structure and other environmental variables on the density of a species can help define its habitat preferences and key ecological determinants of population parameters. The present study evaluated the effects of fragment size, the presence of a key predator/competitor, the yellow-breasted capuchin (Sapajus xanthosternos), primary productivity, the abundance of bromeliads, and habitat structure on the population density of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). A total of 21 fragments were surveyed within a 350-km long zone of coastal Atlantic Forest representing the southern extreme of the distribution of the species in the Brazilian Northeast. An index of marmoset density was generated for each site based on playback surveys. The relationship between the density of marmosets and a set of parameters was evaluated by multiple regression. A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) condensed the five variables of habitat structure into two principal components, which contained 85% of their combined variation. The model that best explained the density of marmosets (R(2) = 59.1) contained the second PCA component and the presence/absence of capuchins. The analysis indicated that the marmosets prefer forests with denser understory, whether or not they are secondary habitats. The negative effect of the presence of capuchins may be related to predation pressure. The results of this study indicate that multiple-site studies may provide important insights into the habitat preferences of primate species and the factors that affect their population density. PMID:25407393

  18. The Distinct Role of the Amygdala, Superior Colliculus and Pulvinar in Processing of Central and Peripheral Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Inês; Soares, Sandra C.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visual processing of ecologically relevant stimuli involves a central bias for stimuli demanding detailed processing (e.g., faces), whereas peripheral object processing is based on coarse identification. Fast detection of animal shapes holding a significant phylogenetic value, such as snakes, may benefit from peripheral vision. The amygdala together with the pulvinar and the superior colliculus are implicated in an ongoing debate regarding their role in automatic and deliberate spatial processing of threat signals. Methods Here we tested twenty healthy participants in an fMRI task, and investigated the role of spatial demands (the main effect of central vs. peripheral vision) in the processing of fear-relevant ecological features. We controlled for stimulus dependence using true or false snakes; snake shapes or snake faces and for task constraints (implicit or explicit). The main idea justifying this double task is that amygdala and superior colliculus are involved in both automatic and controlled processes. Moreover the explicit/implicit instruction in the task with respect to emotion is not necessarily equivalent to explicit vs. implicit in the sense of endogenous vs. exogenous attention, or controlled vs. automatic processes. Results We found that stimulus-driven processing led to increased amygdala responses specifically to true snake shapes presented in the centre or in the peripheral left hemifield (right hemisphere). Importantly, the superior colliculus showed significantly biased and explicit central responses to snake-related stimuli. Moreover, the pulvinar, which also contains foveal representations, also showed strong central responses, extending the results of a recent single cell pulvinar study in monkeys. Similar hemispheric specialization was found across structures: increased amygdala responses occurred to true snake shapes presented to the right hemisphere, with this pattern being closely followed by the superior colliculus and the

  19. Complex somatosensory receptive fields of cells in the deep laminae of the hamster's superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, R W; Mooney, R D; Jacquin, M F

    1983-07-01

    Responses to separate and simultaneous application of noxious and innocuous tactile stimuli were examined for neurons recorded from the deep layers of the hamster's superior colliculus. Forty-four percent of the units isolated were responsive only to innocuous, primarily cutaneous, stimuli; 10% were activated only by noxious stimulation; and 15% were characterized as having a wide dynamic range. The remaining 31% of the somatosensory cells recorded had complex receptive field properties which have not heretofore been described for tectal neurons in any species. Ten percent of all somatosensory cells had no excitatory receptive fields, but their spontaneous discharges could be suppressed by low threshold and/or noxious stimulation of discrete portions of the body. In 18% of the units which we recorded, innocuous and noxious stimuli had opposing effects upon cellular activity. Most of these neurons had small receptive fields in which innocuous tactile stimuli yielded excitation and larger fields, often including most of the body surface, where noxious stimulation suppressed both spontaneous activity and the responses normally elicited by appropriate tactile stimulation. Finally, a very small number of units (3% of all somatosensory cells recorded) had multiple receptive fields in which low threshold stimulation produced opposing effects on spontaneous activity. Somatosensory units were recorded in all of the deep laminae, but cells with complex response characteristics were isolated primarily in stratum griseum profundum. PMID:6864251

  20. Altered map of visual space in the superior colliculus of mice lacking early retinal waves.

    PubMed

    Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D; Hofer, Sonja B; Creutzfeldt, Claire; Cloëz-Tayarani, Isabelle; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Hübener, Mark

    2005-07-20

    During the development of the mammalian retinocollicular projection, a coarse retinotopic map is set up by the graded distribution of axon guidance molecules. Subsequent refinement of the initially diffuse projection has been shown to depend on the spatially correlated firing of retinal ganglion cells. In this scheme, the abolition of patterned retinal activity is not expected to influence overall retinotopic organization, but this has not been investigated. We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to visualize the complete retinotopic map in the superior colliculus (SC) of mice lacking early retinal waves, caused by the deletion of the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. As expected from previous anatomical studies in the SC of beta2(-/-) mice, regions activated by individual visual stimuli were much larger and had less sharp borders than those in wild-type mice. Importantly, however, we also found systematic distortions of the entire retinotopic map: the map of visual space was expanded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly. Thus, patterned neuronal activity in the early retina has a substantial influence on the coarse retinotopic organization of the SC. PMID:16033902

  1. Nitric oxide synthase expression in the opossum superior colliculus: a histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Giraldi-Guimarães, A; Tenório, F; Brüning, G; Mayer, B; Mendez-Otero, R; Cavalcante, L A

    1999-12-01

    The expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the superior colliculus (SC) of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis was studied by NADPH diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry and nNOS immunohistochemistry. In addition, the activity of nNOS was quantified by measurement of [(3)H]-L-arginine conversion to [(3)H]-L-citrulline in tissue extracts from SC superficial layers in opossums and rats. Our results show that the number of NADPH-d stained cells was small and virtually identical in stratum opticum (SO) and stratum griseum superficiale (SGS) and their staining was very light, particularly in SGS. Neuropil staining was heavier in the stratum zonale (SZ) than in SGS or SO. The intermediate and deep layers contained heavily stained cells and moderate neuropil staining. Surprisingly, nNOS-immunoreactive cells were far more numerous than NADPH-d+ cells in every layer. The production of [(3)H]-L-citrulline from [(3)H]-L-arginine in tissue extracts enriched in superficial layers indicated that nNOS specific activity is as high in the opossum as in the rat. Our results suggest that the location of nNOS-expressing neurons in retino-receptive layers may be related to inter-specific differences in the processing of visual information. PMID:10681601

  2. Synaptogenesis in retino-receptive layers of the superior colliculus of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Correa-Gillieron, E M; Cavalcante, L A

    1999-08-01

    The maturation of the neuropil and synapse formation were examined in the retino-receptive layers of the superior colliculus (SCr-r) in the opossum from a period prior to the onset of arborization of retinocollicular fibers (postnatal day 22 - P22), at 44% of the coecal period (CP), to the end of the fast phase of optic fiber myelination and weaning time (P81 - 118% CP). Development of the SCr-r neuropil follows a protracted time course and can be divided into three broad stages, which are characterized by (I) Large extracellular spaces, numerous growth cones that participate rarely in synaptic junctions, vesicles-poor immature synapses (P22-P30), (II) Synapses of varied morphology with abundant synaptic vesicles, and small terminals with dark mitochondria and round synaptic vesicles (RSD terminals) synapsing mostly onto dendritic shafts, flat-vesicles (F) terminals (P40-P56), (III) Sequential appearance of retinal (R) and pleomorphic-vesicles (P) terminals and of RSD terminals synapsing onto spine or spine-like processes, appearance of glomerulus-like synaptic arrays (synaptic islets) (P61-P81). The advancement of synaptogenesis in SCr-r from stage I to II and from stage II to III correlates closely with the differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, respectively. PMID:10529520

  3. Cardiovascular effects of noradrenaline microinjection into the medial part of the superior colliculus of unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Garcia Pelosi, Gislaine; Fiacadori Tavares, Rodrigo; Barros Parron Fernandes, Karen; Morgan Aguiar Corrêa, Fernando

    2009-09-22

    The superior colliculus (SC) is a mesencephalic area involved in the mediation of defensive movements associated with cardiovascular changes. Noradrenaline (NA) is a neurotransmitter with an important role in central cardiovascular regulation exerted by several structures of the central nervous system. Although noradrenergic nerve terminals have been observed in the SC, there are no reports on the effects of local NA injection into this area. Taking this into consideration, we studied the cardiovascular effects of NA microinjection into the SC of unanesthetized rats. Microinjection of NA into the SC evoked a dose-dependent blood pressure increase and a heart rate decrease in unanesthetized rats. The pressor response to NA was not modified by intravenous pretreatment with the vasopressin v(1)-receptor antagonist dTyr(CH(2))(5)(Me)AVP, indicating a lack of vasopressin involvement in the response mediation. The effect of NA microinjection into the SC was blocked by intravenous pretreatment with the ganglionic blocker pentolinium, indicating its mediation by the sympathetic nervous system. Although the pressor response to NA was not affected by adrenal demedullation, the accompanying bradycardia was potentiated, suggesting some involvement of the sympathoadrenal system in the cardiovascular response to NA microinjection into the SC. In summary, results indicate that stimulation of noradrenergic receptors in the SC causes cardiovascular responses which are mediated by activation of both neural and adrenal sympathetic nervous system components. PMID:19615348

  4. Direct projections from the dorsal premotor cortex to the superior colliculus in the macaque (macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Distler, Claudia; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter

    2015-11-01

    The dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) is part of the cortical network for arm movements during reach-related behavior. Here we investigate the neuronal projections from the PMd to the midbrain superior colliculus (SC), which also contains reach-related neurons, to investigate how the SC integrates into a cortico-subcortical network responsible for initiation and modulation of goal-directed arm movements. By using anterograde transport of neuronal tracers, we found that the PMd projects most strongly to the deep layers of the lateral part of the SC and the underlying reticular formation corresponding to locations where reach-related neurons have been recorded, and from where descending tectofugal projections arise. A somewhat weaker projection targets the intermediate layers of the SC. By contrast, terminals originating from prearcuate area 8 mainly project to the intermediate layers of the SC. Thus, this projection pattern strengthens the view that different compartments in the SC are involved in the control of gaze and in the control or modulation of reaching movements. The PMD-SC projection assists in the participation of the SC in the skeletomotor system and provides the PMd with a parallel path to elicit forelimb movements. PMID:25921755

  5. Superior Colliculus Responses to Attended, Unattended, and Remembered Saccade Targets during Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements.

    PubMed

    Dash, Suryadeep; Nazari, Sina Alipour; Yan, Xiaogang; Wang, Hongying; Crawford, J Douglas

    2016-01-01

    In realistic environments, keeping track of multiple visual targets during eye movements likely involves an interaction between vision, top-down spatial attention, memory, and self-motion information. Recently we found that the superior colliculus (SC) visual memory response is attention-sensitive and continuously updated relative to gaze direction. In that study, animals were trained to remember the location of a saccade target across an intervening smooth pursuit (SP) eye movement (Dash et al., 2015). Here, we modified this paradigm to directly compare the properties of visual and memory updating responses to attended and unattended targets. Our analysis shows that during SP, active SC visual vs. memory updating responses share similar gaze-centered spatio-temporal profiles (suggesting a common mechanism), but updating was weaker by ~25%, delayed by ~55 ms, and far more dependent on attention. Further, during SP the sum of passive visual responses (to distracter stimuli) and memory updating responses (to saccade targets) closely resembled the responses for active attentional tracking of visible saccade targets. These results suggest that SP updating signals provide a damped, delayed estimate of attended location that contributes to the gaze-centered tracking of both remembered and visible saccade targets. PMID:27147987

  6. Brain derived neurotrophic factor keeps pattern electroretinogram from dropping after superior colliculus lesion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin-Bin; Yang, Xu; Ding, Huai-Yu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine if brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could offer protention to retinal ganglion cells following a superior colliculus (SC) lesion in mice using pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a measures of ganglion cell response and retinal health. METHODS Seven C57BL/6J mice with BDNF protection were tested with PERG and OCT before and after SC lesions. RESULTS Compared with baseline PERG, the amplitude of PERG decreased 11.7% after SC lesions, but not significantly (P>0.05). Through fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of the PERGs before and after SC lesions, it was found that dominant frequency of PERGs stayed unchanged, suggesting that the ganglion cells of the retina remained relatively healthy inspite of damage to the ends of the ganglion cell axons. Also, OCT showed no changes in retinal thickness after lesions. CONCLUSION It was concluded that BDNF is essential component of normal retinal and helps retina keeping normal function. While retina lack of BDNF, ex vivo resource of BDNF provides protection to the sick retina. It implies that BDNF is a kind therapeutic neurotrophic factor to retina neurodegeneration diseases, such as glaucoma, age related macular degeneration. PMID:27158604

  7. Superior Colliculus Responses to Attended, Unattended, and Remembered Saccade Targets during Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Suryadeep; Nazari, Sina Alipour; Yan, Xiaogang; Wang, Hongying; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    In realistic environments, keeping track of multiple visual targets during eye movements likely involves an interaction between vision, top-down spatial attention, memory, and self-motion information. Recently we found that the superior colliculus (SC) visual memory response is attention-sensitive and continuously updated relative to gaze direction. In that study, animals were trained to remember the location of a saccade target across an intervening smooth pursuit (SP) eye movement (Dash et al., 2015). Here, we modified this paradigm to directly compare the properties of visual and memory updating responses to attended and unattended targets. Our analysis shows that during SP, active SC visual vs. memory updating responses share similar gaze-centered spatio-temporal profiles (suggesting a common mechanism), but updating was weaker by ~25%, delayed by ~55 ms, and far more dependent on attention. Further, during SP the sum of passive visual responses (to distracter stimuli) and memory updating responses (to saccade targets) closely resembled the responses for active attentional tracking of visible saccade targets. These results suggest that SP updating signals provide a damped, delayed estimate of attended location that contributes to the gaze-centered tracking of both remembered and visible saccade targets. PMID:27147987

  8. Adaptive visual and auditory map alignment in barn owl superior colliculus and its neuromorphic implementation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Juan; Murray, Alan; Wei, Dongqing

    2012-09-01

    Adaptation is one of the most important phenomena in biology. A young barn owl can adapt to imposed environmental changes, such as artificial visual distortion caused by wearing a prism. This adjustment process has been modeled mathematically and the model replicates the sensory map realignment of barn owl superior colliculus (SC) through axonogenesis and synaptogenesis. This allows the biological mechanism to be transferred to an artificial computing system and thereby imbue it with a new form of adaptability to the environment. The model is demonstrated in a real-time robot environment. Results of the experiments are compared with and without prism distortion of vision, and show improved adaptability for the robot. However, the computation speed of the embedded system in the robot is slow. A digital and analog mixed signal very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuit has been fabricated to implement adaptive sensory pathway changes derived from the SC model at higher speed. VLSI experimental results are consistent with simulation results. PMID:24807931

  9. Alignment of multimodal sensory input in the superior colliculus through a gradient-matching mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Phan, An; Yamada, Jena; Feldheim, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain structure that integrates visual, somatosensory and auditory inputs to direct head and eye movements. Each of these modalities is topographically mapped and aligned with the others to ensure precise behavioral responses to multimodal stimuli. While it is clear that neural activity is instructive for topographic alignment of inputs from the visual cortex (V1) and auditory system with retinal axons in the SC, there is also evidence that activity-independent mechanisms are used to establish topographic alignment between modalities. Here, we show that the topography of the projection from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) to the SC is established during the first postnatal week. Unlike V1-SC projections, the S1-SC projection does not bifurcate when confronted with a duplicated retinocollicular map, showing that retinal input in the SC does not influence the topography of the S1-SC projection. However, S1-SC topography is disrupted in mice lacking ephrins-As, which we find are expressed in graded patterns along with their binding partners, the EphA4 and EphA7, in both S1 and the somatosensory recipient layer of the SC. Taken together, these data support a model in which somatosensory inputs into the SC map topographically and establish alignment with visual inputs in the SC using a gradient-matching mechanism. PMID:22496572

  10. Excitatory Synaptic Feedback from the Motor Layer to the Sensory Layers of the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O.; Vokoun, Corinne R.; McMahon, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits that translate sensory information into motor commands are organized in a feedforward manner converting sensory information into motor output. The superior colliculus (SC) follows this pattern as it plays a role in converting visual information from the retina and visual cortex into motor commands for rapid eye movements (saccades). Feedback from movement to sensory regions is hypothesized to play critical roles in attention, visual image stability, and saccadic suppression, but in contrast to feedforward pathways, motor feedback to sensory regions has received much less attention. The present study used voltage imaging and patch-clamp recording in slices of rat SC to test the hypothesis of an excitatory synaptic pathway from the motor layers of the SC back to the sensory superficial layers. Voltage imaging revealed an extensive depolarization of the superficial layers evoked by electrical stimulation of the motor layers. A pharmacologically isolated excitatory synaptic potential in the superficial layers depended on stimulus strength in the motor layers in a manner consistent with orthodromic excitation. Patch-clamp recording from neurons in the sensory layers revealed excitatory synaptic potentials in response to glutamate application in the motor layers. The location, size, and morphology of responsive neurons indicated they were likely to be narrow-field vertical cells. This excitatory projection from motor to sensory layers adds an important element to the circuitry of the SC and reveals a novel feedback pathway that could play a role in enhancing sensory responses to attended targets as well as visual image stabilization. PMID:24828636

  11. HEBBIAN MECHANISMS HELP EXPLAIN DEVELOPMENT OF MULTISENSORY INTEGRATION IN THE SUPERIOR COLLICULUS: A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Cuppini, C.; Magosso, E.; Rowland, B.; Stein, B.; Ursino, M.

    2013-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) integrates relevant sensory information (visual, auditory, somatosensory) from several cortical and subcortical structures, to program orientation responses to external events. However, this capacity is not present at birth, and it is acquired only through interactions with cross-modal events during maturation. Mathematical models provide a quantitative framework, valuable in helping to clarify the specific neural mechanisms underlying the maturation of the multisensory integration in the SC. We extended a neural network model of the adult SC (Cuppini et al. 2010) to describe the development of this phenomenon starting from an immature state, based on known or suspected anatomy and physiology, in which: 1) AES afferents are present but weak, 2) Responses are driven from non-AES afferents, and 3) The visual inputs have a marginal spatial tuning. Sensory experience was modelled by repeatedly presenting modality-specific and cross-modal stimuli. Synapses in the network were modified by simple Hebbian learning rules. As a consequence of this exposure, 1) Receptive fields shrink and come into spatial register, and 2) SC neurons gained the adult characteristic integrative properties: enhancement, depression, and inverse effectiveness. Importantly, the unique architecture of the model guided the development so that integration became dependent on the relationship between the cortical input and the SC. Manipulations of the statistics of the experience during the development changed the integrative profiles of the neurons, and results matched well with the results of physiological studies. PMID:23011260

  12. GATA2 IS REQUIRED FOR MIGRATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF RETINORECIPIENT NEURONS IN THE SUPERIOR COLLICULUS

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Ryan T.; Greene, Lloyd A.

    2011-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC)/optic tectum of the dorsal mesencephalon plays a major role in responses to visual input, yet regulation of neuronal differentiation within this layered structure is only partially understood. Here, we show that the zinc finger transcription factor Gata2 is required for normal SC development. Starting at e15 (corresponding to the times at which neurons of the outer and intermediate layers of the SC are generated), Gata2 is transiently expressed in the rat embryonic dorsal mesencephalon within a restricted region between proliferating cells of the ventricular zone and the deepest neuronal layers of the developing SC. The Gata2 positive cells are post-mitotic and lack markers of differentiated neurons, but express markers for immature neuronal precursors including Ascl1 and Pax3/7. In utero electroporation with Gata2 shRNAs at e16 into cells along the dorsal mesencephalic ventricle interferes with their normal migration into the SC and maintains them in a state characterized by retention of Pax3 expression and the absence of mature neuronal markers. Collectively, these findings indicate that Gata2 plays a required role in the transition of post-mitotic neuronal precursor cells of the retinorecipient layers of the SC into mature neurons and that loss of Gata2 arrests them at an intermediate stage of differentiation. PMID:21430145

  13. Variability of visual responses of superior colliculus neurons depends on stimulus velocity.

    PubMed

    Mochol, Gabriela; Wójcik, Daniel K; Wypych, Marek; Wróbel, Andrzej; Waleszczyk, Wioletta J

    2010-03-01

    Visually responding neurons in the superficial, retinorecipient layers of the cat superior colliculus receive input from two primarily parallel information processing channels, Y and W, which is reflected in their velocity response profiles. We quantified the time-dependent variability of responses of these neurons to stimuli moving with different velocities by Fano factor (FF) calculated in discrete time windows. The FF for cells responding to low-velocity stimuli, thus receiving W inputs, increased with the increase in the firing rate. In contrast, the dynamics of activity of the cells responding to fast moving stimuli, processed by Y pathway, correlated negatively with FF whether the response was excitatory or suppressive. These observations were tested against several types of surrogate data. Whereas Poisson description failed to reproduce the variability of all collicular responses, the inclusion of secondary structure to the generating point process recovered most of the observed features of responses to fast moving stimuli. Neither model could reproduce the variability of low-velocity responses, which suggests that, in this case, more complex time dependencies need to be taken into account. Our results indicate that Y and W channels may differ in reliability of responses to visual stimulation. Apart from previously reported morphological and physiological differences of the cells belonging to Y and W channels, this is a new feature distinguishing these two pathways. PMID:20203179

  14. Hebbian mechanisms help explain development of multisensory integration in the superior colliculus: a neural network model.

    PubMed

    Cuppini, C; Magosso, E; Rowland, B; Stein, B; Ursino, M

    2012-12-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) integrates relevant sensory information (visual, auditory, somatosensory) from several cortical and subcortical structures, to program orientation responses to external events. However, this capacity is not present at birth, and it is acquired only through interactions with cross-modal events during maturation. Mathematical models provide a quantitative framework, valuable in helping to clarify the specific neural mechanisms underlying the maturation of the multisensory integration in the SC. We extended a neural network model of the adult SC (Cuppini et al., Front Integr Neurosci 4:1-15, 2010) to describe the development of this phenomenon starting from an immature state, based on known or suspected anatomy and physiology, in which: (1) AES afferents are present but weak, (2) Responses are driven from non-AES afferents, and (3) The visual inputs have a marginal spatial tuning. Sensory experience was modeled by repeatedly presenting modality-specific and cross-modal stimuli. Synapses in the network were modified by simple Hebbian learning rules. As a consequence of this exposure, (1) Receptive fields shrink and come into spatial register, and (2) SC neurons gained the adult characteristic integrative properties: enhancement, depression, and inverse effectiveness. Importantly, the unique architecture of the model guided the development so that integration became dependent on the relationship between the cortical input and the SC. Manipulations of the statistics of the experience during the development changed the integrative profiles of the neurons, and results matched well with the results of physiological studies. PMID:23011260

  15. Connections of the superior colliculus to shoulder muscles of the rat: a dual tracing study

    PubMed Central

    Rubelowski, J. M.; Menge, M.; Distler, C.; Rothermel, M.; Hoffmann, K.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that the superior colliculus (SC) is involved in the initiation and execution of forelimb movements. In the present study we investigated the tectofugal, in particular the tecto-reticulo-spinal projections to the shoulder and arm muscles in the rat. We simultaneously retrogradely labeled the premotor neurons in the brainstem by injection of the pseudorabies virus PrV Bartha 614 into the m. rhomboideus minor and m. acromiodeltoideus, and anterogradely visualized the tectofugal projections by intracollicular injection of the tracer FITC dextrane. Our results demonstrate that the connection of the SC to the skeletal muscles of the forelimb is at least trisynaptic. This was confirmed by long survival times after virus injections into the muscles (98–101 h) after which numerous neurons in the deep layers of the SC were labeled. Transsynaptically retrogradely labeled brainstem neurons connected disynaptically to the injected muscles with adjacent tectal terminals were predominantly located in the gigantocellular nuclear complex of the reticular formation. In addition, putative relay neurons were found in the caudal part of the pontine reticular nucleus. Both tectal projections to the nucleus gigantocellularis and the pontine reticular nucleus were bilateral but ipsilaterally biased. We suggest this projection to be involved in more global functions in motivated behavior like general arousal allowing fast voluntary motor activity. PMID:23760726

  16. Separate visual signals for saccade initiation during target selection in the primate superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    White, Brian J; Munoz, Douglas P

    2011-02-01

    The primary function of the superior colliculus (SC) is to orient the visual system toward behaviorally relevant stimuli defined by features such as color. However, a longstanding view has held that visual activity in the SC arises exclusively from achromatic pathways. Recently, we reported evidence that the primate SC is highly sensitive to signals originating from chromatic pathways, but these signals are delayed relative to luminance signals (White et al., 2009). Here, we describe a functional consequence of this difference in visual arrival time on the processes leading to target selection and saccade initiation. Two rhesus monkeys performed a simple color-singleton selection task in which stimuli carried a chromatic component only (target and distractors were isoluminant with the background, but differed in chromaticity) or a combined chromatic-achromatic component (36% luminance contrast added equally to all stimuli). Although visual responses were delayed in the chromatic-only relative to the combined chromatic-achromatic condition, SC neurons discriminated the target from distractors at approximately the same time provided stimulus chromaticity was held constant. However, saccades were triggered sooner, and with more errors, with the chromatic-achromatic condition, suggesting that luminance signals associated with these stimuli increased the probability of triggering a saccade before the target color was adequately discriminated. These results suggest that separate mechanisms may independently influence the saccadic command in the SC, one linked to the arrival time of pertinent visual signals, and another linked to the output of the visual selection process. PMID:21289164

  17. A sodium afterdepolarization in rat superior colliculus neurons and its contribution to population activity.

    PubMed

    Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O; Basso, Michele A; Jackson, Meyer B

    2016-07-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain structure that integrates multimodal sensory inputs and computes commands to initiate rapid eye movements. SC neurons burst with the sudden onset of a visual stimulus, followed by persistent activity that may underlie shifts of attention and decision making. Experiments in vitro suggest that circuit reverberations play a role in the burst activity in the SC, but the origin of persistent activity is unclear. In the present study we characterized an afterdepolarization (ADP) that follows action potentials in slices of rat SC. Population responses seen with voltage-sensitive dye imaging consisted of rapid spikes followed immediately by a second distinct depolarization of lower amplitude and longer duration. Patch-clamp recordings showed qualitatively similar behavior: in nearly all neurons throughout the SC, rapid spikes were followed by an ADP. Ionic and pharmacological manipulations along with experiments with current and voltage steps indicated that the ADP of SC neurons arises from Na(+) current that either persists or resurges following Na(+) channel inactivation at the end of an action potential. Comparisons of pharmacological properties and frequency dependence revealed a clear parallel between patch-clamp recordings and voltage imaging experiments, indicating a common underlying membrane mechanism for the ADP in both single neurons and populations. The ADP can initiate repetitive spiking at intervals consistent with the frequency of persistent activity in the SC. These results indicate that SC neurons have intrinsic membrane properties that can contribute to electrical activity that underlies shifts of attention and decision making. PMID:27075543

  18. A hard-wired priority map in the superior colliculus shaped by asymmetric inhibitory circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Bayguinov, Peter O.; Ghitani, Nima; Jackson, Meyer B.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is a laminar midbrain structure that translates visual signals into commands to shift the focus of attention and gaze. The SC plays an integral role in selecting targets and ultimately generating rapid eye movements to those targets. In all mammals studied to date, neurons in the SC are arranged topographically such that the location of visual stimuli and the endpoints of orienting movements form organized maps in superficial and deeper layers, respectively. The organization of these maps is thought to underlie attentional priority by assessing which regions of the visual field contain behaviorally relevant information. Using voltage imaging and patch-clamp recordings in parasagittal SC slices from the rat, we found the synaptic circuitry of the visuosensory map in the SC imposes a strong bias. Voltage imaging of responses to electrical stimulation revealed more spread in the caudal direction than the rostral direction. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that this asymmetry arises from GABAA receptor activation rostral to the site of stimulation. Patch-clamp recordings confirmed this rostrally directed inhibitory circuit and showed that it is contained within the visuosensory layers of the SC. Stimulation of two sites showed that initial stimulation of a caudal site can take priority over subsequent stimulation of a rostral site. Taken together, our data indicate that the circuitry of the visuosensory SC is hard-wired to give higher priority to more peripheral targets, and this property is conferred by a uniquely structured, dedicated inhibitory circuit. PMID:25995346

  19. Both parents respond equally to infant cues in the cooperatively breeding common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Susana M.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Snowdon, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been great interest in the evolutionary approach to cooperative breeding species, few studies actually directly compare fathers and mothers on their motivation to parent offspring. We tested the responsiveness of common marmoset mothers and fathers to vocal and olfactory cues from their own and other infants using a two-chamber test apparatus designed to evaluate responses in the absence of competition from other caregivers within the family. We tested parentally experienced mothers and fathers living with young infants and former parents with no current offspring to address the following questions: (1) do mothers and fathers respond equally to sensory cues of infants; (2) do parents discriminate cues of their own offspring when the infants are highly dependent and when the infants are more independent; and (3) are parents responsive to both auditory and olfactory cues? Mothers and fathers reacted similarly in all tests. Parents responded equally to isolation calls from their own and unfamiliar dependent infants and there was minimal response to olfactory cues. Responses to infant vocal cues were significantly stronger when infants were dependent upon direct parental care. There was no difference in response between parents whose infants were no longer dependent and former parents with no current offspring. The results show that both parents are highly responsive to infant vocal cues when their own infants are dependent on parental care, supporting an effect of hormonal priming. However, parents only showed behavioural discrimination between vocalizations from their own and unfamiliar infants when their infants were mostly independent. PMID:25342858

  20. Reproductive skew in female common marmosets: what can proximate mechanisms tell us about ultimate causes?

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Digby, Leslie J.; Abbott, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Common marmosets are cooperatively breeding monkeys that exhibit high reproductive skew: most subordinate females fail to reproduce, while others attempt to breed but produce very few surviving infants. An extensive dataset on the mechanisms limiting reproduction in laboratory-housed and free-living subordinate females provides unique insights into the causes of reproductive skew. Non-breeding adult females undergo suppression of ovulation and inhibition of sexual behaviour; however, they receive little or no aggression or mating interference by dominants and do not exhibit behavioural or physiological signs of stress. Breeding subordinate females receive comparable amounts of aggression to non-breeding females but are able to conceive, gestate and lactate normally. In groups containing two breeding females, however, both dominant and subordinate breeders kill one another's infants. These findings suggest that preconception reproductive suppression is not imposed on subordinate females by dominants, at a proximate level, but is instead self-imposed by most subordinates, consistent with restraint models of reproductive skew. In contrast to restraint models, however, this self-suppression probably evolved not in response to the threat of eviction by dominant females but in response to the threat of infanticide. Thus, reproductive skew in this species appears to be generated predominantly by subordinate self-restraint, in a proximate sense, but ultimately by dominant control over subordinates' reproductive attempts. PMID:18945663

  1. Role of the Perigenual Anterior Cingulate and Orbitofrontal Cortex in Contingency Learning in the Marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Stacey A. W.; Horst, Nicole K.; Pears, Andrew; Robbins, Trevor W.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Two learning mechanisms contribute to decision-making: goal-directed actions and the “habit” system, by which action-outcome and stimulus-response associations are formed, respectively. Rodent lesion studies and human neuroimaging have implicated both the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the neural basis of contingency learning, a critical component of goal-directed actions, though some published findings are conflicting. We sought to reconcile the existing literature by comparing the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), a region of the mPFC, and OFC on contingency learning in the marmoset monkey using a touchscreen-based paradigm, in which the contingent relationship between one of a pair of actions and its outcome was degraded selectively. Both the pgACC and OFC lesion groups were insensitive to the contingency degradation, whereas the control group demonstrated selectively higher performance of the nondegraded action when compared with the degraded action. These findings suggest the pgACC and OFC are both necessary for normal contingency learning and therefore goal-directed behavior. PMID:27130662

  2. Physiological and behavioral responses to routine procedures in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    de Menezes Galvão, Ana Cecília; Ferreira, Renata Gonçalves; de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2016-07-01

    The effect of routine captive procedures on the welfare of species used as experimental models in biomedical research is of great interest, since stress may alter the generalization and interpretation of results. This study investigated behavioral and endocrine (fecal cortisol) reactivity patterns in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) adult males (N = 10) and females (N = 9) subjected to three types of routine procedures in captivity: (1) moving to a same-sized cage (P1), to a smaller cage (P2), and (2) first-time pair formation (P3). Sexually dimorphic cortisol responses were detected in animals submitted to a physical environmental stressor (cage change). Females showed an increased response throughout P1, in relation to baseline (BP) cortisol, and a trend during P2. Males increased cortisol only during P2. On the other hand, males and females showed a similar endocrine response when management involved social challenge (pair formation), with both sexes increasing cortisol levels, but females exhibited a more intense and longer-lasting cortisol increase. Males and females exhibited similar behavioral responses to cage change, except for autogrooming, with males decreasing this behavior in P1. Only females demonstrated a significantly higher increase in piloerection frequency than that of males during the pair formation phase. These endocrine and behavioral changes must be taken into account when interpreting research data that involve these types of procedures. Further studies on the impacts of routine colony management are required to devise and include protocols in official husbandry guidelines. PMID:26946459

  3. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

  4. Patterns of cortical input to the primary motor area in the marmoset monkey.

    PubMed

    Burman, Kathleen J; Bakola, Sophia; Richardson, Karyn E; Reser, David H; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2014-03-01

    In primates the primary motor cortex (M1) forms a topographic map of the body, whereby neurons in the medial part of this area control movements involving trunk and hindlimb muscles, those in the intermediate part control movements involving forelimb muscles, and those in the lateral part control movements of facial and other head muscles. This topography is accompanied by changes in cytoarchitectural characteristics, raising the question of whether the anatomical connections also vary between different parts of M1. To address this issue, we compared the patterns of cortical afferents revealed by retrograde tracer injections in different locations within M1 of marmoset monkeys. We found that the entire extent of this area is unified by projections from the dorsocaudal and medial subdivisions of premotor cortex (areas 6DC and 6M), from somatosensory areas 3a, 3b, 1/2, and S2, and from posterior parietal area PE. While cingulate areas projected to all subdivisions, they preferentially targeted the medial part of M1. Conversely, the ventral premotor areas were preferentially connected with the lateral part of M1. Smaller but consistent inputs originated in frontal area 6DR, ventral posterior parietal cortex, the retroinsular cortex, and area TPt. Connections with intraparietal, prefrontal, and temporal areas were very sparse, and variable. Our results demonstrate that M1 is unified by a consistent pattern of major connections, but also shows regional variations in terms of minor inputs. These differences likely reflect requirements for control of voluntary movement involving different body parts. PMID:23939531

  5. Characterization of common marmoset dysgerminoma-like tumor induced by the lentiviral expression of reprogramming factors

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Saori; Marumoto, Tomotoshi; Nii, Takenobu; Kawano, Hirotaka; Liao, Jiyuan; Nagai, Yoko; Okada, Michiyo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Erika; Fujii, Hiroshi; Okano, Shinji; Ebise, Hayao; Sato, Tetsuya; Suyama, Mikita; Okano, Hideyuki; Miura, Yoshie; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2014-01-01

    Recent generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPSCs) has made a significant impact on the field of human regenerative medicine. Prior to the clinical application of iPSCs, testing of their safety and usefulness must be carried out using reliable animal models of various diseases. In order to generate iPSCs from common marmoset (CM; Callithrix jacchus), one of the most useful experimental animals, we have lentivirally transduced reprogramming factors, including POU5F1 (also known as OCT3/4), SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC into CM fibroblasts. The cells formed round colonies expressing embryonic stem cell markers, however, they showed an abnormal karyotype denoted as 46, X, del(4q), +mar, and formed human dysgerminoma-like tumors in SCID mice, indicating that the transduction of reprogramming factors caused unexpected tumorigenesis of CM cells. Moreover, CM dysgerminoma-like tumors were highly sensitive to DNA-damaging agents, irradiation, and fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor, and their growth was dependent on c-MYC expression. These results indicate that DNA-damaging agents, irradiation, fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor, and c-MYC-targeted therapies might represent effective treatment strategies for unexpected tumors in patients receiving iPSC-based therapy. PMID:24521492

  6. Role of the Perigenual Anterior Cingulate and Orbitofrontal Cortex in Contingency Learning in the Marmoset.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Stacey A W; Horst, Nicole K; Pears, Andrew; Robbins, Trevor W; Roberts, Angela C

    2016-07-01

    Two learning mechanisms contribute to decision-making: goal-directed actions and the "habit" system, by which action-outcome and stimulus-response associations are formed, respectively. Rodent lesion studies and human neuroimaging have implicated both the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the neural basis of contingency learning, a critical component of goal-directed actions, though some published findings are conflicting. We sought to reconcile the existing literature by comparing the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), a region of the mPFC, and OFC on contingency learning in the marmoset monkey using a touchscreen-based paradigm, in which the contingent relationship between one of a pair of actions and its outcome was degraded selectively. Both the pgACC and OFC lesion groups were insensitive to the contingency degradation, whereas the control group demonstrated selectively higher performance of the nondegraded action when compared with the degraded action. These findings suggest the pgACC and OFC are both necessary for normal contingency learning and therefore goal-directed behavior. PMID:27130662

  7. Multidirectional Instability Accompanying an Inferior Labral Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Kim, Sung-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Paralabral cyst of the shoulder joint can be observed in 2% to 4% of the general population, particularly in men during the third and fourth decade. On average, these cysts measure 10 mm to 20 mm in diameter and are located preferentially on the postero-superior aspect of the glenoid. The MRI has increased the frequency of the diagnosis of paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint. Paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint usually develop in the proximity of the labrum. The relationship between shoulder instability and labral tears is well known, however, the association of shoulder instability with a paralabral cyst is rare. Shoulder instability may cause labral injury or labral injury may cause shoulder instability, and then injured tear develops paralabral cyst. In our patient, the inferior paralabral cyst may be associated with inferior labral tears and instability MRI. PMID:20514270

  8. A novel technique for inferior rectus recession

    PubMed Central

    Gokyigit, Birsen; Akar, Serpil; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To introduce a novel technique of inferior rectus recession operation to allow larger amounts of recession without causing lower lid retraction and to compare this method with the results obtained in standard inferior rectus recession. Material and methods This study included 20 patients operated on in the authors’ clinic. The median age of the patients was 24.5±18.6 (4–73) years and the median follow-up was 9.3±11.8 (3–43) months. Ten patients operated on with the standard method were labeled Group 1 and ten patients operated on with the new method were labeled Group 2. Without exceeding 4 mm, inferior rectus recession to the whole muscle was performed in Group 1 patients. Inferior rectus recession was also performed on patients in Group 2 following the new method. Using a spatula, approximately 10% of the muscle surface fibers were detached intact as a thin layer, and the remaining 90% of deeper fibers were recessed 4–8 mm as planned. Patients’ preoperative deviations and lower lid positions were recorded. The same parameters were checked in the first and third month postoperatively. Both groups were evaluated retrospectively by screening their files, and the Mann–Whitney U test was used for statistical evaluation. Results Lower lid retraction was seen in four patients of Group 1. There was no retraction in Group 2. While there was a need to perform additional vertical muscle procedures for vertical deviations and lower lid retractions in Group 1, it was observed that there was no need for additional procedures in Group 2 patients. There was a statistically meaningful difference between the two procedures (P<0.05). Conclusion This novel technique was found to be an effective surgical method for permitting more recession without the risk of lower lid retraction. PMID:24492531

  9. Organization of the marmoset cerebellum in three-dimensional space: lobulation, aldolase C compartmentalization and axonal projection.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hirofumi; Oh-Nishi, Arata; Obayashi, Shigeru; Sugihara, Izumi

    2010-05-15

    The cerebellar cortex is organized by transverse foliation and longitudinal compartmentalization. Although the latter, which is recognized through the molecular expression in subsets of Purkinje cells (PCs), is closely related to topographic axonal projection and represents functional divisions, the details have not been fully clarified in mammals other than rodents. Therefore, we examined folial and compartmental organization of the marmoset cerebellum, which resembles the macaque cerebellum, and compared it with that of the rodent cerebellum by aldolase C immunostaining, three-dimensional reconstruction of the PC layer, and labeling of olivocerebellar and corticonuclear projections. Longitudinal stripes of different aldolase C expression intensities separated the entire cerebellar cortex into multiple compartments. Lobule VIIAb-d was equivalent to rodent lobule VIc in that it contained a transverse gap in the cortical layers and served as the rostrocaudal boundary for compartments and axonal branching. Olivocortical and corticonuclear projection patterns in major compartments indicated that the compartmental organization in the marmoset cerebellum was generally equivalent to that in the rodent cerebellum, although two compartments were missing in the pars intermedia and several compartments that have not been seen in rodents were recognized in the flocculus, nodulus, and the most lateral hemisphere. Reconstruction showed that the paraflocculus and flocculus were formed by a single longitudinal sheet, the axis of which was parallel to the aldolase C compartments, PC dendrites, and olivocerebellar climbing fiber distribution. The results indicate that molecular compartmentalization in the marmoset cerebellum reflected both the common fundamental organization of the mammalian cerebellum and species-dependent differentiation. PMID:20235174

  10. Production and perception of sex differences in vocalizations of Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii).

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam S; Birnie, Andrew K; Lane, Kent R; French, Jeffrey A

    2009-04-01

    Males and females from many species produce distinct acoustic variations of functionally identical call types. Social behavior may be primed by sex-specific variation in acoustic features of calls. We present a series of acoustic analyses and playback experiments as methods for investigating this subject. Acoustic parameters of phee calls produced by Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii) were analyzed for sex differences. Discriminant function analyses showed that calls contained sufficient acoustic variation to predict the sex of the caller. Several frequency variables differed significantly between the sexes. Natural and synthesized calls were presented to male-female pairs. Calls elicited differential behavioral responses based on the sex of the caller. Marmosets became significantly more vigilant following the playback of male phee calls (both natural and synthetic) than following female phee calls. In a second playback experiment, synthesized calls were modified by independently manipulating three parameters that were known to differ between the sexes (low-, peak-, and end-frequency). When end-frequency-modified calls were presented, responsiveness was differentiable by sex of caller but did not differ from responses to natural calls. This suggests that marmosets did not use end-frequency to determine the sex of the caller. Manipulation of peak-and low-frequency parameters eliminated the discrete behavioral responses to male and female calls. Together, these parameters may be important features that encode for the sex-specific signal. Recognition of sex by acoustic cues seems to be a multivariate process that depends on the congruency of acoustic features. PMID:19090554

  11. A longitudinal analysis of the effects of age on the blood plasma metabolome in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Tran, ViLinh; Wachtman, Lynn M; Green, Cara L; Jones, Dean P; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2016-04-01

    Primates tend to be long-lived for their size with humans being the longest lived of all primates. There are compelling reasons to understand the underlying age-related processes that shape human lifespan. But the very fact of our long lifespan that makes it so compelling, also makes it especially difficult to study. Thus, in studies of aging, researchers have turned to non-human primate models, including chimpanzees, baboons, and rhesus macaques. More recently, the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, has been recognized as a particularly valuable model in studies of aging, given its small size, ease of housing in captivity, and relatively short lifespan. However, little is known about the physiological changes that occur as marmosets age. To begin to fill in this gap, we utilized high sensitivity metabolomics to define the longitudinal biochemical changes associated with age in the common marmoset. We measured 2104 metabolites from blood plasma at three separate time points over a 17-month period, and we completed both a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the metabolome. We discovered hundreds of metabolites associated with age and body weight in both male and female animals. Our longitudinal analysis identified age-associated metabolic pathways that were not found in our cross-sectional analysis. Pathways enriched for age-associated metabolites included tryptophan, nucleotide, and xenobiotic metabolism, suggesting these biochemical pathways might play an important role in the basic mechanisms of aging in primates. Moreover, we found that many metabolic pathways associated with age were sex specific. Our work illustrates the power of longitudinal approaches, even in a short time frame, to discover novel biochemical changes that occur with age. PMID:26805607

  12. Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão, Ana Cecília de Menezes; Sales, Carla Jéssica Rodrigues; de Castro, Dijenaide Chaves; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species. PMID:26648876

  13. Value of a bipolar modified inferior lead in detection of inferior myocardial ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, C M; Rasmussen, V

    1988-01-01

    Only bipolar leads are normally available for ambulatory monitoring. Bipolar precordial leads are reliable for detecting left coronary artery insufficiency, but may not detect changes caused by right coronary artery insufficiency. The magnitude and polarity of ST segment changes in a bipolar modified inferior lead and in CM5 were compared with those in standard electrocardiographic leads in 10 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (eight inferior and two anteroseptal). The polarity of the ST segment in the modified orthogonal y lead was the same as that in aVF in all eight patients with inferior myocardial infarction and in six the size of the ST segment shift was identical in the two leads as well. In two patients the ST segment shift was larger in the modified orthogonal y lead than in aVF. In one of the two patients with anteroseptal myocardial infarction the polarity of the ST segment shift was the same in the modified orthogonal y lead and aVF. In the other patient it was slightly different. The CM5 lead did not reliably detect inferior myocardial ischaemia. A modified orthogonal y lead is suitable for the detection of inferior myocardial ischaemia. PMID:3190957

  14. The superior colliculus is sensitive to gestalt-like stimulus configuration in hemispherectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Georgy, Loraine; Celeghin, Alessia; Marzi, Carlo A; Tamietto, Marco; Ptito, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Patients with cortical blindness following a lesion to the primary visual cortex (V1) may retain nonconscious visual abilities (blindsight). One intriguing, though largely unexplored question, is whether nonconscious vision in the blind hemifield of hemianopic patients can be sensitive to higher-order perceptual organization, and which V1-independent structure underlies such effect. To answer this question, we tested two rare hemianopic patients who had undergone hemispherectomy, and in whom the only post-chiasmatic visual structure left intact in the same side of the otherwise damaged hemisphere was the superior colliculus (SC). By using a variant of the redundant target effect (RTE), we presented single dots, patterns composed by the same dots organized in quadruple gestalt-like configurations, or patterns of four dots arranged in random configurations, either singly to the intact visual hemifield or bilaterally to both hemifields. As reported in a number of prior studies on blindsight patients, we found that bilateral stimulation yielded faster reaction times (RTs) than single stimulation of the intact field for all conditions (i.e., there was an implicit RTE). In addition to this effect, both patients showed a further speeding up of RTs when the gestalt-like, but not the random shape, quadruple patterns were projected to their blind hemifield during bilateral stimulation. Because other retino-recipient subcortical and cortical structures in the damaged hemisphere are absent, the SC on the lesioned side seems solely responsible for such an effect. The present results provide initial support to the notion that nonconscious vision might be sensitive to perceptual organization and stimulus configuration through the pivotal contribution of the SC, which can enhance the processing of gestalt-like or structured stimuli over meaningless or randomly assembled ones and translate them into facilitatory motor outputs. PMID:27208816

  15. The morphology of optic tract axons arborizing in the superior colliculus of the hamster.

    PubMed

    Sachs, G M; Schneider, G E

    1984-12-01

    Single axons innervating the superficial layers of the hamster's superior colliculus (SC) were visualized using an HRP-filling technique. Five types of axons were distinguished. Experiments involving the removal of retinal and/or cortical input showed that three of these axon types originated in the contralateral retina with the fourth type most likely originating in the visual cortex. The origin of the fifth type, a widely branched varicose axon, is apparently subcortical. The two major types of presumed retinotectal axons (types U and L1) project to the stratum griseum superficiale (SGS) in a bilaminar pattern. Type U axons take relatively direct paths from the layer of optic fibers to form dense terminal arbors in the upper half of the SGS. Terminal fields for type U fibers showed fairly consistent dimensions. Their rostrocaudal extent ranged from 90 micron to 190 micron, averaging about 120 micron. Type L1 axons were thicker than type U axons and terminated in deeper regions of the SGS and in the stratum opticum (SO). Single axons of this type often gave rise to multiple branches which took separate, circuitous paths to a common terminal field. Terminal fields for type L1 axons varied more in extent than did type U fields, but 58% of them had fields 90-150 micron in extent. Each of the axon types found can be related to previous studies of populations of tectal afferents. The two major types of retinofugal axons fit a scheme of parallel ascending pathways. The findings also have interesting implications for the study of axonal development. PMID:6512015

  16. Immunocytochemical Localization of Calbindin D28K, Calretinin, and Parvalbumin in Bat Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Won-Sig; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the localization of cells containing the calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) calbindin D28K (CB), calretinin (CR), and parvalbumin (PV) in the superior colliculus (SC) of the bat using immunocytochemistry. CB-immunoreactive (IR) cells formed a laminar tier within the upper superficial gray layer (SGL), while CR-IR cells were widely distributed within the optic layer (OL). Scattered CR-IR cells were also found within the intermediate gray, white, and deep gray layers. By contrast, PV-IR cells formed a laminar tier within the lower SGL and upper OL. Scattered PV-IR cells were also found throughout the intermediate layers, but without a specific laminar pattern. The CBP-IR cells varied in size and morphology: While most of the CB-IR cells in the superficial layers were small round or oval cells, most CR-IR cells in the intermediate and deep layers were large stellate cells. By contrast, PV-IR cells were small to large in size and included round or oval, stellate, vertical fusiform, and horizontal cells. The average diameters of the CB-, CR-, and PV-IR cells were 11.59, 17.17, and 12.60 μm, respectively. Double-immunofluorescence revealed that the percentage of co-localization with GABA-IR cells was 0.0, 0.0, and 10.27% of CB-, CR-, and PV-IR cells, respectively. These results indicate that CBP distribution patterns in the bat SC are unique compared with other mammalian SCs, which suggest functional diversity of these proteins in visually guided behaviors. PMID:25320408

  17. An animal model of disengagement: Temporary inactivation of the superior colliculus impairs attention disengagement in rats.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Mariana Ferreira Pereira; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-10-15

    The orienting attention network is responsible for prioritizing sensory input through overt or covert shifts of attention among targets. The ability to disengage attention is essential for the proper functioning of this network. In addition to its importance for proper orienting, deficits in disengagement have been recently implicated in autism disorders. Despite its importance, the neural mechanisms underlying disengagement processing are still poorly understood. In this study, the involvement of the superior colliculus (SC) in disengagement was investigated in unrestrained rats that had been trained in a two-alternative light-guided spatial choice task. At each trial, the rats had to choose one of two paths, leading either to a large or a small reward, based on 1 (single-cue) or 2 (double-cue) lights. The task consisted of serial trials with single- and/or double-cue lights, and rats could acquire a large reward if the rats chose infrequent lights when infrequent cue lights were presented after preceding frequent cue lights. Experiment 1 included trials with either single- or double-cue lights, and infrequent trials with double-cue lights required both attentional disengagement and shift of attention from preceding frequent single-cue lights, while experiment 2 included only trials with single-cue lights requiring shifts of attention but not attentional disengagement. The results indicated that temporary inactivation of the SC by muscimol injections selectively impaired performance on trials requiring disengagement. No impairment was observed on the other trials, in which attention disengagement was not required. The results provide the first evidence that the SC is necessary for attentional disengagement. PMID:26196954

  18. NMDA Antagonists in the Superior Colliculus Prevent Developmental Plasticity But Not Visual Transmission or Map Compression

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, L.; PALLAS, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Partial ablation of the superior colliculus (SC) at birth in hamsters compresses the retinocollicular map, increasing the amount of visual field represented at each SC location. Receptive field sizes of single SC neurons are maintained, however, preserving receptive field properties in the prelesion condition. The mechanism that allows single SC neurons to restrict the number of convergent retinal inputs and thus compensate for induced brain damage is unknown. In this study, we examined the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in controlling retinocollicular convergence. We found that chronic 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) blockade of NMDA receptors from birth in normal hamsters resulted in enlarged single-unit receptive fields in SC neurons from normal maps and further enlargement in lesioned animals with compressed maps. The effect was linearly related to lesion size. These results suggest that NMDA receptors are necessary to control afferent/target convergence in the normal SC and to compensate for excess retinal afferents in lesioned animals. Despite the alteration in receptive field size in the APV-treated animals, a complete visual map was present in both normal and lesioned hamsters. Visual responsiveness in the treated SC was normal; thus the loss of compensatory plasticity was not due to reduced visual responsiveness. Our results argue that NMDA receptors are essential for map refinement, construction of receptive fields, and compensation for damage but not overall map compression. The results are consistent with a role for the NMDA receptor as a coincidence detector with a threshold, providing visual neurons with the ability to calculate the amount of visual space represented by competing retinal inputs through the absolute amount of coincidence in their firing patterns. This mechanism of population matching is likely to be of general importance during nervous system development. PMID:11535668

  19. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes involved in facilitation of GABAergic inhibition in mouse superficial superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiaki; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Isa, Tadashi

    2005-12-01

    The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) is a key station in the sensory processing related to visual salience. The sSC receives cholinergic projections from the parabigeminal nucleus, and previous studies have revealed the presence of several different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the sSC. In this study, to clarify the role of the cholinergic inputs to the sSC, we examined current responses induced by ACh in GABAergic and non-GABAergic sSC neurons using in vitro slice preparations obtained from glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice in which GFP is specifically expressed in GABAergic neurons. Brief air pressure application of acetylcholine (ACh) elicited nicotinic inward current responses in both GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons. The inward current responses in the GABAergic neurons were highly sensitive to a selective antagonist for alpha3beta2- and alpha6beta2-containing receptors, alpha-conotoxin MII (alphaCtxMII). A subset of these neurons exhibited a faster alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive inward current component, indicating the expression of alpha7-containing nAChRs. We also found that the activation of presynaptic nAChRs induced release of GABA, which elicited a burst of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents mediated by GABA(A) receptors in non-GABAergic neurons. This ACh-induced GABA release was mediated mainly by alphaCtxMII-sensitive nAChRs and resulted from the activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels. Morphological analysis revealed that recorded GFP-positive neurons are interneurons and GFP-negative neurons include projection neurons. These findings suggest that nAChRs are involved in the regulation of GABAergic inhibition and modulate visual processing in the sSC. PMID:16107532

  20. Molecular features distinguish ten neuronal types in the mouse superficial superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Byun, Haewon; Kwon, Soohyun; Ahn, Hee-Jeong; Liu, Hong; Forrest, Douglas; Demb, Jonathan B; Kim, In-Jung

    2016-08-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain center involved in controlling head and eye movements in response to inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Visual inputs arise from both the retina and visual cortex and converge onto the superficial layer of the SC (sSC). Neurons in the sSC send information to deeper layers of the SC and to thalamic nuclei that modulate visually guided behaviors. Presently, our understanding of sSC neurons is impeded by a lack of molecular markers that define specific cell types. To better understand the identity and organization of sSC neurons, we took a systematic approach to investigate gene expression within four molecular families: transcription factors, cell adhesion molecules, neuropeptides, and calcium binding proteins. Our analysis revealed 12 molecules with distinct expression patterns in mouse sSC: cadherin 7, contactin 3, netrin G2, cadherin 6, protocadherin 20, retinoid-related orphan receptor β, brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3b, Ets variant gene 1, substance P, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and parvalbumin. Double labeling experiments, by either in situ hybridization or immunostaining, demonstrated that the 12 molecular markers collectively define 10 different sSC neuronal types. The characteristic positions of these cell types divide the sSC into four distinct layers. The 12 markers identified here will serve as valuable tools to examine molecular mechanisms that regulate development of sSC neuronal types. These markers could also be used to examine the connections between specific cell types that form retinocollicular, corticocollicular, or colliculothalamic pathways. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2300-2321, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26713509

  1. Development of cortical influences on superior colliculus multisensory neurons: Effects of dark-rearing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liping; Xu, Jinghong; Rowland, Benjamin A.; Stein, Barry E.

    2013-01-01

    Rearing cats from birth to adulthood in darkness prevents neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) from developing the capability to integrate visual and non-visual (e.g., visual-auditory) inputs. Presumably, this developmental anomaly is due to a lack of experience with the combination of those cues, which is essential to form associative links between them. The visual-auditory multisensory integration capacity of SC neurons has also been shown to depend on the functional integrity of converging visual and auditory inputs from ipsilateral association cortex. Disrupting these cortico-collicular projections at any stage of life results in a pattern of outcomes similar to those found after dark-rearing: SC neurons respond to stimuli in both sensory modalities, but cannot integrate the information they provide. Thus, it is possible that dark-rearing compromises the development of these descending tectopetal connections and the essential influences they convey. However, the results of the present experiments, using cortical deactivation to assess the presence of cortico-collicular influences, demonstrate that dark-rearing does not prevent association cortex from developing robust influences over SC multisensory responses. In fact, dark-rearing may increase their potency over that observed in normally-reared animals. Nevertheless, their influences are still insufficient to support SC multisensory integration. It appears that cross-modal experience shapes the cortical influence to selectively enhance responses to cross-modal stimulus combinations that are likely to be derived from the same event. In the absence of this experience, the cortex develops an indiscriminate excitatory influence over its multisensory SC target neurons. PMID:23534923

  2. Shared and distinct retinal input to the mouse superior colliculus and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erika M; Gauvain, Gregory; Sivyer, Benjamin; Murphy, Gabe J

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian retina conveys the vast majority of information about visual stimuli to two brain regions: the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the superior colliculus (SC). The degree to which retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send similar or distinct information to the two areas remains unclear despite the important constraints that different patterns of RGC input place on downstream visual processing. To resolve this ambiguity, we injected a glycoprotein-deficient rabies virus coding for the expression of a fluorescent protein into the dLGN or SC; rabies virus labeled a smaller fraction of RGCs than lipophilic dyes such as DiI but, crucially, did not label RGC axons of passage. Approximately 80% of the RGCs infected by rabies virus injected into the dLGN were colabeled with DiI injected into the SC, suggesting that many dLGN-projecting RGCs also project to the SC. However, functional characterization of RGCs revealed that the SC receives input from several classes of RGCs that largely avoid the dLGN, in particular RGCs in which 1) sustained changes in light intensity elicit transient changes in firing rate and/or 2) a small range of stimulus sizes or temporal fluctuations in light intensity elicit robust activity. Taken together, our results illustrate several unexpected asymmetries in the information that the mouse retina conveys to two major downstream targets and suggest that differences in the output of dLGN and SC neurons reflect, at least in part, differences in the functional properties of RGCs that innervate the SC but not the dLGN. PMID:27169509

  3. Defense-like behaviors evoked by pharmacological disinhibition of the superior colliculus in the primate

    PubMed Central

    DesJardin, Jacqueline T.; Holmes, Angela L.; Forcelli, Patrick A.; Cole, Claire E.; Gale, John T.; Wellman, Laurie L.; Gale, Karen; Malkova, Ludise

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of the intermediate and deep layers of superior colliculus (DLSC) in rodents evokes both tracking/pursuit (approach) and avoidance/flight (defensive) responses (Dean et al., 1989). These two classes of response are subserved by distinct output projections associated with lateral (approach) and medial (defensive) DLSC (Comoli et al., 2012). In nonhuman primates, DLSC has been examined only with respect to orienting/approach behaviors, especially eye movements, however, defense-like behaviors have not been reported. Here we examined the profile of behavioral responses to the activation of DLSC by unilateral intracerebral infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (BIC), in nine freely moving macaques. Across animals, the most consistently evoked behavior was cowering (all animals), followed by increased vocalization and escape-like behaviors (seven animals), and attack of objects (three animals). The effects of BIC were dose-dependent within the range 2.5-14nmol (threshold dose of 4.6nmol). The behaviors and their latency to onset did not vary across different infusion sites within DLSC. Cowering and escape-like behaviors resembled the defense-like responses reported after DLSC stimulation in rats, but in the macaques these responses were evoked from both medial and lateral sites within DLSC. Our findings are unexpected in the context of an earlier theoretical perspective (Dean et al., 1989) that emphasized a preferential role of the primate DLSC for approach rather than defensive responses. Our data provide the first evidence for induction of defense-like behaviors by activation of DLSC in monkeys, suggesting that the role of DLSC in responding to threats is conserved across species. PMID:23283329

  4. Neuronal correlates of attention and its disengagement in the superior colliculus of rat

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, Nguyen H.; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Takamura, Yusaku; Tran, Anh H.; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Orienting attention to a new target requires prior disengagement of attention from the current focus. Previous studies indicate that the superior colliculus (SC) plays an important role in attention. However, recordings of responses of SC neurons during attentional disengagement have not yet been reported. Here, we analyzed rat SC neuronal activity during performance of an attention-shift task with and without disengagement. In this task, conditioned stimuli (CSs; right and/or left light-flash or sound) were sequentially presented. To obtain an intracranial self-stimulation reward, rats were required to lick a spout when an infrequent conditioned stimulus appeared (reward trials). In the disengagement reward trials, configural stimuli consisting of an infrequent stimulus and frequent stimulus in the former trials were presented; in the non-disengagement reward trials, only an infrequent stimulus was presented. Of the 186 SC neurons responding to the CSs, 41 showed stronger responses to the CSs in the disengagement reward trials than in the non-disengagement reward trials (disengagement-related neurons). Furthermore, lick latencies in the disengagement reward trials were negatively correlated with response magnitudes to the CSs in half of the disengagement-related neurons. These disengagement-related neurons were located mainly in the deep layers of the SC. Another 70 SC neurons responded to the CSs in both disengagement and non-disengagement reward trials, suggesting that these neurons were involved in attention engagement. Our results suggest complementary mechanisms of attentional shift based on two subpopulations of neurons in the SC. PMID:25741252

  5. Neuronal responses to face-like and facial stimuli in the monkey superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Nui; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Hori, Etsuro; Maior, Rafael Souto; Tomaz, Carlos; Tran, Anh H.; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    The superficial layers of the superior colliculus (sSC) appear to function as a subcortical visual pathway that bypasses the striate cortex for the rapid processing of coarse facial information. We investigated the responses of neurons in the monkey sSC during a delayed non-matching-to-sample (DNMS) task in which monkeys were required to discriminate among five categories of visual stimuli [photos of faces with different gaze directions, line drawings of faces, face-like patterns (three dark blobs on a bright oval), eye-like patterns, and simple geometric patterns]. Of the 605 sSC neurons recorded, 216 neurons responded to the visual stimuli. Among the stimuli, face-like patterns elicited responses with the shortest latencies. Low-pass filtering of the images did not influence the responses. However, scrambling of the images increased the responses in the late phase, and this was consistent with a feedback influence from upstream areas. A multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of the population data indicated that the sSC neurons could separately encode face-like patterns during the first 25-ms period after stimulus onset, and stimulus categorization developed in the next three 25-ms periods. The amount of stimulus information conveyed by the sSC neurons and the number of stimulus-differentiating neurons were consistently higher during the 2nd to 4th 25-ms periods than during the first 25-ms period. These results suggested that population activity of the sSC neurons preferentially filtered face-like patterns with short latencies to allow for the rapid processing of coarse facial information and developed categorization of the stimuli in later phases through feedback from upstream areas. PMID:24672448

  6. Three-dimensional eye-head coordination is implemented downstream from the superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Klier, Eliana M; Wang, Hongying; Crawford, J Douglas

    2003-05-01

    How the brain transforms two-dimensional visual signals into multi-dimensional motor commands, and subsequently how it constrains the redundant degrees of freedom, are fundamental problems in sensorimotor control. During fixations between gaze shifts, the redundant torsional degree of freedom is determined by various neural constraints. For example, the eye- and head-in-space are constrained by Donders' law, whereas the eye-in-head obeys Listing's law. However, where and how the brain implements these laws is not yet known. In this study, we show that eye and head movements, elicited by unilateral microstimulations of the superior colliculus (SC) in head-free monkeys, obey the same Donders' strategies observed in normal behavior (i.e., Listing's law for final eye positions and the Fick strategy for the head). Moreover, these evoked movements showed a pattern of three-dimensional eye-head coordination, consistent with normal behavior, where the eye is driven purposely out of Listing's plane during the saccade portion of the gaze shift in opposition to a subsequent torsional vestibuloocular reflex slow phase, such that the final net torsion at the end of each head-free gaze shift is zero. The required amount of saccade-related torsion was highly variable, depending on the initial position of the eye and head prior to a gaze shift and the size of the gaze shift, pointing to a neural basis of torsional control. Because these variable, context-appropriate torsional saccades were correctly elicited by fixed SC commands during head-free stimulations, this shows that the SC only encodes the horizontal and vertical components of gaze, leaving the complexity of torsional organization to downstream control systems. Thus we conclude that Listing's and Donders' laws of the eyes and head, and their three-dimensional coordination mechanisms, must be implemented after the SC. PMID:12740415

  7. Sharper, Stronger, Faster Upper Visual Field Representation in Primate Superior Colliculus.

    PubMed

    Hafed, Ziad M; Chen, Chih-Yang

    2016-07-11

    Visually guided behavior in three-dimensional environments entails handling immensely different sensory and motor conditions across retinotopic visual field locations: peri-personal ("near") space is predominantly viewed through the lower retinotopic visual field (LVF), whereas extra-personal ("far") space encompasses the upper visual field (UVF). Thus, when, say, driving a car, orienting toward the instrument cluster below eye level is different from scanning an upcoming intersection, even with similarly sized eye movements. However, an overwhelming assumption about visuomotor circuits for eye-movement exploration, like those in the primate superior colliculus (SC), is that they represent visual space in a purely symmetric fashion across the horizontal meridian. Motivated by ecological constraints on visual exploration of far space, containing small UVF retinal-image features, here we found a large, multi-faceted difference in the SC's representation of the UVF versus LVF. Receptive fields are smaller, more finely tuned to image spatial structure, and more sensitive to image contrast for neurons representing the UVF. Stronger UVF responses also occur faster. Analysis of putative synaptic activity revealed a particularly categorical change when the horizontal meridian is crossed, and our observations correctly predicted novel eye-movement effects. Despite its appearance as a continuous layered sheet of neural tissue, the SC contains functional discontinuities between UVF and LVF representations, paralleling a physical discontinuity present in cortical visual areas. Our results motivate the recasting of structure-function relationships in the visual system from an ecological perspective, and also exemplify strong coherence between brain-circuit organization for visually guided exploration and the nature of the three-dimensional environment in which we function. PMID:27291052

  8. Shared and distinct retinal input to the mouse superior colliculus and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Erika M.; Gauvain, Gregory; Sivyer, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian retina conveys the vast majority of information about visual stimuli to two brain regions: the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the superior colliculus (SC). The degree to which retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send similar or distinct information to the two areas remains unclear despite the important constraints that different patterns of RGC input place on downstream visual processing. To resolve this ambiguity, we injected a glycoprotein-deficient rabies virus coding for the expression of a fluorescent protein into the dLGN or SC; rabies virus labeled a smaller fraction of RGCs than lipophilic dyes such as DiI but, crucially, did not label RGC axons of passage. Approximately 80% of the RGCs infected by rabies virus injected into the dLGN were colabeled with DiI injected into the SC, suggesting that many dLGN-projecting RGCs also project to the SC. However, functional characterization of RGCs revealed that the SC receives input from several classes of RGCs that largely avoid the dLGN, in particular RGCs in which 1) sustained changes in light intensity elicit transient changes in firing rate and/or 2) a small range of stimulus sizes or temporal fluctuations in light intensity elicit robust activity. Taken together, our results illustrate several unexpected asymmetries in the information that the mouse retina conveys to two major downstream targets and suggest that differences in the output of dLGN and SC neurons reflect, at least in part, differences in the functional properties of RGCs that innervate the SC but not the dLGN. PMID:27169509

  9. Whisker motor cortex reorganization after superior colliculus output suppression in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Carlo; Maggiolini, Emma; Franchi, Gianfranco

    2013-10-01

    The effect of unilateral superior colliculus (SC) output suppression on the ipsilateral whisker motor cortex (WMC) was studied at different time points after tetrodotoxin and quinolinic acid injections, in adult rats. The WMC output was assessed by mapping the movement evoked by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and by recording the ICMS-evoked electromyographic (EMG) responses from contralateral whisker muscles. At 1 h after SC injections, the WMC showed: (i) a strong decrease in contralateral whisker sites, (ii) a strong increase in ipsilateral whisker sites and in ineffective sites, and (iii) a strong increase in threshold current values. At 6 h after injections, the WMC size had shrunk to 60% of the control value and forelimb representation had expanded into the lateral part of the normal WMC. Thereafter, the size of the WMC recovered, returning to nearly normal 12 h later (94% of control) and persisted unchanged over time (1-3 weeks). The ICMS-evoked EMG response area decreased at 1 h after SC lesion and had recovered its baseline value 12 h later. Conversely, the latency of ICMS-evoked EMG responses had increased by 1 h and continued to increase for as long as 3 weeks following the lesion. These findings provide physiological evidence that SC output suppression persistently withdrew the direct excitatory drive from whisker motoneurons and induced changes in the WMC. We suggest that the changes in the WMC are a form of reversible short-term reorganization that is induced by SC lesion. The persistent latency increase in the ICMS-evoked EMG response suggested that the recovery of basic WMC excitability did not take place with the recovery of normal explorative behaviour. PMID:23895333

  10. [EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION BETWEEN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS AND SUPERIOR COLLICULUS NEURONS IN COCULTURE].

    PubMed

    Dumanska, G V; Rikhalsky, O V; Veselovsky, N S

    2015-01-01

    In this study we conducted a series of experiments to characterize the effect and define the mechanisms of hypoxia on synaptic transmission between retinal ganglion cells and superior colliculus (SC) neurons. Application of hypoxic solution leads to a long lasting potentiation (LTP) NMDA-mediated synaptic transmission. Analysis of the oxygen deficiency effect on the spontaneous and miniature postsynaptic currents (sPSC and mPSC respectively) revealed an increase in the frequency of their occurrence and the appearance of the second peak in the mPSC histogram distribution. The assessment of quantum and binomial parameters reflects the complex pre- and postsynaptic changes during the potentiation, independent of the release probability. Most likely this LTP can be caused by an increase in the total number of active synapses. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission mediated by non-NMDA activation receptor-channel complexes, responded to application of deoxygenated solution by the brief depression, which is the result of presynaptic dysfunction and associates with decrease in release probability and number of active zones. GABAergic synaptic transmission mediated by activation GABA(A)-receptor-channel complexes, responded to hypoxic action by long term depression (LTD). Analysis of sPSC and mPSC showed a significant decrease in the frequency of their occurrence and significant (P = 0.05) decrease in the quantum over a period of oxygen deficiency. In general, the effect of hypoxia-induced LTD of GABAergic synaptic transmission is based on complex changes of presynaptic (independent on the release probability) and postsynaptic (reduction sensitivity of receptors in postsynaptic membrane) mechanisms. PMID:27025053

  11. [Experimental subendocardial postero-inferior infarctions].

    PubMed

    Medrano, G A; de Micheli, A

    1990-01-01

    In 30 mongrel dog hearts, epicardial and thoracic unipolar records were obtained after myocardial damage was produced by infiltration of 96% alcohol in the postero-inferior free left ventricular wall. Necrosis was transmural in 5 cases, subendocardial in 11 and intramural in 10. In 4 dogs, intramural unipolar and bipolar leads were recorded in order to determine the electrical subendocardium and its relation to potentials of Purkinje's fibres. At the end of each experiment, left posterior subdivision block (LPSB) was provoked. In 90% of the cases, direct epicardial records were QS in transmural infarction, qrS or less frequently QRS in subendocardial ones, and rS or qRS in the presence of intramural necrosis. In several cases myocardial necrosis was located in the middle third instead of the inferior third, but the direct registries were similar. Nevertheless the surface leads (II, III and aVF) did not show abnormal Q waves or greater voltage of Q and S, but there were RS complexes in V1 and V2. In 80% of the cases, transmural necrosis of inferior third was manifested by QS complexes and subendocardial necrosis by rS or qRS complexes with increased Q and S waves and reduced R waves. LPSB masked the signs of necrosis. There is no justification for speaking of myocardial infarction with or without abnormal Q waves, because it does not add more precision. Moreover these expressions can create confusion in cases of middle or high posterior myocardial necrosis, revealed by RS complexes in V1 and V2. PMID:2268169

  12. Proteome profiling reveals regional protein alteration in cerebrum of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) exposed to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yueting; Yamamoto, Megumi; Figeys, Daniel; Ning, Zhibin; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-03-10

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to selectively damage the calcarine and precentral cortices along deep sulci and fissures in adult cases, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to identify and analyze the differential proteome expression in two regions of the cerebrum (the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe including the calcarine sulcus) of the common marmoset exposed to MeHg using a shot-gun proteomic approach. A total of 1045 and 1062 proteins were identified in the frontal lobe (FL) and occipital lobe (OL), of which, 62 and 89 proteins were found significantly changed with MeHg exposure. Functional enrichment/depletion analysis showed that the lipid metabolic process and proteolysis were affected in both two lobes. Functional changes in FL were characterized in cell cycle and cell division, sulfur compound metabolic process, microtubule-based process and glycerolipid metabolic process. In comparison, proteins were enriched in the functions of transport, carbohydrate metabolic process, chemical caused homeostasis and regulation of body fluid levels in OL. Pathway analysis predicted that vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption was disturbed in MeHg-treated FL. Our results showed that MeHg induced regional specific protein changes in FL and OL but with similar endpoint effects such as energy diminish and disruption of water transport. APOE and GPX1 were shown to be possible key proteins targeted by MeHg leading to multiple functional changes in OL. This is the first report of the whole proteome changes of primate cerebrum for MeHg neurotoxicity, and the results will contribute to the understanding of molecular basis of MeHg intoxication in humans. PMID:27012723

  13. Continuous delivery of ropinirole reverses motor deficits without dyskinesia induction in MPTP-treated common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, K A; Virley, D J; Perren, M; Iravani, M M; Jackson, M J; Rose, S; Jenner, P

    2008-05-01

    L-DOPA treatment of Parkinson's disease induces a high incidence of motor complications, notably dyskinesia. Longer acting dopamine agonists, e.g. ropinirole, are thought to produce more continuous dopaminergic stimulation and less severe dyskinesia. However, standard oral administration of dopamine agonists does not result in constant plasma drug levels, therefore, more continuous drug delivery may result in both prolonged reversal of motor deficits and reduced levels of dyskinesia. Therefore, we compared the effects of repeated oral administration of ropinirole to constant subcutaneous infusion in MPTP-treated common marmosets. Animals received oral administration (0.4 mg/kg, BID) or continuous infusion of ropinirole (0.8 mg/kg/day) via osmotic minipumps for 14 days (Phase I). The treatments were then switched and continued for a further 14 days (Phase II). In Phase I, locomotor activity was similar between treatment groups but reversal of motor disability was more pronounced in animals receiving continuous infusion. Dyskinesia intensity was low in both groups however there was a trend suggestive of less marked dyskinesia in those animals receiving continuous infusion. In Phase II, increased locomotor activity was maintained but animals switched from oral to continuous treatment showing an initial period of enhanced locomotor activity. The reversal of motor disability was maintained in both groups, however, motor disability tended towards greater improvement following continuous infusion. Importantly, dyskinesia remained low in both groups suggesting that constant delivery of ropinirole neither leads to priming nor expression of dyskinesia. These results suggest that a once-daily controlled-release formulation may provide improvements over existing benefits with standard oral ropinirole in Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:18321484

  14. Effects of acute stress on the patterns of LH secretion in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, K T; Lunn, S F; Dixson, A F

    1988-08-01

    Stressful stimuli associated with aggressive encounters and low social rank may affect female fertility in a variety of mammalian species. In these experiments we examined the effects of aggressive encounters and physical restraint in a primate chair on the patterns of LH secretion in ovariectomized, oestrogen-primed female marmosets. Receipt of aggression from a female conspecific, followed by physical restraint for collection of blood samples (at 10-min intervals for 4 h), resulted in marked declines in LH concentrations during oestradiol-induced LH surges in five animals (from 112 +/- 24 micrograms/l to 45 +/- 12 micrograms/l; group means +/- S.E.M.; P less than 0.05). This was due to reductions in LH pulse amplitude rather than to changes in pulse frequency. Decreases in plasma concentrations of LH were reversed by treating females with exogenous LH-releasing hormone (LHRH). Cortisol treatment had no effect on LH levels during oestrogen-induced LH surges. Effects of aggressive encounters and physical restraint on plasma LH were not therefore due to reduced pituitary responsiveness to LHRH or to increased plasma concentrations of cortisol. In separate experiments it was found that physical restraint alone had no effect on plasma LH in habituated subjects, and that decreases in plasma LH after receipt of aggression only occurred if animals were subsequently placed in the restraint chair. A summation of stressful effects is therefore required to produce the fall in circulating LH. A summation of social and other environmental stressors may also underlie the reduced fertility seen in free-living animals. PMID:3139816

  15. Advantages and Risks of Husbandry and Housing Changes to Improve Animal Wellbeing in a Breeding Colony of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Jaco; Ouwerling, Boudewijn; Heidt, Peter J; Kondova, Ivanela; Langermans, Jan AM

    2015-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2014, housing conditions for laboratory-housed marmosets changed dramatically after the introduction of new guidelines designed to improve their care and wellbeing. According to these guidelines, our facility provided marmosets with outside enclosures, switched to deep litter as bedding material, and discontinued the use of disinfectant agents in animal enclosures. However, both deep litter and access to outside enclosures hypothetically increase the risk of potential exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. We evaluated whether these housing and husbandry modifications constituted an increased veterinary risk for laboratory-housed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). After the animals had been exposed to these new housing conditions for 2.5 y, we examined their intestinal bacterial flora and feces, the deep litter, and insects present in the housing. In addition, we assessed the marmosets’ general health and the effect of outdoor housing on, for example, vitamin D levels. Although numerous bacterial strains—from nonpathogenic to potentially pathogenic—were cultured, we noted no increase in illness, mortality, or breeding problems related to this environmental microflora. Housing laboratory marmosets in large enriched cages, with both indoor and outdoor enclosures, providing them with deep litter, and eliminating the use of disinfectants present an increased veterinary risk. However, after evaluating all of the collected data, we estimate that the veterinary risk of the new housing conditions is minimal to none in terms of clinical disease, disease outbreaks, abnormal behavior, and negative effects on reproduction. PMID:26045452

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetics and subacute toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in rats and marmosets: extrapolation of effects in rodents to man

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, C.; Orton, T.C.; Pratt, I.S.; Batten, P.L.; Bratt, H.; Jackson, S.J.; Elcombe, C.R.

    1986-03-01

    Certain phthalate esters and hypolipidemic agents are known to induce morphological and biochemical changes in the liver of rodents, which have been associated with an increased incidence of hepatocellular tumors in these species. There is evidence that hypolipidemic agents do not induce these effects in either subhuman primates or man. The oral and intraperitoneal administration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) to the marmoset monkey at doses up to 5 mmole DEHP/kg body weight/day for 14 days did not induce morphological or biochemical changes in the liver or testis comparable with those obtained in rats given the same amount of DEHP. In the marmoset, the excretion profile of (/sup 14/C)-DEHP following oral, IP, and IV administration and the lower tissue levels of radioactivity demonstrated a considerably reduced absorption in this species compared to the rat. The urinary metabolite pattern in the marmoset was in many respects qualitatively similar to but quantitatively different from that in the rat. The pharmacokinetic differences between these two species indicate that the tissues of the marmoset are exposed to a level of DEHP metabolites equivalent to the complete absorption of a dose of Ca. 0.1 to 0.25 mmole DEHP/kg body weight/day without significant toxicological effects. The evidence suggests that in some nonrodent species the hepatocellular and testicular response to DEHP is considerably less than that in rodents and is dose-dependent.

  17. Expression pattern of wolframin, the WFS1 (Wolfram syndrome-1 gene) product, in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cochlea.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Noriomi; Hosoya, Makoto; Oishi, Naoki; Okano, Hideyuki; Fujioka, Masato; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of the neuroendocrine system, known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness) syndrome, and considered an endoplasmic reticulum disease. Patients show mutations in WFS1, which encodes the 890 amino acid protein wolframin. Although Wfs1 knockout mice develop diabetes, their hearing level is completely normal. In this study, we examined the expression of wolframin in the cochlea of a nonhuman primate common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) to elucidate the discrepancy in the phenotype between species and the pathophysiology of Wolfram syndrome-associated deafness. The marmoset cochlea showed wolframin immunoreactivity not only in the spiral ligament type I fibrocytes, spiral ganglion neurons, outer hair cells, and supporting cells, but in the stria vascularis basal cells, where wolframin expression was not observed in the previous mouse study. Considering the absence of the deafness phenotype in Wfs1 knockout mice, the expression of wolframin in the basal cells of primates may play an essential role in the maintenance of hearing. Elucidating the function of wolframin protein in the basal cells of primates would be essential for understanding the pathogenesis of hearing loss in patients with Wolfram syndrome, which may lead to the discovery of new therapeutics. PMID:27341211

  18. Cognitive impairment in a young marmoset reveals lateral ventriculomegaly and a mild hippocampal atrophy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sadoun, A.; Strelnikov, K.; Bonté, E.; Fonta, C.; Girard, P.

    2015-01-01

    The number of studies that use the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in various fields of neurosciences is increasing dramatically. In general, animals enter the study when their health status is considered satisfactory on the basis of classical clinical investigations. In behavioral studies, variations of score between individuals are frequently observed, some of them being considered as poor performers or outliers. Experimenters rarely consider the fact that it could be related to some brain anomaly. This raises the important issue of the reliability of such classical behavioral approaches without using complementary imaging, especially in animals lacking striking external clinical signs. Here we report the case of a young marmoset which presented a set of cognitive impairments in two different tasks compared to other age-matched animals. Brain imaging revealed a patent right lateral ventricular enlargement with a mild hippocampal atrophy. This abnormality could explain the cognitive impairments of this animal. Such a case points to the importance of complementing behavioral studies by imaging explorations to avoid experimental bias. PMID:26527211

  19. Chromatic and spatial properties of parvocellular cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Blessing, Esther M; Solomon, Samuel G; Hashemi-Nezhad, Maziar; Morris, Brian J; Martin, Paul R

    2004-01-01

    The parvocellular (PC) division of the afferent visual pathway is considered to carry neuronal signals which underlie the red—green dimension of colour vision as well as high-resolution spatial vision. In order to understand the origin of these signals, and the way in which they are combined, the responses of PC cells in dichromatic (‘red—green colour-blind’) and trichromatic marmosets were compared. Visual stimuli included coloured and achromatic gratings, and spatially uniform red and green lights presented at varying temporal phases and frequencies. The sensitivity of PC cells to red—green chromatic modulation was found to depend primarily on the spectral separation between the medium- and long-wavelength-sensitive cone pigments (20 or 7 nm) in the two trichromatic marmoset phenotypes studied. The temporal frequency dependence of chromatic sensitivity was consistent with centre—surround interactions. Some evidence for chromatic selectivity was seen in peripheral PC cells. The receptive field dimensions of parvocellular cells were similar in dichromatic and trichromatic animals, but the achromatic contrast sensitivity of cells was slightly higher (by about 30%) in dichromats than in trichromats. These data support the hypothesis that the primary role of the PC is to transmit high-acuity spatial signals, with red—green opponent signals appearing as an additional response dimension in trichromatic animals. PMID:15047769

  20. Preparation for the in vivo recording of neuronal responses in the visual cortex of anaesthetised marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Bourne, James A; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2003-07-01

    The marmoset is becoming an important model for studies of primate vision, due to factors such as its small body size, lissencephalic brain, short gestational period and rapid postnatal development. For many studies of visual physiology (including single-cell recordings), it is a requirement that the animal is maintained under anaesthesia and neuromuscular block in order to ensure ocular stability. However, maintaining such a small animal (290-400 g) in good physiological condition for long periods requires expert attention. This becomes particularly important in the case of recordings from visual association cortex, where neuronal responses are known to be highly sensitive to factors such as the type and dose of anaesthetic, and the animal's physiological balance. The present protocol summarises our laboratory's experience over the last decade in developing a preparation for the study of marmoset visual cortex. It allows excellent recording from extrastriate areas for periods of at least 48 h, including the continuous study of isolated single cells for several hours. PMID:12842222

  1. Elevated urinary testosterone excretion and decreased maternal caregiving effort in marmosets when conception occurs during the period of infant dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Jeffrey E.; French, Jeffrey A.; Patera, Kimberly J.; Hopkins, Elizabeth C.; Rukstalis, Michael; Ross, Corinna N.

    2010-01-01

    The proximate mechanisms that regulate transitions in mammalian female reproductive effort have not been widely studied. However, variation in circulating levels of the androgenic steroid hormone testosterone (T) appears to mediate a trade-off between investment in current and future offspring in males. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that T is also associated with transitions in the reproductive effort of females, by examining the relationship between urinary T excretion, maternal caregiving behavior, and the timing of the postpartum conception in female Wied's black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii). We examined the maternal carrying effort and peripartum T profiles of six females across two conditions: (1) when they conceived during the period of infant dependence (DPID), such that gestation was coupled with lactation; and (2) when the same females conceived after the period of infant dependence (APID). We also assessed the relationship between postpartum T levels and caregiving effort. When female marmosets conceived DPID, they dramatically reduced their caregiving effort, and had higher levels of urinary T, relative to when they conceived APID. Further, the litter-to-litter changes in maternal caregiving effort that we observed were related to variation in urinary T excretion; as weekly levels of urinary T excretion increased, concurrent caregiving effort declined. Our results suggest that variation in T secretion may regulate transitions in female reproductive behavior, and that the regulation of male and female parental behavior may be mediated by homologous neuroendocrine mechanisms. PMID:15579264

  2. A sterilizing tuberculosis treatment regimen is associated with faster clearance of bacteria in cavitary lesions in marmosets.

    PubMed

    Via, Laura E; England, Kathleen; Weiner, Danielle M; Schimel, Daniel; Zimmerman, Matthew D; Dayao, Emmanuel; Chen, Ray Y; Dodd, Lori E; Richardson, Mike; Robbins, Katherine K; Cai, Ying; Hammoud, Dima; Herscovitch, Peter; Dartois, Véronique; Flynn, JoAnne L; Barry, Clifton E

    2015-07-01

    Shortening the lengthy treatment duration for tuberculosis patients is a major goal of current drug development efforts. The common marmoset develops human-like disease pathology and offers an attractive model to better understand the basis for relapse and test regimens for effective shorter duration therapy. We treated Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected marmosets with two drug regimens known to differ in their relapse rates in human clinical trials: the standard four-drug combination of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol (HRZE) that has very low relapse rates and the combination of isoniazid and streptomycin that is associated with higher relapse rates. As early as 2 weeks, the more sterilizing regimen significantly reduced the volume of lung disease by computed tomography (P = 0.035) and also significantly reduced uptake of [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose by positron emission tomography (P = 0.049). After 6 weeks of therapy, both treatments caused similar reductions in granuloma bacterial load, but the more sterilizing, four-drug regimen caused greater reduction in bacterial load in cavitary lesions (P = 0.009). These findings, combined with the association in humans between cavitary disease and relapse, suggest that the basis for improved sterilizing activity of the four-drug combination is both its faster disease volume resolution and its stronger sterilizing effect on cavitary lesions. Definitive data from relapse experiments are needed to support this observation. PMID:25941223

  3. Susceptibility of Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to Monkeypox Virus: A Low Dose Prospective Model for Monkeypox and Smallpox Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mucker, Eric M.; Chapman, Jennifer; Huzella, Louis M.; Huggins, John W.; Shamblin, Joshua; Robinson, Camenzind G.; Hensley, Lisa E.

    2015-01-01

    Although current nonhuman primate models of monkeypox and smallpox diseases provide some insight into disease pathogenesis, they require a high titer inoculum, use an unnatural route of infection, and/or do not accurately represent the entire disease course. This is a concern when developing smallpox and/or monkeypox countermeasures or trying to understand host pathogen relationships. In our studies, we altered half of the test system by using a New World nonhuman primate host, the common marmoset. Based on dose finding studies, we found that marmosets are susceptible to monkeypox virus infection, produce a high viremia, and have pathological features consistent with smallpox and monkeypox in humans. The low dose (48 plaque forming units) required to elicit a uniformly lethal disease and the extended incubation (preclinical signs) are unique features among nonhuman primate models utilizing monkeypox virus. The uniform lethality, hemorrhagic rash, high viremia, decrease in platelets, pathology, and abbreviated acute phase are reflective of early-type hemorrhagic smallpox. PMID:26147658

  4. MARMOSET: The Path from LHC Data to the New Standard Model via On-Shell Effective Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; Thaler, Jesse; Wang, Lian-Tao; Knuteson, Bruce; Mrenna, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    We describe a coherent strategy and set of tools for reconstructing the fundamental theory of the TeV scale from LHC data. We show that On-Shell Effective Theories (OSETs) effectively characterize hadron collider data in terms of masses, production cross sections, and decay modes of candidate new particles. An OSET description of the data strongly constrains the underlying new physics, and sharply motivates the construction of its Lagrangian. Simulating OSETs allows efficient analysis of new-physics signals, especially when they arise from complicated production and decay topologies. To this end, we present MARMOSET, a Monte Carlo tool for simulating the OSET version of essentially any new-physics model. MARMOSET enables rapid testing of theoretical hypotheses suggested by both data and model-building intuition, which together chart a path to the underlying theory. We illustrate this process by working through a number of data challenges, where the most important features of TeV-scale physics are reconstructed with as little as 5 fb{sup -1} of simulated LHC signals.

  5. Comparison of three different sedative-anaesthetic protocols (ketamine, ketamine-medetomidine and alphaxalone) in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Handling of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) usually requires chemical restraint. Ketamine has been associated with muscle damage in primates, while common marmosets, compared to other primates, additionally display an exceptional high sensitivity to ketamine-associated side-effects. Notably, muscle twitching movements of limbs and hands, and a marked increase in salivation are observed. We investigated two alternative intramuscular (i.m.) immobilisation protocols against ketamine (50 mg/kg; protocol 1) in a double-blind randomised crossover study in ten healthy adult common marmosets for use as a safe reliable, short-term immobilisation and sedation. These protocols comprised: alphaxalone (12 mg/kg; protocol 2) and 25 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.50 mg/kg medetomidine (reversal with 2.5 mg/kg atipamezole; protocol 3A). Following completion and unblinding, the project was extended with an additional protocol (3B), comprising 25 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine (reversal with 0.25 mg/kg atipamezole, twice with 35 min interval). Results All protocols in this study provided rapid onset (induction times <5 min) of immobilisation and sedation. Duration of immobilisation was 31.23 ± 22.39 min, 53.72 ± 13.08 min, 19.73 ± 5.74 min, and 22.78 ± 22.37 min for protocol 1, 2, 3A, and 3B, respectively. Recovery times were 135.84 ± 39.19 min, 55.79 ± 11.02 min, 405.46 ± 29.81 min, and 291.91 ± 80.34 min, respectively. Regarding the quality, and reliability (judged by pedal withdrawal reflex, palpebral reflex and muscle tension) of all protocols, protocol 2 was the most optimal. Monitored vital parameters were within clinically acceptable limits during all protocols and there were no fatalities. Indication of muscle damage as assessed by AST, LDH and CK values was most prominent elevated in protocol 1, 3A, and 3B. Conclusions We conclude that intramuscular administration of 12

  6. Pharmaceutical inhibition of mTOR in the common marmoset: effect of rapamycin on regulators of proteostasis in a non-human primate

    PubMed Central

    Lelegren, Matthew; Liu, Yuhong; Ross, Corinna; Tardif, Suzette; Salmon, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a viable means to lengthen lifespan and healthspan in mice, although it is still unclear whether these benefits will extend to other mammalian species. We previously reported results from a pilot experiment wherein common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were treated orally with rapamycin to reduce mTOR signaling in vivo in line with previous reports in mice and humans. Further, long-term treatment did not significantly alter body weight, daily activity, blood lipid concentrations, or glucose metabolism in this cohort. Methods In this study, we report on the molecular consequences of rapamycin treatment in marmosets on mechanisms that regulate protein homeostasis (proteostasis) in vivo. There is growing appreciation for the role of proteostasis in longevity and for the role that mTOR plays in regulating this process. Tissue samples of liver and skeletal muscle from marmosets in our pilot cohort were assessed for expression and activity of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, macroautophagy, and protein chaperones. Results Rapamycin treatment was associated with increased expression of PSMB5, a core subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not PSMB8 which is involved in the formation of the immunoproteasome, in the skeletal muscle and liver. Surprisingly, proteasome activity measured in these tissues was not affected by rapamycin. Rapamycin treatment was associated with an increased expression of mitochondria-targeted protein chaperones in skeletal muscle, but not liver. Finally, autophagy was increased in skeletal muscle and adipose, but not liver, from rapamycin-treated marmosets. Conclusions Overall, these data show tissue-specific upregulation of some, but not all, components of the proteostasis network in common marmosets treated with a pharmaceutical inhibitor of mTOR. PMID:27341957

  7. Monkey superior colliculus represents rapid eye movements in a two-dimensional motor map.

    PubMed

    Hepp, K; Van Opstal, A J; Straumann, D; Hess, B J; Henn, V

    1993-03-01

    1. Although the eye has three rotational degrees of freedom, eye positions, during fixations, saccades, and smooth pursuit, with the head stationary and upright, are constrained to a plane by Listing's law. We investigated whether Listing's law for rapid eye movements is implemented at the level of the deeper layers of the superior colliculus (SC). 2. In three alert rhesus monkeys we tested whether the saccadic motor map of the SC is two dimensional, representing oculocentric target vectors (the vector or V-model), or three dimensional, representing the coordinates of the rotation of the eye from initial to final position (the quaternion or Q-model). 3. Monkeys made spontaneous saccadic eye movements both in the light and in the dark. They were also rotated about various axes to evoke quick phases of vestibular nystagmus, which have three degrees of freedom. Eye positions were measured in three dimensions with the magnetic search coil technique. 4. While the monkey made spontaneous eye movements, we electrically stimulated the deeper layers of the SC and elicited saccades from a wide range of initial positions. According to the Q-model, the torsional component of eye position after stimulation should be uniquely related to saccade onset position. However, stimulation at 110 sites induced no eye torsion, in line with the prediction of the V-model. 5. Activity of saccade-related burst neurons in the deeper layers of the SC was analyzed during rapid eye movements in three dimensions. No systematic eye-position dependence of the movement fields, as predicted by the Q-model, could be detected for these cells. Instead, the data fitted closely the predictions made by the V-model. 6. In two monkeys, both SC were reversibly inactivated by symmetrical bilateral injections of muscimol. The frequency of spontaneous saccades in the light decreased dramatically. Although the remaining spontaneous saccades were slow, Listing's law was still obeyed, both during fixations and

  8. Auditory signals evolve from hybrid- to eye-centered coordinates in the primate superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungah; Groh, Jennifer M

    2012-07-01

    Visual and auditory spatial signals initially arise in different reference frames. It has been postulated that auditory signals are translated from a head-centered to an eye-centered frame of reference compatible with the visual spatial maps, but, to date, only various forms of hybrid reference frames for sound have been identified. Here, we show that the auditory representation of space in the superior colliculus involves a hybrid reference frame immediately after the sound onset but evolves to become predominantly eye centered, and more similar to the visual representation, by the time of a saccade to that sound. Specifically, during the first 500 ms after the sound onset, auditory response patterns (N = 103) were usually neither head nor eye centered: 64% of neurons showed such a hybrid pattern, whereas 29% were more eye centered and 8% were more head centered. This differed from the pattern observed for visual targets (N = 156): 86% were eye centered, <1% were head centered, and only 13% exhibited a hybrid of both reference frames. For auditory-evoked activity observed within 20 ms of the saccade (N = 154), the proportion of eye-centered response patterns increased to 69%, whereas the hybrid and head-centered response patterns dropped to 30% and <1%, respectively. This pattern approached, although did not quite reach, that observed for saccade-related activity for visual targets: 89% were eye centered, 11% were hybrid, and <1% were head centered (N = 162). The plainly eye-centered visual response patterns and predominantly eye-centered auditory motor response patterns lie in marked contrast to our previous study of the intraparietal cortex, where both visual and auditory sensory and motor-related activity used a predominantly hybrid reference frame (Mullette-Gillman et al. 2005, 2009). Our present findings indicate that auditory signals are ultimately translated into a reference frame roughly similar to that used for vision, but suggest that such signals might

  9. Comparison of visual receptive field properties of the superior colliculus and primary visual cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Sun, Chaokui; Shi, Li

    2015-08-01

    The rat visual system comprises cortical and subcortical pathways. The receptive field properties of cells in the visual cortex have been extensively studied; however, the fundamental roles of the two circuits in visual information processing are not well understood. To address this question, we have applied quantitative methods to compare and characterize the spatiotemporal receptive field (RF) properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) cells and superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC) in rats by means of extracellular recordings. An analysis of visual stimulus processing revealed distinct functional characteristics of the two visual circuits. RF diameters of SC neurons were significantly larger than those of V1 cells. Most cells in both regions had high orientation selectivity, but the mean orientation bandwidth of the SC was broader than that of V1 cells (101.5° vs. 60.2°). The mean optimal spatial frequency (SF) of SC cells was lower but had a broader bandwidth than that of V1 cells (0.03 vs. 0.068 cpd). The majority of SC and V1 cells (70% and 68%, respectively) had RFs with band-pass temporal frequency (TF) tuning profiles and similar optimal TFs. However, temporal band-pass profiles of the SC showed narrower mean temporal bandwidths than those of V1 cells (1.42 vs. 2.36 octaves). The majority of neurons in visual cortical and subcortical structures were activated in response to high-contrast, drifting gratings in the preferred orientation. The percentage of V1 neurons with a low-contrast threshold was larger than the proportion of SC neurons (45.6% vs. 30%), indicating that the former adapt better to contrast. The substantial overlap in latency distributions between SC and V1 areas suggests that the two visual systems process and analyze visual signals in parallel. However, the two areas use different neural encoding mechanisms based on different latency distribution trends. These results indicate that SC cells have poor spatial acuity

  10. Qualitative De Novo Analysis of Full Length cDNA and Quantitative Analysis of Gene Expression for Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) Transcriptomes Using Parallel Long-Read Technology and Short-Read Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Inoue, Takashi; Murayama, Norie; Onodera, Jun; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a non-human primate that could prove useful as human pharmacokinetic and biomedical research models. The cytochromes P450 (P450s) are a superfamily of enzymes that have critical roles in drug metabolism and disposition via monooxygenation of a broad range of xenobiotics; however, information on some marmoset P450s is currently limited. Therefore, identification and quantitative analysis of tissue-specific mRNA transcripts, including those of P450s and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO, another monooxygenase family), need to be carried out in detail before the marmoset can be used as an animal model in drug development. De novo assembly and expression analysis of marmoset transcripts were conducted with pooled liver, intestine, kidney, and brain samples from three male and three female marmosets. After unique sequences were automatically aligned by assembling software, the mean contig length was 718 bp (with a standard deviation of 457 bp) among a total of 47,883 transcripts. Approximately 30% of the total transcripts were matched to known marmoset sequences. Gene expression in 18 marmoset P450- and 4 FMO-like genes displayed some tissue-specific patterns. Of these, the three most highly expressed in marmoset liver were P450 2D-, 2E-, and 3A-like genes. In extrahepatic tissues, including brain, gene expressions of these monooxygenases were lower than those in liver, although P450 3A4 (previously P450 3A21) in intestine and P450 4A11- and FMO1-like genes in kidney were relatively highly expressed. By means of massive parallel long-read sequencing and short-read technology applied to marmoset liver, intestine, kidney, and brain, the combined next-generation sequencing analyses reported here were able to identify novel marmoset drug-metabolizing P450 transcripts that have until now been little reported. These results provide a foundation for mechanistic studies and pave the way for the use of marmosets as model animals

  11. Anatomic Variant of Liver, Gall Bladder and Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, V.; Chand, Parkash

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and relations of liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava are cardinal. Their anatomical variations may be a reason for the adverse surgical outcome. During routine anatomy dissection of an abdomen, we noticed a variant liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava in a 63-year-old male cadaver. In the specimen, a retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava was found to be intrahepatic. On dissection, it was observed that inferior vena cava was covered entirely by a liver tissue on its dorsal aspect. In the same specimen, the gall bladder had undulated inferior surface. On dissection of the gall bladder, numerous mucosal folds were present in the interior. A band of fibrous tissue was found, which was extending from the right side of the gall bladder to the falciform ligament. Hence, preoperative scanning of congenital variations of the liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava may be compassionate in planning safe surgeries and interventional abdominal procedures.

  12. Injuries of the inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Burch, J M; Feliciano, D V; Mattox, K L; Edelman, M

    1988-12-01

    Beginning in 1946, 577 patients with inferior vena cava injuries were managed at a single institution. After decreasing from 37 to 30 percent, the mortality rate showed a distinct increase in the last 7 years studied. This increase was related to an increasing percentage of patients who arrived in the emergency center in severe shock and required resuscitative thoracotomy. In-hospital care advances have not kept pace with improvements in prehospital care. Although venous complications have not been infrequent, morbidity has not been a significant long-term problem. Fatal pulmonary embolism occurred and was a special problem for patients over the age of 50. More basic research is needed to expedite diagnosis and vascular control in addition to understanding and treating the severe metabolic problems of patients dying from shock and hemorrhage. PMID:3202271

  13. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Narendra; Kumar, Yogesh; Upreti, Vimal; Singh, Amandeep; Garg, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females) meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS. PMID:27186561

  14. Varices of inferior epigastric veins caused by chronic inferior vena cava obstruction: mimicking normal venous flow pattern on radionuclide venography.

    PubMed

    Karacalioglu, Ozgur; Sonmez, Alper; Ilgan, Seyfettin; Soylu, Kenan; Emer, Ozdes; Ozguven, Mehmet

    2005-05-01

    A 21-year-old patient with long-standing inferior vena cava obstruction secondary to idiopathic thrombosis extending from the external iliac veins underwent a radionuclide venography with Tc-99m pertechnetate labeled erythrocytes. The blood pool phase of the study revealed bilaterally distorted inferior epigastric veins mimicking normal venous flow pattern. The authors present this case to discuss the possible alternative routes and the underlying physiopathologic mechanism of this unusual flow pattern in chronic inferior vena cava obstruction. PMID:15981678

  15. Translocation and radio-telemetry monitoring of pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea (Spix, 1823), in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Dias, C A R; Queirogas, V L; Pedersoli, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea) were rescued along the left bank of the Madeira River during the formation of Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Dam reservoir in the state of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Reintroduction of both groups occurred in areas of open Tropical rainforest located within the project´s Permanent Preservation Area. A post-release monitoring was conducted for three months using radio-telemetry. Individuals of each group remained together and settled in stable home ranges near their respective release sites. The mortality rate of translocated animals was about 7%. This seems to be the first report documenting the complete group translocation of C. pygmaea and the first to successfully employ radio-telemetry techniques in monitoring this species. This study demonstrated the feasibility of translocation and the use of radio-telemetry in monitoring C. pygmaea. PMID:25945625

  16. Analysis of the tumorigenic potential of common marmoset lymphoblastoid cells expressing a constitutively activated c-myc gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hotchin, N. A.; Wedderburn, N.; Roberts, I.; Thomas, J. A.; Bungey, J. A.; Naylor, B.; Crawford, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    The respective roles of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and c-myc in the pathogenesis of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) are unclear. In order to help resolve the question whether constitutive expression of the c-myc gene in an EBV-immortalised B cell is sufficient to induce a tumorigenic phenotype, B cells from a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) were immortalised with EBV, transfected with a constitutively activated c-myc gene and inoculated into the host animals. Despite the cell line transfected with c-myc displaying enhanced growth characteristics, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that this was not sufficient to induce a tumorigenic phenotype. This supports our previous findings with EBV-immortalised human B cells transfected with an activated c-myc gene (Hotchin et al., 1990). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8388232

  17. Developmental plasticity of the microscopic placental architecture in relation to litter size variation in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Julienne N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal demand, shaped by factors such as number of fetuses, may alter placental regulation of exchange, even when maternal nutrition restriction is not overt. The marmoset is an interesting model in which to examine this aspect of placental function due to unique placentation that leads to multiple fetuses sharing a unified placental mass. We demonstrated previously that the triplet marmoset placenta exhibits significantly higher efficiency than does the twin placenta. Here, we test the hypothesis that this increased efficiency is due to changes in the microscopic morphology of the placenta. Stereology was employed to analyze the microscopic architecture of placentas from twin and triplet pregnancies. Compartments of interest were the trabeculae, intertrabecular space, fetal capillaries, and the surface area of the maternal-fetal interface. Placentas from the two litters did not differ significantly in overall volume or individual volumetric compartments, but triplet placentas exhibited significant expansion of the trabecular surface area in comparison to twins (p=0.039). Further, the two groups differed in the isomorphy coefficient, with triplet placentas having a significantly higher coefficient (p=0.001) and potentially a more complex microscopic topography. Differences in the maternal-fetal interface may be due to developmental constraints on gross placental growth that occur earlier in gestation, such that the only option for maintaining sufficient access to maternal resources or signaling pathways late in gestation is via an expansion of the interface. Despite the significant increase in overall surface area, individual triplet fetuses are associated with much less surface area than are individual twins, suggestive of alterations in metabolic efficiency, perhaps via differential amino acid transport regulation. PMID:19038443

  18. Developmental plasticity of the microscopic placental architecture in relation to litter size variation in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Rutherford, J N; Tardif, S D

    2009-01-01

    Fetal demand, shaped by factors such as number of fetuses, may alter placental regulation of exchange, even when maternal nutrition restriction is not overt. The marmoset is an interesting model in which to examine this aspect of placental function due to unique placentation that leads to multiple fetuses sharing a unified placental mass. We demonstrated previously that the triplet marmoset placenta exhibits significantly higher efficiency than does the twin placenta. Here, we test the hypothesis that this increased efficiency is due to increases in changes in the microscopic morphology of the placenta. Stereology was employed to analyze the microscopic architecture of placentas from twin and triplet pregnancies. Compartments of interest were the trabeculae, intertrabecular space, fetal capillaries, and the surface area of the maternal-fetal interface. Placentas from the two litters did not differ significantly in overall volume or individual volumetric compartments, but triplet placentas exhibited significant expansion of the trabecular surface area in comparison to twins (p=0.039). Further, the two groups differed in the isomorphy coefficient, with triplet placentas having a significantly higher coefficient (p=0.001) and potentially a more complex microscopic topography. Differences in the maternal-fetal interface may be due to developmental constraints on gross placental growth that occur earlier in gestation, such that the only option for maintaining sufficient access to maternal resources or signaling pathways late in gestation is via an expansion of the interface. Despite the significant increase in overall surface area, individual triplet fetuses are associated with much less surface area than are individual twins, suggestive of alterations in metabolic efficiency, perhaps via differential amino acid transport regulation. PMID:19038443

  19. Psycho-Cognitive Intervention for ASD from Cross-Species Behavioral Analyses of Infants, Chicks and Common Marmosets.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Karino, Genta; Mimura, Koki; Nakamura, Shun; Yui, Kunio; Kunikata, Tetsuya; Yamanouchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Educational treatment to support social development of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important topic in developmental psychiatry. However, it remains difficult to objectively quantify the socio-emotional development of ASD children. To address this problem, we developed a novel analytical method that assesses subjects' complex behaviors using multivariate analysis, 'Behavior Output analysis for Quantitative Emotional State Translation' (BOUQUET). Here, we examine the potential for psycho-cognitive ASD therapy based on comparative evaluations of clinical (human) and experimental (animal) models. Our observations of ASD children (vs. their normally developing siblings) and the domestic chick in socio-sensory deprivation models show the importance of unimodal sensory stimulation, particularly important for tactile- and auditory-biased socialization. Identifying psycho-cognitive elements in early neural development, human newborn infants in neonatal intensive care unit as well as a New World monkey, the common marmoset, also prompted us to focus on the development of voluntary movement against gravity. In summary, striking behavioral similarities between children with ASD and domestic chicks' socio-sensory deprivation models support the role of multimodal sensory-motor integration as a prerequisite step for normal development of socio-emotional and psycho-cognitive functions. Data obtained in the common marmoset model also suggest that switching from primitive anti-gravity reflexes to complex voluntary movement may be a critical milestone for psycho-cognitive development. Combining clinical findings with these animal models, and using multivariate integrative analyses may facilitate the development of effective interventions to improve social functions in infants and in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27071788

  20. Post-partum variation in the expression of paternal care is unrelated to urinary steroid metabolites in marmoset fathers.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Jon; French, Jeffrey A

    2013-04-01

    The organization and activation of maternal care are known to be highly regulated by hormones and there is growing evidence that expression of paternal care is also related to endocrine substrates. We examined the relationship between paternal behavior and steroid hormones in marmoset fathers (Callithrix geoffroyi) and evaluated whether hormone-paternal behavior relationships were altered by previous offspring-care experience in males. Based on previous findings, we predicted that testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol would decrease following the birth of offspring and would be lowest during the period of maximal infant carrying. Furthermore, we predicted that post-partum changes in carrying effort and hormone levels would be influenced by the level of offspring-care experience. Carrying effort and other paternal care behaviors underwent temporal changes over the post-partum period, but these patterns were not related to variation in hormone concentrations over the same period. There was a limited effect of offspring-care experience on hormone concentrations, but experience was found to play a role in the expression of paternal care, with experienced fathers engaging in significantly more infant allogrooming than inexperienced fathers. Furthermore, inexperienced fathers increased the frequency of food sharing in response to infant begging across the post-partum period, while experienced fathers displayed consistently low levels. We posit that a combination of experiential factors and an increased role for alloparents in offspring-care led to these changes. However, it appears that hormonal changes may not influence paternal responsiveness in white-faced marmoset fathers and that hormone-paternal behavior relationships are not critically dependent on a male's previous offspring-care experience. PMID:23439223

  1. The profile of sabcomeline (SB-202026), a functionally selective M1 receptor partial agonist, in the marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Harries, M H; Samson, N A; Cilia, J; Hunter, A J

    1998-01-01

    Sabcomeline (SB-202026, 0.03 mg kg−1, p.o.), a potent and functionally selective M1 receptor partial agonist, caused a statistically significant improvement in the performance of a visual object discrimination task by marmosets. No such improvement was seen after RS86 (0.1 mg kg−1, p.o.).Initial learning, which only required an association of object with reward and an appropriate response to be made, was not significantly affected. Reversal learning, which required both the extinction of the previously learned response and the acquisition of a new response strategy, was significantly improved after administration of sabcomeline (0.03 mg kg−1, p.o.).Sabcomeline (0.03 and 0.1 mg kg−1, p.o.) had no significant effect on mean blood pressure measured for 2 h after administration in the conscious marmoset.Sabcomeline (0.03 mg kg−1, p.o.) caused none of the overt effects such as emesis or behaviours often seen after the administration of muscarinic agonists, e.g. face rubbing and licking.This is the first study to demonstrate cognitive enhancement by a functionally selective M1 receptor partial agonist in a normal (i.e. non-cognitively impaired) non-human primate and this effect was seen at a dose which did not cause side effects.Perseverative behaviour and deficient acquisition of new information are seen in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore the data suggest that sabcomeline might be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of AD. PMID:9641560

  2. Disposition and metabolism of ticagrelor, a novel P2Y12 receptor antagonist, in mice, rats, and marmosets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Landqvist, Claire; Grimm, Scott W

    2011-09-01

    Ticagrelor is a reversibly binding and selective oral P2Y(12) antagonist, developed for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The disposition and metabolism of [(14)C]ticagrelor was investigated in mice, rats, and marmosets to demonstrate that these preclinical toxicity species showed similar metabolic profiles to human. Incubations with hepatocytes or microsomes from multiple species were also studied to compare with in vivo metabolic profiles. The routes of excretion were similar for both oral and intravenous administration in mice, rats, and marmosets with fecal excretion being the major elimination pathway accounting for 59 to 96% of the total radioactivity administered. Urinary excretion of drug-related material accounted for only 1 to 15% of the total radioactivity administered. Milk samples from lactating rats displayed significantly higher levels of total radioactivity than plasma after oral administration of ticagrelor. This demonstrated that ticagrelor and/or its metabolites were readily transferred into rat milk and that neonatal rats could be exposed to ticagrelor-related compounds via maternal milk. Ticagrelor and active metabolite AR-C124910 (loss of hydroxyethyl side chain) were the major components in plasma from all species studied and similar to human plasma profiles. The primary metabolite of ticagrelor excreted in urine across all species was an inactive metabolite, AR-C133913 (loss of difluorophenylcyclopropyl group). Ticagrelor, AR-C124910, and AR-C133913 were the major components found in feces from the three species examined. Overall, in vivo metabolite profiles were qualitatively similar across all species and consistent with in vitro results. PMID:21670219

  3. Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine Avulsion Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Serbest, Sancar; Tosun, Hacı Bayram; Tiftikçi, Uğur; Oktas, Birhan; Kesgin, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Avulsion fractures of the pelvic apophyses rarely occur in adolescent athletes in the course of sudden strong contraction of muscle attached to growth cartilage. This injury may usually be misdiagnosed for tendon or muscle strain. Patient's history, physical examination, and radiologic studies are important for diagnosis. The literature includes only a few case reports but no case series as yet. The aim of this study was to present the results of 5 cases of anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) avulsion fractures treated conservatively. The study included 5 patients (4 male, 1 female, mean age 13.6 years) who underwent conservative treatment for AIIS avulsion fractures and had an adequate follow-up. All patients were admitted to the emergency department and misdiagnosed as muscle strain. Three of them were football player, 1 skier, and 1 fighter. Each patient was treated with immobilization and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. At follow-up, all patients showed relief from their pain and mechanical symptoms and regained full range of motion and returned to their previous levels of activity. Diagnosis requires careful attention to the physical examination and imaging. In this series, all pelvic avulsion fractures (100%) were managed successfully with a conservative approach. Good results and return to previous levels of activity can be achieved with conservative treatment. PMID:25700329

  4. Herpesvirus ateles and herpesvirus saimiri transform marmoset T cells into continuously proliferating cell lines that can mediate natural killer cell-like cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D R; Jondal, M

    1981-01-01

    Herpesvirus ateles (HVA) and herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) have the capacity to transform cotton-topped marmoset T lymphocytes into continuously proliferating cell lines that retain some functions associated with cell-mediated immunity. In the present paper, we demonstrate that HVA/HVS-transformed T cell lines are cytotoxic in a short-term 51Cr release assay and that this killing resembles killing by marmoset natural killer (NK) cells. The relationship between NK cells and HVA/HVS-transformed killer cell lines is discussed in view of present knowledge of the origin and function of the NK system. It is suggested that the described cytotoxic cell lines may be useful for further defining cellular cytotoxicity with regard to cell surface recognition, regulatory events, and lytic mechanisms. PMID:6273869

  5. More effective induction of anesthesia using midazolam-butorphanol-ketamine-sevoflurane compared with ketamine-sevoflurane in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-02-01

    The common marmoset has been increasingly used for research in the biomedical field; however, there is little information available regarding effective methods of anesthesia in this species. This study retrospectively analyzed 2 regimens of anesthesia induction: intramuscular injection of ketamine followed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane, and intramuscular injection of midazolam, butorphanol and ketamine followed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane. Anesthetic depth did not reach the surgical anesthesia stage in 7 out of 99 animals receiving the former regimen, whereas there were only 2 such animals out of 273 receiving the latter regimen. The latter regimen, when followed by maintenance anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane inhalation, was successfully used in various nociceptive procedures. These results indicate that the injection of a combination of midazolam, butorphanol and ketamine followed by inhalation of a high concentration of sevoflurane is effective for anesthesia induction in marmosets. PMID:26369292

  6. More effective induction of anesthesia using midazolam-butorphanol-ketamine-sevoflurane compared with ketamine-sevoflurane in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    ISHIBASHI, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    The common marmoset has been increasingly used for research in the biomedical field; however, there is little information available regarding effective methods of anesthesia in this species. This study retrospectively analyzed 2 regimens of anesthesia induction: intramuscular injection of ketamine followed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane, and intramuscular injection of midazolam, butorphanol and ketamine followed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane. Anesthetic depth did not reach the surgical anesthesia stage in 7 out of 99 animals receiving the former regimen, whereas there were only 2 such animals out of 273 receiving the latter regimen. The latter regimen, when followed by maintenance anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane inhalation, was successfully used in various nociceptive procedures. These results indicate that the injection of a combination of midazolam, butorphanol and ketamine followed by inhalation of a high concentration of sevoflurane is effective for anesthesia induction in marmosets. PMID:26369292

  7. High fat diet decreases beneficial effects of estrogen on serotonin-related gene expression in marmosets.

    PubMed

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Reddy, Arubala P; Flowers, Matthew; Shapiro, Robert A; Colman, Ricki J; Abbott, David H; Levine, Jon E

    2015-04-01

    The administration of estradiol-17β (E) to animal models after loss of ovarian steroid production has many beneficial effects on neural functions, particularly in the serotonin system in nonhuman primates (NHPs). E also has anorexic effects, although the mechanism of action is not well defined. In the US, obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and blame is partially directed at the Western style diet, which is high in fat and sugar. This study examined the interaction of E and diet in surgically menopausal nonhuman primates with a 2×2 block design. Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus; n=4/group) were placed on control-low fat diet (LFD; 14%kcal from fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 28%kcal from fat) 1month prior to ovariectomy (Ovx). Empty (placebo) or E-filled Silastic capsules were implanted immediately following Ovx surgery. Treatments extended 6months. The established groups were: placebo+LFD, E+LFD, placebo+HFD, or E+HFD. At necropsy, the brain was flushed with saline and harvested. The midbrain was dissected and a small block containing the dorsal raphe nucleus was processed for qRT-PCR using Evagreen (Biotinum). Genes previously found to impact serotonin neural functions were examined. Results were compared with 2-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests or Cohen's D analysis. There was a significant effect of treatment on tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) across the groups (p=0.019). E stimulated TPH2 expression and HFD prevented E-stimulated TPH2 expression (p<0.01). Treatment differentially affected monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) across the groups (p=0.05). E increased MAO-B with LFD, and this stimulatory effect was prevented by HFD (p<0.05). There was a significant difference between treatments in corticotrophin releasing factor-receptor 2 (CRF-R2) expression (p=0.012). E increased CRF-R2 and this stimulatory effect was blocked by HFD (p<0.01). Regardless of diet, E increased Fev mRNA (p=0.028) and decreased CRF-receptor 1 (CRF-R1) mRNA (p=0.04). HFD

  8. High Fat Diet Decreases Beneficial Effects of Estrogen on Serotonin-Related Gene Expression in Marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Reddy, Arubala P; Flowers, Matthew; Shapiro, Robert A.; Colman, Ricki J; Abbott, David H; Levine, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    The administration of estradiol-17β (E) to animal models after loss of ovarian steroid production has many beneficial effects on neural functions, particularly in the serotonin system in nonhuman primates (NHPs). E also has anorexic effects, although the mechanism of action is not well defined. In the US, obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and blame is partially directed at the Western style diet, which is high in fat and sugar. This study examined the interaction of E and diet in surgically menopausal nonhuman primates with a 2 × 2 block design. Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus; n=4/group) were placed on control-low fat diet (LFD; 14%kcal from fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 28%kcal from fat) 1 month prior to ovariectomy (Ovx). Empty (placebo) or E-filled Silastic capsules were implanted immediately following Ovx surgery. Treatments extended 6 months. The established groups were: placebo+LFD; E+LFD; placebo+HFD, or E+HFD. At necropsy, the brain was flushed with saline and harvested. The midbrain was dissected and a small block containing the dorsal raphe nucleus was processed for qRT-PCR using Evagreen (Biotinum). Genes previously found to impact serotonin neural functions were examined. Results were compared with 2-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests or Cohen’s D analysis. There was a significant effect of treatment on tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) across the groups (p=0.019). E stimulated TPH2 expression and HFD prevented E-stimulated TPH2 expression (p<0.01). Treatment differentially affected monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) across the groups (p=0.05). E increased MAO-B with LFD, and this stimulatory effect was prevented by HFD (p<0.05). There was a significant difference between treatments in corticotrophin releasing factor-receptor 2 (CRF-R2) expression (p=0.012). E increased CRF-R2 and this stimulatory effect was blocked by HFD (p<0.01). Regardless of diet, E increased Fev mRNA (p=0.028) and decreased CRF-receptor 1 (CRF-R1) mRNA (p=0.04). HFD

  9. High versus low fat/sugar food affects the behavioral, but not the cortisol response of marmoset monkeys in a conditioned-place-preference task.

    PubMed

    Duarte, R B M; Patrono, E; Borges, A C; Tomaz, C; Ventura, R; Gasbarri, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Barros, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with chocolate chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence. PMID:25447426

  10. ROCK inhibitor Y27632 promotes proliferation and diminishes apoptosis of marmoset induced pluripotent stem cells by suppressing expression and activity of caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuehong; Shu, Jianhong; He, Chengwen; Li, Min; Wang, Yujiong; Ou, Wenbin; He, Yulong

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies reported that Rho-associated kinase inhibitor Y27632 markedly diminishes human embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) dissociation-induced apoptosis and increases cloning efficiency in a feeder-free culture system. However, the mechanisms by which Y27632 protects pluripotent stem cells from apoptosis remain unknown. In the present study, we tested the effects of Y27632 on single dissociated marmoset iPSCs in a feeder-free culture. The results showed that Y27632 promoted the number of cells proliferating after passage by single-cell dissociation in a dose-dependent manner. The Rho-associated kinase inhibitor Y27632 markedly increased the cloning efficiency of marmoset iPSCs without affecting their karyotype and the expression of pluripotency markers. Meanwhile, Y27632 m