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Sample records for mart jakobson argo

  1. Roman Jakobson's Semiotic Theory of Communication. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    For most of the 20th century, Roman Jakobson's name will have been synonymous with the definition of communication as a human science, i.e., communicology. Jakobson is the modern source of most of what communication scholars theorize about and practice as human communication, and he will be the source of how communication scholars shall come to…

  2. Argo Navis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Ship) a large southern constellation representing the ship Argo of Jason and the Argonauts in Greek mythology whose brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest. It was divided up by the French astronomer Nicolas L de Lacaille (1713-62), who charted the southern sky in 1751-2, into the constellations Carina (the Keel), Vela (the Sails), Puppis (the Poop or Stern)...

  3. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  4. The ARGO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozameh, C. N.

    El proyecto µARGO propone el desarrollo, construcción y operación del Observatorio Espacial de Rayos Gamma, que operará en una órbita terrestre. Este observatorio constará de un telescopio con capacidad de medir simultáneamente dirección de incidencia y polarización de rayos Gamma en dos rangos de energía: 50 KeV - 3 MeV y 10 MeV - 1 GeV. Para ello se usarán detectores de silicio de última generación y microelectrónica adaptada a la configuración. La masa total en órbita del observatorio estará en el orden de los 60 - 100 kg. dependiendo de la geometría adoptada lo que permitirá minimizar costos de desarrollo y construcción, sin perder por ello calidad en su misión científica. ? Desde el punto de vista energético μARGO cubrirá el rango cubierto por COMPTEL y EGRET del CGRO, duplicando como mínimo la resolución angular de ambos con una reducción de peso de dos órdenes de magnitud. En adición, μARGO podr´ medir la polarización incidente de los rayos energéticos. Si bien existen otros dos proyectos en marcha (GLAST y AGILE) para reemplazar EGRET que serán lanzados antes que μARGO, estos proyectos no están diseñados para medir polarización ni tampoco cubren el rango mas bajo de energía arriba mencionado.

  5. Status of the ARGOS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabien, Sebastian; Barl, Lothar; Beckmann, Udo; Bonaglia, Marco; Borelli, José Luis; Brynnel, Joar; Buschkamp, Peter; Busoni, Lorenzo; Christou, Julian; Connot, Claus; Davies, Richard; Deysenroth, Matthias; Esposito, Simone; Gässler, Wolfgang; Gemperlein, Hans; Hart, Michael; Kulas, Martin; Lefebvre, Michael; Lehmitz, Michael; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Nussbaum, Edmund; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Peter, Diethard; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Raab, Walfried; Rahmer, Gustavo; Storm, Jesper; Ziegleder, Julian

    2014-07-01

    ARGOS is the Laser Guide Star and Wavefront sensing facility for the Large Binocular Telescope. With first laser light on sky in 2013, the system is currently undergoing commissioning at the telescope. We present the overall status and design, as well as first results on sky. Aiming for a wide field ground layer correction, ARGOS is designed as a multi- Rayleigh beacon adaptive optics system. A total of six powerful pulsed lasers are creating the laser guide stars in constellations above each of the LBTs primary mirrors. With a range gated detection in the wavefront sensors, and the adaptive correction by the deformable secondary's, we expect ARGOS to enhance the image quality over a large range of seeing conditions. With the two wide field imaging and spectroscopic instruments LUCI1 and LUCI2 as receivers, a wide range of scientific programs will benefit from ARGOS. With an increased resolution, higher encircled energy, both imaging and MOS spectroscopy will be boosted in signal to noise by a large amount. Apart from the wide field correction ARGOS delivers in its ground layer mode, we already foresee the implementation of a hybrid Sodium with Rayleigh beacon combination for a diffraction limited AO performance.

  6. Animal Tracking ARGOS vs GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. W.; Costa, D.; Arnould, J.; Weise, M.; Kuhn, C.; Simmons, S. E.; Villegas, S.; Tremblay, Y.

    2006-12-01

    ARGOS satellite tracking technology has enabled a tremendous increase in our understanding of the movement patterns of a diverse array of marine vertebrates from Sharks to marine mammals. Our current understanding has moved from simple descriptions of large scale migratory patterns to much more sophisticated comparisons of animal movements and behavior relative to oceanic features. Further, animals are increasingly used to carry sensors that can acquire water column temperature and salinity profiles. However, a major limitation of this work is the spatial precision of ARGOS locations. ARGOS provides 7 location qualities that range from 3,2,1,0,A,B,Z and correspond to locations with a precision of 150m to tens of kilometers. Until recently, GPS technology could not be effectively used with marine mammals because they did not spend sufficient time at the surface to allow complete acquisition of satellite information. The recent development of Fastloc technology has allowed the development of GPS tags that can be deployed on marine mammals. Here we compare the location quality and frequency derived from standard ARGOS PTTs to Fastloc GPS locations acquired from 11 northern elephant seals, 5 California and 5 Galapagos sea lions and 1 Cape and 3 Australian fur seals. Our results indicate that GPS technology will greatly enhance our ability to understand the movement patterns of marine vertebrates and the in-situ oceanographic data they collect.

  7. ARGOS wavefront sensing: from detection to correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Bonaglia, M.; Borelli, J.; Busoni, L.; Connot, C.; Esposito, S.; Gaessler, W.; Kulas, M.; Mazzoni, T.; Puglisi, A.; Rabien, S.; Storm, J.; Ziegleder, J.

    2014-08-01

    Argos is the ground-layer adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope. In order to perform its wide-field correction, Argos uses three laser guide stars which sample the atmospheric turbulence. To perform the correction, Argos has at disposal three different wavefront sensing measurements : its three laser guide stars, a NGS tip-tilt, and a third wavefront sensor. We present the wavefront sensing architecture and its individual components, in particular: the finalized Argos pnCCD camera detecting the 3 laser guide stars at 1kHz, high quantum efficiency and 4e- noise; the Argos tip-tilt sensor based on a quad-cell avalanche photo-diodes; and the Argos wavefront computer. Being in the middle of the commissioning, we present the first wavefront sensing configurations and operations performed at LBT, and discuss further improvements in the measurements of the 3 laser guide star slopes as detected by the pnCCD.

  8. ARGOS laser system mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.

  9. The ArgoNeuT experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, J.; /Yale U.

    2010-01-01

    ArgoNeuT is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber neutrino experiment that recently completed its physics run in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Along with research and design for future LArTPCs, the experiments goals include performing a number of neutrino and anti-neutrino cross section measurements. Also, ArgoNeuT hopes to further the understanding of the nuclear physics involved in neutrino scattering by characterizing the low energy protons created in such interactions.

  10. Marte Vallis Platy Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-442, 4 August 2003

    The Marte Vallis system, located east of Cerberus and west of Amazonis Planitia, is known for its array of broken, platy flow features. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a close-up view of some of these plates; they appear to be like puzzle pieces that have been broken apart and moved away from each other. The Mars science community has been discussing these features for the past several years--either the flows in Marte Vallis are lava flows, or mud flows. In either case, the material was very fluid and had a thin crust on its surface. As the material continued to flow through the valley system, the crust broke up into smaller plates that were then rafted some distance down the valley. This picture is located near 6.9oN, 182.8oW. It is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  11. Marte Vallis Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows platy flow surfaces in the Marte Vallis region of Mars. The origin of the flows is not well-understood, but as some Mars scientists have suggested, the flows may be the product of low viscosity (very fluid), high temperature volcanic eruptions, or perhaps they are the remains of large-scale mud flows. In either case, the materials are solid and hold a record of small meteor impact craters, thus indicating that they are not composed of ice, as still others have speculated.

    Location near: 6.7oN, 182.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  12. The ARGO-YBJ DAQ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisio, A.; Anastasio, A.; Barone, F.; Branchini, P.; Cavaliere, S.; Masone, V.; Mastroianni, S.; Parascandolo, P.; Coll., Theargo-Ybj

    2001-08-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is presently under construction at the Yangbaijing High Altitude Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a.s.l), 90 km North to Lhasa (Tibet, People's Republic of China). ARGO will study foundamental issues in cosmic ray and astroparticle physics by detecting small size air showers. The detector covers 74 × 78 m2 with single layer Resistive Plate Counters (RPCs), surrounded by a partially instrumented guard ring. The ARGO Level-1 Data Acquisition System is designed around custom protocols and hardware read-out controllers developed to achieve high data transfer rate and event building capability without software overhead. In this paper we describe the architecture of the system and the hardware developed in the Level 1 environment to acquire the detector's data. 1 The ARGO-YBJ Read-Out system The building blocks of the ARGO detector (ARGO-YBJ Coll. (1996)) are single-gap RPCs, each with 80 read-out strips 6 cm wide and 62 cm long. Each strip is equipped with a front-end amplifier and discriminator mounted on the chamber edge on a Front-End card. The 8-fold modularity of this card defines a logical partition of the chamber called PAD. The detector is clustered in 6 × 2-chamber units with modular read-out and trigger electronics housed in Local Stations. In each Cluster, the 960 pertaining strips are sampled with a time resolution of ˜ 1 ns by digital, multi-hit TDCs. For each PAD, a fast-or signal is also produced. The entire detector comprises 154 Clusters. PADs are the "timing pixel" of the detector and the trigger logic selects the events on the basis of their multiplicity and distribution in time in the Clusters. The trigger signal acts as a common stop for all the digital multi-hit TDCs reading the detector's strips in the Local Stations. In each Cluster, the Local Station assembles a Data Frame containing an incrementing event number, the

  13. The ArgoNeuT Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Szelc, Andrzej M.

    2015-05-15

    The ArgoNeuT (Argon Neutrino Test) Experiment ran on the NuMI beam line at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, from Sep 2009 to Feb 2010. It is the first stage of the US R and D effort on using Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) as neutrino detectors. ArgoNeuT has collected thousands of beam neutrino events in the 0.1 -10 GeV energy range during its run and, apart from fulfilling its R and D goals, is now publishing physics results, including the first measurement of the inclusive muon neutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon. These proceedings will present these results, together with the perspectives for ongoing and future analyses, as well as ideas for running the detector in a test beam of charged particles.

  14. Structural basis for EGFR ligand sequestration by Argos

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Daryl E.; Stayrook, Steven E.; Shi, Fumin; Narayan, Kartik; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2008-06-26

    Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or ErbB/HER family and their activating ligands are essential regulators of diverse developmental processes. Inappropriate activation of these receptors is a key feature of many human cancers, and its reversal is an important clinical goal. A natural secreted antagonist of EGFR signalling, called Argos, was identified in Drosophila. We showed previously that Argos functions by directly binding (and sequestering) growth factor ligands that activate EGFR5. Here we describe the 1.6-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Argos bound to an EGFR ligand. Contrary to expectations, Argos contains no EGF-like domain. Instead, a trio of closely related domains (resembling a three-finger toxin fold) form a clamp-like structure around the bound EGF ligand. Although structurally unrelated to the receptor, Argos mimics EGFR by using a bipartite binding surface to entrap EGF. The individual Argos domains share unexpected structural similarities with the extracellular ligand-binding regions of transforming growth factor-{beta} family receptors. The three-domain clamp of Argos also resembles the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor, which uses a similar mechanism to engulf the EGF-like module of uPA. Our results indicate that undiscovered mammalian counterparts of Argos may exist among other poorly characterized structural homologues. In addition, the structures presented here define requirements for the design of artificial EGF-sequestering proteins that would be valuable anti-cancer therapeutics.

  15. Highlights from the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aielli, G.; Bacci, C.; Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Bleve, C.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Bussino, S.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cappa, A.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Cattaneo, C.; Celio, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, N.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Alí Staiti, G.; Danzengluobu; Dattoli, M.; de Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; de Vincenzi, M.; di Girolamo, T.; Ding, X. H.; di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F.; Galeotti, P.; Gargana, R.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q.; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; James, I.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Li, J. Y.; Li, X. X.; Liberti, B.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, C. Q.; Liu, M. Y.; Liu, J.; Lu, H.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Meng, X. R.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Pagliaro, A.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Qu, X. B.; Rossi, E.; Ruggieri, F.; Saggese, L.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Stanescu, C.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xu, B.; Xue, L.; Yan, Y. X.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.

    2012-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment at YangBaJing in Tibet (4300 m a.s.l.) has been taking data with its full layout since October 2007. Here we present a few significant results obtained in gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic-ray physics. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of gamma-ray emission from point-like sources (Crab Nebula, MRK 421), on the preliminary limit on the antiproton/proton flux ratio, on the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy and on the proton-air cross-section. The performance of the detector is also discussed, and the perspectives of the experiment are outlined.

  16. Recent highlights from ARGO-YBJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sciascio, Di; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for more than 5 years at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.L, 606 g/cm2 ). With a duty-cycle of about 87% the detector collected more than 5×1011 events in a wide energy range, from few hundreds GeV up to 10 PeV. A number of open problems in cosmic ray physics has been faced exploiting different analyses. In this talk we summarize the latest physics results obtained in gamma-ray astronomy and in cosmic ray physics.

  17. Experience of the ARGO autonomous vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertozzi, Massimo; Broggi, Alberto; Conte, Gianni; Fascioli, Alessandra

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents and discusses the first results obtained by the GOLD (Generic Obstacle and Lane Detection) system as an automatic driver of ARGO. ARGO is a Lancia Thema passenger car equipped with a vision-based system that allows to extract road and environmental information from the acquired scene. By means of stereo vision, obstacles on the road are detected and localized, while the processing of a single monocular image allows to extract the road geometry in front of the vehicle. The generality of the underlying approach allows to detect generic obstacles (without constraints on shape, color, or symmetry) and to detect lane markings even in dark and in strong shadow conditions. The hardware system consists of a PC Pentium 200 Mhz with MMX technology and a frame-grabber board able to acquire 3 b/w images simultaneously; the result of the processing (position of obstacles and geometry of the road) is used to drive an actuator on the steering wheel, while debug information are presented to the user on an on-board monitor and a led-based control panel.

  18. Prospects For a Carbon ARGO [ II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. K.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics and sedimentation of biologically fixed particulate organic and inorganic carbon (POC and PIC) is fundamental to the prediction of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Over the last four years LBNL has been working to bridge a major 'space-time' gap in upper ocean carbon cycle observations. We have launched twelve robotic Carbon Explorers built on SIO's Orbcomm/GPS enhanced Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO). These 'souped up' versions of ocean-profiling ARGO floats, operating in remote and stormy seas, have returned in real-time year-long high-frequency records of POC variability and recently have explored the systematics of carbon sedimentation to kilometer depths. We briefly recap the success of a new fast profiling optical sensor for PIC (sensitivity better than 0.1 μ M) which was deployed during routine CTD/rosette casts during the R/V Ron Brown June - July 2003 reoccupation of WOCE A16N (Iceland to Madiera) in the N Atlantic Ocean. Our primary aim is to report on the development of paired autonomous imaging sediment traps designed to optically record hourly variations of POC and PIC flux at depth for weeks to months. Preliminary analysis of 22 days of observations achieved this year near Hawaii indicate a major contribution of zooplankton parts to carbon flux at station ALOHA. We further recorded multiple events of simultaneous arrival of fecal material and associated zooplankton feeders. This supports the importance of such animals in determining the attenuation of carbon flux to the deep sea. The success of the Carbon Explorers, the new PIC sensor, and the developing capability for season to year-long high frequency records of POC and PIC carbon sedimentation in the very observation-poor but biologically-active upper kilometers of the ocean suggest excellent prospects for a 'Carbon-ARGO'.

  19. Curiosity --El nuevo robot explorador de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte llamado Curiosity tiene grandes preguntas que responder una vez que llegue a Marte. Infórmese sobre la misión con el analista de trayectoria de la NASA Fern...

  20. Text-mining-assisted biocuration workflows in Argo

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rowley, Andrew; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Biocuration activities have been broadly categorized into the selection of relevant documents, the annotation of biological concepts of interest and identification of interactions between the concepts. Text mining has been shown to have a potential to significantly reduce the effort of biocurators in all the three activities, and various semi-automatic methodologies have been integrated into curation pipelines to support them. We investigate the suitability of Argo, a workbench for building text-mining solutions with the use of a rich graphical user interface, for the process of biocuration. Central to Argo are customizable workflows that users compose by arranging available elementary analytics to form task-specific processing units. A built-in manual annotation editor is the single most used biocuration tool of the workbench, as it allows users to create annotations directly in text, as well as modify or delete annotations created by automatic processing components. Apart from syntactic and semantic analytics, the ever-growing library of components includes several data readers and consumers that support well-established as well as emerging data interchange formats such as XMI, RDF and BioC, which facilitate the interoperability of Argo with other platforms or resources. To validate the suitability of Argo for curation activities, we participated in the BioCreative IV challenge whose purpose was to evaluate Web-based systems addressing user-defined biocuration tasks. Argo proved to have the edge over other systems in terms of flexibility of defining biocuration tasks. As expected, the versatility of the workbench inevitably lengthened the time the curators spent on learning the system before taking on the task, which may have affected the usability of Argo. The participation in the challenge gave us an opportunity to gather valuable feedback and identify areas of improvement, some of which have already been introduced. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk PMID

  1. Text-mining-assisted biocuration workflows in Argo.

    PubMed

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rowley, Andrew; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Biocuration activities have been broadly categorized into the selection of relevant documents, the annotation of biological concepts of interest and identification of interactions between the concepts. Text mining has been shown to have a potential to significantly reduce the effort of biocurators in all the three activities, and various semi-automatic methodologies have been integrated into curation pipelines to support them. We investigate the suitability of Argo, a workbench for building text-mining solutions with the use of a rich graphical user interface, for the process of biocuration. Central to Argo are customizable workflows that users compose by arranging available elementary analytics to form task-specific processing units. A built-in manual annotation editor is the single most used biocuration tool of the workbench, as it allows users to create annotations directly in text, as well as modify or delete annotations created by automatic processing components. Apart from syntactic and semantic analytics, the ever-growing library of components includes several data readers and consumers that support well-established as well as emerging data interchange formats such as XMI, RDF and BioC, which facilitate the interoperability of Argo with other platforms or resources. To validate the suitability of Argo for curation activities, we participated in the BioCreative IV challenge whose purpose was to evaluate Web-based systems addressing user-defined biocuration tasks. Argo proved to have the edge over other systems in terms of flexibility of defining biocuration tasks. As expected, the versatility of the workbench inevitably lengthened the time the curators spent on learning the system before taking on the task, which may have affected the usability of Argo. The participation in the challenge gave us an opportunity to gather valuable feedback and identify areas of improvement, some of which have already been introduced. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk. PMID

  2. ARGOS Policy Brief on Semantic Interoperability

    PubMed Central

    KALRA, Dipak; MUSEN, Mark; SMITH, Barry; CEUSTERS, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Semantic interoperability is one of the priority themes of the ARGOS Trans-Atlantic Observatory. This topic represents a globally recognised challenge that must be addressed if electronic health records are to be shared among heterogeneous systems, and the information in them exploited to the maximum benefit of patients, professionals, health services, research, and industry. Progress in this multi-faceted challenge has been piecemeal, and valuable lessons have been learned, and approaches discovered, in Europe and in the US that can be shared and combined. Experts from both continents have met at three ARGOS workshops during 2010 and 2011 to share understanding of these issues and how they might be tackled collectively from both sides of the Atlantic. This policy brief summarises the problems and the reasons why they are important to tackle, and also why they are so difficult. It outlines the major areas of semantic innovation that exist and that are available to help address this challenge. It proposes a series of next steps that need to be championed on both sides of the Atlantic if further progress is to be made in sharing and analysing electronic health records meaningfully. Semantic interoperability requires the use of standards, not only for EHR data to be transferred and structurally mapped into a receiving repository, but also for the clinical content of the EHR to be interpreted in conformity with the original meanings intended by its authors. Wide-scale engagement with professional bodies, globally, is needed to develop these clinical information standards. Accurate and complete clinical documentation, faithful to the patient’s situation, and interoperability between systems, require widespread and dependable access to published and maintained collections of coherent and quality-assured semantic resources, including models such as archetypes and templates that would (1) provide clinical context, (2) be mapped to interoperability standards for EHR data

  3. ArgoNeuT Overview and Future Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partyka, Kinga

    2010-02-01

    The Argon Neutrino Teststand, ArgoNeuT, is a small scale Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC). ArgoNeuT is located 350 feet underground and it sits upstream of the MINOS detector on the NuMI beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. It is an R&D project paving the way for construction of larger detectors. ArgoNeuT provides bubble chamber quality images and an excellent background rejection. To date, there are very few measurements of neutral current (NC) 0̂ production in the 1-2 GeV range,footnotetextA. A. Aguilar-Arevalo et al., Phys. Lett. B 664, 41 (2008) which is an important region for neutrino oscillation experiments. ArgoNeuT takes measurements in 0.1 to 10 GeV range and will help, among other studies, in analysis of coherent versus resonant pion production. ArgoNeuT will give us a sample of neutrino events in a LArTPC for the first time in the U.S. and the first time ever in a low-energy beam. )

  4. ARGOS: the laser guide star system for the LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabien, S.; Ageorges, N.; Barl, L.; Beckmann, U.; Blümchen, T.; Bonaglia, M.; Borelli, J. L.; Brynnel, J.; Busoni, L.; Carbonaro, L.; Davies, R.; Deysenroth, M.; Durney, O.; Elberich, M.; Esposito, S.; Gasho, V.; Gässler, W.; Gemperlein, H.; Genzel, R.; Green, R.; Haug, M.; Hart, M. L.; Hubbard, P.; Kanneganti, S.; Masciadri, E.; Noenickx, J.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Peter, D.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rademacher, M.; Rix, H. W.; Salinari, P.; Schwab, C.; Storm, J.; Strüder, L.; Thiel, M.; Weigelt, G.; Ziegleder, J.

    2010-07-01

    ARGOS is the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope. Aiming for a wide field adaptive optics correction, ARGOS will equip both sides of LBT with a multi laser beacon system and corresponding wavefront sensors, driving LBT's adaptive secondary mirrors. Utilizing high power pulsed green lasers the artificial beacons are generated via Rayleigh scattering in earth's atmosphere. ARGOS will project a set of three guide stars above each of LBT's mirrors in a wide constellation. The returning scattered light, sensitive particular to the turbulence close to ground, is detected in a gated wavefront sensor system. Measuring and correcting the ground layers of the optical distortions enables ARGOS to achieve a correction over a very wide field of view. Taking advantage of this wide field correction, the science that can be done with the multi object spectrographs LUCIFER will be boosted by higher spatial resolution and strongly enhanced flux for spectroscopy. Apart from the wide field correction ARGOS delivers in its ground layer mode, we foresee a diffraction limited operation with a hybrid Sodium laser Rayleigh beacon combination.

  5. High Altitude Observatory YBJ and ARGO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; ARGO Collaboration

    A 5800 m2 RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) full coverage air shower array is under construction in the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory, Tibet of China, by the ChinaItaly ARGO Collaboration. YBJ is a large flat grassland with an area 10 × 70 km2 at 4300m altitude, about 90 north west from Lhasa. Its nearby power station, asphalt road to Lhasa, passing railway (will be constructed during the coming 5 years), optical fiber link to the INTERNET, rare snow and other favourable weather conditions are well suitable for setting an Astrophysical Observatory here. The installation of a large area carpet-like detector in this peculiar site will allow one to perform an all-sky and high duty cycle study of high energy gamma rays from 100GeV to 50 TeV as well as accurate measurements on UHE cosmic rays. To insure the stable and uniform working condition of RPCs, a 104 M2 carpet hall was constructed, the RPC installation have be started in it since last November. The natural distribution and daily variation of temperature in the hall, the data concerning the performances of the installed RPCs, have been measured, the results are presented. ce

  6. Diffraction limited operation with ARGOS: a hybrid AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, M.; Busoni, L.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.

    2010-07-01

    ARGOS, the Laser Guide Star (LGS) facility of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), implements a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) system, using 3 low-altitude beacons, to improve the resolution over the 4'×4' FoV of the imager and Multi Object Spectrograph (MOS) LUCIFER. In this paper we discuss the performance and the reconstruction scheme of an hybrid AO system using the ARGOS Rayleigh beacons complemented with a single faint high-altitude star (NGS or sodium beacon) to sense the turbulence of the upper atmosphere allowing an high degree of on-axis correction. With the ARGOS system, the NGS-upgrade can be immediately implemented at LBT using the already existing Pyramid WFS offering performance similar to the NGS AO system with the advantage of a larger sky coverage.

  7. Argos: A novel 3-DoF parallel wrist mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vischer, P.; Clavel, R.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a novel parallel spherical mechanism called argos with three rotational degrees of freedom. Design aspects of the first prototype built of the Argos mechanism are discussed. The direct kinematic problem is solved, leading always to four nonsingular configurations of the end effector for a given set of joint angles. The inverse-kinematic problem yields two possible configurations for each of the three pantographs for a given orientation of the end effector. Potential applications of the Argos mechanism are robot wrists, orientable machine tool beds, joy sticks, surgical manipulators, and orientable units for optical components. Another pantograph based new structure named PantoScope having two rotational DoF is also briefly introduced.

  8. A global comparison of Argo and satellite altimetry observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhomps, A.-L.; Guinehut, S.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Larnicol, G.

    2011-03-01

    Differences, similarities and complementarities between Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) deduced from altimeter measurements and dynamic height anomalies (DHA) calculated from Argo in situ temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles are globally analyzed. SLA and DHA agree remarkably well and, compared to previous studies, Argo dataset allows an improvement in the coherence between SLA and DHA. Indeed, Argo data provides a much better spatial coverage of all oceans and particularly the Southern Ocean, the use of an Argo mean dynamic height, the use of measured salinity profiles (versus climatological salinity), and the use of a deeper reference level (1000 m versus 700 m). The large influence of Argo salinity observations on the consistency between altimetry and hydrographic observations is particularly demonstrated with an improvement of 35% (relative to the SLA minus DHA signal) by using measured salinity profiles instead of climatological data. The availability of observations along the Argo float trajectories also provides a means to describe the sea level variability of the global ocean both for the low frequency and the mesoscale part of the circulation. Results indicate that sea level variability is dominated by baroclinic signal at seasonal to inter-annual periods for all latitudes. In the tropics, sea level variability is baroclinic for meso-scale to interannual periods and at high latitudes, sea level variability is barotropic with also deep baroclinic signals (i.e. influence of deep temperature and salinity signals) for intra seasonal and mesoscale periods. These results emphasize the need to separate the different time and space scales in order to improve the merging of the two data sets. The qualitative study of seasonal to interannual SLA minus DHA signals finally reveals signals related to deep ocean circulation variations and basin-scale barotropic signals. Future work is, however, needed to understand the observed differences and relate them to different

  9. A global comparison of Argo and satellite altimetry observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhomps, A.-L.; Guinehut, S.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Larnicol, G.

    2010-05-01

    Differences and complementarities between Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) deduced from altimeter measurements and dynamic height anomalies (DHA) calculated from Argo in situ temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles are globally analyzed. Compared to previous studies, Argo data allows a much better spatial coverage of all oceans and particularly the Southern Ocean, the use of salinity measurements and the use of a deeper reference level. The use of time series along the Argo float trajectories also provides a means to describe the vertical structure of the ocean both for the low frequency and the mesoscale part of the circulation. The comparison shows the very good consistency between Argo and altimeter observations. Correlations range from 0.9 in low latitudes to 0.3 in high latitudes where the contributions of deep baroclinic and barotropic signals are the largest. The study underlines the large influence of salinity observations on the consistency between altimetry and hydrographic observations. SLA/DHA consistency is thus improved by 35% (relative to the SLA minus DHA signal) by using measured S profiles instead of climatology data. The use of a deep reference level also significantly improves the correlation at mid and high latitudes. The role of seasonal signals on the correlation and regression analysis between altimeter and Argo observations is also analyzed. As they are mainly associated with the heating/cooling of surface layers, removing these large scale signals significantly reduces the correlation and impacts the geographical structure of the Argo/altimetry regression coefficients. These results emphasize the need to separate the different time and space scales in order to improve the merging of the two data sets. The study of seasonal to interannual SLA minus DHA signals finally reveals interesting signals related to deep ocean circulation variations. Future work is, however, needed to understand the observed differences and relate them to different

  10. Analyses of altimetry errors using Argo and GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandi, Pierre; Legeais, Jean-François; Ablain, Michael; Picot, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Since the first altimeter missions and the improvements performed in the accuracy of sea surface height measurements from 1992 onwards, the importance of global quality assessment of altimeter data has been increasing. Global Cal/Val studies are usually performed by the analysis of internal consistency and cross-comparison between all missions. In this study, the steric and mass contributions to the sea level provided by Argo profiling floats and the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission respectively are used as independent sources of comparison to analyze the altimetry errors. Argo profiling floats are spread out over almost the global open ocean since 2004. However, they measure temperature and salinity vertical profiles, providing only the steric contribution to the total sea level content measured by altimeters. The missing mass contribution is derived from the GRACE data set from 2003 onwards. The comparison is performed with the first objective of detecting global and regional altimeter mean sea level drifts. A second goal is to assess the impact of new altimeter standards (orbit, geophysical corrections, ground processing) and new versions of altimeter merged products such as the 2014 AVISO reprocessing or the Sea Level CCI data set. We also focus our work on sensitivity analyses of the method of comparison to various parameters. In particular, we determine to which extent the altimeter quality assessment is affected by a different pre-processing of altimeter data, a sub sampling of the Argo network and a change of the reference depth used to compute Argo dynamic heights.

  11. Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS Proteins Interact with Ethylene Receptor Signaling Complex, Supporting a Regulatory Role for ARGOS in Ethylene Signal Transduction[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinrui; Wang, Hongyu; Habben, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. ARGOS genes reduce plant sensitivity to ethylene when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). A previous genetic study suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-localized maize ARGOS1 targets the ethylene signal transduction components at or upstream of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, but the mechanism of ARGOS modulating ethylene signaling is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis that ZmARGOS1, as well as the Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1, physically interacts with Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1), an ethylene receptor interacting protein that regulates the activity of ETHYLENE RESPONSE1. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system. Using the same yeast assay, we found that maize RTE1 homolog REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 LIKE4 (ZmRTL4) and ZmRTL2 also interact with maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins. Like AtRTE1 in Arabidopsis, ZmRTL4 and ZmRTL2 reduce ethylene responses when overexpressed in maize, indicating a similar mechanism for ARGOS regulating ethylene signaling in maize. A polypeptide fragment derived from ZmARGOS8, consisting of a Pro-rich motif flanked by two transmembrane helices that are conserved among members of the ARGOS family, can interact with AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins in Arabidopsis. The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall, these results suggest a physical association between ARGOS and the ethylene receptor signaling complex via AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins, supporting a role for ARGOS in regulating ethylene perception and the early steps of signal transduction in Arabidopsis and maize. PMID:27268962

  12. Intensity-enhanced MART for tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, HongPing; Gao, Qi; Wei, RunJie; Wang, JinJun

    2016-05-01

    A novel technique to shrink the elongated particles and suppress the ghost particles in particle reconstruction of tomographic particle image velocimetry is presented. This method, named as intensity-enhanced multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (IntE-MART), utilizes an inverse diffusion function and an intensity suppressing factor to improve the quality of particle reconstruction and consequently the precision of velocimetry. A numerical assessment about vortex ring motion with and without image noise is performed to evaluate the new algorithm in terms of reconstruction, particle elongation and velocimetry. The simulation is performed at seven different seeding densities. The comparison of spatial filter MART and IntE-MART on the probability density function of particle peak intensity suggests that one of the local minima of the distribution can be used to separate the ghosts and actual particles. Thus, ghost removal based on IntE-MART is also introduced. To verify the application of IntE-MART, a real plate turbulent boundary layer experiment is performed. The result indicates that ghost reduction can increase the accuracy of RMS of velocity field.

  13. The Euro-Argo education web site: using Argo data to teach data analysis and marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, Valborg; Scheurle, Carolyn; Gould, John; Macama, Emina; King, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The Euro-Argo education website (www.euroargo-edu.org) aims to make Argo and its data accessible to a non-specialist audience. The site is centred on a selection of floats, which have been chosen because of the insight they provide into key oceanographic processes, the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of different ocean regions around the world, and the role of the ocean in the global climate system. The float selection is a vehicle for teaching data analysis skills, linking these to current topics in the ocean and climate sciences. Each float in the selection has its own page, which provides access to the float data, data plots, background information on the ocean region in which the float can be found, and questions to guide data interpretation. Hidden 'model answers' allow users to check their understanding by comparing their own answers to those provided. The interactive component of the site also includes a series of quizzes, designed to teach data interpretation skills. These start at a basic level and take the students step by step through the most common ways to plot oceanographic data in space and time. More general background information covers the main aspects of the Argo programme, its history and applications, and basic technical information about the floats and sensors. 'World Tour' pages linked to the float selection provide information about the main ocean regions and link information from the Argo programme to oceanographic information from other sources such as satellite observations. The site is primarily aimed at young people between 11 and 18 years of age. However experience from using selected material from the site during science open days shows that children as young as 8-9 and adults of all ages also enjoy the challenge of using and interpreting the Argo data in different contexts.

  14. Exclusive µ+Np topologies with ArgoNeuT

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, Kinga

    2015-05-15

    The Argon Neutrino Test, ArgoNeuT, is a small scale Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) that is one step towards the construction of large scale LAr TPCs for long-baseline neutrino physics. LArTPCs provide bubble-chamber-like quality images for excellent particle ID and background rejection. Due to its superb capabilities it is well suited for topological analysis by reporting what it sees in a final state. Preliminary analysis of ArgoNeuT’s 0.1 to 10 GeV neutrino µ+Np topologies together with first ever study of proton multiplicities in neutrino-argon interactions was presented and compared with GENIE Monte Carlo generator.

  15. An ensemble adjustment Kalman filter study for Argo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xunqiang; Qiao, Fangli; Yang, Yongzeng; Xia, Changshui

    2010-05-01

    An ensemble adjustment Kalman filter system is developed to assimilate Argo profiles into the Northwest Pacific MASNUM wave-circulation coupled model, which is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). This model was recoded in FORTRAN-90 style, and some new data types were defined to improve the efficiency of system design and execution. This system is arranged for parallel computing by using UNIX shell scripts: it is easier with single models running separately with the required information exchanged through input/output files. Tests are carried out to check the performance of the system: one for checking the ensemble spread and another for the performance of assimilation of the Argo data in 2005. The first experiment shows that the assimilation system performs well. The comparison with the Satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) shows that modeled SST errors are reduced after assimilation; at the same time, the spatial correlation between the simulated SST anomalies and the satellite data is improved because of Argo assimilation. Furthermore, the temporal evolution/trend of SST becomes much better than those results without data assimilation. The comparison against GTSPP profiles shows that the improvement is not only in the upper layers of ocean, but also in the deeper layers. All these results suggest that this system is potentially capable of reconstructing oceanic data sets that are of high quality and are temporally and spatially continuous.

  16. Radiotracking large wilderness mammals: Integration of GPS and Argos technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Arthur, Steve M.

    1999-01-01

    We tested 30 prototype global positioning system (GPS) radiocollars on brown bears (Ursus arctos) over a 3-year period on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Collars were of 2 design types: GPS with an Argos (Argos Data collection and Location System) satellite uplink (n=19) and GPS unites where the data were stored on board (n=10) for retrieval at a later date. All units also contained a conventional VHF (very high frequency) transmitter and weighed 1.7 kg. GPS-Argos united obtained 10-82% of expected GPS fixes, and fix rate declined significantly (P<0.05) with time after deployment. Argos uplink success (proportion of successful transmissions of stored data) was linearly related to GPS fix rate (r=0.91, P<0.001). Store-on-board units obtained significantly more successful fixes when compared with the GPS-Argos units (t=-4.009, P<0.001). Fix success rate for deployed store-on-board collars ranged from 13-96%; because of the increased number of attempted fixes per day, these collars obtained fixes on 97% of days deployed. Accuracy of the GPS units was less than predicted by the NAVSTAR GPS technology using the course acquisition code. Reduced accuracy was likely a result of the proportion of 2-dimensional versus 3-dimensional fixes obtained, although we could not determine this statistic from recorded data. Increased overstory closure was the only variable measured that partially explained the reduced likelihood of a successful fix. Stem density, stem diameter, and overstory height measured within 3 m of the collar did not affect fix success. GPS fix success rates for collars attached to bears varied more and were lower than fix rates for stationary collars placed in various vegetation types, suggesting that the bear, terrain, and movement all influence both fix and uplink success rate. Application of this new technology to grizzly and brown bear research and comparisons to studies with moose (Alces alces) are discussed.

  17. Analyses of altimetry errors using Argo and GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, Jean-François; Prandi, Pierre; Guinehut, Stéphanie

    2016-05-01

    This study presents the evaluation of the performances of satellite altimeter missions by comparing the altimeter sea surface heights with in situ dynamic heights derived from vertical temperature and salinity profiles measured by Argo floats. The two objectives of this approach are the detection of altimeter drift and the estimation of the impact of new altimeter standards that requires an independent reference. This external assessment method contributes to altimeter calibration-validation analyses that cover a wide range of activities. Among them, several examples are given to illustrate the usefulness of this approach, separating the analyses of the long-term evolution of the mean sea level and its variability, at global and regional scales and results obtained via relative and absolute comparisons. The latter requires the use of the ocean mass contribution to the sea level derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements. Our analyses cover the estimation of the global mean sea level trend, the validation of multi-missions altimeter products as well as the assessment of orbit solutions.Even if this approach contributes to the altimeter quality assessment, the differences between two versions of altimeter standards are getting smaller and smaller and it is thus more difficult to detect their impact. It is therefore essential to characterize the errors of the method, which is illustrated with the results of sensitivity analyses to different parameters. This includes the format of the altimeter data, the method of collocation, the temporal reference period and the processing of the ocean mass solutions from GRACE. We also assess the impact of the temporal and spatial sampling of Argo floats, the choice of the reference depth of the in situ profiles and the importance of the deep steric contribution. These analyses provide an estimation of the robustness of the method and the characterization of associated errors. The results also allow us

  18. Recent results from the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Camarri, P.

    2010-03-26

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment at YangBaJing in Tibet (4300 m a.s.l.) has been taking data with its full layout since October 2007. Here we present the first significant results obtained in gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic-ray physics. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of gamma-ray emission from point-like sources (Crab Nebula, MRK 421), on the preliminary limit on the antiproton/proton flux ratio, on the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy and on the proton-air cross section. The performance of the detector is also discussed, and the perspectives of the experiment are outlined.

  19. Application of Argo-derived background diapycnal mixing in HYCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zengan; Yu, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Internal wave-induced background diapycnal mixing (DM) in the upper 2000 m of the global ocean, which primarily depends on the local inertial frequency, is calculated based on Argo observations using the newly published Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater-2010 (IOC, SCOR and IAPSO, 2010). This spatially dependent background DM agrees well with previous theoretical and observational mixing estimates. More importantly, the DM data are gridded, which renders the data suitable for modeling applications. The implementation of these data in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) demonstrates the potential for their application in numerical ocean models. Three numerical experiments that are specifically designed with different DM settings reveal that the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), temperature and salinity in the Atlantic change substantially when the constant background DM is replaced with Argo-derived mixing. Tropical and high-latitude regions that are considered important for global climate are identified as the areas that are most sensitive to the magnitude of the background DM. Compared with constant background DM, the enhanced mid-latitude DM most likely contributes substantially to the MOC transport. Thus, although room remains for improvement, the spatially varying DM derived in the present study may facilitate global circulation and climate modeling.

  20. Service-oriented architecture for the ARGOS instrument control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borelli, J.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Kulas, M.; Rabien, Sebastian

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Rayleigh Guided ground layer Adaptive optic System, ARGOS, equips the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with a constellation of six rayleigh laser guide stars. By correcting atmospheric turbulence near the ground, the system is designed to increase the image quality of the multi-object spectrograph LUCIFER approximately by a factor of 3 over a field of 4 arc minute diameter. The control software has the critical task of orchestrating several devices, instruments, and high level services, including the already existing adaptive optic system and the telescope control software. All these components are widely distributed over the telescope, adding more complexity to the system design. The approach used by the ARGOS engineers is to write loosely coupled and distributed services under the control of different ownership systems, providing a uniform mechanism to offer, discover, interact and use these distributed capabilities. The control system counts with several finite state machines, vibration and flexure compensation loops, and safety mechanism, such as interlocks, aircraft, and satellite avoidance systems.

  1. Tasman Leakage of intermediate waters as inferred from Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosell-Fieschi, Miquel; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Gourrion, Jeröme; Pelegrí, Josep L.

    2013-10-01

    use Argo float trajectories to infer ocean current velocity at the sea surface and 1000 dbar near Australia. The East Australian Current flows southward along the east coast of Australia at both surface and intermediate levels, but only the intermediate waters leak round the southern tip of Tasmania and cross the Great Australian Bight. We calculate the transport of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) between the southern Australian coast and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) as the velocity at 1000 dbar times the layer thickness. Between March 2006 and December 2012, the Eulerian AAIW transport through 147°E ranges between 0 and 12.0 sverdrup (Sv). The mean Tasman Leakage of intermediate waters from the Pacific Ocean into the Indian Ocean, obtained using all Argo data until March 2013, is 3.8 ± 1.3 Sv. The mean intermediate water transport into the Indian Ocean through 115°E increases to 5.2 ± 1.8 Sv due to contributions from the westward recirculation of ACC waters.

  2. Fifteen years of ocean observations with the global Argo array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riser, Stephen C.; Freeland, Howard J.; Roemmich, Dean; Wijffels, Susan; Troisi, Ariel; Belbéoch, Mathieu; Gilbert, Denis; Xu, Jianping; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Thresher, Ann; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves; Maze, Guillaume; Klein, Birgit; Ravichandran, M.; Grant, Fiona; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Suga, Toshio; Lim, Byunghwan; Sterl, Andreas; Sutton, Philip; Mork, Kjell-Arne; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro Joaquín; Ansorge, Isabelle; King, Brian; Turton, Jon; Baringer, Molly; Jayne, Steven R.

    2016-02-01

    More than 90% of the heat energy accumulation in the climate system between 1971 and the present has been in the ocean. Thus, the ocean plays a crucial role in determining the climate of the planet. Observing the oceans is problematic even under the most favourable of conditions. Historically, shipboard ocean sampling has left vast expanses, particularly in the Southern Ocean, unobserved for long periods of time. Within the past 15 years, with the advent of the global Argo array of profiling floats, it has become possible to sample the upper 2,000 m of the ocean globally and uniformly in space and time. The primary goal of Argo is to create a systematic global network of profiling floats that can be integrated with other elements of the Global Ocean Observing System. The network provides freely available temperature and salinity data from the upper 2,000 m of the ocean with global coverage. The data are available within 24 hours of collection for use in a broad range of applications that focus on examining climate-relevant variability on seasonal to decadal timescales, multidecadal climate change, improved initialization of coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models and constraining ocean analysis and forecasting systems.

  3. How essential are Argo observations to constrain a global ocean data assimilation system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, V.; Remy, E.; Le Traon, P. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Observing system experiments (OSEs) are carried out over a 1-year period to quantify the impact of Argo observations on the Mercator Ocean 0.25° global ocean analysis and forecasting system. The reference simulation assimilates sea surface temperature (SST), SSALTO/DUACS (Segment Sol multi-missions dALTimetrie, d'orbitographie et de localisation précise/Data unification and Altimeter combination system) altimeter data and Argo and other in situ observations from the Coriolis data center. Two other simulations are carried out where all Argo and half of the Argo data are withheld. Assimilating Argo observations has a significant impact on analyzed and forecast temperature and salinity fields at different depths. Without Argo data assimilation, large errors occur in analyzed fields as estimated from the differences when compared with in situ observations. For example, in the 0-300 m layer RMS (root mean square) differences between analyzed fields and observations reach 0.25 psu and 1.25 °C in the western boundary currents and 0.1 psu and 0.75 °C in the open ocean. The impact of the Argo data in reducing observation-model forecast differences is also significant from the surface down to a depth of 2000 m. Differences between in situ observations and forecast fields are thus reduced by 20 % in the upper layers and by up to 40 % at a depth of 2000 m when Argo data are assimilated. At depth, the most impacted regions in the global ocean are the Mediterranean outflow, the Gulf Stream region and the Labrador Sea. A significant degradation can be observed when only half of the data are assimilated. Therefore, Argo observations matter to constrain the model solution, even for an eddy-permitting model configuration. The impact of the Argo floats' data assimilation on other model variables is briefly assessed: the improvement of the fit to Argo profiles do not lead globally to unphysical corrections on the sea surface temperature and sea surface height. The main conclusion

  4. A comparison of Argo nominal surface and near-surface temperature for validation of AMSR-E SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zenghong; Chen, Xingrong; Sun, Chaohui; Wu, Xiaofen; Lu, Shaolei

    2016-06-01

    Satellite SST (sea surface temperature) from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is compared with in situ temperature observations from Argo profiling floats over the global oceans to evaluate the advantages of Argo NST (near-surface temperature: water temperature less than 1 m from the surface). By comparing Argo nominal surface temperature (~5 m) with its NST, a diurnal cycle caused by daytime warming and nighttime cooling was found, along with a maximum warming of 0.08±0.36°C during 14:00-15:00 local time. Further comparisons between Argo 5-m temperature/Argo NST and AMSR-E SST retrievals related to wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud water indicate warming biases at low wind speed (<5 m/s) and columnar water vapor >28 mm during daytime. The warming tendency is more remarkable for AMSR-E SST/Argo 5-m temperature compared with AMSR-E SST/Argo NST, owing to the effect of diurnal warming. This effect of diurnal warming events should be excluded before validation for microwave SST retrievals. Both AMSR-E nighttime SST/Argo 5-m temperature and nighttime SST/Argo NST show generally good agreement, independent of wind speed and columnar water vapor. From our analysis, Argo NST data demonstrated their advantages for validation of satellite-retrieved SST.

  5. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  6. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "acai" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received c...

  7. A new method of ARGO buoys system observation data interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Parmuzin, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    Study and solution of geophysical hydrodynamics problems are based on experimental and observation data from different sources. Despite large amount of observation data, availability of them often remains insufficient because data are provided on sets of irregular points and during the asynchronous moments of time. In this work a new method of temperature fields creation on regular grids according to observation data is offered taking into account a transfer by their currents. By means of this method it is possible to receive "pseudo-observations" for the required moment of time and, thereby, to solve a problem of an asynchronism of geophysical information. The results of numerical experiments on the World Ocean area within ARGO buoys system data are given. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 11-01-12046, 12-05-00469) and by the Russian Federal target Program "Research and educational human resources for innovative Russia" (project 8219) for 2009-2013 and the Federal target program "Researches and development in priority fields of scientific and technological complex of Russia for 2007-2013" (project 11.519.11.1005) and the Ministry of education and science of Russia, project 14.A18.21.1901. References 1. Zakharova N.B., Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., The new method of ARGO buoys system observation data interpolation. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 28, Issue 1, 2013. 2. Agoshkov V.I., Zakharova N.B., The creation of piecewise - harmonic interpolation on spherical surfaces. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 27, Issue 6, 2012. 3. Zakharova N.B., Lebedev S.A., Interpolation of on-line data of the ARGO buoys system for data assimilation in the World ocean circulation model. Actual problems in remote sensing of the Earth from space: Principal physics, physical methods and technologies for monitoring of environment, of potentially dangerous occurrences

  8. Accurate estimation of influenza epidemics using Google search data via ARGO.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shihao; Santillana, Mauricio; Kou, S C

    2015-11-24

    Accurate real-time tracking of influenza outbreaks helps public health officials make timely and meaningful decisions that could save lives. We propose an influenza tracking model, ARGO (AutoRegression with GOogle search data), that uses publicly available online search data. In addition to having a rigorous statistical foundation, ARGO outperforms all previously available Google-search-based tracking models, including the latest version of Google Flu Trends, even though it uses only low-quality search data as input from publicly available Google Trends and Google Correlate websites. ARGO not only incorporates the seasonality in influenza epidemics but also captures changes in people's online search behavior over time. ARGO is also flexible, self-correcting, robust, and scalable, making it a potentially powerful tool that can be used for real-time tracking of other social events at multiple temporal and spatial resolutions. PMID:26553980

  9. Accurate estimation of influenza epidemics using Google search data via ARGO

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shihao; Santillana, Mauricio; Kou, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate real-time tracking of influenza outbreaks helps public health officials make timely and meaningful decisions that could save lives. We propose an influenza tracking model, ARGO (AutoRegression with GOogle search data), that uses publicly available online search data. In addition to having a rigorous statistical foundation, ARGO outperforms all previously available Google-search–based tracking models, including the latest version of Google Flu Trends, even though it uses only low-quality search data as input from publicly available Google Trends and Google Correlate websites. ARGO not only incorporates the seasonality in influenza epidemics but also captures changes in people’s online search behavior over time. ARGO is also flexible, self-correcting, robust, and scalable, making it a potentially powerful tool that can be used for real-time tracking of other social events at multiple temporal and spatial resolutions. PMID:26553980

  10. Some methods of computing platform transmitter terminal location estimates. [ARGOS system; whale tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoisington, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A position estimation algorithm was developed to track a humpback whale tagged with an ARGOS platform after a transmitter deployment failure and the whale's diving behavior precluded standard methods. The algorithm is especially useful where a transmitter location program exists; it determines the classical keplarian elements from the ARGOS spacecraft position vectors included with the probationary file messages. A minimum of three distinct messages are required. Once the spacecraft orbit is determined, the whale is located using standard least squares regression techniques. Experience suggests that in instances where circumstances inherent in the experiment yield message data unsuitable for the standard ARGOS reduction, (message data may be too sparse, span an insufficient period, or include variable-length messages). System ARGOS can still provide much valuable location information if the user is willing to accept the increased location uncertainties.

  11. Multiple shell shower fronts in EAS with ARGO-YBJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, G.

    2015-08-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is an Extensive Air Shower array that has been operated at the high altitude Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, P.R. China 4300 m a.s.l.) in its final configuration since December 2007 until February 2013. The detector consists of a dense layer of Resistive Plate Counters (RPCs) covering an area of about 11000 m2. It has been designed to measure the temporal and spatial structure of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) with high space-time resolution. The detector gives a quite highly detailed picture of shower footprints at ground. It is perfectly suitable to understand the EAS morphology. These detector characteristics have been used for seeking particles of large rest mass produced in cosmic rays by measuring the Multiple Shell Shower Fronts relative delays. The technique and preliminary results will be illustrated in the present work.

  12. Hints on nuclear effects from ArgoNeuT data

    SciTech Connect

    Palamara, Ornella

    2015-05-15

    Initial results from a topological analysis of CC “0 pion” muon neutrino events in LAr collected by the ArgoNeuT experiment on the NuMI LE beam at Fermilab (in the few GeV energy region) are presented and compared with predictions from MC simulations. A new analysis method, based on the reconstruction of exclusive topologies, fully exploiting the LArTPC technique capabilities, is used to analyze the events and study nuclear effects in neutrino interactions on Argon nuclei. Multiple protons accompanying the leading muon and the presence of vertex activity are clearly visible (and measured) in the events. Ratios among rates of different exclusive topologies provide indications of the size of nuclear effects in neutrino-nucleus interactions in LAr.

  13. Global interior eddy available potential energy diagnosed from Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullet, Guillaume; Capet, Xavier; Maze, Guillaume

    2014-03-01

    By combining all Argo profiles for the period 2002 to present, a cumulative density function is constructed on a 3-D grid of the global ocean. This function quantifies the statistics of isopycnals: time-averaged density, root-mean square of isopycnal displacement, and eddy available potential energy (EAPE). EAPE is the analogue of the eddy kinetic energy, but for the potential energy reservoir. Because it is essentially tied to the spatial structure and magnitude of mesoscale activity, EAPE is an important quantity that should be useful to evaluate eddy resolving/permitting model turbulence and circulation. Among other striking features are the turbulent behavior of Pacific and southern Atlantic Tsuchiya jets and subsurface EAPE maxima in some parts of the ocean, particularly in the Southern Ocean.

  14. P91-1 ARGOS spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadunas, Jonas; Baginski, Ben; McCarthy, Daniel

    1993-07-01

    The P91-1, or ARGOS, is a Department of Defense funded (DOD) Space Test Program (STP) satellite managed by the Space and Missile Systems Center Space and Small Launch Vehicle Programs Office (SMC/CUL). Rockwell International Space Systems Division is the space vehicle prime contractor. The P91-1 mission is to fly a suite of eight experiments in a 450 nautical mile sun-synchronous orbit dedicated to three dimensional UV imaging of the ionosphere, X-ray source mapping, navigation, space debris characterization, performance characterization of high temperature super conductivity RF devices, and on orbit demonstration of an electrical propulsion system. The primary purpose of this paper is to acquaint the thermal control community, and potential future follow on mission users, with the thermal control characteristics of the spacecraft, experiment/SV thermal integration aspects, and test verification plans.

  15. Applicability of Ann in the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q. Q.; Tan, Y. H.; Yang, X. C.; Argo-Ybj Coll.

    We report the applicability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in the ARGO-YBJ data analysis, i.e. inner or outer shower core position identification and γ-proton separation, With the MC samples from Corsika and a standard feed forward neural network, the results indicate that the rejection of outer showers induced by protons is more than 60% and the enhancement in the gamma ray sensitivity is about 37% 1 Motivation The Sino-Italian ARGO-YBJ experiment locates at YangBa-Jing (90o 31'50"E, 30o 6'38"N, 4300m a.s.l.) of Tibet, China. The main goal of the experiment is to search for Very High Energy γ point sources and HE Gamma Ray Bursts. The experimental setup is a coverage RPC carpet with an area of 97m x 103m(D'Ettorre et al., 1999) which consists of 14040 PADs. Each PAD is the detector minimum unit with 8 readout strips (i.e. the maximum number of recorded particles = 8). In order to increase the ratio of signals to noises, we have done a preliminary study on the γ-proton seperation using Artificial Neural Networks(ANN) technique(Bussino 1999). Our further Monte Carlo study indicates that the determination accuracy of event core position will affect the γ-proton identification power significantly and the key point for the determination of event core position is inner or outer event classcification. Here inner (or outer) event means the event real core located inside (or outside) of the central 71m x 74m full coverage carpet. In this note we mainly discuss on the identification power for the two classes of events.

  16. Consistency of Aquarius sea surface salinity with Argo products on various spatial and temporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tong

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the accuracies of satellite-derived sea surface salinity measurements in depicting temporal changes and their dependence on spatiotemporal scales is important to applications, capability assessment, and future satellite mission design. This study quantifies the consistency between Aquarius Version 4 monthly gridded sea surface salinity (SSS) with two Argo-based monthly gridded near-surface salinity products for describing temporal changes on 1° × 1°, 3° × 3°, and 10° × 10° scales. Globally averaged standard deviation values for Aquarius-Argo salinity differences on these three spatial scales are 0.16, 0.14, and 0.09 practical salinity unit (psu), compared to those between the two Argo products of 0.10, 0.09, and 0.04 psu. The consistency between Aquarius and Argo is similar to that between the two Argo products in the tropics for seasonal signals, and in the tropics and midlatitudes for nonseasonal signals. Therefore, the uncertainties of Argo products for various scales need to be considered in evaluating satellite SSS. Innovative satellite technologies are needed to improve high-latitude satellite SSS measurements.

  17. The Argos contribution to the demonstration of the effectiveness of a satellite-based search and rescue system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, R.

    The use of the CNES/NASA/NOAA Argos environmental-research instrumentation on the Tiros-N series of satellites as a search and rescue location-finding system for trans-Atlantic yacht races during 1979-1982 is described. The transmission beacons, satellite equipment, data-processing center, and data distribution facilities of Argos are characterized and illustrated; the nine race rescue operations in which Argos was involved are listed and discussed; and the deficiencies of Argos are shown to be fully corrected in the 406-MHz location system developed for Sarsat.

  18. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E; Archibald, Rayeann L; Drummond, Bruce J; Chamberlin, Mark A; Williams, Robert W; Lafitte, H Renee; Weers, Ben P

    2015-09-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions. PMID:26220950

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  20. What can ARGO's tell us on the processes in Baltic Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiha, Petra; Siiriä, Simo-Matti; Nummelin, Aleksi; Aro, Eemeli; Purokoski, Tero

    2014-05-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute has been testing ARGO floats in the Baltic Sea as a mean for collecting data from the sea areas that are not easily reachable by research vessels or remote sensing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is very sparse and new observational methods are needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge and collect new data for different purposes, such as, operational activities, modelling and ocean science. The ARGO floats have been used successfully in the deep oceans. However, applying the ARGO floats in Baltic Sea is not straight forward, as the conditions differ greatly: the water is brackish, some areas are heavily trafficked and the northern parts freeze during the winter. In addition, the mean depth is only 54 metres, which is only a fraction of depths where ARGO floats have commonly been used. FMI has deployed three ARGO floats in Baltic Sea for different missions. The first ARGO was deployed in 2012 with normal diving algorithm, which checks the pressure hourly. The second float was modified by Aalto University so that the algorithm checks the pressure every 15 minutes. The first float was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013 and it measured over 200 profiles during its half year mission. The float with faster pressure detection was deployed in the Bothnian Sea in May 2013, and during it's 4 month mission it measured succesfully over 120 profiles. Another, longer test is ongoing on Eastern Gotland basin, where another ARGO float was deployed at Aug 2013, and still measures at Jan 2014. This one differs from earlier experiments as it has additional oxygen and scattering meters, also the area of measurements is deeper (200+ meters). The missions so far indicate, that with proper control and monitoring, ARGO's can be operated, and can measure long series of profiles. In addition to the actual measurements, the movement of ARGO floats gives possibilities to analyse currents in deeper areas of Baltic, and help

  1. FIT-MART: Quantum Magnetism with a Gentle Learning Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Larry; Garland, Scott C.; Rainey, Cameron; Freeman, Ray A.

    We present a new open-source software package, FIT-MART, that allows non-experts to quickly get started sim- ulating quantum magnetism. FIT-MART can be downloaded as a platform-idependent executable Java (JAR) file. It allows the user to define (Heisenberg) Hamiltonians by electronically drawing pictures that represent quantum spins and operators. Sliders are automatically generated to control the values of the parameters in the model, and when the values change, several plots are updated in real time to display both the resulting energy spectra and the equilibruim magnetic properties. Several experimental data sets for real magnetic molecules are included in FIT-MART to allow easy comparison between simulated and experimental data, and FIT-MART users can also import their own data for analysis and compare the goodness of fit for different models.

  2. Prenatal development in fishers (Martes pennanti)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, H.C.; Krohn, W.B.; Bezembluk, E.A.; Lott, R.; Wallace, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and quantified prenatal growth of fishers (Martes pennanti) using ultrasonography. Seven females gave birth to 21 kits. The first identifiable embryonic structures were seen 42 d prepartum; these appeared to be unimplanted blastocysts or gestational sacs, which subsequently implanted in the uterine horns. Maternal and fetal heart rates were monitored from first detection to birth. Maternal heart rates did not differ among sampling periods, while fetal hearts rates increased from first detection to birth. Head and body differentiation, visible limbs and skeletal ossification were visible by 30, 23 and 21 d prepartum, respectively. Mean diameter of gestational sacs and crown-rump lengths were linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001). Biparietal and body diameters were also linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001) and correctly predicted parturition dates within 1-2 d. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CRAB NEBULA: FIVE-YEAR OBSERVATION WITH ARGO-YBJ

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2015-01-10

    The ARGO-YBJ air shower detector monitored the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission from 2007 November to 2013 February. The integrated signal, consisting of ∼3.3 × 10{sup 5} events, reached the statistical significance of 21.1 standard deviations. The obtained energy spectrum in the energy range 0.3-20 TeV can be described by a power law function dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α}, with a flux normalization I {sub 0} = (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup –12} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1} and α = 2.63 ± 0.05, corresponding to an integrated flux above 1 TeV of 1.97 × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. The systematic error is estimated to be less than 30% for the flux normalization and 0.06 for the spectral index. Assuming a power law spectrum with an exponential cutoff dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α} exp (–E/E {sub cut}), the lower limit of the cutoff energy E {sub cut} is 12 TeV, at 90% confidence level. Our extended data set allows the study of the TeV emission over long timescales. Over five years, the light curve of the Crab Nebula in 200-day bins is compatible with a steady emission with a probability of 7.3 × 10{sup –2}. A correlated analysis with Fermi-LAT data over ∼4.5 yr using the light curves of the two experiments gives a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.56 ± 0.22. Concerning flux variations on timescales of days, a ''blind'' search for flares with a duration of 1-15 days gives no excess with a significance higher than four standard deviations. The average rate measured by ARGO-YBJ during the three most powerful flares detected by Fermi-LAT is 205 ± 91 photons day{sup –1}, consistent with the average value of 137 ± 10 day{sup –1}.

  4. Accuracy of ARGOS Locations of Pinnipeds at-Sea Estimated Using Fastloc GPS

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel P.; Robinson, Patrick W.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Harrison, Autumn-Lynn; Simmons, Samantha E.; Hassrick, Jason L.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Kirkman, Stephen P.; Oosthuizen, Herman; Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Crocker, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Background ARGOS satellite telemetry is one of the most widely used methods to track the movements of free-ranging marine and terrestrial animals and is fundamental to studies of foraging ecology, migratory behavior and habitat-use. ARGOS location estimates do not include complete error estimations, and for many marine organisms, the most commonly acquired locations (Location Class 0, A, B, or Z) are provided with no declared error estimate. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the accuracy of ARGOS locations to those obtained using Fastloc GPS from the same electronic tags on five species of pinnipeds: 9 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 4 Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki), 6 Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus), 3 Australian fur seals (A. p. doriferus) and 5 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). These species encompass a range of marine habitats (highly pelagic vs coastal), diving behaviors (mean dive durations 2–21 min) and range of latitudes (equator to temperate). A total of 7,318 ARGOS positions and 27,046 GPS positions were collected. Of these, 1,105 ARGOS positions were obtained within five minutes of a GPS position and were used for comparison. The 68th percentile ARGOS location errors as measured in this study were LC-3 0.49 km, LC-2 1.01 km, LC-1 1.20 km, LC-0 4.18 km, LC-A 6.19 km, LC-B 10.28 km. Conclusions/Significance The ARGOS errors measured here are greater than those provided by ARGOS, but within the range of other studies. The error was non-normally distributed with each LC highly right-skewed. Locations of species that make short duration dives and spend extended periods on the surface (sea lions and fur seals) had less error than species like elephant seals that spend more time underwater and have shorter surface intervals. Supplemental data (S1) are provided allowing the creation of density distributions that can be used in a variety of filtering algorithms to improve the quality of ARGOS

  5. Evaluation of the Argo network using statistical space-time scales derived from satellite altimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuragano, Tsurane; Fujii, Yosuke; Kamachi, Masafumi

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates capability of the Argo observation network for monitoring ocean variation, especially for eddy-scale variation, by using an optimum interpolation (OI) procedure. Sea surface dynamic height anomalies (DHAs) are derived from Argo temperature and salinity profile data, and DHA fields are obtained by the OI based on the space-time correlation scales estimated from along-track sea level anomaly (SLA) data by satellite altimetry. The DHA fields are compared with the SLA fields derived from the same OI applied to the along-track SLA data. The results show that the equatorial Kelvin waves and tropical instability waves are well captured by Argo floats. Eddies are also monitored effectively in the subtropical western North Pacific. The OI results of DHA do not agree well with those of SLA in the high latitudes. A simple test of the space-time OI analysis shows that more than six data in the e-folding domain, where the correlation coefficient of ocean variation is above e-1, are required for the reliable analysis with 99% confidence level. Argo floats provide sufficient number of observations for the reliable analysis in the low latitudes and some areas in the North Pacific. Two to three times more Argo data would be required in most of midlatitudes and much more in high latitudes for capturing eddy-scale variation.

  6. Metals removal from an acid mine drainage: The Argo Tunnel experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cevaal, J.N.; Abel, R.J.; Rogers, S.E.

    1996-12-31

    The abandoned Argo Tunnel, located approximately 30 miles west of Denver in Idaho Springs, Colorado, is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site and was identified as the most significant source of metals contamination to Clear Creek. More than 740 pounds of metals (including iron, manganese, zinc, copper and aluminum) are discharged from the Argo each day. During the course of bench-scale testing and preliminary design of the chemical precipitation treatment facility for the Argo Tunnel acid mine drainage, three treatment processes: conventional chemical precipitation, {open_quotes}high density sludge{close_quotes} precipitation arid membrane separation; and four chemical reagents: hydrated lime, caustic, magnesium hydroxide, and lime plus soda ash were evaluated. The result was the prepurchase of a {open_quotes}high density sludge{close_quotes} precipitation process using caustic as the reagent. The process was sized to treat the design average flow rate from the tunnel with additional capacity for potential future groundwater flows and for most surge events. The treatment facility was sited at the Argo Tunnel portal and adjacent to the Argo Mill, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The nearby historic designation and strong local mining heritage led to null styled superstructure encompassing indigenous mining architecture. Improvements to the water quality within the basin include removal of most of the 740 pounds of metals the tunnel currently discharges to Clear Creek and a significant reduction in instream metal concentrations, notably zinc, manganese and copper.

  7. Detection of Mediterranean lenses in the Atlantic Ocean by Argo project buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, A.; Markina, M.; Filyushkin, B.

    2013-05-01

    The investigation of Mediterranean lenses in the Atlantic Ocean uses data recorded by buoys-profilers of the "Argo" project (more than 112000 probes) . The region near Gibraltar strait (up to Azores and Canaries islands) was explored in the period from 2001 to 2012. According to these data were revealed "lenses profiles" with salinity values of more then 36 psu (more than 3000 profiles). It has been shown Argo buoys distribution in the area and were disclosed their working periods, as well as revealed the periodicity of "lenses profiles". The lenses are known to be reflected in a field at the sea level [Stammer et al., 1991], which allows to find their sizes and quantity. Therefore, the number of lenses existing in different periods were estimated using cluster analysis of Argo buoys information. It was made a cluster analysis of interaction of Argo buoy with interthermocline lenses. It has been find out that Argo buoys traced individual lenses and depicted correctly their movements, vertical scale of eddy, its location in depth and hydrological peculiarities of the lenses. The research was made with the support of the RFBR grants 13-05-00972,11-05-00634 . and Russian Ministry of education and science (agreement No8237).; Picture 1. Percent of "lens profiles" and major directions of lens propagation

  8. Status of ARGOS - The Laser Guide Star System for the LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Esposito, Simone; Antichi, Jacopo; Lloyd-Hart, Michael; Barl, Lothar; Beckmann, Udo; Bonaglia, Marco; Borelli, Jose; Brynnel, Joar; Buschkamp, Peter; Busoni, Lorenzo; Carbonaro, Luca; Christou, Julian; Connot, Claus; Davies, Richard; Deysenroth, Matthias; Durney, Olivier; Green, Richard; Gemperlein, Hans; Gasho, Victor; Haug, Marcus; Hubbard, Pete; Ihle, Sebastian; Kulas, Martin; Loose, Christina; Lehmitz, Michael; Noenickx, Jamison; Nussbaum, Edmund; Orban De Xivry, Gilles; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Peter, Diethard; Rahmer, Gustavo; Rademacher, Matt; Storm, Jesper; Schwab, Christian; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Ziegleder, Julian

    2013-12-01

    ARGOS is an innovative multiple laser guide star adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), designed to perform effective GLAO correction over a very wide field of view. The system is using high powered pulsed green (532 nm) lasers to generate a set of three guide stars above each of the LBT mirrors. The laser beams are launched through a 40 cm telescope and focused at an altitude of 12 km, creating laser beacons by means of Rayleigh scattering. The returning scattered light, primarily sensitive to the turbulences close to the ground, is detected by a gated wavefront sensor system. The derived ground layer correction signals are directly driving the adaptive secondary mirror of the LBT. ARGOS is especially designed for operation with the multiple object spectrograph Luci, which will benefit from both, the improved spatial resolution, as well as the strongly enhanced flux. In addition to the GLAO Rayleigh beacon system, ARGOS was also designed for a possible future upgrade with a hybrid sodium laser - Rayleigh beacon combination, enabling diffraction limited operation. The ARGOS laser system has undergone extensive tests during Summer 2012 and is scheduled for installation at the LBT in Spring 2013. The remaining sub-systems will be installed during the course of 2013. We report on the overall status of the ARGOS system and the results of the sub-system characterizations carried out so far.

  9. Observations of Bacterial Behavior during Infection Using the ARGOS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charest, A. J.; Algarni, S.; Iannacchione, G. S.

    2015-03-01

    This research employed the Area Recorded Generalized Optical Scattering (ARGOS) approach which allowed for the observation of bacterial changes in terms of individual particles and population dynamics in real time. This new approach allows for an aqueous environment to be manipulated while conducting time-specific measurements over an indefinite amount of time. This current study provides a more time-specific method in which the bacteria remained within the initial conditions and allows for more time precision than provided by analyzing concentrations of plaque-forming units (PFU). This study involved the bacteria (F-amp) during infection by bacteriophage (MS2). The relative total intensity allows for detailed measurements of the bacteria population over time. The bacteria characteristics were also evaluated such as the root mean square image difference (at specific wavevectors), fractal dimension and effective radius. The growth rate of the infected bacteria occurred at a rate higher than the uninfected bacteria similarly, the death rates were also higher for the infected bacteria than the uninfected bacteria. The present study indicates that bacteria may react to infection by increasing the rate of population growth.

  10. ARGOS: a laser star constellation for the LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanneganti, Shrikrishna; Rabien, Sebastian; Deysenroth, Matthias; Ziegleder, Julian; Gemperlein, Hans; Haug, Marcus

    2010-07-01

    ARGOS is an innovative multi-star adaptive optics system being built for use with LUCIFER on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). LUCIFER is a wide field imager and multi-object spectrograph. Using a constellation of laser guide stars permits PSF correction over a wide field in exchange for a relatively small sacrifice in achievable correction. The laser constellation consists of three stars per each of the two eyes of the LBT. The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by upto 0.5' in any direction. Nd:YAG (SHG) lasers from InnoLas Laser GmbH are used to create the green (532nm) laser stars, and have an output above 18 W each at the planned pulsing frequency of 10kHz. The lasers are launched using a 40cm telescope and focused at a height of 12 km. The laser system is designed to be optically simple yet configurable. It also provisions for a central sodium laser to be installed later. We detail the characteristics of the laser system and the current state of its development.

  11. Proposed gas release experiment on the argos satellite. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, S.T.; Murad, E.; Pike, C.P.

    1992-01-29

    We propose to release xenon and carbon dioxide gases from nozzles on the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) satellite orbiting with a velocity of about 7.4 km/s at an altitude of about 800 km. The releases will be conducted mostly in darkness over the Maui telescope site. The vector sum of the satellite and gas velocities will exceed the velocity requirement for the critical ionization velocity (CIV) process of xenon. It is feasible that the xenon gas will achieve critical velocity ionization. Associative ionization and collisional stripping will not occur for the xenon gas and there is no photo-ionization in darkness; ionization processes competing with CIV are absent. Neutral density, ambient magnetic field, and seed ionization effects on the xenon gas CIV will be discussed. Unlike xenon, carbon dioxide will not undergo CIV because of its higher velocity requirement. However, it is feasible that carbon dioxide colliding with the atmospheric species will form excited CO and OH molecules, which will radiate subsequently. Optical, IR, and UV observations on the satellite and at Maui will provide diagnostic measurements for the experiment.

  12. Project ARGO: Gas phase formation in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Michael R.; Waligora, James M.; Norfleet, William T.; Kumar, K. Vasantha

    1993-01-01

    The ARGO study investigated the reduced incidence of joint pain decompression sickness (DCS) encountered in microgravity as compared with an expected incidence of joint pain DCS experienced by test subjects in Earth-based laboratories (unit gravity) with similar protocols. Individuals who are decompressed from saturated conditions usually acquire joint pain DCS in the lower extremities. Our hypothesis is that the incidence of joint pain DCS can be limited by a significant reduction in the tissue gas micronuclei formed by stress-assisted nucleation. Reductions in dynamic and kinetic stresses in vivo are linked to hypokinetic and adynamic conditions of individuals in zero g. We employed the Doppler ultrasound bubble detection technique in simulated microgravity studies to determine quantitatively the degree of gas phase formation in the upper and lower extremities of test subjects during decompression. We found no evidence of right-to-left shunting through pulmonary vasculature. The volume of gas bubble following decompression was examined and compared with the number following saline contrast injection. From this, we predict a reduced incidence of DCS on orbit, although the incidence of predicted mild DCS still remains larger than that encountered on orbit.

  13. Vertical velocity estimates in the North Pacific using Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical velocity in the oceans is critical for maintenance of the structure of the main thermoclines and the transport of nutrients from deepwater towards the surface and thus is an important variable for understanding the dynamics of the ocean and the transport of scalar variables. In the mid 1970s the author was engaged in discussions with Tom Rossby about how SOFAR floats might be used to observe the vertical component of velocity. This paper in some sense follows on from those discussions almost 40 years later. In this paper the Argo array is used to compute the horizontal volume divergence in a control volume in the North Pacific. Divergence is found and this must be related to a volume flux through the base of the control volume. The implied vertical velocity is large and various tests are proposed to determine whether or not the estimate is plausible. The first test shows that a vertical velocity this large is necessary to close the salt budget. The second test shows that the vertical velocity balances about half of the observed heat divergence, the remainder is then accounted for by heat flux at the sea surface. Finally the time variable vertical velocity is computed and used to compute the evolution of the salt content in the control volume. Thus though the estimated vertical velocity is surprisingly large, it passes plausibility tests.

  14. A complex North Atlantic permanent pycnocline revealed by Argo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucher, Charlène; Maze, Guillaume; Mercier, Herlé

    2015-04-01

    In the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, the oceanic vertical structure of density is characterized by a region of rapid increase with depth. This layer is called the permanent pycnocline. The pycnocline is the transition layer between light, low-latitude, surface water masses which are ventilated every winter when penetrated locally by the mixed layer and dense, deeper water masses whose properties are set in the high latitudes. Assessing the structure and variability of the permanent pycnocline is of a major interest in the understanding of the climate system because the pycnocline embeds the warm water sphere and most of the wind-forced horizontal circulation. We characterized the large scale structure of the permanent pycnocline with in-situ data from the Argo array. We developed a new method to objectively characterize its properties (depth, thickness, temperature, salinity, density, potential vorticity). Results reveal a surprisingly complex structure with inhomogeneous properties. In the Gulf Stream recirculation region the pycnocline is deep, thick, the maximum of stratification is found in the middle on the layer and follow an isopycnal surface. But away from this textbook regional description, the pycnocline is characterized by vertical asymmetries and gradients in thermohaline properties. T/S distribution along the permanent pycnocline depth reveals a diversity of water masses. We will present the mean observed structure and properties of the permanent pycnocline and relate them to physical processes that constraint them.

  15. An OSSE study using the GFDL ensemble coupled data assimilation system: Biased twin experiment for deep Argo array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. S.; Zhang, S.; Rosati, A.; Vecchi, G. A.; Yang, X.

    2014-12-01

    A "biased" twin experiment of coupled data assimilation with two CGCMs is designed to address two questions: 1) given atmospheric and oceanic observations and a biased numerical climate system, how to obtain balanced climate estimation? 2) Within the steady and coherent climate estimation framework, what is the impact of deep ocean Argo profiles? Based on the modern Argo observing system and artificial extension to the full depth, "observations" drawn from one CGCM are assimilated into the other. Our results show that the simultaneous atmospheric and oceanic constraints play a significant role for preventing the deep ocean drift. Within the bias magnitude in the twin experiment, the Argo extension to the full depth does not significantly improve the quality of climate estimation. More studies based on different assimilation models with improved spatial and temporal scales of the deep Argo array are demanding for further understanding the impact of deep Argo array.

  16. Highlights of the ARGO-YBJ Experiment at 4,300 m a.s.l.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhen

    2014-10-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment in Tibet, China has been operated to survey the northern sky for gamma ray sources, transient or steady, for nearly 6 years. Many astrophysics observational results will be highlighted in this paper, such as the sky survey results, extended source observation, diffuse gamma rays from the galactic plane, and emission mechanism of AGNs and their flares. As the unique detector for EAS with a continuously sensitive area of 5,600 m 2, the ARGO-YBJ array catches almost all particles in the central part of showers. The high-quality data set for showers above few TeV has been used for cosmic ray measurements such as the energy spectrum and composition. All those results are summarized here. As one of the next generation ground-based high-altitude air shower detector, LHAASO is briefly introduced as the successor of ARGO-YBJ in the end of the paper.

  17. Calibration of the RPC charge readout in the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aielli, G.; Bacci, C.; Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Bleve, C.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Bussino, S.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cappa, A.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Cattaneo, C.; Celio, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, N.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Alí Staiti, G.; Danzengluobu; Dattoli, M.; de Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; de Vincenzi, M.; di Girolamo, T.; Ding, X. H.; di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F.; Galeotti, P.; Gargana, R.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q.; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; James, I.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Li, J. Y.; Li, X. X.; Liberti, B.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, C. Q.; Liu, M. Y.; Liu, J.; Lu, H.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Meng, X. R.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Pagliaro, A.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Qu, X. B.; Rossi, E.; Ruggieri, F.; Saggese, L.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Stanescu, C.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xu, B.; Xue, L.; Yan, Y. X.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.

    2012-01-01

    The charge readout of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) is implemented in the ARGO-YBJ experiment to measure the charged particle density of the shower front up to 104/m2, enabling the study of the primary cosmic rays with energies in the “knee” region. As the first time for RPCs being used this way, a telescope with RPCs and scintillation detectors is setup to calibrate the number of charged particles hitting a RPC versus its charge readout. Air shower particles are taken as the calibration beam. The telescope was tested at sea level and then moved to the ARGO-YBJ site for coincident operation with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. The charge readout shows good linearity with the particle density in the dynamic range (up to 200/m2).

  18. Temperature effect on RPC performance in the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo-Ybj Collaboration; Aielli, G.; Bacci, C.; Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Bleve, C.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Bussino, S.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cappa, A.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Cattaneo, C.; Celio, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, N.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Alí Staiti, G.; Danzengluobu; Dattoli, M.; de Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; de Vincenzi, M.; di Girolamo, T.; Ding, X. H.; di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F.; Galeotti, P.; Gargana, R.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q.; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; James, I.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Li, J. Y.; Li, X. X.; Liberti, B.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, C. Q.; Liu, M. Y.; Liu, J.; Lu, H.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Meng, X. R.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Pagliaro, A.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Qu, X. B.; Rossi, E.; Ruggieri, F.; Saggese, L.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Stanescu, C.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xu, B.; Xue, L.; Yan, Y. X.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2009-09-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been taking data for nearly 2 years. In order to monitor continuously the performance of the Resistive Plate Chamber detectors and to study the daily temperature effects on the detector performance, a cosmic ray muon telescope was setup near the carpet detector array in the ARGO-YBJ laboratory. Based on the measurements performed using this telescope, it is found that, at the actual operating voltage of 7.2 kV, the temperature effect on the RPC time resolution is about 0.04 ns/∘C and on the particle detection efficiency is about 0.03%/∘C. Based on these figures we conclude that the environmental effects do not affect substantially the angular resolution of the ARGO-YBJ detector.

  19. MedArgo: a drifting profiler program in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, P.-M.; Barbanti, R.; Font, J.; Cruzado, A.; Millot, C.; Gertman, I.; Griffa, A.; Molcard, A.; Rupolo, V.; Le Bras, S.; Petit de La Villeon, L.

    2007-08-01

    In the framework of the EU-funded MFSTEP project, autonomous drifting profilers were deployed throughout the Mediterranean Sea to collect temperature and salinity profile data and to measure subsurface currents. The realization of this profiler program in the Mediterranean, referred to as MedArgo, is described and assessed using data collected between June 2004 and December 2006 (including more than 2000 profiles). Recommendations are provided for the permanent future implementation of MedArgo in support of operational oceanography in the Mediterranean Sea. More than twenty drifting profilers were deployed from research vessels and ships-of-opportunity in most areas of the Mediterranean. They were all programmed to execute 5-day cycles with a drift at a parking depth of 350 m and CTD profiles from either 700 or 2000 m up to the surface. They stayed at the sea surface for about 6 h to be localised by, and transmit the data to, the Argos satellite system. The temperature and salinity data obtained with pumped Sea-Bird CTD instruments were processed and made available to the scientific community and to operational users in near-real time using standard Argo protocols, and were assimilated into Mediterranean numerical forecasting models. In general, the cycling and sampling characteristics chosen for the MedArgo profilers were found to be adequate for the Mediterranean. However, it is strongly advised to use GPS and global cellular phone telemetry or the future Argos bi-directional satellite system in order to avoid data compression and losses, for the continuation of the Mediterranean drifting profiler program.

  20. Validation of Aquarius sea surface salinity with in situ measurements from Argo floats and moored buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenqing; Yueh, Simon H.; Fore, Alexander G.; Hayashi, Akiko

    2014-09-01

    We validate sea surface salinity (SSS) retrieved from Aquarius instrument on SAC-D satellite with in situ measurements by Argo floats and moored buoy arrays. We assess the error structure of three Aquarius SSS products: the standard product processed by Aquarius Data Processing System (ADPS) and two data sets produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL): the Combined Active-Passive algorithm with and without rain correction, CAP and CAP_RC, respectively. We examine the effect of various filters to prevent unreliable point retrievals from entering Level 3 averaging, such as land or ice contamination, radio frequency interference (RFI), and cold water. Our analyses show that Aquarius SSS agrees well with Argo in a monthly average sense between 40°S and 40°N except in the Eastern Pacific Fresh Pool and Amazon River outflow. Buoy data within these regions show excellent agreement with Aquarius but have discrepancies with the Argo gridded products. Possible reasons include strong near-surface stratification and sampling problems in Argo in regions with significant western boundary currents. We observe large root-mean-square (RMS) difference and systematic negative bias between ADPS and Argo in the tropical Indian Ocean and along the Southern Pacific Convergence Zone. Excluding these regions removes the suspicious seasonal peak in the monthly RMS difference between the Aquarius SSS products and Argo. Between 40°S and 40°N, the RMS difference for CAP is less than 0.22 PSU for all 28 months, CAP_RC has essentially met the monthly 0.2 PSU accuracy requirement, while that for ADPS fluctuates between 0.22 and 0.3 PSU.

  1. Argo: enabling the development of bespoke workflows and services for disease annotation.

    PubMed

    Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Argo (http://argo.nactem.ac.uk) is a generic text mining workbench that can cater to a variety of use cases, including the semi-automatic annotation of literature. It enables its technical users to build their own customised text mining solutions by providing a wide array of interoperable and configurable elementary components that can be seamlessly integrated into processing workflows. With Argo's graphical annotation interface, domain experts can then make use of the workflows' automatically generated output to curate information of interest.With the continuously rising need to understand the aetiology of diseases as well as the demand for their informed diagnosis and personalised treatment, the curation of disease-relevant information from medical and clinical documents has become an indispensable scientific activity. In the Fifth BioCreative Challenge Evaluation Workshop (BioCreative V), there was substantial interest in the mining of literature for disease-relevant information. Apart from a panel discussion focussed on disease annotations, the chemical-disease relations (CDR) track was also organised to foster the sharing and advancement of disease annotation tools and resources.This article presents the application of Argo's capabilities to the literature-based annotation of diseases. As part of our participation in BioCreative V's User Interactive Track (IAT), we demonstrated and evaluated Argo's suitability to the semi-automatic curation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes. Furthermore, the workbench facilitated the development of some of the CDR track's top-performing web services for normalising disease mentions against the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database. In this work, we highlight Argo's support for developing various types of bespoke workflows ranging from ones which enabled us to easily incorporate information from various databases, to those which train and apply machine learning-based concept recognition models

  2. Characterizing Ocean Turbulence from Argo, Acoustic Doppler, and Simulation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Katherine

    Turbulence is inherently chaotic and unsteady, so observing it and modeling it are no easy tasks. The ocean's sheer size makes it even more difficult to observe, and its unpredictable and ever-changing forcings introduce additional complexities. Turbulence in the oceans ranges from basin scale to the scale of the molecular viscosity. The method of energy transfer between scales is, however, an area of active research, so observations of the ocean at all scales are crucial to understanding the basic dynamics of its motions. In this collection of work, I use a variety of datasets to characterize a wide range of scales of turbulence, including observations from multiple instruments and from models with different governing equations. I analyzed the largest scales of the turbulent range using the global salinity data of the Argo profiling float network. Taking advantage of the scattered and discontinuous nature of this dataset, the second-order structure function was calculated down to 2000m depth, and shown to be useful for predicting spectral slopes. Results showed structure function slopes of 2/3 at small scales, and 0 at large scales, which corresponds with spectral slopes of -5/3 at small scales, and -1 at large scales. Using acoustic Doppler velocity measurements, I characterized the meter- to kilometer-scale turbulence at a potential tidal energy site in the Puget Sound, WA. Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) observations provided the data for an analysis that includes coherence, anisotropy, and intermittency. In order to more simply describe these features, a parameterization was done with four turbulence metrics, and the anisotropy magnitude, introduced here, was shown to most closely capture the coherent events. Then, using both the NREL TurbSim stochastic turbulence generator and the NCAR large-eddy simulation (LES) model, I calculated turbulence statistics to validate the accuracy of these methods in reproducing

  3. The MARTE VNIR Imaging Spectrometer Experiment: Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Sutter, Brad; Dunagan, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    We report on the design, operation, and data analysis methods employed on the VNIR imaging spectrometer instrument that was part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). The imaging spectrometer is a hyperspectral scanning pushbroom device sensitive to VNIR wavelengths from 400-1000 nm. During the MARTE project, the spectrometer was deployed to the Río Tinto region of Spain. We analyzed subsets of three cores from Río Tinto using a new band modeling technique. We found most of the MARTE drill cores to contain predominantly goethite, though spatially coherent areas of hematite were identified in Core 23. We also distinguished non Fe-bearing minerals that were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be primarily muscovite. We present drill core maps that include spectra of goethite, hematite, and non Fe-bearing minerals.

  4. Assessment of the Black Sea observing system. A focus on 2005-2012 Argo campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayek, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    An observing system in the Black Sea combining remote sensing data such as sea level anomalies from altimetry, sea surface temperature from satellite radiometer and data from Argo floats has been analyzed with the aim to quantify the contribution of different information sources when reconstructing the ocean state. The main research questions are: (1) do Argo float measurements substantially impact the quality of estimates, (2) what is the dependence of this quality upon the data and sampling used, and (3) are there specific Black Sea issues? Numerical model output and statistical analysis were used for this purpose. It has been demonstrated that the statistical method performs in a consistent way reproducing known geophysical patterns. Maximum footprints of sea level, salinity and temperature were illustrated, most of them clearly connected with specific thermohaline conditions and the general circulation. Reduced analysis capabilities were identified as associated with a low level of dynamical coupling between the shelf and the open ocean, mesoscale dynamics and representation of diapycnic processes in the models. The accuracy of Argo pressure measurements appeared very important to resolve the extremely sharp stratification in the upper layers. The present-day number of Argo floats operating in the Black Sea of about 10, seems optimal for operational purposes.

  5. THE ARGO MERCHANT OIL SPILL AND THE SEDIMENTS OF NANTUCKET SHOALS: RESEARCH, LITIGATION AND LEGISLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 15, 1976, the tanker Argo Merchant ran around on Fishing Rip of Nantucket Shoals off the coast of Massachusetts. After several days of stormy weather she broke apart releasing her entire cargo of 28 X 10 to 3rd power metric tons of No. 6 fuel oil into the ocean. Feder...

  6. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSES OF ARGO MERCHANT OIL AND SEDIMENT HYDROCARBONS AT THE WRECK SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrocarbon concentrations were determined in surface sediments in the vicinity of the Argo Merchant wreck site. Of the 4000 sq km area surveyed, contaminated sediments were found in a 10-15 sq km section around the wreck site in February 1977. The contamination was in the form o...

  7. A COMPARISON OF ARGO MERCHANT OIL AND SEDIMENT HYDROCARBONS FROM NANTUCKET SHOALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface sediment samples collected from the Nantucket Shoals Argo Merchant wreck site area in February, 1977, were analyzed for hydrocarbon content by gas chromatography. Analysis of sediment grab subsections revealed no clear trend of hydrocarbon contamination as a function of d...

  8. Consistency of the current global ocean observing systems from an Argo perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schuckmann, K.; Sallée, J.-B.; Chambers, D.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Cabanes, C.; Gaillard, F.; Speich, S.; Hamon, M.

    2014-06-01

    Variations in the world's ocean heat storage and its associated volume changes are a key factor to gauge global warming and to assess the earth's energy and sea level budget. Estimating global ocean heat content (GOHC) and global steric sea level (GSSL) with temperature/salinity data from the Argo network reveals a positive change of 0.5 ± 0.1 W m-2 (applied to the surface area of the ocean) and 0.5 ± 0.1 mm year-1 during the years 2005 to 2012, averaged between 60° S and 60° N and the 10-1500 m depth layer. In this study, we present an intercomparison of three global ocean observing systems: the Argo network, satellite gravimetry from GRACE and satellite altimetry. Their consistency is investigated from an Argo perspective at global and regional scales during the period 2005-2010. Although we can close the recent global ocean sea level budget within uncertainties, sampling inconsistencies need to be corrected for an accurate global budget due to systematic biases in GOHC and GSSL in the Tropical Ocean. Our findings show that the area around the Tropical Asian Archipelago (TAA) is important to closing the global sea level budget on interannual to decadal timescales, pointing out that the steric estimate from Argo is biased low, as the current mapping methods are insufficient to recover the steric signal in the TAA region. Both the large regional variability and the uncertainties in the current observing system prevent us from extracting indirect information regarding deep-ocean changes. This emphasizes the importance of continuing sustained effort in measuring the deep ocean from ship platforms and by beginning a much needed automated deep-Argo network.

  9. Radio-tracking large wilderness mammals: integration of GPS and Argos technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Arthur, Steve M.

    1999-01-01

    We tested 30 prototype global positioning system (GPS) radiocollars on brown bears (Ursus arctos) over a 3-year period on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Collars were of 2 design types: GPS units with an Argos (Argos Data collection and Location System) satellite uplink (n = 19) and GPS units where the data were stored on board (n = 10) for retrieval at a later date. All units also contained a conventional VHF (very high frequency) transmitter and weighed 1.7 kg. GPS-Argos units obtained 10-82% of expected GPS fixes, and fix rate declined significantly (P < 0.05) with time after deployment. Argos uplink success (proportion of successful transmissions of stored data) was linearly related to GPS fix rate (r = 0.91, P < 0.001). Storeon-board units obtained significantly more successful fixes when compared with the GPS-Argos units (t = -4.009, P < 0.001). Fix success rate for deployed store-on-board collars ranged from 13-96%; because of the increased number of attempted fixes per day, these collars obtained fixes on 97% of days deployed. Accuracy of the GPS units was less than predicted by the NAVSTAR GPS technology using the course acquisition code. Reduced accuracy was likely a result of the proportion of 2-dimensional versus 3-dimensional fixes obtained, although we could not determine this statistic from recorded data. Increased overstory closure was the only variable measured that partially explained the reduced likelihood of a successful fix. Stem density, stem diameter, and overstory height measured within 3 m of the collar did not affect fix success. GPS fix success rates for collars attached to bears varied more and were lower than fix rates for stationary collars placed in various vegetation types, suggesting that the bear, terrain, and movement all influence both fix and uplink success rate. Application of this new technology to grizzly and brown bear research and comparisons to studies with moose (Alces alces) are discussed.

  10. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  11. "Dateline NBC"'s Persuasive Attack on Wal-Mart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Dorries, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Develops a typology of persuasive attack strategies. Identifies two key components of persuasive attack: responsibility and offensiveness. Describes several strategies for intensifying each of these elements. Applies this analysis to "Dateline NBC"'s allegations that Wal-Mart's "Buy American" campaign was deceptive. Concludes that "Dateline NBC'"s…

  12. Error attribution and validation of SMOS high-level salinity products with Argo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabrera, Joaquim

    2015-04-01

    In the context of the E-AIMS project (7FP Project No. 284391), the role and suggested improvements of the Argo array in the validation of SMOS sea surface salinity (SSS) have been investigated. Here, a summary of the main results is shown and discussed. The Argo array continues to be the sole component of the ocean observing system to provide routine observations of temperature and salinity profiles at global scale with a time sampling period of about ten days. The observations provided by an Argo profiler are publicly available a few days from being taken (Real Time Mode) after application of automatic quality control filters. Scientific quality data (Delayed Mode) is generated after a human supervised quality control. In this study, the highest quality, delayed mode, near-the-surface data are being used to validate the SSS Level 3 and Level 4 products generated by the SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre (http://cp34-bec.cmima.csic.es). The products being validated here are the weighted binned average (L3), an Optimal Interpolation (OI), and a data fused product exploiting the spatial variability of OSTIA SST. An Argo profile is considered if its quality flags of position and time are equal to one (good), two (probably good), five (value changes) or eight (value interpolated). However, temperature, salinity and pressure data are used only if their quality flags are equal to one (good). The uppermost (but deeper than 0.5 m) salinity measurement is taken as an approximation of the in-situ SSS, but only if the salinity profile allows a robust interpolation of the salinity at 7.5 m (this additional requirement is introduced to ensure that the salinity profile is properly sampled near the surface). At the moment of performing this study, the main drawbacks have been the lag in the Delayed Mode processing, and the lack of salinity observations in the first five meters below the ocean surface. While 5500 profiles in Delayed Mode were available for January 2011, about 1000 were

  13. Enhancing the Use of Argos Satellite Data for Home Range and Long Distance Migration Studies of Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hoenner, Xavier; Whiting, Scott D.; Hindell, Mark A.; McMahon, Clive R.

    2012-01-01

    Accurately quantifying animals’ spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM) constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) estimated from (a) highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b) locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68th percentile error was <1 km for LC 1, 2, and 3 while markedly less accurate (>4 km) for LC ≤0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student’s t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3) and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2±2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio  = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively). This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes. PMID:22808241

  14. Development of U-Mart System with Plural Brands and Plural Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Yoshihito; Mori, Naoki; Ono, Isao; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Kita, Hajime; Matsumoto, Keinosuke

    In this paper, we first discuss the notion that artificial market systems should meet the requirements of fidelity, transparency, reproducibility, and traceability. Next, we introduce history of development of the artificial market system named U-Mart system that meet the requirements well, which have been developed by the U-Mart project. We have already developed the U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 3.0” to solve problems of old U-Mart systems. In version 3.0 system, trading process is modularized and universal market system can be easily introduced.
    However, U-Mart system version 3.0 only simulates the single brand futures market. The simulation of the plural brands and plural markets has been required by lot of users. In this paper, we proposed a novel U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 4.0” to solve this problem of U-Mart system version 3.0. We improve the server system, machine agents and GUI in order to simulate plural brands and plural markets in U-Mart system version 4.0. The effectiveness of the proposed system is confirmed by statistical analysis of results of spot market simulation with random agents.

  15. Recent results from ArgoNeuT and status of MicroBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Szelc, A. M.

    2015-07-15

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are a novel detector technology for neutrino detection experiments. Their fine granularity combined with calorimetric capabilities allows for precision measurements that will answer the outstanding questions about the role of neutrinos in the Standard Model of Particle physics and beyond it. Here, we discuss the development effort underway in the framework of the US based LArTPC program, which ties improving the reach of the technology with relevant physics measurements of beam neutrinos at Fermilab. Examples of experiments in this program are ArgoNeuT which ran on the NuMI beam line and acquired 1.35×10{sup 20} POT and MicroBooNE which is set to run on the Booster neutrino beamline at the beginning of 2015. Recent results from the ArgoNeuT experiment will be discussed as well as the status and prospects for MicroBooNE.

  16. Final design of the wavefront sensor unit for ARGOS, the LBT's LGS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Esposito, Simone; Carbonaro, Luca; Rabien, Sebastian

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we present the final design of the WFS unit of LBT's ARGOS facility, that will implement a GLAO system using 3 Rayleigh pulsed beacons. The ARGOS WFS is composed of two main subunits: 1) a large dichroic window that deflects the laser beam toward the WFS and transmit the visible and near-infrared wavelength to the MOSimager LUCIFER and 2) the SH-WFS that collects the backscattered light of the 3 beacons and combines the beams on a single lenslet array and detector. The WFS unit includes Pockels cells for the range gating of the laser beams, field and pupil stabilizers to compensate for the fast jitter of the laser beams and for optical flexures and a calibration unit to check the internal alignment; this unit will be also used for closed-loop laboratory tests using a MEMS-DM.

  17. Exclusive xB5+Np topologies with ArgoNeuT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partyka, Kinga

    2015-05-01

    The Argon Neutrino Test, ArgoNeuT, is a small scale Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) that is one step towards the construction of large scale LAr TPCs for long-baseline neutrino physics. LArTPCs provide bubble-chamber-like quality images for excellent particle ID and background rejection. Due to its superb capabilities it is well suited for topological analysis by reporting what it sees in a final state. Preliminary analysis of ArgoNeuT's 0.1 to 10 GeV neutrino µ+Np topologies together with first ever study of proton multiplicities in neutrino-argon interactions was presented and compared with GENIE Monte Carlo generator.

  18. Improvement of bias detection in Argo float conductivity sensors and its application in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, Cécile; Thierry, Virginie; Lagadec, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    We propose modifications of the OW method (Owens and Wong, 2009) used to estimate the time-varying correction of conductivity measurements from Argo floats. These modifications are necessary to account for large interannual to decadal variability of the large-scale salinity field observed, for instance, in the North-Atlantic Ocean and to provide corrections with realistic error bars. The covariance function used to map reference salinity data at the float profile position was modified in order to minimize the contribution of the oldest reference data to the large-scale salinity field estimate. Mapping error now includes errors in the large-scale field estimates and fit error now takes into account the lateral dependence between climatological profiles. Finally, we used the modified OW method to check the consistency of the Argo salinity dataset available in delayed mode in the North-Atlantic Ocean. Overall, salinity corrections need to be reconsidered for 4.5% of the floats.

  19. The BioMart interface to the eMouseAtlas gene expression database EMAGE.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Peter; Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Yang, Yiya; Baldock, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe the BioMart interface to the eMouseAtlas gene expression database EMAGE. EMAGE is a spatiotemporal database of in situ gene expression patterns in the developing mouse embryo. BioMart provides a generic web query interface and programmable access using web services. The BioMart interface extends access to EMAGE via a powerful method of structuring complex queries and one with which users may already be familiar with from other BioMart implementations. The interface is structured into several data sets providing the user with comprehensive query access to the EMAGE data. The federated nature of BioMart allows scope for integration and cross querying of EMAGE with other similar BioMarts. PMID:21930504

  20. ArgoNeuT: A Physics-Minded Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Test Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitz, Joshua

    2009-05-01

    ArgoNeuT is a 170 liter Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) neutrino detector set in the on-axis NuMI beamline at Fermilab. The experiment's research/design goals and physics possibilities, including a charged current quasi-elastic cross section and MA parameter measurement, are reviewed. Also, the results of the above-ground cosmic ray commissioning run with accompanying event displays and reconstructed muon tracks and the current status of the experiment are shown.

  1. The role of Argo steric sea level within the global sea level budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schuckmann, K.; Sallée, J.-B.; Cabanes, C.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Gaillard, F.; Speich, S.; Hamon, M.

    2012-04-01

    Precise estimations of global ocean indicators (GOIs) such as global ocean heat content (GOHC) and global steric sea level (GSSL) are necessary to observe the ocean's role in the Earth's climate system. To improve accuracy of these estimations, our knowledge of deep ocean and regional contributions to GOIs needs to be quantified. Data from the global Argo array are used here to analyze these contributionsduring the period 2005 to 2010. GOHC/GMSH rise increases by 25% /35% for the upper 2000m depth compared to the upper ocean 700m depth. A comparison of Argo steric sea level to total sea level from satellite altimetry (AVISO) and ocean mass (GRACE) is performed during this period. We could close the global and regional sea level budgets for 2005 to 2010 in terms of 6-year trends. Results show that largest correlation of global GSSL, ocean mass and global total sea level can be observed in the global tropical basin. Differences of the 6-year trend between global mean total sea level and GSSL in this basin are mostly explained by Argo sampling issues, especially in the - by Argo under sampled - Indonesian Archipelago. The differences of the 6-year trend in the Southern Ocean can be attributed to mass changes and deep ocean steric changes, whereas in the Northern Ocean mass changes clearly dominate decadal and longer-term variability. The results are only valid under the assumption that no systematic errors remain in either one of the global observing systems, although the comparison of all three observing systems indicates that these errors appear to be small during the years 2005 to 2010.

  2. Spatial scales of temperature and salinity variability estimated from Argo observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninove, F.; Le Traon, P.-Y.; Remy, E.; Guinehut, S.

    2016-01-01

    Argo observations from 2005 to 2013 are used to characterize spatial scales of temperature and salinity variations from the surface down to 1300 m. Simulations are first performed to analyze the sensitivity of results to Argo sampling; they show that several years of Argo observations are required to estimate spatial scales of ocean variability over 20° × 20° boxes. Spatial scales are then computed over several large-scale areas. Zonal and meridional spatial scales (Lx and Ly which are zero crossing of covariance functions) vary as expected with latitudes. Scales are of about 100 km at high latitudes and more of 700 km in the Indian and Pacific equatorial-tropical regions. Zonal and meridional scales are similar except in tropical-equatorial regions where zonal scales are much larger (by a factor of 2 to 3) than meridional scales. Spatial scales are the largest close to the surface and have a general tendency for temperature to increase in deeper layers. There are significant differences between temperature and salinity scales, in particular, in the deep ocean. Results are consistent with previous studies based on sparse in situ observations or satellite altimetry. They provide, however, for the first time a global description of temperature and salinity scales of variability and a characterization of their variations according to depths.

  3. Argos: Princeton University's entry in the 2009 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiola, Solomon O.; Baldassano, Christopher A.; Franken, Gordon H.; Harris, Richard J.; Hendrick, Barbara A.; Mayer, Jonathan R.; Partridge, Brenton A.; Starr, Eric W.; Tait, Alexander N.; Yu, Derrick D.; Zhu, Tony H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present Argos, an autonomous ground robot built for the 2009 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). Discussed are the significant improvements over its predecessor from the 2008 IGVC, Kratos. We continue to use stereo vision techniques to generate a cost map of the environment around the robot. Lane detection is improved through the use of color filters that are robust to changing lighting conditions. The addition of a single-axis gyroscope to the sensor suite allows accurate measurement of the robot's yaw rate and compensates for wheel slip, vastly improving state estimation. The combination of the D* Lite algorithm, which avoids unnecessary re-planning, and the Field D* algorithm, which allows us to plan much smoother paths, results in an algorithm that produces higher quality paths in the same amount of time as methods utilizing A*. The successful implementation of a crosstrack error navigation law allows the robot to follow planned paths without cutting corners, reducing the chance of collision with obstacles. A redesigned chassis with a smaller footprint and a bi-level design, combined with a more powerful drivetrain, makes Argos much more agile and maneuverable compared to its predecessor. At the 2009 IGVC, Argos placed first in the Navigation Challenge.

  4. The analog Resistive Plate Chamber detector of the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.

    2015-07-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking from November 2007 till February 2013 at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (4300 m a.s.l.). The detector consists of a single layer of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) (6700 m2) operated in streamer mode. The signal pick-up is obtained by means of strips facing one side of the gas volume. The digital readout of the signals, while allows a high space-time resolution in the shower front reconstruction, limits the measurable energy to a few hundred TeV. In order to fully investigate the 1-10 PeV region, an analog readout has been implemented by instrumenting each RPC with two large size electrodes facing the other side of the gas volume. Since December 2009 the RPC charge readout has been in operation on the entire central carpet (∼5800 m2). In this configuration the detector is able to measure the particle density at the core position where it ranges from tens to many thousands of particles per m2. Thus ARGO-YBJ provides a highly detailed image of the charge component at the core of air showers. In this paper we describe the analog readout of RPCs in ARGO-YBJ and discuss both the performance of the system and the physical impact on the EAS measurements.

  5. Geophysical investigations near the ancient Agora at city of Argos, Hellas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zananiri, I.; Hademenos, V.; Zervakou, A.; Tsompos, P.; Piteros, Ch.; Banaka, A.

    2009-04-01

    Reducing the archaeological risk has been possible by clarifying areas of archaeological potential at an early stage. Towards this scope a non-invasive geophysical survey was carried out at the city of Argos, Argolis Prefecture, which from the beginning of Archaic Times (c. 800 B.C.) and through to Classical Times was one of the most prominent city-states. Based on historical and archaeological evidence three sites were chosen near the ancient Agora of Argos. Gradient and total field magnetic measurements were collected over several grids, with 1m spacing between measurement points. Representative samples were taken for laboratory measurements of the low-field magnetic susceptibility and the natural remanent magnetization. The data management and cartographic representation was performed using Geographic Information Systems, where a geographic database was created, including all available information for the broader Argos area: local geology, topographic features, satellite images and archaeological data. The observed magnetic anomalies, mainly indicating the presence of linear square structures, are mostly related to inhabitance ruins according to data from neighboring excavations. In order to further refine the areas of archaeological interest and to identify specific targets for subsequent evaluation additional geophysical techniques, i.e. ground penetrating radar and electric resistivity tomography, will be implemented.

  6. Mixed layer depth seasonality within the Coral Sea based on Argo data [corrected].

    PubMed

    Jaffrés, Jasmine B D

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide deployment of Argo floats has enabled much more detailed studies of global and regional seas over the last decade. Here, the seasonal variability of the mixed layer depth (MLD) within the Coral Sea was examined with CTD profiles from Argo floats. Multiple threshold values for both temperature and density have been employed to determine the most suitable threshold values for the Coral Sea. A threshold value of 0.04 kg/m(3) for density and 0.2°C for temperature appear the most fitting for this region. Although MLD and isothermal layer depth (ILD) coincide quite well in most cases, the relatively common presence of temporary, non-seasonal barrier layers induces an ILD that is significantly deeper than the MLD. Consequently, an MLD estimation based on density is more appropriate. A distinct seasonality in the MLD is evident throughout the Coral Sea, but is generally more pronounced in higher southern latitudes (20-30°S). Salinity inversions are rare and mainly occur in the south-eastern Coral Sea, while barrier layers are more commonly associated with the north-eastern Coral Sea, a region characterised by high rainfall. The significance of regional currents is evident in the north-western Coral Sea, where temperature and ocean heat content is relatively low due to a northward moving boundary current. Shallow bathymetry, in turn, is linked to the absence of Argo data on the continental shelf and in the central Coral Sea. PMID:23593368

  7. SMEX Proposal for Argos-X: A Panoptic X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, Ronald A.; Argos-X Team

    2008-03-01

    The NASA SMEX proposal for "Argos-X" describes the first observatory that instantaneously measures sources over 50% of the sky, while providing arcmin positions. The mastery of wide-angle X-ray spectroscopy provides unprecedented exposures and the capability to routinely observe sources during times of critical interest. The primary objective is to advance the methods by which the radiation properties of accreting matter, under strong gravity, are used to investigate the physical properties of black holes and neutron stars, located in the Galaxy, the local universe, and beyond. Secondarily, Argos-X offers synergistic partnerships for LIGO, GLAST, wide-angle radio observatories, TeV telescopes, and other programs. Argos-X would be launched in 2013 with 25 cameras that image the sky via coded masks. The detectors are Si pixel arrays from Naval Research Laboratory, first manufactured for DARPA. The cameras cover 1.5-28 keV with 0.6 keV energy resolution. The spacecraft is built by Draper Laboratory. The daily sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than the RXTE ASM, and the all-sky duty cycle is expanded by a factor of 25. All good events are telemetered with 0.122 millisecond time resolution, and the data archive (HEASARC) is fully public. Science analyses are supported, in part, by standard data products consisting of 4-channel light curves and 128-channel spectra at a variety of timescale quanta.

  8. A comparison of indirect measures of feeding behaviour based on ARGOS tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. W.; Tremblay, Y.; Crocker, D. E.; Kappes, M. A.; Kuhn, C. E.; Shaffer, S. A.; Simmons, S. E.; Costa, D. P.

    2007-02-01

    ARGOS tracking data are frequently used to infer feeding locations of marine predators. Most track-based methods rely on the assumption that feeding takes place within regions of area-restricted search (ARS); however, it is unclear whether the spatial accuracy and temporal resolution of ARGOS-quality data are sufficient to extract the location of ARSs at the resolution of individual feeding bouts. Using ARGOS tracking data from northern elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris) and Laysan albatrosses ( Phoebastria immutabilis), we tested several track-based estimators of feeding locations against independent feeding proxies (dive type or shape and number of landing events). The track-based methods were: turn angle, transit rate, first-passage time, and fractal dimension. None of these methods provided a reliable estimate of putative feeding activity at the species level, as measured by dive-type analysis or landing events. At the individual level, variation in agreement between track-based estimates and feeding proxies highlighted the importance of considering the effect of spatial scale. Biological justification of track-based metrics should be more carefully assessed before assigning particular functions to individual tracks (feeding/foraging/searching/transit) or groups of tracks (biological hotspots).

  9. SMOS validation using SSS data from Barcelona World Race and Argo profilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbert, M.; Ballabrera, J.; Fernandez, P.; Salat, J.; Salvador, J.

    2012-04-01

    The organisers of the Barcelona World Race (BWR), the Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC) and the Maritime Catalan Forum (FMC) agreed on equiping the FMC boat, participating in the race, with a SeaBird MiniCTD. The idea was for the first time to explore how such oceanic races could help to monitor surface temperature and salinity all around the world ocean in real time. The boat spent 112 days to complete the rond trip, sending 12-30 real-time samples/day via ARGOS satellites, using a transmitter developed at the ICM. Data was also stored in the instrument, at 192 samples/day to allow further final global analyses. In the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite mission processing chain, sea surface salinity (SSS) values are retrieved from brightness temperature data at level 2 (L2). Global maps of SSS are being generated at level 3 (L3) using spatial and temporal weighted averages. Finally, improved representations of the SSS field are obtained at level 4 (L4) where satellite data is blended with data from other sensors. In the present study, validation of L2, L3 and L4 products using data from BWR and ARGO buoys is presented, covering the race period from January to April 2011. Differences between these two sets of data are also investigated as the uppermost robust measurements from Argo profilers have larger depths than the ones associated to the BWR boat.

  10. Mixed Layer Depth Seasonality within the Coral Sea Based on Argo Data

    PubMed Central

    Jaffrés, Jasmine B. D.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide deployment of Argo floats has enabled much more detailed studies of global and regional seas over the last decade. Here, the seasonal variability of the mixed layer depth (MLD) within the Coral Sea was examined with CTD profiles from Argo floats. Multiple threshold values for both temperature and density have been employed to determine the most suitable threshold values for the Coral Sea. A threshold value of 0.04 kg/m3 for density and 0.2°C for temperature appear the most fitting for this region. Although MLD and isothermal layer depth (ILD) coincide quite well in most cases, the relatively common presence of temporary, non-seasonal barrier layers induces an ILD that is significantly deeper than the MLD. Consequently, an MLD estimation based on density is more appropriate. A distinct seasonality in the MLD is evident throughout the Coral Sea, but is generally more pronounced in higher southern latitudes (20–30°S). Salinity inversions are rare and mainly occur in the south-eastern Coral Sea, while barrier layers are more commonly associated with the north-eastern Coral Sea, a region characterised by high rainfall. The significance of regional currents is evident in the north-western Coral Sea, where temperature and ocean heat content is relatively low due to a northward moving boundary current. Shallow bathymetry, in turn, is linked to the absence of Argo data on the continental shelf and in the central Coral Sea. PMID:23593368

  11. Impact study of the Argo array definition in the Mediterranean Sea based on satellite altimetry gridded data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Roman, Antonio; Ruiz, Simón; Pascual, Ananda; Guinehut, Stéphanie; Mourre, Baptiste

    2016-04-01

    The existing Argo network provides essential data in near real time to constrain monitoring and forecasting centers and strongly complements the observations of the ocean surface from space. The comparison of Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) provided by satellite altimeters with in-situ Dynamic Heights Anomalies (DHA) derived from the temperature and salinity profiles of Argo floats contribute to better characterize the error budget associated with the altimeter observations. In this work, performed in the frame of the E-AIMS FP7 European Project, we focus on the Argo observing system in the Mediterranean Sea and its impact on SLA fields provided by satellite altimetry measurements in the basin. Namely, we focus on the sensitivity of specific SLA gridded merged products provided by AVISO in the Mediterranean to the reference depth (400 or 900 dbar) selected in the computation of the Argo Dynamic Height (DH) as an integration of the Argo T/S profiles through the water column. This reference depth will have impact on the number of valid Argo profiles and therefore on their temporal sampling and the coverage by the network used to compare with altimeter data. To compare both datasets, altimeter grids and synthetic climatologies used to compute DHA were spatially and temporally interpolated at the position and time of each in-situ Argo profile by a mapping method based on an optimal interpolation scheme. The analysis was conducted in the entire Mediterranean Sea and different sub-regions of the basin. The second part of this work is devoted to investigate which configuration in terms of spatial sampling of the Argo array in the Mediterranean will properly reproduce the mesoscale dynamics in this basin, which is comprehensively captured by new standards of specific altimeter products for this region. To do that, several Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) were conducted assuming that altimetry data computed from AVISO specific reanalysis gridded merged product for

  12. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  13. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  14. Carmen Martín Gaite and the Writing of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief article, David Herzberger begins by describing how, with the help of Juan Benet as her interlocutor in 1966, renowned Spanish author Carmen Martín Gaite found her historiographic voice. Herzberger goes on to examine how this relates to Martín Gaite's legacy in historiography and her understanding of the Franco regime and the Spanish…

  15. Concepto de ingeniería del Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El robot más grande y "más malo", y más nuevo para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte. Tiene el tamaño de un vehículo utilitario deportivo y está provisto de 10 instrumentos, nunca antes h...

  16. GrameneMart: the biomart data portal for the gramene project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Gramene project was an early adopter of the BioMart software, which remains an integral and well-used component of the Gramene web site. BioMart accessible data sets include plant gene annotations, plant variation catalogues, genetic markers, physical mapping entities, public DNA/mRNA sequences ...

  17. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  18. 78 FR 46952 - Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Marketing Claims, 77 FR 62, 122, 62,123 (Oct. 11, 2012). Parts III though VI require Relief-Mart to: Keep... Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint...

  19. ArgoNeuT: A Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Test in the NuMI Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Soderberg, M.

    2009-10-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber detectors are ideally suited for studying neutrino interactions and probing the parameters that characterize neutrino oscillations. The ability to drift ionization particles over long distances in purified argon and to trigger on abundant scintillation light allows for excellent particle identification and triggering capability. In these proceedings the details of the ArgoNeuT test-beam project will be presented after a brief introduction to the detector technique. ArgoNeuT is a 175 liter detector exposed to Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beamline. The first neutrino interactions observed in ArgoNeuT will be presented, along with discussion of the various physics analyses to be performed on this data sample.

  20. Estimating the global oceanic net freshwater flux from Argo and comparing it with satellite-based freshwater flux products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Li; Hackert, Eric; Arkin, Phillip; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    2014-11-01

    Following the idea that analysis of in situ information in the salt budget could be used as a surrogate for global "ocean rain gauge," the annual mean oceanic net freshwater flux (E-P) was estimated from the Argo profiles and the wind stress data on a global scale. The comparison between the independent E-P estimation from Argo and the E-P product sets, including the combination of precipitation from TRMM, GPCP, CMAP and evaporation from OAFlux, GSSTF3 and IFREMER and E-P set from NEWS formed from satellite, generally show similar spatial patterns, particularly on the large scale. However, there are differences among the different satellite-based E-P estimates and between satellite estimates and independent in situ estimates. Based on the pattern correlation and the RMSD, the evaporation and precipitation from OAFlux and TRMM agrees best with the E-P estimated from the independent Argo-based estimates.

  1. Evaluation of Argos Telemetry Accuracy in the High-Arctic and Implications for the Estimation of Home-Range Size.

    PubMed

    Christin, Sylvain; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Berteaux, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Animal tracking through Argos satellite telemetry has enormous potential to test hypotheses in animal behavior, evolutionary ecology, or conservation biology. Yet the applicability of this technique cannot be fully assessed because no clear picture exists as to the conditions influencing the accuracy of Argos locations. Latitude, type of environment, and transmitter movement are among the main candidate factors affecting accuracy. A posteriori data filtering can remove "bad" locations, but again testing is still needed to refine filters. First, we evaluate experimentally the accuracy of Argos locations in a polar terrestrial environment (Nunavut, Canada), with both static and mobile transmitters transported by humans and coupled to GPS transmitters. We report static errors among the lowest published. However, the 68th error percentiles of mobile transmitters were 1.7 to 3.8 times greater than those of static transmitters. Second, we test how different filtering methods influence the quality of Argos location datasets. Accuracy of location datasets was best improved when filtering in locations of the best classes (LC3 and 2), while the Douglas Argos filter and a homemade speed filter yielded similar performance while retaining more locations. All filters effectively reduced the 68th error percentiles. Finally, we assess how location error impacted, at six spatial scales, two common estimators of home-range size (a proxy of animal space use behavior synthetizing movements), the minimum convex polygon and the fixed kernel estimator. Location error led to a sometimes dramatic overestimation of home-range size, especially at very local scales. We conclude that Argos telemetry is appropriate to study medium-size terrestrial animals in polar environments, but recommend that location errors are always measured and evaluated against research hypotheses, and that data are always filtered before analysis. How movement speed of transmitters affects location error needs

  2. Evaluation of Argos Telemetry Accuracy in the High-Arctic and Implications for the Estimation of Home-Range Size

    PubMed Central

    Christin, Sylvain; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Berteaux, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Animal tracking through Argos satellite telemetry has enormous potential to test hypotheses in animal behavior, evolutionary ecology, or conservation biology. Yet the applicability of this technique cannot be fully assessed because no clear picture exists as to the conditions influencing the accuracy of Argos locations. Latitude, type of environment, and transmitter movement are among the main candidate factors affecting accuracy. A posteriori data filtering can remove “bad” locations, but again testing is still needed to refine filters. First, we evaluate experimentally the accuracy of Argos locations in a polar terrestrial environment (Nunavut, Canada), with both static and mobile transmitters transported by humans and coupled to GPS transmitters. We report static errors among the lowest published. However, the 68th error percentiles of mobile transmitters were 1.7 to 3.8 times greater than those of static transmitters. Second, we test how different filtering methods influence the quality of Argos location datasets. Accuracy of location datasets was best improved when filtering in locations of the best classes (LC3 and 2), while the Douglas Argos filter and a homemade speed filter yielded similar performance while retaining more locations. All filters effectively reduced the 68th error percentiles. Finally, we assess how location error impacted, at six spatial scales, two common estimators of home-range size (a proxy of animal space use behavior synthetizing movements), the minimum convex polygon and the fixed kernel estimator. Location error led to a sometimes dramatic overestimation of home-range size, especially at very local scales. We conclude that Argos telemetry is appropriate to study medium-size terrestrial animals in polar environments, but recommend that location errors are always measured and evaluated against research hypotheses, and that data are always filtered before analysis. How movement speed of transmitters affects location error needs

  3. What can we learn from the inter-comparison of global ocean observing systems from an Argo perspective?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schuckmann, Karina; Chambers, Don; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Cabanes, Cecile; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves; Speich, Sabrina; Gaillard, Fabienne; Hamon, Mathieu

    2013-04-01

    One of the Argo Program's most important contributions to climate science is an improvement in estimations of heat stored by the oceans and its associated volume changes, which is a key factor to gauge global warming and gain a better understanding of the mechanisms behind rising mean sea level. High precision and quality of these global ocean climate indicators are necessary to observe the ocean's role in the Earth's climate system. Data from the global Argo array, from satellite altimetry (AVISO) and satellite derived ocean mass (GRACE) are used here during the period January 2005 to December 2010 to assess the quality of Argo climate indicators. The up-dated Argo Global Ocean Indicators (GOIs) for the period 2005.0-2011.0 reveal a 7-year rate of 0.5±0.1 W/m2 (1-standard error) for global ocean heat content (GOHC) and 0.4±0.2 mm/year for global steric sea level (GSSL). Although we can close the global sea level budget within the uncertainty intervals during the years 2005-2010 a significant positive trend of the residual is observed relative to the residual variance - even when we reduce Argo sampling issues. This must be due to systematic biases in or more of the observations with a smaller portion possibly coming from thermosteric changes below 1500m depth. We could identify and reduce with our method a systematic bias introduced by lower Argo sampling in some parts of the tropical ocean sector, in particular in the Indonesian Archipalo region. Uncertainties of the global observing systems are still too large to allows us to 'open a window' enabling to infer deep ocean warming changes from the global sea level budget. The role of salinity changes for global and regional sea level changes, as well as their contribution to the global sea level budget is also assessed.

  4. Diffraction-limited upgrade to ARGOS: the LBT's ground-layer adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Michael; Busoni, Lorenzo; Durney, Olivier; Esposito, Simone; Gässler, Wolfgang; Gasho, Victor; Rabien, Sebastian; Rademacher, Matt

    2010-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is now operating with the first of two permanently installed adaptive secondary mirrors, and the first of two complementary near-IR instruments called LUCIFER is operational as well. The ARGOS laser-guided ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system, described elsewhere at this conference1, will build on this foundation to deliver the highest resolution over the 4 arc min wide-field imaging and multi-object spectroscopic modes of LUCIFER. In this paper, we describe a planned upgrade to ARGOS which will supplement the Rayleigh-based GLAO system with sodium laser guide stars (LGS) to fulfill the telescope's diffraction-limited potential. In its narrow-field mode of 30 arc sec, LUCIFER will deliver imaging at the Nyquist limit of the individual 8.4 m apertures down to J band and long-slit spectroscopy with resolution up to 40,000. In addition, the LBT Interferometer2 (LBTI) will cophase the two apertures, offering imaging at the diffraction limit of the 22.8 m baseline at wavelengths from 1.2 to 20 μm. In the first phase of the upgrade, a 10 W sodium LGS will be added to each half of the LBT, using the same launch telescopes mounted behind the two secondary mirrors as the Rayleigh LGS. The upgrade will rely on other components of the ARGOS infrastructure such as acquisition and guiding, and fast tip-tilt cameras. New wavefront sensors will be added to LUCIFER and LBTI. In the upgrade's second phase, the sodium and Rayleigh LGS will be used together in a hybrid tomographic sensing system. This configuration will offer the advantage that a single tip-tilt star will continue to be sufficient even for MCAO operation3, which is planned with LBT's LINC-NIRVANA instrument4,5.

  5. An argo-based model for investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, K. V.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the newly developed Argo-Based Model for Investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO), which consists of a block for variational interpolation of the profiles of drifting Argo floats to a regular grid and a block for model hydrodynamic adjustment of variationally interpolated fields. Such a method makes it possible to obtain a full set of oceanographic characteristics—temperature, salinity, density, and current velocity—using irregularly located Argo measurements. The resulting simulations are represented as monthly mean, seasonal, and annual means and climatological fields. The AMIGO oceanographic database developed at the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology from model simulations covers the 10-year period from 2005 to 2014. Analysis of transport variations in the propagation of North Atlantic Current jets to the Arctic based on the AMIGO data showed that during this period, anomalous winter transports were observed, which correlate with anomalous winter temperatures in regions of northwestern Europe, northern European Russia, and Iceland, which are subjected to the influence of these currents. Comparative analysis of variations in mass and heat transport by the currents and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in the period of 2005-2014 shows a well pronounced correlation between them. The low winter values of the NAO index correspond to the low values of winter transports by the Faroe-Shetland branch of the North Atlantic current, and usually, to the high values of winter transports by the North Icelandic branch of the Irminger Current. High winter value of the NAO index results in a substantial increase in the winter transport by the Faroe-Shetland branch of the North Atlantic Current without notable influence on the transport of the North Icelandic branch of the Irminger Current.

  6. Circumpolar Estimates of Isopycnal Mixing in the ACC from Argo Floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, C. J.; Balwada, D.; Speer, K. G.

    2015-12-01

    There are few direct observations of cross-stream isopycnal mixing in the interior of the Southern Ocean, yet such measurements are needed to determine the role of eddies transporting properties across the ACC, and key to progress toward testing theories of meridional overturning. In light of this we examine if it is possible to obtain estimates of mixing from Argo float trajectories. We divided the Southern Ocean into overlapping 15ο longitude bins before estimating mixing. Resulting diffusivities ranged from 300 to 3000 m2s-1, with peaks corresponding to the Scotia Sea; Kerguelen and Campbell Plateaus. Comparison of our diffusivities with previous regional studies demonstrated good agreement. Tests of the methodology in the DIMES region found that mixing from Argo floats agreed closely with mixing from RAFOS floats. To further test the method we used the Southern Ocean State Estimate velocity fields to advect particles with Argo and RAFOS float like behaviours. Stirring estimates from the particles agreed well with each other in the Kerguelen Island region, South Pacific and Scotia Sea, despite the differences in the imposed behaviour. Finally, these estimates were compared to mixing length suppression theory presented in Ferrari and Nikurashin 2010. This mixing length suppression theory quantifies horizontal diffusivity similar to Prandtl (1925), but the mixing length is suppressed in the presence of mean flows and eddy phase speeds. Our results suggest that the theory can explain both the structure and magnitude of mixing using mean flow data. An exception is near the Kerguelen and Campbell Plateaus where theory under-estimates mixing relative to our results.

  7. The ARGOS laser system: green light for ground layer adaptive optics at the LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Gässler, Wolfgang; Esposito, Simone; Barl, Lothar; Borelli, Jose; Daysenroth, Matthias; Gemperlein, Hans; Kulas, Martin; Ziegleder, Julian

    2014-07-01

    We report on the development of the laser system of ARGOS, the multiple laser guide star adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The system uses a total of six high powered, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers frequency-doubled to a wavelength of 532 nm to generate a set of three guide stars above each of the LBT telescopes. The position of each of the LGS constellations on sky as well as the relative position of the individual laser guide stars within this constellation is controlled by a set of steerable mirrors and a fast tip-tilt mirror within the laser system. The entire opto-mechanical system is housed in two hermetically sealed and thermally controlled enclosures on the SX and DX side of the LBT telescope. The laser beams are propagated through two refractive launch telescopes which focus the beams at an altitude of 12 km, creating a constellation of laser guide stars around a 4 arcminute diameter circle by means of Rayleigh scattering. In addition to the GLAO Rayleigh beacon system, ARGOS has also been designed for a possible future upgrade with a hybrid sodium laser - Rayleigh beacon combination, enabling diffraction limited operation. The ARGOS laser system was successfully installed at the LBT in April 2013. Extensive functional tests have been carried out and have verified the operation of the systems according to specifications. The alignment of the laser system with respect to the launch telescope was carried out during two more runs in June and October 2013, followed by the first propagation of laser light on sky in November 2013.

  8. Mediterranean subsurface circulation estimated from Argo data in 2003-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, M.; Poulain, P. M.

    2009-11-01

    Data from 38 Argo profiling floats are used to describe the subsurface Mediterranean currents for the period 2003-2009. These floats were programmed to execute 5-day cycles, to drift at a neutral parking depth of 350 m and measure temperature and salinity profiles from either 700 or 2000 m up to the surface. At the end of each cycle the floats remained at the sea surface for about 6 h, enough time to be localised and transmit the data to the Argos satellite system. The Argos positions were used to determine the float surface and subsurface displacements. At the surface, the float motion was approximated by a linear displacement and inertial motion. Subsurface velocities estimates were used to investigate the Mediterranean circulation at 350 m, to compute the pseudo-Eulerian statistics and to study the influence of bathymetry on the subsurface currents. Maximum speeds, as large as 33 cm/s, were found northeast of the Balearic Islands (Western basin) and in the Ierapetra eddy (Eastern basin). Typical speeds in the main along-slope currents (Liguro-Provençal-Catalan, Algerian and Libyo-Egyptian Currents) were ~20 cm/s. In the best sampled regions, the pseudo-Eulerian statistics show typical subsurface circulation pathways which can be related to the motion of Levantine Intermediate Water. In general our results agree with the qualitative subsurface circulation schemes proposed in the literature, except in the southern Ionian where we found westward-flowing subsurface currents. Fluctuating currents appeared to be usually larger than the mean flow. Subsurface currents were found to be essentially parallel to the isobaths over most of the areas characterized by strong bathymetry gradients, in particular, in the vicinity of the continental slopes.

  9. Mediterranean intermediate circulation estimated from Argo data in 2003-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, M.; Poulain, P. M.

    2010-03-01

    Data from 38 Argo profiling floats are used to describe the intermediate Mediterranean currents for the period October 2003-January 2010. These floats were programmed to execute 5-day cycles, to drift at a neutral parking depth of 350 m and measure temperature and salinity profiles from either 700 or 2000 m up to the surface. At the end of each cycle the floats remained at the sea surface for about 6 h, enough time to be localised and transmit the data to the Argos satellite system. The Argos positions were used to determine the float surface and intermediate displacements. At the surface, the float motion was approximated by a linear displacement and inertial motion. Intermediate velocities estimates were used to investigate the Mediterranean circulation at 350 m, to compute the pseudo-Eulerian statistics and to study the influence of bathymetry on the intermediate currents. Maximum speeds, as large as 33 cm/s, were found northeast of the Balearic Islands (western basin) and in the Ierapetra eddy (eastern basin). Typical speeds in the main along-slope currents (Liguro-Provençal-Catalan, Algerian and Libyo-Egyptian Currents) were ~20 cm/s. In the central and western part of Mediterranean basin, the pseudo-Eulerian statistics show typical intermediate circulation pathways which can be related to the motion of Levantine Intermediate Water. In general our results agree with the qualitative intermediate circulation schemes proposed in the literature, except in the southern Ionian where we found westward-flowing intermediate currents. Fluctuating currents appeared to be usually larger than the mean flow. Intermediate currents were found to be essentially parallel to the isobaths over most of the areas characterized by strong bathymetry gradients, in particular, in the vicinity of the continental slopes.

  10. Interpolation of On-Line Data of the Argo Float System for Data Assimilation in the World Ocean Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, N. B.; Lebedev, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    For many years parameters of the World ocean state were measured by traditional contact methods that lacked in efficiency and the ability to measure temperature much beneath the surface. The ARGO float system involves both contact and distance ocean parameters measure methods. Sea temperature and salinity profiles are measured by contact methods, but data communication is made using satellites. Therefore, the ARGO float system has added efficiency and greater reliability to ocean parameters measurements. Interpolation and extrapolation methods of input information are important among numerical mathematical methods used for solving data assimilation problems. Thus the development of such algorithms and programs based on up-to-date approaches is a timely problem.

  11. On the Assimilation of Argo Float Trajectories into the Mediterranean Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Jenny A. U.; Dobricic, Srdjan; Taillandier, Vincent; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Pinardi, Nadia

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) has been in operations for nearly a decade, and it is continuously providing analyses on a weekly basis for the region. These forecasts are of great importance as they provide local and basin-scale information of the environmental state of the sea, and are also highly useful for tracking oil spill and search-and-rescue missions. The circulation in the interior Mediterranean Sea is to a large extent characterized by meso-scale eddies, which often have proved somewhat difficult to simulate in an adequate manner due to their high temporal and spatial variability. Data assimilation is a widely used method to improve the forecast skill of operational models and, in this study, the three-dimensional variational (OceanVAR) scheme has been extended to include Argo float trajectories, with the objective to constrain and ameliorate the numerical output primarily in terms of the subsurface velocity fields. The method of implementing the float positions into the cost function is highly unique, since it uses a tangent-linear trajectory model as the observational operator. The modeled float trajectories are obtained by integration of the linearized particle advection equation during 5-day periods, corresponding to the time when the Argo floats are drifting at parking depth (350m). For the first time, basin-wide numerical experiments have been undertaken for a 3-year period (2005-2007), and it was concluded that the trajectory assimilation significately improves the simulation of Argo float trajectories based upon analyses. Indeed, statistical studies of the root-mean-square differences between the observed and analysed float positions showed that the new OceanVar scheme yields ~20% better estimates of the predicted ocean currents. It was furthermore established that the extended OceanVAR scheme does not compromise the forecast/analysis quality of the other state variables (e.g. SLAs, temperature, salinity). A notable decrease in

  12. Argo: enabling the development of bespoke workflows and services for disease annotation

    PubMed Central

    Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Argo (http://argo.nactem.ac.uk) is a generic text mining workbench that can cater to a variety of use cases, including the semi-automatic annotation of literature. It enables its technical users to build their own customised text mining solutions by providing a wide array of interoperable and configurable elementary components that can be seamlessly integrated into processing workflows. With Argo's graphical annotation interface, domain experts can then make use of the workflows' automatically generated output to curate information of interest. With the continuously rising need to understand the aetiology of diseases as well as the demand for their informed diagnosis and personalised treatment, the curation of disease-relevant information from medical and clinical documents has become an indispensable scientific activity. In the Fifth BioCreative Challenge Evaluation Workshop (BioCreative V), there was substantial interest in the mining of literature for disease-relevant information. Apart from a panel discussion focussed on disease annotations, the chemical-disease relations (CDR) track was also organised to foster the sharing and advancement of disease annotation tools and resources. This article presents the application of Argo’s capabilities to the literature-based annotation of diseases. As part of our participation in BioCreative V’s User Interactive Track (IAT), we demonstrated and evaluated Argo’s suitability to the semi-automatic curation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes. Furthermore, the workbench facilitated the development of some of the CDR track’s top-performing web services for normalising disease mentions against the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database. In this work, we highlight Argo’s support for developing various types of bespoke workflows ranging from ones which enabled us to easily incorporate information from various databases, to those which train and apply machine learning-based concept recognition

  13. Early warning for VHE gamma-ray flares with the ARGO-YBJ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Bleve, C.; Bolognino, I.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cappa, A.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Cattaneo, C.; Celio, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, Y.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Alí Staiti, G.; Danzengluobu; Dattoli, M.; de Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; di Girolamo, T.; Ding, X. H.; di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F.; Galeotti, P.; Giroletti, E.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q.; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; James, I.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Li, J. Y.; Li, X. X.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, C. Q.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Pagliaro, A.; Panareo, M.; Panico, B.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Qu, X. B.; Rossi, E.; Ruggieri, F.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Stanescu, C.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xu, B.; Xue, L.; Yan, Y. X.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Detecting and monitoring emissions from flaring gamma-ray sources in the very-high-energy (VHE, > 100 GeV) band is a very important topic in gamma-ray astronomy. The ARGO-YBJ detector is characterized by a high duty cycle and a wide field of view. Therefore, it is particularly capable of detecting flares from extragalactic objects. Based on fast reconstruction and analysis, real-time monitoring of 33 selected VHE extragalactic sources is implemented. Flares exceeding a specific threshold are reported timely, hence enabling the follow-up observation of these objects using more sensitive detectors, such as Cherenkov telescopes.

  14. Mean Interplanetary Magnetic Field Measurement Using the ARGO-YBJ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aielli, G.; Bacci, C.; Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Bleve, C.; Bolognino, I.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Bussino, S.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cappa, A.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Cattaneo, C.; Celio, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, Y.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Alí Staiti, G.; Danzengluobu; Dattoli, M.; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Ding, X. H.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F.; Galeotti, P.; Gargana, R.; Giroletti, E.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q.; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; James, I.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Li, J. Y.; Li, X. X.; Liberti, B.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, C. Q.; Liu, M. Y.; Liu, J.; Lu, H.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Meng, X. R.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Pagliaro, A.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Qu, X. B.; Rossi, E.; Ruggieri, F.; Saggese, L.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Stanescu, C.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xu, B.; Xue, L.; Yan, Y. X.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, JiLong; Zhang, JianLi; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.; ARGO-YBJ COLLABORATION

    2011-03-01

    The Sun blocks cosmic-ray particles from outside the solar system, forming a detectable shadow in the sky map of cosmic rays detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment in Tibet. Because the cosmic-ray particles are positively charged, the magnetic field between the Sun and the Earth deflects them from straight trajectories and results in a shift of the shadow from the true location of the Sun. Here, we show that the shift measures the intensity of the field that is transported by the solar wind from the Sun to the Earth.

  15. Trypanocidal activity of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Takeara, R; Albuquerque, S; Lopes, N P; Lopes, J L C

    2003-01-01

    In the continuing search for new compounds with trypanocidal activity for use in blood banks to prevent the transmission of Chagas' disease, a trypanocidal extract of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) was fractionated using several chromatographic techniques and afforded the following flavonoids: tectochrysin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin 3-acetate, pinocembrin, chrysin, galangin 3-methyl ether, quercetin 3-methyl ether, chrysoeriol and vicenin-2. The most active compound was quercetin 3-methyl ether, which showed no blood lysis activity and which represents a promising compound for use against T. cruzi in blood banks. PMID:13678232

  16. Argo data assimilation and its effect on climate state estimation and forecasting in the western North Pacific using a coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Masuda, Shuhei; Hiyoshi, Yoshihisa; Sasaki, Yuji; Igarashi, Hiromichi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of ocean subsurface data (Argo data) on climate state estimation and forecasting, focusing on the reproduction of North Pacific subtropical mode water (STMW) using a four-dimensional variational data assimilation system with a coupled model. We produced two reanalysis plus forecast data sets for the ocean and atmosphere in 2010 using a 3 month assimilation period: the first including Argo data (Argo case) and the second did not include Argo data (control case). In the control case, the Kuroshio, Kuroshio Extension front, and recirculation gyres along the front were not adequately reproduced. Consequently, there were large biases in temperature and salinity in the western North Pacific. The assimilation of Argo data effectively corrected these biases and significantly improved reproduction of the Kuroshio fronts and recirculation gyres, resulting in a more realistic reproduction of the winter mixed layer and STMW. The correction of these biases is critical to the 1-3 year predictions of the STMW core properties, and the assimilation of Argo data enables prediction of these properties for more than a year. We showed that assimilation of Argo data affects the surface atmospheric temperature above the STMW formation region.

  17. Integration and laboratory characterization of the ARGOS laser guide star wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Carbonaro, Luca; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Antichi, Jacopo; Esposito, Simone; Orban De Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    The integration status of the ARGOS wavefront sensors is presented. ARGOS is the laser guide star AO program for the LBT. It will implement a Ground Layer AO correction for the instruments LUCI, an infrared imaging and spectrograph camera, using 3 pulsed low-altitudes Rayleigh beacons for each LBT's eye. It profits of the LBT's adaptive secondary mirrors and of FLAO's pyramid unit for NGS sensing. Each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and range-gated using custom Pockels cells and then sensed by a 15x15 SH sensor. The 3 pupil images are reimaged on a single lenslet array and a single detector. In the WFS are also installed 3 patrol cameras for the acquisition of the laser beacons, a system for the stabilization of the pupil images on the lenslet array and an internal source for calibration purposes. The two units are now completing the integration phase in Arcetri premises. We describe the characterization of the units and the closed-loop test realized using a deformable MEMS mirror.

  18. The ARGOS wavefront sensor pnCCD camera for an ELT: characteristics, limitations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Xivry, G. Orban; Ihle, S.; Ziegleder, J.; Barl, L.; Hartmann, R.; Rabien, S.; Soltau, H.; Strueder, L.

    2011-09-01

    From low-order to high-order AO, future wave front sensors on ELTs require large, fast, and low-noise detectors with high quantum efficiency and low dark current. While a detector for a high-order Shack-Hartmann WFS does not exist yet, the current CCD technology pushed to its limits already provides several solutions for the ELT AO detector requirements. One of these devices is the new WFS pnCCD camera of ARGOS, the Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics system (GLAO) for LUCIFER at LBT. Indeed, with its 264x264 pixels, 48 mu m pixel size and 1kHz frame rate, this camera provides a technological solution to different needs of the AO systems for ELTs, such as low-order but as well possibly higher order correction using pyramid wavefront sensing. In this contribution, we present the newly developped WFS pnCCD camera of ARGOS and how it fulfills future detector needs of AO on ELTs.

  19. Testing and integrating the laser system of ARGOS: the ground layer adaptive optics for LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, C.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Borelli, J.; Deysenroth, M.; Gaessler, W.; Gemperlein, H.; Honsberg, M.; Kulas, M.; Lederer, R.; Raab, W.; Rahmer, G.; Ziegleder, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Laser Guide Star facility ARGOS will provide Ground Layer Adaptive Optics to the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The system operates three pulsed laser beacons above each of the two primary mirrors, which are Rayleigh scattered in 12km height. This enables correction over a wide field of view, using the adaptive secondary mirror of the LBT. The ARGOS laser system is designed around commercially available, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers working at 532 nm. In preparation for a successful commissioning, it is important to ascertain that the specifications are met for every component of the laser system. The testing of assembled, optical subsystems is likewise necessary. In particular it is required to confirm a high output power, beam quality and pulse stability of the beacons. In a second step, the integrated laser system along with its electronic cabinets are installed on a telescope simulator. This unit is capable of carrying the whole assembly and can be tilted to imitate working conditions at the LBT. It allows alignment and functionality testing of the entire system, ensuring that flexure compensation and system diagnosis work properly in different orientations.

  20. Adjoint Assimilation of ARGO float displacement data into an eddy-resolving ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatoff, N.; Assenbaum, M.

    2003-04-01

    Within the SHOM/BRESM assimilation group in Toulouse, France, we are investigating means of assimilating ARGO float displacement data into a regional open-boundary implementation of MICOM. The model area covers a small part of the North Atlantic Ocean off the portugese coast, where intensive surveys and float releases were performed in years 2000 and 2001 within the french POMME experiment. Our special topic of interest is the behaviour of assimilation methods with respect to mesoscale structures such as eddies and fronts. The ARGO float cycle of typically 10 days introduces weak or strong aliasing of these structures. The methods beeing developed and tested include various implementation of objective analysis as well as variational methods. Our approach is pragmatic : the methods are implemented and their performances for analysis and forecast are compared, using observed float data provided by the CORIOLIS real-time data center in Brest. We will expose our model and assimilation setup and show results using sequential and variational methods.

  1. From satellite altimetry to operational oceanography and Argo: three revolutions in oceanography (Fridtjof Nansen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Traon, P. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The launch of the US/French mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. Topex/Poseidon revolutionized our vision and understanding of the ocean. It provided new views of the large scale seasonal and interannual sea level and ocean circulation variations. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. The ERS-1/2 orbit was well adapted for mesoscale circulation sampling but the orbit determination and altimeter performance were much less precise than for T/P. We demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. This was an essential first step for the merging of T/P and ERS-1/2. The second step required the development of a global optimal interpolation method. Near real time high resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 years. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near real time at high resolution was essential to the development of global ocean forecasting, a second revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) (1998-2008) was phased with the T/P and ERS-1/2 successors (Jason-1 and ENVISAT) and was instrumental in the development of global operational oceanography capabilities. Europe played a leading role in GODAE. In 1998, the global in-situ observing system was inadequate for the global scope of GODAE. This led to the development of Argo, an

  2. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)₂D₃), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769

  3. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C.; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)2D3 and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769

  4. Behavior of Dermochelys coriacea in captivity (animal carrying dummy PTT in preliminary phase of an ARGOS experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duron-Dufrenne, M.

    The degree to which a turtle would accept the Transat-type ARGOS PTT, and the reliability of the harness securing it to the carapace were tested, using an adult kept in a swimming pool for 36 hr. Its pelagic behavior turns out to be comparable to that in the open sea, the animal appearing unperturbed by the equipment.

  5. Motion tracking-enhanced MART for tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Matteo; Joost Batenburg, Kees; Scarano, Fulvio

    2010-03-01

    A novel technique to increase the accuracy of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) reconstruction from tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) recordings at higher seeding density than currently possible is presented. The motion tracking enhancement (MTE) method is based on the combined utilization of images from two or more exposures to enhance the reconstruction of individual intensity fields. The working principle is first introduced qualitatively, and the mathematical background is given that explains how the MART reconstruction can be improved on the basis of an improved first guess object obtained from the combination of non-simultaneous views reduced to the same time instant deforming the 3D objects by an estimate of the particle motion field. The performances of MTE are quantitatively evaluated by numerical simulation of the imaging, reconstruction and image correlation processes. The cases of two or more exposures obtained from time-resolved experiments are considered. The iterative application of MTE appears to significantly improve the reconstruction quality, first by decreasing the intensity of the ghost images and second, by increasing the intensity and the reconstruction precision for the actual particles. Based on computer simulations, the maximum imaged seeding density that can be dealt with is tripled with respect to the MART analysis applied to a single exposure. The analysis also illustrates that the maximum effect of the MTE method is comparable to that of doubling the number of cameras in the tomographic system. Experiments performed on a transitional jet at Re = 5000 apply the MTE method to double-frame recordings. The velocity measurement precision is increased for a system with fewer views (two or three cameras compared with four cameras). The ghost particles' intensity is also visibly reduced although to a lesser extent with respect to the computer simulations. The velocity and vorticity field obtained from a three

  6. From satellite altimetry to Argo and operational oceanography: three revolutions in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Traon, P. Y.

    2013-07-01

    The launch of the US/French mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. Together with my CLS colleagues, we demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. Near real time high resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 yr. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. Altimetry needs to be complemented with global in situ observations. In the end of the 90s, a major international initiative was launched to develop Argo, the global array of profiling floats. This has been an outstanding success. Argo floats now provide the most important in situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate and for operational oceanography. This is a second revolution in oceanography. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near real time at high resolution and the development of Argo were essential to the development of global operational oceanography, the third revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) was instrumental in the development of the required capabilities. This paper provides an historical perspective on the development of these three revolutions in oceanography which are very much interlinked. This is not an exhaustive review and I will mainly focus on the contributions we made together with many colleagues and

  7. From satellite altimetry to Argo and operational oceanography: three revolutions in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Traon, P. Y.

    2013-10-01

    The launch of the French/US mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large-scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. Together with my CLS colleagues, we demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. Near-real-time high-resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 yr. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. Altimetry needs to be complemented with global in situ observations. At the end of the 90s, a major international initiative was launched to develop Argo, the global array of profiling floats. This has been an outstanding success. Argo floats now provide the most important in situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate and for operational oceanography. This is a second revolution in oceanography. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near-real-time at high resolution and the development of Argo were essential for the development of global operational oceanography, the third revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) was instrumental in the development of the required capabilities. This paper provides an historical perspective on the development of these three revolutions in oceanography which are very much interlinked. This is not an exhaustive review and I will mainly focus on the contributions we made together with many colleagues and

  8. BioMart: a data federation framework for large collaborative projects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed; Baran, Joachim; Cros, Anthony; Guberman, Jonathan M; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart is a freely available, open source, federated database system that provides a unified access to disparate, geographically distributed data sources. It is designed to be data agnostic and platform independent, such that existing databases can easily be incorporated into the BioMart framework. BioMart allows databases hosted on different servers to be presented seamlessly to users, facilitating collaborative projects between different research groups. BioMart contains several levels of query optimization to efficiently manage large data sets and offers a diverse selection of graphical user interfaces and application programming interfaces to ensure that queries can be performed in whatever manner is most convenient for the user. The software has now been adopted by a large number of different biological databases spanning a wide range of data types and providing a rich source of annotation available to bioinformaticians and biologists alike. PMID:21930506

  9. An efficient and accurate approach to MTE-MART for time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. P.; Scarano, F.

    2015-03-01

    The motion-tracking-enhanced MART (MTE-MART; Novara et al. in Meas Sci Technol 21:035401, 2010) has demonstrated the potential to increase the accuracy of tomographic PIV by the combined use of a short sequence of non-simultaneous recordings. A clear bottleneck of the MTE-MART technique has been its computational cost. For large datasets comprising time-resolved sequences, MTE-MART becomes unaffordable and has been barely applied even for the analysis of densely seeded tomographic PIV datasets. A novel implementation is proposed for tomographic PIV image sequences, which strongly reduces the computational burden of MTE-MART, possibly below that of regular MART. The method is a sequential algorithm that produces a time-marching estimation of the object intensity field based on an enhanced guess, which is built upon the object reconstructed at the previous time instant. As the method becomes effective after a number of snapshots (typically 5-10), the sequential MTE-MART (SMTE) is most suited for time-resolved sequences. The computational cost reduction due to SMTE simply stems from the fewer MART iterations required for each time instant. Moreover, the method yields superior reconstruction quality and higher velocity field measurement precision when compared with both MART and MTE-MART. The working principle is assessed in terms of computational effort, reconstruction quality and velocity field accuracy with both synthetic time-resolved tomographic images of a turbulent boundary layer and two experimental databases documented in the literature. The first is the time-resolved data of flow past an airfoil trailing edge used in the study of Novara and Scarano (Exp Fluids 52:1027-1041, 2012); the second is a swirling jet in a water flow. In both cases, the effective elimination of ghost particles is demonstrated in number and intensity within a short temporal transient of 5-10 frames, depending on the seeding density. The increased value of the velocity space

  10. A neural network-based method for merging ocean color and Argo data to extend surface bio-optical properties to depth: Retrieval of the particulate backscattering coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauzède, R.; Claustre, H.; Uitz, J.; Jamet, C.; Dall'Olmo, G.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Gentili, B.; Poteau, A.; Schmechtig, C.

    2016-04-01

    The present study proposes a novel method that merges satellite ocean color bio-optical products with Argo temperature-salinity profiles to infer the vertical distribution of the particulate backscattering coefficient (bbp). This neural network-based method (SOCA-BBP for Satellite Ocean-Color merged with Argo data to infer the vertical distribution of the Particulate Backscattering coefficient) uses three main input components: (1) satellite-based surface estimates of bbp and chlorophyll a concentration matched up in space and time with (2) depth-resolved physical properties derived from temperature-salinity profiles measured by Argo profiling floats and (3) the day of the year of the considered satellite-Argo matchup. The neural network is trained and validated using a database including 4725 simultaneous profiles of temperature-salinity and bio-optical properties collected by Bio-Argo floats, with concomitant satellite-derived products. The Bio-Argo profiles are representative of the global open-ocean in terms of oceanographic conditions, making the proposed method applicable to most open-ocean environments. SOCA-BBP is validated using 20% of the entire database (global error of 21%). We present additional validation results based on two other independent data sets acquired (1) by four Bio-Argo floats deployed in major oceanic basins, not represented in the database used to train the method; and (2) during an AMT (Atlantic Meridional Transect) field cruise in 2009. These validation tests based on two fully independent data sets indicate the robustness of the predicted vertical distribution of bbp. To illustrate the potential of the method, we merged monthly climatological Argo profiles with ocean color products to produce a depth-resolved climatology of bbp for the global ocean.

  11. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    SciTech Connect

    Trosseille, C. Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C.; Beck, T.; Gazave, J.

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  12. Control of on-orbit contamination for the Argos (P91-1) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    The ARGOS (P91-1) satellite presents a challenging combination of on-orbit contamination concerns while mandating a low-cost approach. Several experiment payloads contain contamination sensitive optics, another contains large quantities of CO2 and Xe for release in orbit, and one contains an NH3 fueled arc jet thruster. The latter includes a suite of sensors to measure contamination; so prelaunch calculations will be tested. Planned contamination control techniques include: physical separation of sensitive surfaces from contamination sources; flight covers to protect sensitive surfaces during early outgassing on-orbit; gas release and thruster operation early in the flight, before flight covers are opened; and careful control of plumes and venting through a detailed analysis of each.

  13. A first approach of 3D Geostrophic Currents based on GOCE, altimetry and ARGO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempere Beneyto, M. Dolores; Vigo, Isabel; Chao, Ben F.

    2016-04-01

    The most recent advances in the geoid determination, provided by the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission, together with the continuous monitoring of the sea surface height by the altimeters on board of satellites and Argo data makes possible to estimate the ocean geostrophy in 3D. In this work, we present a first approach of the 3D geostrophic circulation for North Atlantic region, from the surface down to 1500 m depth. It has been computed for a 10 years period (2004-2014), using an observation-based approach that combines altimetry with temperature and salinity through the thermal wind equation gridded at one degree longitude and latitude resolution. For validation of the results, the estimated 3D geostrophic circulation is compared with Ocean Circulation Models simulations and/or in-situ data, showing in all cases similar patterns.

  14. Eddy stirring and horizontal diffusivity from Argo float observations: Geographic and depth variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Sylvia T.; Wortham, Cimarron; Kunze, Eric; Owens, W. Brechner

    2015-05-01

    Stirring along isopycnals is a significant factor in determining the distribution of tracers within the ocean. Salinity anomalies on density surfaces from Argo float profiles are used to investigate horizontal stirring and estimate eddy mixing lengths. Eddy mixing length and velocity fluctuations from the ECCO2 global state estimate are used to estimate horizontal diffusivity at a 300 km scale in the upper 2000 m with near-global coverage. Diffusivity varies by over two orders of magnitude with latitude, longitude, and depth. In all basins, diffusivity is elevated in zonal bands corresponding to strong current regions, including western boundary current extension regions, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and equatorial current systems. The estimated mixing lengths and diffusivities provide an observationally based data set that can be used to test and constrain predictions and parameterizations of eddy stirring.

  15. Identification of Showers with Cores Outside the ARGO-YBJ Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sciascio, G.; Bleve, C.; Di Girolano, T.; Martello, D.; Rossi, E.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    In any EAS array, the rejection of events with shower cores outside the detector boundaries is of great importance. A large difference between the true and the reconstructed shower core positions may lead to a systematic miscalculation of some shower characteristics. Moreover, an accurate determination of the shower core position for selected internal events is important to reconstruct the primary direction using conical fits to the shower front, improving the detector angular resolution, or to performe an efficient gamma/hadron discrimination. In this paper we present a procedure able to identify and reject showers with cores outside the ARGO-YBJ carp et boundaries. A comparison of the results for gamma and proton induced showers is reported.

  16. Proton-air cross section measurement with the ARGO-YBJ cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aielli, G.; Bacci, C.; Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Bleve, C.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Bussino, S.; Melcarne, A. K. Calabrese; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cappa, A.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Cattaneo, C.; Celio, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, N.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Staiti, G. D.'Alí; Danzengluobu; Dattoli, M.; de Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; de Vincenzi, M.; di Girolamo, T.; Ding, X. H.; di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F.; Galeotti, P.; Gargana, R.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q.; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; James, I.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Li, J. Y.; Li, X. X.; Liberti, B.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, C. Q.; Liu, M. Y.; Liu, J.; Lu, H.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Meng, X. R.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Pagliaro, A.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Qu, X. B.; Rossi, E.; Ruggieri, F.; Saggese, L.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Stanescu, C.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xu, B.; Xue, L.; Yan, Y. X.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.

    2009-11-01

    The proton-air cross section in the energy range 1-100 TeV has been measured by the ARGO-YBJ cosmic ray experiment. The analysis is based on the primary cosmic ray flux attenuation for different atmospheric depths (i.e. zenith angles) and exploits the detector capabilities of selecting the shower development stage by means of hit multiplicity, density and lateral profile measurements at ground. The effects of shower fluctuations, the contribution of heavier primaries and the uncertainties of the hadronic interaction models, have been taken into account. The results have been used to estimate the total proton-proton cross section at center-of-mass energies between 70 and 500 GeV, where no accelerator data are currently available.

  17. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule.

    PubMed

    Trosseille, C; Aubert, D; Auger, L; Bazzoli, S; Beck, T; Brunel, P; Burillo, M; Chollet, C; Gazave, J; Jasmin, S; Maruenda, P; Moreau, I; Oudot, G; Raimbourg, J; Soullié, G; Stemmler, P; Zuber, C

    2014-11-01

    Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an "air-box" that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes. PMID:25430196

  18. Estimating the Indo-Atlantic Salt Flux from ARGO and Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartly, Graham D.; Georgiou, Josh; Srokosz, Meric A.

    2010-12-01

    The interpretation of temperature and salinity profiles from ARGO floats is complicated by the fact that water mass properties are not simply slowly-varying over a region, but may have sharp fronts or eddies. By combining such profiles with contextual information gained from altimetry, we may measure temperature and salinity profiles separately for the background conditions and for features such as eddies within the region. A pilot study for the southeast Atlantic, through which large Agulhas rings (anticyclonic eddies) translate, indicated that the eddy characteristics only changed slowly, with the depth of the salinity minimum remaining at ~1100m, 250m deeper than in the environs, and that there was no noticeable effect on traversing the Walvis Ridge. Our initial estimate of the salt flux anomaly is 1.9x106 Kgs-1, although a value almost 40% larger is obtained if a different eddy structure is assumed.

  19. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoulea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trosseille, C.; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Beck, T.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Gazave, J.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C.

    2014-11-01

    Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an "air-box" that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  20. Observations of barrier layer in southeastern Arabian Sea using Argo observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Agarwal, Neeraj; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2006-12-01

    We present in this work composite relationships among Barrier Layer (BL) depth, and various other parameters either directly responsible for its formation or the sequence of events which follow once it is formed. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of the BL depth, its sustenance and annihilation are examined in the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) in the north Indian Ocean using primarily ARGO floats observations along with ancillary data from various satellites and surface currents from ocean model. All the available Argo floats observations of temperature and salinity as of December 2005 have been analyzed to evaluate the seasonal characteristics of barrier layer (BL) in this warm pool region of Arabian Sea. The annual average BL thickness in this region varies from 20 to 70 m, with larger values towards coast. The standard deviation is also high (15-30 m) in this region showing a strong seasonal variation. In a complete seasonal characteristic studied with the use of observations, BL thickness shows a primary peak (~ 50 m) in January and a secondary peak in September (~ 35 m). While the former is remotely forced, the later owes its generation to the local forcing via precipitation. TMI observations show a lag of 3 months in the SST warming with respect to the maximum BL thickness observed during January. Peak warming in SST during April immediately follows by rise in integrated water vapour. Interestingly, following the secondary maxima of BL, SST does not show any warming signature, possibly due to the overcast condition, preventing the surface from heating up.

  1. Estimating Ocean Middle-Depth Velocities from ARGO Floats: Error Estimation and Application to Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Zhu, J.; Yan, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (ARGO) project creates a unique opportunity to estimate the absolute velocity at mid-depths of the global oceans. However, the estimation can only be made based on float surface trajectories. The diving and resurfacing positions of the float are not available in its trajectory file. This surface drifting effect makes it difficult to estimate mid-depth current. Moreover, the vertical shear during decent or ascent between parking depth and the surface is another major error source. In this presentation, we first quantify the contributions of the two major error sources using the current estimates from Estimating the Climate and Circulation of the Ocean (ECCO) and find that the surface drifting is a primary error source. Then, a sequential surface trajectory prediction/estimation scheme based on Kalman Filter is introduced and implemented to reduce the surface drifting error in the Pacific during November 2001 to October 2004. On average, the error of the estimated velocities is greatly reduced from 2.7 to 0.2 cm s if neglecting the vertical shear. These velocities with relative error less than 25% are analyzed and compared with previous studies on mid-depth currents. The current system derived from ARGO floats in Pacific at 1000 and 2000 dB is comparable to other measured by ADCP (Reid, 1997; Firing et al., 1998). This presentation is based on two submitted manuscripts of the same authors (Xie and Zhu, 2006; Zhu et al., 2006). More detailed results can be found in the two manuscripts.

  2. Error Properties of Argos Satellite Telemetry Locations Using Least Squares and Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Janice D.; Brightsmith, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Study of animal movements is key for understanding their ecology and facilitating their conservation. The Argos satellite system is a valuable tool for tracking species which move long distances, inhabit remote areas, and are otherwise difficult to track with traditional VHF telemetry and are not suitable for GPS systems. Previous research has raised doubts about the magnitude of position errors quoted by the satellite service provider CLS. In addition, no peer-reviewed publications have evaluated the usefulness of the CLS supplied error ellipses nor the accuracy of the new Kalman filtering (KF) processing method. Using transmitters hung from towers and trees in southeastern Peru, we show the Argos error ellipses generally contain <25% of the true locations and therefore do not adequately describe the true location errors. We also find that KF processing does not significantly increase location accuracy. The errors for both LS and KF processing methods were found to be lognormally distributed, which has important repercussions for error calculation, statistical analysis, and data interpretation. In brief, “good” positions (location codes 3, 2, 1, A) are accurate to about 2 km, while 0 and B locations are accurate to about 5–10 km. However, due to the lognormal distribution of the errors, larger outliers are to be expected in all location codes and need to be accounted for in the user’s data processing. We evaluate five different empirical error estimates and find that 68% lognormal error ellipses provided the most useful error estimates. Longitude errors are larger than latitude errors by a factor of 2 to 3, supporting the use of elliptical error ellipses. Numerous studies over the past 15 years have also found fault with the CLS-claimed error estimates yet CLS has failed to correct their misleading information. We hope this will be reversed in the near future. PMID:23690980

  3. Salinity variability in the North Atlantic through synergetic analysis of Argo floats and satellite altimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendardo, Ilaria; Rhein, Monika; Klein, Birgit; Roessler, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Salinity distribution in the North Atlantic is affected by changes in the circulation and freshwater fluxes. Changes in salinity are introduced into the ocean's interior by vertical processes like subduction or convection, and transported along circulation pathways. At a given location and depth, salinity could vary by water mass changes due to changes in the freshwater flux, or by vertical migration of density surfaces caused either by wind-driven changes of ocean ventilation or by thermodynamic processes, like poleward migration of isopycnals as a result of surface warming. Changes in the wind driven circulation with a consequence shift of the subpolar front, that separates the fresher subpolar from the saline subtropical gyre, also have a marked influence on upper ocean salinity in the subpolar North Atlantic. Due to the lack of temporal and spatial resolution of salinity observations, salinity anomalies in the last century could only be studied by 5-year means. Thanks to the Argo program, the temporal and spatial resolution of salinity and temperature profiles since early 2000 have significantly improved, allowing to calculate even monthly means. To further improve temporal and spatial resolution of salinity, Argo profiles are combined with altimetry data and a "Transfer function", the Gravest Empirical Mode (GEM), is calculated. The GEM technique exploits the relationship between T/S profiles and dynamic height in order to parameterize salinity data as a function of dynamic height from the satellite altimetry. This technique gives the opportunity to extend the investigation of the salinity variability, with extremely high temporal (daily) and spatial (1/4°) resolution, back to 1993, the beginning of the altimetry data. This method was tested on several regions of the North Atlantic and it works particularly well for some of them, for example in the regions where the North Atlantic Current plays an important role. Within these regions salinity variability in

  4. Optimization of the volume reconstruction for classical Tomo-PIV algorithms (MART, BIMART and SMART): synthetic and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, L.; Tremblais, B.; David, L.

    2014-03-01

    Optimization of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), simultaneous MART and block iterative MART reconstruction techniques was carried out on synthetic and experimental data. Different criteria were defined to improve the preprocessing of the initial images. Knowledge of how each reconstruction parameter influences the quality of particle volume reconstruction and computing time is the key in Tomo-PIV. These criteria were applied to a real case, a jet in cross flow, and were validated.

  5. The Argos-CLS Kalman Filter: Error Structures and State-Space Modelling Relative to Fastloc GPS Data

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Andrew D.; Lydersen, Christian; Fedak, Mike A.; Lovell, Phil; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how an animal utilises its surroundings requires its movements through space to be described accurately. Satellite telemetry is the only means of acquiring movement data for many species however data are prone to varying amounts of spatial error; the recent application of state-space models (SSMs) to the location estimation problem have provided a means to incorporate spatial errors when characterising animal movements. The predominant platform for collecting satellite telemetry data on free-ranging animals, Service Argos, recently provided an alternative Doppler location estimation algorithm that is purported to be more accurate and generate a greater number of locations that its predecessor. We provide a comprehensive assessment of this new estimation process performance on data from free-ranging animals relative to concurrently collected Fastloc GPS data. Additionally, we test the efficacy of three readily-available SSM in predicting the movement of two focal animals. Raw Argos location estimates generated by the new algorithm were greatly improved compared to the old system. Approximately twice as many Argos locations were derived compared to GPS on the devices used. Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) for each optimal SSM were less than 4.25km with some producing RMSE of less than 2.50km. Differences in the biological plausibility of the tracks between the two focal animals used to investigate the utility of SSM highlights the importance of considering animal behaviour in movement studies. The ability to reprocess Argos data collected since 2008 with the new algorithm should permit questions of animal movement to be revisited at a finer resolution. PMID:25905640

  6. The Argos-CLS Kalman Filter: Error Structures and State-Space Modelling Relative to Fastloc GPS Data.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Andrew D; Lydersen, Christian; Fedak, Mike A; Lovell, Phil; Kovacs, Kit M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how an animal utilises its surroundings requires its movements through space to be described accurately. Satellite telemetry is the only means of acquiring movement data for many species however data are prone to varying amounts of spatial error; the recent application of state-space models (SSMs) to the location estimation problem have provided a means to incorporate spatial errors when characterising animal movements. The predominant platform for collecting satellite telemetry data on free-ranging animals, Service Argos, recently provided an alternative Doppler location estimation algorithm that is purported to be more accurate and generate a greater number of locations that its predecessor. We provide a comprehensive assessment of this new estimation process performance on data from free-ranging animals relative to concurrently collected Fastloc GPS data. Additionally, we test the efficacy of three readily-available SSM in predicting the movement of two focal animals. Raw Argos location estimates generated by the new algorithm were greatly improved compared to the old system. Approximately twice as many Argos locations were derived compared to GPS on the devices used. Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) for each optimal SSM were less than 4.25 km with some producing RMSE of less than 2.50 km. Differences in the biological plausibility of the tracks between the two focal animals used to investigate the utility of SSM highlights the importance of considering animal behaviour in movement studies. The ability to reprocess Argos data collected since 2008 with the new algorithm should permit questions of animal movement to be revisited at a finer resolution. PMID:25905640

  7. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Mandell, H.; McKay, D.; George, J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Amils, R.; Stevens, T.; Miller, D.

    2003-03-01

    MARTE is a Mars analog drilling experiment to search for subsurface life on Mars while also characterizing a sulfide-based subsurface biosphere. MARTE is among the first set of field experiments supported by the ASTEP program.

  8. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart?

    PubMed

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E

    2010-03-01

    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens. PMID:20004606

  9. A mitogenomic phylogeny and genetic history of sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2014-10-15

    We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300 thousandyears ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~50-140 kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40 kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22 kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~23-50 kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka. PMID:25110108

  10. Scaling an expert system data mart: more facilities in real-time.

    PubMed

    McNamee, L A; Launsby, B D; Frisse, M E; Lehmann, R; Ebker, K

    1998-01-01

    Clinical Data Repositories are being rapidly adopted by large healthcare organizations as a method of centralizing and unifying clinical data currently stored in diverse and isolated information systems. Once stored in a clinical data repository, healthcare organizations seek to use this centralized data to store, analyze, interpret, and influence clinical care, quality and outcomes. A recent trend in the repository field has been the adoption of data marts--specialized subsets of enterprise-wide data taken from a larger repository designed specifically to answer highly focused questions. A data mart exploits the data stored in the repository, but can use unique structures or summary statistics generated specifically for an area of study. Thus, data marts benefit from the existence of a repository, are less general than a repository, but provide more effective and efficient support for an enterprise-wide data analysis task. In previous work, we described the use of batch processing for populating data marts directly from legacy systems. In this paper, we describe an architecture that uses both primary data sources and an evolving enterprise-wide clinical data repository to create real-time data sources for a clinical data mart to support highly specialized clinical expert systems. PMID:9929269

  11. S-MART, A Software Toolbox to Aid RNA-seq Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zytnicki, Matthias; Quesneville, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing is now routinely performed in many experiments. But the analysis of the millions of sequences generated, is often beyond the expertise of the wet labs who have no personnel specializing in bioinformatics. Whereas several tools are now available to map high-throughput sequencing data on a genome, few of these can extract biological knowledge from the mapped reads. We have developed a toolbox called S-MART, which handles mapped RNA-Seq data. S-MART is an intuitive and lightweight tool which performs many of the tasks usually required for the analysis of mapped RNA-Seq reads. S-MART does not require any computer science background and thus can be used by all of the biologist community through a graphical interface. S-MART can run on any personal computer, yielding results within an hour even for Gb of data for most queries. S-MART may perform the entire analysis of the mapped reads, without any need for other ad hoc scripts. With this tool, biologists can easily perform most of the analyses on their computer for their RNA-Seq data, from the mapped data to the discovery of important loci. PMID:21998740

  12. Seismic expression of Marts field (Silurian reef) in Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Renick, H.J. Jr.; Rene, R.M.; Hester, N.C.; Stanonis, F.L. )

    1989-08-01

    The Marts field of Sullivan County, Indiana, is associated with a Silurian reef that is part of the Terre Haute bank on the eastern flank of the Illinois basin. Gas production has come from Pennsylvanian sandstones at Marts field, and oil is presently being produced from limestones of the Devonian Muscatatuck Group. Hydrocarbons were trapped in the Devonian limestones because of structural drape over the reef. A 2.8-km (1.8-mi) north-south 24-CDP reflection seismic profile across the Marts field was obtained by using a hydraulic-assisted weight drop with a source array interval of 16.7 m (55 ft). The data were digitally processed through statics corrections, deconvolution, stack, and migration. These data clearly image drape in Carboniferous and Devonian strata, a characteristic change in reflection pattern at the reef flanks, and diffractions associated with the reef flanks. Near Marts field, one well penetrates Silurian strata, and a synthetic seismogram for this off-reef well is tied to the seismic section. Using well data from Marts and other reefs, mirror-imaged cross-plots of depths to tops of formations vs. depth to top of the Devonian limestone aid in examination of the drape. These plots of transformed cross sections approximate those of vertically stacked right circular cones indicative of the linear relationships between depths to formations.

  13. Identification of the TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 with the Cygnus Cocoon

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2014-08-01

    The extended TeV gamma-ray source ARGO J2031+4157 (or MGRO J2031+41) is positionally consistent with the Cygnus Cocoon discovered by Fermi-LAT at GeV energies in the Cygnus superbubble. Reanalyzing the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2013 January, the angular extension and energy spectrum of ARGO J2031+4157 are evaluated. After subtracting the contribution of the overlapping TeV sources, the ARGO-YBJ excess map is fitted with a two-dimensional Gaussian function in a square region of 10° × 10°, finding a source extension σ{sub ext}= 1.°8 ± 0.°5. The observed differential energy spectrum is dN/dE = (2.5 ± 0.4) × 10{sup –11}(E/1 TeV){sup –2.6±0.3} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1}, in the energy range 0.2-10 TeV. The angular extension is consistent with that of the Cygnus Cocoon as measured by Fermi-LAT and the spectrum also shows a good connection with the one measured in the 1-100 GeV energy range. These features suggest to identify ARGO J2031+4157 as the counterpart of the Cygnus Cocoon at TeV energies. The Cygnus Cocoon, located in the star-forming region of Cygnus X, is interpreted as a cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays related to the Cygnus superbubble. The spectral similarity with supernova remnants (SNRs) indicates that the particle acceleration inside a superbubble is similar to that in an SNR. The spectral measurements from 1 GeV to 10 TeV allows for the first time to determine the possible spectrum slope of the underlying particle distribution. A hadronic model is adopted to explain the spectral energy distribution.

  14. On the nature of the Madagascar dipoles: An analysis from Argo profiling floats and altimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Ridderinkhof, Herman; de Ruijter, Will P. M.; Maas, Leo R. M.

    2016-04-01

    The South East Madagascar Current (SEMC) flows poleward along the eastern coast of Madagascar as a western boundary current which further south provides some of the source waters of the Agulhas Current, either directly or in the form of eddies. We investigate the region of dipole formation south of Madagascar combining vertical T/S profiles from Argo floats, altimetry measurements and an existing eddy detection algorithm. Results from our analysis show that the dipole consists of an anticyclonic intrathermocline eddy (ITE) formed on its southern flank and a cyclonic ITE formed on its northern flank. Both lobes of the dipole exhibit similar T/S properties throughout the water column, although vertically shifted within the thermocline depending on its nature: upward in a cyclonic ITE and downward in an anticyclonic ITE. A subsurface salinity maximum of about 35.5 psu characterizes the upper layers with Subtropical Surface Water (STSW). At intermediate levels, a well defined path of South Indian Central Water (SICW) extends throughout the water column up to reach a minimum in salinity of 34.5 psu, corresponding to Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Below, at deep layers, the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is found. The intrathermocline nature of the Madagascar dipoles has not been previously reported and represents an important feature to be considered when assessing the heat and salt fluxes driven by eddy movement and contributing to the Agulhas Current. Unlike surface eddies, intrathermocline eddies strongly influence the intermediate/deeper layers in the oceans and, hence, may have a larger contribution in the spreading rates and pathways of water masses. Because the intrathermocline nature of eddies is invisible to altimetry measurements, these results stress the importance of combining altimetry with historical records of Argo profiles which uncover eddy dynamics below the sea surface. Lastly, we further investigate from altimetry the area of dipole formation

  15. Seasonal variability of nutrient concentrations in the Mediterranean Sea: Contribution of Bio-Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqueron de Fommervault, Orens; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Mangin, Antoine; Serra, Romain; Migon, Christophe; Claustre, Hervé; Lavigne, Héloïse; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio; Prieur, Louis; Taillandier, Vincent; Schmechtig, Catherine; Poteau, Antoine; Leymarie, Edouard; Dufour, Aurélie; Besson, Florent; Obolensky, Grigor

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, as part of the French NAOS (Novel Argo Oceanic observing System) program, five profiling floats equipped with nitrate sensors (SUNA-V2) together with CTD and bio-optical sensors were deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. At present day, more than 500 profiles of physical and biological parameters were acquired, and significantly increased the number of available nitrate data in the Mediterranean Sea. Results obtained from floats confirm the general view of the basin, and the well-known west-to-east gradient of oligotrophy. At seasonal scale, the north western Mediterranean displays a clear temperate pattern sustained by both deep winter mixed layer and shallow nitracline. The other sampled areas follow a subtropical regime (nitracline depth and mixed layer depth are generally decoupled). Float data also permit to highlight the major contribution of high-frequency processes in controlling the nitrate supply during winter in the north western Mediterranean Sea and in altering the nitrate stock in subsurface in the eastern basin.

  16. Assessment of Global Oceanic Net Freshwater Flux Products Using Argo Salinity Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Arkin, P. A.; Hackert, E. C.; Busalacchi, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The annual mean global upper ocean salt budget is investigated using the Argo profiling float data from 2006 to 2011, which provides a way to estimate the annual mean oceanic evaporation and precipitation (E-P) from the ocean salinity. Employing this "ocean rain gauge" concept, E-P estimated from the salt budget is compared with the various satellite based oceanic precipitation and evaporation observational products. In this study, twelve sets of E-P from the evaporation and precipitation products including the precipitation datasets GPCP, CMAP and TRMM and the evaporation datasets OAFlux, GSSTF2b, IFREMER and RSS are compared to the E-P estimated from the salinity. We will describe the spatial patterns of the various E-P products derived from the satellite based data sets and compare these patterns to those derived from the oceanic salinity on the annual mean time scale. We will also examine time series of near-global integrated E-P derived from satellite products and compare them to time series based on oceanic salinity observations as well as continental discharge. This intercomparison of independently derived estimates of fresh water flux at the ocean surface will improve our understanding of errors in remotely sensed estimates of evaporation and precipitation.

  17. The Yangbajing Super Complex Array Plan Based on the ARGO Carpet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Youheng; Zha, Min

    2008-01-01

    Following the completion of the 5700m2 RPC carpet-like AS array at YangBaJing this year, a further plan based on the ARGO Carpet is raised. It characterizes with its high altitude site, its full-coverage detector array and the multi-parameter measurements. Apart from studies on TeV and sub-TeV energy range, UHE Gamma-ray sources and the Knee Physics will become its characteristic subjects. In the first phase of the plan, the Yangbajing Super Complex Array (YSCA) will include a 104m2 RPC Carpet, five indoor μ-detectors (˜170 m2 each), four big outdoor μ-detectors (˜432 m2 each) and a traditional field scintillation detector array surrounding the Carpet. Monte-Carlo study shows that, with such an array in YBJ (4300m a.s.l.), γ-ray induced air showers can be separated from proton induced air showers clearly using only the observed electron and μ data event by event. To assist the classification of UHE air showers induced by different primary nuclei groups without severe interference by Composition/Model Entanglement, a second phase plan having a Central Burst Detector Array (CBDA) and some pulse shape detectors is schemed.

  18. OBSERVATION OF THE TeV GAMMA-RAY SOURCE MGRO J1908+06 WITH ARGO-YBJ

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y.; Bolognino, I.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Melcarne, A. K. Calabrese; Cardarelli, R.; Cattaneo, C.; Chen, T. L.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Staiti, G. D'Ali; Collaboration: Argo-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    The extended gamma-ray source MGRO J1908+06, discovered by the Milagro air shower detector in 2007, has been observed for {approx}4 years by the ARGO-YBJ experiment at TeV energies, with a statistical significance of 6.2 standard deviations. The peak of the signal is found at a position consistent with the pulsar PSR J1907+0602. Parameterizing the source shape with a two-dimensional Gauss function, we estimate an extension of {sigma}{sub ext} = 0.{sup 0}49 {+-} 0.{sup 0}22, which is consistent with a previous measurement by the Cherenkov Array H.E.S.S. The observed energy spectrum is dN/dE = 6.1 {+-} 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} (E/4 TeV){sup -2.54{+-}0.36} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}, in the energy range of {approx}1-20 TeV. The measured gamma-ray flux is consistent with the results of the Milagro detector, but is {approx}2-3 times larger than the flux previously derived by H.E.S.S. at energies of a few TeV. The continuity of the Milagro and ARGO-YBJ observations and the stable excess rate observed by ARGO-YBJ and recorded in four years of data support the identification of MGRO J1908+06 as the steady powerful TeV pulsar wind nebula of PSR J1907+0602, with an integrated luminosity over 1 TeV {approx} 1.8 times the luminosity of the Crab Nebula.

  19. Assessing Performance of Bayesian State-Space Models Fit to Argos Satellite Telemetry Locations Processed with Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mónica A.; Jonsen, Ian; Russell, Deborah J. F.; Prieto, Rui; Thompson, Dave; Baumgartner, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Argos recently implemented a new algorithm to calculate locations of satellite-tracked animals that uses a Kalman filter (KF). The KF algorithm is reported to increase the number and accuracy of estimated positions over the traditional Least Squares (LS) algorithm, with potential advantages to the application of state-space methods to model animal movement data. We tested the performance of two Bayesian state-space models (SSMs) fitted to satellite tracking data processed with KF algorithm. Tracks from 7 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) tagged with ARGOS satellite transmitters equipped with Fastloc GPS loggers were used to calculate the error of locations estimated from SSMs fitted to KF and LS data, by comparing those to “true” GPS locations. Data on 6 fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were used to investigate consistency in movement parameters, location and behavioural states estimated by switching state-space models (SSSM) fitted to data derived from KF and LS methods. The model fit to KF locations improved the accuracy of seal trips by 27% over the LS model. 82% of locations predicted from the KF model and 73% of locations from the LS model were <5 km from the corresponding interpolated GPS position. Uncertainty in KF model estimates (5.6±5.6 km) was nearly half that of LS estimates (11.6±8.4 km). Accuracy of KF and LS modelled locations was sensitive to precision but not to observation frequency or temporal resolution of raw Argos data. On average, 88% of whale locations estimated by KF models fell within the 95% probability ellipse of paired locations from LS models. Precision of KF locations for whales was generally higher. Whales’ behavioural mode inferred by KF models matched the classification from LS models in 94% of the cases. State-space models fit to KF data can improve spatial accuracy of location estimates over LS models and produce equally reliable behavioural estimates. PMID:24651252

  20. Calibration of the RPC charge readout in the ARGO-YBJ experiment with the iso-gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D`Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D`Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.

    2015-05-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a full coverage array of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with an active area of 5800 m2. In order to eliminate the response difference of the charge readout from the RPCs, a calibration procedure is carried out with the iso-gradient method. This method also allows the extension of the absolute calibration with the muon telescope including scintillation detectors to all the RPCs in the array. The overall systematic uncertainty in measurements of the number of particles by the RPCs is 10.7%. In general, the method gives results consistent with those from a totally different approach also used in the experiment.

  1. Sea-floor observations in the tongue of the ocean, Bahamas: An Argo/SeaMARC survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, W.C.; Uchupi, E.; Ballard, Richard D.; Dettweiler, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    SeaMARC side-scan sonographs and Argo video and photographic data suggest that the recent sedimentary environment of the floor of the Tongue of the Ocean is controlled by an interplay of turbidity current flow from the south, sediment spill-over from the carbonate platform to the east (windward side), and rock falls from the west carbonate escarpment (lee side). The spill-over forms a sandy sedimentary deposit that acts as a topographic obstruction to the turbidity current flow from the south. This obstruction is expressed by the westward migration of a northwest-southeast oriented turbidity-current-cut channel. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  2. Near-Real Time Monthly Global Temperature and Salinity Gridded Data from New Ocean Exploration by Argo Floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.; Sun, L.; Fan, C.

    2010-12-01

    New ocean exploration by Argo floats provides sufficient spatial and temporal coverage for sampling the global ocean temperature and salinity. Currently, there are 3193 Argo floats all over the world oceans. Combined with traditionally sampled data, they are included into the Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP). To fully understanding the variability in ocean thermohaline structure and then its effects on climate variability needs a sufficient resolution in space and, especially, in time, gridded ocean temperature and salinity (T, S) dataset. We analyzed observational profiles (from Argo and traditional technologies) from the GTSPP and produced a T-S data set to meet the above need. GTSPP is a joint programme of the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange committee (IODE) and the Joint Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM). IODE and JCOMM are technical committees of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and the World Meteorological Organization. The quality control procedures used in GTSPP were developed by the Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS), now the Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM), of Canada. The GTSPP handles all temperature and salinity profile data. This includes observations collected using water samplers, continuous profiling instruments such as Argo, CTDs, thermistor chain data and observations acquired using thermosalinographs. These data will reach data processing centres of the Program through the real-time channels of the IGOSS program or in delayed mode through the IODE system. Real-time data in GTSPP are acquired from the Global Telecommunications System in the bathythermal (BATHY) and temperature, salinity & current (TESAC) codes forms supported by the WMO. Delayed mode data are contributed directly by member states of IOC. Any variable (temperature, salinity, or velocity) can be decomposed into generalized Fourier series using the recently developed optimal

  3. BIO ARGO floats: tools for operational monitoring of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Slabakova, Violeta; Peneva, Elisaveta; Stanev, Emil

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of ecological status in the context of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the physical and biogeochemical processes that determine the functioning of marine ecosystems. One of the main challenges however is the need of data with frequency relevant to the spatial and temporal scales of the ecological processes. The majority of in situ observations that are commonly used for ecological monitoring of the Black Sea are generally based on near-shore monitoring programs or irregular oceanographic cruises that provide either non-synoptic, coarse resolution realizations of large scale processes or detailed, but time and site specific snapshots of local features. These gaps can be filled by two independent sources: satellite observation and profiling floats. In fact satellite ocean color sensors allows for determination at synoptic scale of water quality parameters through its absorption properties. However the satellite ocean color methods have a number of limitations such as: measurements can only be made during daylight hours; require cloud-free conditions and are sensitive to atmospheric aerosols; provide information only for the upper layer of the ocean (approximately the depth of 10% incident light); algorithms developed for global applications are a source of large uncertainties in the marginal seas and costal areas. These constrains of the optical remote sensing observations can be avoided by using miniature biogeochemical sensors and autonomous platforms that offer remarkable perspectives for observing the "biological" ocean, notably at critical spatiotemporal scales which have been out of reach until recently (Claustre et al., 2010). In the frame of "E-AIMS: Euro-Argo Improvements for the GMES marine Service" 7 EC FP project two Bio Argo floats were deployed in the Black Sea. Beside the traditionally CTD the floats were equipped with biogeochemical

  4. The vitamin D analog, MART-10, represses metastasis potential via downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-11-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PDA) is a devastating disease and there is no effective treatment available at present. To develop new regiments against PDA is urgently needed. Previously we have shown that vitamin D analog, MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), exerted potent antiproliferative effect on PDA in vitro and in vivo without causing hypercalcemia. Since metastasis is the major cause of PDA-related death, we therefore investigate the anti-metastasis effect of MART-10 on PDA. Our results showed that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 repressed migration and invasion of BxPC-3 and PANC cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells through downregulation of Snail, Slug, and Vimentin expression in BxPC-3 and PANC cells. MART-10 further blocked cadherin switch (from E-cadherin to N-cadherin) in BxPC-3 cells. The F-actin synthesis in the cytoplasm of BxPC-3 cells was also repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 as determined by immunofluorescence stain. Both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 decreased MMP-2 and -9 secretion in BxPC-3 cells as determined by western blot and zymography. Collectively, MART-10 should be deemed as a promising regimen against PDA. PMID:25149065

  5. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  6. Exploración del Nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, y conozca las nuevas tecnologías que el nuevo robot Curiosity del Laboratorio Científico d...

  7. COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEMS IN MARTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY OF ENDEMIC FAUNAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex assemblages of hosts and parasites reveal insights about biogeography and ecology and inform us about processes which serve to structure faunal diversity and the biosphere in space and time. Exploring aspects of parasite diversity among martens (species of Martes) and other mustelids reveal...

  8. La Verneda-Sant Martí Adult School: A Reference for Neighborhood Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubert, Adrianna; Villarejo, Bea; Cabré, Joan; Santos, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The Adult School of La Verneda Sant Martí, located in Barcelona, Spain, is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education. The school was created in 1978 to address the demands of the working-class residents of the La Verneda…

  9. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J; Dassi, Erik; Di Genova, Alex; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K; Hayes, Richard D; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-07-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  10. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biologi...

  11. [Water and energy metabolism in representatives of the genus Martes and Mustela (Mammalia: Mustelidae)].

    PubMed

    Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Rozhnov, V V; Naĭdenko, S V

    2003-01-01

    The quantities of consumed food and water, quantity and moisture content of faeces, as well as quantity and concentration of excreted urine were determined in representatives of Martes--marten (M. martes) and sable (M. zibellina)--as well as in polecat (Mustela putorius). Under the same cage conditions and free access to food, all three species had similar energy value of the daily diet. However, the level of drinking water consumption and the ratio between the quantities of arriving water and energy was reliably higher in both Martes species than in polecat. In addition, both marten and sable featured a much higher rate of evaporation loss in the overall water balance and, consequently, a higher quantity of heat dissipated with evaporation as compared to polecat. Comparison of the obtained and previous data (Sokolov et al., 1995; Rozhnov, 1991) allowed us to propose that the mentioned differences can be specific for representatives of Martes and Mustela genera irrespective of ecological specialization of particular species. PMID:12942756

  12. Molecular evolution and adaptation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Malyarchuk, B; He, X B; Derenko, M

    2013-01-01

    Martes species represent a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation and a recent speciation event. To identify regions of the genome that experienced adaptive evolution, which might provide clues to their functional importance and may be informative about the features that make each species unique, we sought evidence of molecular adaptation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes. Complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 87 samples, including 49 sables, 28 pine martens, and 10 stone martens, and were combined with mtDNA sequences of other true martens, such as M. melampus and M. americana. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene variation in true martens has shown that the evolution of this gene is under negative selection. In contrast, positive selection on the cytochrome b protein has been detected by means of the software TreeSAAP using a phylogenetic reconstruction of Martes taxa. Signatures of adaptive variation in cytochrome b were restricted to the transmembrane domains, which likely function as proton pumps. We compared results of different methods for testing selection and molecular adaptation, and we supposed that the radical changes of the cytochrome b amino acid residues in the subgenus Martes may be the result of molecular adaptation to specific environmental conditions coupled with species dispersals. PMID:24085456

  13. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J.; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W.; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J.; Dassi, Erik; Genova, Alex Di; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C.; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K.; Hayes, Richard D.; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M.; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W.; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z.; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-01-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  14. Flavonoids from acai (euterpe oleracea mart.) Pulp and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-'-D-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds ...

  15. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  16. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.

    2011-06-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, some aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Water outflow is strong in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found there between 600 and 1000 m depths. The Red Sea Water is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, and fragments of this water mass can be advected offshore across the gulf or towards its northern coast by the regional gyres. The Red Sea Water outflow is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the SSH measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are more often related to the anomalous water masses that they encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW are found in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, in particular during summer.

  17. Gamma-ray Flares from Mrk421 in 2008 Observed with the ARGO-YBJ Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aielli, G.; Bacci, C.; Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Bleve, C.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Bussino, S.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cappa, A.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Cattaneo, C.; Celio, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, N.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Alí Staiti, G.; Danzengluobu; Dattoli, M.; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Ding, X. H.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F.; Galeotti, P.; Gargana, R.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q.; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; James, I.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Li, J. Y.; Li, X. X.; Liberti, B.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, C. Q.; Liu, M. Y.; Liu, J.; Lu, H.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Meng, X. R.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Pagliaro, A.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Qu, X. B.; Rossi, E.; Ruggieri, F.; Saggese, L.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Stanescu, C.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xu, B.; Xue, L.; Yan, Y. X.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    In 2008, the blazar Markarian 421 entered a very active phase and was one of the brightest sources in the sky at TeV energies, showing frequent flaring episodes. Using the data of ARGO-YBJ, a full coverage air shower detector located at Yangbajing (4300 m a.s.l., Tibet), we monitored the source at gamma-ray energies E>0.3 TeV during the whole year. The observed flux was variable, with the strongest flares in March and June, in correlation with X-ray enhanced activity. While during specific episodes the TeV flux could be several times larger than the Crab Nebula one, the average emission from day 41 to 180 was almost twice the Crab level, with an integral flux of (3.6 ± 0.6) × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1 for energies E>1 TeV, and decreased afterward. This Letter concentrates on the flares that occurred in the first half of June. This period has been deeply studied from optical to 100 MeV gamma rays, and partially up to TeV energies, since the moonlight hampered the Cherenkov telescope observations during the most intense part of the emission. Our data complete these observations, with the detection of a signal with a statistical significance of 3.8 standard deviations on June 11-13, corresponding to a gamma-ray flux about 6 times larger than the Crab one above 1 TeV. The reconstructed differential spectrum, corrected for the intergalactic absorption, can be represented by a power law with an index α = -2.1+0.7 -0.5 extending up to several TeV. The spectrum slope is fully consistent with previous observations reporting a correlation between the flux and the spectral index, suggesting that this property is maintained in different epochs and characterizes the source emission processes.

  18. The Dog on the Ship: The Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy as an Outlying Part of the Argo Star System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha-Pinto, H. J.; Majewski, S. R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Patterson, R. J.; Nakanishi, H.; Muñoz, R. R.; Sofue, Y.

    2006-04-01

    Overdensities in the distribution of low-latitude, 2MASS giant stars are revealed by systematically peeling away from sky maps the bulk of the giant stars conforming to ``isotropic'' density laws generally accounting for known Milky Way components. This procedure, combined with a higher resolution treatment of the sky density of both giants and dust, allows us to probe to lower Galactic latitudes than previous 2MASS giant star studies. While the results show the swath of excess giants previously associated with the Monoceros ring system in the second and third Galactic quadrants at distances of 6-20 kpc, we also find a several times larger overdensity of giants in the same distance range concentrated in the direction of the ancient constellation Argo. Isodensity contours of the large structure suggest that it is highly elongated and inclined by about 3° to the disk, although details of the structure-including the actual location of highest density, overall extent, true shape-and its origin remain unknown because only a fraction of it lies outside highly dust-obscured, low-latitude regions. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the 2MASS M giant overdensity previously claimed to represent the core of a dwarf galaxy in Canis Major (l~240deg) is an artifact of a dust extinction window opening to the overall density rise to the more significant Argo structure centered at larger longitude (l~290deg+/-10deg, b~-4deg+/-2deg).

  19. Study of the long time-scale variability of cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, Alba; James, Irina; Salvini, Paola

    The long term modulation of the cosmic ray intensity includes both Sun and celestial anisotropies. The solar activity is due to high energy flares producing a decrease (known as Forbush Decrease, FD) in the cosmic ray intensity, with a time scale of the order of a few days, often accompained by a Ground Level Enhancement, due to direct Sun emission during the solar flare. The celestial anisotropies are due to the Earth motion in the cosmic rays reference system (solar anisotropy: Compton-Getting effect) and to the solar system location inside the Galaxy (sidereal anisotropies). These anisotropies are studied in ground-base experiments by means of EAS arrays, and the high energy solar emission is mainly studied from ground by neutron monitors. In the ARGO-YBJ experiment these phenomena are investigated by means of the "scaler mode" technique: the detector counting rates of four low multiplicity channels from singles to four-fold coincidences are recorded in a fixed time window of 0.5 s. The signal corresponds to a significant enhancement of the observed counting rate, after correcting the data for enviromental and instrumental parameters. In this paper we present the sensitivity of the ARGO-YBJ detector and the first results for both solar physics and cosmic ray anisotropy studies.

  20. Freshening of the South Indian Ocean during the Argo period: observations, causes, and impact on regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, William; Lee, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Steric sea level change has been identified as one of the major contributors to the regional sea level changes. This contribution varies in space and time. Temperature (thermosteric) contribution to sea level has been found to be generally more important than salinity (halosteric) effect. Based on temperature and salinity data from Argo floats during 2005-2013 and coincident sea level measurements from satellite altimetry, we found that the central-eastern part of the South Indian Ocean stood out in the entire world ocean as a region that had a more dominant halosteric contribution to sea level change. The conspicuously large halosteric contribution was associated with a freshening in the upper few hundred meters. Neither local atmospheric forcing nor halosteric signal transmitted from the Pacific can explain this freshening. An observed strengthening of the Indonesian throughflow since early 2007 and the enhanced precipitation in the Indonesian Seas inferred from various precipitation estimates compounded by strong tidal mixing are the likely causes of the freshening of the South Indian Ocean. The findings also have implications to the potential influence of regional water cycle and ocean currents in the maritime Continent region to sea level changes in the South Indian Ocean prior to the Argo era and sea level projection in the future in response to climate change. Sustained measurements of sea surface salinity from satellites will significantly enhance our capability to study the impact of regional water cycle in the Maritime Continent region to related changes in the marginal seas and the Indian Ocean.

  1. Analyses of phenotype and ARGOS and ASY1 expression in a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ai Xia; Zhao, Jian Jun; Li, Li Min; Wang, Yan Hua; Zhao, Yu Jing; Hua, Fan; Xu, Yuan Chao; Shen, Shu Xing

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to improve our understanding of how ploidy level influences phenotype and gene expression in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Haploid plants (2n = 10) was induced by 0.2% colchicine to produce diploid (2n = 20) and tetraploid plants (2n = 40). The aneuploid (2n = 24) was also obtained by hybridization between diploid plants as the female and tetraploid plants. The ploidy levels of all plants were identified through chromosome counts and flow cytometry. Leaves and petals became larger as the ploidy level increased from haploid to diploid, and from aneuploid to tetraploid. Similarly, expression of ARGOS was regulated by genome size, increasing in parallel with the level of ploidy. Among the four ploidy types, expression was stronger in the floral buds than in the leaves. Expression by ASY1 also differed according to ploidy level, being highest in diploid plants, followed in order by tetraploids. Expression was similar between haploids and aneuploids at two stages-prior to and after meiosis-but was higher in the haploids during meiosis. When buds were compared within the same ploidy type at different stages, ASY1 expression was obviously higher during meiosis than either before or after. Our study demonstrated the generation and phenotype of a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid. Expression of genes ARGOS and ASY1 were modulated by genome size in this ploidy series, and the regulated patterns of the two genes was different. PMID:27162487

  2. Analyses of phenotype and ARGOS and ASY1 expression in a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ai Xia; Zhao, Jian Jun; Li, Li Min; Wang, Yan Hua; Zhao, Yu Jing; Hua, Fan; Xu, Yuan Chao; Shen, Shu Xing

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to improve our understanding of how ploidy level influences phenotype and gene expression in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Haploid plants (2n = 10) was induced by 0.2% colchicine to produce diploid (2n = 20) and tetraploid plants (2n = 40). The aneuploid (2n = 24) was also obtained by hybridization between diploid plants as the female and tetraploid plants. The ploidy levels of all plants were identified through chromosome counts and flow cytometry. Leaves and petals became larger as the ploidy level increased from haploid to diploid, and from aneuploid to tetraploid. Similarly, expression of ARGOS was regulated by genome size, increasing in parallel with the level of ploidy. Among the four ploidy types, expression was stronger in the floral buds than in the leaves. Expression by ASY1 also differed according to ploidy level, being highest in diploid plants, followed in order by tetraploids. Expression was similar between haploids and aneuploids at two stages—prior to and after meiosis—but was higher in the haploids during meiosis. When buds were compared within the same ploidy type at different stages, ASY1 expression was obviously higher during meiosis than either before or after. Our study demonstrated the generation and phenotype of a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid. Expression of genes ARGOS and ASY1 were modulated by genome size in this ploidy series, and the regulated patterns of the two genes was different. PMID:27162487

  3. An Ensemble Recentering Kalman Filter with an Application to Argo Temperature Data Assimilation into the NASA GEOS-5 Coupled Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.

    2013-01-01

    A two-step ensemble recentering Kalman filter (ERKF) analysis scheme is introduced. The algorithm consists of a recentering step followed by an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) analysis step. The recentering step is formulated such as to adjust the prior distribution of an ensemble of model states so that the deviations of individual samples from the sample mean are unchanged but the original sample mean is shifted to the prior position of the most likely particle, where the likelihood of each particle is measured in terms of closeness to a chosen subset of the observations. The computational cost of the ERKF is essentially the same as that of a same size EnKF. The ERKF is applied to the assimilation of Argo temperature profiles into the OGCM component of an ensemble of NASA GEOS-5 coupled models. Unassimilated Argo salt data are used for validation. A surprisingly small number (16) of model trajectories is sufficient to significantly improve model estimates of salinity over estimates from an ensemble run without assimilation. The two-step algorithm also performs better than the EnKF although its performance is degraded in poorly observed regions.

  4. Long-term Monitoring of the TeV Emission from Mrk 421 with the ARGO-YBJ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Bleve, C.; Bolognino, I.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cappa, A.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Cattaneo, C.; Celio, P.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, Y.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Alí Staiti, G.; Danzengluobu; Dattoli, M.; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Ding, X. H.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Galeazzi, F.; Galeotti, P.; Giroletti, E.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Huang, Q.; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; James, I.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Li, J. Y.; Li, X. X.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, C. Q.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Pagliaro, A.; Panareo, M.; Panico, B.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Qu, X. B.; Rossi, E.; Ruggieri, F.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Stanescu, C.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xu, B.; Xue, L.; Yan, Y. X.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    ARGO-YBJ is an air shower detector array with a fully covered layer of resistive plate chambers. It is operated with a high duty cycle and a large field of view. It continuously monitors the northern sky at energies above 0.3 TeV. In this paper, we report a long-term monitoring of Mrk 421 over the period from 2007 November to 2010 February. This source was observed by the satellite-borne experiments Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and Swift in the X-ray band. Mrk 421 was especially active in the first half of 2008. Many flares are observed in both X-ray and γ-ray bands simultaneously. The γ-ray flux observed by ARGO-YBJ has a clear correlation with the X-ray flux. No lag between the X-ray and γ-ray photons longer than 1 day is found. The evolution of the spectral energy distribution is investigated by measuring spectral indices at four different flux levels. Hardening of the spectra is observed in both X-ray and γ-ray bands. The γ-ray flux increases quadratically with the simultaneously measured X-ray flux. All these observational results strongly favor the synchrotron self-Compton process as the underlying radiative mechanism.

  5. (abstract) ARGOS: a System to Monitor Ulysses Nutation and Thruster Firings from Variations of the Spacecraft Radio Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElrath, T. P.; Cangahuala, L. A.; Miller, K. J.; Stravert, L. R.; Garcia-Perez, Raul

    1995-01-01

    Ulysses is a spin-stabilized spacecraft that experienced significant nutation after its launch in October 1990. This was due to the Sun-spacecraft-Earth geometry, and a study of the phenomenon predicted that the nutation would again be a problem during 1994-95. The difficulty of obtaining nutation estimates in real time from the spacecraft telemetry forced the ESA/NASA Ulysses Team to explore alternative information sources. The work performed by the ESA Operations Team provided a model for a system that uses the radio signal strength measurements to monitor the spacecraft dynamics. These measurements (referred to as AGC) are provided once per second by the tracking stations of the DSN. The system was named ARGOS (Attitude Reckoning from Ground Observable Signals) after the ever-vigilant, hundred-eyed giant of Greek Mythology. The ARGOS design also included Doppler processing, because Doppler shifts indicate thruster firings commanded by the active nutation control carried out onboard the spacecraft. While there is some visibility into thruster activity from telemetry, careful processing of the high-sample-rate Doppler data provides an accurate means of detecting the presence and time of thruster firings. DSN Doppler measurements are available at a ten-per-second rate in the same tracking data block as the AGC data.

  6. Comparison of Data From Far Ultraviolet Limb Scanning and Imaging Instrumentation Aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, P. W.; Carruthers, G. R.; Dymond, K. F.; Finch, M. A.; McDonald, S. E.; Nicholas, A. C.; Thonnard, S. E.; Budzien, S. A.; McCoy, R. P.

    2001-05-01

    The ARGOS satellite includes two Naval Research Laboratory experiments that monitor naturally occurring far ultraviolet emissions in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Coincident observations between these two instruments, the Global Imaging Monitor of the Ionosphere (GIMI) and the Low Resolution Airglow and Auroral Spectrograph (LORAAS), have been obtained. The GIMI instrument produces 9 ° x 9 ° limb images with passband coverage between 131 and 200 nm. The LORAAS instrument provides the spectral distribution from 80 to 170 nm for 2.4 ° x 17 ° field of regard. The two instruments are coaligned aboard the spacecraft, aft-looking in the orbital plane. Preliminary comparisons of observations obtained from the imaging and scanning instruments under quiet geomagnetic conditions are reported, including irradiances and spectral distributions. By combining the GIMI data with that from LORAAS, the study of the dynamics of the ionosphere can be expanded to investigate both horizontal and vertical distrubutions and their variances. The improved capability can extend to the study of active periods with highly variable and disturbed ionospheres, and examples are discussed from data acquired during periods of high geomagnetic activity. These results provide the first direct comparison between near simultaneous limb scans and images from ARGOS, and show promise as a validation technique to improve capabilities for the study of ionospheric variability.

  7. Temperature signature of high latitude Atlantic boundary currents revealed by marine mammal-borne sensor and Argo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Boehme, Lars; Meredith, Michael P.; Davidson, Fraser J. M.; Stenson, Garry B.; Hammill, Mike O.

    2011-08-01

    Results from the development and analysis of a novel temperature dataset for the high latitude North-West Atlantic are presented. The new 1° gridded dataset (“ATLAS”) has been produced from about 13,000 Argo and 48,000 marine mammal (hooded seal, harp seal, grey seal and beluga) profiles spanning 2004-8. These data sources are highly complementary as marine mammals greatly enhance shelf region coverage where Argo floats are absent. ATLAS reveals distinctive boundary current related temperature minima in the Labrador Sea (-1.1°C) and at the east Greenland coast (1.8°C), largely absent in the widely-used Levitus'09 and EN3v2a datasets. The ATLAS 0-500 m average temperature is lower than Levitus'09 and EN3v2a by up to 3°C locally. Differences are strongest from 0-300 m and persist at reduced amplitude from 300-500 m. Our results clearly reveal the value of marine mammal-borne sensors for a reliable description of the North-West Atlantic at a time of rapid change.

  8. TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern sky using the ARGO-YBJ detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y.; Bolognino, I.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Cardarelli, R.; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2013-12-10

    The Astrophysical Radiation with Ground-based Observatory at Yang Ba Jing (ARGO-YBJ) detector is an extensive air shower array that has been used to monitor the northern γ-ray sky at energies above 0.3 TeV from 2007 November to 2013 January. In this paper, we present the results of a sky survey in the declination band from –10° to 70°, using data recorded over the past five years. With an integrated sensitivity ranging from 0.24 to ∼1 Crab units depending on the declination, six sources have been detected with a statistical significance greater than five standard deviations. Several excesses are also reported as potential γ-ray emitters. The features of each source are presented and discussed. Additionally, 95% confidence level upper limits of the flux from the investigated sky region are shown. Specific upper limits for 663 GeV γ-ray active galactic nuclei inside the ARGO-YBJ field of view are reported. The effect of the absorption of γ-rays due to the interaction with extragalactic background light is estimated.

  9. OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE CYGNUS REGION WITH THE ARGO-YBJ EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y.; Bolognino, I.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Cardarelli, R.; Cattaneo, C.; Chen, T. L.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Ali Staiti, G.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-02-15

    We report the observation of TeV {gamma}-rays from the Cygnus region using the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2011 August. Several TeV sources are located in this region including the two bright extended MGRO J2019+37 and MGRO J2031+41. According to the Milagro data set, at 20 TeV MGRO J2019+37 is the most significant source apart from the Crab Nebula. No signal from MGRO J2019+37 is detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment, and the derived flux upper limits at the 90% confidence level for all the events above 600 GeV with medium energy of 3 TeV are lower than the Milagro flux, implying that the source might be variable and hard to be identified as a pulsar wind nebula. The only statistically significant (6.4 standard deviations) {gamma}-ray signal is found from MGRO J2031+41, with a flux consistent with the measurement by Milagro.

  10. Project Argo: The design and analysis of an all-propulsive and an aeroassisted version of a manned space transportation vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Project Argo is the design of a manned Space Transportation Vehicle (STV) that would transport payloads between LEO (altitude lying between 278 to 500 km above the Earth) and GEO (altitude is approximately 35,800 km above the Earth) and would be refueled and refurbished at the Space Station Freedom. Argo would be man's first space-based manned vehicle and would provide a crucial link to geosynchronous orbit where the vast majority of satellites are located. The vehicle could be built and launched shortly after the space station and give invaluable space experience while serving as a workhorse to deliver and repair satellites. Eventually, if a manned space station is established in GEO, then Argo could serve as the transport between the Space Station Freedom and a Geostation. If necessary, modifications could be made to allow the vehicle to reach the moon or possibly Mars. Project Argo is unique in that it consists of the design and comparison of two different concepts to accomplish the same mission. The first is an all-propulsive vehicle which uses chemical propulsion for all of its major maneuvers between LEO and GEO. The second is a vehicle that uses aeroassisted braking during its return from GEO to LEO by passing through the upper portions of the atmosphere.

  11. COMPARISON OF UV FLUORESCENCE AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSES OF HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENTS FROM THE VICINITY OF THE ARGO MERCHANT WRECK SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 15, 1976, the tanker ARGO MERCHANT ran aground on Fishing Rip of Nantucket Shoals off the Massachusetts coast. Within one week she had broken into three parts. Chemists from the U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center (USCGRDC) using u.v. fluorescence spectro...

  12. The Search for Subsurface Life on Mars: Results from the MARTE Analog Drill Experiment in Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Cannon, H.; Glass, B.; Dunagan, S.; Zavaleta, J.; Miller, D.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2006-03-01

    The Mars Analog Research and Technology (MARTE) experiment has developed an automated drilling system on a simulated Mars lander platform including drilling, sample handling, core analysis and down-hole instruments relevant to searching for life in the Martian subsurface.

  13. Pre-Results of the Real-Time ODIN Validation on MARTe Using Plasma Linearized Model in FTU Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Yahya; Boncagni, Luca

    2012-06-01

    MARTe is a modular framework for real-time control aspects. At present time there are several MARTe systems under development at Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (Boncagni et al. in First steps in the FTU migration towards a modular and distributed real time control architecture based on MARTe and RTNet, 2010) such as the LH power percentage system, the gas puffing control system, the real-time ODIN plasma equilibrium reconstruction system and the position/current feedback control system (in a design phase) (Boncagni et al. in J Fusion Eng Design). The real-time reconstruction of magnetic flux in FTU tokamak is an important issue to estimate some quantities that can be use to control the plasma. This paper addresses the validation of real-time implementation of that task on MARTe.

  14. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Pan, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chen, Tai C; Chiang, Kun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), the new brand 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. The upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin in FaDu cells induced by both drugs further confirmed the repression of EMT. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment inhibited intracellular MMP-9 expression and extracellular MMP activity in FaDu cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the less-calcemia 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, is a promising drug for HNSCC treatment. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:27382252

  15. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Pan, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chen, Tai C; Chiang, Kun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), the new brand 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. The upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin in FaDu cells induced by both drugs further confirmed the repression of EMT. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment inhibited intracellular MMP-9 expression and extracellular MMP activity in FaDu cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the less-calcemia 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, is a promising drug for HNSCC treatment. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:27382252

  16. Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, X.; L'Hegaret, P.; Baraille, R.

    2012-03-01

    By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described. The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute in the eastern part of the Gulf, where intense and relatively barotropic gyres mix it with Indian ocean Central Water. RSOW is also detected along the northeastern coast of Socotra, and fragments of RSOW are found between one and three degrees of latitude north of this island. In the whole Gulf of Aden, the correlation between the deep motions of the floats and the sea-level anomaly measured by altimetry is strong, at regional scale. The finer scale details of the float trajectories are not sampled by altimetry and are often related to the anomalous water masses that the floats encounter. The Persian Gulf Water (PGW) is found in the float profiles near Ras ash Sharbatat (near 57° E, 18° N), again with 36.5 in salinity and about 18-19 °C in temperature. These observations were achieved in winter when the southwestward monsoon currents can advect PGW along the South Arabian coast. Fragments of PGW were also observed in the Arabian Sea between 18 and 20° N and 63 and 65° E in summer, showing that this water mass can escape the Gulf of Oman southeastward, during that season. Kinetic energy distributions of floats with respect to distance or angle share common features between the two regions (Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea), in particular peaks at 30, 50 and 150 km scales and along the axis of monsoon currents. Hydrological measurements by floats are also influenced by the seasonal variations of PGW and RSOW in these regions.

  17. Global representation of tropical cyclone-induced short-term ocean thermal changes using Argo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Zhu, J.; Sriver, R. L.

    2015-09-01

    Argo floats are used to examine tropical cyclone (TC) induced ocean thermal changes on the global scale by comparing temperature profiles before and after TC passage. We present a footprint method that analyzes cross-track thermal responses along all storm tracks during the period 2004-2012. We combine the results into composite representations of the vertical structure of the average thermal response for two different categories: tropical storms/tropical depressions (TS/TD) and hurricanes. The two footprint composites are functions of three variables: cross-track distance, water depth and time relative to TC passage. We find that this footprint strategy captures the major features of the upper-ocean thermal response to TCs on timescales up to 20 days when compared against previous case study results using in situ measurements. On the global scale, TCs are responsible for 1.87 PW (11.05 W m-2) of heat transfer annually from the global ocean to the atmosphere during storm passage (0-3 days). Of this total, 1.05 ± 0.20 PW (4.80 ± 0.85 W m-2) is caused by TS/TD and 0.82 ± 0.21 PW (6.25 ± 1.5 W m-2) is caused by hurricanes. Our findings indicate that ocean heat loss by TCs may be a substantial missing piece of the global ocean heat budget. Changes in ocean heat content (OHC) after storm passage are estimated by analyzing the temperature anomalies during wake recovery following storm events (4-20 days after storm passage) relative to pre-storm conditions. Results indicate the global ocean experiences a 0.75 ± 0.25 PW (5.98 ± 2.1 W m-2) heat gain annually for hurricanes. In contrast, under TS/TD conditions, the ocean experiences 0.41 ± 0.21 PW (1.90 ± 0.96 W m-2) ocean heat loss, suggesting the overall oceanic thermal response is particularly sensitive to the intensity of the event. The ocean heat uptake caused by all storms during the restorative stage is 0.34 PW.

  18. Circulation patterns in the deep Subtropical Northeast Atlantic with ARGO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calheiros, Tomas; Bashmachnikov, Igor

    2014-05-01

    In this work we study the dominant circulation patterns in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic using ARGO data [25-45o N, 5-35o W]. The data were obtained from the Coriolis operational data center (ftp://ftp.ifremer.fr) for the years 1999-2013. During this period of time in the study there were available area 376 floats with 15062 float-months of total time. The floats were launched in the depths range between 300 and 2000 m, but most of the floats were concentrated at 1000 m (2000 float-months) and 1500 m (3400 float-months). In the upper 400-m layer there were also about 1000 float-months, but their number and distribution did not allow analysis of the mean currents over the study region. For each float position Lagrangian current velocity was computed as the difference between the position when the buoy started sinking to the reference depth and the consequent position of surfacing of the float, divided by the respective time interval. This allowed reducing the noise related with sea-surface drift of the buoys during the data-transmission periods. Mean Eulerian velocity and its error were computed in each of the 2ox2o square. Whenever in a 2ox2o square more than 150 observations of the Lagrangian velocity were available, the square was split into 4 smaller 1ox1o squares, in each of which the mean Eulerian velocities and their errors were estimated. Eulerian currents at 1000 m, as well as at 1500 m depth formed an overall anticyclonic circulation pattern in the study region. The modal velocity of all buoys at 1000 m level was 4 cm/s with an error of the mean of 1.8 cm/s. The modal velocity of all buoys at 1500m was 3 cm/s with an error of the mean of 1.4 cm/s. The southwestward flows near the Madeira Island and further westwards flow along the zonal band of 25-30o N at 1500 m depth well corresponded to the extension of the deep fraction of the Mediterranean Water salt tong.

  19. Argo float observations of basin-scale deep convection in the Irminger sea during winter 2011-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piron, Anne; Thierry, Virginie; Mercier, Herlé; Caniaux, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of Argo data obtained during winter 2011-2012 revealed the presence over the Irminger Basin of an exceptionally large number of profiles (41) with mixed layer depths (MLD) exceeding 700 m, which was deep enough to reach the pool of the intermediate Labrador Sea Water located in the Irminger Sea. Four of these profiles exhibited an MLD of 1000 m, which was the maximum value observed for the winter in question. The Argo sampling in the Irminger Sea during that winter, which was 3-4 times greater than for the preceding winters, enabled the different phases of the mixed layer deepening down to 1000 m, together with their spatial extents, to be observed for the first time. Two intense convective periods occurred: in late January south of Cape Farewell and in late February-early March east of Greenland. A final deepening period was observed in mid-March, during which the deepest mixed layers were observed. This long deepening period occurred in large regional areas and was followed by a rapid restratification phase. The temporal evolution of oxygen profiles from one Argo float testifies to the local and rapid ventilation of the mixed layer by the deep convection. A mixed layer heat budget along the trajectories of the 4 floats that sampled the deepest mixed layers showed that heat loss at the air-sea interface was mainly responsible for heat content variations in the mixed layer. Greenland Tip Jets were of primary importance for the development of deep convection in the Irminger Sea in the winter of 2011-2012. They enhanced the winter heat loss and two long (more than 24 h), intense late events close together in time pushed the mixed layer deepening down to 1000 m. Net air-sea fluxes, the number of Greenland Tip Jets, the stratification of the water column, the NAO index and the Ekman-induced heat flux are pertinent indicators to assess conditions that are favorable for the development of deep convection in the Irminger Sea. By considering each of those

  20. Analysis of an Optimized MLOS Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithm and Comparison to the MART Reconstruction Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Foy, Roderick; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2011-11-01

    An optimally designed MLOS tomographic reconstruction algorithm for use in 3D PIV and PTV applications is analyzed. Using a set of optimized reconstruction parameters, the reconstructions produced by the MLOS algorithm are shown to be comparable to reconstructions produced by the MART algorithm for a range of camera geometries, camera numbers, and particle seeding densities. The resultant velocity field error calculated using PIV and PTV algorithms is further minimized by applying both pre and post processing to the reconstructed data sets.

  1. Assimilation of simulated satellite altimetric data and ARGO temperature data into a double-gyre NEMO ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yajing; Barth, Alexander; Laenen, François; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, data assimilation, adressing the problem of producing useful analyses and forecasts given imperfect dynamical models and observations, has shown increasing interest in the atmosphere and ocean science community. The efficiency of data assimilation in improving the model prediction has been proven by numerous work. However, it is still a challenge to design operational data assimilation schemes which can be operated with realistic ocean models, with reasonable quality and at acceptable cost. In this work, several experiments, assimilating the simulated altimetry and temperature observations into a double-gyre NEMO ocean model, are performed with objective to investigate the impact of different assimilation setups, including changing the observation distribution, the ensemble size and the localisation scale, on the quality of the analysis. The double-gyre NEMO ocean model corresponds to an idealized configuration of the NEMO model: a square and 5000-meter deep flat bottom ocean at mid latitudes (the so called square-box or SQB configuration). The main physical parameters governing the dominant characteristics of the flow are the initial stratification, the wind stress, the bottom friction and the lateral mixing parameterization. The domain extends from 24N to 44N, over 30° in longitude (60W - 30W) with 11 vertical levels between 152 m and 4613 m in depth. The minimum horizontal resolution of the model is 1/4°. The observations are generated from the model simulations (the truth) by adding spatially uncorrelated gaussian noise with given standard deviation. Two types of observation are considered : sea surface height (SSH) and temperature. The observation grid of the SSH is simulated from the ENVISAT and Jason-1 satellite tracks, and that of the temperature is generated in order to mimic the ARGO float profile. The observation localisation is performed in order to avoid spurious correlation at large distance. For this, the observations are weighted

  2. Detailed temperature-salinity distribution in the Northeast Atlantic from ship and ARGO vertical casts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Filipe; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Nascimento, Angela; Medeiros, Joana; Dias, Joaquim; Ambar, Isabel; Carton, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    A new and detailed climatology (MEDTRANS) of climatic temperature-salinity distributions of ocean characteristics in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic (25 - 45oN and 6 - 35oW) was obtained with 25-m depth interval and 30-km horizontal resolution. Having a special focus on the propagation of the Mediterranean Water (MW), this study was felt necessary since the existing global climatic fields (World Ocean Atlas 2009; Schmidtko et al., 2013; Troupin et al., 2010) do not provide sufficiently detailed or sufficiently reliable mapping at the intermediate water levels. This is particularly critical for mapping of the MW spreading near the Iberian Peninsula. The main source of the data is the World Ocean Database freely provided by the National Oceanographic Data Center (http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/). The data cover the period from 1950 to 2012 and include OSD (bottle, XCTD, low-resolution CTD casts), CTD (high-resolution CTD casts) and PFL (mainly ARGO float casts) instrument types. All data underwent a rigorous quality control, as well as preliminary filtering for the instrumental and eddy related noise. The gridding is performed along 53 neutral density surfaces (Jackett and McDougall, 1997) using Barnes' Optimum Interpolation technique (Barnes, 1964). Following the data density distribution, the radius of the Gaussian gridding function decreases towards the Iberian coast. The shape of the gridding function takes into account the influence of bottom topography on the characteristics of oceanic flows. The results are further interpolated into fixed depth levels down to 2000 m depth. The results suggest that the MEDTRANS climatology brings significantly more details of the distribution of the temperature-salinity structures related to the MW spreading in the Atlantic, of the southeastward penetration of the subpolar/polar water along the eastern slope of the Azores plateau and the King's trough/rise, and of the northwards penetration of the Antarctic Intermediate Water

  3. Project ARGO: The design and analysis of an all-propulsive and an aeroassisted version of a manned space transportation vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H.; Seifert, D.; Waidelich, J.; Mileski, M.; Herr, D.; Wilks, M.; Law, G.; Folz, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Senior Aerospace System Design class at the University of Michigan undertook the design of a manned space transportation vehicle (STV) that would transport payloads between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). Designated ARGO after the ship of the Greek adventurer Jason, two different versions of an STV that would be based, refueled, and serviced at the Space Station Freedom were designed and analyzed by the class. With the same 2-man/7-day nominal mission of transporting a 10,000-kg payload up to GEO and bringing a 5000-kg payload back to LEO, the two versions of ARGO differ in the manner in which the delta V is applied to insert the vehicle into LEO upon return from GEO. The all-propulsive ARGO (or CSTV for chemical STV) uses thrust from its LH2/LOX rocket engines to produce the delta V during all phases of its mission. While the aeroassisted ARGO (or ASTV for aeroassisted STV) also uses the same engines for the majority of the mission, the final delta V used to insert the ASTV into LEO is produced by skimming the Earth's atmosphere and using the drag on the vehicle to apply the required delta V. This procedure allows for large propellant, and thus cost, savings, but creates many design problems such as the high heating rates and decelerations experienced by a vehicle moving through the atmosphere at hypersonic velocities. The design class, consisting of 43 senior aerospace engineering students, was divided into one managerial and eight technical groups. The technical groups consisted of spacecraft configuration and integration, mission analysis, atmospheric flight, propulsion, power and communications, life support and human factors, logistics and support, and systems analysis. Two committees were set up with members from each group to create the scale models of the STV's and to produce the final report.

  4. Influence of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway on the habitat selection of wild animals, using satellite data and satellite-based ARGOS system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhe, Aosier

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) was in trial operation since 1 July 2006, is the world's highest-elevation railway and the longest highland railway, extending over 1956 km from Xining (Qinghai's capital in northwestern China) to Lhasa, the capital city of the Tibet Autonomous Region. This QTR railway was crosses five nature reserves along the route Hoh Xil (COCOX- ILI), Qinghai Sanjiangyuan, Chang Tang, Lin-chou Pengbo, and La-lu, and Hoh xil nature reserve is the important breeding sites of Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni). In order to clearly the habitat use and habitat selection of the Tibetan Antelope was divided in the north and south by the QTR railway, we planned the capture of ten Tibetan Antelopes and attach a satellite-based ARGOS system platform transmitter terminal (PTT) to the Tibetan Antelopes. And we succeeded in the capture of two Tibetan Antelopes for the first time in the world in 2007a summer and attached an ARGOS PTT. In this study, we estimate RASTER model of habitat change, using satellite-based ARGOS PTT tracking analyst data and satellite (Terra/MODIS, Terra/ASTER, ALOS and SPOT/vegetation instrument data) land cover change data, order to clearly the spatial and temporal characteristics of wide area habitat selection of Tibetan Antelope.

  5. Prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm Skrjabingylus petrowi (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from Martes spp. in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2015-06-01

    The nematodes of the genus Skrjabingylus (family Metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. Until recently, Skrjabingylus petrowi Bageanov & Petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the European part of the former Soviet Union. Newer finds in the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of Europe suggest, however, that the species might have a broader host-species range than previously assumed and be geographically more widespread as well. Since most S. petrowi records have resulted from chance discoveries rather than systematic surveys, very little is known about the prevalence of S. petrowi in marten populations. Here, we report results of a 20-year extensive survey of fresh marten skulls, where we tested 1.059 marten carcasses originating from 248 localities in Germany for the presence of S. petrowi. We identified an infestation in only four M. martes individuals and one M. foina, despite using a reliable identification method. Based on the spicule lengths of the male nematodes, the parasites were identified as S. petrowi and genetic barcoding confirmed the identification of the samples. In a phylogenetic analysis, S. petrowi and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842), formed a sister clade to all the other members of the family Metastrongylidae. The low prevalence of S. petrowi is possibly due to its parasitising in the two marten species that are either not very common (M. martes) or predominantly live in urban habitat (M. foina). PMID:25681145

  6. The 1793 eruption of San Martín Tuxtla volcano, Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espíndola, J. M.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Godinez, M. L.; Schaaf, P.; Rodríguez, S. R.

    2010-11-01

    San Martín Tuxtla (N18.562°; W95.199°, 1659 masl) is a basaltic volcano located in southern Veracruz, a Mexican State bordering the Gulf of Mexico. It rises in a volcanic field strewn with monogenetic volcanic cones, maars and three other large volcanoes mostly dormant since the late Pliocene: Santa Marta, San Martín Pajapan and Cerro El Vigía. The latest eruptive event of San Martín occurred in 1793 and was described by Don José Mariano Moziño, a naturalist under the commission of the Viceroy of the then New Spain. In this work we present results of the study of this eruption based on historical accounts and field observations. We identified an ash deposit around the volcano related to the 1793 eruption, mapped its distribution and determined its granulometric, petrographic and geochemical characteristics. These studies suggest that the volcano began its activity with explosive phreatomagmatic explosions, which were followed by Strombolian activity; this period lasting from March to October 1793. The activity continued with an effusive phase that lasted probably 2 years. The eruption covered an area of about 480 km 2 with at least 1 cm of ash; the fines reaching distances greater than 300 km from the crater. A total mass of about 2.5 × 10 14 g was ejected and the volcanic columns probably reached altitudes of the order of 10 km during the most explosive phases. The lava emitted formed a coulee that descended the northern flank of the volcano and has an approximate volume of 2.0 × 10 7 m 3.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of Korean yellow-throated marten, Martes flavigula (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Kuem Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Martes flavigula, which is an endangered and endemic species in South Korea, was determined. The genome is 16,533 bp in length and its gene arrangement pattern, gene content, and gene organization is identical to those of martens. The control region was located between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes and is 1087 bp in length. This mitogenome sequence data might be an important role in the preservation of genetic resources by allowing researchers to conduct phylogenetic and systematic analyses of Mustelidae. PMID:25264839

  8. Anatomical studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) under the influence of textile wastewater*

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping; Siddiqi, M. Rehan; Islam, Ejaz ul; Azim, M. Rashid; Hayat, Yousaf

    2005-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is a prolific free floating aquatic macrohpyte found in tropical and subtropical parts of the earth. The effects of pollutants from textile wastewater on the anatomy of the plant were studied. Water hyacinth exhibits hydrophytic adaptations which include reduced epidermis cells lacking cuticle in most cases, presence of large air spaces (7~50 μm), reduced vascular tissue and absorbing structures. Textile waste significantly affected the size of root cells. The presence of raphide crystals was noted in parenchyma cells of various organs in treated plants. PMID:16187412

  9. An analysis of natural ventilation techniques to achieve indoor comfort in Wal-Mart express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Shona

    Despite global efforts to reduce world fossil fuel dependency the world still obtains 81% of its energy from fossil fuels (IEA,2009). Modern renewable alternatives have been around since the mid twentieth century these alternatives have not been integrated into electrical grid systems at the exponential rate required to eradicate fossil fuels dependency. The problem, world energy demand, is too large to be satisfied by anything other than the energy-dense fossil fuels used today. We must change our energy intensive processes in order to conserve energy and hence reduce the demands that alternatives must satisfy. This research aims to identify sustainable design opportunities through the application of innovative technologies for the largest retailer in the US with the view that a viable conservative design measure could be applied to the store model, which is replicated across the country, causing a cumulative and hence larger impact on the company energy consumption as a whole. This paper will present the literature available on the 'big box' industry and Wal-Mart, comfort, natural ventilation and building simulation software and then perform an analysis into the viability of naturally ventilating the Wal-Mart Express sales zone using Monodraught natural ventilation windcatcher products

  10. SigReannot-mart: a query environment for expression microarray probe re-annotations

    PubMed Central

    Moreews, François; Rauffet, Gaelle; Dehais, Patrice; Klopp, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Expression microarrays are commonly used to study transcriptomes. Most of the arrays are now based on oligo-nucleotide probes. Probe design being a tedious task, it often takes place once at the beginning of the project. The oligo set is then used for several years. During this time period, the knowledge gathered by the community on the genome and the transcriptome increases and gets more precise. Therefore re-annotating the set is essential to supply the biologists with up-to-date annotations. SigReannot-mart is a query environment populated with regularly updated annotations for different oligo sets. It stores the results of the SigReannot pipeline that has mainly been used on farm and aquaculture species. It permits easy extraction in different formats using filters. It is used to compare probe sets on different criteria, to choose the set for a given experiment to mix probe sets in order to create a new one. Database URL: http://sigreannot-mart.toulouse.inra.fr/ PMID:21930501

  11. Exclusive Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Muon Plus Any Number of Protons Topologies In ArgoNeuT

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, Kinga Anna

    2013-01-01

    Neutrinos remain among the least understood fundamental particles even after decades of study. As we enter the precision era o f neutrino measurements bigger and more sophisticated detectors have emerged. The leading candidate among them is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC ) detector technology due to its bubble-like chamber imaging, superb background rejection and scalability. I t is a perfect candidate that w ill aim to answer the remaining questions of the nature o f neutrino and perhaps our existence. Studying neutrinos with a detector that employs detection via beautiful images o f neutrino interactions can be both illuminating and surprising. The analysis presented here takes the full advantage of the LArTPC power by exploiting the first topological analysis of charged current muon neutrino p + N p , muon and any number of protons, interactions with the ArgoNeuT LArTPC experiment on an argon target. The results presented here are the first that address the proton multiplicity at the vertex and the proton kinematics. This study also addresses the importance o f nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. Furthermore, the developed here reconstruction techniques present a significant step forward for this technology and can be employed in the future LArTPC detectors.

  12. Exclusive Muon-Neutrino Charged Current muon plus any number of protons topologies in ArgoNeuT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partyka, Kinga Anna

    Neutrinos remain among the least understood fundamental particles even after decades of study. As we enter the precision era of neutrino measurements bigger and more sophisticated detectors have emerged. The leading candidate among them is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) detector technology due to its bubble-like chamber imaging, superb background rejection and scalability. It is a perfect candidate that will aim to answer the remaining questions of the nature of neutrino and perhaps our existence. Studying neutrinos with a detector that employs detection via beautiful images of neutrino interactions can be bath illuminating and surprising. The analysis presented here takes the full advantage of the LArTPC power by exploiting the first topological analysis of charged current muon neutrino mu + Np, muon and any number of protons, interactions with the ArgoNeuT LArTPC experiment on an argon target. The results presented here are the first that address the proton multiplicity at the vertex and the proton kinematics. This study also addresses the importance of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. Furthermore, the developed here reconstruction techniques present a significant step forward for this technology and can be employed in the future LArTPC detectors.

  13. Argo profiles variability of barrier layer in the tropical Indian Ocean and its relationship with the Indian Ocean Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yun; Cai, Wenju; Li, Li; Guo, Xiaogang

    2012-04-01

    Interannual variability of the barrier layer (BL) in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is examined using temperature and salinity profiles derived from Argo floats since 2004. We show that a quasi-permanent BL exists off Sumatra with a semi-annual cycle and a maximum in November. Further, interannual variability of the BL is closely related to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) with the IOD leading the BL by one month. During the 2006 positive IOD (pIOD) season, equatorial easterly-induced upwelling Kelvin waves raise the isothermal layer (IL) off Sumatra; a salinity-stratified mixed layer (ML) shoals due to a reduced eastward salty water transport by a weaker Wyrtki Jet, despite an offset by a reduced freshwater flux. Consequently, thinning of the BL is dominated by thinning of the IL. During the 2010 negative IOD (nIOD), similar processes operate but in an opposite direction. As thinning of the BL during a pIOD enhances the thermocline-ML coupling, our results reveal that an IOD-induced co-varying BL in turn enhances the IOD positive feedbacks.

  14. Subthermocline eddies observed by rapid-sampling Argo floats in the subtropical northwestern Pacific Ocean in Spring 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Peiliang; Xu, Lixiao; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Jiwei; Qu, Tangdong

    2015-08-01

    In Spring 2014, two subthermocline eddies (STEs) were observed by rapid-sampling Argo floats in the subtropical northwestern Pacific (STNWP). The first one is a warm, salty, and oxygen-poor lens, with its temperature/salinity /dissolved oxygen (T/S/DO) anomalies reaching 1.16°C/0.21 practical salinity unit (psu)/-29.9 µmol/kg, respectively, near the 26.62σ0 surface. The other is a cold, fresh, and oxygen-rich lens, with its T/S/DO anomalies reaching -1.95°C/-0.34 psu/88.0 µmol/kg, respectively, near the 26.54σ0 surface. The vertical extent of the water mass anomalies in the warm (cold) STE is about 190 m (150 m), and its horizontal length scale is 22 ± 7 km (18 ± 10 km). According to their water mass properties, we speculate that the warm and cold STEs are generated in the North Pacific Subtropical and Subarctic Front region, respectively. The observed STEs may play an important role in modifying the intermediate-layer water properties in the STNWP, and this needs to be confirmed by more focused observations in the future.

  15. Objective mapping of Argo data in the Weddell Gyre: a gridded dataset of upper ocean water properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, K. A.; Boebel, O.; Kanzow, T.; Strass, V.; Rohardt, G.; Fahrbach, E.

    2015-06-01

    The Weddell Gyre plays a crucial role in the modification of climate by advecting heat poleward to the Antarctic ice shelves and by regulating the density of water masses that feed the lowest limb of the global ocean overturning circulation. However, our understanding of Weddell Gyre water mass properties is limited to regions of data availability, primarily along the Prime Meridian. The aim of this paper is to provide a dataset of the upper water column properties of the entire Weddell Gyre. Objective mapping was applied to Argo float data in order to produce spatially gridded, time composite maps of temperature and salinity for fixed pressure levels ranging from 50 to 2000 dbar, as well as temperature, salinity and pressure at the level of the sub-surface temperature maximum. While the data are currently too limited to incorporate time into the gridded structure, the data are extensive enough to produce maps of the entire region across three time composite periods (2002-2005, 2006-2009 and 2010-2013), which can be used to determine how representative conclusions drawn from data collected along general RV transect lines are on a gyre scale perspective. The work presented here represents the technical prerequisite in addressing climatological research questions in forthcoming studies. These data sets are available in netCDF format at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.842876.

  16. Quality Controlled Argo Profiling Float Oxygen Data: Open Source Sharing and Version Control Using IPython Notebooks on GitHub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, C.; McCann, M. P.; Plant, J. N.; Johnson, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors are an ideal platform for observing the seasonal evolution of physical and chemical processes from the surface to the deep interior. As of August 2015, there have reportedly been 765 floats equipped with oxygen sensors with 363 currently active. Although new insights into oceanic biogeochemical processes have come from these data, the profiling oxygen data set has not been fully utilized because the dissolved oxygen data does not undergo QC procedures at the Argo data centers. The oxygen sensors on profiling floats have been demonstrated to produce highly stable and precise data over many months and years but only a small percentage have been verified with discrete samples taken at deployment to determine the sensor accuracy. Takeshita et al (2013) presented a climatology based quality control procedure utilizing the World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09). We used a straightforward approach mentioned in their paper to calculate the sensor gain by comparing the surface %Sat(float) to the surface %Sat(WOA09) using > 1 year of data. We have developed Python scripts to provide QC'd data that are freely available and easily shared using IPython Notebooks hosted on GitHub. We will examine the consistency of the corrected oxygen data set, relative to existing climatologies, and its use in oceanographic studies.

  17. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4)...

  18. Searching for Life in the Martian Subsurface: Results from the MARTE Astrobiological Drilling Experiment and Implications for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.

    2007-07-01

    Drilling for subsurface life should be a goal of future Mars missions. The approach is illustrated by MARTE: A search for subsurface life in Rio Tinto, Spain explored a biosphere using reduced iron and sulfur minerals and demonstrated automated drilling, sample handling, and life detection.

  19. Coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and Canine Distemper Virus in a Yellow-throated Marten ( Martes flavigula koreana) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hae Beom; Cho, Ho Seong; Kim, Wonil; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-04-28

    We describe coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and canine distemper virus (CDV) in a yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula koreana). We found Hepatozoon cysts in muscular tissue and viral inclusion bodies in the brain. Hepatozoon sp., and CDV was confirmed in blood and brain, respectively, by PCR. PMID:27054471

  20. Search for GeV gamma-ray bursts with the ARGO-YBJ detector: summary of eight years of observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Piazzoli, B. D'Ettorre; Di Girolamo, T.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; De Mitri, I.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Sciascio, G. Di; Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z. E-mail: Piero.Vallania@to.infn.it; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-10

    The search for gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission in the energy range of 1-100 GeV in coincidence with the satellite detection has been carried out using the Astrophysical Radiation with Ground-based Observatory at YangBaJing (ARGO-YBJ) experiment. The high-altitude location (4300 m a.s.l.), the large active surface (∼6700 m{sup 2} of Resistive Plate Chambers), the wide field of view (∼2 sr, limited only by the atmospheric absorption), and the high duty cycle (>86%) make the ARGO-YBJ experiment particularly suitable to detect short and unexpected events like GRBs. With the scaler mode technique, i.e., counting all the particles hitting the detector with no measurement of the primary energy and arrival direction, the minimum threshold of ∼1 GeV can be reached, overlapping the direct measurements carried out by satellites. During the experiment lifetime from 2004 December 17 to 2013 February 7, a total of 206 GRBs occurring within the ARGO-YBJ field of view (zenith angle θ ≤ 45°) have been analyzed. This is the largest sample of GRBs investigated with a ground-based detector. Two light curve models have been assumed and since in both cases no significant excess has been found, the corresponding fluence upper limits in the 1-100 GeV energy region have been derived, with values as low as 10{sup –5} erg cm{sup –2}. The analysis of a subset of 24 GRBs with known redshift has been used to constrain the fluence extrapolation to the GeV region together with possible cutoffs under different assumptions on the spectrum.

  1. Río Tinto Faulted Volcanosedimentary Deposits as Analog Habitats for Extant Subsurface Biospheres on Mars: A Synthesis of the MARTE Drilling Project Geobiology Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rodríguez, N.; Dávila, F.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Stoker, C. R.

    2005-03-01

    Reconstruction of the probable habitats hosting the detected microbial communities through the integration of the geobiological data obtained from the MARTE drilling campaigns, TEM sounding and field surface geological survey

  2. Recent Geological and Hydrological Activity in Amazonis and Elysium Basins and Their Link, Marte Valles (AME): Prime Target for Future Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    Amazonis and Elysium basins and their link, Marte Vallis (AME), uniquely point to a geologically and hydrologically active Mars. We will present evidence for why AME reconnaissance can help address whether Mars is geologically, hydrologically, and biologically active.

  3. Global representation of tropical cyclone-induced ocean thermal changes using Argo data - Part 1: Methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Zhu, J.; Sriver, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Argo floats are used to examine tropical cyclone (TC)-induced ocean thermal changes on the global scale by comparing temperature profiles before and after TC passage. We present a footprint method that analyzes cross-track thermal responses along all storm tracks during the period 2004-2012. We combine the results into composite representations of the vertical structure of the average thermal response for two different categories: tropical storms/depressions (TS/TD) and hurricanes. The two footprint composites are functions of three variables: cross-track distance, water depth and time relative to TC passage. We find that this footprint strategy captures the major features of the upper-ocean thermal response to TCs on time scales up to 20 days when compared against previous case study results using in situ measurements. Further, TC effects are distinguishable from background sampling variability, but the significance of this result depends on differences in regional oceanic conditions and the intensity of the TC events. On the global scale, results indicate that hurricanes induce strong upwelling near the storm center, along with downwelling away from the storm, during the first 3 days after storm passage. We also find significant subsurface warming between 30 and 200 m depth for both hurricanes and TS/TDs. On average, the subsurface ocean response persists along storm tracks for up to 20 days down to 200 (400) m depth for TS/TD (Hurricanes), exhibiting peak warming of 0.4 °C at 60 m for hurricanes and 0.2 °C at 35 m for TS/TD. The footprint method shows a weak cooling response between 200 and 400 m, which is significant for Hurricanes but not for TS/TD.

  4. A high resolution salinity time series 1993-2012 in the North Atlantic from Argo and Altimeter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendardo, I.; Rhein, M.; Hollmann, R.

    2016-04-01

    The study of salinity changes has been hampered by the lack of temporal and spatial resolution of the observations. In order to improve the spatial and temporal distribution of salinity observations, we used the Gravest Empirical Mode (GEM) technique to calculate high-resolution salinity distributions as a function of dynamic height for the period 1993-2012. This technique combined Argo and altimeter data to exploit the relationship between T/S profiles and dynamic height in the North Atlantic. The method was valid in the upper 700 m mainly at and near the pathways of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), but failed in regions with weak stratification or with ambiguities in the T/S relationships. Coherent, multiannual large-scale variability was observed, with many features present in all regions, albeit with weaker amplitudes in the eastern basins. Some of the interannual features in the northeastern Atlantic basins were unrelated to the variability further south and west, pointing to an occasional advection of subtropical water in the eastern Atlantic. Origin and advection of salinity anomalies with the NAC from the North American Basin into the western subpolar North Atlantic are correlated with the state of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and dampened by the surface freshwater fluxes. Other mechanisms influencing the salinity pattern are the changing location of the subpolar front, also related to the NAO. The large multiyear variability in the 20 year time series obscured any potential trends caused by global warming. Only the Rockall Trough showed a salinity increase of 0.03 per decade.

  5. Antarctic Circumpolar Current frontal system in the South Atlantic: Monitoring using merged Argo and animal-borne sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, L.; Meredith, M. P.; Thorpe, S. E.; Biuw, M.; Fedak, M.

    2008-09-01

    We describe large-scale features of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in the Atlantic part of the Southern Ocean by merging Argo data and data obtained by novel animal-borne CTD sensors. Twenty one of these CTD-Satellite Relay Data Loggers (CTD-SRDLs) were attached to Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on South Georgia. The merged data yield unified gridded hydrogaphic fields with high temporal and spatial resolution, enabling the determination of features absent in each of the data sets separately. The structure and variability of the frontal field revealed by this data set were compared with those in daily quarter-degree, optimally interpolated sea surface temperature fields and fields of weekly gridded sea level anomaly. In general, the frontal positions derived using our data set are in agreement with previous work, especially where the pathways are constrained by topography, e.g., at the North Scotia Ridge and the South Scotia Ridge. However, with the improved temporal and spacial resolution provided by the CTD-SRDLs, we were able to observe some novel features. All frontal positions are more variable than previously indicated across the Scotia Sea and west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on seasonal time scales. The merged data set shows the temporal variability of the Southern ACC Front (SACCF) north of South Georgia and in its position east of the island, where the SACCF lies further north than has been suggested in previous work. In addition, the Subantarctic Front crosses the Mid-Atlantic Ridge about 400 km further north when compared to previous work.

  6. Global Ocean Reanalysis Simulations at Mercator Océan GLORYS1: the Argo years 2002-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, L.; Ferry, N.; Barnier, B.; Drevillon, M.; Greiner, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since a decade ago, Mercator Océan develops and operates different ocean forecasting systems based on OGCM models and advanced data assimilation schemes using in situ and remotely sensed data. In the framework of the European GMES MyOcean project (FP7, 2009-2011), Mercator Océan will become a main contributor for the delivery of regular and systematic information to intermediate users & downstream service provider. Conjointly to this operational activity, the generation of global reanalysis simulations is a growing priority to satisfy scientist demands for climate studies. During this presentation, we will expose the results of the first global eddy-permitting (1/4°) ocean reanalysis simulation performed by Mercator Océan. It covers the 2002-2008 time period, which benefits from the ARGO float measurements. This significant improvement of the Global Ocean Observing System tends to indicate that the last decade is the primary test bed period for the development and the validation of any ocean reanalysis system. The "reanalysis system" is based on the current operational global ocean forecasting system, available since April 2008: the ocean and sea ice model NEMO is coupled with the SAM2 (Système d'Assimilation Mercator V2) data assimilation system, a reduced order extended Kalman filter with the capability to manage various and high number of observations and specially designed for expensive configurations. Dedicated altimetry database (from CLS) and in situ database (from CORIOLIS data center / Ifremer) have been used for the integration of this reanalysis simulation and the temporal continuity is assured by the IAU (Incremental Analysis Updates) method. An overall assessment of this reanalysis simulation will be given, with its strengths, its limitations and its necessary update in order to obtain a better depiction of the ocean state along the 2000's or the Altimetry years (1992-today).

  7. Global Ocean Reanalysis Simulations at Mercator Océan GLORYS1: the Argo years 2002-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevillon, M.; Parent, L.; Ferry, N.; Greiner, E.; Barnier, B.

    2009-12-01

    Since a decade ago, Mercator Océan develops and operates different ocean forecasting systems based on OGCM models and advanced data assimilation schemes using in situ and remotely sensed data. In the framework of the European GMES MyOcean project (FP7, 2009-2011), Mercator Océan will become a main contributor for the delivery of regular and systematic information to intermediate users & downstream service provider. Conjointly to this operational activity, the generation of global reanalysis simulations is a growing priority to satisfy scientist demands for climate studies. During this presentation, we will expose the results of the first global eddy-permitting (1/4°) ocean reanalysis simulation performed by Mercator Océan. It covers the 2002-2008 time period, which benefits from the ARGO float measurements. This significant improvement of the Global Ocean Observing System tends to indicate that the last decade is the primary test bed period for the development and the validation of any ocean reanalysis system. The “reanalysis system” is based on the current operational global ocean forecasting system, available since April 2008: the ocean and sea ice model NEMO is coupled with the SAM2 (Système d'Assimilation Mercator V2) data assimilation system, a reduced order extended Kalman filter with the capability to manage various and high number of observations and specially designed for expensive configurations. Dedicated altimetry database (from CLS) and in situ database (from CORIOLIS data center / Ifremer) have been used for the integration of this reanalysis simulation and the temporal continuity is assured by the IAU (Incremental Analysis Updates) method. An overall assessment of this reanalysis simulation will be given, with its strengths, its limitations and its necessary update in order to obtain a better depiction of the ocean state along the 2000's or the Altimetry years (1992-today). contact:lparent@mercator-ocean.fr

  8. Global Ocean Reanalysis Simulations at Mercator Océan GLORYS1: the Argo years 2002-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, Laurent; Ferry, Nicolas; Barnier, Bernard; Drevillon, Marie; Greiner, Eric

    2010-05-01

    Since a decade ago, Mercator Océan develops and operates different ocean forecasting systems based on OGCM models and advanced data assimilation schemes using in situ and remotely sensed data. In the framework of the European GMES MyOcean project (FP7, 2009-2011), Mercator Océan will become a main contributor for the delivery of regular and systematic information to intermediate users & downstream service provider. Conjointly to this operational activity, the generation of global reanalysis simulations is a growing priority to satisfy scientist demands for climate studies. During this presentation, we will expose the results of the first global eddy-permitting (1/4°) ocean reanalysis simulation performed by Mercator Océan. It covers the 2002-2009 time period, which benefits from the ARGO float measurements. This significant improvement of the Global Ocean Observing System tends to indicate that the last decade is the primary test bed period for the development and the validation of any ocean reanalysis system. The "reanalysis system" is based on the current operational global ocean forecasting system, available since April 2008: the ocean and sea ice model NEMO is coupled with the SAM2 (Système d'Assimilation Mercator V2) data assimilation system, a reduced order extended Kalman filter with the capability to manage various and high number of observations and specially designed for expensive configurations. Dedicated altimetry database (from CLS) and in situ database (from CORIOLIS data center / Ifremer) have been used for the integration of this reanalysis simulation and the temporal continuity is assured by the IAU (Incremental Analysis Updates) method. An overall assessment of this reanalysis simulation will be given, with its strengths, its limitations and its necessary update in order to obtain a better depiction of the ocean state along the 2000's or the Altimetry years (1992-today).

  9. Global assessment of Level 3 SMOS and Aquarius salinity measurements using Argo and an operational ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Chris; Gommenginger, Christine; Srokosz, Meric; Snaith, Helen

    2013-04-01

    The launch of the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite in November 2009 marked a new era in satellite oceanography. SMOS was joined in orbit, in June 2011, by the NASA/Argentine Aquarius/SAC-D mission, specifically designed to measure sea surface salinity (SSS). These two satellites have significantly improved our ability to measure SSS synoptically. Despite significant differences in how the two satellites estimate SSS, both utilise passive systems to measure the response of the brightness temperature (Tb) at L-band (1.4 GHz) to SSS and initial results are encouraging. The UK National Oceanography Centre has produced 'Level 3' SSS data products for SMOS and Aquarius using monthly data on a 1° by 1° global grid, between 60°S and 60°N, from 1 September 2011 to 31 August 2012. Previous and on-going work shows for both satellites significant temporally varying differences between SSS from ascending passes (satellite moving south to north) and SSS from descending passes (satellite moving north to south). Therefore, for both SMOS and Aquarius, separate Level 3 products are produced from data for ascending and descending passes. For this study, two separate monthly validation datasets are used based on the same grid as the satellite data. The first is averaged near-surface salinity (depth less than 10 m) as derived from the drifting Argo float programme. The second validation data source is output from the UK Met Office Forecasting Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM), which is based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean). We calculate maps of the difference between all possible pairs of SSS data for each month, and consider their relationships using regression on the 1˚ values. The analysis is carried out for the global ocean, as well as for smaller, more homogeneous, study regions (e.g. SPURS in the subtropical North Atlantic).

  10. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Macías, Paulina; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Borja-de-la-Rosa, Amparo; Barragán-Huerta, Blanca E

    2016-01-01

    Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one) is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez) heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (¹H, (13)C), 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC), ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx) of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample) were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively. PMID:26861267

  11. Triterpene esters and biological activities from edible fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Caio P; Corrêa, Arthur L; Lobo, Jonathas F R; Caramel, Otávio P; de Almeida, Fernanda B; Castro, Elaine S; Souza, Kauê F C S; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M F; Santos, Marcelo G; Ferreira, José Luiz P; Falcão, Deborah Q; Carvalho, José C T; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as "guracica." Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea. PMID:23509702

  12. Genetic variability in the sable (Martes zibellina L.) with respect to genes encoding blood proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kashtanov, S.N.; Kazakova, T.I.

    1995-02-01

    Electrophoresis of blood proteins was used to determine, for the first time, the level of genetic variability of certain loci in the sable (Martes zibellina L., Mustelidae). Variation of 23 blood proteins encoded by 25 genes was analyzed. Polymorphism was revealed in six genes. The level of heterozygosity was estimated at 0.069; the proportion of polymorphic loci was 24%. Data on the history of the sable population maintained at the farm, on geographical distribution of natural sable populations, and on the number of animals selected for reproduction in captivity is presented. The great number of animals studies and the extensive range of natural sable populations, on the basis of which the population maintained in captivity was obtained, suggest that the results of this work can be used for estimating the variability of the gene pool of sable as a species. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Triterpene Esters and Biological Activities from Edible Fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Caio P.; Corrêa, Arthur L.; Lobo, Jonathas F. R.; Caramel, Otávio P.; de Almeida, Fernanda B.; Castro, Elaine S.; Souza, Kauê F. C. S.; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M. F.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Falcão, Deborah Q.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as “guracica.” Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea. PMID:23509702

  14. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Lemke, Larry; Mandell, Humboldt; McKay, David; George, Jeffrey; Gomez-Alvera, Javier; Amils, Ricardo; Stevens, Todd; Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project was selected by the new NASA ASTEP program, which supports field experiments having an equal emphasis on Astrobiology science and technology development relevant to future Astrobiology missions. MARTE will search for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The experiment is informed by the strategy for searching for life on Mars.

  15. Detection of thermal neutrons with the PRISMA-YBJ array in extensive air showers selected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Stenkin, Yu. V.; Alekseenko, V. V.; Aynutdinov, V.; Cai, Z. Y.; Guo, X. W.; Liu, Y.; Rulev, V.; Shchegolev, O. B.; Stepanov, V.; Volchenko, V.; Zhang, H.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a measurement of thermal neutrons, generated by the hadronic component of extensive air showers (EAS), by means of a small array of EN-detectors developed for the PRISMA project (PRImary Spectrum Measurement Array), novel devices based on a compound alloy of ZnS(Ag) and 6LiF. This array has been operated within the ARGO-YBJ experiment at the high altitude Cosmic Ray Observatory in Yangbajing (Tibet, 4300 m a.s.l.). Due to the tight correlation between the air shower hadrons and thermal neutrons, this technique can be envisaged as a simple way to estimate the number of high energy hadrons in EAS. Coincident events generated by primary cosmic rays of energies greater than 100 TeV have been selected and analyzed. The EN-detectors have been used to record simultaneously thermal neutrons and the air shower electromagnetic component. The density distributions of both components and the total number of thermal neutrons have been measured. The correlation of these data with the measurements carried out by ARGO-YBJ confirms the excellent performance of the EN-detector.

  16. Vertical temperature dynamics in the Northern Baltic Sea based on 3D modelling and data from shallow-water Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, Antti; Tuomi, Laura

    2016-06-01

    3D hydrodynamic models often produce errors in the depth of the mixed layer and the vertical density structure. We used the 3D hydrodynamic model NEMO to investigate the effect of vertical turbulence parameterisations on seasonal temperature dynamics in the Bothnian Sea, Baltic Sea for the years 2012 and 2013. We used vertical profiles from new shallow-water Argo floats, operational in the area since 2012, to validate our model. We found that NEMO was able to reproduce the general features of the seasonal temperature variations in the study area, when meteorological forcing was accurate. The k-ε and k-ω schemes were selected for a more detailed analysis. Both schemes showed clear differences, but neither proved superior. While sea surface temperature was better simulated with the k-ω scheme, thermocline depth was clearly better with the k-ε scheme. We investigated the effect of wave-breaking on the mixing of the surface layer. The Craig and Banner parameterisation clearly improved the representation of thermocline depth. However, further tuning of the mixing parameterisations for the Baltic Sea is needed to better simulate the vertical temperature structure. We found the autonomous Baltic Sea Argo floats valuable for model validation and performance evaluation.

  17. OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE UNIDENTIFIED SOURCE HESS J1841-055 WITH THE ARGO-YBJ EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; Bernardini, P.; D'Amone, A.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y.; Bolognino, I.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Calabrese Melcarne, A. K.; Cardarelli, R.; Cattaneo, C.; Chen, T. L.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Ali Staiti, G.; Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2013-04-20

    We report the observation of a very high energy {gamma}-ray source whose position is coincident with HESS J1841-055. This source has been observed for 4.5 years by the ARGO-YBJ experiment from 2007 November to 2012 July. Its emission is detected with a statistical significance of 5.3 standard deviations. Parameterizing the source shape with a two-dimensional Gaussian function, we estimate an extension {sigma}=(0.40{sup +0.32}{sub -0.22}){sup o}, which is consistent with the HESS measurement. The observed energy spectrum is dN/dE = (9.0 {+-} 1.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13}(E/5 TeV){sup -2.32{+-}0.23} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}, in the energy range 0.9-50 TeV. The integral {gamma}-ray flux above 1 TeV is 1.3 {+-} 0.4 Crab, which is 3.2 {+-} 1.0 times the flux derived by HESS. The differences in the flux determination between HESS and ARGO-YBJ and possible counterparts at other wavelengths are discussed.

  18. Sensitivity study of (10,100) GeV gamma-ray bursts with double shower front events from ARGO-YBJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xun-Xiu; Gao, Lan-Lan; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Yi-Qing; Zhu, Qing-Qi; Jia, Huan-Yu; Huang, Dai-Hui

    2016-07-01

    ARGO-YBJ, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory (4300 m a.s.l., Tibet, China), is a full coverage air shower array, with an energy threshold of ∼300 GeV for gamma-ray astronomy. Most of the recorded events are single front showers, satisfying the trigger requirement of at least 20 particles detected in a given time window. However, in ∼11.5% of the events, two randomly arriving showers may be recorded in the same time window, and the second one, generally smaller, does not need to satisfy the trigger condition. These events are called double shower front events. By using these small showers, well under the trigger threshold, the detector primary energy threshold can be lowered to a few tens of GeV. In this paper, the angular resolution that can be achieved with these events is evaluated by a full Monte Carlo simulation. The ARGO-YBJ sensitivity in detecting gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by using double shower front events is also studied for various cutoff energies, time durations, and zenith angles of GRBs in ARGO’s field of view. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475141) and Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (2682014CX091)

  19. Hydrodynamic variability of the Cretan Sea derived from Argo float profiles and multi-parametric buoy measurements during 2010-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassis, Dimitris; Korres, Gerasimos; Petihakis, George; Perivoliotis, Leonidas

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we examine the complex hydrology of the Cretan Sea, an important area which affects the dynamics of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. We use T/S profile data derived from the first Argo float deployed in the area during June 2010 within the framework of the Greek Argo program. Temperature and salinity profiles were measured over a 2-year period, analyzed, and combined with time series data recorded from the POSEIDON E1-M3A multi-parametric instrumentation platform operating in the area since 2007. The acquired datasets have been enriched with available CTD profiles taken on the mooring site during cruise maintenance surveys. The combined research activities resulted in a large dataset of physical properties allowing extended geographical coverage and an in-depth analysis of the Cretan Sea dynamics during this 2-year period. Data analysis shows significant variability of water masses of different origin at subsurface and deep layers. This confirms previous findings describing the area as transitional with water masses of different origin meeting and interacting. Furthermore, additional features of the area are described combining information from satellite altimetry. In this study, new circulation systems are identified at intermediate and subsurface layers affecting both the dynamic behavior of the basin's upper thermocline and the intermediate/deep water mass tempo-spatial variability. We further investigate the physical properties of the water column and suggest an updated mesoscale circulation picture based on the dynamics of the variable hydrological regimes of the Cretan Sea basin.

  20. Lagrangian water mass tracing from pseudo-Argo, model-derived salinity, tracer and velocity data: An application to Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Bruno; Speich, Sabrina; Rusciano, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    We use the tracer and velocity fields of a climatological ocean model to investigate the ability of Argo-like data to estimate accurately water mass movements and transformations, in the style of analyses commonly applied to the output of ocean general circulation model. To this end, we introduce an algorithm for the reconstruction of a fully non-divergent three-dimensional velocity field from the simple knowledge of the model vertical density profiles and 1000-m horizontal velocity components. The validation of the technique consists in comparing the resulting pathways for Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic Ocean to equivalent reference results based on the full model information available for velocity and tracers. We show that the inclusion of a wind-induced Ekman pumping and of a well-thought-out expression for vertical velocity at the level of the intermediate waters is essential for the reliable reproduction of quantitative Lagrangian analyses. Neglecting the seasonal variability of the velocity and tracer fields is not a significant source of errors, at least well below the permanent thermocline. These results give us confidence in the success of the adaptation of the algorithm to true gridded Argo data for investigating the dynamics of flows in the ocean interior.

  1. High expression of immunotherapy candidate proteins gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase and TRP-1 in uveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, T. J.; Trancikova, D.; Ruiter, D. J.; van Muijen, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    In the treatment of cutaneous melanoma, provisional therapeutic strategies have been designed to combat tumour load using T cells that are sensitized with peptides derived from melanoma autoantigens, such as glycoprotein 100 (gp100), melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 (MART-1 or MelanA), tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1). We recently found that gp100, MART-1 and tyrosinase are heterogeneously expressed in human cutaneous melanoma (De Vries et al (1997) Cancer Res 57: 3223-3229). Here, we extended our investigations on expression of these immunotherapy candidate proteins to uveal melanoma lesions. Cryostat sections from 11 spindle-type, 21 mixed and epithelioid tumours and four metastasis lesions were stained with antibodies specifically recognizing gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase and TRP-1. In addition, we used the DOPA reaction to detect tyrosinase enzyme activity as a confirmation of the tyrosinase immunohistochemical results. High expression of gp100, MART-1 and tyrosinase was found in the uveal melanoma lesions: 80% of the lesions displayed 75-100% positive tumour cells. TRP-1 positivity was slightly less: approximately 65% of the lesions stained in the 75-100% positive tumour cell category. All uveal melanoma lesions were positive for the four markers studied, this being in contrast to cutaneous melanoma where 17% of the advanced primary lesions and metastases were negative. The presence of these antigens was a little lower in metastases. We conclude that uveal melanomas and their metastases express melanocyte-lineage immunotherapy candidate proteins very abundantly. Uveal melanomas differ in this respect from cutaneous melanoma, in which the expression of these immunotherapy antigens was much more heterogeneous. This makes uveal melanoma a suitable candidate tumour for immunotherapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:9820172

  2. Design and Practices for Use of Automated Drilling and Sample Handling in MARTE While Minimizing Terrestrial and Cross Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David P.; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources -- whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination) -- to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

  3. Design and practices for use of automated drilling and sample handling in MARTE while minimizing terrestrial and cross contamination.

    PubMed

    Miller, David P; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources--whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination)-to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples. PMID:19105753

  4. The InterPro BioMart: federated query and web service access to the InterPro Resource.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Binns, David; McMenamin, Conor; McAnulla, Craig; Hunter, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The InterPro BioMart provides users with query-optimized access to predictions of family classification, protein domains and functional sites, based on a broad spectrum of integrated computational models ('signatures') that are generated by the InterPro member databases: Gene3D, HAMAP, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. These predictions are provided for all protein sequences from both the UniProt Knowledge Base and the UniParc protein sequence archive. The InterPro BioMart is supplementary to the primary InterPro web interface (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), providing a web service and the ability to build complex, custom queries that can efficiently return thousands of rows of data in a variety of formats. This article describes the information available from the InterPro BioMart and illustrates its utility with examples of how to build queries that return useful biological information. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/biomart/martview. PMID:21785143

  5. The proteasome immunosubunits, PA28 and ER-aminopeptidase 1 protect melanoma cells from efficient MART-126-35 -specific T-cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Keller, Martin; Ebstein, Frédéric; Bürger, Elke; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Gorny, Xenia; Urban, Sabrina; Zhao, Fang; Dannenberg, Tanja; Sucker, Antje; Keller, Christin; Saveanu, Loredana; Krüger, Elke; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Henklein, Petra; Voigt, Antje; Kuckelkorn, Ulrike; Paschen, Annette; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Seifert, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    The immunodominant MART-1(26(27)-35) epitope, liberated from the differentiation antigen melanoma antigen recognized by T cells/melanoma antigen A (MART-1/Melan-A), has been frequently targeted in melanoma immunotherapy, but with limited clinical success. Previous studies suggested that this is in part due to an insufficient peptide supply and epitope presentation, since proteasomes containing the immunosubunits β5i/LMP7 (LMP, low molecular weight protein) or β1i/LMP2 and β5i/LMP7 interfere with MART-1(26-35) epitope generation in tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that in addition the IFN-γ-inducible proteasome subunit β2i/MECL-1 (multicatalytic endopeptidase complex-like 1), proteasome activator 28 (PA28), and ER-resident aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) impair MART-1(26-35) epitope generation. β2i/MECL-1 and PA28 negatively affect C- and N-terminal cleavage and therefore epitope liberation from the proteasome, whereas ERAP1 destroys the MART-1(26-35) epitope by overtrimming activity. Constitutive expression of PA28 and ERAP1 in melanoma cells indicate that both interfere with MART-1(26-35) epitope generation even in the absence of IFN-γ. In summary, our results provide first evidence that activities of different antigen-processing components contribute to an inefficient MART-1(26-35) epitope presentation, suggesting the tumor cell's proteolytic machinery might have an important impact on the outcome of epitope-specific immunotherapies. PMID:26399368

  6. Analysis of Vertical Dynamics in the Northern Baltic Sea based on 3D Modelling and Data from Shallow-Water Argo Floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, Antti; Tuomi, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Vertical mixing is a challenge for ocean models. 3D hydrodynamic models often produce considerable errors in mixed layer depths and vertical temperature structure that can be related to the vertical turbulence parameterisation. These errors can be pronounced in areas with complex hydrography. In the Baltic Sea, for example, there are high horizontal and vertical salinity gradients. Furthermore, thermocline and halocline are located at different depths. This produces stratification conditions challenging for all ocean models. We studied vertical mixing with modelling experiments and new observational data. NEMO 3D ocean model has been set up at Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) for the Baltic Sea, based on the NEMO Nordic configuration. The model has been discretized on a Baltic Sea - North Sea grid with 2 nautical mile resolution and 56 vertical layers, using FMI-HIRLAM atmospheric forcing. The observational data for Baltic Sea off-shore areas is sparse and new methods are needed to collect data for model validation and development. FMI has been testing Argo floats in the Baltic Sea since 2011 in order to increase the amount of observed vertical profiles of salinity and temperature. This is the first time Argo floats have been successfully used in the brackish, shallow waters of the Baltic Sea. This new data set is well suited for evaluating the capability of hydrodynamic models to produce the vertical structure of temperature. It provides a time series of profiles from the area of interest with good temporal resolution, showing the structure of temperature in the water column throughout the summer. We found that NEMO was able to reproduce the general features of the seasonal temperature variations in the study area, when meteorological forcing was accurate. We ran the model with different vertical turbulence parameterisations. The k-ɛ and k-ω schemes showed clear differences, but neither proved superior. While sea surface temperature was better simulated

  7. Reviewers required major changes, including rearranging the two articles, so the new title of the first paper is: HVAC and Refrigeration Experiments at Wal-Mart Experimental Supercenters in Texas and Colorado --- original title: ASHRAE Journal DRAFT article McKinney and Aurora Wal-Mart Stores, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J Michael; Deru, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, Wal-Mart opened experimental stores in McKinney, Texas (hot climate), and Aurora, Colo. (cold climate). With these projects Wal-Mart can: * Learn how to achieve sustainability improvements; * Gain experience with the design, design process, and operations for some specific advanced technologies; * Understand energy use patterns in their stores more clearly; * Lay groundwork for better understanding of how to achieve major carbon footprint reductions; and * Measure the potential benefits of specific technologies tested.

  8. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla de M; do Nascimento, Evandro A; de Morais, Sérgio A L; de Oliveira, Alberto; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C S; Martins, Mário M; Martins, Carlos Henrique G; Moraes, Thaís da S; Rodrigues, Paulla V; da Silva, Cláudio V; de Aquino, Francisco J T

    2015-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%). The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL(-1)). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL(-1) for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest. PMID:25960759

  9. Garcinielliptone FC, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone from Platonia insignis Mart., promotes vasorelaxant effect on rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; da Costa-Júnior, Joaquim Soares; Moura, Lucas Henrique Porfírio; Ferraz, Alexandre Barros Falcão; Rossatto, Raíssa Rebés; David, Jorge Maurício; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Oliveira, Aldeídia Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Polyisoprenylated benzophenones represent a group of chemical compounds commonly identified in Clusiaceae species and are responsible for a large amount of biological activities. In this work, the vasorelaxant effect induced by garcinielliptone FC (GFC) isolated from Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae), a monotype species from Platonia genus, was investigated. GFC promoted an endothelium-independent vasorelaxation on phenylephrine (PHE, 10(-5) mol L(-1))-induced vasoconstriction, but not on KCl (80 mmol L(-1))-induced vasoconstriction, on rat superior mesenteric artery rings. In addition, a concentration-dependent decrease of PHE- or serotonin-induced cumulative concentration-response curves was observed for GFC, and a slight decrease of pD₂ value on CaCl₂-induced vasoconstriction. In a Ca(2+)-free medium, GFC interfered in calcium mobilisation from PHE (10(-5) mol L(-1))-sensitive intracellular stores. GFC-induced vasorelaxant effect is probably mediated by a dual effect on mobilisation of calcium intracellular stores and attenuation of transmembrane calcium influx. PMID:24579922

  10. Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in a Typical Mediterranean Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E.; Vlachos, Christos G.; Papakosta, Malamati A.; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A.; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N.

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003–2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (BA = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources. PMID:22619607

  11. Ontogenesis secretion and senescence of Tocoyena bullata (Vell.) Mart. (Rubiacaeae) colleters.

    PubMed

    Miguel, E C; Da Cunha, M; Miguel, T B A R; Barros, C F

    2016-09-01

    Colleters are secretory structure present on many families including Rubiaceae. Particular characteristics have been described about colleters secretory cells, however senescence process are still under debate. Tocoyena bullata (Vell.) Mart. (Rubiaceae) shoot apex were collected at Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, RJ/Brazil. Stipules were separated and fragments were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 4.0% formaldehyde in 0.05 m sodium cacodylate buffer, pH 7.2, post fixed in 1.0% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dehydrated in acetone, critical-point-drying, sputtered coated and observed. For light microscopy fragments were fixed and dehydrated, infiltrated with historesin and stained with 1% toluidine blue. For transmission electron microscopy, the samples were infiltrated with Epoxi resin. Colleters are present on stipule adaxial surface. On the beginning of development, these structures are recognized as small projections. Later on, colleters differentiated and secrete by cuticle rupture. The colleters senescence occurs in a concomitant and indissoluble way of programmed cell death. Ultrastructural analyses during the process strongly suggest the senescence is based on a non-autolitic programmed cell death. T. bullata colleters, present at stipule abaxial surface are cylindrical secretory structures. Colleters secretory cells originated as stipule projections; differentiate; secrete and senesce by programmed cell death. The secretion and the cell dead occurs in a concomitantly and indissoluble way. PMID:27208391

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

  13. Eduardo Martínez Alonso (1903-72): gallant surgeon who undertook special operations.

    PubMed

    Coni, Nicholas

    2010-02-01

    Eduardo Martínez Alonso was of Spanish and Uruguyan extraction and was born in Vigo in Galicia in 1903. Due to his father's occupation, he was educated in the UK and qualified from the University of Liverpool. He returned to Madrid to practise and during the Civil War he found himself in the Republican zone where his connections with the Royal Family brought him under suspicion. Threatened with execution, he escaped to serve as a surgeon in the Nationalist Army. Being bilingual, he was medical adviser to the British Embassy during World War II; because of his allegiance to this country and acting from humanitarian motives, he became a ringleader in a plot to smuggle fugitives from Nazi-occupied Europe across a pro-Axis Spain to safety. When the Gestapo was closing in on him, he was smuggled to the UK via Portugal. He underwent training as a potential undercover agent should Franco take Spain into the war but, when hostilities ceased, he returned to Madrid and became a leading thoracic surgeon. PMID:20207896

  14. Distribution, occupancy, and habitat correlates of American martens (Martes americana) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    A clear understanding of habitat associations of martens (Martes americana) is necessary to effectively manage and monitor populations. However, this information was lacking for martens in most of their southern range, particularly during the summer season. We studied the distribution and habitat correlates of martens from 2004 to 2006 in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) across 3 spatial scales: site-specific, home-range, and landscape. We used remote-sensored cameras from early August through late October to inventory occurrence of martens and modeled occurrence as a function of habitat and landscape variables using binary response (BR) and binomial count (BC) logistic regression, and occupancy modeling (OM). We also assessed which was the most appropriate modeling technique for martens in RMNP. Of the 3 modeling techniques, OM appeared to be most appropriate given the explanatory power of derived models and its incorporation of detection probabilities, although the results from BR and BC provided corroborating evidence of important habitat correlates. Location of sites in the western portion of the park, riparian mixed-conifer stands, and mixed-conifer with aspen patches were most frequently positively correlated with occurrence of martens, whereas more xeric and open sites were avoided. Additionally, OM yielded unbiased occupancy values ranging from 91% to 100% and 20% to 30% for the western and eastern portions of RMNP, respectively. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  15. New MHD feedback control schemes using the MARTe framework in RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piron, Chiara; Manduchi, Gabriele; Marrelli, Lionello; Piovesan, Paolo; Zanca, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Real-time feedback control of MHD instabilities is a topic of major interest in magnetic thermonuclear fusion, since it allows to optimize a device performance even beyond its stability bounds. The stability properties of different magnetic configurations are important test benches for real-time control systems. RFX-mod, a Reversed Field Pinch experiment that can also operate as a tokamak, is a well suited device to investigate this topic. It is equipped with a sophisticated magnetic feedback system that controls MHD instabilities and error fields by means of 192 active coils and a corresponding grid of sensors. In addition, the RFX-mod control system has recently gained new potentialities thanks to the introduction of the MARTe framework and of a new CPU architecture. These capabilities allow to study new feedback algorithms relevant to both RFP and tokamak operation and to contribute to the debate on the optimal feedback strategy. This work focuses on the design of new feedback schemes. For this purpose new magnetic sensors have been explored, together with new algorithms that refine the de-aliasing computation of the radial sideband harmonics. The comparison of different sensor and feedback strategy performance is described in both RFP and tokamak experiments.

  16. BioMart Central Portal: an open database network for the biological community.

    PubMed

    Guberman, Jonathan M; Ai, J; Arnaiz, O; Baran, Joachim; Blake, Andrew; Baldock, Richard; Chelala, Claude; Croft, David; Cros, Anthony; Cutts, Rosalind J; Di Génova, A; Forbes, Simon; Fujisawa, T; Gadaleta, E; Goodstein, D M; Gundem, Gunes; Haggarty, Bernard; Haider, Syed; Hall, Matthew; Harris, Todd; Haw, Robin; Hu, S; Hubbard, Simon; Hsu, Jack; Iyer, Vivek; Jones, Philip; Katayama, Toshiaki; Kinsella, R; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Liang, Yong; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Luo, J; Lush, Michael; Mason, Jeremy; Moreews, Francois; Ndegwa, Nelson; Oakley, Darren; Perez-Llamas, Christian; Primig, Michael; Rivkin, Elena; Rosanoff, S; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Skarnes, B; Smedley, Damian; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Stevenson, Peter; Stone, Kevin; Teague, J; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jianxin; Whitty, Brett; Wong, D T; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Yao, L; Youens-Clark, Ken; Yung, Christina; Zhang, Junjun; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart Central Portal is a first of its kind, community-driven effort to provide unified access to dozens of biological databases spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. Anybody can contribute an independently maintained resource to the Central Portal, allowing it to be exposed to and shared with the research community, and linking it with the other resources in the portal. Users can take advantage of the common interface to quickly utilize different sources without learning a new system for each. The system also simplifies cross-database searches that might otherwise require several complicated steps. Several integrated tools streamline common tasks, such as converting between ID formats and retrieving sequences. The combination of a wide variety of databases, an easy-to-use interface, robust programmatic access and the array of tools make Central Portal a one-stop shop for biological data querying. Here, we describe the structure of Central Portal and show example queries to demonstrate its capabilities. PMID:21930507

  17. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  18. Canine distemper in an isolated population of fishers (Martes pennanti) from California.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stefan M; Gabriel, Mourad; Terio, Karen A; Dubovi, Edward J; VanWormer, Elizabeth; Sweitzer, Rick; Barret, Reginald; Thompson, Craig; Purcell, Kathryn; Munson, Linda

    2012-10-01

    Four fishers (Martes pennanti) from an insular population in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA died as a consequence of an infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2009. Three fishers were found in close temporal and spatial relationship; the fourth fisher died 4 mo later at a 70 km distance from the initial group. Gross lesions were restricted to hyperkeratosis of periocular skin and ulceration of footpads. All animals had necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Inclusion bodies were abundant in the epithelia of urinary bladder and epididymis but were infrequent in the renal pelvis and the female genital epithelia. No histopathologic or immunohistochemical evidence for virus spread to the central nervous system was found. One fisher had encephalitis caused by Sarcocystis neurona and another had severe head trauma as a consequence of predation. The H gene nucleotide sequence of the virus isolates from the first three fishers was identical and was 99.6% identical to the isolate from the fourth fisher. Phylogenetically, the isolates clustered with other North American isolates separate from classical European wildlife lineage strains. These data suggest that the European wildlife lineage might consist of two separate subgroups that are genetically distinct and endemic in different geographic regions. The source of infection as well as pertinent transmission routes remained unclear. This is the first report of CDV in fishers and underscores the significance of CDV as a pathogen of management concern. PMID:23060505

  19. Ozone profiles retrieved from SCIMACHY Chappuis-Wulf limb scatter measurements using MART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.

    2010-12-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument, launched on the Envisat satellite in March 2002, will measure the earthshine radiance, simultaneously from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR), in the three viewing geometries nadir, limb, and occultation. These measurements will be used to retrieve both the total amount and vertical profiles of a large number of atmospheric constituents. In this paper, stratospheric ozone profiles between 15 and 40 km altitude are retrieved on 3 km grids from SCIMACHY limb scattered radiance in the Chappuis-Wulf band. It employs a new multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) coupled with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. Radiance normalization and wavelength pairing is applied to radiance as an intermediate step, using the wavelengths 525 nm, 600 nm and 675 nm. The sensitivity of ozone retrieval by this method to tangent altitude pointing, surface albedo, aerosol and cloud parameters is studied, the results show that the retrieval impact due to tangent altitude pointing bias is the biggest can be up to 75% with 1 km shift, and the impact of albedo is limited within 5%. The effect of boundary visibility and cloud parameters can be ignored since these impact is too small. The effectiveness of the retrieval is demonstrated using a set of coincident SCIMACHY product at Hefei that shows a mean bias of less than 12% between 15 and 40 km, and with a better accuracy of 5% from 16 to 36 km.

  20. Salinity Effects on Water Potential Components and Bulk Elastic Modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Jorge A.; Longstreth, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (Ψ), osmotic potential (ψs), turgor potential (ψp) and the bulk elastic modulus (ε) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of ψs decreased with increasing salinity and tissue Ψ was always lower than rhizosphere Ψ. The relationship between ψp and tissue water content changed because ε increased with salinity. As a result, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which ψp was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on ε in higher plants. These increases in ε with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant Ψ and rhizosphere Ψ, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed Ψ was constant within 1 day, ψs and ψp continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and ε continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in ε modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. PMID:16663611

  1. Accumulation of chromium in root tissues of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Cachoeira river—Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangabeira, P. A. O.; Labejof, L.; Lamperti, A.; de Almeida, A.-A. F.; Oliveira, A. H.; Escaig, F.; Severo, M. I. G.; Silva, D. da C.; Saloes, M.; Mielke, M. S.; Lucena, E. R.; Martins, M. C.; Santana, K. B.; Gavrilov, K. L.; Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.

    2004-06-01

    Heavy metals are not biodegradable and enter the food chain through a number of pathways causing progressive toxic actions due to the accumulation in different organs during a life span and long-term exposure to contaminated environments. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to localize chromium in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. ICP-MS was used for the determination of Cr concentrations in water, sediments and plant samples in the Cachoeira basin, Bahia, Brazil. The results obtained by ICP-MS shows abnormally high values of Cr concentrations in water samples (0.38 μg/l), in soil samples (63 μg/g) and 70 μg/g in plant tissue. SIMS results show increased levels of Cr in the root cell wall and xylem vessel, these sites show high Cr accumulation. The ICP-MS data confirm E. crassipes like bioindicator plant. Chemical analysis using ICP-MS, confirms SIMS analysis on the presence of Cr in roots xylem cell walls. The use of ICP-MS, to investigate the same organs as the ones investigated by SIMS, provided complementary results on chromium study.

  2. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Martín García Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ronderos, María M; Marino, Pablo I; Díaz, Florentina; Estévez, Ana L

    2011-09-01

    Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. PMID:22017124

  3. Orofacial antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliane C; Macedo, Larissa A R O; Souza, Grasielly R; Oliveira-Junior, Raimundo G; Lima-Saraiva, Sarah R G; Lavor, Érica M; Silva, Mariana G; Souza, Marilia T S; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Mendes, Rosemairy L; Almeida, Jackson R G S

    2016-01-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae) is a species popularly known in Brazil as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga". We have evaluated the antinociceptive effects of A. vepretorum in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced orofacial nociception in mice. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with either saline (p.o.), A. vepretorum ethanol extract (Av-EtOH 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), or morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), before formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate was injected into the right upper lip. Pre-treatment with Av-EtOH at all doses produced a reduction in face-rubbing behavior induced by formalin in both phases, and these pre-treatments also produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) did not reverse the antinociceptive activity of the extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg in the first phase of this test. Our results suggest that Av-EtOH might be useful in the treatment of orofacial pain. PMID:27269894

  4. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla de M.; do Nascimento, Evandro A.; de Morais, Sérgio A. L.; de Oliveira, Alberto; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C. S.; Martins, Mário M.; Martins, Carlos Henrique G.; Moraes, Thaís da S.; Rodrigues, Paulla V.; da Silva, Cláudio V.; de Aquino, Francisco J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%). The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL−1). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL−1 for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest. PMID:25960759

  5. High-rate composting-vermicomposting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms).

    PubMed

    Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2002-07-01

    In an attempt to develop a system with which the aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms) can be economically processed to generate vermicompost in large quantities, the weed was first composted by a 'high-rate' method and then subjected to vermicomposting in reactors operating at much larger densities of earthworm than recommended hitherto: 50, 62.5, 75, 87.5, 100, 112.5, 125, 137.5, and 150 adults of Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg per litre of digester volume. The composting step was accomplished in 20 days and the composted weed was found to be vermicomposted three times as rapidly as uncomposted water hyacinth [Bioresource Technology 76 (2001) 177]. The studies substantiated the feasibility of high-rate composting-vermicomposting systems, as all reactors yielded consistent vermicast output during seven months of operation. There was no earthworm mortality during the first four months in spite of the high animal densities in the reactors. In the subsequent three months a total of 79 worms died out of 1650, representing less than 1.6% mortality per month. The results also indicated that an increase in the surface-to-volume ratio of the reactors might further improve their efficiency. PMID:12094800

  6. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J

    2016-10-01

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermented jabuticaba pomaces were studied regarding their hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, as well as their antioxidant properties, including: soluble sugars, organic acids and tocopherols (using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index, diode array and fluorescence detector, respectively); phenolics and anthocyanins, (using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization); and fatty acids (using gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection). The analytical data demonstrated that jabuticaba pomaces are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds (namely hydrolyzable tannins and anthocyanins) with antioxidant potential. Therefore, jabuticaba pomace may have good potential as a functional ingredient in the fabrication of human foods and animal feed. PMID:27132843

  7. Genetic diversity analysis of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. using AFLP molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T G; Pereira, A M S; Coppede, J S; França, S C; Ming, L C; Bertoni, B W

    2016-01-01

    Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. is a medicinal plant native to Cerrado vegetation in Brazil, and it is popularly used to treat urogenital tract infections. The objective of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of natural C. antisyphiliticus populations using AFLP molecular markers. Accessions were collected in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Goiás. The genotyping of individuals was performed using a LI-COR® DNA Analyzer 4300. The variability within populations was found to be greater than the variability between them. The F(ST) value was 0.3830, which indicated that the populations were highly structured. A higher percentage of polymorphic loci (92.16%) and greater genetic diversity were found in the population accessions from Pratinha-MG. Gene flow was considered restricted (N(m) = 1.18), and there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The populations of C. antisyphiliticus exhibited an island-model structure, which demonstrates the vulnerability of the species. PMID:26909989

  8. Exposure to Melan-A/MART-126-35 tumor epitope specific CD8(+)T cells reveals immune escape by affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS).

    PubMed

    Ebstein, Frédéric; Keller, Martin; Paschen, Annette; Walden, Peter; Seeger, Michael; Bürger, Elke; Krüger, Elke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kloetzel, Peter-M; Seifert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Efficient processing of target antigens by the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is essential for treatment of cancers by T cell therapies. However, immune escape due to altered expression of IFN-γ-inducible components of the antigen presentation machinery and consequent inefficient processing of HLA-dependent tumor epitopes can be one important reason for failure of such therapies. Here, we show that short-term co-culture of Melan-A/MART-1 tumor antigen-expressing melanoma cells with Melan-A/MART-126-35-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) led to resistance against CTL-induced lysis because of impaired Melan-A/MART-126-35 epitope processing. Interestingly, deregulation of p97/VCP expression, which is an IFN-γ-independent component of the UPS and part of the ER-dependent protein degradation pathway (ERAD), was found to be essentially involved in the observed immune escape. In support, our data demonstrate that re-expression of p97/VCP in Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL-resistant melanoma cells completely restored immune recognition by Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL. In conclusion, our experiments show that impaired expression of IFN-γ-independent components of the UPS can exert rapid immune evasion of tumor cells and suggest that tumor antigens processed by distinct UPS degradation pathways should be simultaneously targeted in T cell therapies to restrict the likelihood of immune evasion due to impaired antigen processing. PMID:27143649

  9. Exposure to Melan-A/MART-126-35 tumor epitope specific CD8+T cells reveals immune escape by affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)

    PubMed Central

    Ebstein, Frédéric; Keller, Martin; Paschen, Annette; Walden, Peter; Seeger, Michael; Bürger, Elke; Krüger, Elke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kloetzel, Peter-M.; Seifert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Efficient processing of target antigens by the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is essential for treatment of cancers by T cell therapies. However, immune escape due to altered expression of IFN-γ-inducible components of the antigen presentation machinery and consequent inefficient processing of HLA-dependent tumor epitopes can be one important reason for failure of such therapies. Here, we show that short-term co-culture of Melan-A/MART-1 tumor antigen-expressing melanoma cells with Melan-A/MART-126-35-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) led to resistance against CTL-induced lysis because of impaired Melan-A/MART-126-35 epitope processing. Interestingly, deregulation of p97/VCP expression, which is an IFN-γ-independent component of the UPS and part of the ER-dependent protein degradation pathway (ERAD), was found to be essentially involved in the observed immune escape. In support, our data demonstrate that re-expression of p97/VCP in Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL-resistant melanoma cells completely restored immune recognition by Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL. In conclusion, our experiments show that impaired expression of IFN-γ-independent components of the UPS can exert rapid immune evasion of tumor cells and suggest that tumor antigens processed by distinct UPS degradation pathways should be simultaneously targeted in T cell therapies to restrict the likelihood of immune evasion due to impaired antigen processing. PMID:27143649

  10. Sensitivity of the ARGO-YBJ Strip Size Spectrum to Different Models of the Primary Cosmic Ray Composition in the Energy Range 10-500 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggese, L.; Di Sciascio, G.; Iacovacci, M.; Mastroianni, S.; Vernetto, S.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is currently under construction at the Yangba jing Cosmic Ray Lab oratory (4300 m a.s.l.). The detector will cover 74 × 78 m2 with a single layer of Resistive Plate Counters (RPCs), surrounded by a partially instrumented guard ring. Signals from each RPC are picked-up with 80 read out strips 6 cm wide and 62 cm long. These strips allow one to count the particle number of small size air showers. In this paper we discuss the digital response of the detector for showers with core located in a small fiducial area inside the carp et. The results enable us to assess the sensitivity of the strip size spectrum measurement to discriminate between different models of the Primary Cosmic Ray composition in the energy range 10 ÷ 500 T eV .

  11. Upper-ocean hydrography of the Nordic Seas during the International Polar Year (2007-2008) as observed by instrumented seals and Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachsen, Pål E.; Sørlie, Signe R.; Mauritzen, Cecilie; Lydersen, Christian; Dodd, Paul; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2014-11-01

    Following indications of recent warming trends in the Nordic Seas, we have studied the hydrography of these marginal seas from the summer of 2007 until the fall of 2008, using observations gathered by instrumented seals and Argo floats. The combined dataset shows that the upper ocean was indeed both warmer and saltier over much of the Nordic Seas in 2007-2008 compared to the average ocean state for the period 1956-2006 (based on the World Ocean Atlas 2009). There are also indications that the surface Polar Waters of the East Greenland Current were colder and fresher than the climatology, though the quality of the climatology is questionable for this region given the low number of historical observations. Dynamic height calculations suggest that the observed hydrographic changes were associated with enhanced northward upper-ocean thermal wind transport in the east and possibly also enhanced southward transport in the west.

  12. Measurements of micron-scale meteoroids and orbital debris with the Space Dust (SPADUS) instrument on the upcoming ARGOS P91-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKibben, R. B.; Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    The space dust (SPADUS) experiment, to be launched into a sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 833 km onboard the USAF ARGOS P91-1 mission, will provide time-resolved measurements of the intensity, size spectrum and geocentric trajectories of dust particles encountered during the nominal three year mission. The experiment uses polyvinylidene fluoride dust sensors with a total detector area of 576 sq cm. The SPADUS will measure particle sizes between 2 and 200 microns, particle velocities between 1 and 10 km/s to better than 4 percent, and the direction of incidence with a mean error of 7 percent. These data will identify the particles as being debris or of natural origin.

  13. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, ARGOS buoy drift, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Knauss, W.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1991 are presented with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft; Cartesian components of free-drifting buoys which are tracked by the ARGOS navigation system on NOAA satellites; and Cartesian components of the 10-m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation value are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  14. An atlas of monthly mean distributions of SSMI surface wind speed, ARGOS buoy drift, AVHRR/2 sea surface temperature, and ECMWF surface wind components during 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Knauss, W.; Brown, O.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    The following monthly mean global distributions for 1990 are proposed with a common color scale and geographical map: 10-m height wind speed estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) on a United States (US) Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft; sea surface temperature estimated from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR/2) on a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft; Cartesian components of free drifting buoys which are tracked by the ARGOS navigation system on NOAA satellites; and Cartesian components on the 10-m height wind vector computed by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Charts of monthly mean value, sampling distribution, and standard deviation values are displayed. Annual mean distributions are displayed.

  15. The Cosmic Ray p+He energy spectrum in the 3-3000 TeV energy range measured by ARGO-YBJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, S. M.; Montini, P.

    2016-07-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment is a full coverage air shower detector operated at the Yangbajing International Cosmic Ray Observatory. The detector has been in stable data taking in its full configuration since November 2007 to February 2013. The high altitude and the high segmentation and spacetime resolution offer the possibility to explore the cosmic ray energy spectrum in a very wide range, from a few TeV up to the PeV region. The high segmentation allows a detailed measurement of the lateral distribution, which can be used in order to discriminate showers produced by light and heavy elements. In this work we present the measurement of the cosmic ray light component spectrum in the energy range 3-3000 TeV. The analysis has been carried out by using a two-dimensional unfolding method based on the Bayes' theorem.

  16. Potential utility of three-dimensional temperature and salinity fields estimated from satellite altimetry and Argo data for improving mesoscale reproducibility in regional ocean modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; Miyazaki, D.; Takano, A.; Miyazawa, Y.; Yamazaki, H.

    2014-12-01

    Mesoscale oceanic structure and variability are required to be reproduced as accurately as possible in realistic regional ocean modeling. Uchiyama et al. (2012) demonstrated with a submesoscale eddy-resolving JCOPE2-ROMS downscaling oceanic modeling system that the mesoscale reproducibility of the Kuroshio meandering along Japan is significantly improved by introducing a simple restoration to data which we call "TS nudging" (a.k.a. robust diagnosis) where the prognostic temperature and salinity fields are weakly nudged four-dimensionally towards the assimilative JCOPE2 reanalysis (Miyazawa et al., 2009). However, there is not always a reliable reanalysis for oceanic downscaling in an arbitrary region and at an arbitrary time, and therefore alternative dataset should be prepared. Takano et al. (2009) proposed an empirical method to estimate mesoscale 3-D thermal structure from the near real-time AVISO altimetry data along with the ARGO float data based on the two-layer model of Goni et al. (1996). In the present study, we consider the TS data derived from this method as a candidate. We thus conduct a synoptic forward modeling of the Kuroshio using the JCOPE2-ROMS downscaling system to explore potential utility of this empirical TS dataset (hereinafter TUM-TS) by carrying out two runs with the T-S nudging towards 1) the JCOPE2-TS and 2) TUM-TS fields. An example of the comparison between the two ROMS test runs is shown in the attached figure showing the annually averaged surface EKE. Both of TUM-TS and JCOPE2-TS are found to help reproducing the mesoscale variance of the Koroshio and its extension as well as its mean paths, surface KE and EKE reasonably well. Therefore, the AVISO-ARGO derived empirical 3-D TS estimation is potentially exploitable for the dataset to conduct the T-S nudging to reproduce mesoscale oceanic structure.

  17. Thermohaline variability in the Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas observed from the Argo floats during 2010-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević, Vedrana; Ursella, Laura; Gačić, Miroslav; Notarstefano, Giulio; Menna, Milena; Bensi, Manuel; Civitarese, Giuseppe; Poulain, Pierre-Marie

    2015-04-01

    , the signal of the Adriatic dense waters can be fairly irregular and impulsive. Sporadic in-situ surveys by research vessels are not always sufficient to capture this irregularity and its consequences on the circulation. The Lagrangian platforms are disseminated within the whole Mediterranean through the international Argo program. They are a useful tool to assess some of the spatial and temporal variability in the two basins. Combining the information from the floats and in-situ CTD profiles from oceanographic campaigns, we picture the inter-annual variability of the thermohaline properties in general during 2010-2014. In addition, the peculiarities of the very dense water overflow that during 2012 spilled out form the Strait of Otranto into the Northern Ionian is evidenced. Also, by the remotely sensed sea surface topography, we depict the most prominent circulation features of the upper layer.

  18. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP

  19. Prevalence of Soboliphyme baturini in marten (Martes americana) populations from three regions of Alaska, 1990-1998.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, Randall L; Whitman, Jackson S; Flynn, Rodney W; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2004-07-01

    Marten (Martes americana) carcasses were collected from trappers in three regions of Alaska. Stomachs were examined for the nematode parasite Soboliphyme baturini. Both prevalence and intensity of infection exhibited an increase from north to south. Prevalence was higher in adults (compared with juveniles) from the two mainland study areas. Prevalences in these two age classes were similar for the southeastern region. There were no sex-specific differences in prevalence. No pathologic changes were observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Impact of the parasite on either individual animals or populations was not detected. PMID:15465712

  20. A taxonomic review of the Neotropical genus Hansreia Halffter & Martínez, 1977 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Valois, Marcely; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Silva, Fernando A B

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Hansreia Halffter & Martínez is reviewed. The genus consists of six species, including three new species: H. peugeoti sp. nov., H. grossii sp. nov., H. krinskii sp. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Hansreia affinis (Fabricius 1801), H. oxygona (Perty 1830) [here considered a valid species] and H. coriacea (Schmidt 1922). The species status of H. coriacea is recognized. A detailed literature review, synonymies, description, illustration of key morphological characters as well as data of the studied material and geographic distribution is provided for each species. PMID:26624175

  1. Salinity effects on water potential components and bulk elastic modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb

    SciTech Connect

    Bolanos, J.A.; Longstreth, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Grixeb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (PSI), osmotic potential (psi/sub s/), turgor potential (psi/sub p/) and the bulk elastic modulus (element of) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of psi decreased with increasing salinity and tissue PSI was always lower than rhizosphere PSI. The relationship between psi/sub p/ and tissue water content changed because element of increased with salinity. As a results, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which psi/sub p/ was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on element of in higher plants. These increases in element of with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant PSI and rhizosphere PSI, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed PSI was constant with 1 day, psi/sub s/ and psi/sub p/ continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and element of continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in element of modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. 24 references, 6 figures.

  2. Ozone profiles retrieval from SCIAMACHY Chappuis-Wulf limb scattered spectra using MART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZiJun; Chen, ShengBo; Jin, LiHua; Yang, ChunYan

    2011-02-01

    The Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument, launched on the Envisat satellite in March 2002, measures the earthshine radiance, simultaneously from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR), in the three viewing geometries: nadir, limb, and occultation. These measurements are used to retrieve both the total amount and vertical profiles of a large number of atmospheric constituents. In this paper, stratospheric ozone profiles between 15 and 40 km altitude are retrieved on 3 km grids from SCIAMACHY limb scattered radiance in the Chappuis-Wulf band. The study employs a new multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) coupled with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. This technique is outstanding in that more than one measurement vector element can be used to retrieve the ozone density at any altitude. Furthermore, it is straightforward to understand, easy to implement and likely to produce stable results. Radiance normalization and wavelength pairing is applied to radiance as an intermediate step, using the wavelengths 525 nm, 600 nm and 675 nm. The sensitivity of ozone retrieval by this method to tangent altitude pointing, surface albedo, aerosol and cloud parameters is studied, and the results show that the retrieval impact due to tangent altitude pointing bias is the biggest up to 75% with 1 km shift, and the impact of albedo is limited within 5%. The effect of boundary visibility and cloud parameters can be ignored since their impact is too small. The effectiveness of the retrieval is demonstrated using a set of coincident SCIAMACHY products at Hefei that shows a mean bias of less than 12% between 15 and 40 km, and with a better accuracy of 5% from 16 to 36 km.

  3. SOLID2: An Antibody Array-Based Life-Detector Instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A.; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  4. Two-dimensional ionospheric tomography over the low-latitude Indian region: An intercomparison of ART and MART algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sukanta Kumar; Shukla, Ashish Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Single-frequency users of a satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) rely on ionospheric models to mitigate the delay due to the ionosphere. The ionosphere is the major source of range and range rate errors for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS) who require high-accuracy positioning. The purpose of the present study is to develop a tomography model to reconstruct the total electron content (TEC) over the low-latitude Indian region which lies in the equatorial ionospheric anomaly belt. In the present study, the TEC data collected from the six TEC collection stations along a longitudinal belt of around 77 degrees are used. The main objective of the study is to find out optimum pixel size which supports a better reconstruction of the electron density and hence the TEC over the low-latitude Indian region. Performance of two reconstruction algorithms Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) and Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART) is analyzed for different pixel sizes varying from 1 to 6 degrees in latitude. It is found from the analysis that the optimum pixel size is 5° × 50 km over the Indian region using both ART and MART algorithms.

  5. TCRs Used in Cancer Gene Therapy Cross-React with MART-1/Melan-A Tumor Antigens via Distinct Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Hossain, Moushumi; Baker, Brian M.

    2013-09-18

    T cells engineered to express TCRs specific for tumor Ags can drive cancer regression. The first TCRs used in cancer gene therapy, DMF4 and DMF5, recognize two structurally distinct peptide epitopes of the melanoma-associated MART-1/Melan-A protein, both presented by the class I MHC protein HLA-A*0201. To help understand the mechanisms of TCR cross-reactivity and provide a foundation for the further development of immunotherapy, we determined the crystallographic structures of DMF4 and DMF5 in complex with both of the MART-1/Melan-A epitopes. The two TCRs use different mechanisms to accommodate the two ligands. Although DMF4 binds the two with a different orientation, altering its position over the peptide/MHC, DMF5 binds them both identically. The simpler mode of cross-reactivity by DMF5 is associated with higher affinity toward both ligands, consistent with the superior functional avidity of DMF5. More generally, the observation of two diverging mechanisms of cross-reactivity with the same Ags and the finding that TCR-binding orientation can be determined by peptide alone extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying TCR cross-reactivity.

  6. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life. PMID:19105755

  7. Paleoecological and biogeographical implications of late Pleistocene noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) in eastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2011-01-01

    A mandible identified as noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) recovered from sediments dating to 11,800 cal yr BP and a humerus identified as M. a. cf. nobilis recovered from sediments dating from 13,100 to 12,500 cal yr BP at the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington represent the first record of this taxon in the state. Mammalian taxa associated with the Marmes Rockshelter noble marten represent a diversity of open mesic habitats corroborating earlier analyses of other records of the noble marten in the western United States and exemplify how paleozoologists determine the ecology and environmental predilections of extinct taxa. The recovery site represents the topographically lowest record of this species in western North America and the farthest north record in the United States. Future research should examine known late-Quaternary Martes spp. remains from British Columbia and Alberta to fill in the 2200-km geographic gap in the known distribution of this taxon between a record in the northern Yukon and those in the western United States, and to refine our knowledge of noble marten paleoecology.

  8. 77 FR 44677 - Quad/Graphics Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D., Jonesboro, AR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... and A.I.D.,Jonesboro, AR; Amended Certification Regarding EligibilityTo Apply for Worker Adjustment... of determination was published in the Federal Register on July 10, 2012 (77 FR 40641). At the request... magazines and catalogues. The company reports that workers leased from Staff Mart and A.I.D. were...

  9. Pharmacological Evidence of α2-Adrenergic Receptors in the Hypotensive Effect of Platonia insignis Mart.

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Marcelo Bezerra; da Silva-Filho, José Couras; Sabino, Carla Kelly Barroso; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Sousa, Cleyton Marcos Melo; Costa, Isabella Cristhina Gonçalves; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Amazon region. The present study evaluated the biological potential of the ethanol extract (Pi-EtOH) and ethyl acetate fraction (Pi-EtOAc) of the P. insignis fruit shells on the cardiovascular system of rats. Pi-EtOH or Pi-EtOAc (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously in normotensive rats (260–300 g), and the mean arterial pressure and the heart rate were monitored. The Pi-EtOH induced hypotension (−11.56±0.89, −7.43±0.85, and −17.56±1.97 mmHg) followed by bradycardia in two highest doses (−8.89±3.62 and −15.79±1.83 beats/min) and Pi-EtOAc, at the same doses, induced hypotension (−11.2±1.03, −14.48±1.13, −29.89±2.67 mmHg) more intensively, followed by tachycardia at the dose 12.5 and 25 mg/kg (15.64±2.06, 19.31±1.92 beats/min) and bradycardia at a dose of 50 mg/kg (−9.98±7.33 beats/min). The hypotensive response from Pi-EtOAc was not attenuated when used in the pretreatment with L-NAME, verapamil, propranolol, and hexamethonium. However, when using yohimbine, the hypotensive effect was inhibited (−4.42±1.28 (P<.05), −3.29±0.99 (P<.05), 2.06±1.18 mmHg (P<.05); Student's t-test). Hence, the Pi-EtOAc seems to act similarly to the α2-adrenergic agonist in this hypotensive effect. PMID:25055183

  10. Using remote sensing to monitor herbicide injury and biomass of waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Wilfredo

    Aquatic vegetation plays an important role in the ecological interactions and processes within a water body. However, the presence of the invasive exotic aquatic plant species, waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms], negatively affects those interactions as well as interfering with water use for recreation and navigation. An implemented management plan for waterhyacinth control relies on the use of herbicides. Efficacy is commonly assessed using visual injury and control ratings as well as estimating biomass. The problem is that those approaches are labor intensive only assessing single points throughout the entire water body. Therefore, technology like remote sensing, which is the focus of this research, is recommended as an additional tool to assess implemented management plans. Studies were conducted in a mesocosm research facility to evaluate the relationship between simulated spectral bands 3, 4, 5, and 7 Landsat 5 TM and waterhyacinth treated with the herbicides imazapyr and glyphosate. Results indicate that injury is better detected and predicted with band 4 and that relationship is negative when either herbicide was used. However, prediction is better when plants have developed sufficient injury to influence the spectral response of band 4. In the second study, the biomass of waterhyacinth was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using simulated data from Landsat 5 TM. This study was conducted over natural populations of waterhyacinth in Lakes Columbus and Aberdeen, MS over two growing seasons. Results indicate that the use of NDVI alone is a weak predictor of biomass; however, its combination with morphometric parameters like leaf area index enhanced predictive capabilities. In order to assess field herbicide treatments for waterhyacinth control and its consequent impact on native aquatic vegetation, lake-wide surveys were performed in Lake Columbus, MS using a point-intercept method. The herbicide assessed was 2

  11. 4.5 Years of Multi-wavelength Observations of MRK 421 During the ARGO-YBJ and FERMI Common Operation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to γ-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from 2008 August to 2013 February. These long-term observations, extending over an energy range of 18 orders of magnitude, provide a unique chance to study the variable emission of Mrk 421. In particular, due to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low- and high-activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. The X-ray flux is clearly correlated with the TeV γ-ray flux, while the GeV γ-rays only show a partial correlation with the TeV γ-rays. Radio and UV fluxes seem to be weakly or not correlated with the X-ray and γ-ray fluxes. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV γ-ray flares with variable durations (3-58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to a few keV. The TeV γ-ray flux increases up to 0.9-7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV γ-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be related to

  12. MART-1 peptide vaccination plus IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) in patients receiving autologous PBMCs after lymphodepletion: results of a Phase I trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy offers a promising novel approach for the treatment of cancer and both adoptive T-cell transfer and immune modulation lead to regression of advanced melanoma. However, the potential synergy between these two strategies remains unclear. Methods We investigated in 12 patients with advanced stage IV melanoma the effect of multiple MART-1 analog peptide vaccinations with (n = 6) or without (n = 6) IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) as an adjuvant in combination with lymphodepleting chemotherapy and adoptive transfer of autologous PBMCs at day (D) 0 (Trial registration No: NCT00324623). All patients were selected on the basis of ex vivo detectable MART-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses and immunized at D0, 8, 15, 22, 28, 52, and 74 post-reinfusion. Results After immunization, a significant expansion of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells was measured in 83% (n = 5/6) and 17% (n = 1/6) of patients from the IMP321 and control groups, respectively (P < 0.02). Compared to the control group, the mean fold increase of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells in the IMP321 group was respectively >2-, >4- and >6-fold higher at D15, D30 and D60 (P < 0.02). Long-lasting MART-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses were significantly associated with IMP321 (P < 0.02). At the peak of the response, MART-1-specific CD8 T cells contained higher proportions of effector (CCR7− CD45RA+/−) cells in the IMP321 group (P < 0.02) and showed no sign of exhaustion (i.e. were mostly PD1−CD160−TIM3−LAG3−2B4+/−). Moreover, IMP321 was associated with a significantly reduced expansion of regulatory T cells (P < 0.04); consistently, we observed a negative correlation between the relative expansion of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells and of regulatory T cells. Finally, although there were no confirmed responses as per RECIST criteria, a transient, 30-day partial response was observed in a patient from the IMP321 group. Conclusions Vaccination with IMP321 as an

  13. Knee of the cosmic hydrogen and helium spectrum below 1 PeV measured by ARGO-YBJ and a Cherenkov telescope of LHAASO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Guo, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Bai, Y. X.; Chen, M. J.; Feng, S. H.; Gao, B.; Gu, M. H.; Hou, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. L.; Wang, X.; Xiao, G.; Zhang, B. K.; Zhang, S. S.; Zhou, B.; Zuo, X.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum, in particular for individual species of nuclei, is an important tool to investigate cosmic ray production and propagation mechanisms. The determination of the "knees" in the spectra of different species remains one of the main challenges in cosmic ray physics. In fact, experimental results are still conflicting. In this paper we report a measurement of the mixed proton and helium energy spectrum, obtained with the combined data of the ARGO-YBJ experiment and a wide field of view Cherenkov telescope, a prototype of the future LHAASO experiment. By means of a multiparameter technique, we have selected a high-purity proton plus helium sample. The reconstructed energy resolution is found to be about 25% throughout the investigated energy range from 100 TeV to 3 PeV, with a systematic uncertainty in the absolute energy scale of 9.7%. The found energy spectrum can be fitted with a broken power-law function, with a break at the energy Ek =700 ±230 (stat )±70 (sys ) TeV , where the spectral index changes from -2.56 ±0.05 to -3.24 ±0.36 . The statistical significance of the observed spectral break is 4.2 standard deviations.

  14. Reviewing the circulation and mixing of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Pacific using evidence from geochemical tracers and Argo float trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, Helen C.; Sutton, Phil J.; Williams, Michael J. M.; Opdyke, Bradley N.

    2013-03-01

    Evidence from physical and geochemical tracers measured during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) shows that there are four sub-types of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) in the South Pacific. The main formation region of AAIW is the southeast Pacific, where fresh, cold, high oxygen, low nutrient, intermediate waters are created. This AAIW is transported north and mixes with Equatorial Pacific Intermediate Waters (EqPIW), themselves a combination of AAIW and nutrient rich, old North Pacific deep waters. 'Tasman' AAIW found in the Coral and Tasman Seas is more saline and warmer than the main subtropical gyre, and appears to have formed from mixing of AAIW with thermocline waters in the Tasman Gyre. Tasman AAIW leaks out of the Tasman basin to the north of New Zealand and along Chatham Rise, and also in the South Tasman Sea via the Tasman Leakage. Another source of relatively fresh, high oxygen, low nutrient, young AAIW comes directly from the Southern Ocean, flowing into the southwest and central South Pacific Basin, west of the East Pacific Rise. This 'Southern Ocean' (SO) AAIW is most likely a mixture of AAIW formed locally at the Subantarctic Front (SAF), and AAIW formed along the SAF in the southeast Pacific or Indian oceans and transported by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Interpreting physical and geochemical tracers, combined with velocity estimates from Argo floats, and previous research, has allowed us to refine the detailed circulation pattern of AAIW in the South Pacific, especially in the topographically complex southwest Pacific.

  15. A gridded data set of upper-ocean hydrographic properties in the Weddell Gyre obtained by objective mapping of Argo float measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, K. A.; Boebel, O.; Kanzow, T.; Strass, V.; Rohardt, G.; Fahrbach, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Weddell Gyre plays a crucial role in the modification of climate by advecting heat poleward to the Antarctic ice shelves and by regulating the density of water masses that feed the lowest limb of the global ocean overturning circulation. However, our understanding of Weddell Gyre water mass properties is limited to regions of data availability, primarily along the Prime Meridian. The aim of this paper is to provide a data set of the upper water column properties of the entire Weddell Gyre. Objective mapping was applied to Argo float data in order to produce spatially gridded, time-composite maps of temperature and salinity for fixed pressure levels ranging from 50 to 2000 dbar, as well as temperature, salinity and pressure at the level of the sub-surface temperature maximum. While the data are currently too limited to incorporate time into the gridded structure, the data are extensive enough to produce maps of the entire region across three time-composite periods (2001-2005, 2006-2009 and 2010-2013), which can be used to determine how representative conclusions drawn from data collected along general RV transect lines are on a gyre scale perspective. The work presented here represents the technical prerequisite for addressing climatological research questions in forthcoming studies. The data sets are available in netCDF format at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.842876.

  16. Seasonal variations of bio-optical properties and their interrelationships observed by Bio-Argo floats in the subpolar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xiaogang; Claustre, Hervé; Uitz, Julia; Mignot, Alexandre; Poteau, Antoine; Wang, Haili

    2014-10-01

    Based on in situ data sets collected using two Bio-Argo floats deployed in the subpolar North Atlantic from June 2008 to May 2010, the present study focuses on the seasonal variability of three bio-optical properties, i.e., chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chla]), particle backscattering coefficient at 532 nm (bbp(532)), and particle beam attenuation coefficient at 660 nm (cp(660)). In addition, the interrelationships among these properties are examined. Our results show that: (1) [Chla], bbp(532) and cp(660) are largely well coupled with each other in the upper layer, all being minimum in mid-winter (January) and maximum in summer; (2) the backscattering coefficient presents an abrupt increase in late summer in the Icelandic Basin, likely due to a large contribution of coccolithophores following the diatom spring bloom; (3) the intercorrelations between the three bio-optical properties are basically consistent with previous studies; (4) seasonal variation in the of [Chla] to cp(660) ratio exhibits a clear light-dependence, most likely due to the phytoplankton photoacclimation.

  17. Total oxidant scavenging capacity of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) seeds and identification of their polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta B; Lichtenthäler, Ramona; Zimmermann, Benno F; Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Fabricius, Heinz; Marx, Friedhelm; Maia, José G S; Almeida, Ossalin

    2006-06-14

    The antioxidant capacity of methanol and ethanol seed extracts from Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) against the reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radicals was studied with the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay in a modified and automated version. Cold methanol digestion was the most efficient extraction method with respect to the antioxidant capacity. The extracts exhibit good antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, similar to the capacity of the pulp. The antioxidant capacity against peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals is even higher. The main antioxidants identified by HPLC-MS and HPLC-CEAD are five different procyanidins (di- through pentamers); furthermore, protocatechuic acid and epicatechin were identified as minor compounds. Determination of TOSC values of HPLC seed extract fractions indicates that the procyanidins contribute substantially to the overall antioxidant capacity. In addition, however, other compounds that have not yet been identified are responsible for a large part of the observed antioxidant capacity. PMID:16756342

  18. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Dunagan, Stephen; Stevens, Todd; Amils, Ricardo; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Fernandez, David; Hall, James; Lynch, Kennda; Cannon, Howard; Zavaleta, Jhony

    2004-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project, an ASTEP field experiment, is exploring for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River- or Rio Tinto- in southwestern Spain. It is also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The project has three primary objectives: (1) search for and characterize subsurface life at Rio Tinto along with the physical and chemical properties and sustaining energy sources of its environment, (2) perform a high fidelity simulation of a robotic Mars drilling mission to search for life, and (3) demonstrate the drilling, sample handling, and instrument technologies relevant to searching for life on Mars. The simulation of the robotic drilling mission is guided by the results of the aseptic drilling campaign to search for life at Rio Tinto. This paper describes results of the first phase of the aseptic drilling campaign.

  19. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed. PMID:27536551

  20. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona crassiflora Mart. of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability.

    PubMed

    Egydio-Brandão, Anary Priscila Monteiro; Furlan, Claudia Maria; Dos Santos, Déborah Yara Alves Cursino

    2016-08-01

    Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. This work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. A. crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate, and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated with AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in A. crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie. PMID:27286480

  1. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  2. Biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nitrogen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Dilhani, Jayakodi A T; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nitrogen concentrations of 1-fold [28 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN)], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold and plants harvested from a polluted water body. This study was carried out for a period of 4 months at ambient mesophilic temperatures of 30.3-31.3 degrees C using six 3-barreled batch-fed reactors with the innermost barrel (45 L) being used as the digester. There was no marked variation in the C/N ratios of the plants cultured under different nitrogen concentrations. The addition of fresh cow dung having a low C/N of 8 resulted in a significant reduction in the C/N ratios of the water hyacinth substrates. However, gas production commenced 3 days after charging the reactors and gas production rates peaked in 4-7 days. The volatile solids (VS) degradation and gas production patterns manifested that in conventional single-stage batch digesters acidogenesis and methanogenesis of water hyacinth requires a retention time of around 27-30 days and 27-51 days, respectively. Substrates in the f-1 digester (i.e., the digester containing plants grown under 28 TN mg/L) having the lowest VS content of 45.3 g/L with a highest C/N ratio of 16 showed fairly higher gas production rates consistently (10-27 days) with higher gas yields containing around 50-65% of CH4 (27-51 days). Moreover the highest overall VS (81.7%) removal efficiencies were reported from the f-1 digester. Fairly higher gas production rates and gas yields with fairly higher CH4 contents were also noticed from the f-2 digester containing substrates having a C/N of 14 and f-out digester (containing the plants harvested from the polluted water body) having the lowest C/N ratio of 9.7 with a fairly high VS content of 56 g/L. CH4 production was comparatively low in the f-1/8, f-1/4 and f-1/2 digesters having VS rich substrates with varying C/N ratios. We conclude that water hyacinth could be

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 4.5yr obs. of Mrk421 with ARGO-YBJ & Fermi (Bartoli+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; de Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; di Girolamo, T.; di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Z.; Feng, Z.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, H.; Hu, H.; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the 4.5 year multi-wavelength data recorded from 2008 August to 2013 February, a period that includes several large flares of Mrk 421. The Astrophysical Radiation with Ground-based Observatory at YangBaJing (ARGO-YBJ) is an extensive air showers (EAS) detector located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory in Tibet, P.R. China (0.3-10TeV). Fermi-LAT (energy range above 100MeV) began taking science data in 2008 August. The data used in this work have been downloaded through the Fermi science support center. To obtain the Swift/BAT (14-195keV) SED, we downloaded all the available data of Mrk 421 through the HEASARC data archive. The MAXI Gas Slit Camera (GSC) detector, operating in the 2-20keV range, began taking data in 2009 August. The light curves for specific sources are publicly available. The RXTE-ASM data in the 2-12keV range are publicly available. The Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) is a focusing X-ray telescope with an energy range from 0.2 to 10keV. Swift-UVOT observations of Mrk 421, at the three ultraviolet bands (UVW1, UVM2, and UVW2) are also available at the HEASARC data archive. The OVRO is a 40m radio telescope working at 15.0GHz with 3GHz bandwidth. The light curve for Mrk 421 is publicly available. (2 data files).

  4. The Interaction between the Drosophila Secreted Protein Argos and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibits Dimerization of the Receptor and Binding of Secreted Spitz to the Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ming-hao; Sawamoto, Kazunobu; Ito, Mikiko; Okano, Hideyuki

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila Argos (Aos), a secreted protein with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain, has been shown to inhibit the activation of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER). However, it has not been determined whether Aos binds directly to DER or whether regulation of the DER activation occurs through some other mechanism. Using DER-expressing cells (DER/S2) and a recombinant DER extracellular domain-Fc fusion protein (DER-Fc), we have shown that Aos binds directly to the extracellular domain of DER with its carboxyl-terminal region, including the EGF-like domain. Furthermore, Aos can block the binding of secreted Spitz (sSpi), a transforming growth factor α-like ligand of DER, to the extracellular domain of DER. We observed that sSpi stimulates the dimerization of both the soluble DER extracellular domain (sDER) and the intact DER in the DER/S2 cells and that Aos can block the sSpi-induced dimerization of both sDER and intact DER. Moreover, we have shown that, by directly interacting with DER, Aos and SpiAos (a chimeric protein that is composed of the N-terminal region of Spi and the C-terminal region of Aos) inhibit the dimerization and phosphorylation of DER that are induced by DER's overexpression in the absence of sSpi. These results indicate that Aos exerts its inhibitory function through dual molecular mechanisms: by blocking both the receptor dimerization and the binding of activating ligand to the receptor. This is the first description of this novel inhibitory mechanism for receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:10688656

  5. Comparison of 37 months global net radiation flux derived from PICARD-BOS over the same period observations of CERES and ARGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The absolute level of the global net radiation flux (NRF) is fixed at the level of [0.5-1.0] Wm-2 based on the ocean heat content measurements [1]. The space derived global NRF is at the same order of magnitude than the ocean [2]. Considering the atmosphere has a negligible effects on the global NRF determination, the surface global NRF is consistent with the values determined from space [3]. Instead of studying the absolute level of the global NRF, we focus on the interannual variation of global net radiation flux, which were derived from the PICARD-BOS experiment and its comparison with values over the same period but obtained from the NASA-CERES system and inferred from the ocean heat content survey by ARGO network. [1] Allan, Richard P., Chunlei Liu, Norman G. Loeb, Matthew D. Palmer, Malcolm Roberts, Doug Smith, and Pier-Luigi Vidale (2014), Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012, Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (no.15), 5588-5597. [2] Loeb, Norman G., John M. Lyman, Gregory C. Johnson, Richard P. Allan, David R. Doelling, Takmeng Wong, Brian J. Soden, and Graeme L. Stephens (2012), Observed changes in top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and upper-ocean heating consistent within uncertainty, Nature Geoscience, 5 (no.2), 110-113. [3] Wild, Martin, Doris Folini, Maria Z. Hakuba, Christoph Schar, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Seiji Kato, David Rutan, Christof Ammann, Eric F. Wood, and Gert Konig-Langlo (2015), the energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models, Climate Dynamics, 44 (no.11-12), 3393-3429.

  6. Structures of MART-126/27-35Peptide/HLA-A2 Complexes Reveal a Remarkable Disconnect between Antigen Structural Homology and T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Insaidoo, Francis K; Baxter, Tiffany K; Powell, Jr., Daniel J.; Johnson, Laura A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Baker, Brian M

    2008-09-17

    Small structural changes in peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules often result in large changes in immunogenicity, supporting the notion that T cell receptors are exquisitely sensitive to antigen structure. Yet there are striking examples of TCR recognition of structurally dissimilar ligands. The resulting unpredictability of how T cells will respond to different or modified antigens impacts both our understanding of the physical bases for TCR specificity as well as efforts to engineer peptides for immunomodulation. In cancer immunotherapy, epitopes and variants derived from the MART-1/Melan-A protein are widely used as clinical vaccines. Two overlapping epitopes spanning amino acid residues 26 through 35 are of particular interest: numerous clinical studies have been performed using variants of the MART-1 26-35 decamer, although only the 27-35 nonamer has been found on the surface of targeted melanoma cells. Here, we show that the 26-35 and 27-35 peptides adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to HLA-A2. Nevertheless, clonally distinct MART-1{sub 26/27-35}-reactive T cells show broad cross-reactivity towards these ligands. Simultaneously, however, many of the cross-reactive T cells remain unable to recognize anchor-modified variants with very subtle structural differences. These dichotomous observations challenge our thinking about how structural information on unligated peptide/MHC complexes should be best used when addressing questions of TCR specificity. Our findings also indicate that caution is warranted in the design of immunotherapeutics based on the MART-1 26/27-35 epitopes, as neither cross-reactivity nor selectivity is predictable based on the analysis of the structures alone.

  7. A psychology of liberation for Central America: the unfinished work of Ignacio Martín-Baró (1942-1989).

    PubMed

    Gondra, José María

    2013-01-01

    On November 16, 1989 the world was shocked by the news of the assassination of six Jesuits at the campus of the Universidad Centro Americana José Simeón Cañas (UCA) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Among those murdered by government soldiers was Ignacio Martín-Baró, a PhD in social psychology from the University of Chicago who at that time was the Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs and Vice-President of the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP). Drawing on Martín-Baró's published writings and non-published academic papers and correspondence, this article traces the evolution of the Spanish-born Jesuit who became a leading authority among Latin American social psychologists. In particular, it analyzes his project of becoming a clinical psychologist under the influence of psychoanalysis, his critical social psychology aimed to "de-ideologize" the oppressed social classes of El Salvador, and his ultimate project of a psychology of liberation for Latin America. Martín-Baró's work came to a tragic end just when it began to bear fruit, but it stands as a testimony to a lifetime committed to the human values of democracy, social justice and service to society's poorest and most neglected. PMID:23866226

  8. Estimated Seed Shadow Generated by Japanese Martens(Martes melampus): Comparison with Forest-Dwelling Animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Okumura, Tadanobu; Kitahara, Masahiko; Jiang, Zhaowen

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the seed shadow generated by wild Japanese martens (Martes melampus), we combined data on their ranging behavior from the northern foot of Mt. Fuji, central Japan (seven males and three females) with data on gut passage time obtained from martens in Toyama Municipal Family Park Zoo (three males and one female). The movement distances varied, and mean distances for 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 h intervals were 152.4, 734.7, and 1,162.4 m, respectively, with no significant sex difference. The mean gut passage time of ingested seeds was 7.4 h (range: 0.6-51.7 h), and two-thirds were defecated within 12 h. Seeds of fleshy fruits was frequently transported to 501-1,000 m, and 20% of ingested seeds were transported > 1,000 m from feeding sites. We found positive correlations between body size and home range of the animals in Japan and their seed dispersal distances. We conclude that Japanese martens are medium-range dispersers that can transport seeds from the source to open habitats conducive for germination and/or growth, partly due to scent marking behaviors. PMID:27498794

  9. MLANA/MART1 and SILV/PMEL17/GP100 Are Transcriptionally Regulated by MITF in Melanocytes and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jinyan; Miller, Arlo J.; Widlund, Hans R.; Horstmann, Martin A.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Fisher, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The clinically important melanoma diagnostic antibodies HMB-45, melan-A, and MITF (D5) recognize gene products of the melanocyte-lineage genes SILV/PMEL17/GP100, MLANA/MART1, and MITF, respectively. MITF encodes a transcription factor that is essential for normal melanocyte development and appears to regulate expression of several pigmentation genes. In this report, the possibility was examined that MITF might additionally regulate expression of the SILV and MLANA genes. Both genes contain conserved MITF consensus DNA sequences that were bound by MITF in vitro and in vivo, based on electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin-immunoprecipitation. In addition, MITF regulated their promoter/enhancer regions in reporter assays, and up- or down-regulation of MITF produced corresponding modulation of endogenous SILV and MLANA in melanoma cells. Expression patterns were compared with these factors in a series of melanoma cell lines whose mutational status of the proto-oncogene BRAF was also known. SILV and MLANA expression correlated with MITF, while no clear correlation was seen relative to BRAF mutation. Finally, mRNA expression array analysis of primary human melanomas demonstrated a tight correlation in their expression levels in clinical tumor specimens. Collectively, this study links three important melanoma antigens into a common transcriptional pathway regulated by MITF. PMID:12819038

  10. Antioxidant activity and characterization of phenolic compounds from bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) fruit by HPLC-DAD-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Abadio Finco, Fernanda D B; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Tseng, Wen-Hsin; Böser, Sabrina; Graeve, Lutz

    2012-08-01

    The phytochemicals in fruits have been shown to be major bioactive compounds with regard to health benefits. Bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) is a native palm fruit from the Brazilian savannah and Amazon rainforest that plays an important role in the diet of rural communities and is also a source of income for poor people. This paper reports the characterization and analyses of phenolics from bacaba fruit extract. The total phenolic content of bacaba fruit amounted to 1759.27 ± 1.01 mg GAE/100 g, the flavonoid content was 1134.32 ± 0.03 mg CTE/100 g, and the anthocyanin content was 34.69 ± 0.00 mg cyn-3-glc/100 g. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through different assays [ORAC, FRAP, DPPH, TEAC, and cellular antioxidant assay (CAA) assays] and revealed a significant antioxidant capacity for bacaba in comparison to the data available in the literature. The assignment of the phenolic compounds using HPLC-DAD-MS(n) was based on the evaluation of their UV-vis absorption maxima (λ(max)) and mass spectral analyses, and 14 compounds were tentatively identified. The results suggest that bacaba fruits are a promising source of phenolics. PMID:22788720

  11. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) modulates oxidative stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans by direct and indirect mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Larissa de Freitas; Silva, David Nunes; Boasquivis, Patrícia Ferreira; Paiva, Franciny Aparecida; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Martins, Talita Alves Faria; de Jesus Torres, Álvaro Gustavo; de Paula, Igor Thadeu Borges Raposo; Caneschi, Washington Luiz; Jacolot, Philippe; Grossin, Nicolas; Tessier, Frederic J; Boulanger, Eric; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Oliveira, Riva de Paula

    2014-01-01

    Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Despite its claimed pharmacological and nutraceutical value, studies regarding the effects of açaí in vivo are limited. In this study, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant properties of açaí on an organismal level and to examine its mechanism of action. Supplementation with açaí aqueous extract (AAE) increased both oxidative and osmotic stress resistance independently of any effect on reproduction and development. AAE suppressed bacterial growth, but this antimicrobial property did not influence stress resistance. AAE-increased stress resistance was correlated with reduced ROS production, the prevention of sulfhydryl (SH) level reduction and gcs-1 activation under oxidative stress conditions. Our mechanistic studies indicated that AAE promotes oxidative stress resistance by acting through DAF-16 and the osmotic stress response pathway OSR-1/UNC-43/SEK-1. Finally, AAE increased polyglutamine protein aggregation and decreased proteasome activity. Our findings suggest that natural compounds available in AAE can improve the antioxidant status of a whole organism under certain conditions by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24594796

  12. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Modulates Oxidative Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Larissa de Freitas; Silva, David Nunes; Boasquivis, Patrícia Ferreira; Paiva, Franciny Aparecida; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Martins, Talita Alves Faria; de Jesus Torres, Álvaro Gustavo; de Paula, Igor Thadeu Borges Raposo; Caneschi, Washington Luiz; Jacolot, Philippe; Grossin, Nicolas; Tessier, Frederic J.; Boulanger, Eric; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; de Paula Oliveira, Riva

    2014-01-01

    Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Despite its claimed pharmacological and nutraceutical value, studies regarding the effects of açaí in vivo are limited. In this study, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant properties of açaí on an organismal level and to examine its mechanism of action. Supplementation with açaí aqueous extract (AAE) increased both oxidative and osmotic stress resistance independently of any effect on reproduction and development. AAE suppressed bacterial growth, but this antimicrobial property did not influence stress resistance. AAE-increased stress resistance was correlated with reduced ROS production, the prevention of sulfhydryl (SH) level reduction and gcs-1 activation under oxidative stress conditions. Our mechanistic studies indicated that AAE promotes oxidative stress resistance by acting through DAF-16 and the osmotic stress response pathway OSR-1/UNC-43/SEK-1. Finally, AAE increased polyglutamine protein aggregation and decreased proteasome activity. Our findings suggest that natural compounds available in AAE can improve the antioxidant status of a whole organism under certain conditions by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24594796

  13. Açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) berry extract exerts neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid exposure in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daphne Yiu San; Musgrave, Ian Francis; Harvey, Benjamin Scott; Smid, Scott Darryl

    2013-11-27

    The native South American palm açaí berry (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) has high polyphenolic and antioxidant levels. This study examined whether açaí berry extract afforded protection against β-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated loss of cell viability and oxidative stress associated with anti-fibrillar effects. PC12 cells were exposed to either Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or tert butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), alone or in the presence of açaí extract (0.5-50μg/ml). Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine effects of açaí extract on Aβ1-42 fibril morphology and compared to açaí phenolics gallic acid, cyanidin rutinoside and cyanidin glucoside. Exposure to Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or t-BHP decreased PC12 cell viability. Pretreatment with açaí extract significantly improved cell viability following Aβ1-42 exposure, however Aβ25-35 or t-BHP-mediated viability loss was unaltered. Açaí extract inhibited ThT fluorescence and disrupted Aβ1-42 fibril and aggregate morphology. In comparison with other phenolics, açaí was most effective at inhibiting Aβ1-42 aggregation. Inhibition of β-amyloid aggregation may underlie a neuroprotective effect of açaí. PMID:24161892

  14. Genotoxicity investigation of araticum(Annona crassiflora Mart., 1841, Annonaceae) using SOS-Inductest and Ames test.

    PubMed

    Vilar, J B; Ferri, P H; Chen-Chen, L

    2011-02-01

    Although the use of medicinal plants or natural products has increased in recent decades all over the world, little information is available on their potential risk to health. Annona crassiflora Mart., a plant commonly known as araticum in Brazil, has been widely used in folk medicine for a long time since its seeds and leaves are often utilised in the treatment of cancer, snake bites, and venereal diseases, its fruits are consumed as tonic and astringent, and its bark powder has anti-fungal and anti-rheumatic properties. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic properties induced by the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves, we performed the prophage λ induction (Inductest) and bacterial mutagenicity assays. We used Escherichia coli WP2s(λ) and RJF013 strains in the lysogenic induction test, whereas the mutagenic studies were carried out using Salmonella typhimurium histidine auxotroph strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. Each experiment was performed three times in duplicate and included positive and negative controls. No statistically significant (p > 0.05) positive results were obtained for any of the strains tested, which suggests that the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves did not exhibit direct mechanisms of genotoxicity or mutagenicity that could be detected by the tests used in the present work. PMID:21437418

  15. Serological analysis of Melan-A(MART-1), a melanocyte-specific protein homogeneously expressed in human melanomas.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y T; Stockert, E; Jungbluth, A; Tsang, S; Coplan, K A; Scanlan, M J; Old, L J

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural identification of human melanoma antigens recognized by autologous cytotoxic T cells has led to the recognition of a new melanocyte differentiation antigen, Melan-A(MART-1). To determine the properties of the Melan-A gene product, Melan-A recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and used to generate mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Two prototype mAbs, A103 and A355, were selected for detailed study. Immunoblotting results with A103 showed a 20-22-kDa doublet In Melan-A mRNA positive melanoma cell lines and no reactivity with Melan-A mRNA-negative cell lines. A355, in addition to the 20-22-kDa doublet, recognized several other protein species in Melan-A mRNA-positive cell lines. Immunocytochemical assays on cultured melanoma cells showed specific and uniform cytoplasmic staining in Melan-A mRNA-positive cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human tissues with both mAbs showed staining of adult melanocytes and no reactivity with the other normal tissues tested. Analysis of 21 melanoma specimens showed homogenous staining of tumor cell cytoplasm in 16 of 17 Melan-A mRNA-positive cases and no reactivity with the three Melan-A mRNA-negative cases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8650193

  16. Removal of aluminium by constructed wetlands with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2007-02-01

    This article reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions for Al rich wastewaters in batch type constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems). This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1 week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth (average height of 20 +/- 2 cm) in 590 L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 2-fold [56 and 15.4 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 1-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 5.62 Al mg/L. A control set-up of hyacinths comprising only Al with no nutrients was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to identify the different Al removal mechanisms from the wastewaters. Chemical precipitation of Al(OH)3 was a dominant contribution to Al removal at the beginning of the study, whereas adsorption of Al3+ to sediments was observed to be a predominant Al removal mechanism as the study progressed. Phytoremediation mainly due to rhizofiltration was also an important mechanism of Al removal especially during the first 4 weeks of the study in almost all the set-ups. However, chemical precipitation and sediment adsorption of Al3+ was a dominant contribution to Al removal in comparison with phytoremediation. Plants cultured in the control set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 63% during the period of the 4th week. A similar scenario was evident in the 1/8-fold set-up. Hence we conclude that water hyacinth grown under lower nutritional conditions are more ideal to commence a batch type constructed wetland treating Al rich wastewaters with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 4 weeks, after which a complete harvesting is recommended. PMID:17182390

  17. Dichloromethane-methanol extract from Borassus aethiopumn mart. (Arecaceae) induces apoptosis of human colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Sakandé, J; Rouet-benzineb, P; Devaud, H; Nikiema, J B; Lompo, M; Nacoulma, O G; Guissou, I P; Bado, A

    2011-05-15

    Borassus aetihiopum MART (Arecaceae) is a plant used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases (bronchitis, laryngitis, antiseptic). In particular, their male inflorcscences were reported to exhibit cicatrizing, antiseptic and fungicidal properties. In the present study, the biological activity of E2F2, an apolar extract from Borassus aethiopum male inflorescence was investigated on colon cancer HT29 cells. Phytochemical screening was carried according to methodology for chemical analysis for vegetable drugs. Cells proliferation was determined by the MTT assay and cells cycle distribution was analysed by using laser flow cytometer (Beckman coulter). The cytoskeleton organisation was examined under a laser scanning confocal microscope (Zess). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of E2F2 extract revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes and saponosids. E2F2 extract (1 microg and 100 microg mL(-1)) significantly inhibited cell proliferation by blocking cell population in G0/G1 phase. Flow Cytometric analysis of E2F2-treated HT29 cells showed that hypoploïd cell population (sub G1 phase) increased with processing time exposures. Immunofluorescence confocal analysis revealed a disrupt actin microfilaments network in E2F2 treated-cells with a significant reduction in actin stress fibres and appearance of a random, non-oriented distribution of focal adhesion sites. These data indicate that E2F2 extract has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms of action of E2F2 extract. PMID:22097093

  18. Assessment of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective effects of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. stem bark fractions in mice.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, C C; Silva, C R; Menezes, A C S; Pérez, C N; Chen-Chen, L

    2013-01-01

    Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don., popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari", "cascudo", and "saputá", is a shrub of the Celastraceae family that is unique to the Brazilian Cerrado region. In folk medicine, this plant has been mainly used to treat skin cancer and gastric ulcers. In the present study, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic extracts) were evaluated using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Our results showed that none of the S. crassifolia fractions led to a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) (P > 0.05), suggesting the absence of genotoxicity. In the antigenotoxicity assessment, a significant decrease in the MNPCE frequency was observed in all fractions of this plant (P < 0.05), demonstrating its protective action against genotoxicity induced by mitomycin C (MMC), which was used as the positive control. Only the hexane fraction of S. crassifolia significantly decreased the poly- and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE) in all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating its cytotoxic activity. In association with MMC, both ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic fractions significantly increased the PCE/NCE ratio in almost all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating the protective action of S. crassifolia against the cytotoxic effect of the positive control. In contrast, the hexane fraction presented a significant decrease in the PCE/NCE ratio in all treatments (P < 0.05), demonstrating an increase in this plant's cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23884760

  19. Evidence for an arginine exporter encoded by yggA (argO) that is regulated by the LysR-type transcriptional regulator ArgP in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nandineni, Madhusudan R; Gowrishankar, J

    2004-06-01

    The anonymous open reading frame yggA of Escherichia coli was identified in this study as a gene that is under the transcriptional control of argP (previously called iciA), which encodes a LysR-type transcriptional regulator protein. Strains with null mutations in either yggA or argP were supersensitive to the arginine analog canavanine, and yggA-lac expression in vivo exhibited argP(+)-dependent induction by arginine. Lysine supplementation phenocopied the argP null mutation in that it virtually abolished yggA expression, even in the argP+ strain. The dipeptides arginylalanine and lysylalanine behaved much like arginine and lysine, respectively, to induce and to turn off yggA transcription. Dominant missense mutations in argP (argPd) that conferred canavanine resistance and rendered yggA-lac expression constitutive were obtained. The protein deduced to be encoded by yggA shares similarity with a basic amino acid exporter (LysE) of Corynebacterium glutamicum, and we obtained evidence for increased arginine efflux from E. coli strains with either the argPd mutation or multicopy yggA+. The null yggA mutation abolished the increased arginine efflux from the argPd strain. Our results suggest that yggA encodes an ArgP-regulated arginine exporter, and we have accordingly renamed it argO (for "arginine outward transport"). We propose that the physiological function of argO may be either to prevent the accumulation to toxic levels of canavanine (which is a plant-derived antimetabolite) or arginine or to maintain an appropriate balance between the intracellular lysine and arginine concentrations. PMID:15150242

  20. Assimilation of ARGO temperature profile, sea surface temperature and altimetric satellite data into an eddy permitting primitive equation model of the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yajing; Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Candille, Guillem; Brankart, Jean-Michel; Brasseur, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    limitation and the model error space representation. The daily SST data correspond to the gathered and processed AVHRR observations. The altimetric data consists of SSH satellite tracks (Jason-1), generated from the sum of the sea level anomaly (SLA) and a time invariant dynamic topography computed from the model. The temperature profiles are the ARGO profiles. The assimilation experiment is performed every 10 days. The square root analysis scheme of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is taken as assimilation method. Incremental analysis update (IAU) scheme is applied in order to reduce spurious oscillation due to model state correction. The estimation vector is made up of the temperature and the salinity. The forcing variables are removed from the state vector, based on the analyse of correlation between the observed ocean state variables and the forcing variables in 10 days. The results of the assimilation are analysed and assessed by means of three metrics: 1) The RMS misfit between the observations (SSH, SST, temperature profile) and the analyses obtained from the assimilation sequence. 2) The assessment of unobserved quantities such as the wind velocities by comparison with our prior knowledge. 3) The validation with independent data (Envisat altimetric data for SSH, Mercator reanalysis for SST).

  1. Determining the Shape of the Orbit of Mars in the High School. (Spanish Title: Determinación de la Forma de la Órbita de Marte en la Escuela Secundaria.) Determinando a Forma da Órbita de Marte no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Carlos Maximiliano; Rossini Goulart, Andressa

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, in order to supply the lacks of practical activities related to the content of Kepler's Laws in high school physics textbooks, we present a practical activity to determine the shape of the orbit of Mars. In this activity the student can experience the discovery the shape of the orbit of Mars in a way similar to that realized by Johannes Kepler combining the physical concepts with geometry. We applied the activity to eighteen high school teachers participating in a Postgraduate Course in Science Education. After two hours of work the group obtained the shape of the orbit of Mars and estimated its orbital parameters with a relative error less than 14%. En el presente trabajo y con el objetivo de reducir la escasez de actividades prácticas relacionadas con el contenido de las leyes de Kepler en libros de texto de física de la escuela secundaria, se presenta una actividad práctica para determinar la forma de la órbita de Marte. En esta actividad el estudiante puede vivir la experiencia de descubrir la forma de la órbita de Marte de una manera similar a la realizada por Johannes Kepler combinando los conceptos físicos con la geometría. Aplicamos la actividad a dieciocho maestros de escuelas secundarias en un Curso de Especialización en Enseñanza de las Ciencias. Después de dos horas de trabajo el grupo obtuvo la forma de la órbita de Marte com error inferior al 14% en los parámetros orbitales. No presente trabalho, visando suprir a deficiência de atividades práticas relacionadas ao conteúdo de Leis de Kepler nos livros-textos de Física do 1º ano do Ensino Médio, apresentamos uma atividade prática de determinação da órbita de Marte. O aluno, combinando conceitos físicos com a geometria poderá vivenciar a experiência da descoberta da forma da órbita de Marte de modo similar ao realizado por Johannes Kepler. Aplicamos a metodologia proposta junto a dezoito professores do Curso de Especialização em Educação em Ciências e

  2. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  3. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the outcome of a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey carried out in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), during May and June of 2003. The MARTE Peña de Hierro field area is located between the towns of Rio Tinto and Nerva in the Andalucia region of Spain. It is about one hour drive West of the city of Sevilla, and also about one hour drive North of Huelva. The high concentration of dissolved iron (and smaller amounts of other metals) in the very acidic water in the Rio Tinto area gives the water its characteristic wine red color, and also means that the water is highly conductive, and such an acidic and conductive fluid is highly suited for exploration by electromagnetic methods. This naturally acidic environment is maintained by bacteria in the groundwater and it is these bacteria that are the main focus of the MARTE project overall, and of this supporting geophysical work. It is the goal of this study to be able to map the subsurface extent of the high conductivity (low resistivity) levels, and thus by proxy the subsurface extent of the acidic groundwater and the bacteria populations. In so doing, the viability of using electromagnetic methods for mapping these subsurface metal-rich water bodies is also examined and demonstrated, and the geophysical data will serve to support drilling efforts. The purpose of this field survey was an initial effort to map certain conductive features in the field area, in support of the drilling operations that are central to the MARTE project. These conductive features include the primary target of exploration for MARTE, the very conductive acidic groundwater in the area (which is extremely rich in metals). Other conductive features include the pyretic ore bodies in the area, as well as extensive mine tailings piles.

  4. Teaching Money "$marts" Smarts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Economics can be a tough subject, so good teachers find creative ways to teach it. However, only a few economic literacy programs promote "an economic way of thinking" and teach students how to analyze relevant economic problems, says Burton Folsom. Having examined several economic education programs, the author has found that many programs are…

  5. Health Impact Assessments for Environmental Restoration: The Case of Caño Martín Peña

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Perry; Agu, Damiris; Rodríguez, Lyvia; Avilés, Katia

    2014-01-01

    Background Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a methodology for predicting health impacts of a proposed policy or plan. A proposed environmental restoration and development plan presented an opportunity for an HIA in an environmental justice community surrounding the Martín Peña channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The HIA focused on the dredging of the channel, debris removal, road, sewer, and storm water infrastructure improvements, housing demolition, and resident relocation. Objective The HIA sought to determine the potential health impacts of the proposed plan on the community to inform the funding decision by the Puerto Rican legislature. As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, a secondary objective was to build HIA capacity in Puerto Rico. Methods This HIA used a community training, literature reviews, existing local studies, focus groups, interviews, and disease surveillance data to assess baseline health, determine expected impacts, and build capacity. Findings The Martín Peña community is experiencing deteriorating environmental conditions. Flooding and negative environmental exposures, such as mold, limits to physical activity, stress, chemical toxicants, pathogenic bacteria, and pests, are worsening. The higher rates of diseases, such as asthma and diarrhea, in the community compared to elsewhere in Puerto Rico appear to be largely attributable to these factors. Overall, the proposed plan is expected to improve many of these health disparities but the successful implementation depends on continued community acceptance and participation, particularly with the relocation process. Recommendations are for full financing and several mitigation efforts to avoid negative and preserve beneficial health consequences. Conclusions As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, this assessment provided specific recommendations to benefit the health of the community affected by an environmental restoration and development plan and also capacity building for a larger audience in Puerto

  6. Reply to Comment by Domínguez-Villar on "Land surface temperature changes in Northern Iberia since 4000 yr BP, based in δ13C of speleothems" (Martín-Chivelet et al., 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Muñoz-García, M. Belén; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Turrero, María J.; Ortega, Ana I.

    2013-02-01

    We have considered the additional data that Domínguez-Villar (this issue) has provided, as well as his criticisms of the interpretations of Martín-Chivelet et al. (2011). We argue that with or without the additional data, our original interpretations are the most likely interpretations, on the basis of Ockham's Razor. Those of Domínguez-Villar violate Ockham's Razor, and in the final analysis do not offer an alternative explanation for the Martín-Chivelet et al. (2011) and Domínguez-Villar (this issue) data. In particular, all of the 230Th ages (reported by both Martín-Chivelet et al. (2011) and Domínguez-Villar (this issue)) are in stratigraphic order, within quoted errors, so that our original chronology is robust, with no reason to invoke diagenetic processes. Given this chronology, the empirical relationship between δ13C and temperature also hold. Finally, our original mechanism for the cause of this relationship (prior calcite precipitation) has been invoked in a number of other studies to explain carbon isotopic variations and remains a perfectly plausible explanation for the observations at the studied caves.

  7. Trindade and Martı´n Vaz Islands, South Atlantic: Isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) and trace element constraints on plume related magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebel, W.; Becchio, R.; Volker, F.; Hansen, M. A. F.; Viramonte, J.; Trumbull, R. B.; Haase, G.; Zimmer, M.

    2000-05-01

    Highly alkaline silica undersaturated lavas erupted at Trindade Island over its 5 Ma geologic history and comprise primitive nephelinites-basanites and more evolved nepheline-bearing phonolitic rocks. Nephelinites-basanites and phonolitic rocks are thought to be genetically related via crystal fractionation, as indicated by the very limited range in Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, systematically increasing contents of incompatible trace elements from primitive to evolved rock types, and similar variation in chemical composition of the major phenocryst phases (clinopyroxene, amphibole, feldspar) in all rock types. Tb/Yb ratios of the primitive lavas are high (2.6-4.1) and silica contents are low (39.8-42.9 wt.% SiO 2), indicating that the melts were generated at deep mantle depths (˜150 km), within the garnet lherzolite stability field. Non-radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.70377-0.70421) and radiogenic 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.512752-0.512837) values show that the Trindade and Martı´n Vaz rocks are derived from moderately depleted sources relative to bulk-earth. The lavas have moderate radiogenic 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios of 19.00-19.33, 207Pb/ 204Pb of 15.56-15.60, and 208Pb/ 204Pb of 38.89-39.34; they plot close to the Northern Hemisphere Reference Lines (NHRL). The narrow range of Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions in the Trindade and Martı´n Vaz lavas suggests either that the source region was homogeneous (similar to the common mantle components FOZO and "C"), or that melts from a heterogeneous three-component mantle source, involving HIMU, enriched mantle EM I, and depleted N-type MORB, were well mixed before eruption. Late Cretaceous to Present volcanism ranging from interior Brazil towards Trindade is thought to record the passage of the South American plate over the Trindade mantle plume (e.g., O'Connor and Duncan, 1990). Comparison with published data from other mafic rocks along the suggested plume track shows that Trindade isotopic compositions match those of transitional

  8. RIO Tinto Faulted Volcanosedimentary Deposits as Analog Habitats for Extant Subsurface Biospheres on Mars: A Synthesis of the MARTE Drilling Project Geobiology Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rodriquez, N.; Davila, F.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Stoker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemistry and mineralogy on Mars surface characterized by the MER Opportunity Rover suggest that early Mars hosted acidic environments in the Meridiani Planum region [1, 2]. Such extreme paleoenvironments have been suggested to be a regional expression of the global Mars geological cycle that induced acidic conditions by sulfur complexation and iron buffering of aqueous solutions [3]. Under these assumptions, underground reservoirs of acidic brines and, thereby, putative acidic cryptobiospheres, may be expected. The MARTE project [4, 5] has performed a drilling campaign to search for acidic and anaerobic biospheres in R o Tinto basement [6] that may be analogs of these hypothetical communities occurring in cryptic habitats of Mars. This Rio Tinto geological region is characterized by the occurrence of huge metallic deposits of iron sulfides [7]. Late intensive diagenesis of rocks driven by a compressive regimen [8] largely reduced the porosity of rocks and induced a cortical thickening through thrusting and inverse faulting and folding. Such structures play an essential role in transporting and storing water underground as any other aquifers do in the Earth. Once the underground water reservoirs of the Ro Tinto basement contact the hydrothermal pyrite deposits, acidic brines are produced by the release of sulfates and iron through the oxidation of sulfides [9].

  9. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) prevents β-amyloid aggregation, generation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs), and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity on human neuronal-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24840232

  10. Patch occupancy by stone martens Martes foina in fragmented landscapes of central Spain: the role of fragment size, isolation and habitat structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgós, Emilio; García, Francisco J.

    2002-08-01

    We studied the response to forest fragmentation of a generalist carnivore, the stone marten Martes foina, in highly fragmented landscapes of central Spain. Five different areas ( n = 178 fragments) in central Spain were surveyed. This paper analyses the relationship between fragment use by martens (measured through scat presence) and a series of variables related to the size, isolation and vegetation structure of each fragment by means of stepwise logistic regression. Size and isolation have an important effect on stone marten presence in fragments. Our results were similar to those found for other marten species in landscapes with coarse-grain fragmentation, but they contrast with other studies conducted in landscapes with fine-grain fragmentation. These data suggested that in highly fragmented landscapes, size and isolation factors resulting from forest fragmentation were responsible for determining marten responses, irrespective of their habitat generalism. Management policies for the stone marten in highly fragmented scenarios require the maintenance of large forests near continuous forest tracts in mountains or riparian woodlands.

  11. The Subsurface Geology of Río Tinto: Material Examined During a Simulated Mars Drilling Mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Bell Johnson, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undis closed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  12. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: Objectives, Approach, and Results of a Simulated Mission to Search for Life in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Cannon, Howard N.; Dunagan, Stephen E.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Glass, Brian J.; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  13. Mechanisms of manganese removal from wastewaters in constructed wetlands comprising water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, Ranil K A; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Manatunge, Jagath M A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2009-02-01

    This article discusses key mechanisms involved in removing 1 mg/L Mn from synthetic wastewaters in constructed wetlands comprising water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient levels of 1-fold (28 mg/L and 7.7 mg/L of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively), 2-fold, 1/4-fold, and 1/8-fold. A mass balance was carried out to evaluate the key removal mechanisms. Phytoremediation mainly due to phytoextraction substantially contributed to manganese removal. However, chemical precipitation was absent, suggesting that manganese has a higher solubility in the given average pH (6.2 to 7.1) conditions in constructed wetlands. Bacterial mediated immobilization mechanisms also did not contribute to manganese removal. Sediments constituted a minor sink to manganese, implying that manganese has a poor adsorption potential. Constructed wetlands comprising water hyacinth are effective at removing manganese from wastewaters despite the fact that the plants are grown under higher or lower nutrient conditions. PMID:19323287

  14. Effects of clarification on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Leiliane Teles; de Freitas Cabral, Marília; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcântara; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen Luiza

    2014-11-01

    The effects of a clarifying process using pectinases and chitosan on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice were evaluated. Clarification of acaí pulp resulted (P ≤ 0.05) in a 50 % loss of total anthocyanin (4.2730 mg/100 mL) and 29 % reduction in antioxidant capacity (33.60 μM FeSO4/g). A high association (P ≤ 0.05) was found between the decrease of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin loss. The use of pectinases associated with chitosan as an aid for clarification of açaí juice proved to be highly effective and resulted in a clear juice with a brighter purple to red color that was free of lipids, insoluble solids, and others substances that cause hazes. The obtained clarified açaí juice is a genuinely high-value anthocyanin-rich product that could be used as colorant and functional ingredient to fruit juices and soft drinks. PMID:26396323

  15. Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Peixoto, Jacqueline; Moura, Mirian Ribeiro Leite; Cunha, Felipe Amorim; Lollo, Pablo Christiano B; Monteiro, Walace David; Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras

    2015-07-01

    The study analyzed the effect of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage (AB) on muscle and oxidative stress markers, cardiorespiratory responses, perceived exertion, and time-to-exhaustion during maximal treadmill running. The beverage was developed as an ergogenic aid for athletes and contained 27.6 mg of anthocyanins per dose. Fourteen athletes performed 3 exercise tests: a ramp-incremental maximal exercise test and 2 maximal exercise bouts performed in 2 conditions (AB and without AB (control)) at 90% maximal oxygen uptake. Blood was collected at baseline and after maximal exercise in both conditions to determine biomarkers. AB increased time to exhaustion during short-term high-intensity exercise (mean difference: 69 s, 95% confidence interval = -296 s to 159 s, t = 2.2, p = 0.045), attenuating the metabolic stress induced by exercise (p < 0.05). AB also reduced perceived exertion and enhanced cardiorespiratory responses (p < 0.05). The AB may be a useful and practical ergogenic aid to enhance performance during high-intensity training. PMID:26140415

  16. Metal binding by humic acids isolated from water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae) in the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ghabbour, Elham A; Davies, Geoffrey; Lam, Yam-Yuen; Vozzella, Marcy E

    2004-10-01

    Humic acids (HAs) are animal and plant decay products that confer water retention, metal and organic solute binding functions and texture/workability in soils. HAs assist plant nutrition with minimal run-off pollution. Recent isolation of HAs from several live plants prompted us to investigate the HA content of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae), a delicately flowered plant from Amazonian South America that has invaded temperate lakes, rivers and waterways with devastating economic effects. Hyacinth thrives in nutrient-rich and polluted waters. It has a high affinity for metals and is used for phytoremediation. In this work, HAs isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of live water hyacinth plants from the Nile Delta, Egypt were identified by chemical and spectral analysis and by comparison with authentic soil and plant derived HAs. Similar carbohydrate and amino acid distributions and tight metal binding capacities of the HAs and their respective plant components suggest that the presence of HAs in plants is related to their metal binding properties. PMID:15261408

  17. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions. PMID:19105757

  18. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding. PMID:19032053

  19. Crystal Structures of HLA-A*0201 Complexed with Melan-A/MART-1[subscript 26(27L)-35] Peptidomimetics Reveal Conformational Heterogeneity and Highlight Degeneracy of T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Douat-Casassus, Celine; Borbulevych, Oleg; Tarbe, Marion; Gervois, Nadine; Jotereau, Francine; Baker, Brian M.; Quideau, Stphane

    2010-10-07

    There is growing interest in using tumor associated antigens presented by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) proteins as cancer vaccines. As native peptides are poorly stable in biological fluids, researchers have sought to engineer synthetic peptidomimetics with greater biostability. Here, we demonstrate that antigenic peptidomimetics of the Melan-A/MART-1{sub 26(27L)-35} melanoma antigen adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to MHC-I, highlighting the degeneracy of T cell recognition and revealing the challenges associated with mimicking native peptide conformation.

  20. Molecular characterization of the endophytic fungal community associated with Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) (Pontederiaceae) native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, T T; Orlandelli, R C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi live in the interior of healthy plants without causing them any damage. These fungi are of biotechnological interest; they may be used in the biological control of pests and plant diseases, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) belong to the Pontederiaceae family. The first is a fixed-floating species and the second is a free-floating species that is known for its phytoremediation potential. The fungal endophytes associated with the leaves of E. azurea and E. crassipes, native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil, were isolated. The sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA was performed and the nucleotide sequences obtained were compared with those available in the GenBank database for the molecular identification of the isolates. The construction of phylogenetic trees was performed using the MEGA5 software. The results showed that high colonization frequencies were obtained from the 610 foliar fragments sampled from each plant: 87.86% for E. azurea and 88.85% for E. crassipes. At the genus level, it was possible to identify 19 fungal endophytes belonging to the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Cercospora, Diaporthe, Gibberella, Pestalotiopsis, Plectosphaerella, Phoma, and Saccharicola. Two other endophytes were identified at the species level (Microsphaeropsis arundinis). Genera Bipolaris, Cercospora, Microsphaeropsis, and Phoma were found as endophytes in the two macrophytes and the other genera were host-specific, being isolated from only one macrophyte, proving that there is a small difference in the endophytic diversity of the two Eichhornia species analyzed. PMID:25966267

  1. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis protects human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Diêgo Madureira; Barreto, George; Galeano, Pablo; Romero, Juan Ignacio; Holubiec, Mariana Inés; Badorrey, Maria Sol; Capani, Francisco; Alvarez, Lisandro Diego Giraldez

    2011-09-01

    Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis, commonly known as Guaraná, is a Brazilian plant frequently cited for its antioxidant properties and different pharmacological activities on the central nervous system. The potential beneficial uses of Guaraná in neurodegenerative disorders, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathogenesis of which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate if an extract of commercial powdered seeds of Guaraná could protect human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Two concentration of Guaraná dimethylsulfoxide extract (0.312 and 0.625 mg/mL) were added to SH-SY5Y cells treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h, and the cytoprotective effects were assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and analyzing nuclear integrity with Hoechst33258 stain. Results showed that the addition of Guaraná extract significantly increased the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with rotenone, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, LDH levels were significantly reduced by addition of 0.312 mg/mL of Guaraná, but unexpectedly, no changes were observed with the higher concentration. Moreover, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were significantly reduced by addition of any of both concentrations of the extract. The results obtained in this work could provide relevant information about the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD and precede in vivo experiments. Further studies are needed to investigate which active constituent is responsible for the cytoprotective effect produced by Paullinia cupana. PMID:21081703

  2. Euterpe oleracea Mart.-derived polyphenols prevent endothelial dysfunction and vascular structural changes in renovascular hypertensive rats: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Oliveira, Paola Raquel Braz; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; de Cavalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; da Silva, Andréa Fernandes Emiliano; Dos Santos Valença, Samuel; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; da Cunha Sousa, Pergentino José; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro

    2012-12-01

    The consumption of polyphenol-rich foods is associated with a decreased risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Previously, we have demonstrated that the stone of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) from the Amazon region exerts vasodilator and antioxidant actions. This study examined the effect of açaí stone extract (ASE) on the vascular functional and structural changes and oxidative stress associated with the two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) renovascular hypertension. 2K-1C and sham-operated rats were treated with ASE 200 mg/kg/day (or vehicle) for 40 days. Blood pressure was measured by tail plethysmography, and the vascular reactivity was evaluated in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed. Mesenteric protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD1 and SOD2), metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 was assessed by Western blot; oxidative damage and antioxidant activity by spectrophotometry; MMP-2 levels by gelatin zymography; and structural changes by histological analysis. ASE prevented 2K-1C hypertension and the reduction of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. The increased levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyl protein were reduced by ASE. SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and the expressions of SOD1 and SOD2, eNOS, and TIMP-1 were decreased in 2K-1C rats and recovered by ASE. In 2K-1C rats, ASE prevented vascular remodeling and the increased expression/levels of MMP-2. These findings indicate that ASE produces antihypertensive effect and prevents the endothelial dysfunction and vascular structural changes in 2K-1C hypertension, probably through mechanisms involving antioxidant effects, NOS activation, and inhibition of MMP-2 activation. PMID:23052352

  3. Anthocyanin-rich açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) extract attenuates manganese-induced oxidative stress in rat primary astrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; Bisen-Hersh, Emily; Yu, Yingchun; Cabral, Ingridy Simone Ribeiro; Nardini, Viviani; Culbreth, Megan; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; Barbosa, Fernando; Aschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for human health. However, at high concentrations Mn may be neurotoxic. Mn accumulates in astrocytes, affecting their redox status. In view of the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the exotic Brazilian fruit açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), its methanolic extract was obtained by solid-phase extraction (SPE). This açaí extract showed considerable anthocyanins content and direct antioxidant capacity. The açaí extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) with an EC₅₀ of 19.1 ppm, showing higher antioxidant activity compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), but lower than ascorbic acid and quercetin. This obtained açaí extract also attenuated Mn-induced oxidative stress in primary cultured astrocytes. Specifically, the açaí extract at an optimal and nutritionally relevant concentration of 0.1 μg/ml prevented Mn-induced oxidative stress by (1) restoring GSH/GSSG ratio and net glutamate uptake, (2) protecting astrocytic membranes from lipid peroxidation, and (3) decreasing Mn-induced expression of erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) protein. A larger quantity of açaí extract exacerbated the effects of Mn on these parameters except with respect to lipid peroxidation assessed by means of F₂-isoprostanes. These studies indicate that at nutritionally relevant concentration, anthocyanins obtained from açaí protect astrocytes against Mn neurotoxicity, but at high concentrations, the "pro-oxidant" effects of its constituents likely prevail. Future studies may be profitably directed at potential protective effects of açaí anthocyanins in nutraceutical formulations. PMID:24617543

  4. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-01

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens. PMID:24480060

  5. Visible-Near Infrared Point Spectrometry of Drill Core Samples from Río Tinto, Spain: Results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) Drilling Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  6. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis. PMID:19105759

  7. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  8. Experimental study on the survival of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms--Pontederiaceae) under different oil doses and times of exposure.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Aline; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades, petroleum activities have increased in the Brazilian Amazon where there is oil exploration on the Urucu River, a tributary of the Amazon River, about 600 km from the city of Manaus. Particularly, transportation via the Amazon River to reach the oil refinery in Manaus may compromise the integrity of the large floodplains that flank hundreds of kilometers of this major river. In the Amazon floodplains, plant growth and nutrient cycling are related to the flood pulse. When oil spills occur, floating oil on the water surface is dispersed through wind and wave action in the littoral region, thus affecting the vegetation of terrestrial and aquatic environments. If pollutants enter the system, they are absorbed by plants and distributed in the food chain via plant consumption, mortality, and decomposition. The effect of oil on the growth and survival of vegetation in these environments is virtually unknown. The water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] has a pantropical distribution but is native to the Amazon, often growing in high-density populations in the floodplains where it plays an important role as shelter and food source for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The species is well known for its high capacity to absorb and tolerate high levels of heavy metal ions. To study the survival and response of water hyacinth under six different oil doses, ranging from 0 to 150 ml l(-1), and five exposure times (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days), young individuals distributed in a completely randomized design experiment composed of vessels with a single individual each were followed over a 50-day period (30-day acclimatization, 20 days under oil treatments). Growth parameters, biomass, visual changes in the plants, and pH were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Increasing the time of oil exposure caused a decrease in biomass, ratio of live/dead biomass and length of leaves, and an increase in the number of dead leaves. Dose of oil and time of exposure

  9. Effects of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of açai fruit pulp on risk factors for metabolic disorders in overweight subjects. The açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), which is native to South America, produces a small, black-purple fruit which is edible. The fruit has recently become popular as a functional food due to its antioxidant potential. Although several studies have been conducted in vitro and with animals, little is known about the potential health benefits in humans aside from an increase in plasma anti-oxidant capacity. Metabolic syndrome is a condition which is defined by a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or type-2 diabetes. Preliminary studies indicate that a reduction in reactive oxygen species can assist in the normalization of the metabolic pathways involved in this syndrome. Methods This was an open label pilot study conducted with 10 overweight adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and ≤ 30 kg/m2) who took 100 g açai pulp twice daily for 1 month. The study endpoints included levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, exhaled (breath) nitric oxide metabolites (eNO) and plasma levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The response of blood glucose, blood pressure and eNO to a standardized meal was determined at baseline and following the 30 day treatment. Results Compared to baseline, there were reductions in fasting glucose and insulin levels following the 30 day treatment (both p < 0.02). There was also a reduction in total cholesterol (p = 0.03), as well as borderline significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (both p = 0.051). Compared to baseline, treatment with açai ameliorated the post-prandial increase in plasma glucose following the standardized meal, measured as the area under the curve (p = 0.047). There was no effect on blood pressure, hs-CRP or eNO. Conclusion In this uncontrolled pilot study, consumption

  10. Summary of the Open Session at the IMC 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, C.; Argo, M.; Brown, P.; Molau, S.; Rendtel, J.; Martínez Picar, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Open Session at the IMC 2016 took place on Friday, June 3rd 2016 evening (21:30-22:30) and was intended to accommodate beginners' questions about meteor astronomy. Megan Argo moderated a panel of experts, consisting of Peter Brown, Sirko Molau, Jürgen Rendtel, and Antonio Martínez Picar.

  11. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Galil, Bella S.; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided. PMID:22207817

  12. Oral treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) extract improves cardiac dysfunction and exercise intolerance in rats subjected to myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart., popularly known as “açaí”, on rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Hydroalcoholic extracts of açaí were obtained from a decoction of the seeds. Two male Wistar rat groups were delineated: 1) the sham-operated group (control, n = 6), with no surgical amendment, and 2) the MI group (n = 12), in which the anterior descendent coronary artery was occluded during surgery. MI group was divided into two subgroups, in which rats were either treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Euterpe oleracea seeds (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or received no treatment. Treatment began on the day of surgery, and lasted 4 weeks. Subsequently, rats were subject to an exercise test protocol, hemodynamic evaluation, and histological analysis of the left ventricle. Groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s test. Results The total running distance of sham rats was 1339.0 ± 276.6 m, MI rats was 177.6 ± 15.8 m (P < 0.05), and MI-açaí rats was 969.9 ± 362.2 m. Systolic arterial pressure was significantly decreased in MI rats (86.88 ± 4.62 mmHg) compared to sham rats (115.30 ± 7.24 mmHg; P < 0.05). Açaí treatment prevented a reduction in systolic arterial pressure (130.00 ± 8.16 mmHg) compared to MI rats (P < 0.05). Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure was significantly augmented in MI rats (17.62 ± 1.21 mmHg) compared to sham rats (4.15 ± 1.60 mmHg; P < 0.05), but was 3.69 ± 2.69 mmHg in açaí-treated rats (P < 0.05 vs. MI). The LV relaxation rate (-dp/dt) was reduced in MI rats compared to the sham group, whereas açaí treatment prevented this reduction. Açaí treatment prevented cardiac hypertrophy and LV fibrosis in MI rats. Conclusions Euterpe oleracea treatment of MI rats prevented the development of exercise intolerance, cardiac

  13. Proyecto multidisciplinar `Marte nos visita'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D.; Merlo, N.; Parodi, B.; Garis, A.; Peralta, G.; Rovessi, V.; Urrutia, S.; Calderón, J.; Bustos Fierro, I.; Melia, R.

    The planets Earth and Mars reached in August 2003 the most approximation in the last 58,000 years. In order to that we carried out a transversal study of red planet, joining the knowledges from several subjects of second school year of unified basic cycle (eighth basic general education) at I.P.E.M. No 249 "Nicolás Copérnico" (a public secondary institution from Córdoba, Argentine). In this study, activities in accordance with current contents has been proposed by common consents of each teacher. Besides, students visited Córdoba Astronomical Observatory in order to search informations and received a multimedia exposition about of astronomical event and a performance of the "Carl Sagan" Moveable Planetary. Finally, each student carried out practical works and wrote an integrative report, which one has been evaluated and exposed at ExpoIPEM 2003, an annual exhibition of several specialities that Institution offers in its specialization cycle (10-12 grade), where the annual students' activities are exhibited too (workshops, school projects, etc.).

  14. A new HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of major compounds in the crude extract of Lychnophora salicifolia Mart. (Brazilian arnicão) leaves: application to chemical variability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gouvea, Dayana Rubio; Meloni, Fernando; Ribeiro, Arthur de Barros Bello; Lopes, João Luis Callegari; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2012-10-20

    Lychnophora salicifolia Mart., which occurs in the Brazilian Cerrado in the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais as well as in the southeast of the state of Goiás, is the most widely distributed and also the most polymorphic species of the genus. This plant is popularly known to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. In this work, we have studied the variation in terms of polar metabolites of ninety-three Lychnophora salicifolia Mart. specimens collected from different regions of the Brazilian Cerrado. Identification of the constituents of this mixture was carried out by analysis of the UV spectra and MS data after chromatographic separation. Twenty substances were identified, including chlorogenic acid derivatives, a flavonoid C-glucoside, and other sesquiterpenes. The analytical method was validated, and the reliability and credibility of the results was ensured for the purposes of this study. The concentration range required for analysis of content variability within the analyzed group of specimens was covered with appropriate values of limits of detection and quantitation, as well as satisfactory precision and recovery. A quantitative variability was observed among specimens collected from the same location, but on average they were similar from a chemical viewpoint. In relation to the study involving specimens from different locations, there were both qualitative and quantitative differences among plants collected from different regions of Brazil. Statistical analysis revealed that there is a correlation between geographical localization and polar metabolites profile for specimens collected from different locations. This is evidence that the pattern of metabolites concentration depends on the geographical distribution of the specimens. PMID:23021804

  15. Pain Reduction and Improvement in Range of Motion After Daily Consumption of an Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp–Fortified Polyphenolic-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

  16. The hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) is mediated by the enhanced expression of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters 5 and 8 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes in the rat.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Melina Oliveira; Souza E Silva, Lorena; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; de Figueiredo, Bianca Barros; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of açaí pulp can improve serum lipid profile in various animal models; therefore, we hypothesized that açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) may modulate the expression of the genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver and increase fecal excretion, thus reducing serum cholesterol. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of 7α-hydroxylase and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters (ABCG5 and ABCG8), which are genes involved with the secretion of cholesterol in the rat. We also evaluated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), and apolipoprotein B100, which are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Female Fischer rats were divided into 4 groups: the C group, which was fed a standard AIN-93 M diet; the CA group, which was fed a standard diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp; the H group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol); and the HA group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were euthanized, and their blood and livers were collected. The HA group exhibited a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index and also had increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cholesterol excretion in feces compared with the H group. In addition, the expression of the LDL-R, ABCG5, and ABCG8 genes was significantly increased by the presence of açaí pulp. These results suggest that açaí pulp promotes a hypocholesterolemic effect in a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia through an increase in the expression of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters, and LDL-R genes. PMID:23244543

  17. Comportamento stagionale delle calote polari di Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, Giovanni

    2004-08-01

    The rhythms of progression and retraction of the polar ice caps on Mars have been studied to establish possible variations in polar meteorology over the course of the last centuries. The applied theoretical procedure offers a mathematical function that contains some significant physical parameters, for example the length and the beginning of spring and another parameter which depends on temperature. The numerical data for the South Polar Cap during the grand oppositions of the last 130 years has been studied with the suggested theory. Evident correlations emerge between parameters and form of the diagram of cap amplitude versus time.

  18. The ARGOS system used for tracking gray whales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mate, B. R.; Beaty, D.; Hoisington, C.; Kutz, R.; Mate, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of satellite whale tags used to track gray whales in the eastern north Pacific Ocean is summarized. Two gray whales were radio-tagged in San Ignacio Lagoon (Mexico) and tracked on their northbound migration. One of the transmitters was modified to record and relay depth-of-dive information at 15 sec intervals throughout the course of the dive. Technical elements of data acquisition and analysis are outlined. The major biological findings are discussed.

  19. Argos 500: operation of a helmet vector-MEG.

    PubMed

    Pasquarelli, A; Rossi, R; De Melis, M; Marzetti, L; Trebeschi, A; Müller, H-P; Erné, S N

    2004-01-01

    We here describe the MEG system recently installed at the University of Ulm; it is specifically designed for clinical application and routine use, to allow investigation of a large number of patients per day. To reach this goal, the system design meets the requirements of reliability, high field sensitivity, minimal set-up time before each measurement and an easy-to-handle user interface. The sensor system consists of a 163 vector-magnetometers array oriented and located in a suitable way to cover the whole head of the patient. Four additional triplets are available as references to arrange software gradiometers. The helmet shaped sensor system is positioned to accommodate the patient in a supine position. Simultaneously to the MEG, there are 64 EEG channels. Other relevant patient information can be recorded up to a total number of 660 acquisition channels. Noise level of a single magnetometer is about 5 fT/square root of Hz. Maximum sampling rate is 4200 Hz. PMID:16012694

  20. EVALUATION OF THE MART CORPORATION'S EQ-1 WASTEWATER PROCESSING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ETV Program is to further environment...

  1. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size. PMID:27186334

  2. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size. PMID:27186334

  3. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to non-reported triterpene and flavonoids from this species. PMID:27013790

  4. Temperature-salinity distribution in the northeastern Atlantic from ship and Argo vertical casts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashmachnikov, I.; Neves, F.; Nascimento, Â.; Medeiros, J.; Ambar, I.; Dias, J.; Carton, X.

    2015-03-01

    The present study defines new interpolation functions for hydrological data. These functions are applied to generate climatological maps of temperature-salinity distribution with a 25 m depth interval and a 30 km space interval (MEDTRANS data set). The data undergo rigorous initial data quality control, having passed several filtering procedures. The gridding is done on neutral density surfaces, which allows better representation of thermohaline fronts for the same gridding radius. The multi-pass Barnes optimum interpolation procedure with spatially variable size of the gridding window is used. The shape of the window accounts for the dominant along-isobath direction of water mass transport over steeply sloping topography. A local ratio of topographic to planetary β-effects is used to define the shape of the window as a function of the relative importance of the topographic influence. The N/f ratio is applied to account for the baroclinic compensation decay of the topographic influence on water mass transport with the distance from the bottom. The gridded fields are available at the website of the Centre of Oceanography of the University of Lisbon (http://co.fc.ul.pt/en/data). The MEDTRANS climatology gives more details of the distribution of water characteristics in the subtropical northeastern Atlantic than other alternative climatologies and is able to reproduce a number of dynamic features described in the literature: the acceleration in the meanders of the Azores current; the cyclonic gyre in the Gulf of Cadiz; and the splitting and separation of the Mediterranean Water (MW) outflow in two veins near the Gorringe and Galicia banks. Seasonal climatologies, computed for the warm (May-October) and cold (November-April) seasons, reveal stronger zonal extension of the upper ocean patterns during the warm season, as compared to the cold one.

  5. Detailed temperature-salinity distribution in the Northeast Atlantic from ship and Argo vertical casts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashmachnikov, I.; Neves, F.; Nascimento, A.; Medeiros, J.; Ambar, I.; Dias, J.; Carton, X.

    2014-06-01

    The present study defines new interpolation functions for hydrological data. These functions are applied to generate climatological maps of temperature-salinity distribution with 25 m depth interval and 30 km space interval (MEDTRANS data-set). The data underwent a rigorous data quality control, having passed several filtering procedures. The gridding was done on neutral density surfaces, which allows better representation of the relative intensity of thermohaline fronts for the same gridding radius. The gridding was done using multi-pass Barnes' Optimum Interpolation procedure with spatially variable size of the gridding window. The shape of the window accounted for topographic influence: the dominant along-slope direction of water mass transport. One of the new features was the use of a local ratio of topographic to planetary β-effects to define the shape of the window as a function of the relative importance of the topographic influence. The N/f ratio was used for simulation of the baroclinic decrease of the topographic influence on water mass transport with the distance from the bottom. The gridded fields are available at the web-site of the Center of Oceanography of the University of Lisbon (http://co.fc.ul.pt/en/data). The new MEDTRANS climatology gives more details to the distribution of water characteristics in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic, in particular near the Iberian Peninsula. The geostrophic currents relative to the 1900 m reference level demonstrate the local circulation features, in good correspondence to the theory and to previous studies: the acceleration in the meanders of the Azores current; the cyclonic gyre in the Gulf of Cadiz; the splitting and separation of the Mediterranean Water outflow from the continental slope near the Gorringe and the Galicia banks. Those features are not reproduced by the alternative climatologies. Seasonal climatologies, computed for the warm (May-October) and cold (November-April) seasons, revealed stronger zonal extension of the upper ocean patterns during the warm season, as compared to the cold one. At the Iberian continental slope, the seasonality manifested itself in more saline and denser lower core of the Mediterranean Water during the warm season as compared to the cold season.

  6. Stratification of the oceans: a global survey since the ARGO era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MAES, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Of the many physical ocean processes contributing to the present climate changes, little attention has been paid to the large-scale contributions of stratification changes in the water column. Over the top part of the oceans, the rich variability in the vertical shapes and forms that the stratification structure can assume through variation in the atmospheric forcing results in a differential effect in terms of the temperature and salinity fields. Rather than focusing on the classical halocline vs thermocline definitions, the present study takes into account the respective thermal and saline dependencies in the Brunt-Vaisala frequency (N2) in order to isolate the specific role of the salinity stratification in the layers including the main permanent pycnocline. We evaluated observed estimates of long-term patterns and compare these to the corresponding thermal changes. Along the water column, the role of salinity is differentiated through its stabilizing or destabilizing effect on stratification. Beyond its role at the base of the mixed layer, the stabilizing effect of salinity as depicted by the ocean salinity stratification has been shown to be seasonally important above the main pycnocline in the tropical oceans. At the opposite, the destabilizing effect seems to be important in the subtropics where compensations with temperature have been previously observed. How these patterns are consistent with estimates of long-term water cycle amplification will be discussed.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF A PULSED LIMESTONE BED REACTOR AT THE ARGO TUNNEL IN IDAHO SPRINGS, COLORADO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is an unintended consequence of coal and metal mining that adversely affects thousands of miles of streams both in the eastern and western regions of the U.S. A novel AMD treatment process based on limestone based on limestone neutralization has been dev...

  8. Calibration of a simple oilspill trajectory model using the Argo Merchant spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Timothy

    1978-01-01

    An oil spill risk analysis was conducted to determine the relative envionmental hazards of developing oil in different regions of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed the probability of spill occurrence, likely paths of the spills, and locations in space and time of such objects as recreational and biological resources likely to be vulnerable. These results combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the proposed lease area. This risk is compared to the existing oilspill risk from existing leases in the area. The analysis implicityly includes estimates of weathering rates and slick dispersion and an indication of the possible mitigating effects of cleanups. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Bio-Argo Floats Reveal Subsurface Structure of Indian Ocean Eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutton, P. G.; Phillips, H. E.; Trull, T. W.; Duran, E.; Pump, S.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing recognition that eddies modulate open ocean productivity, and that this influence depends on both eddy source and their evolution. Eddies in the southeast Indian Ocean have been recognised, from satellite remote sensing of sea surface height and ocean colour, as important pathways for the westward transport of elevated biomass from the eastern boundary Leeuwin Current into the oligotrophic South Indian Ocean. Further it has been hypothesized that, in some eddies, processes at the base of the mixed layer stimulate productivity and sustain phytoplankton biomass for much longer than would be expected from westward advection alone. Here we present high-frequency profiles of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, backscatter and oxygen from autonomous floats in anti-cyclonic and cyclonic eddies in the South Indian Ocean. Satellite sea surface height data confirmed that the floats remained trapped in their respective eddies from winter to early summer, sampling the upper 300 m of the water column 6-8 times per day. The eddies were larger than average for this region, with mean amplitude and radius of 18.1 (19.3) cm and 143 (97) km for the anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies. The total concentration of chlorophyll in the mixed layer remained relatively constant, although its vertical distribution changed over time. From September to October, it was evenly distributed throughout the mixed layer of both eddies. With the onset of spring warming, the chlorophyll became concentrated at greater depth with less chlorophyll at the surface. Satellite measurements of surface chlorophyll were 3-5 times lower than the float surface measurement throughout the record, partly because of the vertical structure in chlorophyll. There was no significant change in oxygen saturation state coincident with high phytoplankton concentrations at depth, indicating no net community production. The eddies appear to self-sustain their biomass.

  10. Preliminary technical evaluation of an ARGOS-monitored radio tag for tracking manatees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mate, B.; Rathbun, G.; Merrick, R.; Reed, J.

    A radio tagged manatee was released into a river leading to subtropical waters and tracked by satellite. Up to 8 locations a day are reported. The manatee remained in the river system, but is expected to head for the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Semi-Direct Speech: Manambu and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.

    2008-01-01

    Every language has some way of reporting what someone else has said. To express what Jakobson [Jakobson, R., 1990. "Shifters, categories, and the Russian verb. Selected writings". "Word and Language". Mouton, The Hague, Paris, pp. 130-153] called "speech within speech", the speaker can use their own words, recasting the original text as their own,…

  12. Form und Sinn: Sprachwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen (Form and Meaning: Linguistic Observations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobson, Roman

    This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…

  13. Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  14. [Genetic variability of sable Martes zibellina L., pine marten M. martes L., and their hybrids in Western Siberia: protein and DNA polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Zhigileva, O N; Politov, D V; Golovacheva, I M; Petrovicheva, S V

    2014-05-01

    Using four types of markers, the genetic variability of sable and pine marten inhabiting Western Siberia was examined. Izoenzyme and restriction endonuclease analysis of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment, as well as the ISSR-PCR and analysis of microsatellite variation, revealed a low differentiation level of sable and pine marten and confirmed the hybrid origin of atypical representatives of these species. The hybrids were characterized by an increased heterozygosity level and were genetically closer to sable than to pine marten. In atypical martens, the presence of mtDNA haplotypes of eastern sable was identified. This could be the consequence of the reintroduction of the Barguzin sable in the 20th century. In Western Siberia, the introgression of genes between sable and pine marten was massive and symmetrical. It apparently occurred in the past and continues in the present. PMID:25715474

  15. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    PubMed

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. PMID:16094658

  16. The Social Practice of Sustainable Agriculture under Audit Discipline: Initial Insights from the ARGOS Project in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Hugh; Rosin, Christopher; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John

    2012-01-01

    One of the most interesting recent developments in global agri-food systems has been the rapid emergence and elaboration of market audit systems claiming environmental qualities or sustainability. In New Zealand, as a strongly export-oriented, high-value food producer, these environmental market audit systems have emerged as an important pathway…

  17. [Spatial-temporal distribution of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in the tropical Atlantic Ocean based on Argo data].

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-long; Jin, Shao-fei; Hua, Cheng-jun; Dai, Yang

    2015-02-01

    In order to analyze the correlation between spatial-temporal distribution of the bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) and subsurface factors, the study explored the isothermal distribution of subsurface temperatures in the bigeye tuna fishing grounds in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, and built up the spatial overlay chart of the isothermal lines of 9, 12, 13 and 15 °C and monthly CPUE (catch per unit effort) from bigeye tuna long-lines. The results showed that the bigeye tuna mainly distributed in the water layer (150-450 m) below the lower boundary depth of thermocline. At the isothermal line of 12 °C, the bigeye tuna mainly lived in the water layer of 190-260 m, while few individuals were found at water depth more than 400 m. As to the 13 °C isothermal line, high CPUE often appeared at water depth less than 250 m, mainly between 150-230 m, while no CPUE appeared at water depth more than 300 m. The optimum range of subsurface factors calculated by frequency analysis and empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) exhibited that the optimum depth range of 12 °C isothermal depth was 190-260 m and the 13 °C isothermal depth was 160-240 m, while the optimum depth difference range of 12 °C isothermal depth was -10 to 100 m and the 13 °C isothermal depth was -40 to 60 m. The study explored the optimum range of subsurface factors (water temperature and depth) that drive horizontal and vertical distribution of bigeye tuna. The preliminary result would help to discover the central fishing ground, instruct fishing depth, and provide theoretical and practical references for the longline production and resource management of bigeye tuna in the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:26094479

  18. Faculty Distance Courseware Ownership and the "Wal-Mart" Approach to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talab, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    Whether by choice or necessity, colleges and universities are in competition with each other for the burgeoning web-based course market. Spurred by the growth of the for-profits such as the University of Phoenix, institutions have reasons, both practical and philosophical,"...to secure a position in ownership and control of faculty-produced…

  19. From Wall Street to Wal-Mart: Why College Graduates Are Not Getting Good Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Denhart, Christopher; Denhart, Matthew; Matgouranis, Christopher; Robe, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    There are many reasons for pursing a higher education. For most persons, a significant, maybe even the dominant reason, for going to college is that it supposedly will improve one's prospect of acquiring a good job. In a sense, a college degree has long been considered a ticket to the middle class--an adult life with a good income and relatively…

  20. Low Titers of Canine Distemper Virus Antibody in Wild Fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Mitcheltree, Denise H; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects species in the order Carnivora. Members of the family Mustelidae are among the species most susceptible to CDV and have a high mortality rate after infection. Assessing an animal's pathogen or disease load prior to any reintroduction project is important to help protect the animal being reintroduced, as well as the wildlife and livestock in the area of relocation. We screened 58 fishers for CDV antibody prior to their release into Pennsylvania, US, as part of a reintroduction program. Five of the 58 (9%) fishers had a weak-positive reaction for CDV antibody at a dilution of 1:16. None of the fishers exhibited any clinical sign of canine distemper while being held prior to release. PMID:26555109

  1. [Topological Conflicts in Phylogenetic Analysis of Different Regions of the Sable (Martes zibellina L.) Mitochondrial Genome].

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, B A; Derenko, M V; Denisova, G A; Litvinov, A N

    2015-08-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of different regions of the mitochondrial genome of the sable showed the presence of several topologies of phylogenetic trees, but the most statistically significant topology is A-BC, which was obtained as a result of the analysis of the mitochondrial genome as a whole, as well as of the individual CO1, ND4, and ND5 genes. Analysis of the intergroup divergence of the mtDNA haplotypes (Dxy) indicated that the maximum Dxy values between A and BC groups were accompanied by minimum differences between B and C groups only for six genes showing the A-BC topology (12S rRNA; CO1, CO2, ND4, ND5, and CYTB). It is assumed that the topological conflicts observed in the analysis of individual sable mtDNA genes are associated with the uneven distribution of mutations along the mitochondrial genome and the mitochondrial tree. This may be due to random causes, as well as the nonuniform effect of selection. PMID:26601491

  2. L'apparizione di Marte 2007-2008: il volto mutevole del pianeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.

    2010-02-01

    Results of visual observations and CCD imaging of Mars during the 2007-2008 are presented. The aspect of the planet was greatly influenced by an encircling dust storm starting in June 2007. The atmosphere remained dusty for several months, lowering the contrast of albedo markings. The albedo spots themselves have been modified on a large scale, producing the most relevant surface changes of the last apparitions.

  3. Salinity effects on photosynthesis and growth in Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb

    SciTech Connect

    Longstreth, D.J.; Bolanos, J.A.; Smith, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides, alligator weed, was grown at five different NaCl concentrations to determine the effect of salinity on factors related to the net rate of CO/sub 2/ uptake (P/sub n/). Over the range of 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl, P/sub n/ declined 51%. Stomatal conductance declined in parallel with P/sub n/ and as a result there was no reduction in intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentrations and therefore no reduction in the amount of CO/sub 2/ available for photosynthesis. The CO/sub 2/ compensation point did not change with salt stress. Increases in leaf thickness tended to compensate slightly for the negative effects of salinity on leaf cell metabolism, at least in relation to P/sub n/. On a mesophyll cell area basis, soluble protein was relatively constant in leaves developed at 100 to 400 millimolar NaCl while total chlorophyll decreased at all salinities. Dry weight production and P/sub n/ were closely correlated in alligator weed grown at different salinities. Plants produced less leaf area per unit dry weight as salinity increased, which may aid in water conservation. 26 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis and Growth in Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Longstreth, David J.; Bolaños, Jorge A.; Smith, James E.

    1984-01-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides, alligator weed, was grown at five different NaCl concentrations to determine the effect of salinity on factors related to the net rate of CO2 uptake (Pn). Over the range of 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl, Pn declined 51%. Stomatal conductance declined in parallel with Pn and as a result there was no reduction in intercellular CO2 concentration and therefore no reduction in the amount of CO2 available for photosynthesis. The CO2 compensation point did not change with salt stress. Increases in leaf thickness tended to compensate slightly for the negative effects of salinity on leaf cell metabolism, at least in relation to Pn. On a mesophyll cell area basis, soluble protein was relatively constant in leaves developed at 100 to 400 millimolar NaCl while total chlorophyll decreased at all salinities. Dry weight production and Pn were closely correlated in alligator weed grown at different salinities. Plants produced less leaf area per unit dry weight as salinity increased, which may aid in water conservation. PMID:16663731

  5. Determining Value in Higher Education: The Future of Instructional Technology in a Wal-Mart Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Wilfred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses value and the economy and examines the changing definition of educational value regarding higher education. Trends in instructional technology resulting from changes in expected educational value are described, including resource sharing, specialization, market expansion, privatization, easier human-machine interfaces, feedback systems,…

  6. Mercury methylation in mesocosms with and without the aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) Solms.

    PubMed

    Correia, Raquel Rose Silva; Martins de Oliveira, Diana Ciannella; Guimarães, Jean Remy Davée

    2013-10-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant and spreads to several compartments in the environment. Previous in-vitro studies showed that roots of aquatic macrophytes are sites of methylmercury formation, performed mainly by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The objective of this study was to observe MMHg formation and distribution among filtered water (0.2µm), suspended and settled particles and macrophyte roots during seventeen days, in (203)Hg- spiked mesocosms with and without live Eichhornia crassipes whole plants and a SRB inhibitor. Root samples were also incubated in-vitro for comparison of MM(203)Hg formation under in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. To evaluate the effect of SRB inhibition by sodium molybdate on total heterotrophic activity, the latter was measured by (3)H-leucine uptake. Inhibition of Hg methylation by sodium molybdate decreased with time in mesocosms. MMHg averaged 10, 12.4 and 0.23 percent of total (203)Hg present in filtered water, suspended particles and roots respectively. In vitro MMHg formation in roots averaged 5.54 percent of total added (203)Hg, with a clearer SRB inhibition effect than in mesocosms. Though significant, MMHg formation in roots from in-vivo mesocosms was one order of magnitude lower than previously found in in-vitro incubations of roots alone. PMID:23829936

  7. Phyto-reduction of graphene oxide using the aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdhouse, M. Jannathul; Lalitha, P.

    2014-10-01

    The aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes was used as reductant to produce graphene from graphene oxide by refluxing method. The complete reduction of graphene oxide was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Characterization of graphene was made through FTIR, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy analysis. The stability of graphene was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and zeta potential measurements. The nature and surface morphology of the synthesized graphene was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The production of graphene using phytoextract as reductant emphasizes on the facile method of synthesis and greener nanotechnology.

  8. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) feeding attenuates dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Mariana F; Romualdo, Guilherme R; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Barbisan, Luis F

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of spray-dried açaí powder (AP) intake on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in male Wistar rats. After 4 weeks of DMH administrations, the groups were fed with standard diet, a diet containing 2.5% or 5.0% AP or a diet containing 0.2% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 10 weeks, using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as the endpoint. Additionally, two groups were fed with standard diet or a diet containing 5.0% AP for 20 weeks, using colon tumors as the endpoint. In ACF assay, a reduction in the number of aberrant crypts (ACs) and ACF (1-3 AC) were observed in the groups fed with 5.0% AP (37% AC and 47% ACF inhibition, p=0.036) and 0.2% NAC (39% AC and 41% ACF inhibition, p=0.042). In tumor assay, a reduction in the number of invasive tumors (p<0.005) and tumor multiplicity (p=0.001) was observed in the group fed with 5.0% AP. Also, a reduction in tumor Ki-67 cell proliferation (p=0.003) and net growth index (p=0.001) was observed in the group fed with 5.0% AP. Therefore the findings of this study indicate that AP feeding may reduce the development of chemically-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. PMID:23597449

  9. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours). PMID:25317731

  10. Chromate-tolerant bacteria for enhanced metal uptake by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.).

    PubMed

    Abou-Shanab, R A I; Angle, J S; van Berkum, P

    2007-01-01

    A total of 85 chromate-resistant bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of water hyacinth grown in Mariout Lake, Egypt, as well as the sediment and water of this habitat. Only 4 (11%), 2 (8%), and 2 (8%) of isolates from each of the environments, respectively, were able to tolerate 200 mg Cr (VI) L(-1). When these eight isolates were tested for their ability to tolerate other metals or to reduce chromate, they were shown to also be resistant to Zn, Mn, and Pb, and to display different degrees of chromate reduction (28% to 95%) under aerobic conditions. The isolates with the higher chromate reduction rates from 42% to 95%, (RA1, RA2, RA3, RA5, RA7, and RA8) were genetically diverse according to RAPD analysis using four differentprimers. Bacterial isolates RA1, RA2, RA3, RAS, and RA8 had 16 S rRNA gene sequences that were most similar to Pseudomonas diminuta, Brevundimonas diminuta, Nitrobacteria irancium, Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Water hyacinth inoculated with RA5 and RA8 increased Mn accumulation in roots by 2.4- and 1.2-fold, respectively, compared to uninoculated controls. The highest concentrations of Cr (0.4 g kg(-1)) and Zn (0.18 g kg(-1)) were accumulated in aerial portions of water hyacinth inoculated with RA3. Plants inoculated with RA1, RA2, RA3, RA5, RA7, and RA8 had 7-, 11-, 24-, 29-, 35-, and 21-fold, respectively, higher Cr concentrations in roots compared to the control. These bacterial isolates are potential candidates in phytoremediation for chromium removal. PMID:18246718

  11. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Patel, Dinesh; Huang, Dejian; Kababick, James P

    2006-11-01

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests. Among many findings, anthocyanins (ACNs), proanthocyanidins (PACs), and other flavonoids were found to be the major phytochemicals. Two ACNs, cyandin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside were found to be predominant ACNs; three others were also found as minor ACNs. The total content of ACNs was measured as 3.1919 mg/g dry weight (DW). Polymers were found to be the major PACs. The concentration of total PACs was calculated as 12.89 mg/g DW. Other flavonoids, namely, homoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, scoparin, and taxifolin deoxyhexose, along with several unknown flavonoids, were also detected. Resveratrol was found but at a very low concentration. In addition, components including fatty acids, amino acids, sterols, minerals, and other nutrients were analyzed and quantified. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid, total monounsaturated fatty acid, and total saturated fatty acids contributed to 11.1%, 60.2%, and 28.7% of total fatty acid. Oleic acid (53.9%) and palmitic acid (26.7%) were found to be the two dominant fatty acids. Nineteen amino acids were found; the total amino acid content was determined to be 7.59% of total weight. The total sterols accounted for 0.048% by weight of powder. The three sterols B-sitosterol, campesterol, and sigmasterol were identified. A complete nutrient analysis is also presented. Microbiological analysis was also performed. PMID:17061839

  12. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. bark in the micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Resende, Marielly Reis; da Silva, Thaísla Andrielle; Públio, Juliana Yoshida; Souza, Luiz Silva; Dias, Carlos Tadeu Dos Santos; de Mello Silva Oliveira, Nelma; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity (clastogenicity/aneugenicity) of a glycolic extract of Ziziphus joazeiro bark (GEZJ) by the micronucleus assay in mice bone marrow. Antimutagenic activity was also assessed using treatments associated with GEZJ and doxorubicin (DXR). Mice were evaluated 24-48 h after exposure to positive (N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, NEU - 50 mg.kg(-1) and DXR - 5 mg.kg(-1)) and negative (150 mM NaCl) controls, as well as treatment with GEZJ (0.5-2 g.kg(-1)), GEZJ (2 g.kg(-1)) + NEU and GEZJ (2 g.kg(-1)) + DXR. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mice treated with GEJZ and GEJZ + DXR compared to the negative controls, indicating that GEZJ was not mutagenic. Analysis of the polychromatic:normochromatic erythrocyte ratio revealed significant differences in the responses to doses of 0.5 g.kg(-1) and 1-2 g.kg(-1) and the positive control (NEU). These results indicated no systemic toxicity and moderate toxicity at lower and higher doses of GEZJ. The lack of mutagenicity and systemic toxicity in the antimutagenic assays, especially for treatment with GEZJ + DXR, suggested that phytochemical compounds in Z. joazeiro bark attenuated DXR-induced mutagenicity and the moderate systemic toxicity of a high dose of Z. joazeiro bark (2 g.kg(-1)). Further studies on the genotoxicity of Z. joazeiro extracts are necessary to establish the possible health risk in humans and to determine the potential as a chemopreventive agent for therapeutic use. PMID:25071409

  13. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action. PMID:23990384

  14. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. Results: The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA. PMID:26246740

  15. Liver metabolic and histopathological profile in finishing lambs fed licuri (Syagrus coronata(Mart.)Becc.) cake.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jonival Barreto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Silva, Thadeu Mariniello; Ayres, Maria Consuêlo Caribé; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Carvalho, Silvana Texeira; Ribeiro, Rebeca Dantas Xavier; de Cruz, Géssica Ariane Melo

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of including licuri cake in the diet of Santa Inês crossbred finishing lambs by examining their liver metabolic and histopathological profile. Forty-four uncastrated lambs with an average age of 6 months and an average weight of 21.2 kg ± 2.7 kg. The animals were fed diets with 40 % Tifton 85 hay and 60 % of a mixture consisting of corn and soybean meal, 1 % urea, a mineral-vitamin premix, and an inclusion of licuri cake at a level of 0, 8, 16, and 24 % of the dietary dry matter (DM), which composed the treatments. The experimental design was completely randomized, and the data were analyzed by variance and regression analyses. The animals were confined in individual stalls for 70 days. Blood was collected on the last day of the experimental period, and metabolite, protein, energy, and enzyme profiles of the liver were determined for these samples. Histopathological evaluations of the liver parenchyma were also undertaken. The increase in the level of the licuri cake in the diet caused a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the serum urea content. The protein metabolism was not affected by the licuri cake inclusion levels in the diet. Regarding energy metabolism, a linear increase (P < 0.01) was observed in the serum triglyceride concentrations, but there were no effects on serum cholesterol levels. Regarding the functioning of the liver and muscle, the inclusion of the licuri cake had no effect on the enzymatic activities, except on gamma-glutamyltransferase, which decreased linearly (P < 0.05). The values found for the evaluated parameters varied within a range considered normal for this species. In the postmortem examination at slaughter, no macroscopic alterations in the liver were observed. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of discrete and nonspecific alterations common to all treatments, suggesting no effect of the level of inclusion of the licuri cake. The use of the licuri cake in composing up to 24 % of the diet did not cause metabolic or liver disorders in the lambs. PMID:26739341

  16. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. bark in the micronucleus assay

    PubMed Central

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Resende, Marielly Reis; da Silva, Thaísla Andrielle; Públio, Juliana Yoshida; Souza, Luiz Silva; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; de Mello Silva Oliveira, Nelma; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity (clastogenicity/aneugenicity) of a glycolic extract of Ziziphus joazeiro bark (GEZJ) by the micronucleus assay in mice bone marrow. Antimutagenic activity was also assessed using treatments associated with GEZJ and doxorubicin (DXR). Mice were evaluated 24–48 h after exposure to positive (N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, NEU - 50 mg.kg−1 and DXR - 5 mg.kg−1) and negative (150 mM NaCl) controls, as well as treatment with GEZJ (0.5–2 g.kg−1), GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + NEU and GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + DXR. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mice treated with GEJZ and GEJZ + DXR compared to the negative controls, indicating that GEZJ was not mutagenic. Analysis of the polychromatic:normochromatic erythrocyte ratio revealed significant differences in the responses to doses of 0.5 g.kg−1 and 1–2 g.kg−1 and the positive control (NEU). These results indicated no systemic toxicity and moderate toxicity at lower and higher doses of GEZJ. The lack of mutagenicity and systemic toxicity in the antimutagenic assays, especially for treatment with GEZJ + DXR, suggested that phytochemical compounds in Z. joazeiro bark attenuated DXR-induced mutagenicity and the moderate systemic toxicity of a high dose of Z. joazeiro bark (2 g.kg−1). Further studies on the genotoxicity of Z. joazeiro extracts are necessary to establish the possible health risk in humans and to determine the potential as a chemopreventive agent for therapeutic use. PMID:25071409

  17. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-03-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  18. Antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Encholirium spectabile Mart. ex Schult & Schult f. (Bromeliaceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Katharinne I Moraes; Fernandes, Hélio B; Machado, Flávia D Frota; Oliveira, Irisdalva S; Oliveira, Francisco A; Nunes, Paulo Humberto M; Lima, Julianeli T; Almeida, Jackson R G Silva; Oliveira, Rita C Meneses

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the antiulcer activity of an ethanolic extract of Encholirium spectabile (ES-EtOH) by using different standard experimental models of induced acute gastric ulceration. ES-EtOH (100 mg/kg p.o) protected the gastric mucosa against ulceration that was induced by absolute ethanol (53%), ethanol/HCl (75%), ibuprofen (52 %) and ischemia/reperfusion (43 %). It also restored catalase activity and non-protein sulfhydryl group concentration in the gastric wall of mice that had been treated with ethanol. The pre-treatment of mice with N-nitro-L-arginine (70 mg/kg i.p.) abolished the protective activity of ES-EtOH, which indicates that prostaglandins, antioxidant compounds and nitric oxide synthase activity are involved in the gastroprotective activity of the extract. PMID:21526273

  19. Antimicrobial, antiviral and cytotoxic activity of extracts and constituents from Polygonum spectabile Mart.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Kroon, Erna Gessien; Duarte, Maria Gorette R; Braga, Fernão Castro; de Souza Filho, José Dias; de Oliveira, Alaíde Braga

    2010-10-01

    Polygonum spectabile is used in Brazil for treatment of several infection diseases. Extracts and constituents isolated from this species were evaluated for cytotoxicity and effects on 15 bacterias and yeasts as well on 4 viruses strains (HHV-1, VACV-WR, EMCV, DEN-2). Less polar extracts were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Micrococcus luteus, M. canis and Tricophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. Two known chalcones and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol were isolated. The ethanol extract was the only one to show antiviral activity (CE50 < 30 μg/ml). One chalcone has inhibited the growth of several bacteria and was significantly active against dermathophytes. The 3 compounds isolated have shown moderate cytotoxicity against Vero and LLCMK(2) cells (CC(50) < 50 μg/ml). These results support the use of P. spectabile as antimicrobial agent. PMID:20382006

  20. Carnivore translocations and conservation: insights from population models and field data for fishers (Martes pennanti).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey C; Powell, Roger A; Zielinski, William J

    2012-01-01

    Translocations are frequently used to restore extirpated carnivore populations. Understanding the factors that influence translocation success is important because carnivore translocations can be time consuming, expensive, and controversial. Using population viability software, we modeled reintroductions of the fisher, a candidate for endangered or threatened status in the Pacific states of the US. Our model predicts that the most important factor influencing successful re-establishment of a fisher population is the number of adult females reintroduced (provided some males are also released). Data from 38 translocations of fishers in North America, including 30 reintroductions, 5 augmentations and 3 introductions, show that the number of females released was, indeed, a good predictor of success but that the number of males released, geographic region and proximity of the source population to the release site were also important predictors. The contradiction between model and data regarding males may relate to the assumption in the model that all males are equally good breeders. We hypothesize that many males may need to be released to insure a sufficient number of good breeders are included, probably large males. Seventy-seven percent of reintroductions with known outcomes (success or failure) succeeded; all 5 augmentations succeeded; but none of the 3 introductions succeeded. Reintroductions were instrumental in reestablishing fisher populations within their historical range and expanding the range from its most-contracted state (43% of the historical range) to its current state (68% of the historical range). To increase the likelihood of translocation success, we recommend that managers: 1) release as many fishers as possible, 2) release more females than males (55-60% females) when possible, 3) release as many adults as possible, especially large males, 4) release fishers from a nearby source population, 5) conduct a formal feasibility assessment, and 6) develop a comprehensive implementation plan that includes an active monitoring program. PMID:22479336

  1. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours). PMID:25590742

  2. In vivo antimalarial efficacy of acetogenins, alkaloids and flavonoids enriched fractions from Annona crassiflora Mart.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Garcia, Giani Martins; Gonçalves, Samuel Geraldo do Vale; Dionísio, Bárbara Lana; Braga, Erika Martins; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Annona crassiflora and Annonaceae plants are known to be used to treat malaria by traditional healers. In this work, the antimalarial efficacy of different fractions of A. crassiflora, particularly acetogenin, alkaloids and flavonoid-rich fractions, was determined in vivo using Plasmodium berghei-infected mice model and toxicity was accessed by brine shrimp assay. The A. crassiflora fractions were administered at doses of 12.5 mg/kg/day in a 4-day test protocol. The results showed that some fractions from woods were rich in acetogenins, alkaloids and terpenes, and other fractions from leaves were rich in alkaloids and flavonoids. The parasitaemia was significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) reduced (57-75%) with flavonoid and alkaloid-rich leaf fractions, which also increased mean survival time of mice after treatment. Our results confirm the usage of this plant in folk medicine as an antimalarial remedy. PMID:24678811

  3. Searching for an Acidic Aquifer in the Rio Tinto Basin: First Geobiology Results of MARTE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Stoker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the conceivable modern habitats to be explored for searching life on Mars are those potentially developed underground. Subsurface habitats are currently environments that, under certain physicochemical circumstances, have high thermal and hydrochemical stability [1, 2]. In planets like Mars lacking an atmospheric shield, such systems are obviously protected against radiation, which strongly alters the structure of biological macromolecules. Low porosity but fractured aquifers currently emplaced inside ancient volcano/sedimentary and hydrothermal systems act as excellent habitats [3] due to its thermal and geochemical properties. In these aquifers the temperature is controlled by a thermal balance between conduction and advection processes, which are driven by the rock composition, geological structure, water turnover of aquifers and heat generation from geothermal processes or chemical reactions [4]. Moreover, microbial communities based on chemolithotrophy can obtain energy by the oxidation of metallic ores that are currently associated to these environments. Such a community core may sustain a trophic web composed of non-autotrophic forms like heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

  4. Prevalence to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. In a reintroduced fisher (Martes pennanti) population in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the role of disease in population regulation is important to the conservation of wildlife. We evaluated the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp in 46 road-killed and accidental trapper-killed fisher carcasses collected by the Pennsylvania Game Commission and stored a...

  5. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests....

  6. Purification and partial characterization of a novel lectin from Dioclea lasiocarpa Mart seeds with vasodilator effects.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Antônia Sâmia F; Gondim, Ana Cláudia S; Cajazeiras, João B; Correia, Jorge Luis A; Pires, Alana de F; do Nascimento, Kyria S; da Silva, André Luis C; Nagano, Celso S; Assreuy, Ana Maria S; Cavada, Benildo S

    2012-12-01

    A lectin from seeds of Dioclea lasiocarpa (DLL) was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography in a Sephadex G-50 column. DLL haemagglutinated rabbit erythrocytes showing stability even after 1 h of exposure to a different pH values (optimal between pH 6.0 and 8.0) but was inhibited after incubation with D-mannose and D-glucose. The pure protein possessed a molecular weight of 25 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 25,410Da by mass spectrometry. The results analyzed by the software SELCON 3 indicate that β-sheet secondary structures are predominant in DLL (approximately 40.2% antiparallel β-sheet, 4.6% parallel β-sheet, 7.2% α-helices, 17.3% turns, and 28.7% unordered structures). Mechanical activity of isolated aorta from rat measured by cumulative concentration curves of DLL, performed at the contraction plateau induced by phenylephrine in either endothelium-intact or denuded aorta. DLL (IC(50)  = 34.12 ± 3.46 µg/ml) relaxed precontracted endothelized aortic rings by 34.61 ± 9.06%, 55.19 ± 11.9%, and 81.33 ± 14.35%, respectively, at 10 µg/ml (initial concentration), 30 µg/ml, and 100 µg/ml (maximum effect). All effects occurred via interaction with lectin domains and participation of nitric oxide. PMID:23192963

  7. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    PubMed

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species. PMID:25323404

  8. Carnivore Translocations and Conservation: Insights from Population Models and Field Data for Fishers (Martes pennanti)

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Powell, Roger A.; Zielinski, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Translocations are frequently used to restore extirpated carnivore populations. Understanding the factors that influence translocation success is important because carnivore translocations can be time consuming, expensive, and controversial. Using population viability software, we modeled reintroductions of the fisher, a candidate for endangered or threatened status in the Pacific states of the US. Our model predicts that the most important factor influencing successful re-establishment of a fisher population is the number of adult females reintroduced (provided some males are also released). Data from 38 translocations of fishers in North America, including 30 reintroductions, 5 augmentations and 3 introductions, show that the number of females released was, indeed, a good predictor of success but that the number of males released, geographic region and proximity of the source population to the release site were also important predictors. The contradiction between model and data regarding males may relate to the assumption in the model that all males are equally good breeders. We hypothesize that many males may need to be released to insure a sufficient number of good breeders are included, probably large males. Seventy-seven percent of reintroductions with known outcomes (success or failure) succeeded; all 5 augmentations succeeded; but none of the 3 introductions succeeded. Reintroductions were instrumental in reestablishing fisher populations within their historical range and expanding the range from its most-contracted state (43% of the historical range) to its current state (68% of the historical range). To increase the likelihood of translocation success, we recommend that managers: 1) release as many fishers as possible, 2) release more females than males (55–60% females) when possible, 3) release as many adults as possible, especially large males, 4) release fishers from a nearby source population, 5) conduct a formal feasibility assessment, and 6) develop a comprehensive implementation plan that includes an active monitoring program. PMID:22479336

  9. The Jakobsonian One-Stem Analysis of the Russian Verb: Adaptations and Pedagogical Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Billie D.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of one-stem verb theory since Roman Jakobson's 1948 study of Russian conjugation is outlined, and adaptations of his one-stem conjugation methodology for current classroom use are discussed and compared. (MSE)

  10. Mixing in the Black Sea detected from the temporal and spatial variability of oxygen and sulfide - Argo float observations and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, E. V.; He, Y.; Staneva, J.; Yakushev, E.

    2014-10-01

    The temporal and spatial variability of the upper ocean hydrochemistry in the Black Sea is analysed using data originating from profiling floats with oxygen sensors and carried out with a coupled three-dimensional circulation-biogeochemical model including 24 biochemical state variables. Major focus is on the dynamics of suboxic zone which is the interface separating oxygenated and anoxic waters. The scatter of oxygen data seen when plotted in density coordinates is larger than those for temperature, salinity and passive tracers. This scatter is indicative of vigorous biogeochemical reactions in the suboxic zone, which acts as a boundary layer or internal sink for oxygen. This internal sink affects the mixing patterns of oxygen compared to the ones of conservative tracers. Two different regimes of ventilation of pycnocline were clearly identified: a gyre-dominated (cyclonic) regime in winter and a coastal boundary layer (anticyclonic eddy)-dominated regime in summer. These contrasting states are characterized by very different pathways of oxygen intrusions along the isopycnals and vertical oxygen conveyor belt organized in multiple-layered cells formed in each gyre. The contribution of the three-dimensional modelling to the understanding of the Black Sea hydro-chemistry, and in particular the coast-to-open-sea mixing, is also demonstrated. Evidence is given that the formation of oxic waters and of cold intermediate waters, although triggered by the same physical process, each follow a different evolution. The difference in the depths of the temperature minimum and the oxygen maximum indicates that the variability of oxygen is not only just a response to physical forcing and changes in the surface conditions, but undergoes its own evolution.

  11. An Angus/Argo study of the neovolcanic zone along the East Pacific rise from the Clipperton fracture zone to 12°N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uchupi, E.; Schwab, W.C.; Ballard, Richard D.; Cheminee, J.L.; Francheteau, Jean; Hekinian, R.; Blackman, D.K.; Sigurdsson, Haraldur

    1988-01-01

    Still photographs and video images collected along the Neovolcanic Zone of the East Pacific Rise from 10°15′N to 11°53′N show that recent volcanic sheet flows, possibly less than 100 years old, are superimposed on an older sediment-laden pillow terrane. This recent activity is restricted to a narrow zone that crosses two topographic highs at 10°55′N and 11°26′N and diminishes along-axis away from these highs. The association of recent sheet flows with older flows and collapse structures on the overlapping spreading centers at 11°45′N supports the evolutionary model for the occurrence and evolution of overlapping spreading centers by MacDonald and others (1986, 1988).

  12. ArgoEcoSystem-watershed (AgES-W) model evaluation for streamflow and nitrogen/sediment dynamics on a midwest agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) is a modular, Java-based spatially distributed model which implements hydrologic/water quality simulation components under the Object Modeling System Version 3 (OMS3). The AgES-W model was previously evaluated for streamflow and recently has been enhanced with the ad...

  13. Total anthocyanin content determination in intact açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and palmitero-juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart.) fruit using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Maria Raquel Cavalcanti; de Lima, Kássio Michell Gomes; Lopes, Valquiria Garcia; Pessoa, José Dalton Cruz; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR), and multivariate calibration potential as a rapid method to determinate anthocyanin content in intact fruit (açaí and palmitero-juçara). Several multivariate calibration techniques, including partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares, genetic algorithm, successive projections algorithm, and net analyte signal were compared and validated by establishing figures of merit. Suitable results were obtained with the PLS model (four latent variables and 5-point smoothing) with a detection limit of 6.2 g kg(-1), limit of quantification of 20.7 g kg(-1), accuracy estimated as root mean square error of prediction of 4.8 g kg(-1), mean selectivity of 0.79 g kg(-1), sensitivity of 5.04×10(-3) g kg(-1), precision of 27.8 g kg(-1), and signal-to-noise ratio of 1.04×10(-3) g kg(-1). These results suggest NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration can be effectively used to determine anthocyanin content in intact açaí and palmitero-juçara fruit. PMID:23194509

  14. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried ac...

  15. Host specificity assessment and potential impact of Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Pontederiales: Pontederiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The delphacid Megamelus scutellaris Berg was evaluated for host specificity and potential impact as part of a biological control program targeting E. crassipes. Survival and development of adults and nymphs were used as metrics with no-choice, choice, nymph transfer, and sustainability tests conduc...

  16. Leaf development in Xylopia aromatica (Lam) Mart. (Annonaceae): implications for palatability to Stenoma scitiorella Walker 1864 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae).

    PubMed

    Varanda, E M; Costa, A A; Barosela, J R

    2008-11-01

    Variations in specific foliar mass and water content, nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates and tannins were studied during the growth and maturation processes of the Xylopia aromatica leaves, to determine the effects of such alterations on the herbivory of Stenoma scitiorella caterpillars. This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the typical cerrado of the Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Gleba Pé-de Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, Brazil. While nutritional quality (water and nitrogen) decreases during expansion and maturation of Xylopia aromatica leaves, the chemical (tannins) and physical (sclerophylly) defenses are raised. In agreement with the observations on herbivory, the results support the hypothesis that the reduction in palatability and increase in chemical defenses of Xylopia aromatica leaves account for the caterpillars' preference for young expanding leaves. PMID:19197502

  17. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest. PMID:26743910

  18. SoMART, a web server for miRNA, tasiRNA and target gene analysis in Solanaceae plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant micro(mi)RNAs and trans-acting small interfering (tasi)RNAs mediate posttranscriptional silencing of genes and play important roles in a variety of biological processes. Although bioinformatics prediction and small (s)RNA cloning are the key approaches used for identification of miRNAs, tasiRN...

  19. Short Communication Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in microsatellite loci of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, M A; Kubota, T Y K; Silva, E C B; Silva, A M; Cambuim, J; Moraes, M L T; Furlani Junior, E; Sebbenn, A M

    2016-01-01

    Hymenaea stigonocarpa is a deciduous and monoecious Neotropical tree species pollinated by bats. Due to overexploitation and habitat destruction, the population size has drastically diminished in nature. No previous study has investigated Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in the available microsatellite markers in this species. So, our aim was to estimate these parameters using six microsatellite loci in a sample of 470 adults and 219 juveniles from two populations of H. stigonocarpa. In addition, 30 seeds per tree from 35 seed-trees were collected. Each seed was kept record of the seed-trees and fruit origin. Based on the six microsatellite loci, we found that only 10.6% of the cases showed significant deviations from Mendelian segregation and 15.3% showed linkage. We detected no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium between the loci in the adult trees or juveniles. Thus, our results suggest that these loci can be used with great accuracy in future genetic analyses of H. stigonocarpa populations. PMID:27525897

  20. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C.; Dunagan, S.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Fernández, D.; Hall, J.; Lynch, K.; Cannon, H.; Zavaleta, J.; Glass, B.; Lemke, L.

    2004-03-01

    The results of an drilling experiment to search for a subsurface biosphere in a pyritic mineral deposit at Rio Tinto, Spain, are described. The experiment provides ground truth for a simulation of a Mars drilling mission to search for subsurface life.

  1. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  2. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  3. Polyphenolic Composition and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Osmotic Fragility and Cytotoxic Effects of Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart.) Schauer.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Roversi, Katiane; da Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa; Barros, Luiz Marivando; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-01-01

    Raphiodon echinus (R. echinus) is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, coughs, and infectious diseases. However, no information is available on the potential antioxidant, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of this plant. In this study, the polyphenolic constituents, antioxidant capacity and potential toxic effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus on human erythrocytes and leukocytes were investigated for the first time. R. echinus extracts showed the presence of Gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic and ellagic acids, rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 = 111.9 μg/mL (EtOH extract) and IC50 = 227.9 μg/mL (aqueous extract). The extracts inhibited Fe(2+) (10 μM) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation in rat brain and liver homogenates. The extracts (30-480 μg/mL) did not induce genotoxicity, cytotoxicity or osmotic fragility in human blood cells. The findings of this present study therefore suggest that the therapeutic effect of R. echinus may be, in part, related to its antioxidant potential. Nevertheless, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to ascertain the safety margin of its use in folk medicine. PMID:26729080

  4. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats. PMID:22659242

  5. Protein profiling of paraquat-exposed rat lungs following treatment with Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Jung, Hana; Zerin, Tamanna; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2013-03-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, PQ) is a non-selective herbicide, and PQ poisoning by accidental or intentional ingestion is a cause of numerous fatalities around the world every year. Although a great deal of research has been conducted into the development of an acceptable treatment for PQ poisoning, no effective guidelines for patients have been developed thus far. Acai berry extract and juice have been highlighted in this regard, due to their observed antioxidant effects in various diseases. Furthermore, the acai berry has been used in dietary supplements, as it contains a variety of nutrients, including proteins, lipids, vitamins A, C and E and polyphenols. In this study, we conducted proteomic analysis of PQ-poisoned rat lungs to evaluate the changes in protein expression induced by PQ and to identify any protective effects of acai berry on the PQ poisoning. Our data revealed that the expression of the calcium signaling-related proteins calcium binding protein 1 (CaBP1), FK506 binding protein 4 (FKBP4), S100A6 and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (Sparc, also known as osteonectin) were induced by PQ treatment and downregulated by acai berry treatment. However, the levels of protein kinase C substrate 80K-H were shown to be downregulated as the result of PQ treatment. Our results indicated that these proteins may function as biomarkers for acute poisoning by PQ exposure. Further studies may be necessary to understand their clinical relevance with regard to PQ poisoning. PMID:23291665

  6. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Huang, Dejian; Owens, John; Agarwal, Amit; Jensen, Gitte S; Hart, Aaron N; Shanbrom, Edward

    2006-11-01

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder (OptiAcai) were evaluated by different assays with various free radical sources. It was found to have exceptional activity against superoxide in the superoxide scavenging (SOD) assay, the highest of any food reported to date against the peroxyl radical as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay with fluorescein as the fluorescent probe (ORACFL), and mild activity against both the peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radical by the peroxynitrite averting capacity (NORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays, respectively. The SOD of acai was 1614 units/g, an extremely high scavenging capacity for O2*-, by far the highest of any fruit or vegetable tested to date. Total phenolics were also tested as comparison. In the total antioxidant (TAO) assay, antioxidants in acai were differentiated into "slow-acting" and "fast-acting" components. An assay measuring inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in freshly purified human neutrophils showed that antioxidants in acai are able to enter human cells in a fully functional form and to perform an oxygen quenching function at very low doses. Furthermore, other bioactivities related to anti-inflammation and immune functions were also investigated. Acai was found to be a potential cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitor. It also showed a weak effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide but no effect on either lymphocyte proliferation and phagocytic capacity. PMID:17061840

  7. Inhibitory effect of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp on IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Nahoko; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao; Hori-Tamura, Naoko

    2011-05-25

    The palm fruit açaí is known to have potential health benefits due to its antioxidant scavenging capacities. Pretreatment of IgE-sensitized mouse primary cultured mast cells with açaí pulp resulted in the dramatic suppression of antigen-induced degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, açaí suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation and transcription of the cytokine genes from a cultured mast cell line of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Açaí could selectively inhibit FcεRI signaling pathways. Furthermore, the FcεRI-mediated complementary signaling pathway was also suppressed by açaí. These results demonstrate that açaí is a potent inhibitor of IgE-mediated mast cell activation. PMID:21486000

  8. Açai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T; Schauss, Alexander G; Zou, Sige

    2010-03-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging. PMID:20080168

  9. Evaluation of the Allelopathic Potential of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart.

    PubMed

    Candido, Lafayette P; Varela, Rosa M; Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A

    2016-08-01

    Despite the increase in recent decades in herbicide research on the potential of native plants, current knowledge is considered to be low. Very few studies have been carried out on the chemical profile or the biological activity of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) species. In the study reported here, the allelopathic activity of AcOEt and MeOH extracts of leaves, stems, and roots from Ocotea pulchella Nees was evaluated. The extracts were assayed on etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The AcOEt leaf extract was the most active and this was tested on standard target species (STS). Lycopersicon esculentum and Lactuca sativa were the most sensitive species in this test. A total of eleven compounds have been isolated and characterized. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 6 have not been identified previously from O. pulchella and ocoteol (9) is reported for the first time in the literature. Eight compounds were tested on wheat coleoptile growth, and spathulenol, benzyl salicylate, and benzyl benzoate showed the highest activities. These compounds showed inhibitory activity on L. esculentum. The values obtained correspond to the activity exhibited by the extract and these compounds may therefore be responsible for the allelopathic activity shown by O. pulchella. PMID:27482860

  10. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the rivers Ebro, Tagus and Guadiana, suggesting that main watercourses in the Iberian Peninsula may act as semi-permeable barriers to gene flow in stone martens. To our knowledge, this is the first phylogeographic and population genetic study of the species at a broad regional scale. We also wanted to make the case for the importance and benefits of using and comparing multiple different clustering and multivariate methods in spatial genetic analyses of mobile and continuously distributed species. PMID:26222680

  11. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P.; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the rivers Ebro, Tagus and Guadiana, suggesting that main watercourses in the Iberian Peninsula may act as semi-permeable barriers to gene flow in stone martens. To our knowledge, this is the first phylogeographic and population genetic study of the species at a broad regional scale. We also wanted to make the case for the importance and benefits of using and comparing multiple different clustering and multivariate methods in spatial genetic analyses of mobile and continuously distributed species. PMID:26222680

  12. Use of an inexpensive chlorophyll meter to predict Nitrogen levels in leaf tissues of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue nitrogen is also an important indicator of plant health and can be a useful predictor of plant vigor and susceptibility to disease and pests. Hence, knowing nitrogen content may aid in determining establishment success of plants used in restoration programs, including those destined for aqua...

  13. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): An Experimental Demonstration of Key Technologies for Searching for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms.

  14. Lipid composition of wild ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum Mart. seeds and comparison with two varieties of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Bianchini, E; Bettarello, L; Sacchetti, G

    2000-03-01

    The present work analyzes the lipid fraction from seeds of wild Ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum and selected commercial varieties of Theobroma cacao from Mexico (var. Criollo) and Ecuador (var. Arriba). The lipid fraction was obtained from the seeds through supercritical fluid extraction and analysis performed by preparatory thin-layer chromatography followed by gas chromatography. The results revealed that in T. subincanum the triglycerides contain fatty acids with longer chains. The melting point and peroxide and saponifiable numbers were determined for each Theobroma sample. The results lead to the conclusion that T. subincanum would produce a poorer quality butter than T. cacao. Nevertheless, the results do point toward a significant commercial use of T. subincanum for low-profile products. PMID:10725135

  15. Phytochemical analysis and modulation of antibiotic activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Calixto Júnior, João T; Morais, Selene M; Martins, Clécio G; Vieira, Larissa G; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Carneiro, Joara N P; Machado, Antonio J P; Menezes, Irwin R A; Tintino, Saulo R; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  16. Purification and partial characterization of a new pro-inflammatory lectin from Bauhinia bauhinioides Mart (Caesalpinoideae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Helton C; Bari, Alfa U; Pereira-Jénior, Francisco N; Simões, Rafael C; Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Nobre, Camila B; Pereira, Maria G; Nascimento, Kyria S; Rocha, Bruno Anderson M; Delatorre, Plínio; Nagano, Celso S; Assreuy, Ana Maria S; Cavada, Benildo S

    2011-04-01

    A new galactose-specific lectin, named BBL, was purified from seeds of Bauhinia bauhinioides by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by two steps of ion exchange chromatography. BBL haemagglutinated rabbit erythrocytes (native and treated with proteolytic enzymes) showing stability even after exposure to 60 °C for an hour. The lectin haemagglutinating activity was optimum between pH 8.0 and 9.0 and inhibited after incubation with D-galactose and its derivatives, especially α-methyl-D-galactopyranoside. The pure protein possessed a molecular mass of 31 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 28.310 Da by mass spectrometry. The lectin pro-inflammatory activity was also evaluated. The s.c. injection of BBL into rats induced a dose-dependent paw edema, an effect that occurred via carbohydrate site interaction and was significantly reduced by L-NAME, suggesting an important participation of nitric oxide in the late phase of the edema. These findings indicate that BBL can be used as a tool to better understand the mechanisms involved in inflammatory responses. PMID:21121890

  17. Endophytic Actinobacteria from the Brazilian Medicinal Plant Lychnophora ericoides Mart. and the Biological Potential of Their Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Conti, Raphael; Chagas, Fernanda Oliveira; Caraballo-Rodriguez, Andrés Mauricio; Melo, Weilan Gomes da Paixão; do Nascimento, Andréa Mendes; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Cláudia; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Krogh, Renata; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2016-06-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria from the Brazilian medicinal plant Lychnophora ericoides were isolated for the first time, and the biological potential of their secondary metabolites was evaluated. A phylogenic analysis of isolated actinobacteria was accomplished with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the predominance of the genus Streptomyces was observed. All strains were cultured on solid rice medium, and ethanol extracts were evaluated with antimicrobial and cytotoxic assays against cancer cell lines. As a result, 92% of the extracts showed a high or moderate activity against at least one pathogenic microbial strain or cancer cell line. Based on the biological and chemical analyses of crude extracts, three endophytic strains were selected for further investigation of their chemical profiles. Sixteen compounds were isolated, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzamide (9) and 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-quinazolinone (15) are reported as natural products for the first time in this study. The biological activity of the pure compounds was also assessed. Compound 15 displayed potent cytotoxic activity against all four tested cancer cell lines. Nocardamine (2) was only moderately active against two cancer cell lines but showed strong activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Our results show that endophytic actinobacteria from L. ericoides are a promising source of bioactive compounds. PMID:27128202

  18. Differential Vulnerability of Global Motion, Global Form, and Biological Motion Processing in Full-Term and Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, N. M.; Jakobson, L. S.; Maurer, D.; Lewis, T. L.

    2009-01-01

    Young children born very prematurely show elevated thresholds for global motion and global form [Atkinson, J. & Braddick, O. (2007). "Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely." "Progress in Brain Research, 164." 123-149; MacKay, T. L., Jakobson, L. S., Ellemberg, D., Lewis, T. L., Maurer, D., & Casiro, O. (2005).…

  19. Essais de Stylistique (Essays on Stylistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Pierre

    This French text of selected articles, lectures, and writings from Bally to Jakobson presents a typology of literary styles, complementing an introductory book on the theory and readings in stylistics by dealing with the problems and methods of stylistic analysis. Seeking to arrive at a description of the inner structure of literary texts, it…

  20. The Regression Hypothesis as a Framework for First Language Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijzer, Merel

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to explain first language attrition in emigrant populations, this paper investigates the explanatory power of a framework that has--until now--received little attention: the regression hypothesis (Jakobson, 1941). This hypothesis predicts that the order of attrition is the reverse of the order of acquisition. The regression…

  1. The Elephants Teach: Creative Writing since 1880

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David Gershom

    2006-01-01

    When Vladimir Nabokov was up for a chair in literature at Harvard, the linguist Roman Jakobson protested: "What's next? Shall we appoint elephants to teach zoology?" That anecdote, with which D. G. Myers begins "The Elephants Teach", perfectly frames the issues this book tackles. Myers explores more than a century of debate over how writing should…

  2. Analysis and Remediation of Aphasia in the U.S.S.R.: The Contribution of A. R. Luria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frances M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper surveys contribution of A. Luria to aphasiology, emphasizing unique extent to which he integrated theory and therapeutic practice. Luria's view of primary defects underlying main forms of aphasia is summarized; this is followed by brief account of his application of certain notions of structural linguists, including R. Jakobson's…

  3. Learning Science through Talking Science in Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…

  4. One-to-One Tutoring for Reading in Grade One: Is It Beneficial for All Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incorvaia, Aubrey

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders among school-age children, occurring in 3 percent to 12 percent of adolescents in the United States (Jakobson & Kirkas, 2007; Shulman, 2008). Recognizing and understanding the disorder is complicated by the fact that between 10 percent and 20 percent of people…

  5. Metaphor and Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Russell

    1994-01-01

    Describes in some detail the structure of metaphor and metonymy, reviewing three main structures of metaphor--supposition, extension, and apposition--and proposing a comprehensive definition of metaphor taking all three structures into account. Draws on Roman Jakobson when explaining Jacques Lacan's claim that condensation is metaphor and…

  6. Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols, tannins and epigallocatechin gallate from barks of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Jordana N.; Pedroso, Nathália B.; Borges, Leonardo L.; Oliveira, Gerlon A. R.; Paula, José R.; Conceição, Edemilson C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mar.) Coville is a native plant from Brazil, rich in phenolic compounds and used on popular medicine as a wound healing agent, in the treatment of gastric lesions and as antimicrobial. Materials and Methods: Ultrassound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied to extraction of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), total polyphenols (TP) and total tannins (TT) content from barks of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mar.) Coville. Several operating parameters, namely extraction time (min), liquid to solid ratio (mg/mL), ethanolic strength (%, v/v), were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design. Results: By using the desirability function approach, the optimum UAE conditions to obtain desirable extraction yields for all these metabolites simultaneously were found at the extraction time of 30 min, solid to liquid ratio of 4 mg/mL and ethanolic strength of 65. Under these conditions, the epigallocatechin gallate, total polyphenols and total tannins content were 0.31; 22.95 and 11.95 % (w/w), respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that knowledge gained from this study should be helpful to further exploit and apply this resource and also showed the feasibility of ultrasound-assisted extraction for obtaining GEGC, TP and TT from barks of S. adstrigens. PMID:24991110

  7. The Keck "Mars 2000" Project: Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Data to Assess Geological Processes and Regional Stratigraphy Near Orcus Patera and Marte Vallis on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    During the Keck 'Mars 2000' summer project 10 undergraduates (rising juniors) used Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to study a 19x14 degree region they identified as a potential Mars 2003 landing site. Here we introduce the project science and organization. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Isolation, characterization and molecular three-dimensional structural predictions of metalloprotease from a phytopathogenic fungus, Alternaria solani (Ell. and Mart.) Sor.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Chandrasekar, Raman; Chun, Se-Chul; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims at isolation, identification, characterization and prediction of three-dimensional molecular architecture of a proteolytic enzyme from the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani which are hypothesized to be a marker of phytopathogenicity. Maximum enzyme production by A. solani was observed in Czapex's Dox broth amended with 2% (w/v) casein than other inducer amendments. Results indicate that the enzyme remained highly active in a pH range of 7.0-10.0 and a temperature range of 45-50°C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by EDTA, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and monovalent cations (Na(+), K(+)) had little effect. Metal ions such as MgSO4, CaCl2, KCl at 10 mM concentration showed a stimulatory effect (>85%) on protease activity. Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight/mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified enzyme revealed the presence of protease belonging to a keratinolytic protein (metalloprotease) of exopeptidase nature. Putative A. solani keratinolytic enzyme (AsK) is made up of 216 amino acid residues with molecular weight (MW) 24.5 kDa, having a molecular formula of C1094H1704N290O342S4. Ramachandran plot analysis of the protein residues falling into the most favored secondary structures was observed at 84.2%. The major protein structural blocks, 2-β-sheets, and 9-α-helices have a greater tendency to be conserved during the evolutionary process than do mere sequences of amino acids. Besides, AsK, model prediction showed the presence of a Zinc atom at helix regions (Helix 3, 6, 7: His(57), His(130), His(169), and Cys(123)). Thus, it can be concluded that the major proteinases of AsK are divalent cation-requiring metalloproteinases and make them potential targets of protease inhibitors designing. PMID:26924427

  9. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277

  10. Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

  11. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

  12. Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb. Rodr.) Noblick comb. nov (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Carvalho Júnior, Wellington G O; Amaral, Vanessa B

    2015-03-01

    The distinction between Butia capitata and B. odorata is based only on a few morphological characteristics, therefore there is a need for additional studies for supporting the separation of the species. As lamina anatomy characteristics are relevant in circumscribing Arecaceae taxa, this work aimed to describe B. capitata lamina anatomy and compare it with B. odorata. Samples from the middle portion of the pinnae were collected and processed in accordance with standard plant anatomy techniques. The epidermis is uniseriate and composed of a thick cuticle and epicuticular waxes into like hooked filaments. The subsidiary cells that arch over the guard cells are located at the hypodermis. The mesophyll is isobilateral and compact. The vascular bundles are collateral with a sclerenchymatic sheath extension that reaches the hypodermis. The stegmata cells have spherical and druse-like silica bodies. The midrib faces the adaxial surface with a thick fibrous layer surrounding the vascular bundles adjacent to the chlorenchyma. The stratified expansion tissue is on the abaxial surface, within the boundary between the mesophyll and midrib. Raphides are only found in B. capitata. Small bundles of the midrib fully surround the fibrous cylinder only in B. odorata. These characteristics are diagnostic and useful for supporting the proposed separation. PMID:25789791

  13. Climate change sensitivity of the African ivory nut palm, Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart. (Arecaceae) - a keystone species in SE Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blach-Overgaard, A.; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, H.

    2009-11-01

    Africa is the most vulnerable continent to future climate change. Profound changes are projected for southwestern Africa with increased drying, notably with delayed onset of the rainy season in September-November, and temperature increases in all seasons. The projected climate changes combined with land-use changes are thought to constitute the main threats to biodiversity in the 21st century. To be able to predict the potential impact on biodiversity, it is crucial to achieve a better insight into the controls of contemporary species ranges. Using species distribution modeling, we assessed the climate sensitivity of the key-stone palm species Hyphaene petersiana (African ivory nut palm) in southern Africa. We tested the relative roles of climate vs. non-climatic range-controls and found that climate had a clear effect on the range of H. petersiana and that especially water-related variables (annual precipitation and precipitation driest quarter) were of high importance. Nevertheless, latitude was the overall most dominant variable, reflecting spatial constraints on the continental-scale distribution. Of the remaining non-climatic factors, soil type and human influence were as important as the climatic factors. A future decrease in annual precipitation below 400 mm and hydrological changes towards drier conditions could cause a dramatic decline in H. petersiana populations, while the influence of temperature changes is less clear. The ongoing, unsustainable utilization pressures on this palm species by humans and livestock are likely to exacerbate the negative effect of future climate changes on its populations, especially, given the expected human population increase in Africa.

  14. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M.; Arruda, Sandra F.; Dourado, Lívia P. S.; da Cunha, Marcela S. B.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  15. Pollen flow in fragmented landscapes maintains genetic diversity following stand-replacing disturbance in a neotropical pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea Mart

    PubMed Central

    Davies, S J; Cavers, S; Finegan, B; White, A; Breed, M F; Lowe, A J

    2015-01-01

    In forests with gap disturbance regimes, pioneer tree regeneration is typically abundant following stand-replacing disturbances, whether natural or anthropogenic. Differences in pioneer tree density linked to disturbance regime can influence pollinator behaviour and impact on mating patterns and genetic diversity of pioneer populations. Such mating pattern shifts can manifest as higher selfing rates and lower pollen diversity in old growth forest populations. In secondary forest, where more closely related pollen donors occur, an increase in biparental inbreeding is a potential problem. Here, we investigate the consequences of secondary forest colonisation on the mating patterns and genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays for the long-lived, self-compatible pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea, at two Costa Rican sites. Five microsatellite loci were screened across adult and seed cohorts from old growth forest with lower density, secondary forest with higher density, and isolated individual trees in pasture. Progeny from both old growth and secondary forest contexts were predominantly outcrossed (tm=1.00) and experienced low levels of biparental inbreeding (tm−ts=0.00–0.04). In contrast to predictions, our results indicated that the mating patterns of V. ferruginea are relatively robust to density differences between old growth and secondary forest stands. In addition, we observed that pollen-mediated gene flow possibly maintained the genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays in stands of secondary forest adults. As part of a natural resource management strategy, we suggest that primary forest remnants should be prioritised for conservation to promote restoration of genetic diversity during forest regeneration. PMID:24105437

  16. Pollen flow in fragmented landscapes maintains genetic diversity following stand-replacing disturbance in a neotropical pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea Mart.

    PubMed

    Davies, S J; Cavers, S; Finegan, B; White, A; Breed, M F; Lowe, A J

    2015-08-01

    In forests with gap disturbance regimes, pioneer tree regeneration is typically abundant following stand-replacing disturbances, whether natural or anthropogenic. Differences in pioneer tree density linked to disturbance regime can influence pollinator behaviour and impact on mating patterns and genetic diversity of pioneer populations. Such mating pattern shifts can manifest as higher selfing rates and lower pollen diversity in old growth forest populations. In secondary forest, where more closely related pollen donors occur, an increase in biparental inbreeding is a potential problem. Here, we investigate the consequences of secondary forest colonisation on the mating patterns and genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays for the long-lived, self-compatible pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea, at two Costa Rican sites. Five microsatellite loci were screened across adult and seed cohorts from old growth forest with lower density, secondary forest with higher density, and isolated individual trees in pasture. Progeny from both old growth and secondary forest contexts were predominantly outcrossed (tm=1.00) and experienced low levels of biparental inbreeding (tm-ts=0.00-0.04). In contrast to predictions, our results indicated that the mating patterns of V. ferruginea are relatively robust to density differences between old growth and secondary forest stands. In addition, we observed that pollen-mediated gene flow possibly maintained the genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays in stands of secondary forest adults. As part of a natural resource management strategy, we suggest that primary forest remnants should be prioritised for conservation to promote restoration of genetic diversity during forest regeneration. PMID:24105437

  17. Anthocyanin-rich acai (Euterpe oleracea mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related increases in oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of the high polypheno...

  18. Euterpe oleracea Mart.-Derived Polyphenols Protect Mice from Diet-Induced Obesity and Fatty Liver by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and Cholesterol Excretion.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Paola Raquel B; da Costa, Cristiane A; de Bem, Graziele F; Cordeiro, Viviane S C; Santos, Izabelle B; de Carvalho, Lenize C R M; da Conceição, Ellen Paula S; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Ognibene, Dayane T; Sousa, Pergentino José C; Martins, Gabriel R; da Silva, Antônio Jorge R; de Moura, Roberto S; Resende, Angela C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a polyphenol-rich Açaí seed extract (ASE, 300 mg/kg-1d-1) on adiposity and hepatic steatosis in mice that were fed a high-fat (HF) diet and its underlying mechanisms based on hepatic lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Four groups were studied: C57BL/6 mice that were fed with standard diet (10% fat, Control), 10% fat + ASE (ASE), 60% fat (HF), and 60% fat + ASE (HF + ASE) for 12 weeks. We evaluated the food intake, body weight gain, serum glucose and lipid profile, hepatic cholesterol and triacyglycerol (TG), hepatic expression of pAMPK, lipogenic proteins (SREBP-1c, pACC, ACC, HMG-CoA reductase) and cholesterol excretion transporters, ABCG5 and ABCG8. We also evaluated the steatosis in liver sections and oxidative stress. ASE reduced body weight gain, food intake, glucose levels, accumulation of cholesterol and TG in the liver, which was associated with a reduction of hepatic steatosis. The increased expressions of SREBP-1c and HMG-CoA reductase and reduced expressions of pAMPK and pACC/ACC in HF group were antagonized by ASE. The ABCG5 and ABCG8 transporters expressions were increased by the extract. The antioxidant effect of ASE was demonstrated in liver of HF mice by restoration of SOD, CAT and GPx activities and reduction of the increased levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonylation. In conclusion, ASE substantially reduced the obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by HF diet by reducing lipogenesis, increasing cholesterol excretion and improving oxidative stress in the liver, providing a nutritional resource for prevention of obesity-related adiposity and hepatic steatosis. PMID:26630290

  19. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Krępa, E; Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks' consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement. PMID:26060341

  20. In vitro SCREENING ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Bidens pilosa LINNÉ AND Annona crassiflora MART. AGAINST OXACILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) FROM THE AERIAL ENVIRONMENT AT THE DENTAL CLINIC

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jeferson; Cerdeira, Cláudio Daniel; Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Cintra, Ana Beatriz Pugina; da Silva, Carla Brigagão Pacheco; de Mendonça, Andreia Natan; Ishikawa, Tati; Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber

    2014-01-01

    Currently multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus is one common cause of infections with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which directs scientific endeavors in search for novel antimicrobials. In this study, nine extracts from Bidens pilosa (root, stem, flower and leaves) and Annona crassiflora (rind fruit, stem, leaves, seed and pulp) were obtained with ethanol: water (7:3, v/v) and their in vitro antibacterial activity evaluated through both the agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods against 60 Oxacillin Resistant S. aureus (ORSA) strains and against S. aureus ATCC6538. The extracts from B. pilosa and A. crassiflora inhibited the growth of the ORSA isolates in both methods. Leaves of B. pilosa presented mean of the inhibition zone diameters significantly higher than chlorexidine 0.12% against ORSA, and the extracts were more active against S. aureus ATCC (p < 0.05). Parallel, toxicity testing by using MTT method and phytochemical screening were assessed, and three extracts (B. pilosa, root and leaf, and A. crassiflora, seed) did not evidence toxicity. On the other hand, the cytotoxic concentrations (CC50 and CC90) for other extracts ranged from 2.06 to 10.77 mg/mL. The presence of variable alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins was observed, even though there was a total absence of anthraquinones. Thus, the extracts from the leaves of B. pilosa revealed good anti-ORSA activity and did not exhibit toxicity. PMID:25076435

  1. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks’ consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement. PMID:26060341

  2. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rios, Jolian; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Pacheco-Palencia, Lisbeth A; Meibohm, Bernd; Talcott, Stephen T; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2008-09-10

    The acai berry is the fruit of the acai palm and is traditionally consumed in Brazil but has gained popularity abroad as a food and functional ingredient, yet little information exists on its health effect in humans. This study was performed as an acute four-way crossover clinical trial with acai pulp and clarified acai juice compared to applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage as controls. Healthy volunteers (12) were dosed at 7 mL/kg of body weight after a washout phase and overnight fast, and plasma was repeatedly sampled over 12 h and urine over 24 h after consumption. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of total anthocyanins quantified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside showed Cmax values of 2321 and 1138 ng/L at t max times of 2.2 and 2.0 h, and AUC last values of 8568 and 3314 ng h L(-1) for pulp and juice, respectively. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling identified dose volume as a significant predictor of relative oral bioavailability in a negative nonlinear relationship for acai pulp and juice. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased by the acai pulp and applesauce. Individual increases in plasma antioxidant capacity of up to 2.3- and 3-fold for acai juice and pulp, respectively were observed. The antioxidant capacity in urine, generation of reactive oxygen species, and uric acid concentrations in plasma were not significantly altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate the absorption and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in acai in plasma in an acute human consumption trial. PMID:18693743

  3. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Arecaceae) fruit oil (açaí), in mammalian cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marques, E S; Froder, J G; Carvalho, J C T; Rosa, P C P; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2016-07-01

    E. oleracea is a tropical plant from the Amazon region, with its fruit used for food, and traditionally, as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, for atherosclerotic disease, and has anticancer properties. The oil of the fruit has antidiarrheic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, but without genotoxicity evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of E. oleracea fruit oil (EOO), in rat cells. Male Wistar rats were treated with EOO by gavage at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, for 14 days, within a 24 h interval. The DNA damage in the leukocytes, liver, bone marrow and testicular cells, was assessed by the comet assay, and the clastogenic/aneugenic effects in the bone marrow cells, by the micronucleus test. Our phytochemicals characterization of the EOO showed the presence of vanillic, palmitic, γ-linolenic, linoleic, oleic, cinnamic, caffeic, protocatechuic, ferulic, syringic acids, and flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol rutinoside as the main constituents. Both cytogenetic tests performed showed that EOO presented no significant genotoxic effects in the analyzed cells, at the three tested doses. These results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, E. oleracea fruit oil did not reveal genetic toxicity in rat cells. PMID:27125964

  4. Employee Involvement: The Competitive Edge. Transactions of the IAQC Annual Conference and Resource Mart (9th, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 6-9, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Quality and Participation, Cincinnati, OH.

    Among the 96 papers presented at this conference are the following: "Team Building Techniques that Get Results" (Berg); "The Subtleties of Communication in Small Group Meetings" (Henry); "Feedback--Its Role in Team Building" (Lucas); "Group Dynamics--Success through Interaction" (Manning, Johnson); "The Able-Bodied Handicapped: Bridging the Gap"…

  5. Negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of flavonoids in glandular trichomes of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports a method for the analysis of secondary metabolites stored in glandular trichomes, employing negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The analyses of glandular trichomes from Lychnophora ericoides, a plant endemic to the Brazilian 'cerrado' and used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, led to the identification of five flavonoids (chrysin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin and 3-O-acetylpinobanksin) by direct infusion of the extracts of glandular trichomes into the nanospray ionisation source. All the flavonoids have no oxidation at ring B, which resulted in a modification of the fragmentation pathways compared with that of the oxidised 3,4-dihydroflavonoids already described in the literature. The absence of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant di-C-glucosylflavone vicenin-2, or any other flavonoid glycosides, in the glandular trichomes was also demonstrated. The use of the 'chip-based' nanospray QqTOF apparatus is a new fast and useful tool for the identification of secondary metabolites stored in the glandular trichomes, which can be useful for chemotaxonomic studies based on metabolites from glandular trichomes. PMID:18980260

  6. An Anthocyanin-Rich Extract of Acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) Increases Stress Resistance and Retards Aging-Related Markers in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Herbenya; Roxo, Mariana; Krstin, Sonja; Röhrig, Teresa; Richling, Elke; Wink, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Acai fruits (Euterpe precatoria) are rich in antioxidant anthocyanins. Acai consumption is believed to have many health benefits; however, relevant detailed scientific investigations are limited. The current study aimed to investigate an anthocyanin-rich extract from E. precatoria fruits (AE) with regard to its antioxidant and antiaging properties using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. AE can protect the worms against oxidative stress and can ameliorate accumulation of reactive oxygen species in vivo. The expression of stress-response genes, such as sod-3::GFP, was upregulated while hsp-16::GFP was down-regulated after AE treatment. Studies with DAF-16/FOXO mutants indicated that some of the antioxidant effects are mediated by this transcription factor. AE can modulate the development of age-related markers, such as pharyngeal pumping. Despite the apparent antioxidant activity, no lifespan-prolonging effect was observed. PMID:26809379

  7. Euterpe oleracea Mart.-Derived Polyphenols Protect Mice from Diet-Induced Obesity and Fatty Liver by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and Cholesterol Excretion

    PubMed Central

    de Bem, Graziele F.; Cordeiro, Viviane S. C.; Santos, Izabelle B.; de Carvalho, Lenize C. R. M.; da Conceição, Ellen Paula S.; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Ognibene, Dayane T.; Sousa, Pergentino José C.; Martins, Gabriel R.; da Silva, Antônio Jorge R.; de Moura, Roberto S.; Resende, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a polyphenol-rich Açaí seed extract (ASE, 300 mg/kg-1d-1) on adiposity and hepatic steatosis in mice that were fed a high-fat (HF) diet and its underlying mechanisms based on hepatic lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Four groups were studied: C57BL/6 mice that were fed with standard diet (10% fat, Control), 10% fat + ASE (ASE), 60% fat (HF), and 60% fat + ASE (HF + ASE) for 12 weeks. We evaluated the food intake, body weight gain, serum glucose and lipid profile, hepatic cholesterol and triacyglycerol (TG), hepatic expression of pAMPK, lipogenic proteins (SREBP-1c, pACC, ACC, HMG-CoA reductase) and cholesterol excretion transporters, ABCG5 and ABCG8. We also evaluated the steatosis in liver sections and oxidative stress. ASE reduced body weight gain, food intake, glucose levels, accumulation of cholesterol and TG in the liver, which was associated with a reduction of hepatic steatosis. The increased expressions of SREBP-1c and HMG-CoA reductase and reduced expressions of pAMPK and pACC/ACC in HF group were antagonized by ASE. The ABCG5 and ABCG8 transporters expressions were increased by the extract. The antioxidant effect of ASE was demonstrated in liver of HF mice by restoration of SOD, CAT and GPx activities and reduction of the increased levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonylation. In conclusion, ASE substantially reduced the obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by HF diet by reducing lipogenesis, increasing cholesterol excretion and improving oxidative stress in the liver, providing a nutritional resource for prevention of obesity-related adiposity and hepatic steatosis. PMID:26630290

  8. HealthMarts, HIPCs (health insurance purchasing cooperatives), MEWAs (multiple employee welfare arrangements), and AHPs (association health plans): a guide for the perplexed.

    PubMed

    Hall, M A; Wicks, E K; Lawlor, J S

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers how pending proposals to authorize new forms of group purchasing arrangements for health insurance would fit and function within the existing, highly complex market and regulatory landscape and whether these proposals are likely to meet their stated objectives and avoid unintended consequences. Cost savings are more likely to result from increased risk segmentation than through true market efficiencies. Thus, these proposals could erode previous market reforms whose goal is increased risk pooling. On the other hand, these proposals contain important enhancements, clarifications, and simplification of state and federal regulatory oversight of group purchasing vehicles. Also, they address some of the problems that have hampered the performance of purchasing cooperatives. On balance, although these proposals should receive cautious and careful consideration, they are not likely to produce a significant overall reduction in premiums or increase in coverage. PMID:11194835

  9. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M; Arruda, Sandra F; Dourado, Lívia P S; da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  10. Paternity analysis reveals significant isolation and near neighbor pollen dispersal in small Cariniana legalis Mart. Kuntze populations in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Tambarussi, Evandro V; Boshier, David; Vencovsky, Roland; Freitas, Miguel L M; Sebbenn, Alexandre M

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the world, large trees are increasingly rare. Cariniana legalis is the tallest tree species of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, reaching up to 60 m in height. Due to extensive deforestation of the Atlantic Forest, remnant C. legalis populations are small and spatially isolated, requiring the development of strategies for their conservation. For in situ and ex situ genetic conservation to be effective, it is important to understand the levels and patterns of spatial genetic structure (SGS), and gene flow. We investigated SGS and pollen flow in three small, physically isolated C. legalis stands using microsatellite loci. We measured, mapped, and sampled all C. legalis trees in the three stands: 65 trees from Ibicatu population, 22 trees from MGI, and 4 trees from MGII. We also collected and genotyped 600 seeds from Ibicatu, 250 seeds from MGI, and 200 seeds from MGII. Significant SGS was detected in Ibicatu up to 150 m, but substantial levels of external pollen flow were also detected in Ibicatu (8%), although not in MGI (0.4%) or MGII (0%). Selfing was highest in MGII (18%), the smallest group of trees, compared to MGI (6.4%) and Ibicatu (6%). In MGI and MGII, there was a strong pattern of mating among near-neighbors. Seed collection strategies for breeding, in situ and ex situ conservation and ecological restoration, must ensure collection from seed trees located at distances greater than 350 m and from several forest fragments. PMID:27069608

  11. Seedling survival of Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart ex DC) Mattos in a semi-arid environment through modified germination speed and post-germination desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Martins, J R; Edvaldo, A A S; Alvarenga, A A; Rodrigues, A C; Ribeiro, D E; Toorop, P E

    2015-11-01

    Uniform rapid seed germination generally forms a great risk for the plant population if subsequent intermittent precipitation causes desiccation and seedling death. Handroanthus impetiginosus can be found commonly in a wide range of biomes within Brazil including those that are semi-arid. Germination and early growth was studied to understand how germinated seeds survive under these stringent conditions. Accessions were sampled from four seasonally dry biomes in Brazil. Precipitation at the start of the rainy season in the Caatinga, a semi-arid biome, is less predictable and the number of successive dry days per dry interval in the first four months of the rainy season was higher than in the other studied biomes. Plants from the Caatinga produced thicker seeds and this trait concurred with slow germination and stronger osmotic inhibition of germination across the accessions, forming a stress avoidance mechanism in the Caatinga. Post-germination desiccation tolerance was high in the Caatinga accession, could be re-induced in accessions from biomes with more regular precipitation (Cerrado and transition zone), but remained poor in the Cerradão accession; thus forming a stress tolerance mechanism. Production of adventitious roots ascertained survival of all tested individuals from all four locations, even if protruded radicles did not survive desiccation, forming an additional stress tolerance mechanism. A sequence of stress avoidance and stress tolerance mechanisms in seeds and germinated seeds was associated with precipitation patterns in different biomes. These mechanisms purportedly allow rapid seedling establishment when conditions are suitable and enable survival of the young seedling when conditions are adverse. PMID:26675900

  12. 15 CFR 911.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... have become an Argos Participating Agency, Japan or a European Organization for the Exploitation of... system such as National security, homeland security, law enforcement and humanitarian operations....

  13. 76 FR 63657 - Certain Flat Panel Display Devices, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... (collectively, ``AU Optronics''). 76 FR 45296 (July 28, 2011). The complaint alleged violations of section 337... (``Best Buy''); and BrandsMart USA, Inc. of Hollywood, Florida (``BrandsMart''). On August 31, 2011, AU... Corporation of America of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, d/b/a BrandsMart U.S.A. (collectively, ``New...

  14. 15 CFR 911.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... have become an Argos Participating Agency, Japan or a European Organization for the Exploitation of... CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.3 Definitions. For purposes of this part... of work for the award. (l) NOAA DCS means the GOES and Argos space-based DCS. (m) Non-profit...

  15. 15 CFR 911.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... have become an Argos Participating Agency, Japan or a European Organization for the Exploitation of... CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.3 Definitions. For purposes of this part... of work for the award. (l) NOAA DCS means the GOES and Argos space-based DCS. (m) Non-profit...

  16. 15 CFR 911.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... have become an Argos Participating Agency, Japan or a European Organization for the Exploitation of... CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.3 Definitions. For purposes of this part... of work for the award. (l) NOAA DCS means the GOES and Argos space-based DCS. (m) Non-profit...

  17. Generating a Reduced Gravity Environment on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dungan, L. K.; Valle, P.; Shy, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) is designed to simulate reduced gravity environments, such as Lunar, Martian, or microgravity using a vertical lifting hoist and horizontal motion system. Three directions of motion are provided over a 41 ft x 24 ft x 25 ft tall area. ARGOS supplies a continuous offload of a portion of a person's weight during dynamic motions such as walking, running, and jumping. The ARGOS system tracks the person's motion in the horizontal directions to maintain a vertical offload force directly above the person or payload by measuring the deflection of the cable and adjusting accordingly.

  18. [A tribute to the memory of the illustrious maestro and academic Dr. Rafael Méndez Martínez, pioneer in the pharmacological studies of digitalis and digitalis glycosides].

    PubMed

    de Micheli Serra, Alfredo; Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of the XVIII century, digitalis glycosides were employed in heart failure. They were considered initially as diuretics and later as cardiotonic agents or as positive inotropics. At the present time there are varied groups of positive inotropic agents, which have a beneficial action on the failing human myocardium. For example, the beta adrenergics, the phosphodiesterase III inhibitors such as milrinone, or the sensibilizers of myocardial proteins to Ca++ such as levosimendan and omecamtiv mecarbil. However, following the opinion of distinguished cardiologists, in the case of heart failure associated to atrial fibrillation, digitalis cannot be substituted. PMID:26526481

  19. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a tropical fruit with high levels of essential minerals-especially manganese-and its contribution as a source of natural mineral supplementation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption. PMID:24555649

  20. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects after acute and subacute treatments with açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) on mice using the erythrocytes micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliana Carvalho; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Darin, Joana D'arc Castania; De Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires

    2010-01-01

    Açai, the fruit of a palm native to the Amazonian basin, is widely distributed in northern South America, where it has considerable economic importance. Whereas individual polyphenolics compounds in açai have been extensively evaluated, studies of the intact fruit and its biological properties are lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo genotoxicity of açai and its possible antigenotoxicity on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced DNA damage. The açai pulp doses selected were 3.33, 10.0 and 16.67g/kg b.w. administered by gavage alone or prior to DXR (16mg/kg b.w.) administered by intraperitoneal injection. Swiss albino mice were distributed in eight groups for acute treatment with açai pulp (24h) and eight groups for subacute treatment (daily for 14 consecutive days) before euthanasia. The negative control groups were treated in a similar way. The results of chemical analysis suggested the presence of carotenoids, anthocyanins, phenolic, and flavonoids in açai pulp. The endpoints analyzed were micronucleus induction in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells polychromatic erythrocytes, and DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and kidney cells assessed using the alkaline (pH >13) comet assay. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the negative control and the groups treated with the three doses of açai pulp alone in all endpoints analyzed, demonstrating the absence of genotoxic effects. The protective effects of açai pulp were observed in both acute and subacute treatments, when administered prior to DXR. In general, subacute treatment provided greater efficiency in protecting against DXR-induced DNA damage in liver and kidney cells. These protective effects can be explained as the result of the phytochemicals present in açai pulp. These results will be applied to the developmental of food with functional characteristics, as well as to explore the characteristics of açai as a health promoter. PMID:19892033