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Sample records for mart simm ain

  1. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  2. Scoliosis curve analysis with Milwaukee orthosis based on Open SIMM modeling

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mohammad; Kavyani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis is a three-dimensional spinal deformity characterized by lateral curvature and rotational deformity of the spine. Various methods have been used to investigate the performance of the subjects during walking with an orthosis, but nobody study the biomechanics of orthotic use by understanding the length of the muscles and the force produced by them. Therefore, the aim of this research is to test the effect of the orthosis on the muscular force, tendon length during walking with and without orthosis. Materials and Methods: A 12-year-old scoliosis subject was recruited in this study. The forces produced by trunk musculature, joint reaction force, length of trunk musculature were some parameters selected in this study. Open SIMM and Visual 3D software were used to model the subject. Results: The results of this research showed that the length of erector spine muscles increased follow the use of orthosis. Moreover, the force produced by trunk muscles differed during walking with and without orthosis and also between right and left sides. Discussion: It seems that Open SIMM software can be used to predict the length of muscles, active-passive forces produced by muscles in scoliotic subjects. Therefore, it is recommended this research be done on more number of subjects. PMID:26288548

  3. Marte Vallis Platy Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-442, 4 August 2003

    The Marte Vallis system, located east of Cerberus and west of Amazonis Planitia, is known for its array of broken, platy flow features. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a close-up view of some of these plates; they appear to be like puzzle pieces that have been broken apart and moved away from each other. The Mars science community has been discussing these features for the past several years--either the flows in Marte Vallis are lava flows, or mud flows. In either case, the material was very fluid and had a thin crust on its surface. As the material continued to flow through the valley system, the crust broke up into smaller plates that were then rafted some distance down the valley. This picture is located near 6.9oN, 182.8oW. It is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  4. Marte Vallis Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows platy flow surfaces in the Marte Vallis region of Mars. The origin of the flows is not well-understood, but as some Mars scientists have suggested, the flows may be the product of low viscosity (very fluid), high temperature volcanic eruptions, or perhaps they are the remains of large-scale mud flows. In either case, the materials are solid and hold a record of small meteor impact craters, thus indicating that they are not composed of ice, as still others have speculated.

    Location near: 6.7oN, 182.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  5. A new high-resolution BOLAM-MOLOCH suite for the SIMM forecasting system: assessment over two HyMeX intense observation periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Coraci, E.; Malguzzi, P.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution numerical models can be effective in monitoring and predicting natural hazards, especially when dealing with Mediterranean atmospheric and marine intense/severe events characterised by a wide range of interacting scales. The understanding of the key factors associated to these Mediterranean phenomena, and the usefulness of adopting high-resolution numerical models in their simulation, are among the aims of the international initiative HyMeX - HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment. At the turn of 2013, two monitoring campaigns (SOPs - Special Observation Periods) were devoted to these issues. For this purpose, a new high-resolution BOlogna Limited Area Model-MOdello LOCale (BOLAM-MOLOCH) suite was implemented in the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) hydro-meteo-marine forecasting system (SIMM - Sistema Idro-Meteo-Mare) as a possible alternative to the operational meteorological component based on the BOLAM model self-nested over two lower-resolution domains. The present paper provides an assessment of this new configuration of SIMM with respect to the operational one that was also used during the two SOPs. More in details, it investigates the forecast performance of these SIMM configurations during two of the Intense Observation Periods (IOPs) declared in the first SOP campaign. These IOPs were characterised by high precipitations and very intense and exceptional high waters over the northern Adriatic Sea (acqua alta). Concerning the meteorological component, the high-resolution BOLAM-MOLOCH forecasts are compared against the lower-resolution BOLAM forecasts over three areas - mostly corresponding to the Italian HyMeX hydrometeorological sites - using the rainfall observations collected in the HyMeX database. Three-month categorical scores are also calculated for the MOLOCH model. Despite the presence of a slight positive bias of the MOLOCH model, the results show that the precipitation forecast turns out to improve

  6. Curiosity --El nuevo robot explorador de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte llamado Curiosity tiene grandes preguntas que responder una vez que llegue a Marte. Infórmese sobre la misión con el analista de trayectoria de la NASA Fern...

  7. Fabrication of AIN Nano-Structures Using Polarity Control by High Temperature Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Eom, Daeyong; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Jeon, Minhwan; Heo, Cheon; Pyeon, Jaedo; Nam, Okhyun

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the crystallographic polarity transition of AIN layers grown by high temperature metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (HT-MOCVD), with varying trimethylaluminum (TMAI) pre-flow rates. AIN layers grown without TMAI pre-flow had a mixed polarity, consisting of Al- and N-polarity, and exhibited a rough surface. With an increasing rate of TMAI pre-flow, the AIN layer was changed to an Al-polarity, with a smooth surface morphology. Finally, AIN nano-pillars and nano-rods of Al-polarity were fabricated by etching a mixed polarity AIN layer using an aqueous KOH solution. PMID:26373093

  8. Defects in AIN/GaN Superlattice: First Principle Calculations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Xue; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Cao, Juexian; Yan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the atomic configurations, electronic structure and formation energies of native point defects, (such as vacancies and self-interstitials), in an AIN/GaN superlattice (SL) constructed on a wurtzite structure along a [0001] growth direction. Comprehensive first-principle calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) are used. Cation and anion vacancies in the neutral charge state are calculated. For the native defects, the results showed that the most favorable configurations are the cation vacancies at the interface of the SL, or the anion vacancies in the GaN wells. Considering the formation energies of different vacancies, the results show that the nitrogen vacancy has the lowest formation energy, indicating that they are significantly the most stable configuration, and thus should be expected to be the major defect in a AIN/GaN superlattice. PMID:27398499

  9. Intensity-enhanced MART for tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, HongPing; Gao, Qi; Wei, RunJie; Wang, JinJun

    2016-05-01

    A novel technique to shrink the elongated particles and suppress the ghost particles in particle reconstruction of tomographic particle image velocimetry is presented. This method, named as intensity-enhanced multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (IntE-MART), utilizes an inverse diffusion function and an intensity suppressing factor to improve the quality of particle reconstruction and consequently the precision of velocimetry. A numerical assessment about vortex ring motion with and without image noise is performed to evaluate the new algorithm in terms of reconstruction, particle elongation and velocimetry. The simulation is performed at seven different seeding densities. The comparison of spatial filter MART and IntE-MART on the probability density function of particle peak intensity suggests that one of the local minima of the distribution can be used to separate the ghosts and actual particles. Thus, ghost removal based on IntE-MART is also introduced. To verify the application of IntE-MART, a real plate turbulent boundary layer experiment is performed. The result indicates that ghost reduction can increase the accuracy of RMS of velocity field.

  10. Further research at the Oldowan site of Ain Hanech, North-eastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Sahnouni, Mohamed; Hadjouis, Djillali; van der Made, Jan; Derradji, Abd El-Kader; Canals, Antoni; Medig, Mohamed; Belahrech, Hocine; Harichane, Zoheir; Rabhi, Merouane

    2002-12-01

    Further investigations were carried out at Ain Hanech, Algeria in 1998 and 1999 to explore its potential for investigating early hominid behavioral patterns and adaptation. Research concentrated on the stratigraphy and dating, identifying new archaeological deposits, and excavating the Ain Hanech and El-Kherba localities. To enhance the chronological control within a biostratigraphic framework, the Ain Boucherit fossil-bearing stratum, yielding a Plio-Pleistocene fauna, is correlated with the regional stratigraphy. In the stratigraphic sequence, the Ain Boucherit stratum, located 13m below the Ain Hanech Oldowan occurrences, is found in Unit Q of the Ain Hanech Formation. Unit Q shows a paleomagnetically reversed polarity, which may be correlated with an age earlier than the Olduvai normal subchron (1.95-1.77Ma). Based on test trenches and stratigraphic analyses, additional Oldowan deposits A, B, and C are identified at Ain Hanech. All three deposits and the El-Kherba site contain Mode I technology artefacts associated with an Early Pleistocene fauna. El-Kherba is stratigraphically equivalent to Ain Hanech. These two archaeological sites are estimated to be dated to about 1.8Ma. PMID:12473489

  11. iSIMM (Integrated Seismic Imaging and Modelling of Margins): Seismic Acquisition on the Faroes Shelf, Hatton Bank and adjacent Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, B.; Kusznir, N.; Christie, P.; Roberts, A. M.; Lunnon, Z.; Roberts, A. W.; Hurst, N.; Smith, L.; Parkin, C.; Surendra, A.; Davies, A.

    2002-12-01

    The iSIMM project is using state-of-the art seismic techniques with long-offset and wide-angle data, to image the crust formed on volcanic continental margins in parallel with developing and testing new quantitative models of rifted margin formation, incorporating heterogeneous stretching, the effects of melt generation and emplacement and varying thermal anomalies in the mantle. During June-July 2002, we used RRS Discovery to acquire wide angle and normal incidence seismic data on the Faroes Shelf and adjacent continental margin, Hatton-Rockall Basin, Hatton Bank and the adjacent oceanic crust using OBS and MCS. In August 2002, WesternGeco's Topaz used three single-sensor, Q-Marine streamers, 12km plus two 4km, to overshoot the wide-angle profiles on the Faroes Shelf and adjacent continental margin. In the Faroes region we deployed 85 4-component ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and 5 vertical arrays along a 350km-long profile extending from the Faroes-Shetland Channel across the Faroes Shelf and continental margin into the oceanic crust of the Norwegian Sea. The entire profile was shot twice. First with a 6,300 cubic inch airgun array towed at 20 m depth and tuned to enhance the initial peak output pressure pulse. Second, with the airguns reconfigured to enhance the low-frequency bubble waveform, producing a source rich in low frequency energy (centred on 10-12 Hz), and with a broad bandwidth. Shots were spaced at either 75 m or 100 m, giving shot repetition rates in excess of 60 secs, thus avoiding contaminating with wrap-round energy from the previous shot. The Q-Marine acquisition used a 48-gun, 10,170 cu. in. airgun array, also tuned to enhance the low-frequency bubble signature, shooting at 50m/20s intervals and recorded on individual sensors for optimal grouping. The streamer configuration provides swath coverage at shorter offsets, while the long offsets record diving waves and wide-angle reflections. Shot-by-shot source signature recording will facilitate

  12. NiAl-Base Composite Containing High Volume Fraction of AIN Particulate for Advanced Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Lowell, C. E.; Garg, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cryomilling of prealloyed NiAl containing 53 at. % AJ was carried out to achieve high nitrogen levels. The consolidation of cryomilled powder by extrusion or hot pressing/ hot isostatic pressing resulted in a fully dense NiAl-base composite containing 30 vol. % of inhomogeneously distributed, nanosized AIN particulate. The NiAl-30AIN composite exhibited the highest compression yield strengths at all temperatures between 300 and 1300 K as compared with other compositions of NiAl-AIN composite. The NiAl-30AIN specimens tested under compressive creep loading between 1300 and 1500 K also exhibited the highest creep resistance with very little surface oxidation indicating also their superior elevated temperature oxidation resistance. In the high stress exponent regime, the strength is proportional to the square root of the AIN content and in the low stress exponent regime, the influence of AIN content on strength appears to be less dramatic. The specific creep strength of this material at 1300 K is superior to a first generation Ni-base single crystal superalloy. The improvements in elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance have been achieved without sacrificing the room temperature fracture toughness of the NiAl-base material. Based on its attractive combination of properties, the NiAl-30AIN composite is a potential candidate for advanced engine applications,

  13. Air quality in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital.

    PubMed

    El Awady, M Y; El Rahman, A T Abd; Al Bagoury, L S; Mossad, I M

    2014-12-01

    Through air sampling, it was possible to evaluate microbial contamination in environments at high risk of infection, and to check the efficiency of ventilation system and the medical team's hygiene procedures. This study measured the concentration of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 or less microns and microbiological organisms in operating rooms (OR), intensive care units (ICU) and emergency rooms (ER) in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital, and to assess ventilation characteristics in operating rooms in the hospital. The passive air sampling was done from ICUs, ORs, and ERs in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital. Also for each operating room, an observational checklist was done to record other factors that may affect air quality in the room. The evaluated air quality indices were: suspended (PM) 2.5 micrometer or less, culture media and microbial identification of bacteria and fungi, and temperature and relative humidity. The results showed that the highest mean found for bacterial (105.70±30.49) and fungi concentration (7.50±5.30) was in ER. The three settings did not differ statistically as regard levels of PM 2.5, temperature, and relative humidity. A positive correlation exits between bacteria and fungi concentration on one hand and relative humidity on the other. Diphteroid, CONS, MRSA, S. aureus, and Anthracoid were the most frequent isolated bacterial types, while Penicillium and Asperigillus fumigatus were the most frequent isolated fungi. In operating rooms, the percent of unmasked persons present and the temperature positively influence the bacterial count, while ventilation condition is negatively influencing fungi count, and the number of persons present in the operating room positively affects the PM level. PMID:25643516

  14. A hydrologic and archeologic study of climate change in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Yasin al-Tikiriti, Walid

    2003-01-01

    Aridity trends established for Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, for the past 4500 years correlate with the trends of increased well depths and declining groundwater levels. Depth of wells found at archeologic sites at Hili near Al Ain were correlated to groundwater levels. Trends of declining groundwater levels were related to trends of increasing aridity (climate change). The increasing aridity had a pronounced affect on man's development in Al Ain area as well. For example, nonirrigation farming could not be successfully sustained at the end of the Bronze Age. This thwarted the economic development until the falaj (a water conveyance structure) was introduced in the Iron Age. The aridity trends in Al Ain correspond to contemporaneous aridity trends noted in Mesopotamia and the Dead Sea area, as well as the Middle East, Mediterranean, and northern Africa, in general. Other global climatic changes that are contemporaneous with climate change at Al Ain have been noted. The increased aridity (desertification) trends at Al Ain are contemporaneous with increased atmospheric CO 2 trends as reported by Indermuhle et al. [Nature (398) 121].

  15. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  16. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "acai" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received c...

  17. Characterization of the Ain Khemouda halloysite (western Tunisia) for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben M'barek Jemaï, Moufida; Sdiri, Ali; Errais, Emna; Duplay, Joelle; Ben Saleh, Imed; Zagrarni, Mohamed Faouzi; Bouaziz, Samir

    2015-11-01

    White clays of Ain Khemouda (Western Tunisia), filling the post-Miocene palaeokarsts cavities dug in the intermediate limestones bed of the Douleb formation (Senonian system), were used as raw materials for the preparation of ceramic bodies. Natural clay samples, collected from the Ain Khemouda palaekarsts to the North of Jebel Semmama (Kasserine, Tunisia), were characterized by different techniques. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Thermal analysis was also performed by thermogravimetry (TG-DTA), dilatometry and Bigot's curve. Chemical analysis indicated that the studied clay was composed of silica and alumina as major elements with the ratio SiO2/(Al2O3 + Fe2O3) close to 2. Significant amounts of zinc and iron oxides subordinated the main alumino-silicates minerals. Mineralogical analysis showed that Ain Khemouda white clay consisted of halloysite and meta-halloysite mixture. Characteristic peaks of halloysite occurred near 10 Å and 7 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed rolled wafers, characterizing the tubular shape of halloysite. From these results, it could be concluded that Ain Khemouda clay was Zn-aluminous hydrated halloysite (10 Å). In addition, cation exchange capacity (CEC) was relatively low (18 mEq/100 g), indicating insufficient edge valences. Industrial ceramic tests performed at the laboratory scale indicated that the Ain Khemouda clays have the required technical specifications to be used as raw materials for ceramic tiles and refractory ceramic manufacturing.

  18. Infant-feeding practices in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Osman, N A; el-Sabban, F F

    1999-01-01

    A survey was conducted to study the practices of infant-feeding and the influencing factors in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. It involved 375 mothers of different nationalities and backgrounds and 300 healthy infants. The mothers were interviewed at four primary health care clinics in Al-Ain. Results showed that 46% of infants were breastfed for 4-6 months. The mother's nationality and her educational status were significant influences on the mother's decision to exclusively breast-feed the infant, for how long and when to introduce supplementary food. Fresh cow and goat milk were the most common supplements. Inclusion of baby formula as a supplement generally occurred early, perhaps because of advertising and the affluence in Al-Ain. PMID:10793786

  19. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need for an integrated water resources management strategy towards achieving sustainable development. This strategy will contain three main components; namely, a Water Demand Forecasting Model (WDFM), a Water Budget Model (WBM), and a Water Resources Optimization Model (WROM). The main aim of this paper is to present the WBM that estimates all inflows and outflows to assess water resources sustainability in the city.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  1. FIT-MART: Quantum Magnetism with a Gentle Learning Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Larry; Garland, Scott C.; Rainey, Cameron; Freeman, Ray A.

    We present a new open-source software package, FIT-MART, that allows non-experts to quickly get started sim- ulating quantum magnetism. FIT-MART can be downloaded as a platform-idependent executable Java (JAR) file. It allows the user to define (Heisenberg) Hamiltonians by electronically drawing pictures that represent quantum spins and operators. Sliders are automatically generated to control the values of the parameters in the model, and when the values change, several plots are updated in real time to display both the resulting energy spectra and the equilibruim magnetic properties. Several experimental data sets for real magnetic molecules are included in FIT-MART to allow easy comparison between simulated and experimental data, and FIT-MART users can also import their own data for analysis and compare the goodness of fit for different models.

  2. Prenatal development in fishers (Martes pennanti)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, H.C.; Krohn, W.B.; Bezembluk, E.A.; Lott, R.; Wallace, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and quantified prenatal growth of fishers (Martes pennanti) using ultrasonography. Seven females gave birth to 21 kits. The first identifiable embryonic structures were seen 42 d prepartum; these appeared to be unimplanted blastocysts or gestational sacs, which subsequently implanted in the uterine horns. Maternal and fetal heart rates were monitored from first detection to birth. Maternal heart rates did not differ among sampling periods, while fetal hearts rates increased from first detection to birth. Head and body differentiation, visible limbs and skeletal ossification were visible by 30, 23 and 21 d prepartum, respectively. Mean diameter of gestational sacs and crown-rump lengths were linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001). Biparietal and body diameters were also linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001) and correctly predicted parturition dates within 1-2 d. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Systematic identification of miRISC proteins, miRNAs, and their mRNA targets in C. elegans by their interactions with GW182 family proteins AIN-1 and AIN-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ding, Lei; Cheung, Tom H.; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Chen, Jun; Sewell, Aileen K.; Liu, Xuedong; Yates, John R.; Han, Min

    2007-01-01

    Summary MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression for diverse functions, but only a limited number of mRNA targets have been experimentally identified. We show that GW182 family proteins AIN-1 and AIN-2 act redundantly to regulate the expression of miRNA targets, but not miRNA biogenesis. Immunoprecipitation (IP) and mass spectrometry indicate that AIN-1 and AIN-2 interact only with miRNA-specific Argonaute proteins ALG-1 and ALG-2 and with components of the core translational initiation complex. Known miRNA targets are enriched in AIN-2 complexes, correlating with the expression of corresponding miRNAs. Combining IP with pyrosequencing and microarray analysis of RNAs associated with AIN-1/AIN-2, we identified 106 previously annotated miRNAs plus 9 new candidate miRNAs, but nearly no siRNAs, and more than 3500 potential miRNA targets including nearly all known ones. Our results demonstrate an effective biochemical approach to systematically identify miRNA targets and provide valuable insights regarding the properties of miRNA effector complexes. PMID:18042455

  4. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  5. The Scientific Method Ain't What It Used to Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Remember the time when all you had to do was memorize these five steps: ask a question, formulate a hypothesis, perform experiment, collect data, and draw conclusions? And you received full credit for defining the scientific method. Well, those days are gone. This article discusses why the "scientific method ain't what it used to be." (Contains 2…

  6. Performance Variables: Some Versions of Dylan's "It Ain't Me, Babe."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poague, Leland A.

    1979-01-01

    Using Bob Dylan's three somewhat different versions of "It Ain't Me, Babe," the author investigates the variables of Dylan's performances and how they alter the meanings of his songs, and suggests that the more we know about popular song the more we will understand the songs we subsequently encounter. (KC)

  7. The MARTE VNIR Imaging Spectrometer Experiment: Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Sutter, Brad; Dunagan, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    We report on the design, operation, and data analysis methods employed on the VNIR imaging spectrometer instrument that was part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). The imaging spectrometer is a hyperspectral scanning pushbroom device sensitive to VNIR wavelengths from 400-1000 nm. During the MARTE project, the spectrometer was deployed to the Río Tinto region of Spain. We analyzed subsets of three cores from Río Tinto using a new band modeling technique. We found most of the MARTE drill cores to contain predominantly goethite, though spatially coherent areas of hematite were identified in Core 23. We also distinguished non Fe-bearing minerals that were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be primarily muscovite. We present drill core maps that include spectra of goethite, hematite, and non Fe-bearing minerals.

  8. Early human settlements in Northern Africa: paleomagnetic evidence from the Ain Hanech Formation (northeastern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parés, J. M.; Sahnouni, M.; Van der Made, J.; Pérez-González, A.; Harichane, Z.; Derradji, A.; Medig, M.

    2014-09-01

    The question of the earliest hominid settlements in northern Africa has been under debate for a number of years due to the lack of precise chronologies. Here we present new paleomagnetic data that supports an Olduvai Subchron age for the archaeological sites at Ain Hanech and El-Kherba, in northern Algeria. Our study is based on a 22 m-thick magnetostratigraphy of the Ain Hanech Formation, which includes contextualized Oldowan and Acheulian lithic tools. Characteristic remanent magnetization directions were obtained from both thermal and alternating field demagnetization procedures of specimens from twenty five sampled horizons. Our results reveal the presence of the Olduvai Subchron in the upper part of the stratigraphic section, constraining the age of these important archaeological sites in northern Africa.

  9. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  10. "Dateline NBC"'s Persuasive Attack on Wal-Mart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Dorries, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Develops a typology of persuasive attack strategies. Identifies two key components of persuasive attack: responsibility and offensiveness. Describes several strategies for intensifying each of these elements. Applies this analysis to "Dateline NBC"'s allegations that Wal-Mart's "Buy American" campaign was deceptive. Concludes that "Dateline NBC'"s…

  11. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  12. Development of U-Mart System with Plural Brands and Plural Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Yoshihito; Mori, Naoki; Ono, Isao; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Kita, Hajime; Matsumoto, Keinosuke

    In this paper, we first discuss the notion that artificial market systems should meet the requirements of fidelity, transparency, reproducibility, and traceability. Next, we introduce history of development of the artificial market system named U-Mart system that meet the requirements well, which have been developed by the U-Mart project. We have already developed the U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 3.0” to solve problems of old U-Mart systems. In version 3.0 system, trading process is modularized and universal market system can be easily introduced.
    However, U-Mart system version 3.0 only simulates the single brand futures market. The simulation of the plural brands and plural markets has been required by lot of users. In this paper, we proposed a novel U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 4.0” to solve this problem of U-Mart system version 3.0. We improve the server system, machine agents and GUI in order to simulate plural brands and plural markets in U-Mart system version 4.0. The effectiveness of the proposed system is confirmed by statistical analysis of results of spot market simulation with random agents.

  13. The F-actin bundler α-actinin Ain1 is tailored for ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Christensen, Jenna R; Homa, Kaitlin E; Hocky, Glen M; Fok, Alice; Sees, Jennifer A; Voth, Gregory A; Kovar, David R

    2016-06-01

    The actomyosin contractile ring is a network of cross-linked actin filaments that facilitates cytokinesis in dividing cells. Contractile ring formation has been well characterized in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in which the cross-linking protein α-actinin SpAin1 bundles the actin filament network. However, the specific biochemical properties of SpAin1 and whether they are tailored for cytokinesis are not known. Therefore we purified SpAin1 and quantified its ability to dynamically bind and bundle actin filaments in vitro using a combination of bulk sedimentation assays and direct visualization by two-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that, while SpAin1 bundles actin filaments of mixed polarity like other α-actinins, SpAin1 has lower bundling activity and is more dynamic than human α-actinin HsACTN4. To determine whether dynamic bundling is important for cytokinesis in fission yeast, we created the less dynamic bundling mutant SpAin1(R216E). We found that dynamic bundling is critical for cytokinesis, as cells expressing SpAin1(R216E) display disorganized ring material and delays in both ring formation and constriction. Furthermore, computer simulations of initial actin filament elongation and alignment revealed that an intermediate level of cross-linking best facilitates filament alignment. Together our results demonstrate that dynamic bundling by SpAin1 is important for proper contractile ring formation and constriction. PMID:27075176

  14. The F-actin bundler α-actinin Ain1 is tailored for ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujie; Christensen, Jenna R.; Homa, Kaitlin E.; Hocky, Glen M.; Fok, Alice; Sees, Jennifer A.; Voth, Gregory A.; Kovar, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The actomyosin contractile ring is a network of cross-linked actin filaments that facilitates cytokinesis in dividing cells. Contractile ring formation has been well characterized in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in which the cross-linking protein α-actinin SpAin1 bundles the actin filament network. However, the specific biochemical properties of SpAin1 and whether they are tailored for cytokinesis are not known. Therefore we purified SpAin1 and quantified its ability to dynamically bind and bundle actin filaments in vitro using a combination of bulk sedimentation assays and direct visualization by two-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that, while SpAin1 bundles actin filaments of mixed polarity like other α-actinins, SpAin1 has lower bundling activity and is more dynamic than human α-actinin HsACTN4. To determine whether dynamic bundling is important for cytokinesis in fission yeast, we created the less dynamic bundling mutant SpAin1(R216E). We found that dynamic bundling is critical for cytokinesis, as cells expressing SpAin1(R216E) display disorganized ring material and delays in both ring formation and constriction. Furthermore, computer simulations of initial actin filament elongation and alignment revealed that an intermediate level of cross-linking best facilitates filament alignment. Together our results demonstrate that dynamic bundling by SpAin1 is important for proper contractile ring formation and constriction. PMID:27075176

  15. The BioMart interface to the eMouseAtlas gene expression database EMAGE.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Peter; Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Yang, Yiya; Baldock, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe the BioMart interface to the eMouseAtlas gene expression database EMAGE. EMAGE is a spatiotemporal database of in situ gene expression patterns in the developing mouse embryo. BioMart provides a generic web query interface and programmable access using web services. The BioMart interface extends access to EMAGE via a powerful method of structuring complex queries and one with which users may already be familiar with from other BioMart implementations. The interface is structured into several data sets providing the user with comprehensive query access to the EMAGE data. The federated nature of BioMart allows scope for integration and cross querying of EMAGE with other similar BioMarts. PMID:21930504

  16. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  17. Analysis of Urban Expansion of the Resort City of Al Ain Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, S.; Al Shuwaihi, A.

    2009-12-01

    The urban growth of AL Ain city has been investigated using remote sensing data for three different dates, 1972, 1990 and 2000. We used three Landsat images together with socio-economic data in a post-classification analysis to map the spatial dynamics of land use/cover changes and identify the urbanization process in Al Ain resort city, United Arab Emirates. Land use/cover statistics, extracted from Landsat Multi-spectral Scanner (MSS). Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) images for 1972. 1990 and 2000 respectively, revealed that the built-up area has expanded by about 170.53km2. The city was found to have a tendency for major expansion in four different directions: along the Abu Dhabi highway, along Dubai highway, Myziad direction and Hafeet recreational area. Expansion in any direction was found to be governed by the availability of road network, suitability for construction, utilities, economic activities, geographical constraints, and legal factors (boundary with Sultanate of Oman). The road network in particular has influenced the spatial patterns and structure of urban development, so that the expansion of the built-up areas has assumed an accretive as well as linear growth along the major roads. The research concludes that the development is based on conservation of agricultural areas (oases) and reclamation of the desert for farming and agricultural activities. The integration of remote sensing and GIS was found to be effective in monitoring LULC changes and providing valuable information necessary for planning and research.

  18. Carmen Martín Gaite and the Writing of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief article, David Herzberger begins by describing how, with the help of Juan Benet as her interlocutor in 1966, renowned Spanish author Carmen Martín Gaite found her historiographic voice. Herzberger goes on to examine how this relates to Martín Gaite's legacy in historiography and her understanding of the Franco regime and the Spanish…

  19. Concepto de ingeniería del Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El robot más grande y "más malo", y más nuevo para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte. Tiene el tamaño de un vehículo utilitario deportivo y está provisto de 10 instrumentos, nunca antes h...

  20. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  1. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  2. 78 FR 46952 - Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Marketing Claims, 77 FR 62, 122, 62,123 (Oct. 11, 2012). Parts III though VI require Relief-Mart to: Keep... Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint...

  3. GrameneMart: the biomart data portal for the gramene project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Gramene project was an early adopter of the BioMart software, which remains an integral and well-used component of the Gramene web site. BioMart accessible data sets include plant gene annotations, plant variation catalogues, genetic markers, physical mapping entities, public DNA/mRNA sequences ...

  4. Prevalence and correlates of childhood fears in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, N A; Eapen, V; Bener, A

    2001-05-01

    The prevalence of fear was explored in 340 adolescents in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. More than 50% reported feeling extremely frightened of 6 out of 60 fear items surveyed. These items were: someone dying in the family (66.5%), parents getting divorced (65.3%), the devil (63.8%), breaking a religious law (61.5%), being kidnapped (53.2%) and being adopted (49.9%). The level of fear showed a significant positive correlation with female gender, parental death/divorce, living with a single parent/relatives, living in low income families and an adverse home environment. Nearly half of the children reported that the fear caused considerable distress and interfered with daily activities. PMID:12690762

  5. Breastfeeding and supplemental feeding for neonates in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    al-Mazroui, M J; Oyejide, C O; Bener, A; Cheema, M Y

    1997-10-01

    A prospective cohort study was carried out to determine the factors affecting initiation of breastfeeding, and describe patterns of breastfeeding and supplemental feeding in the multiethnically and culturally diverse population of Al Ain, UAE. Two-hundred-and-twenty-one infants completed the 4 weeks of follow up. None of the mothers opted not to breastfeed, but only 4 per cent of them practiced exclusive breastfeeding during the first month of the infants' life; 51 per cent of them initiated breastfeeding on the first day of life. Factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding beyond the first day of life included low birth weight, complicated delivery, ignorance of the advantages of colostrum, and young maternal age. Non-milk supplements fed to babies included water, tea, juice, yansun, and babunj (local herbal drinks). The preferred method of feeding the supplements was the feeding bottle. There were significant associations between the use of these supplements and the mother's nationality and education. PMID:9364130

  6. Trypanocidal activity of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Takeara, R; Albuquerque, S; Lopes, N P; Lopes, J L C

    2003-01-01

    In the continuing search for new compounds with trypanocidal activity for use in blood banks to prevent the transmission of Chagas' disease, a trypanocidal extract of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) was fractionated using several chromatographic techniques and afforded the following flavonoids: tectochrysin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin 3-acetate, pinocembrin, chrysin, galangin 3-methyl ether, quercetin 3-methyl ether, chrysoeriol and vicenin-2. The most active compound was quercetin 3-methyl ether, which showed no blood lysis activity and which represents a promising compound for use against T. cruzi in blood banks. PMID:13678232

  7. High pressure sintering of non-oxide materials. [hot pressing AIN, TiC, and alpha-Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimado, M.; Ogawa, N.; Koizumi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Pure materials of AIN, alpha-Si3N4 and TiC, without additives were sintered at 800 C to 1400 C under the pressures of 30 kbar and 50 kbar for 0.5 hours. The maximum density of sintered bodies for the cited materials was nearly 100% for AIN, 98% for TiC and 96% for alpha-Si3N4.

  8. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C.; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)2D3 and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769

  9. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)₂D₃), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769

  10. Motion tracking-enhanced MART for tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Matteo; Joost Batenburg, Kees; Scarano, Fulvio

    2010-03-01

    A novel technique to increase the accuracy of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) reconstruction from tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) recordings at higher seeding density than currently possible is presented. The motion tracking enhancement (MTE) method is based on the combined utilization of images from two or more exposures to enhance the reconstruction of individual intensity fields. The working principle is first introduced qualitatively, and the mathematical background is given that explains how the MART reconstruction can be improved on the basis of an improved first guess object obtained from the combination of non-simultaneous views reduced to the same time instant deforming the 3D objects by an estimate of the particle motion field. The performances of MTE are quantitatively evaluated by numerical simulation of the imaging, reconstruction and image correlation processes. The cases of two or more exposures obtained from time-resolved experiments are considered. The iterative application of MTE appears to significantly improve the reconstruction quality, first by decreasing the intensity of the ghost images and second, by increasing the intensity and the reconstruction precision for the actual particles. Based on computer simulations, the maximum imaged seeding density that can be dealt with is tripled with respect to the MART analysis applied to a single exposure. The analysis also illustrates that the maximum effect of the MTE method is comparable to that of doubling the number of cameras in the tomographic system. Experiments performed on a transitional jet at Re = 5000 apply the MTE method to double-frame recordings. The velocity measurement precision is increased for a system with fewer views (two or three cameras compared with four cameras). The ghost particles' intensity is also visibly reduced although to a lesser extent with respect to the computer simulations. The velocity and vorticity field obtained from a three

  11. Sorption behavior of cesium on Ain Oussera soil under different physicochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, A; Souahi, F; Hanini, S

    2010-12-15

    In the present study, the sorption behavior of cesium was investigated in Ain Oussera soil around the Es-Salam reactor facility. This study was conducted using batch method under different physicochemical conditions including contact time, ionic strength, pH, solid/liquid ratio and temperature. The results showed that sorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good regression coefficients (R(2)=0.999). The activation energies were 11.26 and 15.21 kJ mol(-1) which correspond to ion-exchange-type sorption mechanism. The adsorption was favored at low temperature and it was exothermic (ΔH(0)<0, with average value of -1.97 kJ mol(-1)) and spontaneous (ΔG(0)<0, with average value of -11.97 kJ mol(-1) at 23°C and -13.2 kJ mol(-1) at 60°C). The presence of competing cations such as K(+) and Ca(2+) ions in groundwater can significantly reduce the Cs adsorption onto soil. Desorption reaction was also investigated using three reagents with different ionic strengths (deionized water, groundwater and 0.1M KCl solution). The results showed that Cs ions were preferentially distributed onto high affinity sorption sites. PMID:20869168

  12. Water-rock interaction and geochemistry of groundwater from the Ain Azel aquifer, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belkhiri, Lazhar; Mouni, Lotfi; Tiri, Ammar

    2012-02-01

    Hydrochemical, multivariate statistical, and inverse geochemical modeling techniques were used to investigate the hydrochemical evolution within the Ain Azel aquifer, Algeria. Cluster analysis based on major ion contents defined 3 main chemical water types, reflecting different hydrochemical processes. The first group water, group 1, has low salinity (mean EC = 735 μS/cm). The second group waters are classified as Cl-HCO(3)-alkaline earth type. The third group is made up of water samples, the cation composition of which is dominated by Ca and Mg with anion composition varying from dominantly Cl to dominantly HCO(3) plus SO(4). The varifactors obtained from R-mode FA indicate that the parameters responsible for groundwater quality variations are mainly related to the presence and dissolution of some carbonate, silicate, and evaporite minerals in the aquifer. Inverse geochemical modeling along groundwater flow paths indicates the dominant processes are the consumption of CO(2), the dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and halite, along with the precipitation of calcite, Ca-montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite, and quartz. PMID:21336647

  13. Epidemiology of childhood burns in the burn unit of Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Badawy, A; Mabrouk, A R

    1998-12-01

    Childhood burns in Egypt are a significant problem, especially in families of low socioeconomic status. These families live in overcrowded flats, which lack proper hygiene and tend to use kerosene stoves, which lack any safety measures. Three hundred and five burned children presented to the burn unit of Ain Shams University over a 20 month period. Proportionately more boys than girls were injured. There was an increase in the incidence between the ages of 4 to 6 years. Scalds formed 56.7% of the cause of burns, while 38.6% were due to flame. In 3 and 1.6% the cause of burn was electrical and chemical, respectively. 20 patients were victims of industrial accidents showing a major problem of entrance of children between 8-15 years of lower socioeconomic class into the labor force. 87.2% of the patients had minor burns while 13 children (4.3%) died of the consequences of burns during the period of the study. PMID:9915673

  14. Pediatric and Youth Traffic-Collision Injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O.; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC), use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. Methods All RTC injured children and youth (0–19-year-olds) who were admitted to Al Ain City’s two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. Results 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37%) followed by front impact collision (32%). 32 (13%) of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170) vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23) motorcyclists a helmet. Conclusions Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed. PMID:23861931

  15. Deformation history of the Neoproterozoic basement complex, Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia, is occupied by four main rock units; gneisses, metavolcanics, metasediments and syn- to post-tectonic granitoids. Field and structural studies reveal that the area was subjected to at least three phases of deformation (D1, D2 and D3). The structural features of the D1 are represented by tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), axial plane foliation (S1) and stretching lineations (L1). This phase is believed to be resulted from an early NW-SE contractional phase due to the amalgamation between Asir and Jeddah tectonic terranes. D2 deformation phase progressively overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by thrusts, minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds. These structures indicate a top-to-the-NW movement direction and compressional regime during the D2 phase. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during this phase. D3 structures are manifested F3 folds, which are open with steep to subvertical axial planes and axes moderately to steeply plunging towards the E, ENE and ESE directions, L3 is represented by crenulation lineations and kink bands. These structures attest NE-SW contractional phase, concurrent with the accretion of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) to the Saharan Metacraton (SM) and the final assembly between the continental blocks of East and West Gondwana.

  16. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although vitamin D deficiency has been studied in various adult populations, there are few data on the prevalence of this nutritional deficiency among healthy adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to examine its correlates in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in urban schools. Healthy adolescents (N=315) from a sample of 8 schools were randomly selected from the 142 schools in Al Ain, Abu Dhabi Emirate. Outcomes measured included serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), plasma lipids, blood sugar, blood pressure and anthropometric data, nutrition and lifestyle variables. Results Fourty-one participants (19.7%) were vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD level ≤15 ng/mL [≤37.5 nmol/L]. Using a cutoff level of 25(OH) D of ≤20 ng/ml [≤50 nmol/l] 143 participants (45.4%) were vitamin D insufficient. Overall 65.1% of study participants were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied between boys (10%) and girls (28%). In a final multivariate model, serum 25(OH) D concentrations were inversely correlated with female gender, consumption of fast food per week, and body mass index and positively correlated with physical activity scores after adjustment for age. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in adolescents, and more common in girls. PMID:23311702

  17. BioMart: a data federation framework for large collaborative projects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed; Baran, Joachim; Cros, Anthony; Guberman, Jonathan M; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart is a freely available, open source, federated database system that provides a unified access to disparate, geographically distributed data sources. It is designed to be data agnostic and platform independent, such that existing databases can easily be incorporated into the BioMart framework. BioMart allows databases hosted on different servers to be presented seamlessly to users, facilitating collaborative projects between different research groups. BioMart contains several levels of query optimization to efficiently manage large data sets and offers a diverse selection of graphical user interfaces and application programming interfaces to ensure that queries can be performed in whatever manner is most convenient for the user. The software has now been adopted by a large number of different biological databases spanning a wide range of data types and providing a rich source of annotation available to bioinformaticians and biologists alike. PMID:21930506

  18. An efficient and accurate approach to MTE-MART for time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. P.; Scarano, F.

    2015-03-01

    The motion-tracking-enhanced MART (MTE-MART; Novara et al. in Meas Sci Technol 21:035401, 2010) has demonstrated the potential to increase the accuracy of tomographic PIV by the combined use of a short sequence of non-simultaneous recordings. A clear bottleneck of the MTE-MART technique has been its computational cost. For large datasets comprising time-resolved sequences, MTE-MART becomes unaffordable and has been barely applied even for the analysis of densely seeded tomographic PIV datasets. A novel implementation is proposed for tomographic PIV image sequences, which strongly reduces the computational burden of MTE-MART, possibly below that of regular MART. The method is a sequential algorithm that produces a time-marching estimation of the object intensity field based on an enhanced guess, which is built upon the object reconstructed at the previous time instant. As the method becomes effective after a number of snapshots (typically 5-10), the sequential MTE-MART (SMTE) is most suited for time-resolved sequences. The computational cost reduction due to SMTE simply stems from the fewer MART iterations required for each time instant. Moreover, the method yields superior reconstruction quality and higher velocity field measurement precision when compared with both MART and MTE-MART. The working principle is assessed in terms of computational effort, reconstruction quality and velocity field accuracy with both synthetic time-resolved tomographic images of a turbulent boundary layer and two experimental databases documented in the literature. The first is the time-resolved data of flow past an airfoil trailing edge used in the study of Novara and Scarano (Exp Fluids 52:1027-1041, 2012); the second is a swirling jet in a water flow. In both cases, the effective elimination of ghost particles is demonstrated in number and intensity within a short temporal transient of 5-10 frames, depending on the seeding density. The increased value of the velocity space

  19. Optimization of the volume reconstruction for classical Tomo-PIV algorithms (MART, BIMART and SMART): synthetic and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, L.; Tremblais, B.; David, L.

    2014-03-01

    Optimization of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), simultaneous MART and block iterative MART reconstruction techniques was carried out on synthetic and experimental data. Different criteria were defined to improve the preprocessing of the initial images. Knowledge of how each reconstruction parameter influences the quality of particle volume reconstruction and computing time is the key in Tomo-PIV. These criteria were applied to a real case, a jet in cross flow, and were validated.

  20. Awareness of breast cancer among female students at Ain Shams University, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Dina Nabih Kamel; Ghali, Ramy R

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and early detection methods and to identify knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among Ain Shams University female students. This is a descriptive cross sectional study.Most study participants had low level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. The most widely known risk factors by the students were smoking 66.9%, followed by radiation to the chest 63.7% and genetic factors 63.7%. Most of the students (81.6%) identified breast lump as a symptom for breast cancer. However, non lump symptoms were less known and less than half were aware of other warning signs. Mass media such as TV and/or radio were identified as the main source of information on breast cancer by 89.1% of students followed by relatives 39.2%. Only 8.8% of students identified correctly the appropriate time to perform breast self examination and 1.3% reported performing it regularly every month. The most common reasons for not practicing BSE were" did not know how to perform it" (47.7%) and lack of interest (35%). The findings of this study showed that there is low level of knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs and BSE among female university students and that only few students practice BSE monthly. Health care workers should develop effective breast health programs targeting youth to help females to gain healthy habits starting very early during their formative years. PMID:24373275

  1. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Mandell, H.; McKay, D.; George, J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Amils, R.; Stevens, T.; Miller, D.

    2003-03-01

    MARTE is a Mars analog drilling experiment to search for subsurface life on Mars while also characterizing a sulfide-based subsurface biosphere. MARTE is among the first set of field experiments supported by the ASTEP program.

  2. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart?

    PubMed

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E

    2010-03-01

    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens. PMID:20004606

  3. A mitogenomic phylogeny and genetic history of sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2014-10-15

    We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300 thousandyears ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~50-140 kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40 kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22 kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~23-50 kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka. PMID:25110108

  4. S-MART, A Software Toolbox to Aid RNA-seq Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zytnicki, Matthias; Quesneville, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing is now routinely performed in many experiments. But the analysis of the millions of sequences generated, is often beyond the expertise of the wet labs who have no personnel specializing in bioinformatics. Whereas several tools are now available to map high-throughput sequencing data on a genome, few of these can extract biological knowledge from the mapped reads. We have developed a toolbox called S-MART, which handles mapped RNA-Seq data. S-MART is an intuitive and lightweight tool which performs many of the tasks usually required for the analysis of mapped RNA-Seq reads. S-MART does not require any computer science background and thus can be used by all of the biologist community through a graphical interface. S-MART can run on any personal computer, yielding results within an hour even for Gb of data for most queries. S-MART may perform the entire analysis of the mapped reads, without any need for other ad hoc scripts. With this tool, biologists can easily perform most of the analyses on their computer for their RNA-Seq data, from the mapped data to the discovery of important loci. PMID:21998740

  5. Seismic expression of Marts field (Silurian reef) in Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Renick, H.J. Jr.; Rene, R.M.; Hester, N.C.; Stanonis, F.L. )

    1989-08-01

    The Marts field of Sullivan County, Indiana, is associated with a Silurian reef that is part of the Terre Haute bank on the eastern flank of the Illinois basin. Gas production has come from Pennsylvanian sandstones at Marts field, and oil is presently being produced from limestones of the Devonian Muscatatuck Group. Hydrocarbons were trapped in the Devonian limestones because of structural drape over the reef. A 2.8-km (1.8-mi) north-south 24-CDP reflection seismic profile across the Marts field was obtained by using a hydraulic-assisted weight drop with a source array interval of 16.7 m (55 ft). The data were digitally processed through statics corrections, deconvolution, stack, and migration. These data clearly image drape in Carboniferous and Devonian strata, a characteristic change in reflection pattern at the reef flanks, and diffractions associated with the reef flanks. Near Marts field, one well penetrates Silurian strata, and a synthetic seismogram for this off-reef well is tied to the seismic section. Using well data from Marts and other reefs, mirror-imaged cross-plots of depths to tops of formations vs. depth to top of the Devonian limestone aid in examination of the drape. These plots of transformed cross sections approximate those of vertically stacked right circular cones indicative of the linear relationships between depths to formations.

  6. Scaling an expert system data mart: more facilities in real-time.

    PubMed

    McNamee, L A; Launsby, B D; Frisse, M E; Lehmann, R; Ebker, K

    1998-01-01

    Clinical Data Repositories are being rapidly adopted by large healthcare organizations as a method of centralizing and unifying clinical data currently stored in diverse and isolated information systems. Once stored in a clinical data repository, healthcare organizations seek to use this centralized data to store, analyze, interpret, and influence clinical care, quality and outcomes. A recent trend in the repository field has been the adoption of data marts--specialized subsets of enterprise-wide data taken from a larger repository designed specifically to answer highly focused questions. A data mart exploits the data stored in the repository, but can use unique structures or summary statistics generated specifically for an area of study. Thus, data marts benefit from the existence of a repository, are less general than a repository, but provide more effective and efficient support for an enterprise-wide data analysis task. In previous work, we described the use of batch processing for populating data marts directly from legacy systems. In this paper, we describe an architecture that uses both primary data sources and an evolving enterprise-wide clinical data repository to create real-time data sources for a clinical data mart to support highly specialized clinical expert systems. PMID:9929269

  7. Road risk-perception and pedestrian injuries among students at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Jehan M.; Day, Hannah; Hirshon, Jon Mark; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) constitute 45% of injury mortality in Egypt; 75% of these injuries are pedestrians related. Traditionally, research on road traffic safety has focused on the traffic environment and the vehicles. However, little attention has been given to road risky behaviors and perceptions of road safety by pedestrians as risk factors associated with high pedestrian injury rates. This study aimed to examine the relationship between road risk- perception, specific road behaviors, and self-reported pedestrian injuries among university students in Cairo, Egypt. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among university students aged 18 to 24 years old at Ain Shams University in Cairo. Questions covered socio-demographic variables, injury episodes, road behaviors, road risk-perceptions, attitudes towards injury prevention, and road safety education. Results: The survey was completed by 1,324 students. Two hundred ninety (21.9%) of the participants suffered from pedestrian injury during the past 6 months; of these, 28.9% were admitted to hospital or clinic as a result of the injury, 39.3% were unable to go to university or leave home because of the injury for a period ranging from one day up to one week. Participants were more likely to suffer from pedestrian injury when they did not always "look both ways to cross the road", whereas always "waiting for a green light" was protective. Students who "perceived it safe to cross the road from any point" or "did not perceive it to be safer to cross at a zebra crossing" were less likely to "look both ways" before crossing the road. Similarly, there was a positive association between road safety education and participants’ road crossing behaviors. Conclusion: Inappropriate youths' road behaviors were significantly associated with pedestrian injury. There was also a positive association between road risk perception and road behaviors. This suggests that a behavioral approach together

  8. Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Properties of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. D.; White, B. E.

    2016-06-01

    Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O is an important oxide semiconductor in advanced display technologies. Despite its importance, little has been reported on the thermal and elastic properties of this material. Here, the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, shear modulus, and internal friction of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 films are presented. The thermal conductivity of a-In2Ga2ZnO7, measured from 100 K to room temperature, was found to be larger than that of a-InGaZnO4 over the entire temperature range. At room temperature the thermal conductivities were 1.9 W/m K and 1.4 W/m K for the a-In2Ga2ZnO7 and a-InGaZnO4 films, respectively. The shear modulus and internal friction of these films were measured in the temperature range of 340 mK to 65 K. At 4.2 K the shear modulus of the a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2 Ga2ZnO7 films was 44 GPa and 42 GPa, respectively. The internal friction of thin films at each composition exhibited a temperature dependence and magnitude that is in agreement with that observed in all amorphous solids. As the self-heating effect is of concern in the development of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O based thin film transistors on low thermal conductivity substrates, a thermal model of such a device utilizing a-In2Ga2ZnO7 or a-InGaZnO4 as the active layer was explored. It was found that the temperature increase of the thin film transistor channel is essentially independent of the thermal conductivity of the active layer.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health-care personnel towards waste disposal management at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo.

    PubMed

    Hakim, S A; Mohsen, A; Bakr, I

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices of health-care providers towards waste management at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. In this cross-sectional study 110 physicians, 151 nurses and 89 housekeepers were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Housekeepers were significantly more knowledgeable than physicians or nurses about hospital policies and systems for waste disposal, but less so about specific details of disposal. Housekeepers also had the highest overall scores for attitudes to waste disposal among the 3 groups. Significantly more nurses had satisfactory practice scores (84.0%) than did physicians (67.3%) (housekeepers were not assessed). Training and duration of work experience were not significantly associated with knowledge, attitude and practice scores, except for nurses with longer work experience, who were more likely to have satisfactory knowledge about waste disposal than less experienced nurses. PMID:24952293

  10. The vitamin D analog, MART-10, represses metastasis potential via downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-11-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PDA) is a devastating disease and there is no effective treatment available at present. To develop new regiments against PDA is urgently needed. Previously we have shown that vitamin D analog, MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), exerted potent antiproliferative effect on PDA in vitro and in vivo without causing hypercalcemia. Since metastasis is the major cause of PDA-related death, we therefore investigate the anti-metastasis effect of MART-10 on PDA. Our results showed that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 repressed migration and invasion of BxPC-3 and PANC cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells through downregulation of Snail, Slug, and Vimentin expression in BxPC-3 and PANC cells. MART-10 further blocked cadherin switch (from E-cadherin to N-cadherin) in BxPC-3 cells. The F-actin synthesis in the cytoplasm of BxPC-3 cells was also repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 as determined by immunofluorescence stain. Both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 decreased MMP-2 and -9 secretion in BxPC-3 cells as determined by western blot and zymography. Collectively, MART-10 should be deemed as a promising regimen against PDA. PMID:25149065

  11. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J.; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W.; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J.; Dassi, Erik; Genova, Alex Di; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C.; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K.; Hayes, Richard D.; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M.; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W.; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z.; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-01-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  12. Molecular evolution and adaptation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Malyarchuk, B; He, X B; Derenko, M

    2013-01-01

    Martes species represent a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation and a recent speciation event. To identify regions of the genome that experienced adaptive evolution, which might provide clues to their functional importance and may be informative about the features that make each species unique, we sought evidence of molecular adaptation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes. Complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 87 samples, including 49 sables, 28 pine martens, and 10 stone martens, and were combined with mtDNA sequences of other true martens, such as M. melampus and M. americana. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene variation in true martens has shown that the evolution of this gene is under negative selection. In contrast, positive selection on the cytochrome b protein has been detected by means of the software TreeSAAP using a phylogenetic reconstruction of Martes taxa. Signatures of adaptive variation in cytochrome b were restricted to the transmembrane domains, which likely function as proton pumps. We compared results of different methods for testing selection and molecular adaptation, and we supposed that the radical changes of the cytochrome b amino acid residues in the subgenus Martes may be the result of molecular adaptation to specific environmental conditions coupled with species dispersals. PMID:24085456

  13. Exploración del Nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, y conozca las nuevas tecnologías que el nuevo robot Curiosity del Laboratorio Científico d...

  14. COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEMS IN MARTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY OF ENDEMIC FAUNAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex assemblages of hosts and parasites reveal insights about biogeography and ecology and inform us about processes which serve to structure faunal diversity and the biosphere in space and time. Exploring aspects of parasite diversity among martens (species of Martes) and other mustelids reveal...

  15. La Verneda-Sant Martí Adult School: A Reference for Neighborhood Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubert, Adrianna; Villarejo, Bea; Cabré, Joan; Santos, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The Adult School of La Verneda Sant Martí, located in Barcelona, Spain, is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education. The school was created in 1978 to address the demands of the working-class residents of the La Verneda…

  16. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J; Dassi, Erik; Di Genova, Alex; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K; Hayes, Richard D; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-07-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  17. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biologi...

  18. [Water and energy metabolism in representatives of the genus Martes and Mustela (Mammalia: Mustelidae)].

    PubMed

    Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Rozhnov, V V; Naĭdenko, S V

    2003-01-01

    The quantities of consumed food and water, quantity and moisture content of faeces, as well as quantity and concentration of excreted urine were determined in representatives of Martes--marten (M. martes) and sable (M. zibellina)--as well as in polecat (Mustela putorius). Under the same cage conditions and free access to food, all three species had similar energy value of the daily diet. However, the level of drinking water consumption and the ratio between the quantities of arriving water and energy was reliably higher in both Martes species than in polecat. In addition, both marten and sable featured a much higher rate of evaporation loss in the overall water balance and, consequently, a higher quantity of heat dissipated with evaporation as compared to polecat. Comparison of the obtained and previous data (Sokolov et al., 1995; Rozhnov, 1991) allowed us to propose that the mentioned differences can be specific for representatives of Martes and Mustela genera irrespective of ecological specialization of particular species. PMID:12942756

  19. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  20. Flavonoids from acai (euterpe oleracea mart.) Pulp and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-'-D-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds ...

  1. Physician user satisfaction with an electronic medical records system in primary healthcare centres in Al Ain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Al Alawi, Shamma; Al Dhaheri, Aysha; Al Baloushi, Durra; Al Dhaheri, Mouza; Prinsloo, Engela A M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore physician satisfaction with an electronic medical records (EMR) system, to identify and explore the main limitations of the system and finally to submit recommendations to address these limitations. Design A descriptive qualitative study that entailed three focus group interviews was performed among physicians using open-ended questions. The interviews were audiotaped, documented and transcribed verbatim. The themes were explored and analysed in different categories. Setting The study was conducted in primary healthcare centres (PHC) in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Participants A total of 23 physicians, all using the same EMR system, attended one of three focus groups held in PHC in Al Ain Medical District. Each focus group consisted of 7–9 physicians working in PHC as family medicine specialists, residents or general practitioners. Primary outcome measure Physician satisfaction with the EMR system. Results Key themes emerged and were categorised as physician-dependent, patient-related and system-related factors. In general, physicians were satisfied with the EMR system in spite of initial difficulties with implementation. Most participants identified that the long time required to do the documentation affected their practice and patient communication. Many physicians expressed satisfaction with the orders and results of laboratory and radiology functions and they emphasised that this was the strongest point in the EMR. They were also satisfied with the electronic prescription function, stating that it reduced errors and saved time. Conclusions Physicians are satisfied with the EMR and have a positive perception regarding the application of the system. Several themes emerged during this study that need to be considered to enhance the EMR system. Further studies need to be conducted among other healthcare practitioners and patients to explore their attitude and perception about the EMR. PMID:25377010

  2. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  3. The Search for Subsurface Life on Mars: Results from the MARTE Analog Drill Experiment in Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Cannon, H.; Glass, B.; Dunagan, S.; Zavaleta, J.; Miller, D.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2006-03-01

    The Mars Analog Research and Technology (MARTE) experiment has developed an automated drilling system on a simulated Mars lander platform including drilling, sample handling, core analysis and down-hole instruments relevant to searching for life in the Martian subsurface.

  4. Pre-Results of the Real-Time ODIN Validation on MARTe Using Plasma Linearized Model in FTU Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Yahya; Boncagni, Luca

    2012-06-01

    MARTe is a modular framework for real-time control aspects. At present time there are several MARTe systems under development at Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (Boncagni et al. in First steps in the FTU migration towards a modular and distributed real time control architecture based on MARTe and RTNet, 2010) such as the LH power percentage system, the gas puffing control system, the real-time ODIN plasma equilibrium reconstruction system and the position/current feedback control system (in a design phase) (Boncagni et al. in J Fusion Eng Design). The real-time reconstruction of magnetic flux in FTU tokamak is an important issue to estimate some quantities that can be use to control the plasma. This paper addresses the validation of real-time implementation of that task on MARTe.

  5. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Pan, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chen, Tai C; Chiang, Kun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), the new brand 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. The upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin in FaDu cells induced by both drugs further confirmed the repression of EMT. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment inhibited intracellular MMP-9 expression and extracellular MMP activity in FaDu cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the less-calcemia 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, is a promising drug for HNSCC treatment. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:27382252

  6. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Pan, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chen, Tai C; Chiang, Kun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), the new brand 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. The upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin in FaDu cells induced by both drugs further confirmed the repression of EMT. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment inhibited intracellular MMP-9 expression and extracellular MMP activity in FaDu cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the less-calcemia 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, is a promising drug for HNSCC treatment. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:27382252

  7. Analysis of an Optimized MLOS Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithm and Comparison to the MART Reconstruction Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Foy, Roderick; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2011-11-01

    An optimally designed MLOS tomographic reconstruction algorithm for use in 3D PIV and PTV applications is analyzed. Using a set of optimized reconstruction parameters, the reconstructions produced by the MLOS algorithm are shown to be comparable to reconstructions produced by the MART algorithm for a range of camera geometries, camera numbers, and particle seeding densities. The resultant velocity field error calculated using PIV and PTV algorithms is further minimized by applying both pre and post processing to the reconstructed data sets.

  8. Sequential extraction of Cs and Sr from Ain Oussera soils around Es-Salam research reactor facility.

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Abdelkader; Ararem, Abderrahmane; Imessaoudene, Djillali; Yabrir, Benalia

    2015-10-01

    Four types of undisturbed soil in Ain Oussera region around the Es-Salam reactor facility, located in the south of Algiers, Algeria, at about 200km, were artificially contaminated for one year with stable CsCl and SrCl2 in order to simulate an accidental release of these elements. This study was performed using sequential extraction procedure based on Shultz method and containing six fractions. The selectivity of the extraction protocol was confirmed by analyzing some elements (Ca, C, Fe, Mn, Si and Al) designed as indicators of the targeted phases. The obtained results showed an acceptable reproducibility, in view of the coefficients of variation that were in most cases less than 15%. The results revealed a clear proportional correlation between the extracted Cs and Sr in fractions for each soil and some of soils physicochemical properties. Organic matter appears to play an important role in the soil retention, particularly for Cs where the extracted percentage exceeds to 30% in whole soils. In contrast, strontium expresses a remarkable affinity for the fraction bound to carbonates. The obtained data also indicate that the availability of Cs in the four soils is less important compared to Sr availability. This is illustrated by the higher value of extracted Sr in the easily extractible phase, including the water-soluble and the exchangeable fraction. PMID:26456618

  9. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers in Ain Shams University hospitals in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M

    2009-03-01

    Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines. PMID:19771756

  10. A single gene, AIN, in Medicago truncatula mediates a hypersensitive response to both bluegreen aphid and pea aphid, but confers resistance only to bluegreen aphid

    PubMed Central

    Klingler, John P.; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Edwards, Owain R.; Singh, Karam B.

    2009-01-01

    Biotic stress in plants frequently induces a hypersensitive response (HR). This distinctive reaction has been studied intensively in several pathosystems and has shed light on the biology of defence signalling. Compared with microbial pathogens, relatively little is known about the role of the HR in defence against insects. Reference genotype A17 of Medicago truncatula Gaertn., a model legume, responds to aphids of the genus Acyrthosiphon with necrotic lesions resembling a HR. In this study, the biochemical nature of this response, its mode of inheritance, and its relationship with defence against aphids were investigated. The necrotic lesion phenotype and resistance to the bluegreen aphid (BGA, Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji) and the pea aphid (PA, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) were analysed using reference genotypes A17 and A20, their F2 progeny and recombinant inbred lines. BGA-induced necrotic lesions co-localized with the production of H2O2, consistent with an oxidative burst widely associated with hypersensitivity. This HR correlated with stronger resistance to BGA in A17 than in A20; these phenotypes cosegregated as a semi-dominant gene, AIN (Acyrthosiphon-induced necrosis). In contrast to BGA, stronger resistance to PA in A17, compared with A20, did not cosegregate with a PA-induced HR. The AIN locus resides in a cluster of sequences predicted to encode the CC-NBS-LRR subfamily of resistance proteins. AIN-mediated resistance presents a novel opportunity to use a model plant and model aphid to study the role of the HR in defence responses to phloem-feeding insects. PMID:19690018

  11. Prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm Skrjabingylus petrowi (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from Martes spp. in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2015-06-01

    The nematodes of the genus Skrjabingylus (family Metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. Until recently, Skrjabingylus petrowi Bageanov & Petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the European part of the former Soviet Union. Newer finds in the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of Europe suggest, however, that the species might have a broader host-species range than previously assumed and be geographically more widespread as well. Since most S. petrowi records have resulted from chance discoveries rather than systematic surveys, very little is known about the prevalence of S. petrowi in marten populations. Here, we report results of a 20-year extensive survey of fresh marten skulls, where we tested 1.059 marten carcasses originating from 248 localities in Germany for the presence of S. petrowi. We identified an infestation in only four M. martes individuals and one M. foina, despite using a reliable identification method. Based on the spicule lengths of the male nematodes, the parasites were identified as S. petrowi and genetic barcoding confirmed the identification of the samples. In a phylogenetic analysis, S. petrowi and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842), formed a sister clade to all the other members of the family Metastrongylidae. The low prevalence of S. petrowi is possibly due to its parasitising in the two marten species that are either not very common (M. martes) or predominantly live in urban habitat (M. foina). PMID:25681145

  12. The 1793 eruption of San Martín Tuxtla volcano, Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espíndola, J. M.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Godinez, M. L.; Schaaf, P.; Rodríguez, S. R.

    2010-11-01

    San Martín Tuxtla (N18.562°; W95.199°, 1659 masl) is a basaltic volcano located in southern Veracruz, a Mexican State bordering the Gulf of Mexico. It rises in a volcanic field strewn with monogenetic volcanic cones, maars and three other large volcanoes mostly dormant since the late Pliocene: Santa Marta, San Martín Pajapan and Cerro El Vigía. The latest eruptive event of San Martín occurred in 1793 and was described by Don José Mariano Moziño, a naturalist under the commission of the Viceroy of the then New Spain. In this work we present results of the study of this eruption based on historical accounts and field observations. We identified an ash deposit around the volcano related to the 1793 eruption, mapped its distribution and determined its granulometric, petrographic and geochemical characteristics. These studies suggest that the volcano began its activity with explosive phreatomagmatic explosions, which were followed by Strombolian activity; this period lasting from March to October 1793. The activity continued with an effusive phase that lasted probably 2 years. The eruption covered an area of about 480 km 2 with at least 1 cm of ash; the fines reaching distances greater than 300 km from the crater. A total mass of about 2.5 × 10 14 g was ejected and the volcanic columns probably reached altitudes of the order of 10 km during the most explosive phases. The lava emitted formed a coulee that descended the northern flank of the volcano and has an approximate volume of 2.0 × 10 7 m 3.

  13. Anatomical studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) under the influence of textile wastewater*

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping; Siddiqi, M. Rehan; Islam, Ejaz ul; Azim, M. Rashid; Hayat, Yousaf

    2005-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is a prolific free floating aquatic macrohpyte found in tropical and subtropical parts of the earth. The effects of pollutants from textile wastewater on the anatomy of the plant were studied. Water hyacinth exhibits hydrophytic adaptations which include reduced epidermis cells lacking cuticle in most cases, presence of large air spaces (7~50 μm), reduced vascular tissue and absorbing structures. Textile waste significantly affected the size of root cells. The presence of raphide crystals was noted in parenchyma cells of various organs in treated plants. PMID:16187412

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Korean yellow-throated marten, Martes flavigula (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Kuem Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Martes flavigula, which is an endangered and endemic species in South Korea, was determined. The genome is 16,533 bp in length and its gene arrangement pattern, gene content, and gene organization is identical to those of martens. The control region was located between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes and is 1087 bp in length. This mitogenome sequence data might be an important role in the preservation of genetic resources by allowing researchers to conduct phylogenetic and systematic analyses of Mustelidae. PMID:25264839

  15. SigReannot-mart: a query environment for expression microarray probe re-annotations

    PubMed Central

    Moreews, François; Rauffet, Gaelle; Dehais, Patrice; Klopp, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Expression microarrays are commonly used to study transcriptomes. Most of the arrays are now based on oligo-nucleotide probes. Probe design being a tedious task, it often takes place once at the beginning of the project. The oligo set is then used for several years. During this time period, the knowledge gathered by the community on the genome and the transcriptome increases and gets more precise. Therefore re-annotating the set is essential to supply the biologists with up-to-date annotations. SigReannot-mart is a query environment populated with regularly updated annotations for different oligo sets. It stores the results of the SigReannot pipeline that has mainly been used on farm and aquaculture species. It permits easy extraction in different formats using filters. It is used to compare probe sets on different criteria, to choose the set for a given experiment to mix probe sets in order to create a new one. Database URL: http://sigreannot-mart.toulouse.inra.fr/ PMID:21930501

  16. An analysis of natural ventilation techniques to achieve indoor comfort in Wal-Mart express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Shona

    Despite global efforts to reduce world fossil fuel dependency the world still obtains 81% of its energy from fossil fuels (IEA,2009). Modern renewable alternatives have been around since the mid twentieth century these alternatives have not been integrated into electrical grid systems at the exponential rate required to eradicate fossil fuels dependency. The problem, world energy demand, is too large to be satisfied by anything other than the energy-dense fossil fuels used today. We must change our energy intensive processes in order to conserve energy and hence reduce the demands that alternatives must satisfy. This research aims to identify sustainable design opportunities through the application of innovative technologies for the largest retailer in the US with the view that a viable conservative design measure could be applied to the store model, which is replicated across the country, causing a cumulative and hence larger impact on the company energy consumption as a whole. This paper will present the literature available on the 'big box' industry and Wal-Mart, comfort, natural ventilation and building simulation software and then perform an analysis into the viability of naturally ventilating the Wal-Mart Express sales zone using Monodraught natural ventilation windcatcher products

  17. The hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) is mediated by the enhanced expression of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters 5 and 8 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes in the rat.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Melina Oliveira; Souza E Silva, Lorena; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; de Figueiredo, Bianca Barros; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of açaí pulp can improve serum lipid profile in various animal models; therefore, we hypothesized that açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) may modulate the expression of the genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver and increase fecal excretion, thus reducing serum cholesterol. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of 7α-hydroxylase and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters (ABCG5 and ABCG8), which are genes involved with the secretion of cholesterol in the rat. We also evaluated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), and apolipoprotein B100, which are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Female Fischer rats were divided into 4 groups: the C group, which was fed a standard AIN-93 M diet; the CA group, which was fed a standard diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp; the H group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol); and the HA group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were euthanized, and their blood and livers were collected. The HA group exhibited a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index and also had increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cholesterol excretion in feces compared with the H group. In addition, the expression of the LDL-R, ABCG5, and ABCG8 genes was significantly increased by the presence of açaí pulp. These results suggest that açaí pulp promotes a hypocholesterolemic effect in a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia through an increase in the expression of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters, and LDL-R genes. PMID:23244543

  18. Coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and Canine Distemper Virus in a Yellow-throated Marten ( Martes flavigula koreana) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hae Beom; Cho, Ho Seong; Kim, Wonil; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-04-28

    We describe coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and canine distemper virus (CDV) in a yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula koreana). We found Hepatozoon cysts in muscular tissue and viral inclusion bodies in the brain. Hepatozoon sp., and CDV was confirmed in blood and brain, respectively, by PCR. PMID:27054471

  19. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4)...

  20. Searching for Life in the Martian Subsurface: Results from the MARTE Astrobiological Drilling Experiment and Implications for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.

    2007-07-01

    Drilling for subsurface life should be a goal of future Mars missions. The approach is illustrated by MARTE: A search for subsurface life in Rio Tinto, Spain explored a biosphere using reduced iron and sulfur minerals and demonstrated automated drilling, sample handling, and life detection.

  1. Ain't Misbehavin'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining order in the classroom is a concern that ranks near the top of "every" teacher's list, no matter the subject taught. Successful classroom management will not only make the teaching--and learning--process easier, but it also will benefit the teacher's energy level and sanity. Recent studies suggest that controlling students' behavior…

  2. A Microstructural Comparison of the Initial Growth of AIN and GaN Layers on Basal Plane Sapphire and SiC Substrates by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Depositon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T.; Pike, W. T.; Khan, M. A.; Kuznia, J. N.; Chang-Chien, P.

    1994-01-01

    The initial growth by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and subsequent thermal annealing of AIN and GaN epitaxial layers on SiC and sapphire substrates is examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  3. Río Tinto Faulted Volcanosedimentary Deposits as Analog Habitats for Extant Subsurface Biospheres on Mars: A Synthesis of the MARTE Drilling Project Geobiology Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rodríguez, N.; Dávila, F.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Stoker, C. R.

    2005-03-01

    Reconstruction of the probable habitats hosting the detected microbial communities through the integration of the geobiological data obtained from the MARTE drilling campaigns, TEM sounding and field surface geological survey

  4. Recent Geological and Hydrological Activity in Amazonis and Elysium Basins and Their Link, Marte Valles (AME): Prime Target for Future Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    Amazonis and Elysium basins and their link, Marte Vallis (AME), uniquely point to a geologically and hydrologically active Mars. We will present evidence for why AME reconnaissance can help address whether Mars is geologically, hydrologically, and biologically active.

  5. Genetic variability in the sable (Martes zibellina L.) with respect to genes encoding blood proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kashtanov, S.N.; Kazakova, T.I.

    1995-02-01

    Electrophoresis of blood proteins was used to determine, for the first time, the level of genetic variability of certain loci in the sable (Martes zibellina L., Mustelidae). Variation of 23 blood proteins encoded by 25 genes was analyzed. Polymorphism was revealed in six genes. The level of heterozygosity was estimated at 0.069; the proportion of polymorphic loci was 24%. Data on the history of the sable population maintained at the farm, on geographical distribution of natural sable populations, and on the number of animals selected for reproduction in captivity is presented. The great number of animals studies and the extensive range of natural sable populations, on the basis of which the population maintained in captivity was obtained, suggest that the results of this work can be used for estimating the variability of the gene pool of sable as a species. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Macías, Paulina; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Borja-de-la-Rosa, Amparo; Barragán-Huerta, Blanca E

    2016-01-01

    Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one) is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez) heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (¹H, (13)C), 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC), ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx) of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample) were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively. PMID:26861267

  7. Triterpene esters and biological activities from edible fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Caio P; Corrêa, Arthur L; Lobo, Jonathas F R; Caramel, Otávio P; de Almeida, Fernanda B; Castro, Elaine S; Souza, Kauê F C S; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M F; Santos, Marcelo G; Ferreira, José Luiz P; Falcão, Deborah Q; Carvalho, José C T; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as "guracica." Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea. PMID:23509702

  8. Triterpene Esters and Biological Activities from Edible Fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Caio P.; Corrêa, Arthur L.; Lobo, Jonathas F. R.; Caramel, Otávio P.; de Almeida, Fernanda B.; Castro, Elaine S.; Souza, Kauê F. C. S.; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M. F.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Falcão, Deborah Q.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as “guracica.” Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea. PMID:23509702

  9. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Lemke, Larry; Mandell, Humboldt; McKay, David; George, Jeffrey; Gomez-Alvera, Javier; Amils, Ricardo; Stevens, Todd; Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project was selected by the new NASA ASTEP program, which supports field experiments having an equal emphasis on Astrobiology science and technology development relevant to future Astrobiology missions. MARTE will search for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The experiment is informed by the strategy for searching for life on Mars.

  10. Evaluation of the impact of water harvesting techniques on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Bidha groundwater in Kairouan at the Central part of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechergui, M. Mohamed; Henda Saoudi, Mme

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of water harvesting constructed hydraulic structures (big and small dams, terraces, seuils for recharge…) on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Beidha groundwater table. The measurements of depth of water table, taken at the end of rain season and at the end of irrigation season, in many piezometers and monitoring wells, for a long period of observation before and after implementation of all the hydraulic structures, were used with the cumulative rain to the highest water table to diagnostic the effect of natural recharge and constructed hydraulic structures. According to the analysis of curves illustrating the evolution of piezometric head and rainfall over time, it was shown that despite the fact that the same amount of rain fall on the total area in the limits of Ain El Beidha groundwater table, the piezometers respond differently. This is because there are many sources of recharge and many factors affecting the recharge. First of all, the aquifer is divided in four compartments (the calcareous formation of Djebel El Houyareb, the plio-quaternary formation, the Miocene formation: Baglia and Saouaf). All those respond differently to the recharge by their capacity of infiltration and their hydrodynamic characteristics. The recharge of the groundwater table was increased by the implementation of small soil and water conservation structures, artificial lakes, El Haouareb Dam, run off in the natural Oued bads and seuils for recharge installed in the bads of oueds. The different piezometric drown maps were used to determine the flow direction and hydraulic gradient in order to identify the recharge areas, while tracking maps for three equal piezometric heads 210 m 300 m and 370 m established over different years made it possible to assess the impact of hydraulic structures, namely the effect of SWC and Ben Zitoun Lake. To illustrate the impact of El Houareb dam on the groundwater, the piezometric maps and local values

  11. Hydrochemical processes and metal composition of Ain Umm-Sabah natural spring in Al-Hassa Oasis Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Naeem, Ahmed A

    2008-01-15

    This study was carried out to determine the hydro-chemical processes and the metal concentration of spring water to evaluate its suitability for irrigation and other purposes. A total of 10 water samples were collected from Ain Umm Sabah at different times and from different locations from the spring basin. EC (dS m(-1)), pH, temperature, total cations (Na, Ca, Mg, K) and anions [Cl, CO3, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Fluoride (F)] were determined. Some trace and heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, B, Br, Mo, Ni, Si, Cd, Cu, V, Fe, I, Pb, Mn, Zn, Sr, Se, Sb, La and Se were determined. The Spring water is classified as C4S2 (high salinity with medium sodicity problem water). Chloride (Cl) and nitrate (NO3) concentrations were higher than the permissible limits according to World Health Organization Standards. The Ain Umm Sabah water is Na-Cl dominant water and can create soil sodicity problems and cause Na and Cl ion toxicity to plants if used for irrigation of sensitive crops. The spring water is under-saturated (negative SI) with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, fluorite and aragonite and oversaturated (positive SI) with respect to goethite, siderite and hematite minerals. The concentration of all the estimated trace metals was within the permissible limits for its use as drinking water and other purposes according to WHO. Since the spring water contains high concentration of NO3, hence can not be used for drinking purposes without prior treatment. The study findings suggest careful use and pumping of water from the spring. Further studies are required on regular basis to monitor the depletion in the spring water level and the temporal change in water salinity. PMID:18817197

  12. Mineralogy and fluid inclusions study of carbonate-hosted Mississippi valley-type Ain Allega Pb-Zn-Sr-Ba ore deposit, Northern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidi, R.; Slim-Shimi, N.; Somarin, A.; Henchiri, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Ain Allega Pb-Zn-Sr-Ba ore deposit is located in the flysch zone on the Eastern edge of the Triassic diapir of Jebel Hamra. It is part of the extrusive Triassic evaporate formation along the Ghardimaou-Cape Serrat faults. The ore body consists of argilic-dolomite breccias surrounded by argilo-gypsum Triassic formation, which forms the hanging wall of the deposit, and rimmed by the Paleocene marls. The ore minerals show a cap-rock type mineralization with different styles particularly impregnation in dolomite, cement of breccias, replacement ore and open space filling in the dissolution cavities and fractures. Ore minerals include sphalerite, galena, marcasite and pyrite. Principal gangue minerals are composed of barite, celestite, calcite, dolomite and quartz. The ore minerals are hosted by the Triassic carbonate rocks which show hydrothermal alteration, dissolution and brecciation. X-ray - crystallographic study of barite-celestite mineral series shows that pure barite and celestite are the abundant species, whereas strontianiferous barite (85-96.5% BaSO 4) and barian-celestite (95% SrSO 4) are minor. Primary and secondary mono-phase (liquid only) fluid inclusions are common in celestite. Microthermometric analyses in two-phases (liquid and vapour) fluid inclusions suggest that gangue and ore minerals were precipitated by a low-temperature (180 °C) saline (16.37 wt.% NaCl equivalent) solution originated possibly from a basinal brine with some input from magmatic or metamorphic fluid. Based on geology, mineralogy, texture and fluid characteristics, the Ain Allega deposit is classified as a carbonate-hosted Mississippi valley-type deposit.

  13. High expression of immunotherapy candidate proteins gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase and TRP-1 in uveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, T. J.; Trancikova, D.; Ruiter, D. J.; van Muijen, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    In the treatment of cutaneous melanoma, provisional therapeutic strategies have been designed to combat tumour load using T cells that are sensitized with peptides derived from melanoma autoantigens, such as glycoprotein 100 (gp100), melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 (MART-1 or MelanA), tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1). We recently found that gp100, MART-1 and tyrosinase are heterogeneously expressed in human cutaneous melanoma (De Vries et al (1997) Cancer Res 57: 3223-3229). Here, we extended our investigations on expression of these immunotherapy candidate proteins to uveal melanoma lesions. Cryostat sections from 11 spindle-type, 21 mixed and epithelioid tumours and four metastasis lesions were stained with antibodies specifically recognizing gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase and TRP-1. In addition, we used the DOPA reaction to detect tyrosinase enzyme activity as a confirmation of the tyrosinase immunohistochemical results. High expression of gp100, MART-1 and tyrosinase was found in the uveal melanoma lesions: 80% of the lesions displayed 75-100% positive tumour cells. TRP-1 positivity was slightly less: approximately 65% of the lesions stained in the 75-100% positive tumour cell category. All uveal melanoma lesions were positive for the four markers studied, this being in contrast to cutaneous melanoma where 17% of the advanced primary lesions and metastases were negative. The presence of these antigens was a little lower in metastases. We conclude that uveal melanomas and their metastases express melanocyte-lineage immunotherapy candidate proteins very abundantly. Uveal melanomas differ in this respect from cutaneous melanoma, in which the expression of these immunotherapy antigens was much more heterogeneous. This makes uveal melanoma a suitable candidate tumour for immunotherapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:9820172

  14. Design and practices for use of automated drilling and sample handling in MARTE while minimizing terrestrial and cross contamination.

    PubMed

    Miller, David P; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources--whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination)-to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples. PMID:19105753

  15. The InterPro BioMart: federated query and web service access to the InterPro Resource.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Binns, David; McMenamin, Conor; McAnulla, Craig; Hunter, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The InterPro BioMart provides users with query-optimized access to predictions of family classification, protein domains and functional sites, based on a broad spectrum of integrated computational models ('signatures') that are generated by the InterPro member databases: Gene3D, HAMAP, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. These predictions are provided for all protein sequences from both the UniProt Knowledge Base and the UniParc protein sequence archive. The InterPro BioMart is supplementary to the primary InterPro web interface (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), providing a web service and the ability to build complex, custom queries that can efficiently return thousands of rows of data in a variety of formats. This article describes the information available from the InterPro BioMart and illustrates its utility with examples of how to build queries that return useful biological information. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/biomart/martview. PMID:21785143

  16. Design and Practices for Use of Automated Drilling and Sample Handling in MARTE While Minimizing Terrestrial and Cross Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David P.; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources -- whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination) -- to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

  17. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M; Arruda, Sandra F; Dourado, Lívia P S; da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  18. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M.; Arruda, Sandra F.; Dourado, Lívia P. S.; da Cunha, Marcela S. B.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  19. The proteasome immunosubunits, PA28 and ER-aminopeptidase 1 protect melanoma cells from efficient MART-126-35 -specific T-cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Keller, Martin; Ebstein, Frédéric; Bürger, Elke; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Gorny, Xenia; Urban, Sabrina; Zhao, Fang; Dannenberg, Tanja; Sucker, Antje; Keller, Christin; Saveanu, Loredana; Krüger, Elke; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Henklein, Petra; Voigt, Antje; Kuckelkorn, Ulrike; Paschen, Annette; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Seifert, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    The immunodominant MART-1(26(27)-35) epitope, liberated from the differentiation antigen melanoma antigen recognized by T cells/melanoma antigen A (MART-1/Melan-A), has been frequently targeted in melanoma immunotherapy, but with limited clinical success. Previous studies suggested that this is in part due to an insufficient peptide supply and epitope presentation, since proteasomes containing the immunosubunits β5i/LMP7 (LMP, low molecular weight protein) or β1i/LMP2 and β5i/LMP7 interfere with MART-1(26-35) epitope generation in tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that in addition the IFN-γ-inducible proteasome subunit β2i/MECL-1 (multicatalytic endopeptidase complex-like 1), proteasome activator 28 (PA28), and ER-resident aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) impair MART-1(26-35) epitope generation. β2i/MECL-1 and PA28 negatively affect C- and N-terminal cleavage and therefore epitope liberation from the proteasome, whereas ERAP1 destroys the MART-1(26-35) epitope by overtrimming activity. Constitutive expression of PA28 and ERAP1 in melanoma cells indicate that both interfere with MART-1(26-35) epitope generation even in the absence of IFN-γ. In summary, our results provide first evidence that activities of different antigen-processing components contribute to an inefficient MART-1(26-35) epitope presentation, suggesting the tumor cell's proteolytic machinery might have an important impact on the outcome of epitope-specific immunotherapies. PMID:26399368

  20. Reviewers required major changes, including rearranging the two articles, so the new title of the first paper is: HVAC and Refrigeration Experiments at Wal-Mart Experimental Supercenters in Texas and Colorado --- original title: ASHRAE Journal DRAFT article McKinney and Aurora Wal-Mart Stores, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J Michael; Deru, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, Wal-Mart opened experimental stores in McKinney, Texas (hot climate), and Aurora, Colo. (cold climate). With these projects Wal-Mart can: * Learn how to achieve sustainability improvements; * Gain experience with the design, design process, and operations for some specific advanced technologies; * Understand energy use patterns in their stores more clearly; * Lay groundwork for better understanding of how to achieve major carbon footprint reductions; and * Measure the potential benefits of specific technologies tested.

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. using AFLP molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T G; Pereira, A M S; Coppede, J S; França, S C; Ming, L C; Bertoni, B W

    2016-01-01

    Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. is a medicinal plant native to Cerrado vegetation in Brazil, and it is popularly used to treat urogenital tract infections. The objective of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of natural C. antisyphiliticus populations using AFLP molecular markers. Accessions were collected in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Goiás. The genotyping of individuals was performed using a LI-COR® DNA Analyzer 4300. The variability within populations was found to be greater than the variability between them. The F(ST) value was 0.3830, which indicated that the populations were highly structured. A higher percentage of polymorphic loci (92.16%) and greater genetic diversity were found in the population accessions from Pratinha-MG. Gene flow was considered restricted (N(m) = 1.18), and there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The populations of C. antisyphiliticus exhibited an island-model structure, which demonstrates the vulnerability of the species. PMID:26909989

  2. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  3. Canine distemper in an isolated population of fishers (Martes pennanti) from California.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stefan M; Gabriel, Mourad; Terio, Karen A; Dubovi, Edward J; VanWormer, Elizabeth; Sweitzer, Rick; Barret, Reginald; Thompson, Craig; Purcell, Kathryn; Munson, Linda

    2012-10-01

    Four fishers (Martes pennanti) from an insular population in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA died as a consequence of an infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2009. Three fishers were found in close temporal and spatial relationship; the fourth fisher died 4 mo later at a 70 km distance from the initial group. Gross lesions were restricted to hyperkeratosis of periocular skin and ulceration of footpads. All animals had necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Inclusion bodies were abundant in the epithelia of urinary bladder and epididymis but were infrequent in the renal pelvis and the female genital epithelia. No histopathologic or immunohistochemical evidence for virus spread to the central nervous system was found. One fisher had encephalitis caused by Sarcocystis neurona and another had severe head trauma as a consequence of predation. The H gene nucleotide sequence of the virus isolates from the first three fishers was identical and was 99.6% identical to the isolate from the fourth fisher. Phylogenetically, the isolates clustered with other North American isolates separate from classical European wildlife lineage strains. These data suggest that the European wildlife lineage might consist of two separate subgroups that are genetically distinct and endemic in different geographic regions. The source of infection as well as pertinent transmission routes remained unclear. This is the first report of CDV in fishers and underscores the significance of CDV as a pathogen of management concern. PMID:23060505

  4. Ozone profiles retrieved from SCIMACHY Chappuis-Wulf limb scatter measurements using MART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.

    2010-12-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument, launched on the Envisat satellite in March 2002, will measure the earthshine radiance, simultaneously from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR), in the three viewing geometries nadir, limb, and occultation. These measurements will be used to retrieve both the total amount and vertical profiles of a large number of atmospheric constituents. In this paper, stratospheric ozone profiles between 15 and 40 km altitude are retrieved on 3 km grids from SCIMACHY limb scattered radiance in the Chappuis-Wulf band. It employs a new multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) coupled with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. Radiance normalization and wavelength pairing is applied to radiance as an intermediate step, using the wavelengths 525 nm, 600 nm and 675 nm. The sensitivity of ozone retrieval by this method to tangent altitude pointing, surface albedo, aerosol and cloud parameters is studied, the results show that the retrieval impact due to tangent altitude pointing bias is the biggest can be up to 75% with 1 km shift, and the impact of albedo is limited within 5%. The effect of boundary visibility and cloud parameters can be ignored since these impact is too small. The effectiveness of the retrieval is demonstrated using a set of coincident SCIMACHY product at Hefei that shows a mean bias of less than 12% between 15 and 40 km, and with a better accuracy of 5% from 16 to 36 km.

  5. Salinity Effects on Water Potential Components and Bulk Elastic Modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Jorge A.; Longstreth, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (Ψ), osmotic potential (ψs), turgor potential (ψp) and the bulk elastic modulus (ε) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of ψs decreased with increasing salinity and tissue Ψ was always lower than rhizosphere Ψ. The relationship between ψp and tissue water content changed because ε increased with salinity. As a result, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which ψp was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on ε in higher plants. These increases in ε with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant Ψ and rhizosphere Ψ, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed Ψ was constant within 1 day, ψs and ψp continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and ε continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in ε modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. PMID:16663611

  6. Accumulation of chromium in root tissues of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Cachoeira river—Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangabeira, P. A. O.; Labejof, L.; Lamperti, A.; de Almeida, A.-A. F.; Oliveira, A. H.; Escaig, F.; Severo, M. I. G.; Silva, D. da C.; Saloes, M.; Mielke, M. S.; Lucena, E. R.; Martins, M. C.; Santana, K. B.; Gavrilov, K. L.; Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.

    2004-06-01

    Heavy metals are not biodegradable and enter the food chain through a number of pathways causing progressive toxic actions due to the accumulation in different organs during a life span and long-term exposure to contaminated environments. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to localize chromium in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. ICP-MS was used for the determination of Cr concentrations in water, sediments and plant samples in the Cachoeira basin, Bahia, Brazil. The results obtained by ICP-MS shows abnormally high values of Cr concentrations in water samples (0.38 μg/l), in soil samples (63 μg/g) and 70 μg/g in plant tissue. SIMS results show increased levels of Cr in the root cell wall and xylem vessel, these sites show high Cr accumulation. The ICP-MS data confirm E. crassipes like bioindicator plant. Chemical analysis using ICP-MS, confirms SIMS analysis on the presence of Cr in roots xylem cell walls. The use of ICP-MS, to investigate the same organs as the ones investigated by SIMS, provided complementary results on chromium study.

  7. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Martín García Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ronderos, María M; Marino, Pablo I; Díaz, Florentina; Estévez, Ana L

    2011-09-01

    Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. PMID:22017124

  8. Orofacial antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliane C; Macedo, Larissa A R O; Souza, Grasielly R; Oliveira-Junior, Raimundo G; Lima-Saraiva, Sarah R G; Lavor, Érica M; Silva, Mariana G; Souza, Marilia T S; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Mendes, Rosemairy L; Almeida, Jackson R G S

    2016-01-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae) is a species popularly known in Brazil as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga". We have evaluated the antinociceptive effects of A. vepretorum in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced orofacial nociception in mice. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with either saline (p.o.), A. vepretorum ethanol extract (Av-EtOH 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), or morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), before formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate was injected into the right upper lip. Pre-treatment with Av-EtOH at all doses produced a reduction in face-rubbing behavior induced by formalin in both phases, and these pre-treatments also produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) did not reverse the antinociceptive activity of the extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg in the first phase of this test. Our results suggest that Av-EtOH might be useful in the treatment of orofacial pain. PMID:27269894

  9. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla de M.; do Nascimento, Evandro A.; de Morais, Sérgio A. L.; de Oliveira, Alberto; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C. S.; Martins, Mário M.; Martins, Carlos Henrique G.; Moraes, Thaís da S.; Rodrigues, Paulla V.; da Silva, Cláudio V.; de Aquino, Francisco J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%). The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL−1). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL−1 for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest. PMID:25960759

  10. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla de M; do Nascimento, Evandro A; de Morais, Sérgio A L; de Oliveira, Alberto; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C S; Martins, Mário M; Martins, Carlos Henrique G; Moraes, Thaís da S; Rodrigues, Paulla V; da Silva, Cláudio V; de Aquino, Francisco J T

    2015-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%). The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL(-1)). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL(-1) for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest. PMID:25960759

  11. Garcinielliptone FC, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone from Platonia insignis Mart., promotes vasorelaxant effect on rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; da Costa-Júnior, Joaquim Soares; Moura, Lucas Henrique Porfírio; Ferraz, Alexandre Barros Falcão; Rossatto, Raíssa Rebés; David, Jorge Maurício; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Oliveira, Aldeídia Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Polyisoprenylated benzophenones represent a group of chemical compounds commonly identified in Clusiaceae species and are responsible for a large amount of biological activities. In this work, the vasorelaxant effect induced by garcinielliptone FC (GFC) isolated from Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae), a monotype species from Platonia genus, was investigated. GFC promoted an endothelium-independent vasorelaxation on phenylephrine (PHE, 10(-5) mol L(-1))-induced vasoconstriction, but not on KCl (80 mmol L(-1))-induced vasoconstriction, on rat superior mesenteric artery rings. In addition, a concentration-dependent decrease of PHE- or serotonin-induced cumulative concentration-response curves was observed for GFC, and a slight decrease of pD₂ value on CaCl₂-induced vasoconstriction. In a Ca(2+)-free medium, GFC interfered in calcium mobilisation from PHE (10(-5) mol L(-1))-sensitive intracellular stores. GFC-induced vasorelaxant effect is probably mediated by a dual effect on mobilisation of calcium intracellular stores and attenuation of transmembrane calcium influx. PMID:24579922

  12. Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in a Typical Mediterranean Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E.; Vlachos, Christos G.; Papakosta, Malamati A.; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A.; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N.

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003–2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (BA = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources. PMID:22619607

  13. Ontogenesis secretion and senescence of Tocoyena bullata (Vell.) Mart. (Rubiacaeae) colleters.

    PubMed

    Miguel, E C; Da Cunha, M; Miguel, T B A R; Barros, C F

    2016-09-01

    Colleters are secretory structure present on many families including Rubiaceae. Particular characteristics have been described about colleters secretory cells, however senescence process are still under debate. Tocoyena bullata (Vell.) Mart. (Rubiaceae) shoot apex were collected at Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, RJ/Brazil. Stipules were separated and fragments were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 4.0% formaldehyde in 0.05 m sodium cacodylate buffer, pH 7.2, post fixed in 1.0% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dehydrated in acetone, critical-point-drying, sputtered coated and observed. For light microscopy fragments were fixed and dehydrated, infiltrated with historesin and stained with 1% toluidine blue. For transmission electron microscopy, the samples were infiltrated with Epoxi resin. Colleters are present on stipule adaxial surface. On the beginning of development, these structures are recognized as small projections. Later on, colleters differentiated and secrete by cuticle rupture. The colleters senescence occurs in a concomitant and indissoluble way of programmed cell death. Ultrastructural analyses during the process strongly suggest the senescence is based on a non-autolitic programmed cell death. T. bullata colleters, present at stipule abaxial surface are cylindrical secretory structures. Colleters secretory cells originated as stipule projections; differentiate; secrete and senesce by programmed cell death. The secretion and the cell dead occurs in a concomitantly and indissoluble way. PMID:27208391

  14. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

  15. Eduardo Martínez Alonso (1903-72): gallant surgeon who undertook special operations.

    PubMed

    Coni, Nicholas

    2010-02-01

    Eduardo Martínez Alonso was of Spanish and Uruguyan extraction and was born in Vigo in Galicia in 1903. Due to his father's occupation, he was educated in the UK and qualified from the University of Liverpool. He returned to Madrid to practise and during the Civil War he found himself in the Republican zone where his connections with the Royal Family brought him under suspicion. Threatened with execution, he escaped to serve as a surgeon in the Nationalist Army. Being bilingual, he was medical adviser to the British Embassy during World War II; because of his allegiance to this country and acting from humanitarian motives, he became a ringleader in a plot to smuggle fugitives from Nazi-occupied Europe across a pro-Axis Spain to safety. When the Gestapo was closing in on him, he was smuggled to the UK via Portugal. He underwent training as a potential undercover agent should Franco take Spain into the war but, when hostilities ceased, he returned to Madrid and became a leading thoracic surgeon. PMID:20207896

  16. Distribution, occupancy, and habitat correlates of American martens (Martes americana) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    A clear understanding of habitat associations of martens (Martes americana) is necessary to effectively manage and monitor populations. However, this information was lacking for martens in most of their southern range, particularly during the summer season. We studied the distribution and habitat correlates of martens from 2004 to 2006 in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) across 3 spatial scales: site-specific, home-range, and landscape. We used remote-sensored cameras from early August through late October to inventory occurrence of martens and modeled occurrence as a function of habitat and landscape variables using binary response (BR) and binomial count (BC) logistic regression, and occupancy modeling (OM). We also assessed which was the most appropriate modeling technique for martens in RMNP. Of the 3 modeling techniques, OM appeared to be most appropriate given the explanatory power of derived models and its incorporation of detection probabilities, although the results from BR and BC provided corroborating evidence of important habitat correlates. Location of sites in the western portion of the park, riparian mixed-conifer stands, and mixed-conifer with aspen patches were most frequently positively correlated with occurrence of martens, whereas more xeric and open sites were avoided. Additionally, OM yielded unbiased occupancy values ranging from 91% to 100% and 20% to 30% for the western and eastern portions of RMNP, respectively. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  17. New MHD feedback control schemes using the MARTe framework in RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piron, Chiara; Manduchi, Gabriele; Marrelli, Lionello; Piovesan, Paolo; Zanca, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Real-time feedback control of MHD instabilities is a topic of major interest in magnetic thermonuclear fusion, since it allows to optimize a device performance even beyond its stability bounds. The stability properties of different magnetic configurations are important test benches for real-time control systems. RFX-mod, a Reversed Field Pinch experiment that can also operate as a tokamak, is a well suited device to investigate this topic. It is equipped with a sophisticated magnetic feedback system that controls MHD instabilities and error fields by means of 192 active coils and a corresponding grid of sensors. In addition, the RFX-mod control system has recently gained new potentialities thanks to the introduction of the MARTe framework and of a new CPU architecture. These capabilities allow to study new feedback algorithms relevant to both RFP and tokamak operation and to contribute to the debate on the optimal feedback strategy. This work focuses on the design of new feedback schemes. For this purpose new magnetic sensors have been explored, together with new algorithms that refine the de-aliasing computation of the radial sideband harmonics. The comparison of different sensor and feedback strategy performance is described in both RFP and tokamak experiments.

  18. BioMart Central Portal: an open database network for the biological community.

    PubMed

    Guberman, Jonathan M; Ai, J; Arnaiz, O; Baran, Joachim; Blake, Andrew; Baldock, Richard; Chelala, Claude; Croft, David; Cros, Anthony; Cutts, Rosalind J; Di Génova, A; Forbes, Simon; Fujisawa, T; Gadaleta, E; Goodstein, D M; Gundem, Gunes; Haggarty, Bernard; Haider, Syed; Hall, Matthew; Harris, Todd; Haw, Robin; Hu, S; Hubbard, Simon; Hsu, Jack; Iyer, Vivek; Jones, Philip; Katayama, Toshiaki; Kinsella, R; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Liang, Yong; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Luo, J; Lush, Michael; Mason, Jeremy; Moreews, Francois; Ndegwa, Nelson; Oakley, Darren; Perez-Llamas, Christian; Primig, Michael; Rivkin, Elena; Rosanoff, S; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Skarnes, B; Smedley, Damian; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Stevenson, Peter; Stone, Kevin; Teague, J; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jianxin; Whitty, Brett; Wong, D T; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Yao, L; Youens-Clark, Ken; Yung, Christina; Zhang, Junjun; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart Central Portal is a first of its kind, community-driven effort to provide unified access to dozens of biological databases spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. Anybody can contribute an independently maintained resource to the Central Portal, allowing it to be exposed to and shared with the research community, and linking it with the other resources in the portal. Users can take advantage of the common interface to quickly utilize different sources without learning a new system for each. The system also simplifies cross-database searches that might otherwise require several complicated steps. Several integrated tools streamline common tasks, such as converting between ID formats and retrieving sequences. The combination of a wide variety of databases, an easy-to-use interface, robust programmatic access and the array of tools make Central Portal a one-stop shop for biological data querying. Here, we describe the structure of Central Portal and show example queries to demonstrate its capabilities. PMID:21930507

  19. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J

    2016-10-01

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermented jabuticaba pomaces were studied regarding their hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, as well as their antioxidant properties, including: soluble sugars, organic acids and tocopherols (using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index, diode array and fluorescence detector, respectively); phenolics and anthocyanins, (using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization); and fatty acids (using gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection). The analytical data demonstrated that jabuticaba pomaces are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds (namely hydrolyzable tannins and anthocyanins) with antioxidant potential. Therefore, jabuticaba pomace may have good potential as a functional ingredient in the fabrication of human foods and animal feed. PMID:27132843

  20. High-rate composting-vermicomposting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms).

    PubMed

    Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2002-07-01

    In an attempt to develop a system with which the aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms) can be economically processed to generate vermicompost in large quantities, the weed was first composted by a 'high-rate' method and then subjected to vermicomposting in reactors operating at much larger densities of earthworm than recommended hitherto: 50, 62.5, 75, 87.5, 100, 112.5, 125, 137.5, and 150 adults of Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg per litre of digester volume. The composting step was accomplished in 20 days and the composted weed was found to be vermicomposted three times as rapidly as uncomposted water hyacinth [Bioresource Technology 76 (2001) 177]. The studies substantiated the feasibility of high-rate composting-vermicomposting systems, as all reactors yielded consistent vermicast output during seven months of operation. There was no earthworm mortality during the first four months in spite of the high animal densities in the reactors. In the subsequent three months a total of 79 worms died out of 1650, representing less than 1.6% mortality per month. The results also indicated that an increase in the surface-to-volume ratio of the reactors might further improve their efficiency. PMID:12094800

  1. Exposure to Melan-A/MART-126-35 tumor epitope specific CD8(+)T cells reveals immune escape by affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS).

    PubMed

    Ebstein, Frédéric; Keller, Martin; Paschen, Annette; Walden, Peter; Seeger, Michael; Bürger, Elke; Krüger, Elke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kloetzel, Peter-M; Seifert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Efficient processing of target antigens by the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is essential for treatment of cancers by T cell therapies. However, immune escape due to altered expression of IFN-γ-inducible components of the antigen presentation machinery and consequent inefficient processing of HLA-dependent tumor epitopes can be one important reason for failure of such therapies. Here, we show that short-term co-culture of Melan-A/MART-1 tumor antigen-expressing melanoma cells with Melan-A/MART-126-35-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) led to resistance against CTL-induced lysis because of impaired Melan-A/MART-126-35 epitope processing. Interestingly, deregulation of p97/VCP expression, which is an IFN-γ-independent component of the UPS and part of the ER-dependent protein degradation pathway (ERAD), was found to be essentially involved in the observed immune escape. In support, our data demonstrate that re-expression of p97/VCP in Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL-resistant melanoma cells completely restored immune recognition by Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL. In conclusion, our experiments show that impaired expression of IFN-γ-independent components of the UPS can exert rapid immune evasion of tumor cells and suggest that tumor antigens processed by distinct UPS degradation pathways should be simultaneously targeted in T cell therapies to restrict the likelihood of immune evasion due to impaired antigen processing. PMID:27143649

  2. Exposure to Melan-A/MART-126-35 tumor epitope specific CD8+T cells reveals immune escape by affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)

    PubMed Central

    Ebstein, Frédéric; Keller, Martin; Paschen, Annette; Walden, Peter; Seeger, Michael; Bürger, Elke; Krüger, Elke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kloetzel, Peter-M.; Seifert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Efficient processing of target antigens by the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is essential for treatment of cancers by T cell therapies. However, immune escape due to altered expression of IFN-γ-inducible components of the antigen presentation machinery and consequent inefficient processing of HLA-dependent tumor epitopes can be one important reason for failure of such therapies. Here, we show that short-term co-culture of Melan-A/MART-1 tumor antigen-expressing melanoma cells with Melan-A/MART-126-35-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) led to resistance against CTL-induced lysis because of impaired Melan-A/MART-126-35 epitope processing. Interestingly, deregulation of p97/VCP expression, which is an IFN-γ-independent component of the UPS and part of the ER-dependent protein degradation pathway (ERAD), was found to be essentially involved in the observed immune escape. In support, our data demonstrate that re-expression of p97/VCP in Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL-resistant melanoma cells completely restored immune recognition by Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL. In conclusion, our experiments show that impaired expression of IFN-γ-independent components of the UPS can exert rapid immune evasion of tumor cells and suggest that tumor antigens processed by distinct UPS degradation pathways should be simultaneously targeted in T cell therapies to restrict the likelihood of immune evasion due to impaired antigen processing. PMID:27143649

  3. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP

  4. Prevalence of Soboliphyme baturini in marten (Martes americana) populations from three regions of Alaska, 1990-1998.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, Randall L; Whitman, Jackson S; Flynn, Rodney W; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2004-07-01

    Marten (Martes americana) carcasses were collected from trappers in three regions of Alaska. Stomachs were examined for the nematode parasite Soboliphyme baturini. Both prevalence and intensity of infection exhibited an increase from north to south. Prevalence was higher in adults (compared with juveniles) from the two mainland study areas. Prevalences in these two age classes were similar for the southeastern region. There were no sex-specific differences in prevalence. No pathologic changes were observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Impact of the parasite on either individual animals or populations was not detected. PMID:15465712

  5. A taxonomic review of the Neotropical genus Hansreia Halffter & Martínez, 1977 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Valois, Marcely; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Silva, Fernando A B

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Hansreia Halffter & Martínez is reviewed. The genus consists of six species, including three new species: H. peugeoti sp. nov., H. grossii sp. nov., H. krinskii sp. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Hansreia affinis (Fabricius 1801), H. oxygona (Perty 1830) [here considered a valid species] and H. coriacea (Schmidt 1922). The species status of H. coriacea is recognized. A detailed literature review, synonymies, description, illustration of key morphological characters as well as data of the studied material and geographic distribution is provided for each species. PMID:26624175

  6. Ozone profiles retrieval from SCIAMACHY Chappuis-Wulf limb scattered spectra using MART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZiJun; Chen, ShengBo; Jin, LiHua; Yang, ChunYan

    2011-02-01

    The Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument, launched on the Envisat satellite in March 2002, measures the earthshine radiance, simultaneously from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR), in the three viewing geometries: nadir, limb, and occultation. These measurements are used to retrieve both the total amount and vertical profiles of a large number of atmospheric constituents. In this paper, stratospheric ozone profiles between 15 and 40 km altitude are retrieved on 3 km grids from SCIAMACHY limb scattered radiance in the Chappuis-Wulf band. The study employs a new multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) coupled with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. This technique is outstanding in that more than one measurement vector element can be used to retrieve the ozone density at any altitude. Furthermore, it is straightforward to understand, easy to implement and likely to produce stable results. Radiance normalization and wavelength pairing is applied to radiance as an intermediate step, using the wavelengths 525 nm, 600 nm and 675 nm. The sensitivity of ozone retrieval by this method to tangent altitude pointing, surface albedo, aerosol and cloud parameters is studied, and the results show that the retrieval impact due to tangent altitude pointing bias is the biggest up to 75% with 1 km shift, and the impact of albedo is limited within 5%. The effect of boundary visibility and cloud parameters can be ignored since their impact is too small. The effectiveness of the retrieval is demonstrated using a set of coincident SCIAMACHY products at Hefei that shows a mean bias of less than 12% between 15 and 40 km, and with a better accuracy of 5% from 16 to 36 km.

  7. Salinity effects on water potential components and bulk elastic modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb

    SciTech Connect

    Bolanos, J.A.; Longstreth, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Grixeb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (PSI), osmotic potential (psi/sub s/), turgor potential (psi/sub p/) and the bulk elastic modulus (element of) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of psi decreased with increasing salinity and tissue PSI was always lower than rhizosphere PSI. The relationship between psi/sub p/ and tissue water content changed because element of increased with salinity. As a results, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which psi/sub p/ was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on element of in higher plants. These increases in element of with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant PSI and rhizosphere PSI, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed PSI was constant with 1 day, psi/sub s/ and psi/sub p/ continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and element of continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in element of modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. 24 references, 6 figures.

  8. Two-dimensional ionospheric tomography over the low-latitude Indian region: An intercomparison of ART and MART algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sukanta Kumar; Shukla, Ashish Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Single-frequency users of a satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) rely on ionospheric models to mitigate the delay due to the ionosphere. The ionosphere is the major source of range and range rate errors for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS) who require high-accuracy positioning. The purpose of the present study is to develop a tomography model to reconstruct the total electron content (TEC) over the low-latitude Indian region which lies in the equatorial ionospheric anomaly belt. In the present study, the TEC data collected from the six TEC collection stations along a longitudinal belt of around 77 degrees are used. The main objective of the study is to find out optimum pixel size which supports a better reconstruction of the electron density and hence the TEC over the low-latitude Indian region. Performance of two reconstruction algorithms Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) and Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART) is analyzed for different pixel sizes varying from 1 to 6 degrees in latitude. It is found from the analysis that the optimum pixel size is 5° × 50 km over the Indian region using both ART and MART algorithms.

  9. TCRs Used in Cancer Gene Therapy Cross-React with MART-1/Melan-A Tumor Antigens via Distinct Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Hossain, Moushumi; Baker, Brian M.

    2013-09-18

    T cells engineered to express TCRs specific for tumor Ags can drive cancer regression. The first TCRs used in cancer gene therapy, DMF4 and DMF5, recognize two structurally distinct peptide epitopes of the melanoma-associated MART-1/Melan-A protein, both presented by the class I MHC protein HLA-A*0201. To help understand the mechanisms of TCR cross-reactivity and provide a foundation for the further development of immunotherapy, we determined the crystallographic structures of DMF4 and DMF5 in complex with both of the MART-1/Melan-A epitopes. The two TCRs use different mechanisms to accommodate the two ligands. Although DMF4 binds the two with a different orientation, altering its position over the peptide/MHC, DMF5 binds them both identically. The simpler mode of cross-reactivity by DMF5 is associated with higher affinity toward both ligands, consistent with the superior functional avidity of DMF5. More generally, the observation of two diverging mechanisms of cross-reactivity with the same Ags and the finding that TCR-binding orientation can be determined by peptide alone extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying TCR cross-reactivity.

  10. SOLID2: An Antibody Array-Based Life-Detector Instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A.; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  11. Paleoecological and biogeographical implications of late Pleistocene noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) in eastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2011-01-01

    A mandible identified as noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) recovered from sediments dating to 11,800 cal yr BP and a humerus identified as M. a. cf. nobilis recovered from sediments dating from 13,100 to 12,500 cal yr BP at the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington represent the first record of this taxon in the state. Mammalian taxa associated with the Marmes Rockshelter noble marten represent a diversity of open mesic habitats corroborating earlier analyses of other records of the noble marten in the western United States and exemplify how paleozoologists determine the ecology and environmental predilections of extinct taxa. The recovery site represents the topographically lowest record of this species in western North America and the farthest north record in the United States. Future research should examine known late-Quaternary Martes spp. remains from British Columbia and Alberta to fill in the 2200-km geographic gap in the known distribution of this taxon between a record in the northern Yukon and those in the western United States, and to refine our knowledge of noble marten paleoecology.

  12. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life. PMID:19105755

  13. Jebel Hafit and the Al Ain oases (Eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates): an integrative approach of a cultural landscape through the scope of geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Louchet, André; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Ragala, Rachid; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Fouache, Éric; Cohen, Marianne; Desruelles, Stéphane; Gramond, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    human settlements and occupation, it is possible to characterize a threefold transition: first, the former transition between the pre-Islamic prehistoric societies and the development of Muslim societies; second, the more recent transition between the traditional historical society (farmers) and the contemporary society, characterized by the growth of urbanization, the creation of modern transport infrastructure and the concomitant growth of tourist flows; third, the current transition between the yesterday and tomorrow Al Ain City, due to the transformation of a local town centred on national economics all along the second half of the twentieth century, into an international town more open to the wider world with the management of a possible increased 20 % of tourist flow because of the inscription of Cultural Sites of Al Ain on the UNESCO's World Heritage List. It is not possible to completely ignore the fact that the Jebel Hafit and its foothills are partly crossed by an international boundary. In case of political tensions, this may cause some difficulties for the management of this territory, with contradictory requirements between security, tourism, traditional land use, and scientific research.

  14. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor and its ionic metabolites in soils and vadose zone solids: Consequences on groundwater quality in an alluvial aquifer (Ain Plain, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Nicole; Gourcy, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    This study characterizes the transfer of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and its metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOXA) to the alluvial aquifer. Sorption and mineralization of SMOC and its two ionic metabolites were characterized for cultivated soils and solids from the vadose (unsaturated) zone in the Ain Plain (France). Under sterile soil conditions, the absence of mineralization confirms the importance of biotic processes in SMOC degradation. There is some adsorption and mineralization of the parent molecule and its metabolites in the unsaturated zone, though less than in soils. For soils, the MESA adsorption constant is statistically higher than that of MOXA and the sorption constants of the two metabolites are significantly lower than that of SMOC. After 246 days, for soils, maximums of 26% of the SMOC, 30% of the MESA and 38% of the MOXA were mineralized. This partly explains the presence of these metabolites in the groundwater at concentrations generally higher than those of the parent molecule for MESA, although there is no statistical difference in the mineralization of the 3 molecules. The laboratory results make it possible to explain the field observations made during 27 months of groundwater quality monitoring (monthly sampling frequency). The evolution of both metabolite concentrations in the groundwater is directly related to recharge dynamics; there is a positive correlation between concentrations and the groundwater level. The observed lag of several months between the signals of the parent molecule and those of the metabolites is probably due to greater sorption of the parent molecule than of its metabolites and/or to degradation kinetics.

  15. Caractérisation et préconcentration granulométrique de la matière feldspathique d'Ain-Barbar, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouama, M. C.; Bounouala, M.; Ain-Souya, A.; Ghers, M.

    2005-05-01

    Les feldspaths sont répandus dans l'écorce terrestre mais seuls les feldspaths potassiques et sodiques sont très recherchés dans l'industrie céramique et verrière. Pour qu'ils soient utilisables, ces matériaux doivent contenir très peu d'impuretés nocives de fer et surtout de silice. La carrière d'Ain-Barbar exploite la matière feldspathique de teneurs moyennes respectives 74,5% SiO{2}, 9,5% 12,75% Al{2}O{3}, 1,30% Fe{2}O{3} et 9,5 K{2}O (0,90% Na{2}O). Toutefois, on constate un taux très élevé en quartz ce qui diminue la valeur du produit marchand et une teneur élevée en fer ce qui donne au produit fabriqué, des aspects de coloration le rendant impropre à la commercialisation. A cet effet, une caractérisation minéralogique et chimique a été réalisée sur une série d'échantillons prélevés du site d'extraction de la substance utile. Des essais de préconcentration granulométrique ont montré qu'un classement dimensionnel peut offrir une qualité de produits acceptables par les céramistes.

  16. 77 FR 44677 - Quad/Graphics Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D., Jonesboro, AR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... and A.I.D.,Jonesboro, AR; Amended Certification Regarding EligibilityTo Apply for Worker Adjustment... of determination was published in the Federal Register on July 10, 2012 (77 FR 40641). At the request... magazines and catalogues. The company reports that workers leased from Staff Mart and A.I.D. were...

  17. Pharmacological Evidence of α2-Adrenergic Receptors in the Hypotensive Effect of Platonia insignis Mart.

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Marcelo Bezerra; da Silva-Filho, José Couras; Sabino, Carla Kelly Barroso; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Sousa, Cleyton Marcos Melo; Costa, Isabella Cristhina Gonçalves; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Amazon region. The present study evaluated the biological potential of the ethanol extract (Pi-EtOH) and ethyl acetate fraction (Pi-EtOAc) of the P. insignis fruit shells on the cardiovascular system of rats. Pi-EtOH or Pi-EtOAc (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously in normotensive rats (260–300 g), and the mean arterial pressure and the heart rate were monitored. The Pi-EtOH induced hypotension (−11.56±0.89, −7.43±0.85, and −17.56±1.97 mmHg) followed by bradycardia in two highest doses (−8.89±3.62 and −15.79±1.83 beats/min) and Pi-EtOAc, at the same doses, induced hypotension (−11.2±1.03, −14.48±1.13, −29.89±2.67 mmHg) more intensively, followed by tachycardia at the dose 12.5 and 25 mg/kg (15.64±2.06, 19.31±1.92 beats/min) and bradycardia at a dose of 50 mg/kg (−9.98±7.33 beats/min). The hypotensive response from Pi-EtOAc was not attenuated when used in the pretreatment with L-NAME, verapamil, propranolol, and hexamethonium. However, when using yohimbine, the hypotensive effect was inhibited (−4.42±1.28 (P<.05), −3.29±0.99 (P<.05), 2.06±1.18 mmHg (P<.05); Student's t-test). Hence, the Pi-EtOAc seems to act similarly to the α2-adrenergic agonist in this hypotensive effect. PMID:25055183

  18. Using remote sensing to monitor herbicide injury and biomass of waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Wilfredo

    Aquatic vegetation plays an important role in the ecological interactions and processes within a water body. However, the presence of the invasive exotic aquatic plant species, waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms], negatively affects those interactions as well as interfering with water use for recreation and navigation. An implemented management plan for waterhyacinth control relies on the use of herbicides. Efficacy is commonly assessed using visual injury and control ratings as well as estimating biomass. The problem is that those approaches are labor intensive only assessing single points throughout the entire water body. Therefore, technology like remote sensing, which is the focus of this research, is recommended as an additional tool to assess implemented management plans. Studies were conducted in a mesocosm research facility to evaluate the relationship between simulated spectral bands 3, 4, 5, and 7 Landsat 5 TM and waterhyacinth treated with the herbicides imazapyr and glyphosate. Results indicate that injury is better detected and predicted with band 4 and that relationship is negative when either herbicide was used. However, prediction is better when plants have developed sufficient injury to influence the spectral response of band 4. In the second study, the biomass of waterhyacinth was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using simulated data from Landsat 5 TM. This study was conducted over natural populations of waterhyacinth in Lakes Columbus and Aberdeen, MS over two growing seasons. Results indicate that the use of NDVI alone is a weak predictor of biomass; however, its combination with morphometric parameters like leaf area index enhanced predictive capabilities. In order to assess field herbicide treatments for waterhyacinth control and its consequent impact on native aquatic vegetation, lake-wide surveys were performed in Lake Columbus, MS using a point-intercept method. The herbicide assessed was 2

  19. MART-1 peptide vaccination plus IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) in patients receiving autologous PBMCs after lymphodepletion: results of a Phase I trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy offers a promising novel approach for the treatment of cancer and both adoptive T-cell transfer and immune modulation lead to regression of advanced melanoma. However, the potential synergy between these two strategies remains unclear. Methods We investigated in 12 patients with advanced stage IV melanoma the effect of multiple MART-1 analog peptide vaccinations with (n = 6) or without (n = 6) IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) as an adjuvant in combination with lymphodepleting chemotherapy and adoptive transfer of autologous PBMCs at day (D) 0 (Trial registration No: NCT00324623). All patients were selected on the basis of ex vivo detectable MART-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses and immunized at D0, 8, 15, 22, 28, 52, and 74 post-reinfusion. Results After immunization, a significant expansion of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells was measured in 83% (n = 5/6) and 17% (n = 1/6) of patients from the IMP321 and control groups, respectively (P < 0.02). Compared to the control group, the mean fold increase of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells in the IMP321 group was respectively >2-, >4- and >6-fold higher at D15, D30 and D60 (P < 0.02). Long-lasting MART-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses were significantly associated with IMP321 (P < 0.02). At the peak of the response, MART-1-specific CD8 T cells contained higher proportions of effector (CCR7− CD45RA+/−) cells in the IMP321 group (P < 0.02) and showed no sign of exhaustion (i.e. were mostly PD1−CD160−TIM3−LAG3−2B4+/−). Moreover, IMP321 was associated with a significantly reduced expansion of regulatory T cells (P < 0.04); consistently, we observed a negative correlation between the relative expansion of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells and of regulatory T cells. Finally, although there were no confirmed responses as per RECIST criteria, a transient, 30-day partial response was observed in a patient from the IMP321 group. Conclusions Vaccination with IMP321 as an

  20. Advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping, device passivation, and piezoelectric-based RF MEMS/NEMS resonator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullavarad, S. S.; Vispute, R. D.; Nagaraj, B.; Kulkarni, V. N.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Jones, K. A.; Derenge, M.; Zheleva, T.; Ervin, M. H.; Lelis, A.; Scozzie, C. J.; Habersat, D.; Wickenden, A. E.; Currano, L. J.; Dubey, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we report recent advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping of SiC, passivation of SiC-based devices, and fabrication of a piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS resonator on Pt-metallized SiO2/Si. The AlN films grown using the reactive laser ablation technique were found to be highly stoichiometric, dense with an optical band gap of 6.2 eV, and with a surface smoothness of less than 1 nm. A low-temperature buffer-layer approach was used to reduce the lattice and thermal mismatch strains. The dependence of the quality of AlN thin films and its characteristics as a function of processing parameters are discussed. Due to high crystallinity, near-perfect stoichiometry, and high packing density, pulsed-laser-deposited AlN thin films show a tendency to withstand high temperatures up to 1600°C, and which enables it to be used as an anneal capping layer for SiC wafers for removing ion-implantation damage and dopant activation. The laser-deposited AlN thin films show conformal coverage on SiC-based devices and exhibit an electrical break-down strength of 1.66 MV/cm up to 350°C when used as an insulator in Ni/AlN/SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) AlN films grown on Pt/SiO2/Si (100) substrates for radio-frequency microelectrical and mechanical systems and nanoelectrical and mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) demonstrated resonators having high Q values ranging from 8,000 to 17,000 in the frequency range of 2.5-0.45 MHz. AlN thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (in normal and oxygen resonance mode), atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Applications exploiting characteristics of high bandgap, high bond strength, excellent piezoelectric characteristics, extremely high chemical inertness, high electrical resistivity, high breakdown strength, and high thermal stability of the pulsed

  1. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Dunagan, Stephen; Stevens, Todd; Amils, Ricardo; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Fernandez, David; Hall, James; Lynch, Kennda; Cannon, Howard; Zavaleta, Jhony

    2004-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project, an ASTEP field experiment, is exploring for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River- or Rio Tinto- in southwestern Spain. It is also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The project has three primary objectives: (1) search for and characterize subsurface life at Rio Tinto along with the physical and chemical properties and sustaining energy sources of its environment, (2) perform a high fidelity simulation of a robotic Mars drilling mission to search for life, and (3) demonstrate the drilling, sample handling, and instrument technologies relevant to searching for life on Mars. The simulation of the robotic drilling mission is guided by the results of the aseptic drilling campaign to search for life at Rio Tinto. This paper describes results of the first phase of the aseptic drilling campaign.

  2. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed. PMID:27536551

  3. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona crassiflora Mart. of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability.

    PubMed

    Egydio-Brandão, Anary Priscila Monteiro; Furlan, Claudia Maria; Dos Santos, Déborah Yara Alves Cursino

    2016-08-01

    Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. This work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. A. crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate, and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated with AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in A. crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie. PMID:27286480

  4. Total oxidant scavenging capacity of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) seeds and identification of their polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta B; Lichtenthäler, Ramona; Zimmermann, Benno F; Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Fabricius, Heinz; Marx, Friedhelm; Maia, José G S; Almeida, Ossalin

    2006-06-14

    The antioxidant capacity of methanol and ethanol seed extracts from Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) against the reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radicals was studied with the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay in a modified and automated version. Cold methanol digestion was the most efficient extraction method with respect to the antioxidant capacity. The extracts exhibit good antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, similar to the capacity of the pulp. The antioxidant capacity against peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals is even higher. The main antioxidants identified by HPLC-MS and HPLC-CEAD are five different procyanidins (di- through pentamers); furthermore, protocatechuic acid and epicatechin were identified as minor compounds. Determination of TOSC values of HPLC seed extract fractions indicates that the procyanidins contribute substantially to the overall antioxidant capacity. In addition, however, other compounds that have not yet been identified are responsible for a large part of the observed antioxidant capacity. PMID:16756342

  5. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  6. Biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nitrogen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Dilhani, Jayakodi A T; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nitrogen concentrations of 1-fold [28 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN)], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold and plants harvested from a polluted water body. This study was carried out for a period of 4 months at ambient mesophilic temperatures of 30.3-31.3 degrees C using six 3-barreled batch-fed reactors with the innermost barrel (45 L) being used as the digester. There was no marked variation in the C/N ratios of the plants cultured under different nitrogen concentrations. The addition of fresh cow dung having a low C/N of 8 resulted in a significant reduction in the C/N ratios of the water hyacinth substrates. However, gas production commenced 3 days after charging the reactors and gas production rates peaked in 4-7 days. The volatile solids (VS) degradation and gas production patterns manifested that in conventional single-stage batch digesters acidogenesis and methanogenesis of water hyacinth requires a retention time of around 27-30 days and 27-51 days, respectively. Substrates in the f-1 digester (i.e., the digester containing plants grown under 28 TN mg/L) having the lowest VS content of 45.3 g/L with a highest C/N ratio of 16 showed fairly higher gas production rates consistently (10-27 days) with higher gas yields containing around 50-65% of CH4 (27-51 days). Moreover the highest overall VS (81.7%) removal efficiencies were reported from the f-1 digester. Fairly higher gas production rates and gas yields with fairly higher CH4 contents were also noticed from the f-2 digester containing substrates having a C/N of 14 and f-out digester (containing the plants harvested from the polluted water body) having the lowest C/N ratio of 9.7 with a fairly high VS content of 56 g/L. CH4 production was comparatively low in the f-1/8, f-1/4 and f-1/2 digesters having VS rich substrates with varying C/N ratios. We conclude that water hyacinth could be

  7. Structures of MART-126/27-35Peptide/HLA-A2 Complexes Reveal a Remarkable Disconnect between Antigen Structural Homology and T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Insaidoo, Francis K; Baxter, Tiffany K; Powell, Jr., Daniel J.; Johnson, Laura A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Baker, Brian M

    2008-09-17

    Small structural changes in peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules often result in large changes in immunogenicity, supporting the notion that T cell receptors are exquisitely sensitive to antigen structure. Yet there are striking examples of TCR recognition of structurally dissimilar ligands. The resulting unpredictability of how T cells will respond to different or modified antigens impacts both our understanding of the physical bases for TCR specificity as well as efforts to engineer peptides for immunomodulation. In cancer immunotherapy, epitopes and variants derived from the MART-1/Melan-A protein are widely used as clinical vaccines. Two overlapping epitopes spanning amino acid residues 26 through 35 are of particular interest: numerous clinical studies have been performed using variants of the MART-1 26-35 decamer, although only the 27-35 nonamer has been found on the surface of targeted melanoma cells. Here, we show that the 26-35 and 27-35 peptides adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to HLA-A2. Nevertheless, clonally distinct MART-1{sub 26/27-35}-reactive T cells show broad cross-reactivity towards these ligands. Simultaneously, however, many of the cross-reactive T cells remain unable to recognize anchor-modified variants with very subtle structural differences. These dichotomous observations challenge our thinking about how structural information on unligated peptide/MHC complexes should be best used when addressing questions of TCR specificity. Our findings also indicate that caution is warranted in the design of immunotherapeutics based on the MART-1 26/27-35 epitopes, as neither cross-reactivity nor selectivity is predictable based on the analysis of the structures alone.

  8. A psychology of liberation for Central America: the unfinished work of Ignacio Martín-Baró (1942-1989).

    PubMed

    Gondra, José María

    2013-01-01

    On November 16, 1989 the world was shocked by the news of the assassination of six Jesuits at the campus of the Universidad Centro Americana José Simeón Cañas (UCA) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Among those murdered by government soldiers was Ignacio Martín-Baró, a PhD in social psychology from the University of Chicago who at that time was the Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs and Vice-President of the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP). Drawing on Martín-Baró's published writings and non-published academic papers and correspondence, this article traces the evolution of the Spanish-born Jesuit who became a leading authority among Latin American social psychologists. In particular, it analyzes his project of becoming a clinical psychologist under the influence of psychoanalysis, his critical social psychology aimed to "de-ideologize" the oppressed social classes of El Salvador, and his ultimate project of a psychology of liberation for Latin America. Martín-Baró's work came to a tragic end just when it began to bear fruit, but it stands as a testimony to a lifetime committed to the human values of democracy, social justice and service to society's poorest and most neglected. PMID:23866226

  9. MLANA/MART1 and SILV/PMEL17/GP100 Are Transcriptionally Regulated by MITF in Melanocytes and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jinyan; Miller, Arlo J.; Widlund, Hans R.; Horstmann, Martin A.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Fisher, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The clinically important melanoma diagnostic antibodies HMB-45, melan-A, and MITF (D5) recognize gene products of the melanocyte-lineage genes SILV/PMEL17/GP100, MLANA/MART1, and MITF, respectively. MITF encodes a transcription factor that is essential for normal melanocyte development and appears to regulate expression of several pigmentation genes. In this report, the possibility was examined that MITF might additionally regulate expression of the SILV and MLANA genes. Both genes contain conserved MITF consensus DNA sequences that were bound by MITF in vitro and in vivo, based on electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin-immunoprecipitation. In addition, MITF regulated their promoter/enhancer regions in reporter assays, and up- or down-regulation of MITF produced corresponding modulation of endogenous SILV and MLANA in melanoma cells. Expression patterns were compared with these factors in a series of melanoma cell lines whose mutational status of the proto-oncogene BRAF was also known. SILV and MLANA expression correlated with MITF, while no clear correlation was seen relative to BRAF mutation. Finally, mRNA expression array analysis of primary human melanomas demonstrated a tight correlation in their expression levels in clinical tumor specimens. Collectively, this study links three important melanoma antigens into a common transcriptional pathway regulated by MITF. PMID:12819038

  10. Antioxidant activity and characterization of phenolic compounds from bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) fruit by HPLC-DAD-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Abadio Finco, Fernanda D B; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Tseng, Wen-Hsin; Böser, Sabrina; Graeve, Lutz

    2012-08-01

    The phytochemicals in fruits have been shown to be major bioactive compounds with regard to health benefits. Bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) is a native palm fruit from the Brazilian savannah and Amazon rainforest that plays an important role in the diet of rural communities and is also a source of income for poor people. This paper reports the characterization and analyses of phenolics from bacaba fruit extract. The total phenolic content of bacaba fruit amounted to 1759.27 ± 1.01 mg GAE/100 g, the flavonoid content was 1134.32 ± 0.03 mg CTE/100 g, and the anthocyanin content was 34.69 ± 0.00 mg cyn-3-glc/100 g. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through different assays [ORAC, FRAP, DPPH, TEAC, and cellular antioxidant assay (CAA) assays] and revealed a significant antioxidant capacity for bacaba in comparison to the data available in the literature. The assignment of the phenolic compounds using HPLC-DAD-MS(n) was based on the evaluation of their UV-vis absorption maxima (λ(max)) and mass spectral analyses, and 14 compounds were tentatively identified. The results suggest that bacaba fruits are a promising source of phenolics. PMID:22788720

  11. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) modulates oxidative stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans by direct and indirect mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Larissa de Freitas; Silva, David Nunes; Boasquivis, Patrícia Ferreira; Paiva, Franciny Aparecida; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Martins, Talita Alves Faria; de Jesus Torres, Álvaro Gustavo; de Paula, Igor Thadeu Borges Raposo; Caneschi, Washington Luiz; Jacolot, Philippe; Grossin, Nicolas; Tessier, Frederic J; Boulanger, Eric; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Oliveira, Riva de Paula

    2014-01-01

    Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Despite its claimed pharmacological and nutraceutical value, studies regarding the effects of açaí in vivo are limited. In this study, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant properties of açaí on an organismal level and to examine its mechanism of action. Supplementation with açaí aqueous extract (AAE) increased both oxidative and osmotic stress resistance independently of any effect on reproduction and development. AAE suppressed bacterial growth, but this antimicrobial property did not influence stress resistance. AAE-increased stress resistance was correlated with reduced ROS production, the prevention of sulfhydryl (SH) level reduction and gcs-1 activation under oxidative stress conditions. Our mechanistic studies indicated that AAE promotes oxidative stress resistance by acting through DAF-16 and the osmotic stress response pathway OSR-1/UNC-43/SEK-1. Finally, AAE increased polyglutamine protein aggregation and decreased proteasome activity. Our findings suggest that natural compounds available in AAE can improve the antioxidant status of a whole organism under certain conditions by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24594796

  12. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Modulates Oxidative Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Larissa de Freitas; Silva, David Nunes; Boasquivis, Patrícia Ferreira; Paiva, Franciny Aparecida; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Martins, Talita Alves Faria; de Jesus Torres, Álvaro Gustavo; de Paula, Igor Thadeu Borges Raposo; Caneschi, Washington Luiz; Jacolot, Philippe; Grossin, Nicolas; Tessier, Frederic J.; Boulanger, Eric; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; de Paula Oliveira, Riva

    2014-01-01

    Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Despite its claimed pharmacological and nutraceutical value, studies regarding the effects of açaí in vivo are limited. In this study, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant properties of açaí on an organismal level and to examine its mechanism of action. Supplementation with açaí aqueous extract (AAE) increased both oxidative and osmotic stress resistance independently of any effect on reproduction and development. AAE suppressed bacterial growth, but this antimicrobial property did not influence stress resistance. AAE-increased stress resistance was correlated with reduced ROS production, the prevention of sulfhydryl (SH) level reduction and gcs-1 activation under oxidative stress conditions. Our mechanistic studies indicated that AAE promotes oxidative stress resistance by acting through DAF-16 and the osmotic stress response pathway OSR-1/UNC-43/SEK-1. Finally, AAE increased polyglutamine protein aggregation and decreased proteasome activity. Our findings suggest that natural compounds available in AAE can improve the antioxidant status of a whole organism under certain conditions by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24594796

  13. Açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) berry extract exerts neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid exposure in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daphne Yiu San; Musgrave, Ian Francis; Harvey, Benjamin Scott; Smid, Scott Darryl

    2013-11-27

    The native South American palm açaí berry (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) has high polyphenolic and antioxidant levels. This study examined whether açaí berry extract afforded protection against β-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated loss of cell viability and oxidative stress associated with anti-fibrillar effects. PC12 cells were exposed to either Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or tert butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), alone or in the presence of açaí extract (0.5-50μg/ml). Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine effects of açaí extract on Aβ1-42 fibril morphology and compared to açaí phenolics gallic acid, cyanidin rutinoside and cyanidin glucoside. Exposure to Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or t-BHP decreased PC12 cell viability. Pretreatment with açaí extract significantly improved cell viability following Aβ1-42 exposure, however Aβ25-35 or t-BHP-mediated viability loss was unaltered. Açaí extract inhibited ThT fluorescence and disrupted Aβ1-42 fibril and aggregate morphology. In comparison with other phenolics, açaí was most effective at inhibiting Aβ1-42 aggregation. Inhibition of β-amyloid aggregation may underlie a neuroprotective effect of açaí. PMID:24161892

  14. Estimated Seed Shadow Generated by Japanese Martens(Martes melampus): Comparison with Forest-Dwelling Animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Okumura, Tadanobu; Kitahara, Masahiko; Jiang, Zhaowen

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the seed shadow generated by wild Japanese martens (Martes melampus), we combined data on their ranging behavior from the northern foot of Mt. Fuji, central Japan (seven males and three females) with data on gut passage time obtained from martens in Toyama Municipal Family Park Zoo (three males and one female). The movement distances varied, and mean distances for 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 h intervals were 152.4, 734.7, and 1,162.4 m, respectively, with no significant sex difference. The mean gut passage time of ingested seeds was 7.4 h (range: 0.6-51.7 h), and two-thirds were defecated within 12 h. Seeds of fleshy fruits was frequently transported to 501-1,000 m, and 20% of ingested seeds were transported > 1,000 m from feeding sites. We found positive correlations between body size and home range of the animals in Japan and their seed dispersal distances. We conclude that Japanese martens are medium-range dispersers that can transport seeds from the source to open habitats conducive for germination and/or growth, partly due to scent marking behaviors. PMID:27498794

  15. Genotoxicity investigation of araticum(Annona crassiflora Mart., 1841, Annonaceae) using SOS-Inductest and Ames test.

    PubMed

    Vilar, J B; Ferri, P H; Chen-Chen, L

    2011-02-01

    Although the use of medicinal plants or natural products has increased in recent decades all over the world, little information is available on their potential risk to health. Annona crassiflora Mart., a plant commonly known as araticum in Brazil, has been widely used in folk medicine for a long time since its seeds and leaves are often utilised in the treatment of cancer, snake bites, and venereal diseases, its fruits are consumed as tonic and astringent, and its bark powder has anti-fungal and anti-rheumatic properties. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic properties induced by the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves, we performed the prophage λ induction (Inductest) and bacterial mutagenicity assays. We used Escherichia coli WP2s(λ) and RJF013 strains in the lysogenic induction test, whereas the mutagenic studies were carried out using Salmonella typhimurium histidine auxotroph strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. Each experiment was performed three times in duplicate and included positive and negative controls. No statistically significant (p > 0.05) positive results were obtained for any of the strains tested, which suggests that the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves did not exhibit direct mechanisms of genotoxicity or mutagenicity that could be detected by the tests used in the present work. PMID:21437418

  16. Serological analysis of Melan-A(MART-1), a melanocyte-specific protein homogeneously expressed in human melanomas.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y T; Stockert, E; Jungbluth, A; Tsang, S; Coplan, K A; Scanlan, M J; Old, L J

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural identification of human melanoma antigens recognized by autologous cytotoxic T cells has led to the recognition of a new melanocyte differentiation antigen, Melan-A(MART-1). To determine the properties of the Melan-A gene product, Melan-A recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and used to generate mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Two prototype mAbs, A103 and A355, were selected for detailed study. Immunoblotting results with A103 showed a 20-22-kDa doublet In Melan-A mRNA positive melanoma cell lines and no reactivity with Melan-A mRNA-negative cell lines. A355, in addition to the 20-22-kDa doublet, recognized several other protein species in Melan-A mRNA-positive cell lines. Immunocytochemical assays on cultured melanoma cells showed specific and uniform cytoplasmic staining in Melan-A mRNA-positive cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human tissues with both mAbs showed staining of adult melanocytes and no reactivity with the other normal tissues tested. Analysis of 21 melanoma specimens showed homogenous staining of tumor cell cytoplasm in 16 of 17 Melan-A mRNA-positive cases and no reactivity with the three Melan-A mRNA-negative cases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8650193

  17. Final report on SIM.M-S14: Mass comparison in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Nieves; Edgardo Brito, Douglas; Lilieth Chinchilla, Wendy; Chow, Yanisareth; Ramos Alfaro, Olman Fernando; José Reyes Valverde, Renato; Salguero., Rómulo

    2014-01-01

    The scope of the comparison is the demonstration of the coherency of the calibration of 200 mg, 1 g, 50 g, 200 g, 1 kg and 2 kg stainless steel mass standard weights as realized by the participating institutes: CEM (pilot), CEHM, CENAME, CENAMEP, CIM, LACOMET and LANAMET. This comparison is based on a decision taken on 27 August 2013 as part of the program PRACAMS (Regional Program for Quality Support and Implementation of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in Central America). Each participating NMI determined the true mass and conventional mass of 200 mg, 1 g, 50 g, 200 g, 1 kg and 2 kg stainless steel mass standard weights. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Dichloromethane-methanol extract from Borassus aethiopumn mart. (Arecaceae) induces apoptosis of human colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Sakandé, J; Rouet-benzineb, P; Devaud, H; Nikiema, J B; Lompo, M; Nacoulma, O G; Guissou, I P; Bado, A

    2011-05-15

    Borassus aetihiopum MART (Arecaceae) is a plant used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases (bronchitis, laryngitis, antiseptic). In particular, their male inflorcscences were reported to exhibit cicatrizing, antiseptic and fungicidal properties. In the present study, the biological activity of E2F2, an apolar extract from Borassus aethiopum male inflorescence was investigated on colon cancer HT29 cells. Phytochemical screening was carried according to methodology for chemical analysis for vegetable drugs. Cells proliferation was determined by the MTT assay and cells cycle distribution was analysed by using laser flow cytometer (Beckman coulter). The cytoskeleton organisation was examined under a laser scanning confocal microscope (Zess). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of E2F2 extract revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes and saponosids. E2F2 extract (1 microg and 100 microg mL(-1)) significantly inhibited cell proliferation by blocking cell population in G0/G1 phase. Flow Cytometric analysis of E2F2-treated HT29 cells showed that hypoploïd cell population (sub G1 phase) increased with processing time exposures. Immunofluorescence confocal analysis revealed a disrupt actin microfilaments network in E2F2 treated-cells with a significant reduction in actin stress fibres and appearance of a random, non-oriented distribution of focal adhesion sites. These data indicate that E2F2 extract has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms of action of E2F2 extract. PMID:22097093

  19. Removal of aluminium by constructed wetlands with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2007-02-01

    This article reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions for Al rich wastewaters in batch type constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems). This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1 week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth (average height of 20 +/- 2 cm) in 590 L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 2-fold [56 and 15.4 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 1-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 5.62 Al mg/L. A control set-up of hyacinths comprising only Al with no nutrients was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to identify the different Al removal mechanisms from the wastewaters. Chemical precipitation of Al(OH)3 was a dominant contribution to Al removal at the beginning of the study, whereas adsorption of Al3+ to sediments was observed to be a predominant Al removal mechanism as the study progressed. Phytoremediation mainly due to rhizofiltration was also an important mechanism of Al removal especially during the first 4 weeks of the study in almost all the set-ups. However, chemical precipitation and sediment adsorption of Al3+ was a dominant contribution to Al removal in comparison with phytoremediation. Plants cultured in the control set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 63% during the period of the 4th week. A similar scenario was evident in the 1/8-fold set-up. Hence we conclude that water hyacinth grown under lower nutritional conditions are more ideal to commence a batch type constructed wetland treating Al rich wastewaters with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 4 weeks, after which a complete harvesting is recommended. PMID:17182390

  20. Assessment of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective effects of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. stem bark fractions in mice.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, C C; Silva, C R; Menezes, A C S; Pérez, C N; Chen-Chen, L

    2013-01-01

    Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don., popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari", "cascudo", and "saputá", is a shrub of the Celastraceae family that is unique to the Brazilian Cerrado region. In folk medicine, this plant has been mainly used to treat skin cancer and gastric ulcers. In the present study, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic extracts) were evaluated using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Our results showed that none of the S. crassifolia fractions led to a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) (P > 0.05), suggesting the absence of genotoxicity. In the antigenotoxicity assessment, a significant decrease in the MNPCE frequency was observed in all fractions of this plant (P < 0.05), demonstrating its protective action against genotoxicity induced by mitomycin C (MMC), which was used as the positive control. Only the hexane fraction of S. crassifolia significantly decreased the poly- and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE) in all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating its cytotoxic activity. In association with MMC, both ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic fractions significantly increased the PCE/NCE ratio in almost all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating the protective action of S. crassifolia against the cytotoxic effect of the positive control. In contrast, the hexane fraction presented a significant decrease in the PCE/NCE ratio in all treatments (P < 0.05), demonstrating an increase in this plant's cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23884760

  1. Determining the Shape of the Orbit of Mars in the High School. (Spanish Title: Determinación de la Forma de la Órbita de Marte en la Escuela Secundaria.) Determinando a Forma da Órbita de Marte no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Carlos Maximiliano; Rossini Goulart, Andressa

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, in order to supply the lacks of practical activities related to the content of Kepler's Laws in high school physics textbooks, we present a practical activity to determine the shape of the orbit of Mars. In this activity the student can experience the discovery the shape of the orbit of Mars in a way similar to that realized by Johannes Kepler combining the physical concepts with geometry. We applied the activity to eighteen high school teachers participating in a Postgraduate Course in Science Education. After two hours of work the group obtained the shape of the orbit of Mars and estimated its orbital parameters with a relative error less than 14%. En el presente trabajo y con el objetivo de reducir la escasez de actividades prácticas relacionadas con el contenido de las leyes de Kepler en libros de texto de física de la escuela secundaria, se presenta una actividad práctica para determinar la forma de la órbita de Marte. En esta actividad el estudiante puede vivir la experiencia de descubrir la forma de la órbita de Marte de una manera similar a la realizada por Johannes Kepler combinando los conceptos físicos con la geometría. Aplicamos la actividad a dieciocho maestros de escuelas secundarias en un Curso de Especialización en Enseñanza de las Ciencias. Después de dos horas de trabajo el grupo obtuvo la forma de la órbita de Marte com error inferior al 14% en los parámetros orbitales. No presente trabalho, visando suprir a deficiência de atividades práticas relacionadas ao conteúdo de Leis de Kepler nos livros-textos de Física do 1º ano do Ensino Médio, apresentamos uma atividade prática de determinação da órbita de Marte. O aluno, combinando conceitos físicos com a geometria poderá vivenciar a experiência da descoberta da forma da órbita de Marte de modo similar ao realizado por Johannes Kepler. Aplicamos a metodologia proposta junto a dezoito professores do Curso de Especialização em Educação em Ciências e

  2. Syntheses, structural variants and characterization of AInM‧S4 (A=alkali metals, Tl; M‧ = Ge, Sn) compounds; facile ion-exchange reactions of layered NaInSnS4 and KInSnS4 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-06-01

    Ten AInM‧S4 (A=alkali metals, Tl; M‧= Ge, Sn) compounds with diverse structure types have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and a variety of spectroscopic methods. They are wide band gap semiconductors. KInGeS4(1-β), RbInGeS4(2), CsInGeS4(3-β), TlInGeS4(4-β), RbInSnS4(8-β) and CsInSnS4(9) compounds with three-dimensional BaGa2S4 structure and CsInGeS4(3-α) and TlInGeS4(4-α) compounds with a layered TlInSiS4 structure have tetrahedral [InM‧S4]- frameworks. On the other hand, LiInSnS4(5) with spinel structure and NaInSnS4(6), KInSnS4(7), RbInSnS4(8-α) and TlInSnS4(10) compounds with layered structure have octahedral [InM‧S4]- frameworks. NaInSnS4(6) and KInSnS4(7) compounds undergo facile topotactic ion-exchange, at room temperature, with various mono-, di- and tri-valent cations in aqueous medium to give rise to metastable layered phases.

  3. The first evidence of cut marks and usewear traces from the Plio-Pleistocene locality of El-Kherba (Ain Hanech), Algeria: implications for early hominin subsistence activities circa 1.8 Ma.

    PubMed

    Sahnouni, Mohamed; Rosell, Jordi; van der Made, Jan; Vergès, Josep María; Ollé, Andreu; Kandi, Nadia; Harichane, Zoheir; Derradji, Abdelkader; Medig, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    The current archaeological data on early hominin subsistence activities in Africa are derived chiefly from Sub-Saharan Plio-Pleistocene sites. The recent studies at El-Kherba (Ain Hanech) in northeastern Algeria expand the geographic range of evidence of hominin subsistence patterns to include the earliest known archaeological sites documented in North Africa. Dated to 1.78 million years ago (Ma), excavations from El-Kherba yielded an Oldowan industry associated with a savanna-like fauna contained in floodplain deposits. The faunal assemblage is dominated by large and medium-sized animals (mainly adults), especially equids, which are represented by at least 11 individuals. The mammalian archaeofauna preserves numerous cut-marked and hammerstone-percussed bones. Made of primarily limestone and flint, the stone assemblage consists of core forms, débitage, and retouched pieces. Evidence of usewear traces is found on several of the flint artifacts, indicating meat processing by early hominins. Overall, our subsistence analysis indicates that early hominins were largely responsible for bone modification at the site, which is also corroborated by other relevant taphonomic evidence. Moreover, at 1.78 Ma, the cutmarked bones recovered from El-Kherba represent the earliest known evidence for ancestral hominin butchery activities and large animal foraging capabilities in northern Africa. PMID:23305779

  4. Production of biosurfactant on crude date syrup under saline conditions by entrapped cells of Natrialba sp. strain E21, an extremely halophilic bacterium isolated from a solar saltern (Ain Salah, Algeria).

    PubMed

    Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Ferrioune, Imen; Khemili, Souad; Lenchi, Nesrine; Akmouci-Toumi, Sihem; Bouanane-Darenfed, Nabila Amel; Djelali, Nacer-Eddine

    2013-11-01

    A bacterial strain E21 was isolated from a sample of water collected in the salt lake located close to Ain Salah, Algeria. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence had indicated that the strain had 93 % sequence similarity with the genus Natrialba sp. strain E21 (GenBank, FR750525.1) and was considered extremely halophilic. Production of biosurfactant by the strain E21 with free and entrapped cells was investigated using soluble starch in the saline conditions. Biosurfactant synthesis was followed by measuring the surface tension and emulsifying index 9 days under optimal conditions (40 °C, pH 7). Some diffusional limitations in alginate and agar beads affected the kinetics of biosurfactant production when compared to that obtained with free cells culture. The minimum values of surface tension were 27 and 30 mN m(-1) achieved after 9 days with free and immobilized cells, respectively, while the corresponding maximum E24 values were 65.3 and 62.3 %, respectively. The re-use of bacterial cells along with the limited cell losses provided by the immobilized system might lead to significant reduction of the biosurfactant production cost. PMID:24061687

  5. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  6. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the outcome of a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey carried out in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), during May and June of 2003. The MARTE Peña de Hierro field area is located between the towns of Rio Tinto and Nerva in the Andalucia region of Spain. It is about one hour drive West of the city of Sevilla, and also about one hour drive North of Huelva. The high concentration of dissolved iron (and smaller amounts of other metals) in the very acidic water in the Rio Tinto area gives the water its characteristic wine red color, and also means that the water is highly conductive, and such an acidic and conductive fluid is highly suited for exploration by electromagnetic methods. This naturally acidic environment is maintained by bacteria in the groundwater and it is these bacteria that are the main focus of the MARTE project overall, and of this supporting geophysical work. It is the goal of this study to be able to map the subsurface extent of the high conductivity (low resistivity) levels, and thus by proxy the subsurface extent of the acidic groundwater and the bacteria populations. In so doing, the viability of using electromagnetic methods for mapping these subsurface metal-rich water bodies is also examined and demonstrated, and the geophysical data will serve to support drilling efforts. The purpose of this field survey was an initial effort to map certain conductive features in the field area, in support of the drilling operations that are central to the MARTE project. These conductive features include the primary target of exploration for MARTE, the very conductive acidic groundwater in the area (which is extremely rich in metals). Other conductive features include the pyretic ore bodies in the area, as well as extensive mine tailings piles.

  7. Teaching Money "$marts" Smarts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Economics can be a tough subject, so good teachers find creative ways to teach it. However, only a few economic literacy programs promote "an economic way of thinking" and teach students how to analyze relevant economic problems, says Burton Folsom. Having examined several economic education programs, the author has found that many programs are…

  8. Health Impact Assessments for Environmental Restoration: The Case of Caño Martín Peña

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Perry; Agu, Damiris; Rodríguez, Lyvia; Avilés, Katia

    2014-01-01

    Background Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a methodology for predicting health impacts of a proposed policy or plan. A proposed environmental restoration and development plan presented an opportunity for an HIA in an environmental justice community surrounding the Martín Peña channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The HIA focused on the dredging of the channel, debris removal, road, sewer, and storm water infrastructure improvements, housing demolition, and resident relocation. Objective The HIA sought to determine the potential health impacts of the proposed plan on the community to inform the funding decision by the Puerto Rican legislature. As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, a secondary objective was to build HIA capacity in Puerto Rico. Methods This HIA used a community training, literature reviews, existing local studies, focus groups, interviews, and disease surveillance data to assess baseline health, determine expected impacts, and build capacity. Findings The Martín Peña community is experiencing deteriorating environmental conditions. Flooding and negative environmental exposures, such as mold, limits to physical activity, stress, chemical toxicants, pathogenic bacteria, and pests, are worsening. The higher rates of diseases, such as asthma and diarrhea, in the community compared to elsewhere in Puerto Rico appear to be largely attributable to these factors. Overall, the proposed plan is expected to improve many of these health disparities but the successful implementation depends on continued community acceptance and participation, particularly with the relocation process. Recommendations are for full financing and several mitigation efforts to avoid negative and preserve beneficial health consequences. Conclusions As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, this assessment provided specific recommendations to benefit the health of the community affected by an environmental restoration and development plan and also capacity building for a larger audience in Puerto

  9. Use of existing data for public health planning: a study of the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody in Al Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed Central

    al-Owais, A.; al-Suwaidi, K.; Amiri, N.; Carter, A. O.; Hossain, M. M.; Sheek-Hussein, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is of major public health importance. Accurate information on its occurrence, with particular reference to the prevalence of immunity and chronic infection (marked by the presence of hepatitis B core antibody and surface antigen, respectively, in serum), is essential for planning public health programmes for the control of the disease. The generation of marker prevalence data through serological surveys is costly and time-consuming. The present study in Al Ain Medical District, United Arab Emirates, investigated the possibility of obtaining sufficiently accurate marker prevalence estimates from existing data to plan public health programmes. METHODS: Two antenatal screening databases, one student serological survey database, one immunization programme database and one pre-marriage screening database containing information on marker prevalence were identified. Epidemiological data were abstracted from these databases and analysed. RESULTS: The data showed that the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and the prevalence of core antibody in young citizens in 1998 were approximately 2% and 14% respectively, that any immunization campaign aimed at citizens of the United Arab Emirates should target teenagers as they had the highest risk of acquiring the disease, and that pre-immunization screening of young adults would be wasteful. However, the data did not yield information on the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody in other population subgroups of public health significance. DISCUSSION: While data generated by the study are sufficient to support a hepatitis B immunization programme targeted at teenaged citizens, more accurate data, generated by a well-designed serological survey, would be essential for optimal public health planning. PMID:11143192

  10. Reply to Comment by Domínguez-Villar on "Land surface temperature changes in Northern Iberia since 4000 yr BP, based in δ13C of speleothems" (Martín-Chivelet et al., 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Muñoz-García, M. Belén; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Turrero, María J.; Ortega, Ana I.

    2013-02-01

    We have considered the additional data that Domínguez-Villar (this issue) has provided, as well as his criticisms of the interpretations of Martín-Chivelet et al. (2011). We argue that with or without the additional data, our original interpretations are the most likely interpretations, on the basis of Ockham's Razor. Those of Domínguez-Villar violate Ockham's Razor, and in the final analysis do not offer an alternative explanation for the Martín-Chivelet et al. (2011) and Domínguez-Villar (this issue) data. In particular, all of the 230Th ages (reported by both Martín-Chivelet et al. (2011) and Domínguez-Villar (this issue)) are in stratigraphic order, within quoted errors, so that our original chronology is robust, with no reason to invoke diagenetic processes. Given this chronology, the empirical relationship between δ13C and temperature also hold. Finally, our original mechanism for the cause of this relationship (prior calcite precipitation) has been invoked in a number of other studies to explain carbon isotopic variations and remains a perfectly plausible explanation for the observations at the studied caves.

  11. Trindade and Martı´n Vaz Islands, South Atlantic: Isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) and trace element constraints on plume related magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebel, W.; Becchio, R.; Volker, F.; Hansen, M. A. F.; Viramonte, J.; Trumbull, R. B.; Haase, G.; Zimmer, M.

    2000-05-01

    Highly alkaline silica undersaturated lavas erupted at Trindade Island over its 5 Ma geologic history and comprise primitive nephelinites-basanites and more evolved nepheline-bearing phonolitic rocks. Nephelinites-basanites and phonolitic rocks are thought to be genetically related via crystal fractionation, as indicated by the very limited range in Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, systematically increasing contents of incompatible trace elements from primitive to evolved rock types, and similar variation in chemical composition of the major phenocryst phases (clinopyroxene, amphibole, feldspar) in all rock types. Tb/Yb ratios of the primitive lavas are high (2.6-4.1) and silica contents are low (39.8-42.9 wt.% SiO 2), indicating that the melts were generated at deep mantle depths (˜150 km), within the garnet lherzolite stability field. Non-radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.70377-0.70421) and radiogenic 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.512752-0.512837) values show that the Trindade and Martı´n Vaz rocks are derived from moderately depleted sources relative to bulk-earth. The lavas have moderate radiogenic 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios of 19.00-19.33, 207Pb/ 204Pb of 15.56-15.60, and 208Pb/ 204Pb of 38.89-39.34; they plot close to the Northern Hemisphere Reference Lines (NHRL). The narrow range of Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions in the Trindade and Martı´n Vaz lavas suggests either that the source region was homogeneous (similar to the common mantle components FOZO and "C"), or that melts from a heterogeneous three-component mantle source, involving HIMU, enriched mantle EM I, and depleted N-type MORB, were well mixed before eruption. Late Cretaceous to Present volcanism ranging from interior Brazil towards Trindade is thought to record the passage of the South American plate over the Trindade mantle plume (e.g., O'Connor and Duncan, 1990). Comparison with published data from other mafic rocks along the suggested plume track shows that Trindade isotopic compositions match those of transitional

  12. Mechanisms of manganese removal from wastewaters in constructed wetlands comprising water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, Ranil K A; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Manatunge, Jagath M A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2009-02-01

    This article discusses key mechanisms involved in removing 1 mg/L Mn from synthetic wastewaters in constructed wetlands comprising water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient levels of 1-fold (28 mg/L and 7.7 mg/L of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively), 2-fold, 1/4-fold, and 1/8-fold. A mass balance was carried out to evaluate the key removal mechanisms. Phytoremediation mainly due to phytoextraction substantially contributed to manganese removal. However, chemical precipitation was absent, suggesting that manganese has a higher solubility in the given average pH (6.2 to 7.1) conditions in constructed wetlands. Bacterial mediated immobilization mechanisms also did not contribute to manganese removal. Sediments constituted a minor sink to manganese, implying that manganese has a poor adsorption potential. Constructed wetlands comprising water hyacinth are effective at removing manganese from wastewaters despite the fact that the plants are grown under higher or lower nutrient conditions. PMID:19323287

  13. Effects of clarification on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Leiliane Teles; de Freitas Cabral, Marília; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcântara; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen Luiza

    2014-11-01

    The effects of a clarifying process using pectinases and chitosan on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice were evaluated. Clarification of acaí pulp resulted (P ≤ 0.05) in a 50 % loss of total anthocyanin (4.2730 mg/100 mL) and 29 % reduction in antioxidant capacity (33.60 μM FeSO4/g). A high association (P ≤ 0.05) was found between the decrease of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin loss. The use of pectinases associated with chitosan as an aid for clarification of açaí juice proved to be highly effective and resulted in a clear juice with a brighter purple to red color that was free of lipids, insoluble solids, and others substances that cause hazes. The obtained clarified açaí juice is a genuinely high-value anthocyanin-rich product that could be used as colorant and functional ingredient to fruit juices and soft drinks. PMID:26396323

  14. Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Peixoto, Jacqueline; Moura, Mirian Ribeiro Leite; Cunha, Felipe Amorim; Lollo, Pablo Christiano B; Monteiro, Walace David; Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras

    2015-07-01

    The study analyzed the effect of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage (AB) on muscle and oxidative stress markers, cardiorespiratory responses, perceived exertion, and time-to-exhaustion during maximal treadmill running. The beverage was developed as an ergogenic aid for athletes and contained 27.6 mg of anthocyanins per dose. Fourteen athletes performed 3 exercise tests: a ramp-incremental maximal exercise test and 2 maximal exercise bouts performed in 2 conditions (AB and without AB (control)) at 90% maximal oxygen uptake. Blood was collected at baseline and after maximal exercise in both conditions to determine biomarkers. AB increased time to exhaustion during short-term high-intensity exercise (mean difference: 69 s, 95% confidence interval = -296 s to 159 s, t = 2.2, p = 0.045), attenuating the metabolic stress induced by exercise (p < 0.05). AB also reduced perceived exertion and enhanced cardiorespiratory responses (p < 0.05). The AB may be a useful and practical ergogenic aid to enhance performance during high-intensity training. PMID:26140415

  15. RIO Tinto Faulted Volcanosedimentary Deposits as Analog Habitats for Extant Subsurface Biospheres on Mars: A Synthesis of the MARTE Drilling Project Geobiology Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rodriquez, N.; Davila, F.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Stoker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemistry and mineralogy on Mars surface characterized by the MER Opportunity Rover suggest that early Mars hosted acidic environments in the Meridiani Planum region [1, 2]. Such extreme paleoenvironments have been suggested to be a regional expression of the global Mars geological cycle that induced acidic conditions by sulfur complexation and iron buffering of aqueous solutions [3]. Under these assumptions, underground reservoirs of acidic brines and, thereby, putative acidic cryptobiospheres, may be expected. The MARTE project [4, 5] has performed a drilling campaign to search for acidic and anaerobic biospheres in R o Tinto basement [6] that may be analogs of these hypothetical communities occurring in cryptic habitats of Mars. This Rio Tinto geological region is characterized by the occurrence of huge metallic deposits of iron sulfides [7]. Late intensive diagenesis of rocks driven by a compressive regimen [8] largely reduced the porosity of rocks and induced a cortical thickening through thrusting and inverse faulting and folding. Such structures play an essential role in transporting and storing water underground as any other aquifers do in the Earth. Once the underground water reservoirs of the Ro Tinto basement contact the hydrothermal pyrite deposits, acidic brines are produced by the release of sulfates and iron through the oxidation of sulfides [9].

  16. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) prevents β-amyloid aggregation, generation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs), and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity on human neuronal-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24840232

  17. Patch occupancy by stone martens Martes foina in fragmented landscapes of central Spain: the role of fragment size, isolation and habitat structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgós, Emilio; García, Francisco J.

    2002-08-01

    We studied the response to forest fragmentation of a generalist carnivore, the stone marten Martes foina, in highly fragmented landscapes of central Spain. Five different areas ( n = 178 fragments) in central Spain were surveyed. This paper analyses the relationship between fragment use by martens (measured through scat presence) and a series of variables related to the size, isolation and vegetation structure of each fragment by means of stepwise logistic regression. Size and isolation have an important effect on stone marten presence in fragments. Our results were similar to those found for other marten species in landscapes with coarse-grain fragmentation, but they contrast with other studies conducted in landscapes with fine-grain fragmentation. These data suggested that in highly fragmented landscapes, size and isolation factors resulting from forest fragmentation were responsible for determining marten responses, irrespective of their habitat generalism. Management policies for the stone marten in highly fragmented scenarios require the maintenance of large forests near continuous forest tracts in mountains or riparian woodlands.

  18. The Subsurface Geology of Río Tinto: Material Examined During a Simulated Mars Drilling Mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Bell Johnson, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undis closed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  19. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: Objectives, Approach, and Results of a Simulated Mission to Search for Life in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Cannon, Howard N.; Dunagan, Stephen E.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Glass, Brian J.; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  20. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions. PMID:19105757

  1. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding. PMID:19032053

  2. Metal binding by humic acids isolated from water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae) in the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ghabbour, Elham A; Davies, Geoffrey; Lam, Yam-Yuen; Vozzella, Marcy E

    2004-10-01

    Humic acids (HAs) are animal and plant decay products that confer water retention, metal and organic solute binding functions and texture/workability in soils. HAs assist plant nutrition with minimal run-off pollution. Recent isolation of HAs from several live plants prompted us to investigate the HA content of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae), a delicately flowered plant from Amazonian South America that has invaded temperate lakes, rivers and waterways with devastating economic effects. Hyacinth thrives in nutrient-rich and polluted waters. It has a high affinity for metals and is used for phytoremediation. In this work, HAs isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of live water hyacinth plants from the Nile Delta, Egypt were identified by chemical and spectral analysis and by comparison with authentic soil and plant derived HAs. Similar carbohydrate and amino acid distributions and tight metal binding capacities of the HAs and their respective plant components suggest that the presence of HAs in plants is related to their metal binding properties. PMID:15261408

  3. Crystal Structures of HLA-A*0201 Complexed with Melan-A/MART-1[subscript 26(27L)-35] Peptidomimetics Reveal Conformational Heterogeneity and Highlight Degeneracy of T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Douat-Casassus, Celine; Borbulevych, Oleg; Tarbe, Marion; Gervois, Nadine; Jotereau, Francine; Baker, Brian M.; Quideau, Stphane

    2010-10-07

    There is growing interest in using tumor associated antigens presented by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) proteins as cancer vaccines. As native peptides are poorly stable in biological fluids, researchers have sought to engineer synthetic peptidomimetics with greater biostability. Here, we demonstrate that antigenic peptidomimetics of the Melan-A/MART-1{sub 26(27L)-35} melanoma antigen adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to MHC-I, highlighting the degeneracy of T cell recognition and revealing the challenges associated with mimicking native peptide conformation.

  4. Euterpe oleracea Mart.-derived polyphenols prevent endothelial dysfunction and vascular structural changes in renovascular hypertensive rats: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Oliveira, Paola Raquel Braz; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; de Cavalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; da Silva, Andréa Fernandes Emiliano; Dos Santos Valença, Samuel; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; da Cunha Sousa, Pergentino José; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro

    2012-12-01

    The consumption of polyphenol-rich foods is associated with a decreased risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Previously, we have demonstrated that the stone of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) from the Amazon region exerts vasodilator and antioxidant actions. This study examined the effect of açaí stone extract (ASE) on the vascular functional and structural changes and oxidative stress associated with the two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) renovascular hypertension. 2K-1C and sham-operated rats were treated with ASE 200 mg/kg/day (or vehicle) for 40 days. Blood pressure was measured by tail plethysmography, and the vascular reactivity was evaluated in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed. Mesenteric protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD1 and SOD2), metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 was assessed by Western blot; oxidative damage and antioxidant activity by spectrophotometry; MMP-2 levels by gelatin zymography; and structural changes by histological analysis. ASE prevented 2K-1C hypertension and the reduction of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. The increased levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyl protein were reduced by ASE. SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and the expressions of SOD1 and SOD2, eNOS, and TIMP-1 were decreased in 2K-1C rats and recovered by ASE. In 2K-1C rats, ASE prevented vascular remodeling and the increased expression/levels of MMP-2. These findings indicate that ASE produces antihypertensive effect and prevents the endothelial dysfunction and vascular structural changes in 2K-1C hypertension, probably through mechanisms involving antioxidant effects, NOS activation, and inhibition of MMP-2 activation. PMID:23052352

  5. Anthocyanin-rich açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) extract attenuates manganese-induced oxidative stress in rat primary astrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; Bisen-Hersh, Emily; Yu, Yingchun; Cabral, Ingridy Simone Ribeiro; Nardini, Viviani; Culbreth, Megan; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; Barbosa, Fernando; Aschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for human health. However, at high concentrations Mn may be neurotoxic. Mn accumulates in astrocytes, affecting their redox status. In view of the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the exotic Brazilian fruit açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), its methanolic extract was obtained by solid-phase extraction (SPE). This açaí extract showed considerable anthocyanins content and direct antioxidant capacity. The açaí extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) with an EC₅₀ of 19.1 ppm, showing higher antioxidant activity compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), but lower than ascorbic acid and quercetin. This obtained açaí extract also attenuated Mn-induced oxidative stress in primary cultured astrocytes. Specifically, the açaí extract at an optimal and nutritionally relevant concentration of 0.1 μg/ml prevented Mn-induced oxidative stress by (1) restoring GSH/GSSG ratio and net glutamate uptake, (2) protecting astrocytic membranes from lipid peroxidation, and (3) decreasing Mn-induced expression of erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) protein. A larger quantity of açaí extract exacerbated the effects of Mn on these parameters except with respect to lipid peroxidation assessed by means of F₂-isoprostanes. These studies indicate that at nutritionally relevant concentration, anthocyanins obtained from açaí protect astrocytes against Mn neurotoxicity, but at high concentrations, the "pro-oxidant" effects of its constituents likely prevail. Future studies may be profitably directed at potential protective effects of açaí anthocyanins in nutraceutical formulations. PMID:24617543

  6. Molecular characterization of the endophytic fungal community associated with Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) (Pontederiaceae) native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, T T; Orlandelli, R C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi live in the interior of healthy plants without causing them any damage. These fungi are of biotechnological interest; they may be used in the biological control of pests and plant diseases, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) belong to the Pontederiaceae family. The first is a fixed-floating species and the second is a free-floating species that is known for its phytoremediation potential. The fungal endophytes associated with the leaves of E. azurea and E. crassipes, native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil, were isolated. The sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA was performed and the nucleotide sequences obtained were compared with those available in the GenBank database for the molecular identification of the isolates. The construction of phylogenetic trees was performed using the MEGA5 software. The results showed that high colonization frequencies were obtained from the 610 foliar fragments sampled from each plant: 87.86% for E. azurea and 88.85% for E. crassipes. At the genus level, it was possible to identify 19 fungal endophytes belonging to the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Cercospora, Diaporthe, Gibberella, Pestalotiopsis, Plectosphaerella, Phoma, and Saccharicola. Two other endophytes were identified at the species level (Microsphaeropsis arundinis). Genera Bipolaris, Cercospora, Microsphaeropsis, and Phoma were found as endophytes in the two macrophytes and the other genera were host-specific, being isolated from only one macrophyte, proving that there is a small difference in the endophytic diversity of the two Eichhornia species analyzed. PMID:25966267

  7. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis protects human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Diêgo Madureira; Barreto, George; Galeano, Pablo; Romero, Juan Ignacio; Holubiec, Mariana Inés; Badorrey, Maria Sol; Capani, Francisco; Alvarez, Lisandro Diego Giraldez

    2011-09-01

    Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis, commonly known as Guaraná, is a Brazilian plant frequently cited for its antioxidant properties and different pharmacological activities on the central nervous system. The potential beneficial uses of Guaraná in neurodegenerative disorders, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathogenesis of which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate if an extract of commercial powdered seeds of Guaraná could protect human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Two concentration of Guaraná dimethylsulfoxide extract (0.312 and 0.625 mg/mL) were added to SH-SY5Y cells treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h, and the cytoprotective effects were assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and analyzing nuclear integrity with Hoechst33258 stain. Results showed that the addition of Guaraná extract significantly increased the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with rotenone, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, LDH levels were significantly reduced by addition of 0.312 mg/mL of Guaraná, but unexpectedly, no changes were observed with the higher concentration. Moreover, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were significantly reduced by addition of any of both concentrations of the extract. The results obtained in this work could provide relevant information about the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD and precede in vivo experiments. Further studies are needed to investigate which active constituent is responsible for the cytoprotective effect produced by Paullinia cupana. PMID:21081703

  8. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-01

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens. PMID:24480060

  9. Visible-Near Infrared Point Spectrometry of Drill Core Samples from Río Tinto, Spain: Results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) Drilling Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  10. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis. PMID:19105759

  11. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  12. Experimental study on the survival of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms--Pontederiaceae) under different oil doses and times of exposure.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Aline; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades, petroleum activities have increased in the Brazilian Amazon where there is oil exploration on the Urucu River, a tributary of the Amazon River, about 600 km from the city of Manaus. Particularly, transportation via the Amazon River to reach the oil refinery in Manaus may compromise the integrity of the large floodplains that flank hundreds of kilometers of this major river. In the Amazon floodplains, plant growth and nutrient cycling are related to the flood pulse. When oil spills occur, floating oil on the water surface is dispersed through wind and wave action in the littoral region, thus affecting the vegetation of terrestrial and aquatic environments. If pollutants enter the system, they are absorbed by plants and distributed in the food chain via plant consumption, mortality, and decomposition. The effect of oil on the growth and survival of vegetation in these environments is virtually unknown. The water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] has a pantropical distribution but is native to the Amazon, often growing in high-density populations in the floodplains where it plays an important role as shelter and food source for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The species is well known for its high capacity to absorb and tolerate high levels of heavy metal ions. To study the survival and response of water hyacinth under six different oil doses, ranging from 0 to 150 ml l(-1), and five exposure times (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days), young individuals distributed in a completely randomized design experiment composed of vessels with a single individual each were followed over a 50-day period (30-day acclimatization, 20 days under oil treatments). Growth parameters, biomass, visual changes in the plants, and pH were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Increasing the time of oil exposure caused a decrease in biomass, ratio of live/dead biomass and length of leaves, and an increase in the number of dead leaves. Dose of oil and time of exposure

  13. Effects of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of açai fruit pulp on risk factors for metabolic disorders in overweight subjects. The açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), which is native to South America, produces a small, black-purple fruit which is edible. The fruit has recently become popular as a functional food due to its antioxidant potential. Although several studies have been conducted in vitro and with animals, little is known about the potential health benefits in humans aside from an increase in plasma anti-oxidant capacity. Metabolic syndrome is a condition which is defined by a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or type-2 diabetes. Preliminary studies indicate that a reduction in reactive oxygen species can assist in the normalization of the metabolic pathways involved in this syndrome. Methods This was an open label pilot study conducted with 10 overweight adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and ≤ 30 kg/m2) who took 100 g açai pulp twice daily for 1 month. The study endpoints included levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, exhaled (breath) nitric oxide metabolites (eNO) and plasma levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The response of blood glucose, blood pressure and eNO to a standardized meal was determined at baseline and following the 30 day treatment. Results Compared to baseline, there were reductions in fasting glucose and insulin levels following the 30 day treatment (both p < 0.02). There was also a reduction in total cholesterol (p = 0.03), as well as borderline significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (both p = 0.051). Compared to baseline, treatment with açai ameliorated the post-prandial increase in plasma glucose following the standardized meal, measured as the area under the curve (p = 0.047). There was no effect on blood pressure, hs-CRP or eNO. Conclusion In this uncontrolled pilot study, consumption

  14. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Galil, Bella S.; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided. PMID:22207817

  15. Oral treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) extract improves cardiac dysfunction and exercise intolerance in rats subjected to myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart., popularly known as “açaí”, on rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Hydroalcoholic extracts of açaí were obtained from a decoction of the seeds. Two male Wistar rat groups were delineated: 1) the sham-operated group (control, n = 6), with no surgical amendment, and 2) the MI group (n = 12), in which the anterior descendent coronary artery was occluded during surgery. MI group was divided into two subgroups, in which rats were either treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Euterpe oleracea seeds (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or received no treatment. Treatment began on the day of surgery, and lasted 4 weeks. Subsequently, rats were subject to an exercise test protocol, hemodynamic evaluation, and histological analysis of the left ventricle. Groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s test. Results The total running distance of sham rats was 1339.0 ± 276.6 m, MI rats was 177.6 ± 15.8 m (P < 0.05), and MI-açaí rats was 969.9 ± 362.2 m. Systolic arterial pressure was significantly decreased in MI rats (86.88 ± 4.62 mmHg) compared to sham rats (115.30 ± 7.24 mmHg; P < 0.05). Açaí treatment prevented a reduction in systolic arterial pressure (130.00 ± 8.16 mmHg) compared to MI rats (P < 0.05). Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure was significantly augmented in MI rats (17.62 ± 1.21 mmHg) compared to sham rats (4.15 ± 1.60 mmHg; P < 0.05), but was 3.69 ± 2.69 mmHg in açaí-treated rats (P < 0.05 vs. MI). The LV relaxation rate (-dp/dt) was reduced in MI rats compared to the sham group, whereas açaí treatment prevented this reduction. Açaí treatment prevented cardiac hypertrophy and LV fibrosis in MI rats. Conclusions Euterpe oleracea treatment of MI rats prevented the development of exercise intolerance, cardiac

  16. Proyecto multidisciplinar `Marte nos visita'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D.; Merlo, N.; Parodi, B.; Garis, A.; Peralta, G.; Rovessi, V.; Urrutia, S.; Calderón, J.; Bustos Fierro, I.; Melia, R.

    The planets Earth and Mars reached in August 2003 the most approximation in the last 58,000 years. In order to that we carried out a transversal study of red planet, joining the knowledges from several subjects of second school year of unified basic cycle (eighth basic general education) at I.P.E.M. No 249 "Nicolás Copérnico" (a public secondary institution from Córdoba, Argentine). In this study, activities in accordance with current contents has been proposed by common consents of each teacher. Besides, students visited Córdoba Astronomical Observatory in order to search informations and received a multimedia exposition about of astronomical event and a performance of the "Carl Sagan" Moveable Planetary. Finally, each student carried out practical works and wrote an integrative report, which one has been evaluated and exposed at ExpoIPEM 2003, an annual exhibition of several specialities that Institution offers in its specialization cycle (10-12 grade), where the annual students' activities are exhibited too (workshops, school projects, etc.).

  17. A new HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of major compounds in the crude extract of Lychnophora salicifolia Mart. (Brazilian arnicão) leaves: application to chemical variability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gouvea, Dayana Rubio; Meloni, Fernando; Ribeiro, Arthur de Barros Bello; Lopes, João Luis Callegari; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2012-10-20

    Lychnophora salicifolia Mart., which occurs in the Brazilian Cerrado in the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais as well as in the southeast of the state of Goiás, is the most widely distributed and also the most polymorphic species of the genus. This plant is popularly known to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. In this work, we have studied the variation in terms of polar metabolites of ninety-three Lychnophora salicifolia Mart. specimens collected from different regions of the Brazilian Cerrado. Identification of the constituents of this mixture was carried out by analysis of the UV spectra and MS data after chromatographic separation. Twenty substances were identified, including chlorogenic acid derivatives, a flavonoid C-glucoside, and other sesquiterpenes. The analytical method was validated, and the reliability and credibility of the results was ensured for the purposes of this study. The concentration range required for analysis of content variability within the analyzed group of specimens was covered with appropriate values of limits of detection and quantitation, as well as satisfactory precision and recovery. A quantitative variability was observed among specimens collected from the same location, but on average they were similar from a chemical viewpoint. In relation to the study involving specimens from different locations, there were both qualitative and quantitative differences among plants collected from different regions of Brazil. Statistical analysis revealed that there is a correlation between geographical localization and polar metabolites profile for specimens collected from different locations. This is evidence that the pattern of metabolites concentration depends on the geographical distribution of the specimens. PMID:23021804

  18. Pain Reduction and Improvement in Range of Motion After Daily Consumption of an Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp–Fortified Polyphenolic-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

  19. Teacher Supervision: If It Ain't Working...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    When Joanne Rooney, a principal, asked 17 tenured teachers who were due for their formal supervisory visits at Pleasant Hill School in Palatine, Illinois whether her annual visits and follow-up conferences help them become better teachers," her question was met with muffled laughter. They knew that her rushed, mandatory visits and conferences…

  20. Measurement: It ain't over till it's over

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, Jeffrey

    1993-02-01

    Elby (1993) has raised certain problems that appear to be devastating for modal interpretations of quantum mechanics, but do not arise for Bohm's pilot wave theory. Here I show that the features Elby identifies as objectionable in my version of the modal interpretation have their counterpart in Bohm's theory. To the extent that Bohm's theory works as a “no collapse” solution to the measurement problem - and I think it does - so does my modal interpretation.

  1. "This Ain't No Sideshow": Historians and Media Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitz, George

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the relationship between historical inquiry and mass communication research. Argues that historically grounded inquiries into mass communications have focused on three areas: apparatus-centered criticism, social history, and textual interpretation. Contends that challenges from inside and outside the discipline have encouraged historians…

  2. Ain't We Never Gonna Study No Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Eileen A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the dilemmas involved with teaching Standard American English (SAE) while still accepting and not judging nonstandard dialects. Relates how the teacher used "Pygmalion" by George Bernard Shaw to show students why they needed to learn SAE. (PRA)

  3. Postrace: Every Good-bye Ain't Gone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Iris Carter

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary, anthropologist Iris Carter Ford reflects on the preceding pieces by Carmen Kynard and Signithia Fordham. She identifies parallels among the two essays and her own life, drawing out themes that emerge from the narratives. Integrating ideas about "talking black" and "talking back," Ford notes that both phenomena have roots in…

  4. Camp Greentop's Adventure Camp: We Ain't No Rudypoo's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Diane; Albright, Brian; Purvis, Katie; Creamer, Justin; Pease, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    A day-by-day account describes Camp Greentop's first 5-day adventure camping trip, which was attended by five individuals with disabilities and their counselors. The first day was spent in games and initiatives designed to develop communication, teamwork, and dependability. Other days were devoted to hiking, rock climbing, and whitewater rafting.…

  5. "He Ain't Heavy ...": Lessons from Backpacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolvo, Camille; Dannells, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors share the skills required to plan and execute a successful days-long backpacking trip, which they have discovered are also useful in advising student leaders. The authors' lessons were originally learned while backpacking with several friends. The six of them had planned and trained for months to do a six-day, 50-mile…

  6. Offline Prints via DIALMAIL: They Ain't Necessarily Cheap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Linda J.

    When DIALOG introduced DIALMAIL, its electronic mail service, online searchers were encouraged to use it as an alternative delivery method for offline prints. The new method of retrieval was considered to be fast and described in documentation and reviews as being much less expensive than online types. Performed in June 1987, this study compares…

  7. The cytometric future: it ain't necessarily flow!

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Howard M

    2011-01-01

    Initial approaches to cytometry for classifying and characterizing cells were based on microscopy; it was necessary to collect relatively high-resolution images of cells because only a few specific reagents usable for cell identification were available. Although flow cytometry, now the dominant cytometric technology, typically utilizes lenses similar to microscope lenses for light collection, improved, more quantitative reagents allow the necessary information to be acquired in the form of whole-cell measurements of the intensities of light transmission, scattering, and/or fluorescence.Much of the cost and complexity of both automated microscopes and flow cytometers arises from the necessity for them to measure one cell at a time. Recent developments in digital camera technology now offer an alternative in which one or more low-magnification, low-resolution images are made of a wide field containing many cells, using inexpensive light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for illumination. Minimalist widefield imaging cytometers can provide a smaller, less complex, and substantially less expensive alternative to flow cytometry, critical in systems intended for in resource-poor areas. Minimalism is, likewise, a good philosophy in developing instrumentation and methodology for both clinical and large-scale research use; it simplifies quality assurance and compliance with regulatory requirements, as well as reduces capital outlays, material costs, and personnel training requirements. Also, importantly, it yields "greener" technology. PMID:21116998

  8. Comportamento stagionale delle calote polari di Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, Giovanni

    2004-08-01

    The rhythms of progression and retraction of the polar ice caps on Mars have been studied to establish possible variations in polar meteorology over the course of the last centuries. The applied theoretical procedure offers a mathematical function that contains some significant physical parameters, for example the length and the beginning of spring and another parameter which depends on temperature. The numerical data for the South Polar Cap during the grand oppositions of the last 130 years has been studied with the suggested theory. Evident correlations emerge between parameters and form of the diagram of cap amplitude versus time.

  9. Everyday Engineering: Ain't She Sweet--Bats, Rackets, Golf Clubs, and All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The pitcher throws the ball and the batter takes a mighty swing. Crack! The ball is hit on the sweet spot and soars to the outfield. Or, you hear a thud! This time, the ball dribbles along the infield ground and the batter's hands sting. Everyone who has played baseball or softball has probably experienced both of these outcomes. This may not seem…

  10. FcγRIII in ITP: it ain't over 'til it's over.

    PubMed

    McCrae, Keith R

    2016-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Yu et al describe a novel anti–Fcγ receptor III (FcγRIII)-albumin fusion protein that inhibits the development of thrombocytopenia in a murine model of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).1 The unique aspect of this protein is that it blocks FcγRIII-mediated uptake of antibody-coated platelets without activating FcγRIII and the associated inflammatory response. PMID:26744437

  11. "It Ain't Like She's My Mother:" Tyanna's Red Flag Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parese, Steve B.

    2002-01-01

    Children and youth from chronically stressful living environments bring many hidden problems to school, having a powerful impact on the teacher student relationship. This article describes a Life Space Crisis Intervention of one such event, drawn from the author's year long qualitative study on the development of mentor relationships between…

  12. Summertime, and the Choosin' Ain't Easy: An Ice Cream Counting Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes the problem of determining the number of different ice cream cones and cups that can be made from a choice of 31 flavors to investigate the concepts of combinations and permutations. Provides a set of six related problems with their answers. (MDH)

  13. Cowboy Wonderland, History, and Myth: "It Ain't All That Different Than Real Life."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, William G.; Spence, Louise

    1995-01-01

    Explores the significance of Robert Altman's film "Buffalo Bill and the Indians, or Sitting Bull's History Lesson." States that this film examines the western as a national myth and as a commercial entertainment form. Discusses questions about the moral authority of the hero and the consequences for Native Americans of western literature, art,…

  14. Ain't No Mountain High Enough: Reconstructing Paleoelevation of Eroded Orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulch, A.; Teyssier, C.; Chamberlain, C. P.; Vennemann, T.; Cosca, M.; Wells, M.

    2004-12-01

    Quantitative paleoelevation reconstructions are a key element in understanding the relationships among uplift, erosion, and the demise of orogens. We present a new approach of determining paleoelevation based on the stable isotope composition of meteoric water that interacted with detachment mylonite during exhumation and uplift. Provided that this interaction is precisely dated and temporally linked to the stable isotope record in syntectonic basins this approach relates the tectonic, sedimentary and climate history of the orogen. Hydrogen, oxygen and Ar-Ar data from extensional detachments of the Shuswap, Kettle and Raft River core complexes and their adjacent basins, allow us to reconstruct discrete episodes in the Cenozoic elevation history of the North American Cordillera. Our data are consistent with a southward migration of a topographic high from Eocene to Miocene times, as reflected in the sequential onset of detachment faulting and extensional collapse in the Cordilleran hinterland. The integrated oxygen and hydrogen isotope data show that meteoric waters infiltrating the early to middle Eocene (49.0 - 47.0 Ma) eastern detachments of the Shuswap (British Columbia) and Kettle (Washington) core complexes had very negative hydrogen isotope values (-135 and -120 permil, respectively). These results require mean elevations in excess of 4000 m immediately preceding the timing of extensional deformation. Preliminary hydrogen (meteoric fluid compositions of -100 to -110 permil) and oxygen isotope data from Oligocene and Miocene mylonites of the Raft River complex (Utah) indicate that at lower latitudes high elevations persisted until Oligocene/Miocene times, a conclusion consistent with stable isotope data derived from syntectonic sedimentary deposits in the adjacent Elko Basin (Nevada). The coupled Eocene to Miocene data sets derived from rocks that at the time were at several km depth indicate that crustal thickening prior to detachment faulting resulted in high mean elevations which in turn controlled the local precipitation pattern and ultimately the local climate. It is conceivable that the Cenozoic North American Cordillera resembled the present-day Andean Puna-Altiplano plateau. Our results suggest that high mean elevations in the North American Cordillera existed through the Cenozoic with an Eocene to Miocene southward migration of orogenic collapse.

  15. Life for Minority Professors of Special Education Ain't Been No Crystal Stair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    To expect an "easy life" as a professor of special education is to expect what never was nor never will be. But when the playing field is uneven for minorities, or even worse, when it is not even recognized that the playing field is uneven, there is cause for action. For example, Bonner (2004) stated that minority faculty face tremendous…

  16. This Ain't Talk Therapy: Problematizing and Extending Anti-Oppressive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Kumashiro's (2001) "posts" perspectives (poststructuralism, postmodernism, and postcolonialism) in furthering an anti-oppressive education in the core disciplines, using a Foucauldian lens to examine Kumashiro's beliefs and providing an alternative means by which to move forward in enacting a "posts" classroom that is an enabling…

  17. Quantum non-locality—it ainʼt necessarily so...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żukowski, Marek; Brukner, Časlav

    2014-10-01

    Bell's theorem is 50 years old. There still remains a controversy about its implications. Much of this controversy has its roots in confusion regarding the premises from which the theorem can be derived. Some claim that a derivation of Bell's inequalities requires just a locality assumption and nothing more. Violations of the inequalities are then interpreted as a ‘non-locality’ or ‘quantum non-locality’. We show that such claims are unfounded and that every derivation of Bell's inequalities requires a premise—in addition to locality and freedom of choice—which is either assumed tacitly, or unconsciously, or is embedded in a single compound condition (such as Bell's ‘local causality’). The premise is equivalent to the assumption of the existence of additional variables which do not appear in the quantum formalism (in the form of determinism, joint probability for outcomes of all conceivable measurements, ‘additional causes’, ‘hidden variables’, ‘complete description of the state’ or counterfactual definiteness, etc). A certain irony is that perhaps the main message of the violation of Bell's inequalities is that our notion of locality should be based on an operationally well-defined no-signalling condition, rather than on local causality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  18. Theory Ain't Practice: Four Novice Researchers Navigate Dilemmas of Representation within Immigrant Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleixo, Marina; Hansen, Sarah; Horii, Sachiko; Un, Silvy

    2014-01-01

    This article illuminates instances in which four graduate students have struggled with issues of representation--of themselves and of immigrant participants--at their research sites and in their writing. These dilemmas are situated within the literature on the politics of representation in qualitative research. Although these dilemmas are not…

  19. "You Ain't My Daddy!": Black Male Teachers and the Politics of Surrogate Fatherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockenbrough, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship on male teachers across several national contexts has investigated the dilemmas of hegemonic masculinity for male educators while only recently beginning to examine race as a mediator of masculinity politics in teaching. Conversely, an emergent body of work on Black male teachers has centred analyses of race and culture, but has…

  20. AIN-Based Packaging for SiC High-Temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savrun, Ender

    2004-01-01

    Packaging made primarily of aluminum nitride has been developed to enclose silicon carbide-based integrated circuits (ICs), including circuits containing SiC-based power diodes, that are capable of operation under conditions more severe than can be withstood by silicon-based integrated circuits. A major objective of this development was to enable packaged SiC electronic circuits to operate continuously at temperatures up to 500 C. AlN-packaged SiC electronic circuits have commercial potential for incorporation into high-power electronic equipment and into sensors that must withstand high temperatures and/or high pressures in diverse applications that include exploration in outer space, well logging, and monitoring of nuclear power systems. This packaging embodies concepts drawn from flip-chip packaging of silicon-based integrated circuits. One or more SiC-based circuit chips are mounted on an aluminum nitride package substrate or sandwiched between two such substrates. Intimate electrical connections between metal conductors on the chip(s) and the metal conductors on external circuits are made by direct bonding to interconnections on the package substrate(s) and/or by use of holes through the package substrate(s). This approach eliminates the need for wire bonds, which have been the most vulnerable links in conventional electronic circuitry in hostile environments. Moreover, the elimination of wire bonds makes it possible to pack chips more densely than was previously possible.

  1. Pluralism and Potpourri: Asian Ain'ts. CATESOL Occasional Papers, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, John B.

    Many of the deficiencies of bilingual/bicultural programs at present are due to short-sightedness as to the real scope of bilingual/bicultural education. This article expands the scope of some of the current theory and points out reasons for the inefficacy of some bilingual/bicultural programs and suggests methods whereby programs could be…

  2. The Repeal of Section 28: It Ain't over 'til It's over

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Katy; Nunney, Rosalind

    2008-01-01

    Section 28 (part of the Local Government Act of 1988) was a notorious piece of legislation that sought to prevent local education authorities in the UK from "promoting homosexuality". The effect of Section 28 was to create uncertainty and fear among teachers as to what was (and what was not) permitted in schools. Over time practitioners and…

  3. ChAInGeS: The Chandra Arp Interacting Galaxies Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Beverly

    2008-09-01

    Dozens of ultra-luminous X-ray point sources (ULXs) have been seen in nearby galaxies, particularly interacting galaxies. Previous studies suggest that ULXs are more likely to be found in tidal features, but this is uncertain. We seek to determine whether there is a statistically-significant correlation between ULXs and tidal features, which would imply that the extreme environments of these features are particularly conducive to the formation of ULXs. We propose to use archival Chandra images of a well-studied sample of interacting galaxies for which we have obtained GALEX UV, SARA optical, and Spitzer infrared images and have calculated spatially-resolved stellar population ages. Comparison with the Chandra results will help to distinguish between two competing models for ULXs.

  4. A Completely New Type of Actuator -or- This Ain't Your Grandfather's Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian W.; Hawkins, Gary F.; Hess, Peter A.; Moore, Teresa A.; Fournier, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    A completely new type of actuator - one that is proposed for use in a variety of environments from sea to land to air to space - has been designed, patented, built, and tested. The actuator is loosely based on the principle of the internal combustion engine, except that it is a completely closed system, only requiring electrical input, and the working fuel is water. This paper outlines the theory behind the electrolysis- and ignition-based cycle upon which the actuator operates and describes the performance capability test apparatus and results for the actuator. A mechanism application that harnessed the unit s power to twist a scaled rotor blade is also highlighted.

  5. "I Know There Ain't No Pigs with Wigs": Challenges of Tier 2 Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Diane; Cox, Robin; Downs, Anne; Goforth, Jennie; Jaeger, Lisa; Matheny, Ashley; Plyler, Kristi; Ray, Sandra; Riser, Lee; Sawyer, Beth; Thompson, Tara; Vickio, Kathy; Wilcox, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    As a part of Response to Intervention, for three years, ten reading interventionists provided supplemental support to readers. They formed a learning community, took an inquiry-based approach to assessment and developed a theory of what students needed to know and be able to do as readers. They addressed and learned from several other challenges:…

  6. It Ain't Easy Livin' in the Big Easy: Down and Dazed but Not out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; West, Jill; Lazarus, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the impact of two major disasters (Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon oil rig fire and subsequent oil spill) on residents of New Orleans and the Gulf Coast are discussed. An overriding concern as expressed by the recently released report issued by the National Commission on Children and Disasters, 2010 "Report to the…

  7. Ain't No Neuroscience Mountain High Enough: Experiences of a Neurogardener.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2015-01-01

    16 years have passed since the idea was mooted in 1999 by five neurosurgeons in the corridors of Hotel Perdana, Kota Bharu. They were Dato' Dr Johari Siregar Bin Adnan, Dato' Professor Dr Ahmad Zubaidi Abdul Latif , Dr Azmin Kass Bin Rosman, Dato' Dr Mohammed Saffari Bin Mohammed Haspani and Professor Dato' Dr Jafri Malin Abdullah. They initiated the beginning of the first programme in Neurosurgery in Malaysia. The rest is history. PMID:26715890

  8. Single-resonator dual-frequency AIN-on-Si MEMS oscillators.

    PubMed

    Lavasani, Hossein Miri; Abdolvand, Reza; Ayazi, Farrokh

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on the design, implementation, and phase-noise optimization of low-power interface IC for dual-frequency oscillators that utilize two high quality factor (Q) width-extensional bulk acoustic modes of the same AlN-on-silicon resonator. Two 0.5-μm CMOS transimpedance amplifiers (TIA) have been designed, characterized, and interfaced with two dual-mode resonators operating at 35.5/105.7 MHz (first/third order modes) and 35.5/174.9 MHz (first/ fifth order modes). One TIA uses open-loop regulated cascode (RGC) topology in the first stage to enable low power operation, whereas the second one uses an inverter with shunt-shunt feedback to deliver higher gain with lower phase noise. An on-chip switching network is incorporated into each TIA to change the oscillation frequency based on the different phase shift. The effect of TIA on the phase-noise performance of oscillators is studied and compared for both topologies. The measured phase noise of low- and high-frequency modes at 1 kHz offset from carrier are -114 and -108 dBc/Hz for the 35/105 MHz oscillator, and -108 and -105 dBc/Hz for the 35/175 MHz oscillator, respectively, whereas the far-from-carrier reaches below -140 dBc/Hz in all cases. PMID:25965675

  9. Ain't Misbehavin”: Towards a Developmentally-Specified Nosology for Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing consensus that disruptive behavior disorders and syndromes (DBDs) are identifiable in preschool children. There is also concomitant recognition of the limitations of the current DBD nosology for distinguishing disruptive behavior symptoms from normative misbehavior of early childhood. In particular, there appears to be substantial insensitivity to heterotypic manifestations of this developmental period and problems in identifying meaningful heterogeneity. As a result, the developmental basis for much of the current nosology may be called into question. To address these and other critical issues, this paper reviews the foundational elements of clinical and developmental science pertinent to developmental differentiation of disruptive behavior in the preschool period as paradigmatic for developmental specification across the life span and generates an agenda for future research. We begin by reviewing evidence of the validity of DBDs in preschool children. This is followed by an outline of key developmental concepts and a review of the corollary evidence from developmental science. These provides a basis for conceptualizing disruptive behavior in reference to developmental deviation in four core dimensions hypothesized to mark the core features of disruptive behavior syndromes. Finally, we propose a program of research to establish an empirical basis for determining the incremental utility of a developmentally-specified nosology. Central to this approach is a contention that the benefits of developmental specification are extensive and outweigh any disadvantages. This is because a developmentally-specified approach holds substantial promise for increasing sensitivity and specificity for differentiating disruptive behavior from normative misbehavior and from other related syndromes as well as for improving prediction. Further, more precisely-defined, developmentally-based phenotypes are likely to elucidate distinct mechanisms within translational studies and to serve as a catalyst for the generation of novel treatments. PMID:19874427

  10. The Nozoe Autograph Books: "It ain't over 'til it's over".

    PubMed

    Seeman, Jeffrey I; Johnson, Brian P

    2015-02-01

    All are welcome! This issue contains the final of the 15 segments of the original Nozoe Autograph Books. But this project couldn't just stop here. A modern extension of the autograph books-a 16(th) segment-will be published and will include signatures from around today's chemistry community. All are welcome to participate and add their mark on the legacy of the Nozoe Autograph Books. See the Essay for details. This Essay and the interactive website that accompanies the Nozoe Autograph Book project are available free-access for at least a three-year period at http://www.tcr.wiley-vch.de/nozoe. PMID:25690992