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Sample records for maspalomas gran canaria

  1. Global model of the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Lopez-Tarruella, F. Javier; Fernandez Ibarz, Jose M.

    2002-07-01

    During the conceptual design of the GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias) it was suggested to develop a Global Model of the behaviour of the GTC system to be used as a tool for the system engineering. This Global Model should be a dynamical simulation capable to predict the pointing, tracking, guiding and image quality of the GTC system in several simulation scenarios depending on the behavior of each subsystem. It was decided to develop the simulation in the Matlab/Simulink« environment. The kernel of the Global Model was a Simulink® model of the telescope mechanics. The model included the structural dynamics, control loops of the main axis (azimuth, elevation and rotators), and load models (wind, gravity, seism). Each component included error sources inherent to it (cogging and ripple on motors, encoding errors, bearing run-out, etc). The model permitted large rotations in elevation axis, which was necessary to test pointing performances. A specific simulation was developed within the project office for the analysis of the image quality of the optical system. It includes polishing defects of the optical surfaces (M1 segments, M2 and M3), low spatial frequency distortions of the optical surfaces (due to fabrication, gravity of instability) and misalignment between the primary mirror segments.

  2. Helminth-related Eosinophilia in African Immigrants, Gran Canaria

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Javier; Carranza, Cristina; Muro, Antonio; Angel-Moreno, Alfonso; Martín, Antonio-Manuel; Martín, Teresa; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Of 788 recent African adult immigrants to Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 213 (27.0%) had eosinophilia. The most frequent causes were filariasis (29.4%), schistosomiasis (17.2%), and hookworm infection (16.8%). Stool microscopy and filarial and schistosomal serologic tests gave the highest diagnostic yield. Country of origin and eosinophil count were associated with specific diagnoses. PMID:17176579

  3. MIRADAS for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: system overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, S. S.; Bennett, J. G.; Chinn, B.; Donoso, H. V.; Eikenberry, S. A.; Ettedgui, E.; Fletcher, A.; Frommeyer, Raymond; Garner, A.; Herlevich, M.; Lasso, N.; Miller, P.; Mullin, S.; Murphey, C.; Raines, S. N.; Packham, C.; Schofield, S.; Stelter, R. D.; Varosi, F.; Vega, C.; Warner, C.; Garzón, Francisco; Rosich, J.; Gomez, J. M.; Sabater, J.; Vilar, C.; Torra, J.; Gallego, J.; Cardiel, N.; Eliche, C.; Pascual, S.; Ballester, O.; Illa, J. M.; Jimenez, J.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Galipienzo, J.; Carrera, M. A.; Hammersley, P.; Cuevas, S.

    2012-09-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected in 2010 by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, as well as probe arm industrial partner A-V-S (Spain). In this paper, we review the overall system design for MIRADAS, as it nears Preliminary Design Review in the autumn of 2012.

  4. Analysis and modelling of the aeromagnetic anomalies of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Montenegro, I.; Torta, J. M.; Garcia, A.; Arana, V.

    2003-04-01

    In this work we present a crustal magnetic model of the volcanic island of Gran Canaria based on aeromagnetic data. This magnetic study has made it possible to constrain the location and geometry of: 1) the mafic core of Gran Canaria, built as the result of the crystallization of magmas which rose from the mantle during the submarine and shield basaltic stages of its evolution. The most intense magnetic high, displayed over the NW part of the island likely shows the main feeding system of the shield volcano; 2) the residual syenitic shallow magma chamber which fed the salic volcanic activity in the center of the island, linked to the formation of the Tejeda caldera and to the intrusion of felsic rocks which made up a cone sheet; 3) a reversely-magnetized linear intrusion located in the marine area to the NW of the island, which could be related to the magmatic source of the submarine volcanism between Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Most of these magnetic sources show a linear pattern with trends that are in close agreement with the orientations of previously identified fractures. The magmatic intrusion to the NW of the island could be related with a WSW-ENE active fault between Gran Canaria and Tenerife, while the main trend and location of the mafic core agree with a NW-SE fault suggested by geological studies. This means that these magnetic sources are the result of the ascent and intrusion of magma along regional fractures. Therefore, this study provides fresh data which demonstrate the influence of regional tectonics on the growth of Gran Canaria during its entire evolution. Finally, the spectral analysis of the magnetic anomaly map suggests that it is possible that rocks located at mantle-like depths (from the Moho to about 23 km) behave as magnetic sources, a fact that can be related with the magmatic underplating detected by other geophysical techniques.

  5. Analysis and modelling of the aeromagnetic anomalies of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Montenegro, Isabel; Torta, J. Miquel; García, Alicia; Araña, Vicente

    2003-02-01

    In this paper we present a crustal magnetic model of the volcanic island of Gran Canaria based on aeromagnetic data. This magnetic study has made it possible to constrain the location and geometry of: (1) the mafic core of Gran Canaria, built as the result of the crystallization of magmas which rose from the mantle during the submarine and shield basaltic stages of its evolution. The most intense magnetic high, displayed over the NW part of the island likely shows the main feeding system of the shield volcano; (2) the residual syenitic shallow magma chamber which fed the salic volcanic activity in the center of the island, linked to the formation of the Tejeda caldera and to the intrusion of felsic rocks which made up a cone sheet; (3) a reversely magnetized linear intrusion located in the marine area to the NW of the island, which could be related to the magmatic source of the submarine volcanism between Gran Canaria and Tenerife. Most of these magnetic sources show a linear pattern with trends that are in close agreement with the orientations of previously identified fractures. The magmatic intrusion to the NW of the island could be related with a WSW-ENE active fault between Gran Canaria and Tenerife, while the main trend and location of the mafic core agree with a NW-SE fault suggested by geological studies. This means that these magnetic sources are the result of the ascent and intrusion of magma along regional fractures. Therefore, this study provides fresh data which demonstrate the influence of regional tectonics on the growth of Gran Canaria during its entire evolution. Finally, the spectral analysis of the magnetic anomaly map suggests that it is possible that rocks located at mantle-like depths (from the Moho to about 23 km) behave as magnetic sources, a fact that can be related with the magmatic underplating detected by other geophysical techniques.

  6. Gran Canaria temporary broadband seismic network: an study of the seismicity and Earth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, Javier; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Martinez-Arevalo, Carmen; Carmona, Enrique; Sanchez, Nieves; Heit, Benjamin; Garcia, Alicia; Martin-Leon, Rosa; Buontempo, Luisa; Yuan, Xiahoui

    2010-05-01

    The present project is a joint effort between different institutions to deploy a dense seismic network at Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands, Spain). The interstation distance is around 20 km. The broadband seismic network is composed of one permanent (Guralp CMG-3T 120 s) and five temporary stations (Guralp CMG-3ESP 60 s). The permanent station is a 120 s Guralp CMG-3T and belongs to the Canary Island Seismic Network, run by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) of Spain. The temporary stations are 60 s Guralp CMG-3ESP, provided by the GFZ seismic pool. The deployment was carried out in December 2009. The stations will be recording during two years. The improvement of the seismic network allow us to tackle the following issues: the detection and analysis of any local seismicity of tectonic and/or volcanic origin at Gran Canaria island; to contribute to the understanding of the regional seismicity with special interest in the oceanic channel between Tenerife and Gran Canaria Island in collaboration with a project running a dense temporary seismic network in Tenerife; to study the crustal and upper mantle structure, under Gran Canaria to constrain the crustal structure, the source of the volcanism, and better sample the mantle discontinuities and anisotropy. To study the Earth structure, we use receiver function analysis, ambient seismic noise and SKS anisotropy techniques, This project is part of a long-term research of the crustal and the mantle structure of the Canary Islands, which has started with Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands and will eventually continue with the rest of the archipelago. The origin of the Canary Islands is generally attributed to a broad mantle upwelling under a slow moving plate, resulting in spatially and temporally distributed volcanic activity and a large number of seamounts and islands. A controversial discussion has been going on about the factors that control the evolution of the volcanic edifices, the type of the melting

  7. Dental caries among the pre-Hispanic population from Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Darias, T; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Martín-Rodríguez, E; González-Reimers, E

    2005-11-01

    The island of Gran Canaria was inhabited in pre-Hispanic times by people of North African origin who arrived on the island towards the second half of the first millennium BC. In previous studies, we reported that there are some differences between the coastal inhabitants from Gran Canaria, mainly buried in tumuli, and those from the central mountains, mainly buried in caves. For example, the prevalence of auricular exostoses is higher among the population interred in coastal tumuli when compared with the inland population. This finding may be explained by the practice of marine activities, as supported by chroniclers' reports, by archaeological data, and by bone trace-element analysis, which point to a more intense consumption of marine products by the inhabitants of the coastal regions. Dental caries epidemiology is one of the most important ways in which the diet of past populations can be reconstructed. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and intensity of caries among the pre-Hispanic population of Gran Canaria, in order to increase our knowledge about the dietary habits of these people, and to search for differences among the population buried in caves and that buried in tumuli. We studied a total of 791 individuals. Sex was estimated in 561 cases, and age at death, following Brothwell's criteria, in 549. We found that 66.95% of individuals buried in caves and 58.91% of those buried in tumuli showed at least one carious lesion. The proportion of carious teeth was significantly higher among the population buried in caves (median = 15.71%, interquartile range (IR) = 0-33.33%) than among the population buried in tumuli (median = 6.25%, IR = 0-20%, P = 0.001). Type of burial is the main factor associated with the proportion of carious teeth.These data suggest that the population buried in caves had a different dietary pattern from that of those buried in tumuli. PMID:15895436

  8. Natural radioactivity measurements of beach sands in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Arnedo, M A; Tejera, A; Rubiano, J G; Alonso, H; Gil, J M; Rodríguez, R; Martel, P

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and man-made (137)Cs in most important tourist Gran Canaria beaches have been determined using a high-purity Germanium detector to analyse their radiological hazard. Average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were 17.6±1.4, 21.3±1.8 and 480±22 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Observed activity concentration values of (137)Cs were practically negligible from a radiological protection point of view. The results of this paper were compared with others published in the bibliography for beaches and coastal sediments of different countries. The mean external air absorbed dose rate was 43.9±2.8 nGyh(-1), which resulted in an outdoor annual effective dose below the world average. Also, the radium equivalent and the external hazard index were calculated. Results from Gran Canaria beaches showed the low levels of radioactivity, indicating no significant radiological risk related to human activities in the area. PMID:23509399

  9. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them. PMID:27447205

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air particles in the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Vera Castellano, A; López Cancio, J; Santana Alemán, P; Santana Rodríguez, J

    2003-07-01

    Concentration levels, seasonal variation and winter/summer ratios of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the TSP of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria city were determined. The study area is under the influence of heavy traffic (80000 vehicles/day). Pyr/BaA, Pyr/Flt, B(ghi)P/I(cd)P and B(b+k)F/B(ghi)P ratios were calculated; the values of these two last suggest a strong influence of diesel fuel burning. Levels of TSP and TSP-bound PAHs were also established. The hazard potential of PAHs in terms of carcinogenicity of BaP is acceptable. Potential risk on the basis of TEFs is also studied. PMID:12705945

  11. The Gran Telescopio Canarias and Calar Alto Virtual Observatory Compliant Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alacid, J. M.; Solano, E.; Esteban, F. J.; Velasco, A.

    2014-05-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias and Calar Alto archives are the result of the collaboration agreements between the Centro de Astrobiología and two entities: GRANTECAN S.A. and the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). The archives have been developed in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory and are maintained by the Data Archive Unit at Centro de Astrobiología. The archives contain both raw and science ready data and have been designed in compliance with the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which guarantees a high level of data accessibility and handling. In this paper we describe the main characteristics and functionalities of both archives.

  12. The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Sánchez, Beatriz; Bringas, Vicente; Espejo, Carlos; Flores, Rubén; Chapa, Oscar; Lara, Gerardo; Chavoya, Armando; Anguiano, Gustavo; Arciniega, Sadot; Dorantes, Ariel; Gonzalez, José L.; Montoya, Juan M.; Toral, Rafael; Hernández, Hugo; Nava, Roberto; Devaney, Nicolas; Castro, Javier; Cavaller, Luis; Farah, Alejandro; Godoy, Javier; Cobos, Francisco; Tejada, Carlos; Garfias, Fernando

    2006-02-01

    In March 2004 was accepted in the site of Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in La Palma Island, Spain, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) for the GTC. During the GTC integration phase, the CI will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes-imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature Wave-front sensing (WFS), and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomia UNAM in Mexico City and the Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) in Queretaro, Qro under a GRANTECAN contract after an international public bid. Some optical components were built by Centro de Investigaciones en Optica (CIO) in Leon Gto and the biggest mechanical parts were manufactured by Vatech in Morelia Mich. In this paper we made a general description of the CI and we relate how this instrument, build under international standards, was entirely made in Mexico.

  13. FRIDA, the diffraction limited NIR imager and IFS for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. A.; Acosta, J.; Alvarez, L. C.; Bringas, V.; Cardiel, N.; Clark, D. M.; Corrales, A.; Cuevas, S.; Chapa, O.; Díaz Garcia, J. J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eliche, C.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Fuentes, J.; Gallego, J.; Garcés, J.; Garzón, F.; Hammersley, P.; Keiman, C.; Lara, G.; López, P.; Lucero, D.; Moreno, H.; Pascual, S.; Patrón, J.; Prieto, A.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, B.; Sánchez, B.; Torres, D.; Uribe, J.; Watson, A.

    2014-07-01

    FRIDA is a diffraction limited imager and integral field spectrometer that is being built for the Gran Telescopio Canarias. FRIDA has been designed and is being built as a collaborative project between institutions from México, Spain and the USA. In imaging mode FRIDA will provide scales of 0.010, 0.020 and 0.040 arcsec/pixel and in IFS mode spectral resolutions R ~ 1000, 4,500 and 30,000. FRIDA is starting systems integration and is scheduled to complete fully integrated system tests at the laboratory by the end of 2015 and be delivered to GTC shortly after. In this contribution we present a summary of its design, fabrication, current status and potential scientific applications.

  14. Geographical structuring of mitochondrial DNA in Chalcides sexlineatus within the island of Gran Canaria

    PubMed Central

    Pestano, J.; Brown, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    The skink Chalcides sexlineatus shows clear north-south ecology-correlated variation in morphology within the island of Gran Canaria. Detailed study of this variation previously supported the hypothesis of in situ differentiation arising through climate-mediated variation in selection pressures. The more recent discovery of substantial within-island mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence divergence suggested an alternative historical vicariance scenario. This paper provides a detailed analysis of geographical structuring in mtDNA, based on a fragment amplified from the 12S rRNA region in 96 individuals. A very clear phylogeographic pattern was detected: three 'deep' lineages were evident corresponding to northern, south-eastern and south-western parts of Gran Canaria with generally low levels of mtDNA introgression. The pattern of among-site differentiation was highly concordant with the pattern of morphological variation. It also provided a close fit to a simple microevolutionary model based on population vicariance during volcanic eruptions known to have occurred during the past 2.8 million years in the north of the island. The minimum number of historical migration events required to explain the mtDNA tree was calculated and a novel randomization test used to show that there were a lower number of putative migrations across the morphology transition zone, relative to migrations within northern and southern zones. Differential adaptation to the two major habitat types and selection against hybrids may explain why the morphology transition zone coincides with the main ecotone and is relatively narrow, respectively.

  15. 3D modelling of the Tejeda Caldera cone-sheet swarm, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrock, Lisa K.; Jensen, Max J.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Mattsson, Tobias; Geiger, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Cone-sheet swarms provide vital information on the interior of volcanic systems and their plumbing systems (e.g. Burchardt et al. 2013). This information is important for the interpretation of processes and dynamics of modern and ancient volcanic systems, and is therefore vital for assessing volcanic hazards and to reduce risks to modern society. To more realistically model cone-sheet emplacement an approximation of their 3D shape needs to be known. Most cone-sheet swarms are not sufficiently exposed laterally and/or vertically, however, which makes it difficult to determine the geometry of a cone-sheet swarm at depth, especially since different shapes (e.g. convex, straight or concave continuations) would produce a similar trace at the surface (cf. Burchardt et al. 2011, and references therein). The Miocene Tejeda Caldera on Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, hosts a cone-sheet swarm that was emplaced into volcaniclastic caldera infill at about 12.3-7.3 Ma (Schirnick et al. 1999). The dyke swarm displays over 1000 m of vertical exposure and more than 15 km of horizontal exposure, making it a superb locality to study the evolution of cone-sheet swarms in detail and to determine its actual geometry in 3D space. We have used structural data of Schirnick (1996) to model the geometry of the Tejeda cone-sheet in 3D, using the software Move® by Midland Valley Ltd. Based on previous 2D projections, Schirnick et al. (1999) suggested that the cone-sheet swarm is formed by a stack of parallel intrusive sheets which have a truncated dome geometry and form a concentric structure around a central axis, assuming straight sheet-intrusions. Our 3D model gives insight into the symmetries of the sheets and the overall geometry of the cone-sheet swarm below the surface. This visualization now allows to grasp the complexity of the Tejeda cone-sheet swarm at depth, particularly in relation to different possible cone-sheet geometries suggested in the literature (cf. Burchardt et al

  16. Eddy and deep chlorophyl maximum response to wind-shear in the lee of Gran Canaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basterretxea, G.; Barton, E. D.; Tett, P.; Sangrá, P.; Navarro-Perez, E.; Arístegui, J.

    2002-06-01

    The physical and biological properties of the warm wake of Gran Canaria were examined during a survey carried out in June 1998. The sampling region was dominated by the presence of a warm triangular region downwind the island and an anticyclonic eddy spun off the island. Convergent and divergent frontal regions were generated by the wind shear zones extending along either side of the sheltered region of the warm wake. With increasing distance from shore, evidence of convergent/divergent frontal regions weakened, but the influence of the eddy increased. Both structures, frontal regions and the eddy, clearly altered the vertical phytoplankton biomass distribution as indicated by chlorophyll-fluorescence. Downwelling on the convergent boundary moved the 26.2 kg m -3 isopycnal and its associated deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) below the 1% light zone. Upwelling at the divergent boundary not only elevated the DCM with its associated isopycnal but also, because of the increased light levels, allowed a shift in the DCM to higher (deeper) density surfaces (26.4 kg m -3). However, the highest integrated chlorophyll occurred in the central wake.

  17. Metallic species in atmospheric particulate matter in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Cancio, J López; Castellano, A Vera; Hernández, M Chaar; Bethencourt, R García; Ortega, E Macías

    2008-12-30

    In this work, we quantified the total, water-soluble and insoluble fractions of 12 metallic species (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and Mn) present in total suspended particulates (TSP) in an urban area with heavy traffic (about 80 000 vehicles/day) of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Experimental measurements were made from July to December 2003 on a total of 42 samples (7 per month). Particulate matter (TSP) was collected in fiber filters and high volume samplers. PM10 levels were estimated assuming the PM10 fraction is about 70% of all TSP. Total fractions was determined gravimetrically. Water-soluble fraction was extracted by sonication. Concentrations of metallic elements were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Temporal changes in the concentrations of the target elements were examined and a multivariate approach used to identify the primary sources for each species. Mean value for TSP is 71.92microg/m3. The water-soluble fraction consisted mainly of Na, Ca, Mg, and K. The insoluble fraction contained higher concentrations of all elements than the soluble except Na. In the water-soluble fraction, Na, K, Ca and Mg were found to come mainly from natural sources; Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu from anthropogenic sources. PMID:18440133

  18. Estimated UV doses to psoriasis patients during climate therapy at Gran Canaria in March 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, L. T. N.; Søyland, E.; Krogstad, A. L.

    2008-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease involving about 2-3% of the Norwegian population. Sun exposure has a positive effect on most psoriasis lesions, but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also causes a direct DNA damage in the skin cells and comprises a carcinogenic potential. UV exposure on the skin causes a local as well as a systemic immune suppressive effect, but the relation between sun exposure and these biological effects is not well known. In March 2006 a study was carried out to investigate possible therapeutic outcome mechanisms in 20 psoriasis patients receiving climate therapy at Gran Canaria. This paper presents estimates of their individual skin UV-doses based on UV measurements and the patients' diaries with information on time spent in the sun. On the first day of exposure the patients received on average 5.1 Standard Erythema Doses (SED: median=4.0 SED, range 2.6-10.3 SED) estimated to the skin. During the 15 days study they received 165.8 SED (range 104.3-210.1 SED). The reduction in PASI score was 72.8% on average, but there was no obvious relation between the improvement and the UV dose. The UV doses were higher than those found from climate therapy studies at other locations. It seems beneficial to use more strict exposure schedules that consider the available UV irradiance, depending on time of the day, time of the year and weather conditions.

  19. Reconstructing eroded paleovolcanoes on Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, using advanced geomorphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karátson, D.; Yepes, J.; Favalli, M.; Rodríguez-Peces, M. J.; Fornaciai, A.

    2016-01-01

    Original volcanic edifices of two successive stages of Gran Canaria are reconstructed using a geomorphometric analysis of existent or restored paleosurfaces. In the reconstruction, surface fitting was applied preferably to planèzes (i.e. triangular facets of original volcano flanks) and quasi-planar surfaces, QPS (those occurring on planèzes, or scattered, slightly eroded portions derived from original cone surfaces) with the help of red relief image map (RRIM) analysis. Out of the long-lasting, Mid-Miocene to Holocene subaerial evolution of the island, the Late Miocene Fataga volcano and the subsequent, Pliocene Roque Nublo volcanoes were the largest and highest. The eruptive center of Fataga, a composite edifice (12.2-8.8 Ma) that may have grown up excentrically with respect to the previous Tejeda caldera, is well-defined by both two planèzes (named Veneguera-Mogán and Fataga-Tirajana) and QPS remnants. Its calculated original volume, ≤ 1000 km3, is close to the largest stratovolcanoes on Earth. However, its ≥ 3300 m elevation, obtained by exponential fit, may have been significantly lower due to the complex architecture of the summit region, e.g. a caldera responsible for ignimbrite eruptions. Roque Nublo, a 3.7-2.9 Ma stratovolcanic cone, which was superimposed upon the Fataga rocks ≥ 3 km west of the Fataga center, has left no considerable paleosurfaces behind due to heavy postvolcanic erosion. Yet, its remnant formations preserved in a radial pattern unambiguously define its center. Moreover, surface fitting of the outcropping rocks can be corrected taking the erosion rate for the past 3 Ma into account. Such a corrected surface fit points to a regular-shaped, ≥ 3000 m-high cone with a 25 km radius and ca. 940 km3 original volume, also comparable with the dimensions of the largest terrestrial stratovolcanoes.

  20. Fluid-Rock Interaction in the Miocene Tejeda Caldera, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoghue, E.; Troll, V. R.; Harris, C.; Walter, T. R.; Pérez Torrado, F. J.

    2007-12-01

    Rhyolite-trachyte tuffs deposited within the Miocene Tejeda caldera (Mogán Group 14-13.3Ma) show evidence of severe fluid-rock interaction. The altered tuffs are restricted to a peripheral zone directly inside the caldera margin, and occur at four distinct horizons within the mid-upper Mogán ignimbrite succession. Upper-Mogán tuffs display pervasive intermediate argillic alteration (smectite+illite+zeolites+adularia) and silicification (microcrystalline quartz+amorphous silica), indicative of low-temperature (≤250°C) near-neutral pH conditions. Quartz+kaolinite+muscovite+chlorite+calcite alteration of mid-Mogán tuffs and breccias may reflect boiling of higher-temperature, acidic hydrothermal fluids at depth. Si+Na+K+Pb+Sr+Rb were highly mobile during fluid-rock interaction, whereas Ti+Zr+Nb were dominantly refractory. Altered intra-caldera tuffs (n=65) have higher δ18O values than equivalent unaltered extra-caldera ignimbrites, reflecting an overall low-temperature near-surface environment in which meteoric water (δD ca.-15‰, δ18O ca.-3‰) was the dominant fluid source. A decrease in δ18O from upper- to mid- Mogán altered tuffs is consistent with an increase in fluid temperature with depth. Unaltered ignimbrites have δD values of -110 to -168‰ (n=6) and ≤0.2wt% H2O, indicative of Rayleigh-type H2O-exsolution. Altered tuffs have δD values of -52 to -117‰ (n=75) and up to 4wt% H2O, reflecting interaction with steam (δD\\ll-15‰) or an evolved low-δD fluid. Apparently unaltered ignimbrites between altered horizons (n=13), and shield basalts directly outside the caldera margin (n=6), have elevated δD and H2O values relative to equivalent unaltered rocks, indicative of minor alteration. Supported by numerical modelling, our Gran Canaria data reflect an intrusion-related, structurally controlled epithermal system, in which fluids and/or vapours migrated through intra-caldera tuffs via channelised, porous flow. This study may help to unravel the

  1. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  2. Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Torres-Padrón, Mª Esther; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the evaluation of seven pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different commonly used therapeutic classes in seawater samples from coastal areas of Gran Canaria Island. The target compounds include atenolol (antihypertensive), acetaminophen (analgesic), norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (antibiotics), carbamazepine (antiepileptic) and ketoprofen and diclofenac (anti-inflammatory). Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for the extraction and preconcentration of the samples, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the determination of the compounds. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries obtained were in the range of 78.3% to 98.2%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 11.8%. The detection and quantification limits of the method were in the ranges of 0.1–2.8 and 0.3–9.3 ng·L−1, respectively. The developed method was applied to evaluate the presence of these pharmaceutical compounds in seawater from four outfalls in Gran Canaria Island (Spain) during one year. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found in a large number of samples in a concentration range of 9.0–3551.7 ng·L−1. Low levels of diclofenac, acetaminophen and ketoprofen were found sporadically. PMID:27029304

  3. Groundwater intensive exploitation and mining in Gran Canaria and Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: Hydrogeological, environmental, economic and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Emilio; Cabrera, María Del Carmen; Poncela, Roberto; Puga, Luis-Olavo; Skupien, Elzbieta; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Intensive exploitation and continuous consumption of groundwater reserves (groundwater mining) have been real facts for decades in arid and semiarid areas. A summary of experience in the hydrogeological, economic, social and ethical consequences of groundwater intensive and mining exploitation in Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands, in the Canarian Archipelago, is presented. Groundwater abstraction is less than recharge, but a significant outflow of groundwater to the sea cannot be avoided, especially in Tenerife, due to its younger volcanic coastal formations. Consequently, the intensive aquifer groundwater development by means of wells and water galleries (tunnels) has produced a groundwater reserve depletion of about 2km(3). Should current groundwater abstraction cease, the recovery time to close-to-natural conditions is from decades to one century, except in the mid and high elevations of Tenerife, where this recovery is not possible as aquifer formations will remain permanently drained by the numerous long water galleries. The socio-economic circumstances are complex due to a long standing history of water resources exploitation, successive social changes on each island, and well-established groundwater water trading, with complex relationships that affect water governance and the resulting ethical concerns. Gran Canaria and Tenerife are in an advanced groundwater exploitation stage and have a large water demand. They are good examples that allow drawing guidelines to evaluate groundwater development on other small high islands. After presenting the hydrogeological background, the socio-economic results are discussed to derive general knowledge to guide on water governance. PMID:27017075

  4. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  5. Optical design of FRIDA, the integral-field spectrograph and imager for the AO system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sánchez, Beatriz; Chapa, Oscar; Espejo, Carlos; Flores-Meza, Rubén; Lara, Gerardo; Álvarez, Luis C.; Keiman, Carolina

    2008-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS) capabilities with low, intermediate and high spectral resolutions to operate in the wavelength range 0.9 - 2.5 μm. The integral field unit is based on a monolithic image slicer based on the University of Florida FISICA. Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Rockwell 2K×2K detector. FRIDA will be based at a Nasmyth focus of GTC, behind the GTCAO system. The FRIDA optical design, stray light analysis, tolerance analysis and manufacturing feasibility are described in this contribution.

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment of common booster biocides in surface waters of the harbours of Gran Canaria (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-del Pino, Angelo; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2011-05-01

    The presence of booster biocides in the aquatic environment has been associated with a risk to non-target species due to their proven toxicity. The aim of the present study was to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of common booster biocides in different harbours of the island of Gran Canaria (Spain) and evaluate, by means of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the ecological risk posed by these compounds. With these objectives, a monitoring campaign was conducted between January 2008 and May 2009, collecting a total of 182 seawater samples. Four common booster biocides (TCMTB, diuron, Irgarol 1051 and dichlofluanid) were monitored. Diuron levels ranged between 2.3 and 203 ng/L and Irgarol 1051 between 2.4 and 146.5 ng/L. The ecological risk associated with these levels was always low, however, with probabilities of exceeding the 10th percentile of autotroph toxicity below 3.5%. PMID:21396664

  7. Trends in the incidence of hip fracture in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain: 2007–2011 versus 1989–1993

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, P.; de Tejada, M. J. G.; Navarro, M.; Cabrera, D.; Melton, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hip fracture incidence in the Canaries was studied in two 5-year periods (1989–1993 and 2008–2011). The incidence in 2007–2011 was 24 % higher than in 1989, but did not differ between 2007–2011 and 1993. These findings suggest a trend to stabilize the incidence of hip fracture. Introduction A dramatic increase in hip fractures between 1988 and 2002 was reported in Northern Spain. We performed the present study in Gran Canaria, the Canary Islands, to compare changes in the incidence of hip fracture between 1989–1993 and 2007–2011. Methods We recorded every osteoporotic hip fracture admitted to any hospital in Gran Canaria in the population 50 years of age or older. Results In 1989–1993, we collected 1175 hip fractures (72 % women; mean age 78.2±9.9 years), and the total incidence rate was 152.1 cases/100,000 population/year. In 2007–2011, we collected 2222 hip fracture cases (71 % women; mean age 79±9.8 years). The total incidence was 180.9/100,000/year. A Poisson model showed that the incidence of fractures increased by 7.1 % (95 % CI=3.1 %; 11.8 %) each year in 1989–1993, while there was no statistically significant variation (p=0.515) during the period 2007–2011. The incidence in 2007–2011 was 24 % higher than in 1989 (first year in the first period) but did not differ between 2007–2011 and 1993 (the last year of the first period). Incidence rates were 76.7 % (95 % CI=63.9 %; 90.5 %) higher in women than in men, but the female/male ratio remained unchanged. The age-adjusted incidence of hip fractures increased by 7.3 % each year from 1989 to 1993. The proportions of trochanter and cervical fractures were similar in the two time periods, but the mean hospital stay was reduced from 11 days in 1989–1993 to 7 days in 2007–2011. Conclusions These findings suggest a trend to stabilize the incidence of hip fracture in the Canary Islands due to a decrease in men, while in women, the incidence increased. PMID:25572042

  8. Occurrence of eight UV filters in beaches of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). An approach to environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Rodríguez, A; Rodrigo Sanz, M; Betancort Rodríguez, J R

    2015-07-01

    Due to the growing concern about human health effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the use of UV filters has increased in recent decades. Unfortunately, some common UV filters are bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms and show a potential for estrogenic activity. The aim of the present study is to determine the presence of some UV filters in the coastal waters of six beaches around Gran Canaria Island as consequence of recreational seaside activities. Eight commonly used UV filters: benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octocrylene (OC), octyl-dimethyl-PABA (OD-PABA), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), homosalate (HMS), butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (BMDBM), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), were monitored and, with the exception of OD-PABA, all were detected in the samples collected. 99% of the samples showed some UV filters and concentration levels reached up to 3316.7 ng/L for BP-3. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) approach showed risk quotients (RQ) higher than 10, which means that there is a significant potential for adverse effects, for 4-MBC and EHMC for those samples with highest levels of UV filters. PMID:25792520

  9. Groundwater salinity and hydrochemical processes in the volcano-sedimentary aquifer of La Aldea, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Fuentes, Tatiana; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Heredia, Javier; Custodio, Emilio

    2014-06-15

    The origin of the groundwater salinity and hydrochemical conditions of a 44km(2) volcano-sedimentary aquifer in the semi-arid to arid La Aldea Valley (western Gran Canaria, Spain) has been studied, using major physical and chemical components. Current aquifer recharge is mainly the result of irrigation return flows and secondarily that of rainfall infiltration. Graphical, multivariate statistical and modeling tools have been applied in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model and identify the natural and anthropogenic factors controlling groundwater salinity. Groundwater ranges from Na-Cl-HCO3 type for moderate salinity water to Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 type for high salinity water. This is mainly the result of atmospheric airborne salt deposition; silicate weathering, and recharge incorporating irrigation return flows. High evapotranspiration produces significant evapo-concentration leading to relative high groundwater salinity in the area. Under average conditions, about 70% of the water used for intensive agricultural exploitation in the valley comes from three low salinity water runoff storage reservoirs upstream, out of the area, while the remaining 30% derives from groundwater. The main alluvial aquifer behaves as a short turnover time reservoir that adds to the surface waters to complement irrigation water supply in dry periods, when it reaches 70% of irrigation water requirements. The high seasonality and intra-annual variability of water demand for irrigation press on decision making on aquifer use by a large number of aquifer users acting on their own. PMID:24698802

  10. Causes of Admission for Raptors to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, Gran Canaria Island, Spain: 2003-13.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca, Natalia; Calabuig, Pascual; Corbera, Juan A; Orós, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    We report the causes of morbidity of 2,458 free-living raptors admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, during 2003-13. The seasonal cumulative incidences were investigated while considering estimates of the wild populations in the region. These methods were used as a more accurate approach to assess the potential ecologic impact of different causes of morbidity. The most frequently admitted species were the Eurasian Kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus ; 53.0%), the Eurasian Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus canariensis; 28.1%), the Canary Islands Common Buzzard ( Buteo buteo insularum; 8.0%), and the Eurasian Barn Owl ( Tyto alba ; 4.4%). The most frequent causes of admission were trauma (33.8%), orphaned-young birds (21.7%), unknown (18.4%), and metabolic/nutritional disease (11.1%). Local morbidity caused by glue trapping and entanglement in burr bristlegrass (Setaria adhaerens) had prevalences of 5.0% and 1.8%, respectively. The highest number of admissions during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons was observed for the Eurasian Barn Owl and the Barbary Falcon ( Falco pelegrinoides ), respectively, mainly due to trauma of unknown origin. PMID:27243151

  11. Assessment of correlation between geophysical and hydrogeological parameters of volcanic deposits at Bandama Caldera (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Albert; Himi, Mahjoub; Estévez, Esmeralda; Lovera, Raúl; Sendrós, Alexandre; Palacios-Díaz, M. Pino; Tapias, Josefina C.; Cabrera, M. Carmen

    2015-04-01

    The characterization of the preferential areas of water infiltration through the vadose zone is of paramount importance to assess the pollution vulnerability of the underlying aquifers. Nevertheless, geometry and the hydraulic conductivity of each geological unit which constitute the unsaturated zone are difficult to study from traditional techniques (samples from trenches) and normally do not go beyond a meter depth from of the surface. On the other hand, boreholes are expensive and provide only local information not always representative of the whole unsaturated zone. For this reason, geophysical techniques and among them the electrical resistivity tomography method can be applicable in volcanic areas, where basaltic rocks, pyroclastic and volcanic ash-fall deposits have a wide range of values. In order to characterize the subsurface geology below the golf course of Bandama (Gran Canaria Island), irrigated with reclaimed wastewater, a detailed electrical resistivity tomography survey has been carried out. This technique has allowed to define the geometry of the existing geological formations by their high electrical resistivity contrast. Subsequently, in representative outcrops the value of resistivity of each of these lithologies has been measured and simultaneously undisturbed samples have been taken measuring the hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory. Finally a statistical correlation between both variables has been established for evaluating the vulnerability to groundwater pollution at different zones of the golf course.

  12. Post-eruptive alteration of silicic ignimbrites and lavas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: Strontium, neodymium, lead, and oxygen isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Cousens, B.L. ); Spera, F.J. ); Dobson, P.F. )

    1993-02-01

    Isotopic analyses of Miocene comenditic, pantelleritic, and trachyphonolitic ignimbrites and lavas from Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, provide evidence for posteruptive mobility of Rb, Sr, and O. Calculated initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios in whole-rock samples from basaltic lavas and feldspar mineral separates from ignimbrites define a magmatic trend in the stratigraphic section, from ratios of 0.70340 at the base of the Mogan Formation to 0.70305 in the lower Fataga Formation. However, calculated apparent initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios in hydrated vitrophyre and devitrified matrix separates range from 0.7035 to 0.7090. [delta][sup 18]O ratios in basalts and feldspars vary little, from +5.7 to +6.1, yet range from +6.5 to +15.0 in the ignimbrite matrices. In contrast to the Sr and O isotope ratios, Pb and Nd isotope ratios are identical within analytical error in feldspars and their silicic ignimbrite matrices. Sequential leaching experiments and the oxygen data suggest that low-temperature, posteruptive interaction with meteoric water, perhaps containing a small seawater component, has modified Rb and Sr concentrations in the matrices, such that calculated apparent initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios are not those of the magmas when they were erupted. Mobilization of Rb and Sr must occur significantly after eurption. Nd and Pb isotope systems appear to be unaffected by this process. Therefore, [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios determined by whole rock analysis of silicic rocks from hotspot-type oceanic islands are suspect and should not be incorporated into mantle tracer studies, although analysis of phenocrysts may produce useful data. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Probing potassium in the atmosphere of HD 80606b with tunable filter transit spectrophotometry from the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón, Knicole D.; Ford, Eric B.; Redfield, Seth; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Shabram, Megan; Deeg, Hans J.; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of HD 80606 using the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) tunable filter imager. We acquired very high precision, narrow-band photometry in four bandpasses around the K I absorption feature during the 2010 January transit of HD 80606b and during out-of-transit observations conducted in 2010 January and April. We obtained differential photometric precisions of ˜2.08 × 10-4 for the in-transit flux ratio measured at 769.91 nm, which probes the K I line core. We find no significant difference in the in-transit flux ratio between observations at 768.76 and 769.91 nm. Yet, we find a difference of ˜8.09 ± 2.88 × 10-4 between these observations and observations at a longer wavelength that probes the K I wing (777.36 nm). While the presence of red noise in the transit data has a non-negligible effect on the uncertainties in the flux ratio, the 777.36-769.91 nm colour during transit shows no effects from red noise and also indicates a significant colour change, with a mean value of ˜8.99 ± 0.62 × 10-4. This large change in the colour is equivalent to a ˜4.2 per cent change in the apparent planetary radius with wavelength, which is much larger than the atmospheric scaleheight. This implies the observations probed the atmosphere at very low pressures as well as a dramatic change in the pressure at which the slant optical depth reaches unity between ˜770 and 777 nm. We hypothesize that the excess absorption may be due to K I in a high-speed wind being driven from the exoplanet's exosphere. We discuss the viability of this and alternative interpretations, including stellar limb darkening, star-spots and effects from Earth's atmosphere. We strongly encourage follow-up observations of HD 80606b to confirm the signal measured here. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for exoplanet characterization using tunable filter spectrophotometry.

  14. Gastro-enteritis outbreak among Nordic patients with psoriasis in a health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Hanne M; Guerin, Philippe J; Nygård, Karin; Hjertqvist, Marika; de Jong, Birgitta; Rose, Angela MC; Kuusi, Markku; Durr, Ulrike; Rojas, AG; Mør, Cato; Aavitsland, Preben

    2004-01-01

    Background Between November 2 and 10, 2002 several patients with psoriasis and personnel staying in the health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain fell ill with diarrhoea, vomiting or both. Patient original came from Norway, Sweden and Finland. The patient group was scheduled to stay until 8 November. A new group of patients were due to arrive from 7 November. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess the extent of the outbreak, to identify the source and mode of transmission and to prevent similar problems in the following group. Results Altogether 41% (48/116) of persons staying at the centre fell ill. Norovirus infection was suspected based on clinical presentations and the fact that no bacteria were identified. Kaplan criteria were met. Five persons in this outbreak were hospitalised and the mean duration of diarrhoea was 3 days. The consequences of the illness were more severe compared to many other norovirus outbreaks, possibly because many of the cases suffered from chronic diseases and were treated with drugs reported to affect the immunity (methotrexate or steroids). During the two first days of the outbreak, the attack rate was higher in residents who had consumed dried fruit (adjusted RR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.4–7.1) and strawberry jam (adjusted RR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.9–4.1) than those who did not. In the following days, no association was found. The investigation suggests two modes of transmission: a common source for those who fell ill during the two first days of the outbreak and thereafter mainly person to person transmission. This is supported by a lower risk associated with the two food items at the end of the outbreak. Conclusions We believe that the food items were contaminated by foodhandlers who reported sick before the outbreak started. Control measures were successfully implemented; food buffets were banned, strict hygiene measures were implemented and sick personnel stayed at home >48 hours after last symptoms. PMID:15511300

  15. Absolute paleointensities during a mid Miocene reversal of the Earth's magnetic field recorded on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, R.; Soffel, H. C.

    2001-12-01

    An extensive paleointensity study was carried out on an approximately 14.1 Myr old reverse to normal transition of the geomagnetic field. One hundred eighty-eight samples from a mid Miocene volcanic sequence on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) were subjected to Thellier-type paleointensity determinations. Samples for paleointensity experiments were selected on the basis of high Curie temperatures, low viscosity indexes, and limited variations of the remanence-carrying magnetic content during thermal treatment. A modified Thellier technique, which facilitates the recognition of MD tails and the formation of new magnetic remanences with higher blocking temperatures than the actual heating step, was used on the majority of the samples. The application of this technique proved to be very successful and we obtained reliable paleointensity results for 35% of the 87 sampled lava flows. In general, the intensity of the reversed and normal magnetized parts of the sequence, before and after the transition, is lower than the field intensity expected for the mid Miocene. This observation is very likely related to a long term reduction of the field close to transitions. The mean field intensity after the reversal ( ~ 17 μ T) is about twice the value of that recorded in the rocks prior to the reversal. This observation points at a fast recovery of the dipolar structure of the field after this reversal. Very low paleointensities with values < 5 μ T were obtained during an excursion, preceding the actual transition, and also close to significant changes of the local field directions during the reversal. This is interpreted as non-dipolar components becoming dominant for short periods and provoking a rapid change of local field directions. During the transition 15 successive lava flows recorded similar local field directions corresponding to a cluster of virtual geomagnetic poles close to South America. Chronologically, within this cluster the paleointensity increases from about 9

  16. Geophysical imaging of the lacustrine sediments deposited in the La Calderilla Volcanic Caldera (Gran Canaria Island, Spain) for paleoclimate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himi, Mahjoub; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Criado, Constantino; Tapias, Josefina C.; Ravazzi, Cesare; Pérez-Torrado, Francisco; Casas, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of well-preserved maar structures is important not only for studying the eruptive activity and formation of volcanoes, but also for paleoclimate research, since laminated maar lake sediments may contain very detailed archives of climate and environmental history. Maars are a singular type of volcanic structure generated by explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions as a result of interaction between rising magma and groundwater. This kind of structures are characterised by circular craters, often filled with water and/or lacustrine sediments and surrounded by a ring of pyroclastic deposits.Recently a borehole was drilled at the bottom of La Calderilla volcanic complex which penetrated about 8.7 m in its sedimentary sequence and paleobotanical study has supplied the first evidence of paleoenvironmental evolution during the Holocene on the Gran Canaria Island. This survey, however, did not penetrate into the substrate because the total thickness of the sedimentary fill was unknown. Since the age of formation of La Calderilla volcanic complex based on K/Ar dating is about 85,000 years (Upper Pleistocene), the possibility of its sedimentary fill extends beyond of the Holocene is extremely attractive, since, for example, there are few paleoenvironmental data regarding how much the last glaciation that affected the Canary Islands. In these circumstances, the knowledge of the total thickness of the lacustrine sediments is crucial to design a deeper borehole in the next future. Therefore, the subsurface characterisation provided by geophysics is essential for determining thickness and geometry of the sedimentary filling. Multielectrode ERT method was used to obtain five 2-D resistivity cross-sections into La Calderilla volcanic caldera. An Iris Syscal Pro resistivity system with 48 electrodes connected to a 94 m long cable (2m electrode spacing) in Wenner-Schlumberger configuration for an investigation depth of about 20 m. Data quality (q <2 %).was assessed by

  17. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information and Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, July 21-24, 2015). The e-Learning 2015…

  18. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain).

    PubMed

    Estévez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2012-09-01

    In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L(-1), although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 μg L(-1)) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 μg L(-1)), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds

  19. Experimental definition of microclimatic conditions based on water transfer and porous media properties for the conservation of prehistoric constructions: Cueva Pintada at Galdar, Gran Canaria, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavente, D.; Cañaveras, J. C.; Cuezva, S.; Laiz, L.; Sanchez-Moral, S.

    2009-02-01

    Microclimatic parameters and natural materials were studied in order to assess conservation of the cave complex at Galdar, Gran Canaria. Based on the microclimatic data, experimental simulations were carried out to quantify water retention capacity and water vapour transport kinetics under continuously changing extreme temperatures and relative humidity values. The behaviour of natural construction materials is greatly influenced by changes in thermo-hygrometric conditions and is linked to pore structure. The host rock has a complex porous media: high porosity and polymodal pore size distribution, where the smallest pores contribute to water condensation, whilst large pores lead to high water absorption rates. The axial compressive strength of the host-rock decreases between 30 and 70% at water saturation. Stuccos covering cave wall paintings are formed by clay minerals, mainly smectites. These clay minerals cover a large specific surface area, which leads to a high capacity for water condensation and retention. It is also shown that neither water condensation nor vapour transport are noticeably modified by the presence of stucco on the host-rock when rapid, highly variable changes occur in environmental conditions if large shrinkage cracks are present. Results show that safe threshold microclimatic conditions can be found below 75% RH in the natural temperature range and that slight variations in temperature and relative humidity do not modify durability properties.

  20. Evaluation of the presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in dissolved and solid wastewater treatment plant samples of Gran Canaria Island (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vega-Morales, T; Sosa-Ferrera, Z; Santana-Rodríguez, J J

    2013-01-01

    Liquid and solid samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Gran Canaria Island (Spain) have been tested for the presence of compounds with endocrine-disrupting properties. The selected degradation stages were sampled bimonthly from each WWTP over the 12-month period from July 2010 to July 2011. The analytical methods used for the determination of the endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) were based on on-line solid phase extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) coupled to UHPLC-MS/MS. All of the hyphenated methodologies employed in this work showed good recoveries (72-104%) and sensitivities, with LODs lower than 7.0 ng L(-1) and 6.3 ng g(-1) for the dissolved and solid fractions, respectively. We have also evaluated the estrogenicity of the samples in terms of their estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs). The chemical analysis of the selected EDCs revealed fairly low concentrations for both natural and synthetic oestrogens, alkylphenolic compounds, and bisphenol-A in each of the dissolved, particulate, and sludge samples (ng L(-1) or ng g(-1)). However, the estimated estrogenic activity indicated that the majority of samples could represent an important environmental risk, clearly surpassing the threshold to exert deleterious consequences on living beings. PMID:24163820

  1. Evaluation of the Presence of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Dissolved and Solid Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples of Gran Canaria Island (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Morales, T.; Sosa-Ferrera, Z.; Santana-Rodríguez, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid and solid samples from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Gran Canaria Island (Spain) have been tested for the presence of compounds with endocrine-disrupting properties. The selected degradation stages were sampled bimonthly from each WWTP over the 12-month period from July 2010 to July 2011. The analytical methods used for the determination of the endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) were based on on-line solid phase extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) coupled to UHPLC-MS/MS. All of the hyphenated methodologies employed in this work showed good recoveries (72–104%) and sensitivities, with LODs lower than 7.0 ng L−1 and 6.3 ng g−1 for the dissolved and solid fractions, respectively. We have also evaluated the estrogenicity of the samples in terms of their estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs). The chemical analysis of the selected EDCs revealed fairly low concentrations for both natural and synthetic oestrogens, alkylphenolic compounds, and bisphenol-A in each of the dissolved, particulate, and sludge samples (ng L−1 or ng g−1). However, the estimated estrogenic activity indicated that the majority of samples could represent an important environmental risk, clearly surpassing the threshold to exert deleterious consequences on living beings. PMID:24163820

  2. FILTER-INDUCED BIAS IN Lyα EMITTER SURVEYS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN STANDARD AND TUNABLE FILTERS. GRAN TELESCOPIO CANARIAS PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    De Diego, J. A.; De Leo, M. A.; Cepa, J.; Bongiovanni, A.; Verdugo, T.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2013-10-01

    Lyα emitter (LAE) surveys have successfully used the excess in a narrowband filter compared to a nearby broadband image to find candidates. However, the odd spectral energy distribution (SED) of LAEs combined with the instrumental profile has important effects on the properties of the candidate samples extracted from these surveys. We investigate the effect of the bandpass width and the transmission profile of the narrowband filters used for extracting LAE candidates at redshifts z ≅ 6.5 through Monte Carlo simulations, and we present pilot observations to test the performance of tunable filters to find LAEs and other emission-line candidates. We compare the samples obtained using a narrow ideal rectangular filter, the Subaru NB921 narrowband filter, and sweeping across a wavelength range using the ultra-narrow-band tunable filters of the instrument OSIRIS, installed at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We use this instrument for extracting LAE candidates from a small set of real observations. Broadband data from the Subaru, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer databases were used for fitting SEDs to calculate photometric redshifts and to identify interlopers. Narrowband surveys are very efficient in finding LAEs in large sky areas, but the samples obtained are not evenly distributed in redshift along the filter bandpass, and the number of LAEs with equivalent widths <60 Å can be underestimated. These biased results do not appear in samples obtained using ultra-narrow-band tunable filters. However, the field size of tunable filters is restricted because of the variation of the effective wavelength across the image. Thus, narrowband and ultra-narrow-band surveys are complementary strategies to investigate high-redshift LAEs.

  3. The Azuaje travertine: an example of aragonite deposition in a recent volcanic setting, N Gran Canaria Island, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Berriguete, A.; Alonso-Zarza, A. M.; Cabrera, M. C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.

    2012-11-01

    The Azuaje travertines in the north of Gran Canary Island crop out in the Azuaje Gorge, which is incised into Miocene volcanic breccias of the Roque Nublo Formation. This travertine is interesting because of the scarcity of travertines in the Canary Islands and its close relationship with recent volcanic events. Part of the travertine overlies a lava flow, dated at 2420 ± 40 years BP. The travertine is composed mainly of aragonite in both perched systems on the gorge walls and in gorge bottom deposits parallel to the present stream. Perched systems include deposits from the feeder conduits within the Roque Nublo Formation that spilled out through waterfalls and over barriers. The gorge (valley) bottom system includes barrier and pool deposits. The main laminated facies are composed mostly of large fibrous aragonite crystals, while there are also common micritic and porous microfabrics. Shrubs, coated grains, coated bubbles and rafts are present in many of the deposits. Detailed study of the microfacies shows the presence of sparsely distributed biogenic features. The δ13C values are between + 4.0 and + 11.0‰, and the δ18O values range between - 11.0 and - 2.0‰ VPDB. These δ13C values lie within the range of those of thermogene travertines fed by thermal waters that cooled downstream, as indicated by the increase of the carbon and oxygen isotope values in that direction. The common occurrence of fibrous radial fabrics is interpreted to be due to disequilibrium conditions during aragonite precipitation. Disequilibrium was likely caused by rapid CO2 degassing of the thermal waters that led to a rapid increase in the degree of aragonite saturation. Thus, the morphology of the aragonite crystals and the isotopic composition indicate that the formation of the Azuaje travertine was mostly due to abiogenic processes induced by rapid degassing of thermal waters, linked to the presence of a recent lava flow within the Gorge. In short, the Azuaje travertine shows the

  4. Relationship between vegetation dynamics and dune mobility in an arid transgressive coastal system, Maspalomas, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Espino, Emma Pérez-Chacón

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between vegetation dynamics and dune mobility in an arid transgressive coastal dune system, specifically the dune field of Maspalomas (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). The aim is to understand the strategies of colonization and survival that plant communities have developed in slacks that face dune advance. The relationship between plant colonization and dune migration was performed by following Tamarix canariensis and Traganum moquinii plants for several years. Morphological data about each individual as well as the distance of each plant to the dune were measured. A study of the colonization patterns developed by T. moquinii, T. canariensis, Cyperus laevigatus and Launaea arborescens communities was performed by analyzing the evolution of consolidated plant patches and adult plants in relation to the dune advance. This was achieved using digital orthophotos and spatial analysis from geographic information systems. Initiation of plant colonization over transgressive dunes occurs on both wet and dry slacks. The results show that both plant colonization and development of adult plants are largely related to dune mobility. Thus, survival of T. moquinii and T. canariensis plants under dune migration conditions is related to both distance to the dune front and plant height at the moment of burial. Distance from the dune front and plant height increases chance of survival. The dynamics of adult plants is also related to dune displacement rates. Thus, each community has different thresholds of resistance to mobility rates. The T. canariensis community withstands average rates higher than 3 m/year. Its arboreal structure allows this species to grow high enough to resist the advance of the dunes and burial. For the T. moquinii community, the population decreases gradually to eventually disappear when dune mobility rates exceed 4 m/year. The C. laevigatus community develops at dune mobility rates lower than 3 m/year, decreasing its surface

  5. Mixing of rhyolite, trachyte and basalt magma erupted from a vertically and laterally zoned reservoir, composite flow P1, Gran Canaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundt, Armin; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    1992-10-01

    The 14.1 Ma composite welded ignimbrite P1 (45 km3 DRE) on Gran Canaria is compositionally zoned from a felsic lower part to a basaltic top. It is composed of four component magmas mixed in vertically varying proportions: (1) Na-rhyolite (10 km3) zoned from crystal-poor to highly phyric; (2) a continuously zoned, evolved trachyte to sodic trachyandesite magma group (6 km3); (3) a minor fraction of Na-poor trachyandesite (<1 km3); and (4) nearly aphyric basalt (26 km3) zoned from 4.3 to 5.2 wt% MgO. We distinguish three sites and phases of mixing: (a) Mutual mineral inclusions show that mixing between trachytic and rhyolitic magmas occurred during early stages of their intratelluric crystallization, providing evidence for long-term residence in a common reservoir prior to eruption. This first phase of mixing was retarded by increasing viscosity of the rhyolite magma upon massive anorthoclase precipitation and accumulation. (b) All component magmas probably erupted through a ring-fissure from a common upper-crustal reservoir into which the basalt intruded during eruption. The second phase of mixing occurred during simultaneous withdrawal of magmas from the chamber and ascent through the conduit. The overall withdrawal and mixing pattern evolved in response to pre-eruptive chamber zonation and density and viscosity relationships among the magmas. Minor sectorial variations around the caldera reflect both varying configurations at the conduit entrance and unsteady discharge. (c) During each eruptive pulse, fragmentation and particulate transport in the vent and as pyroclastic flows caused additional mixing by reducing the length scale of heterogeneities. Based on considerations of magma density changes during crystallization, magma temperature constraints, and the pattern of withdrawal during eruption, we propose that eruption tapped the P1 magma chamber during a transient state of concentric zonation, which had resulted from destruction of a formerly layered zonation

  6. Entheseal changes and sexual division of labor in a North-African population: The case of the pre-Hispanic period of the Gran Canaria Island (11th-15th c. CE).

    PubMed

    Santana-Cabrera, J; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between entheseal changes and sexual division of labor in the pre-Hispanic population of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Ethnohistorical records from the period of contact between Europeans and the Canarian indigenous population provide rich information about the different activities performed by men and women. For this purpose, entheseal changes in a sample of 138 individuals (82 males and 56 females) buried in ten pre-Hispanic cemeteries (11th and 15th centuries cal. CE) were analyzed. Forty-one entheses located in the clavicle, humerus, ulna and radius were analyzed (fibrous and fibro-cartilaginous attachment sites). Entheses were graded using a visual and descriptive standard which summarized the entheseal changes. This method interprets the changes as a sign of robustness on a scale from low to high development and includes enthesopathies. The intra- and inter-observer error of this method was minimal. Sex differences in the degree of robustness, bilateral asymmetry, sexual dimorphism and principal components analyses were tested in this sample. The results indicate significant variance in the entheseal robustness between males and females. They also suggest the impact of certain biomechanical chains (pronosupination, shoulder rotation, etc.) in entheseal changes. These results contribute to an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the sexual division of labor in the pre-Hispanic society of Gran Canaria. PMID:25701082

  7. Pyroclastic flows and lavas of the Mogan and Fataga formations, Tejeda Volcano, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: mineral chemistry, intensive parameters, and magma chamber evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Spera, Frank J.

    1987-12-01

    The Mogan and Fataga formations on the island of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, represent a sequence of approximately 30 intercalated pyroclastic and lava flows (total volume about 500 km3 dense-rock equivalent) including subalkaline rhyolitic, peralkaline rhyolitic and trachytic pyroclastic flows, nepheline trachyte lavas and a small volume of alkali basaltic lavas and tephra deposits. The eruption of the intermediate to silicic rocks of the Mogan and Fataga formations follows the roughly 4 Ma duration of basaltic shield volcanism. The most common assemblage in the evolved (Mogan and Fataga) rocks is anorthoclase+ edenitic amphibole+ilmenite+magnetite±augite±hypersthene +apatite+pyrrhotite. A few flows also contain plagioclase, biotite, or sphene. Coexisting Fe-Ti oxides yield equilibrium temperatures between 835 and 930° C and logf_{O_2 } between -11.2 and -12.6. The lowermost pyroclastic flow of the Mogan formation is zoned from a rhyolitic base (848° C) to a basaltic top (931° C). Unit P1 has an oxygen isotope feldspar-magnetite temperature (850° C) very close to its Fe-Ti oxide temperature. One of the youngest Mogan flows is zoned from a comendite (836° C) at the base to a comenditic trachyte (899° C) at the top. The Fataga formation pyroclastic flows show only slight compositional zonation, and one flow has the same Fe-Ti oxide compositions at top and base. Calculations using the reaction 1/3 magnetite+SiO2 (melt)=ferrosilite+1/6 O2 indicate total pressures of 1 4 (±3) kb for six of the Mogan flows and one of the Fataga flows. For four of the pyroclastic flows, equilibria involving tremolite-SiO2-diopside-enstatite-H2O and phlogopite-SiO2-sanidine-enstatite-H2O imply water contents of 0.9 to 2.6 (±0.5) wt% andf_{H_2 O} between 80 and 610 bars, which indicates that magma within the Tejeda reservoir was H2O-undersaturated throughout the entire history of Mogan to Fataga volcanism. The fluorine contents of amphibole, biotite, and apatite, and chlorine

  8. Geologic evolution of the Canarian Islands of Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria and La Gomera and comparison of landslides at these islands with those at Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, J.; Uchupi, E.; Muñoz, A.; Herranz, P.; Palomo, C.; Ballesteros, M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of a swath bathymetric investigation of the Canary archipelago offshore area. These new data indicate that volcanism is pervasive throughout the seafloor in the region, much more that would be suggested by the islands. We have mapped tens of volcanic edifices between Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria and offshore Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro and La Palma. Volcanic flows are present between Tenerife and La Gomera and salic necks dominate the eastern insular slope of La Gomera. This bathymetry also supports land geologic studies that indicate that the oceanic archipelago has acquired its present morphology in part by mass wasting, a consequence of the collapse of the volcanic edifices. In the younger islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro, the Quaternary (1.2 to 0.15 Ma) debris avalanches are readily recognizable and can be traced offshore for distances measured in tens of km. Off the older islands, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria and La Gomera (<20 to 3.5 Ma), the avalanches have been obscured by subsequent turbidity current deposition and erosion as well as hemipelagic processes. The failure offshore western Lanzarote is in the form of a ramp at the base of the insular slope bound on the seaward side by a scarp. Its size and the lack of evidence of rotation along its landwards side precludes the possibility that it is a slump. It probably represents a slide whose outer scarp is caused by break-up of the slide. Mounds on the ramp’s surface may represent post-displacement volcanic structures or exotic blocks transported to their present locations by the slide. The failures offshore Fuerteventura are so large that, although they occurred in the Miocene-Pliocene, exotic blocks displaced from upslope are still recognizable in the insular margin morphology. The Canary Island insular margin appears to be a creation of Miocene-Pliocene mass wasting and more recent turbidity current deposition and erosion, and hemilepagic

  9. Causes of Stranding and Mortality, and Final Disposition of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) Admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (1998-2014): A Long-Term Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Orós, Jorge; Montesdeoca, Natalia; Camacho, María; Arencibia, Alberto; Calabuig, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of stranding of 1,860 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) admitted at the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 1998 to 2014, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process to allow meaningful auditing of its quality. Methods Primary causes of morbidity were classified into seven categories: entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics, ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines, trauma, infectious disease, crude oil, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. Final dispositions were calculated as euthanasia (Er), unassisted mortality (Mr), and release (Rr) rates. Time to death (Td) for euthanized and dead turtles, and length of stay for released (Tr) turtles were evaluated. Results The most frequent causes of morbidity were entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics (50.81%), unknown/undetermined (20.37%), and ingestion of hooks (11.88%). The final disposition of the 1,634 loggerhead turtles admitted alive were: Er = 3.37%, Mr = 10.34%, and Rr = 86.29%. Er was significantly higher in the trauma category (18.67%) compared to the other causes of admission. The highest Mr was observed for turtles admitted due to trauma (30.67%). The highest Rr was observed in the crude oil (93.87%) and entanglement (92.38%) categories. The median Tr ranged from 12 days (unknown) to 70 days (trauma). Conclusions This survey is the first large-scale epidemiological study on causes of stranding and mortality of Eastern Atlantic loggerheads and demonstrates that at least 71.72% of turtles stranded due to anthropogenic causes. The high Rr (86.29%) emphasizes the importance of marine rehabilitation centers for conservation purposes. The stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters Td and Tr should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation process of sea turtles in order to allow comparative studies between marine

  10. GRAN experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morakis, J. C.; Cote, C.; Orr, G.; Roach, L.

    1973-01-01

    A global system for search and rescue was studied to reduce the time lost between a mishap and rescue efforts. The sequence of the GRAN concept proceeds as follows: (1) A distress call is initiated by a survivor and consists of the retransmission of Omega tones and a unique identifying code. (2) Signals are frequency translated through the satellite from UHF to SHF. (3) The received signals are processed in real-time using improved skywave correction and lane ambiguity techniques. The results are processed in geographical coordinates, time of day, and unique ID. This information is then relayed to the closest rescue agent. The Omega system is described, and the satellite/GRAN compatibility is discussed. The program plan and schedule are included.

  11. The Canarias Einstein ring: a newly discovered optical Einstein ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinelli, M.; Simioni, M.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Cassisi, S.; Walker, A. R.; Piotto, G.; Valdes, F.

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of an optical Einstein ring in the Sculptor constellation, IAC J010127-334319, in the vicinity of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. It is an almost complete ring (˜300°) with a diameter of ˜4.5 arcsec. The discovery was made serendipitously from inspecting Dark Energy Camera (DECam) archive imaging data. Confirmation of the object nature has been obtained by deriving spectroscopic redshifts for both components, lens and source, from observations at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) with the spectrograph OSIRIS. The lens, a massive early-type galaxy, has a redshift of z = 0.581, while the source is a starburst galaxy with redshift of z = 1.165. The total enclosed mass that produces the lensing effect has been estimated to be Mtot = (1.86 ± 0.23) × 1012 M⊙.

  12. Geomorphology of the Arteara Holocene rock-avalanche deposit, Gran Canaria Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepes, Jorge; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2010-05-01

    Abundant slide deposits cover the southern ravines of Grand Canary. These are mainly volcanic debris avalanches consisting of rock slides and debris slides. The main course of the Fataga ravine is entrenched 600m into the Phonolite Formation. At Arteara an accumulation of large reddish blocks has been characterised covering the right side of the ravine. The deposit has a surface area of 0.565 km2 and has been dated as a Holocene rock avalanche, because of its good state of conservation. The blocks cover a previous relief formed by a rock slide with a surface area of 1.236km2 and thought to be Pleistocene. The whole of the deposit is covered at its head by an active scree sequence. The rock slide deposit varies in thickness from 25m to 100m and has head and foot zones. The flanks are indicated by tributary streams with an arching course and anomalous confluence with the main ravine. Several fragmented rocky wedges can be seen at the head with local tilting against the slope. In addition, an elongated depression has formed coinciding with the fracture through the rocky wedges. This depression is partially masked by the rock avalanche deposits. The slide scar is hidden behind the rocky wedges, coinciding with the col between the Morro Garito and the erosion surface defined at the top of the Phonolite Formation. The foot of the rocky slide is affected by an incipient drainage network at present masked by the rock avalanche. These palaeochannels show the presence of several reactivation episodes that would have broken up the foot of the rock slide into several bodies. There is a mass of broken rock on the northern flank, presumably caused by a rock slide movement. There is a mass of disorganised rock in the central sector of the foot, probably caused by a debris slide-slump movement, as suggested by an elongated depression, the deformation of the layers and a reappearance of the deposit in the distal zone. This second gravitational deposit collided with the opposite side, where some remains can still be recognised. This was later covered by a layer of ordered rubble from the left bank. Blockage of the main course gave rise to an alluvial-torrential plain of boulders and gravels along the section upstream from Arteara. A network of braided channels has developed on this plain. At present, the advance of the rising erosion has cut through the slope deposit and is dismantling the alluvial-torrential plain. The rock avalanche defines an elongated tongue in the direction of flow, of varying thickness (1-15m) and L/H = 2.47 (displacement/total fall=1325m/535m), reappearing at the foot (Hr=15m). In general, the rock avalanche is adapted to the previous slide, although it has small overspill lobes on the lateral flanks. The low angle of friction deduced (=21.47°) agrees with the high mobility estimated from the L/H ratio and is due to the existence of a previous relief defined by the rock slide and the lubrication provided by the ignimbrite. This easily weathered material must have made up the gravel layer over which the lava blocks moved. The rock avalanche deposit varies widely in size and is structured in bands of loose blocks with a bimodal distribution (0.1-3m3; 10.30m3) and low selection. The blocks lie on a layer of loose, flat, angular gravels. The blocks are angular and show numerous signs of impact, including split and fragmented blocks, faces with conchoidal fractures, chipped edges and broken corners. The movement of the rock avalanche would have been a swift, dry granular flow. The avalanche would have had a leap component at the head, turbulent flow in the intermediate corridor and laminar flow in the distal zone. The leap component is identified by the accumulation of blocks in crests transversal to the flow and the presence of megablocks aligned with the flow. The turbulent component is identified by the chaotic accumulation of blocks in the palaeochannels and overspill lobes covering the flanks. The laminar component is identified by the bimodal distribution of blocks as concentric propagation waves. The ava

  13. Post-eruptive alteration of silicic ignimbrites and lavas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands - Strontium, neodymium, lead, and oxygen isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cousens, Brian L.; Spera, Frank J.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    1993-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lavas from oceanic islands provides important information about the composition and evolution of the earth's mantle. Isotopic analyses of Miocene comenditic, pantelleritic, and trachyphonolitic ignimbrites and lavas from the Canary islands were performed. Results provide evidence for posteruptive mobility of Rb and Sr during low temperature postemplacement interaction with circulating ground water. Calculated Sr isotope ratios define a magmatic trend in the stratigraph section. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in hydrated vitrophyte and devitrified matrix separates indicate significant posteruptive interaction with meteoric water starting soon after deposition. This process extends patchily through the entire pyroclastic flow and may be ongoing. 87Sr/86Sr ratios determined by whole rock analysis of silicic rocks from oceanic islands are suspect and should not be incorporated into mantle tracer studies. Anorthoclase phenocrysts are resistant to these processes and may produce useful data.

  14. Expansion of the E138A mutation in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, Francisco; Gilarranz, Raúl; Tosco, Tomás; Carrillo, Deyanira; Holguín, África; Santana, Évora; Pérez-Arellano, Jose Luís; Hernández, Michele; Francés, Adela; Cárdenes, Miguel Ángel; Zarzalejos, Jose María; Pena-López, María José

    2016-09-01

    Molecular epidemiology allows us to know local HIV transmission and to design strategies of prevention. We studied 25 HIV newly diagnosed patients with the E138A mutation since the year 2010. Most transmission networks involved young and promiscuous men who have sex with men. Recent infection was only documented in patients grouped into the smaller clusters. PMID:27352730

  15. Origin and palaeo-environmental significance of the Berrazales carbonate spring deposit, North of Gran Canaria Island, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camuera, Jon; Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Rodríguez-Berriguete, Álvaro; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    The Berrazales carbonate spring deposit is a small outcrop constituted mainly by cascade-like geometries. Four main facies have been identified: fibrous dense macrocrystalline formed by rapid degassing under high-flow conditions; framestones of coated plant moulds formed in moderate energy flow favoured by the presence of biogenic support; micrite/microsparite are primary precipitates in which crystalline aggregates nucleated on organic filaments and/or EPS; banded micrite-coarse crystalline were the result of alternating physically, chemically and biologically induced precipitation in areas of varying flow-velocities. Most facies underwent different degrees of micritization processes. Micrite is distributed as thin lines penetrating the crystals, as irregular patches or as micrite layers. In the first case organic filaments penetrate crystals, suggesting that micritization is mainly biogenically driven. In the latter cases micritization is caused mostly by partial dissolution. Microbe participation in micrite formation increased micrite MgCO3 content in comparison with coarse crystalline facies. Isotopic analyses show positive δ13C values (+ 2.63 and + 4.29‰ VPDB) and negative δ18O (- 5.65 and - 4.48‰ VPDB) values. Positive δ13C values clearly indicate "deep-sourced" fluids. The Berrazales spring deposit studied here very probably is a small part of a larger carbonate building that was largely eroded by fluvial incision. Calculations of spring water temperature give a range from 20 °C to 35 °C, characteristic of a cold to warm spring favouring precipitation of calcite and important biogenic activity (framestones). Although the study deposit has textural characteristics of tufas, proving that the CO2 sourced from deep fluids, it should be considered as thermogene travertine, being one more example of the difficulty of using those terms for ancient sedimentary deposits. Carbonate spring deposits, very rare in the Canary Islands, are good archives of recent volcanic activity, fluvial processes and vegetation regimes prevailing in the islands in recent times.

  16. Prescribed Burning and Clear-Cutting Effects on Understory Vegetation in a Pinus canariensis Stand (Gran Canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo, José Ramón; García-Domínguez, Celia; Naranjo-Cigala, Agustín; Grillo, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Prescribed fires are a powerful tool for reducing fire hazards by decreasing amounts of fuel. The main objective is to analyze the effects of prescribed burning on the understory vegetation composition as well as on the soil characteristics of a reforested stand of Pinus canariensis. The study attempts to identify the effects of the preburning treatment of cutting understory vegetation on the floristic parameters of the vegetation community. This study was carried out for two years following a prescribed fire in a Canarian pine stand. Cutting and burning treatment affected species composition and increased diversity. Burnt and cut plots were characterized by a diverse array of herbaceous species and by a lower abundance of Teline microphylla (endemic legume), although burning apparently induced its germination. Cut treatment was more consistently differentiated from the control plots than burnt treatment. Soil K decreased after both treatments, pH slightly decreased after cutting, while P and Ca increased after fire. From an ecological point of view, prescribed burning is a better management practice than cutting the woody species of the understory. However, long-term studies would be necessary to evaluate the effects of fire intensity, season and frequency in which the prescribed burning is applied. PMID:25147839

  17. The Gran Sasso muon puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Mahbubani, Rakhi E-mail: rakhi@cern.ch

    2012-07-01

    We carry out a time-series analysis of the combined data from three experiments measuring the cosmic muon flux at the Gran Sasso laboratory, at a depth of 3800 m.w.e. These data, taken by the MACRO, LVD and Borexino experiments, span a period of over 20 years, and correspond to muons with a threshold energy, at sea level, of around 1.3 TeV. We compare the best-fit period and phase of the full muon data set with the combined DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA data, which spans the same time period, as a test of the hypothesis that the cosmic ray muon flux is responsible for the annual modulation detected by DAMA. We find in the muon data a large-amplitude fluctuation with a period of around one year, and a phase that is incompatible with that of the DAMA modulation at 5.2σ. Aside from this annual variation, the muon data also contains a further significant modulation with a period between 10 and 11 years and a power well above the 99.9% C.L threshold for noise, whose phase corresponds well with the solar cycle: a surprising observation for such high energy muons. We do not see this same period in the stratospheric temperature data.

  18. From 1.5 Meters to 10.4 Meters in 20 Years: Technological Evolution at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in the Development of Infrared Instrumentation for Terrestrial Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicoya, P. G. R.; Cabrera, M. B.; Izquierdo, P. F.; Patrón, J.; Sánchez de La Rosa, V.; Sangines, F. T.

    This paper reviews the evolution of the technical development of infrared instrumentation for terrestrial telescopes at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). The three most representative instruments, CAIN (installed on the 1.5 m Carlos Sánchez Telescope), LIRIS (on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope), and EMIR (on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias) are described and compared. Each project entailed an improvement and a technological advance in relation to its predecessor. Larger optical beams brought larger lenses, larger mechanisms to hold them, stiffer and more massive support structures, and a scale factor upgrade of their cryostats. The evolution of infrared projects has been closely linked to the development of the manufacturing, assembly, integration and verification facilities at the IAC and has also had a strong influence on management techniques. As an indication of the growth in complexity of projects over time, this paper highlights the framework of available human resources, established consortia, timing and costs associated with the three instruments.

  19. Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H

    2014-03-15

    Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant. PMID:24495930

  20. Gran Sabana fires (SE Venezuela): a paleoecological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Encarni; Rull, Valentí

    2011-11-01

    Fires are among the most important risks for tropical ecosystems in a future climatic change scenario. Recently, paleoecological research has been addressed to discern the role played by fire in neotropical landscapes. However, given the magnitude of the Neotropics, many studies are relegated to infer just local trends. Here we present the compilation of the paleo-fire records developed until now in the southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) with the aim to describe the fire history as well as to infer the possible forcing factors implied. In this sense, southern Gran Sabana has been under fire perturbation since the Lateglacial, with the concomitant effects upon vegetation, and persisted during the Holocene. Around 2000 cal yr BP onwards, the fire activity highly increased promoting the expansion of pre-existing savannas, the decrease of forests and the appearance and establishment of Mauritia palm swamps. The continuous fire incidence registered for several thousands of years has likely promoted the supremacy of treeless savannas upon other vegetation types and the degradation to secondary landscapes. Based on the available evidence, the anthropogenic nature of this high fire activity has been postulated. If so, it could be hypothesized that the timing arrival of Pemón, the present-day indigenous culture in the Gran Sabana, would be ca 2000 cal yr BP onwards, rather than the last centuries, as it has been formerly assumed. The implications of these ancient practices in the area are also discussed for present Gran Sabana landscapes sustainability and future conservation strategies.

  1. 1. EAST END OF FIRST GRAN DIVISION LOCK 2, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST END OF FIRST GRAN DIVISION LOCK 2, LOOKING NORTH. BODY OF WATER TO THE SOUTH IS A FEEDER CANAL BUILT TO SUPPLY WATER TO A PUMPHOUSE BUILT IN 1883. - James River & Kanawha Canal, Three Mile Locks, Pumphouse Drive, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  2. Studying Abroad: The Fundacion Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauch, James E.

    The Fundacion Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho, a large Venezuelan scholarship program that sends students to study in the United States and other countries, is discussed. Information on program objectives, issues, and problems was obtained from work with students at the University of Pittsburgh, the literature, program records, and interviews with…

  3. Gran Sasso National Laboratory: Outreach and communication activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, R.; Di Giovanni, A.; Galeota, M.; Sebastiani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Due to its fascinating structures, the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) offers huge opportunities for communication and outreach activities conceived for students and general public. A great effort is devoted to the organisation of the "OPEN DAY", in which the scientific staff of Gran Sasso introduces non expert people to the main relevant research topics of the laboratory through interactive demonstrations and particle detectors. In particular, a portable cosmic rays telescope has been realized: the detector is used by LNGS team in pubblic events as well as to promote the scientific activities of the Laboratory. In order to point out the importance of the scientific culture for young people, LNGS is involved in the organisation of several training courses for students and teachers focused on the improvement of the knowledge on modern physics topics. Since May 2008 is operating in Teramo the "Galileium", an interactive museum for physics and astrophysics.

  4. Amplitude modulation of sexy phrases is salient for song attractiveness in female canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Pasteau, Magali; Ung, Davy; Kreutzer, Michel; Aubin, Thierry

    2012-07-01

    Song discrimination and recognition in songbird species have usually been studied by measuring responses to song playbacks. In female canaries, Serinus canaria, copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) are used as an index of female preferences, which are related to song recognition. Despite the fact that many studies underline the role of song syntax in this species, we observed that short segments of songs (a few seconds long) are enough for females to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs, whereas such a short duration is not sufficient to identify the syntax rules. This suggests that other cues are salient for song recognition. In this experiment, we investigated the influence of amplitude modulation (AM) on the responses (CSDs) of female canaries to song playbacks. We used two groups of females: (1) raised in acoustic isolation and (2) raised in normal conditions. When adult, we tested their preferences for sexy phrases with different AMs. We broadcast three types of stimuli: (1) songs with natural canary AM, (2) songs with AM removed, or (3) song with wren Troglodytes troglodytes AM. Results indicate that female canaries prefer and have predispositions for a song type with the natural canary AM. Thus, this acoustic parameter is a salient cue for song attractiveness. PMID:22476242

  5. Female signalling to male song in the domestic canary, Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Amy, Mathieu; Salvin, Pauline; Naguib, Marc; Leboucher, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on sexual selection focus on male characteristics such as male song in songbirds. Yet female vocalizations in songbirds are growing in interest among behavioural and evolutionary biologists because these vocalizations can reveal the female's preferences for male traits and may affect male display. This study was designed to test whether male song performance influences the different female signals in the domestic canary (Serinus canaria). Female canaries were exposed to three types of song performance, differing in the repetition rate of sexy syllables. This experiment demonstrates that female birds are engaged in multimodal communication during sexual interaction. The results support the copulation solicitation hypothesis for female-specific trills: these trills were positively correlated and had a similar pattern to the copulation solicitation displays; responses were higher to the songs with higher performance and responses decreased with the repetition of the stimulation. Also, we observed a sensitization effect with the repetition of the song of the highest performance for the simple calls. Simple trills and other calls were more frequent during the broadcast of canary songs compared with the heterospecific control songs. The differential use of female signals in response to different song performance reveals a highly differentiated female signalling system which is discussed in light of the role of female traits to understand sexual selection in a broader perspective. PMID:26064577

  6. Identification of shiga toxin and intimin genes in Escherichia coli detected from canary (Serinus canaria domestica).

    PubMed

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha

    2014-09-01

    The pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains is, in large part, due to shiga toxin (Stx) genes (Stx1 and Stx2) and/or intimin (eae) gene. The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of domestic canaries (Serinus canaria domestica) as a reservoir of Stx and intimin producing strains of E. coli. For this study, a total of 50 cloacal swabs were collected from 50 healthy domestic canaries. Cloacal swabs were cultured and tested using standard methods of microbiology. After primary identification of E. coli, DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primers for Stx1, Stx2 and eae genes. In this study, three of 50 samples were found to be Stx2 positive. In the present study, nine (18%) of 50 canaries tested were positive for eae gene. Only 2% of total canaries tested were positive for simultaneous Stx and eae genes. By considering the presence of Stx genes in E. coli isolated from cloacal contents of canary, this hypothesis expressed that the canaries may be the carriers of virulence genes that can risk human health. Canary was considered to be a reservoir of Stx and intimin genes and make these birds important vehicles for the spread of zoonosis infection. PMID:23047613

  7. Hatching asynchrony aggravates inbreeding depression in a songbird (Serinus canaria): an inbreeding-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Raïssa A; Eens, Marcel; Fransen, Erik; Müller, Wendt

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how the intensity of inbreeding depression is influenced by stressful environmental conditions is an important area of enquiry in various fields of biology. In birds, environmental stress during early development is often related to hatching asynchrony; differences in age, and thus size, impose a gradient in conditions ranging from benign (first hatched chick) to harsh (last hatched chick). Here, we compared the effect of hatching order on growth rate in inbred (parents are full siblings) and outbred (parents are unrelated) canary chicks (Serinus canaria). We found that inbreeding depression was more severe under more stressful conditions, being most evident in later hatched chicks. Thus, consideration of inbreeding-environment interactions is of vital importance for our understanding of the biological significance of inbreeding depression and hatching asynchrony. The latter is particularly relevant given that hatching asynchrony is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in many bird species. The exact causes of the observed inbreeding-environment interaction are as yet unknown, but may be related to a decrease in maternal investment in egg contents with laying position (i.e. prehatching environment), or to performance of the chicks during sibling competition and/or their resilience to food shortage (i.e. posthatching environment). PMID:25689753

  8. Prolonged fecal shedding of 'megabacteria' (Macrorhabdus ornithogaster) by clinically healthy canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Lanzarot, Pilar; Blanco, Jose L; Alvarez-Perez, Sergio; Abad, Claudia; Cutuli, Maria T; Garcia, Marta E

    2013-11-01

    Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, often referred to as 'megabacterium', is an ascomycetous yeast usually found colonizing the mucosal surface of the isthmus existing between the glandular and grinding stomach of a wide diversity of bird species. However, this yeast can also behave as an avian pathogen, therefore representing a potential threat to bird breeding. The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence and patterns of fecal shedding of M. ornithogaster in a colony of healthy canary birds (Serinus canaria) bred in captivity. Fresh fecal samples from 39 canaries (17 males and 22 females) were cultured in liquid media for M. ornithogaster enrichment. Only two clinically healthy females were fecal culture-positive for the yeast, which represents an overall prevalence of 5.13% in the sampled population. A close surveillance of the two culture-positive canaries, which included periodical microscopic examination of fresh stool samples, showed prolonged fecal shedding of M. ornithogaster. Nevertheless, both animals remained asymptomatic throughout the study period. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the continuous shedding of M. ornithogaster by clinically healthy canaries. PMID:23855411

  9. Origin and status of the Gran Sasso INFN Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, Lucia

    2014-11-01

    The Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN (LNGS) is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world. Located in Italy between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome, is a research infrastructure mainly dedicated to astroparticle and neutrino physics. It offers the most advanced underground facility in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. LNGS is one of the four national laboratories run by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The scientific program at LNGS is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter (DM), neutrinoless double beta decay (2β0ν) and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  10. Origin and Status of the Gran Sasso INFN Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, Lucia

    2014-06-01

    The Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN (LNGS) is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world. Located in Italy between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 Km far from Rome, is a research infrastructure mainly dedicated to astroparticle and neutrino physics. It offers the most advanced underground facility in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. LNGS is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The scientific program at LNGS is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and nuclear cross section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  11. Geomorphology of the Gran Sabana, Guayana Shield, southeastern Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Henry O.; Schubert, Carlos

    1990-06-01

    The forms of the Gran Sabana have been developed mainly on rocks of the gently folded Precambrian Roraima Group, a sequence of quartzites and siliceous conglomerates, with intercalated jasper, chert, arkose, siltstone, and shale, locally intruded by diabase dikes and sills. Two planation surfaces are preserved on the Gran Sabana: the Auyán-tepui (2000-2900 m elevation) and the Wonken (900-1200 m) Surfaces, with a speculative Mesozoic initial age; they are still extending. Table mountains dominate the landscape. They comprise pediments, foothills, precipitous scarps hundreds of meters high, a rim, and a flattish summit. The table-mountain topography is controlled by joint systems; water percolates along joints and bedding planes, dissolves the siliceous cement, the quartzite disaggregates, and large blocks are isolated and collapse, accumulating at the foot of the scarps and on top of the table-mountain summits. The percolating water forms large and intricate cave systems, which frequently emerge in the scarp zone as high waterfalls. These mark the lowest level of erosion of the table mountains. Karstic structures are prominent in the summit zone. The evolution of the table-mountain topography has been controlled by a combination of tectonic, structural, stratigraphic, climatic, and temporal factors.

  12. The Global Rescue Alarm Net (GRAN): Concept and approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, C. L.; Crawford, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The GRAN Experiment is designed to prove a world-wide search and rescue (SAR) system utilizing Omega navigation system signals and geo-synchronous satellites. In order to develop a SAR system, the original NASA Omega Position Locating Equipment (OPLE) experiments have been expanded by the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River. Specifically, a fourth frequency (10.880 KHz) has been added experimentally to two Omega transmitters. This will increase line of position (LOP) ambiguities from 72 nautical miles to 360 nmi apart. Algorithms have been developed to resolve the 360 nmi ambiguities. During September and October 1974, two series of tests were conducted with Lincoln Experimental Satellite 6 (LES-6) to demonstrate the position locating potential of the four-frequency Omega concept.

  13. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachero, A.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-05-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 130Te and other rare processes. CUORE is a cryogenic detector composed of 988 TeO2 bolometers for a total mass of about 741 kg. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, where it will start taking data in 2015. If the target background of 0.01 counts/(keV·kg·y) will be reached, in five years of data taking CUORE will have an half life sensitivity around 1 × 1026 y at 90% C.L. As a first step towards CUORE a smaller experiment CUORE-0, constructed to test and demonstrate the performances expected for CUORE, has been assembled and is running. The detector is a single tower of 52 CUORE-like bolometers that started taking data in spring 2013. The status and perspectives of CUORE will be discussed, and the first CUORE-0 data will be presented.

  14. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at Gran Sasso

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giachero, A.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 130Te and other rare processes. CUORE is a cryogenic detector composed of 988 TeO2 bolometers for a total mass of about 741 kg. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, where it will start taking data in 2015. If the target background of 0.01 counts/(keV·kg·y) will be reached, in five years of data taking CUORE will have an half life sensitivity around 1 × 1026 y at 90% C.L. As a first step towardsmore » CUORE a smaller experiment CUORE-0, constructed to test and demonstrate the performances expected for CUORE, has been assembled and is running. The detector is a single tower of 52 CUORE-like bolometers that started taking data in spring 2013. The status and perspectives of CUORE will be discussed, and the first CUORE-0 data will be presented.« less

  15. Magnetochronology and stratigraphy at Gran Dolina section, Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Parés, J M; Pérez-González, A

    1999-01-01

    The Atapuerca Site (Burgos, N. Spain) is an extensive archaeological site which has yielded numerous human fossil remains. The Gran Dolina section, one of the open-air excavations and subject of this study, consists of a sedimentary infilling of 18 m thickness in a gallery originated by karstification of the host Cretaceous limestones. In this paper we present new stratigraphic and paleomagnetic evidence for the age and the sedimentary environment of the karst infilling where the archaeological site is located. Paleomagnetic dating places the hominids (Aurora stratum) in the Matuyama reversed Chron, hence before 780 ka. We also report evidence for a short normal polarity event at the bottom of the section that we speculate as being Jaramillo or Kamikatsura. The early and well-constrained date of the Atapuerca archaeological site, its location in the cul-de-sac we know as Europe, its stratigraphic context, the abundant fossil remains and the stone tool industry make it one of the most important localities for the question of the earliest human occupation in Europe. PMID:10496990

  16. The underground seismic array of Gran Sasso (UNDERSEIS), central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, R.; Muscente, R.; Tronca, F.; Fischione, C.; Rotella, P.; Abril, M.; Alguacil, G.; Martini, M.; de Cesare, W.

    2003-04-01

    Since early May, 2002, a small aperture seismic array has been installed in the underground Physics Laboratories of Gran Sasso, located near seismic active faults of central Apennines, Italy. This array is presently composed by 21 three-component short period seismic stations (Mark L4C-3D), with average distance 90 m and semi-circular aperture of 400 m x 600 m. It is intersecting a main seismogenic fault where the presence of slow earthquakes has been recently detected through two wide band geodetic laser interferometers. The underground Laboratories are shielded by a limestone rock layer having 1400 m thickness. Each seismometer is linked, through a 24 bits A/D board, to a set of 6 industrial PC via a serial RS-485 standard. The six PC transmit data to a server through an ethernet network. Time syncronization is provided by a Master Oscillator controlled by an atomic clock. Earthworm package is used for data selection and transmission. High quality data have been recorded since May 2002, including local and regional earthquakes. In particular the 31 October, 2002, Molise (Mw=5.8 earthquake) and its aftershocks have been recorded at this array. Array techniques such as polarisation and frequency-slowness analyses with the MUSIC noise algorithm indicate the high performance of this array, as compared to the national seismic network, for identifying the basic source parameters for earthquakes located at distance of few hundreds of km.

  17. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Giachero, A.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dell’Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; C. Nones; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.; Bravina, L.; Foka, Y.; Kabana, S.

    2015-05-29

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 130Te and other rare processes. CUORE is a cryogenic detector composed of 988 TeO2 bolometers for a total mass of about 741 kg. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy, where it will start taking data in 2015. If the target background of 0.01 counts/(keV·kg·y) will be reached, in five years of data taking CUORE will have an half life sensitivity around 1 × 1026 y at 90% C.L. As a first step towards CUORE a smaller experiment CUORE-0, constructed to test and demonstrate the performances expected for CUORE, has been assembled and is running. The detector is a single tower of 52 CUORE-like bolometers that started taking data in spring 2013. The status and perspectives of CUORE will be discussed, and the first CUORE-0 data will be presented.

  18. The human cranial remains from Gran Dolina Lower Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Muñoz, A; Alonso, O; Gallego, J

    1999-01-01

    In this article we study the cranial remains of the late Lower Pleistocene human fossils from Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), assigned to the new species Homo antecessor. The cranial remains belong to at least five individuals, both juveniles and adults. The most outstanding feature is the totally modern human morphology of the very complete face ATD6-69, representing the earliest occurrence of the modern face in the fossil record. The Gran Dolina fossils show in the face a suite of modern human apomorphies not found in earlier hominids nor in contemporary or earlier Homo erectus fossils. There are also traits in the Gran Dolina fossils shared with both Neandertals and modern humans, which reinforce the hypothesis that Neandertals and modern humans form a clade, and that the Gran Dolina fossils are a common ancestor to both lineages. PMID:10496996

  19. Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby

  20. Identification and characterization of rock slope instabilities in Val Canaria (TI, Switzerland) based on field and DEM analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzio, Maria; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Matasci, Battista; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-04-01

    In Alpine areas rockslides and rock avalanches represent common gravitational hazards that potentially constitute a danger for people and infrastructures. The aim of this study is to characterize and understand the different factors influencing the distribution of large slope instabilities affecting the Val Canaria (southern Switzerland). In particular the importance of the tectonic and lithological settings as well as the impact of the groundwater circulations are investigated in detail. Val Canaria is a SW-NE trending lateral valley that displays potential large rock slope failure. Located just above one of the main N-S communication way (Highway, Railway) through the Alps, the development of large instabilities in the Val Canaria might have dramatic consequences for the main valley downstream. The dominant geological structure of the study area is the presence of a major tectonic boundary separating two basement nappes, constituted by gneissic lithologies, i.e. the Gotthard massif and the Lucomagno nappe that are located in the northern and southern part of the valley respectively. The basement units are separated by meta-sediments of Piora syncline composed by gypsum, dolomitic breccia and fractured calc-mica schists. Along with detailed geological mapping, the use of remote sensing techniques (Aerial and Terrestrial Laser Scanning) allows us to propose a multi-disciplinary approach that combines geological mapping and interpretation with periodic monitoring of the most active rockslide areas. A large array of TLS point cloud datasets (first acquisition in 2006) constitute a notable input, for monitoring purposes, and also for structural, rock mass characterization and failure mechanism interpretations. The analyses highlighted that both valley flanks are affected by deep-seated gravitational slope deformation covering a total area of about 8 km2 (corresponding to 40% of the catchment area). The most active area corresponds to the lower part of the valley

  1. Isospora serinuse n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-01

    A new species, Isospora serinuse n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) is described from a single domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (subspecies S. c. domestica) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. are spherical or subspherical, 25.5 (24.4-27.0) × 23.5 (22.0-24.8) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.09; and a smooth bilayered oocyst wall, 1.2 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.3 μm). A polar granule is present, but a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 18.9 (17.8-20.2) × 11.8 (10.6-13.0) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being a small crescent shape and the substieda being indistinct. Each sporocyst with four vermiform sporozoites arranged head to tail. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different sizes that are scattered among the sporozoites. Morphologically, the oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. were different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci: the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and two separate regions of subunit I of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene (designated COIa and COIb). At the 18S locus, Isospora serinuse n. sp. exhibited 97.5% similarity to Isospora sp. Tokyo from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Japan. At the 28S locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 94.9% similarity to Isospora anthochaerae n. sp. from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) in Australia. At the COIa locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 95.7% similarity to Isospora sospora sp. ex Apodemus flavicollis from a yellow-necked mouse and Isospora gryphoni from an American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) respectively. At the COIb locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 96.7% similarity to an Isospora (iSAT4) from a European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new

  2. No contact transmission of avian bornavirus in experimentally infected cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica).

    PubMed

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Brosinski, Katrin; Rinder, Monika; Olbert, Marita; Kaspers, Bernd; Korbel, Rüdiger; Staeheli, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a widely distributed disease of parrots. Distinct ABV lineages were also found in various non-psittacine avian species, such as canaries, but the pathogenic role of ABV in these species is less clear. Despite the wide distribution of ABV in captive parrots and canaries, its mode of transmission is poorly understood: both horizontal transmission via the urofaecal-oral route and vertical transmission are discussed to play a role. In this study we investigated pathology and horizontal transmission of ABV in domestic canaries (Serinus canaria forma domestica) and cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), two natural host species commonly used for experimental ABV infections. ABV inoculation resulted in persistent infection of all inoculated animals from both species. ABV-infected cockatiels exhibited PDD-like symptoms, such as neurologic signs or shedding of undigested seeds. In contrast, infected domestic canaries did not develop clinical disease. Interestingly, we did not detect viral RNA in cloacal swabs and organ samples or ABV-specific antibodies in serum samples of contact-exposed sentinel birds from either species at any time during a four months observation period. Our results strongly indicate that horizontal transmission of ABV by direct contact is inefficient in immunocompetent fully fledged domestic canaries and cockatiels. PMID:24933163

  3. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  4. Analysis of the Gran Desierto, Pinacte Region, Sonora, Mexico, via shuttle imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Mchone, J. F.; Asmerom, Y.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The radar discriminability of geolian features and their geological setting as imaged by the SIR-A experiment is examined. The Gran Desierto and Pincate volcanio field of Sonora, Mexico was used to analyze the radar characteristics of the interplay of aeolian features and volcano terrain. The area in the Gran Desierto covers 4000 sq. km. and contains sand dunes of several forms. The Pincate volcanio field covers more than 2.000 sq. km. and consists primarily of basaltic lavas. Margins of the field, especially on the western and northern sides, include several maar and maar-like craters; thus obtaining information on their radar characteristics for comparison with impact craters.

  5. Geographic structure in Gran Chaco Amerindians based on five X-chromosome STRs.

    PubMed

    Catanesi, Cecilia I; Martina, Pablo F; Giovambattista, Guillermo; Zukas, Pedro; Vidal-Rioja, Lidia

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the genetic differentiation of five X-chromosome STR markers among five native South American Amerindian populations inhabiting three different areas of the Gran Chaco: Mocoví, Chorote, Wichí, Lengua, and Ayoreo. The observed genetic structure showed correspondence with geographic distribution more clearly than previous information obtained from autosomal STRs for the same samples. On the other hand, X-chromosome STR data did not agree with linguistic affinities. These markers proved to be informative for the study of the native populations of the Gran Chaco region. PMID:18075009

  6. The Pleistocene site of Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain: a history of the archaeological investigations.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, E; Esteban, M; Nájera, A M; Mosquera, M; Rodríguez, X P; Ollé, A; Sala, R; Vergès, J M; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Ortega, A I

    1999-01-01

    Gran Dolina is part of an archaeological and paleontological complex located in the Sierra de Atapuerca karstic system (Burgos, Spain). The Trinchera del Ferrocarril sites were discovered as a consequence of the construction of a railway for the transport of minerals at the end of the nineteenth century. The systematic excavation of the upper Gran Dolina levels was initiated in 1981. In 1993, a 6 m(2)biostratigraphic survey pit was started, reaching level TD6 in 1994. This level was excavated during four consecutive years, yielding human fossils, identified as Homo antecessor, in association with lithic and faunal remains, dating to more than 0.78 m.y.a. PMID:10496989

  7. The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias: 30 years of Research and Communication in Astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, Carmen; Rodriguez, Nayra; Rosenberg, Alfred; Beckman, John Etienne

    2015-08-01

    1985 was a year of inauguration for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). In that year its two observatories, the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, on the island of La Palma, (where its 10.4m optical-NIR telescope vies with the world´s major instruments), and the Observatorio del Teide, on the island of Tenerife, as well as its headquarters in La Laguna, Tenerife, were all inaugurated. This young institution has rapidly become the leading research centre for astronomy in Spain and achieved research standards at a European and world level. The 30th anniversary celebrations this year give an opportunity to maximize its already very active outreach programmes. In February two shows, featuring IAC researchers, and with astronomical themes, were shown in the main theatre of the city of La Laguna, and during the year further entertainment, collaborating with Canarian musicians and artists, is planned. Two exhibitions have been designed combining the anniversary with celebrations of the International Year of Light: “Listen to the Universe”, in Tenerife, and “Thirty Journeys around the Sun”, in La Palma, which will be open to the public for most of the year. A new outreach magazine “Parallaxes” will be launched by the IAC, in both paper and digital editions, and will complement the current blog, and news websites of the institute, as well as its communications on Facebook and Twitter. Among the activities being organized in Tenerife will be the formal naming of traffic circles with names of the telescopes at the Observatories. In conjunction with the municipal wine cellars of the local city of Tegueste a new Canarian wine produced by innovative methods and with an astronomical motif on its label, is to be launched during the year. All of these activities are in addition to the somewhat more routine productions of videos on the research lines of the IAC, including exoplanets, solar stellar, and interstellar physics, galaxies, and cosmology.

  8. (Re)Bordering the Civic Imaginary: Rhetoric, Hybridity, and Citizenship in "La Gran Marcha"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Josue David

    2011-01-01

    Though the drive to limit US citizenship often takes shape through the symbolic and material exclusion of "aliens," immigrants also engage in rhetorical struggles over the limits of the US civic imaginary. This essay examines one such challenge to the bordering logics of US citizenship--"La Gran Marcha", one of the largest immigration protests of…

  9. Analytical Determination of Fluoride Ion Using Gran's Semi-Antilog Plot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhard, Ralph J.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative determination for fluoride ion using a commercially available fluoride electrode is described. The procedure referred to as known-addition is employed with the data processed on Gran's Plot Paper. Background information, experimental procedures, and advantages/disadvantages of the method are discussed. (JN)

  10. Deformation history of a subducted continental crust (Gran Paradiso, Western Alps): continuing crustal shortening during exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bayon, Benjamin; Ballèvre, Michel

    2006-05-01

    Eclogite-facies continental basement in the Western Alps outcrops as tectonic windows below the oceanic units. In the Gran Paradiso massif, eclogite-facies assemblages in mafic rocks display a N-S stretching lineation (D A1). The main-phase foliation formed under epidote amphibolite-facies conditions (D A2) and defines a regional dome structure for the whole Gran Paradiso massif. Structural data, including new detailed mapping, microstructural analyses and metamorphic studies in the northern part of the Gran Paradiso (Cogne valley) reveal the occurrence of major thrusts in this continental basement associated with the D A2 deformation. E-W-trending stretching lineations and fold axes are associated with this second and main deformation. Nappe stacking of the different units was achieved by top-to-the-west shearing during exhumation of the eclogite-facies basement. The antiformal doming of the Gran Paradiso basement is thus produced by the nappe stacking during exhumation, under epidote amphibolite facies.

  11. Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Waynette

    Gran Quivira is one of three sites that make up Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in present-day New Mexico. A vibrant society, mostly Pueblo Indian and Spanish missions, thrived there until the late 17th century. Today, people encounter only a soothing silence broken by a constant breeze and the chirr of insect wings. This lesson plan is…

  12. Aeolian Slipface Processes on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwall, Carin; Jackson, Derek; Bourke, Mary; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The surface of Mars is dominated by aeolian features and many locations show ripple and dune migration over the past decade with some sediment fluxes comparable to terrestrial dunes. One of the leading goals in investigating aeolian processes on Mars is to explore the boundary conditions of sediment transport, accumulation, and dune mor-phology in relation to wind regime as well as to quantify migration rates and sediment flux. We combine terrestrial field observations, 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and remote sensing data to investigate com-plex, small scale wind patterns and grainflow processes on terrestrial and martian dunes. We aim to constrain grain flow magnitudes and frequencies that occur on slipface slopes of dunes in order to improve estimates of martian dune field migration and sediment flux related to wind velocity and flow patterns. A series of ground-based, high resolution laser scans have been collected in the Maspalomas dune field in Gran Canaria, Spain to investigate grainflow frequency, morphology and slipface advancement. Analysis of these laser scans and simultaneous video recordings have revealed a variety of slipface activity. We identify 6 different grain-flow morphologies including, hourglass shape (classic alcove formation with deposit fan below), superficial flow (thin lenses), narrow trough (vertical lines cm in width), sheet, column (vertical alcove walls), and complex (combi-nation of morphologies triggered simultaneously in the same location). Hourglass grainflow morphologies were the most common and occurred regularly. The superficial and narrow trough morphologies were the second most com-mon and frequently occurred in between large grain flows. Sheet grainflows were rare and unpredictable. These flows involved large portions of the slipface (metres across) and mobilized a substantial amount of sediment in one event. We have compared these grainflow morphologies from Maspalomas to those in martian dune fields and

  13. Earliest humans in Europe: The age of TD6 Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falgueres, Christophe; Bahain, J.-J.; Yokoyama, Y.; Arsuaga, J.L.; Bermudez de Castro, Jose Maria; Carbonell, E.; Bischoff, J.L.; Dolo, J.-M.

    1999-01-01

    Hominid remains found in 1994 from the stratified Gran Dolina karst-filling at the Atapuerca site in NE Spain were dated to somewhat greater than 780 ka based on palaeomagnetic measurements, making these the oldest known hominids in Europe (sensu stricto). We report new ESR and U-series results on teeth from four levels of the Gran Dolina deposit which confirm the palaeomagnetic evidence, and indicate that TD6 (from which the human remains have been recovered) dates to the end of the Early Pleistocene. The results for the other levels are consistent with estimates based mainly on microfaunal evidence, and suggest that TD8, TD10 and TD11 date to the Middle Pleistocene. (C) 1999 Academic Press.

  14. First results from the MACRO (Monopole, Astophysics, Cosmic Ray Observatory) detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Calicchio, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Nappi, E.; Spinelli, P.; Cecchini, S.; D'Antone, I.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pal, B.; Patrizii, L.; Predieri, F.; Sanzani, G.L.; Serra, P.; Spurio, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ficenec, D.; Hazen, E.; Klein, S.; Levin, D.; Marin, A.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Worstell, W.; Barish, B.; Coutu, S.; Hong, J.T.; Liu, G

    1989-01-01

    The MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, Cosmic Ray Observatory) detector which is being installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) is described in detail. The performance of the detector's first supermodule ({approximately}800 m{sup 2}sr), which had its initial data run from February 27 to May 30, 1989, is reported. About 245,000 muon triggers were recorded during this first run. Preliminary results are presented on: the measured vertical muon flux; the detection features of MACRO as a high energy muon and muon neutrino telescope; the measured lateral spread and multiplicity distributions of muon bundles; a search for GUT magnetic monopoles; a search for electron anti-neutrinos from stellar collapses. In addition, there are results obtained in conjunction with the EAS-TOP detector located on top of the Gran Sasso mountain. 24 refs., 22 figs.

  15. Measurement of the decoherence function with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlen, S.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Campana, P.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiera, C.; Cobis, A.; Cormack, R.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; DeCataldo, G.; Dekhussi, H.; DeMarzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Ficenec, D.; Forti, C.; Foti, L.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giubellino, P.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Klein, S.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Matteuzzi, P.; Michae

    1992-12-01

    A measurement of the underground muon decoherence function has been performed using the multiple muon events collected by the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. A detector-independent analysis is presented for different zenith regions and rock depths; this allows direct comparison with any model of hadronic interactions. The measured decoherence function is compared with the predictions of a Monte Carlo simulation based on data taken by recent collider experiments.

  16. Theoretical considerations and a simple method for measuring alkalinity and acidity in low-pH waters by gran titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Johnsson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Titrations for alkalinity and acidity using the technique described by Gran (1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations, Part II: The Analyst, v. 77, p. 661-671) have been employed in the analysis of low-pH natural waters. This report includes a synopsis of the theory and calculations associated with Gran's technique and presents a simple and inexpensive method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations. However, potential sources of error introduced by the chemical character of some waters may limit the utility of Gran's technique. Therefore, the cost- and time-efficient method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations described in this report is useful for exploring the suitability of Gran's technique in studies of water chemistry.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an Isospora sp. (Eimeriidae, Eucoccidiorida, Coccidiasina, Apicomplexa) causing systemic coccidiosis in domestic Canaries (Serinus canaria Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Brash, Marina; Barta, John R

    2016-09-01

    We report a complete mitochondrial genome sequence for an Isospora sp. causing systemic coccidiosis in canaries, Serinus canaria. The A + T rich (65.2%) genome was 6216 bp in length and possessed 3 protein-coding genes, (COI; COIII and CytB), 19 LSU and 14 SSU rDNA fragments, including 1 newly identified putative LSU fragment. Arrangement of coding regions was identical to that of available Eimeria sp. mt genomes and start codon usage for protein-coding genes was conventional. The similar mitochondrial genome sequences and structures of Isospora and Eimeria species confirm the close relationship between these eimeriid genera of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:25714148

  18. Development of spatially diverse and complex dune-field patterns: Gran Desierto Dune Field, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beveridge, C.; Kocurek, G.; Ewing, R.C.; Lancaster, N.; Morthekai, P.; Singhvi, A.K.; Mahan, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of dunes within the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico, is both spatially diverse and complex. Identification of the pattern components from remote-sensing images, combined with statistical analysis of their measured parameters demonstrate that the composite pattern consists of separate populations of simple dune patterns. Age-bracketing by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) indicates that the simple patterns represent relatively short-lived aeolian constructional events since ???25 ka. The simple dune patterns consist of: (i) late Pleistocene relict linear dunes; (ii) degraded crescentic dunes formed at ???12 ka; (iii) early Holocene western crescentic dunes; (iv) eastern crescentic dunes emplaced at ???7 ka; and (v) star dunes formed during the last 3 ka. Recognition of the simple patterns and their ages allows for the geomorphic backstripping of the composite pattern. Palaeowind reconstructions, based upon the rule of gross bedform-normal transport, are largely in agreement with regional proxy data. The sediment state over time for the Gran Desierto is one in which the sediment supply for aeolian constructional events is derived from previously stored sediment (Ancestral Colorado River sediment), and contemporaneous influx from the lower Colorado River valley and coastal influx from the Bahia del Adair inlet. Aeolian constructional events are triggered by climatic shifts to greater aridity, changes in the wind regime, and the development of a sediment supply. The rate of geomorphic change within the Gran Desierto is significantly greater than the rate of subsidence and burial of the accumulation surface upon which it rests. ?? 2006 The Authors. Journal compilation 2006 International Association of Sedimentologists.

  19. Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging pampas foxes in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Cuéllar, Rosa Leny; Villarroel, Richard; Linn, Michael J; Forrester, Donald J

    2002-07-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in two freshly dead free-ranging pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia. Diagnosis was made based on histologic evaluation of skin biopsies and identification of the parasite from skin scrapings. Characteristic gross lesions consistent with mange were noted in 19 of 94 observations of free-ranging pampas foxes in the region from December 1998 to January 2000. None of 16 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) observed during the same time period had visible lesions consistent with scabies. These are the first case reports of S. scabiei in pampas foxes. PMID:12238385

  20. Uranium Groundwater Monitoring and Seismic Analysis: A Case Study of the Gran Sasso Hydrogeological Basin, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, Marta; Plastino, Wolfango; Peresan, Antonella; Nisi, Stefano; Copia, Lorenzo; Panza, Giuliano F.; Povinec, Pavel P.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium groundwater anomalies, observed before the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6th, 2009) and before the seismic swarm, which occurred in the second half of 2010, represent a key geochemical signal of a progressive increase of deep fluids fluxes at middle-lower crustal levels associated with the geodynamics of the earthquake. In this paper, temporal variations of uranium groundwater are studied in association with the seismic pattern around Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS-INFN). The normalized seismic energy release and the number of earthquakes are analyzed in detail by means of monthly sliding time windows. They are compared with uranium anomalies to highlight any possible correlation.

  1. The Milano-Gran Sasso double beta decay experiment: toward a 20-crystal array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camin, D. V.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L.

    1996-02-01

    TeO 2 thermal detectors are being used by the Milano group to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. An upper limit for neutrinoless decay half life of 2.1 × 10 22 yr at 90% CL obtained with a 334 g TeO 2 detector has been previously reported. To improve the sensitivity of the experiment an array of twenty 340 g TeO 2 crystals will be realised in the next future. As a first step toward the realisation of that experiment a 4 crystal detector has been tested in the Gran Sasso refrigerator. Detector performances, data acquisition and analysis are discussed.

  2. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  3. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra

    2015-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  4. Vertical muon intensity measured with MACRO at the Gran Sasso laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Castellano, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Celio, P.; Chiarella, V.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, R.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittelbrunn, M.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N.D.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sartogo, F.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Tassoni, F.; Togo, V.; Valente, V.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R.; [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 ..

    1995-10-01

    The vertical underground muon intensity has been measured in the slant depth range 3200--7000 hg cm{sup {minus}2} (standard rock) with the completed lower part of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso laboratory, using a large sample of data. These observations are used to compute the surface muon flux and the primary ``all-nucleon`` spectrum. An analysis of systematic uncertainties introduced by the interaction models in the atmosphere and the underground propagation of muons is presented. A comparison of our results with published data is also presented.

  5. Recent results and perspectives of ββ decay experiments with crystal scintillators at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, R.

    2013-12-30

    Crystal scintillators offer important tools to investigate ββ decay modes in various isotopes with a well known technology and the possibility of enrichment of the material in specific isotopes. Large efforts to develop and use highly radiopure dedicated detectors are carried out at Gran Sasso by the DAMA-Kiev collaboration. These efforts have allowed the investigation of many types of decay modes in several isotopes and the improvement of the existing limits or the set of new ones. A short summary on main aspects is given in this paper.

  6. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto - Evidence from Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Grady; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.

    1990-01-01

    Mesoscale mapping of spatial variations in sand composition of the Gran Desierto (Sonora, Mexico) was carried out on multispectral Landsat TM images of this region, making it possible to examine the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. Compositions determined from remote imagery were found to agree well with samples from selected areas. The sand populations delineated were used to describe the sediment source areas, transport paths, and deposition sites. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations aver large areas that were not readily apparent in the field data.

  7. Operation and performance of the ICARUS T600 cryogenic plant at Gran Sasso underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, M.; Aprili, P.; Baibussinov, B.; Boffelli, F.; Bubak, A.; Calligarich, E.; Canci, N.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Cieślik, K.; Cline, D. B.; Cocco, A. G.; Dabrowska, A.; Dermenev, A.; Disdier, J. M.; Falcone, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Guglielmi, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Holeczek, J.; Ivashkin, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kochanek, I.; Lagoda, J.; Mania, S.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plonski, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P. R.; Scaramelli, A.; Segreto, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Stefan, D.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Terrani, M.; Torti, M.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H. G.; Yang, X.; Zalewska, A.; Zani, A.; Zaremba, K.

    2015-12-01

    ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber is the first large mass electronic detector of a new generation able to combine the imaging capabilities of the old bubble chambers with an excellent calorimetric energy measurement. After the three months demonstration run on surface in Pavia during 2001, the T600 cryogenic plant was significantly revised, in terms of reliability and safety, in view of its long term operation in an underground environment. The T600 detector was activated in Hall B of the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory during spring 2010, where it was operated without interruption for about three years, taking data exposed to the CERN to Gran Sasso long baseline neutrino beam (CNGS) and cosmic rays. In this paper the T600 cryogenic plant is described in detail together with the commissioning procedures that lead to the successful operation of the detector shortly after the end of the filling with liquid argon. Overall plant performance and stability during the underground run are discussed. Finally, the decommissioning procedures, carried out about six months after the end of the CNGS neutrino beam operation, are reported.

  8. An analysis of texture, timbre, and rhythm in relation to form in Magnus Lindberg's "Gran Duo"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Brian Thomas

    Gran Duo (1999-2000) by Magnus Lindberg (b. 1958) is the result of a commission by Sir Simon Rattle, former conductor of the City of Birmingham (England) Symphony Orchestra, and the Royal Festival Hall to commemorate the third millennium. Composed for twenty-four woodwinds and brass, Lindberg divides the woodwind and brass families into eight characters that serve as participants in an attentive twenty-minute conversation. The document includes biographical information about the composition to further understand Lindberg's writing style. The composer's use of computer-assisted composition techniques inspires an alternative structural analysis of Gran Duo. Spectral graphs provide a supplementary tool for score study assisting with the verification of formal structural elements. A tempo chart allows the conductor to easily identify form and tempo relationships between each of the nineteen sections throughout the five-movement composition. In order to reveal character areas and their relation to the structure of the work, the analysis of texture, timbre, and rhythm reveal the formal structure of the composition, which reflects a conversation between the brass and woodwinds in this setting for wind instruments.

  9. Lessons after 3 years of running GENIUS-TF in Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivosheina, I. V.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

    2006-10-01

    After operation of GENIUS-TF over 3 years with finally six naked Ge detectors (15 kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso, we realize serious problems for realization of a full-size GENIUS-like experiment: (i) background from 222Rn diffusing into the setup, on a level far beyond the expectation. (ii) Limited long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen. None of the six detectors is running after 3 years with the nominal high voltage. Three of the six detectors do not work at all any more. The HDMS (Heidelberg Dark Matter Search) setup at LNGS, operates the first enriched 73Ge detector worldwide, and looks for spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon coupling at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. The results (85.48 kg d) improve the best present existing limits on the WIMP neutron spin-dependent cross-section (obtained from 129Xe) for low WIMP masses (Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al 2005 Phys. Lett. B 609 226 31).

  10. Gator: a low-background counting facility at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A. D.; Askin, A.; Angle, J.; Aprile, E.; Bruch, T.; Kish, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Manalaysay, A.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Schumann, M.

    2011-08-01

    A low-background germanium spectrometer has been installed and is being operated in an ultra-low background shield (the Gator facility) at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy (LNGS). With an integrated rate of ~ 0.16 events/min in the energy range between 100-2700 keV, the background is comparable to those of the world's most sensitive germanium detectors. After a detailed description of the facility, its background sources as well as the calibration and efficiency measurements are introduced. Two independent analysis methods are described and compared using examples from selected sample measurements. The Gator facility is used to screen materials for XENON, GERDA, and in the context of next-generation astroparticle physics facilities such as DARWIN.

  11. [Poverty, child malnutrition and morbidity in urban area families from Gran La Plata, Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ortale, S; Rodrigo, M A

    1998-06-01

    A comparative study was carried out over two samples of 50 families each. Both groups belong to the low income social level from Gran La Plata. One of the groups was made up of families in which at least one child suffer malnutrition. The other group of families did not present children under malnutrition conditions. Differences sociodemographic, economic and environmental factors are identified. At the same time, a strong link between primary malnutrition and an increase in children morbility and mortality was found. The results obtained demonstrate that the lack of programmes that these cases deserve, have a high social and economic cost, as malnutrition treatment demand a higher budget than its prevention. PMID:9830490

  12. Simultaneous observation of extensive air showers and deep-underground muons at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Caliccio, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Nappi, E.; Spinelli, P. ); Cecchini, S.; Fabbri, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pal, B.; Patrizii, L.; Predieri, F.; Sanzani, G.L.; Serra, P.; Spurio, M. ); Ahlen, S.; Ficenec, D.; Hazen, E.; Klein, S.; Levin, D.; Marin, A.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Worstell, W. ); Barish, B.; Coutu, S.; Hong, J.; Liu, G.; Peck, C.; Solie, D.; Steele, J. ); Lane, C.; Steinberg, R. ); Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Campana, P.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Grillo, A.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Re; MACRO Collaboration

    1990-09-01

    Combined measurements of extensive air showers at the surface and high-energy muons deep underground have been initiated at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. The underground detector is the first supermodule of MACRO (area=140 m{sup 2}, depth=3100 m of water equivalent , {ital E}{sub {mu}}{gt}1.3 TeV) and the surface detector is the EAS-TOP array (altitude 2000 m above sea level, total enclosed area {ital A}{approximately}10{sup 5} m{sup 2}). We discuss the correlation technique, the comparison between the shower parameters as determined by the two detectors, and some of the characteristics of the reconstructed events.

  13. Glacial changes and glacier mass balance at Gran Campo Nevado, Chile during recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Schnirch, M.; Kilian, R.; Acuña, C.; Casassa, G.

    2003-04-01

    Within the framework of the program Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) a glacier inventory of the Peninsula Muñoz Gamero in the southernmost Andes of Chile (53°S) has been generated using aerial photopgrahy and Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. The Peninsula is partly covered by the ice cap of the Gran Campo Nevado (GCN), including several outlet glaciers plus some minor glaciers and firn fields. All together the ice covered areas sum up to 260 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonia Icefield and the Strait of Magallan. Its almost unique location in a zone affected year-round by the westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the west-wind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. A digital elevation model (DEM) was created for the area, using aerial imagery from 1942, 1984, and 1998 and a Chilean topographic map (1: 100 000). All information was incorporated into a GIS together with satellite imagery from 1986 and 2001. Delineation of glacier inflow from the central plateau of Gran Campo Nevado was accomplished using an automatic module for watershed delineation within the GIS. The GIS served to outline the extent of the present glaciation of the peninsula, as well as to evaluate the derived historic information. The comparison of historic and recent imagery reveals a dramatic glacier retreat during the last 60 years. Some of the outlet glaciers lost more than 20% of their total area during this period. In February and March 2000 a automatic weather station (AWS) was run on a nameless outlet glacier, inofficially Glaciar Lengua, of the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap. From the computed energy balance, it was possible to derive degree-day factors for the Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby AWS at fjord coast (Bahia Bahamondes) we computed ablation for the summer seasons of 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. Ablation at 450 m a.s.l. sums up to about 7 m in 1999/2000, 5.5 m in 2000

  14. The Impact of Urbanization on the Regional Aeolian Dynamics of an Arid Coastal Dunefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the geomorphology of many landscapes are inextricably connected but are often neglected due to the difficulty in making a direct link between the quasi natural and human processes that impact the environment. This research focuses on the Maspalomas dunefield, located on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, in the Canary Island Archipelago. The tourism industry in Maspalomas has led to intensive urbanization since the early 1960's over an elevated alluvial terrace that extends into the dunefield. Urbanization has had a substantial impact on both the regional airflow conditions and the geomorphological development of this transverse dune system. As a result airflow and sediment has been redirected in response to the large scale construction efforts. In situ data was collected during field campaigns using high resolution three-dimensional anemometry to identify the various modifications within the dunefield relative to incipient regional airflow conditions. The goal is to analyse the flow conditions near the urbanized terrace in relation to areas that are located away from the influence of the buildings and to verify numerical modelling results. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is used in order to expand the areal extent of analysis by providing an understanding of relevant flow dynamics (e.g. flow velocity, directionality, turbulence, shear stresses, etc.) at the mesoscale. An integrative three dimensional model for CFD simulations was created to address the impact of both the urban area (i.e. hotels, commercial centers, and residential communities) as well as the dune terrain on regional flow conditions. Early modelling results show that there is significant flow modification around the urban terrace with streamline compression, acceleration, and deflection of flow on the windward side of the development. Consequently downwind of the terrace there is an area of highly turbulent flow conditions and well developed separation and

  15. Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano.

    PubMed

    le Polain de Waroux, Yann; Garrett, Rachael D; Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F

    2016-04-12

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in "deforestation havens." We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation "hot spot" in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching. PMID:27035995

  16. Hand and foot remains from the Gran Dolina Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, C; Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M

    1999-01-01

    We report here the study of the 22 hand and foot remains from the Early Pleistocene level TD6 of the Gran Dolina site at Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) recovered from 1994 to 1996. These remains are paratypes of Homo antecessor. All of the elements are briefly described and compared with other fossil hominids. The capitate has a constricted neck, well developed head, strong attachment for the ligamentum interosseum trapezoid-capitate, a palmarly placed trapezoid facet with a distinctive small dorsal trapezoid facet, a highly curved and oblique orientation of the second metacarpal facet, and a transversally oriented dorsodistal border. A hamate with a moderately projecting and lightly built hamulus; an inferred reduced styloid process on the third metacarpal base; a wide second metacarpal head; and middle phalanges with well marked insertions for the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and wide heads. The morphology and dimensions of the pedal remains from TD6 are very similar to modern humans; but the base, proximal articular surface and shafts of the proximal hallucal phalanges are more rounded and the midshaft of the proximal toe phalanx is wider. PMID:10496998

  17. Sustainability of vector control strategies in the Gran Chaco Region: current challenges and possible approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability has become a focal point of the international agenda. At the heart of its range of distribution in the Gran Chaco Region, the elimination of Triatoma infestans has failed, even in areas subject to intensive professional vector control efforts. Chagas disease control programs traditionally have been composed of two divorced entities: a vector control program in charge of routine field operations (bug detection and insecticide spraying) and a disease control program in charge of screening blood donors, diagnosis, etiologic treatment and providing medical care to chronic patients. The challenge of sustainable suppression of bug infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission can be met through integrated disease management, in which vector control is combined with active case detection and treatment to increase impact, cost-effectiveness and public acceptance in resource-limited settings. Multi-stakeholder involvement may add sustainability and resilience to the surveillance system. Chagas vector control and disease management must remain a regional effort within the frame of sustainable development rather than being viewed exclusively as a matter of health pertinent to the health sector. Sustained and continuous coordination between governments, agencies, control programs, academia and the affected communities is critical. PMID:19753458

  18. Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano

    PubMed Central

    le Polain de Waroux, Yann; Garrett, Rachael D.; Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in “deforestation havens.” We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation “hot spot” in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching. PMID:27035995

  19. Early Pleistocene human humeri from the Gran Dolina-TD6 site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carretero, José Miguel; García-González, Rebeca; Rodríguez-García, Laura; Martinón-Torres, María; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Martín-Francés, Laura; Modesto, Mario; Carbonell, Eudald

    2012-04-01

    In this report, we present a morphometric comparative study of two Early Pleistocene humeri recovered from the TD6 level of the Gran Dolina cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain. ATD6-121 belongs to a child between 4 and 6 years old, whereas ATD6-148 corresponds to an adult. ATD6-148 exhibits the typical pattern of the genus Homo, but it also shows a large olecranon fossa and very thin medial and lateral pillars (also present in ATD6-121), sharing these features with European Middle Pleistocene hominins, Neandertals, and the Bodo Middle Pleistocene humerus. The morphology of the distal epiphysis, together with a few dental traits, suggests a phylogenetic relationship between the TD6 hominins and the Neandertal lineage. Given the older geochronological age of these hominins (ca. 900 ka), which is far from the age estimated by palaeogenetic studies for the population divergence of modern humans and Neandertals (ca. 400 ka), we suggest that this suite of derived "Neandertal" features appeared early in the evolution of the genus Homo. Thus, these features are not "Neandertal" apomorphies but traits which appeared in an ancestral and polymorphic population during the Early Pleistocene. PMID:22328492

  20. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, G.; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P.R. ); Smith, M.O.; Adams, J.B. )

    1990-09-10

    Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combing thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.

  1. Human cannibalism in the Early Pleistocene of Europe (Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Y; Carlos Díez, J; Cáceres, I; Rosell, J

    1999-01-01

    Human remains belonging to at least six individuals were found in an exploratory excavation made at the site of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These remains were recovered from the Aurora Stratum of Unit TD6. This stratum has a thickness of approximately 30 cm. The area of the exploratory excavation is about 7 m(2). According to palaeomagnetic analyses, Unit TD6 shows reversed polarity, which is considered to belong to the Matuyama chron. This unit is immediately below TD7, where the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary has been detected, indicating an age of around 780,000 years BP. There is no specific distribution, treatment, or arrangement of the human remains, which were found randomly mixed with abundant faunal remains and stone tools. Most of the faunal and human fossil bones from the Aurora Stratum have human induced damage. Stone tool cutmarks are frequent, and peeling (a type of fracture similar to bending a fresh twig between the hands) provides a specific breakage pattern together with percussion marks and chopmarks. Both nonhuman and human remains show similar intensive exploitation. Slight differences, however, have been observed between fauna and humans (e.g., peeling frequent in humans, rare in fauna), that appear related to different musculature, weight, and bone structure. The characteristics of this fossil assemblage suggest that it is solely the result of consumptive activities as there is no evidence of ritual or other intention. The possibility of distinguishing between dietary vs. survival cannibalism is discussed here. PMID:10497001

  2. Zooarchaeology and taphonomy of Aurora Stratum (Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Díez, J C; Fernández-Jalvo, Y; Rosell, J; Cáceres, I

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995, a 7 m(2)area was excavated at Level 6 of the Gran Dolina site, Atapuerca. A 25 cm deep sub-level, named Aurora Stratum, contained a large number of human fossils, stone tools and faunal remains. The appearance of human remains as part of a butchered faunal assemblage in association with stone tools raises an interesting question relating to human behaviour. The main aim of this paper, therefore, is to evaluate the nature and function of the human occupation at this cave site with a view to understanding the purposes of cannibalism. The zooarchaeological and taphonomic analyses of the macrovertebrate remains focus on species composition, weight and anatomic groups, as well as breakage intensity, type of fragmentation, and surface damage (particularly tool-induced damage) in order to evaluate the faunal source, butchering techniques and economic strategies of the human groups involved. We also studied the distribution and fossil refitting at the site to establish depositional and postdepositional disturbance. Diagenetic breakage due to sediment compression plays an important role in the assemblage, but the most extensive modifications are those produced by human activity for nutritional purposes. PMID:10497002

  3. Sustainable management of the Gran Chaco of South America: Ecological promise and economic constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, E.H.; Huszar, P.C.

    1999-10-01

    The vast plain known as the Gran Chaco is a natural region of more than 1--3 million square kilometers, the second largest natural biome in south America, with only the Amazon region being larger. It extends over parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and, marginally, Brazil. The original landscape of the region was mostly a park land with patches of hardwoods intermingled with grasslands. Increasing human encroachment, largely by poor campesinos, with associated overgrazing, excessive timber harvesting, charcoal production and over-exploitation of wildlife, is transforming the region into a dense and unproductive shrub land and is contributing to increasing rural poverty. A management system for the sustainable use of the Chaco has been developed based on a multiple-species ranching system that includes beef, timber, charcoal and wildlife production. An evaluation of the management system finds that it is capable of protecting and enhancing the resource base, while providing higher economic returns in a sustainable manner. However, high initial costs, as well as a divergence between the best interests of campersinos and society, jeopardize the feasibility of the managed system.

  4. First Results from the XENON10 Dark Matter Experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, J.; Manalaysay, A.; Aprile, E.; Giboni, K. L.; Monzani, M. E.; Plante, G.; Santorelli, R.; Yamashita, M.; Arneodo, F.; Baudis, L.; Orboeck, J.; Schulte, S.; Bernstein, A.; Madden, N.; Winant, C.; Bolozdynya, A.; Brusov, P.; Shutt, T.; Coelho, L. C. C.; Fernandes, L. M. P.

    2008-01-18

    The XENON10 experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory uses a 15 kg xenon dual phase time projection chamber to search for dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The detector measures simultaneously the scintillation and the ionization produced by radiation in pure liquid xenon to discriminate signal from background down to 4.5 keV nuclear-recoil energy. A blind analysis of 58.6 live days of data, acquired between October 6, 2006, and February 14, 2007, and using a fiducial mass of 5.4 kg, excludes previously unexplored parameter space, setting a new 90% C.L. upper limit for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 8.8x10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c{sup 2}, and 4.5x10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} for a WIMP mass of 30 GeV/c{sup 2}. This result further constrains predictions of supersymmetric models.

  5. Reversing song behavior phenotype: testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Farrah N.; Rouse, Melvin L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2014-01-01

    In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8 weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12 mm long Silastic™ implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12 mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1 week or 3 weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels a suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. PMID:25260250

  6. Use of Uas in a High Mountain Landscape: the Case of Gran Sommetta Rock Glacier (ao)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Delaloye, R.; Diotri, F.; Forlani, G.; Fornari, M.; Morra di Cella, U.; Pogliotti, P.; Roncella, R.; Santise, M.

    2015-08-01

    Photogrammetry has been used since long time to periodically control the evolution of landslides, either from aerial images as well as from ground. Landslides control and monitoring systems face a large variety of cases and situations: in hardly accessible environments, like glacial areas and high mountain locations, it is not simple finding a survey method and a measurement control system, which are capable to reliably assess, with low costs, the expected displacement and its accuracy. For this reason, the behaviour of these events presents the geologists and the surveyor each time with different challenges. The use of UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) represents, in this context, a recent and valid option to perform the data acquisition both in safety and quickly, avoiding hazards and risks for the operators while at the same time containing the costs. The paper presents an innovative monitoring system based on UAS-photogrammetry, GNSS survey and DSM change detection techniques to evaluate the Gran Sommetta rock glacier surface movements over the period 2012-2014. Since 2012, the surface movements of the glacier are monitored by ARPAVdA (a regional environmental protection agency) as a case study for the impact of climate change on high-mountain infrastructures. In such scenarios, in fact, a low-cost monitoring activity can provide important data to improve our knowledge about glacier dynamics connected to climate changes and to prevent risks in anthropic Alps areas. To evaluate the displacements of the rock glacier different techniques were proposed: the most reliable uses the orthophoto of the area and rely on a manual identification of corresponding features performed by a trained operator. To further limit the costs and improve the density of displacement information two automatic procedures were developed as well.

  7. Dental remains from Atapuerca-TD6 (Gran Dolina site, Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Rosas, A; Nicolás, M E

    1999-01-01

    A descriptive and comparative study of the human dental remains recovered from level six (Aurora stratum) of the Gran Dolina (TD) site, Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain, is presented. The TD6 dental sample consists of two deciduous and 28 permanent teeth, belonging to a minimum of six individuals. Paleomagnetic analyses of the TD sequence suggest an age for the Aurora stratum of greater than 780 ka. The associated fossil macro- and micrommals are consistent with a date for the Atapuerca-TD6 hominids at the end of the Early Pleistocene. As a whole, the size of the TD6 teeth is large and comparable to that of the African Lower Pleistocene hominids. Most morphological dental traits are plesiomorphic for the genus Homo, whereas the shape analysis has revealed some size-related trends that differ from those seen in early Homo. Thus, the relative size increase of the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth and buccolingual diameter of the first molars, the reduction of the third molars and lower canines, and the P(3)>P(4)size sequence are all characteristic of the population represented by the TD6 hominids. The morphological evidence suggests that the TD6 hominids are closer to African Lower and early Middle Pleistocene hominids than they are to European Middle Pleistocene hominids. However, some dental traits of the TD6 hominids, such as the expansion of the anterior teeth, the P(3)>P(4)size sequence, and the morphology of the lower canine also suggest an evolutionary continuity between the population represented by these hominids and the European Middle Pleistocene population. Furthermore, dental evidence indicates that the TD6 hominids are clearly distinct from Asian H. erectus. Dental evidence also suggests that the TD6 hominids could represent an evolutionary connection between H. ergaster and H. heidelbergensis. PMID:10496999

  8. Analysis of Population Substructure in Two Sympatric Populations of Gran Chaco, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sevini, Federica; Yao, Daniele Yang; Lomartire, Laura; Barbieri, Annalaura; Vianello, Dario; Ferri, Gianmarco; Moretti, Edgardo; Dasso, Maria Cristina; Garagnani, Paolo; Pettener, Davide; Franceschi, Claudio; Luiselli, Donata; Franceschi, Zelda Alice

    2013-01-01

    Sub-population structure and intricate kinship dynamics might introduce biases in molecular anthropology studies and could invalidate the efforts to understand diseases in highly admixed populations. In order to clarify the previously observed distribution pattern and morbidity of Chagas disease in Gran Chaco, Argentina, we studied two populations (Wichí and Criollos) recruited following an innovative bio-cultural model considering their complex cultural interactions. By reconstructing the genetic background and the structure of these two culturally different populations, the pattern of admixture, the correspondence between genealogical and genetic relationships, this integrated perspective had the power to validate data and to link the gap usually relying on a singular discipline. Although Wichí and Criollos share the same area, these sympatric populations are differentiated from the genetic point of view as revealed by Non Recombinant Y Chromosome genotyping resulting in significantly high Fst values and in a lower genetic variability in the Wichí population. Surprisingly, the Amerindian and the European components emerged with comparable amounts (20%) among Criollos and Wichí respectively. The detailed analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed that the two populations have as much as 87% of private haplotypes. Moreover, from the maternal perspective, despite a common Amerindian origin, an Andean and an Amazonian component emerged in Criollos and in Wichí respectively. Our approach allowed us to highlight that quite frequently there is a discrepancy between self-reported and genetic kinship. Indeed, if self-reported identity and kinship are usually utilized in population genetics as a reliable proxy for genetic identity and parental relationship, in our model populations appear to be the result not only and not simply of the genetic background but also of complex cultural determinants. This integrated approach paves the way to a rigorous reconstruction of

  9. Analysis of population substructure in two sympatric populations of Gran Chaco, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sevini, Federica; Yao, Daniele Yang; Lomartire, Laura; Barbieri, Annalaura; Vianello, Dario; Ferri, Gianmarco; Moretti, Edgardo; Dasso, Maria Cristina; Garagnani, Paolo; Pettener, Davide; Franceschi, Claudio; Luiselli, Donata; Franceschi, Zelda Alice

    2013-01-01

    Sub-population structure and intricate kinship dynamics might introduce biases in molecular anthropology studies and could invalidate the efforts to understand diseases in highly admixed populations. In order to clarify the previously observed distribution pattern and morbidity of Chagas disease in Gran Chaco, Argentina, we studied two populations (Wichí and Criollos) recruited following an innovative bio-cultural model considering their complex cultural interactions. By reconstructing the genetic background and the structure of these two culturally different populations, the pattern of admixture, the correspondence between genealogical and genetic relationships, this integrated perspective had the power to validate data and to link the gap usually relying on a singular discipline. Although Wichí and Criollos share the same area, these sympatric populations are differentiated from the genetic point of view as revealed by Non Recombinant Y Chromosome genotyping resulting in significantly high Fst values and in a lower genetic variability in the Wichí population. Surprisingly, the Amerindian and the European components emerged with comparable amounts (20%) among Criollos and Wichí respectively. The detailed analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed that the two populations have as much as 87% of private haplotypes. Moreover, from the maternal perspective, despite a common Amerindian origin, an Andean and an Amazonian component emerged in Criollos and in Wichí respectively. Our approach allowed us to highlight that quite frequently there is a discrepancy between self-reported and genetic kinship. Indeed, if self-reported identity and kinship are usually utilized in population genetics as a reliable proxy for genetic identity and parental relationship, in our model populations appear to be the result not only and not simply of the genetic background but also of complex cultural determinants. This integrated approach paves the way to a rigorous reconstruction of

  10. Multidimensional spatial characterization of plant invasions in 'El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar' Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Flores, Erick

    Invasive species are considered an agent of ecological change with more significant effects than global warming. Exotic plant invasions threaten biodiversity and ecosystem viability worldwide. Their effects in the Sonoran Desert ecosystems are a growing concern among ecologists and land managers. We hypothesized that highly dynamic desert environments are unstable, therefore more vulnerable to invasion by exotic plant species. To test this hypothesis we used a multidimensional approach to assess the spatial distribution of two exotic species: Brassica tournefortii (Saharan mustard) and Schismus arabicus (Arabian grass), in a portion of 'El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar' Biosphere Reserve (PBR) in northwestern Sonora, Mexico. This approach combined genetic algorithms, geographic information systems, field methods, statistical analysis, and remote sensing modeling at multiple spatial and temporal scales to predict and test the current and potential distribution of the invasives over dynamic landscapes. Predicted probability of invasion was influenced strongly by human factors: Road networks were the strongest predictors of presence, revealing the potential importance of humans as vectors of invasiveness. Dynamic landscapes, associated mostly with vegetation losses, were detected spectrally in the eastern portion of the study area, very likely associated with past agricultural and current grazing activity. Combined models of high probability for invasion by B. tournefortii and S. arabicus over dynamic landscapes were tested against confirmed locations of the invasives and land cover types associated with invasion. Results confirmed the hypothesis of the study and suggest that more dynamic landscapes are more prone to invasion by these two exotic plants in the PBR. B. tournefortii was found associated mostly with landscapes occupied by microphyllous desert scrub and grassland, as well as sarcocaulescent desert scrub. S. arabicus was found more abundantly in the

  11. Search for double beta decay with HPGe detectors at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkvorets, Oleg

    2008-12-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is practically the only way to establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino mass and its decay rate provides a probe of an effective neutrino mass. Double beta experiments are long-running underground experiments with specific challenges concerning the background reduction and the long term stability. These problems are addressed in this work for the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM), GENIUS Test Facility (TF) and GERDA experiments. The HdM experiment collected data with enriched 76Ge high purity (HPGe) detectors from 1990 to 2003. An improved analysis of HdM data is presented, exploiting new calibration and spectral shape measurements with the HdM detectors. GENIUS-TF was a test-facility that verified the feasibility of using bare germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen. The first year results of this experiment are discussed. The GERDA experiment has been designed to further increase the sensitivity by operating bare germanium detectors in a high purity cryogenic liquid, which simultaneously serves as a shielding against background and as a cooling media. In the preparatory stage of GERDA, an external background gamma flux measurement was done at the experimental site in the Hall A of the Gran Sasso laboratory. The characterization of the enriched detectors from the HdM and IGEX experiments was performed in the underground detector laboratory for the GERDA collaboration. Long term stability measurements of a bare HPGe detector in liquid argon were carried out. Based on these measurements, the first lower limit on the half-life of neutrinoless double electron capture of 36Ar was established to be 1.85*10^18 years at 68% C.L.

  12. The ATD6-5 mandibular specimen from Gran Dolina (Atapuerca, Spain). Morphological study and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Rosas, A; Bermúdez de Castro, J M

    1999-01-01

    Metric and shape features of the Lower Pleistocene mandibular specimen ATD605 from the level 6 of Gran Dolina site (Atapuerca, Spain) are compared with a large sample of fossil hominid mandibles. The analysis shows that ATD6-5 displays a generalized morphology largely shared with both African and European Lower and Middle Pleistocene samples. However, distinctive African traits, such as corpus robustness and strong alveolar prominence, are absent in the Gran Dolina specimen. At the same time, none of the apomorphic features that characterize Middle and early Upper Pleistocene European hominids can be recognized in ATD6-5. Finally, the Gran Dolina specimen displays a remarkable position of the mylohyoid groove, only comparable to that found in immature specimens of Homo ergaster, and very rarely in adult H. sapiens. The morphology of ATD6-5 supports the hypothesis of an African origin for the first Europeans with subsequent phylogenetic continuity with Middle Pleistocene populations in Europe. These findings are consistent with H. antecessor being the last common ancestor of Neandertals and H. sapiens. PMID:10497000

  13. Morphosedimentary expression of the Giant Pock Mark structure known as the "Gran Burato" (Transitional Zone, Galicia continental margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Angel Enrique; Rubio, Belén; Rey, Daniel; Mohamed, Kais; Alvarez, Paula; Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Bernabeu, Ana; Druet, Maria; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the sedimentary environment and other sedimentological features of the Transitional Zone of the Galicia continental margin, in the vicinity of the giant pock -mark structure known as the Gran Burato. The area is characterized by marginal platforms and a horst-graben system controlled by NW-SE oriented normal faults. In this zone, three giant pockmark structures, one of them known as the Gran Burato, were reported as associated to large-scale fluid escapes. The study area is located on the Transitional Zone (TZ) of the Galicia passive continental margin, which extends from Cape Finisterre (43o N) in the North to around 40oN in the South. This margin shows a complex structural configuration, which is reflected in the seabed, owing to tectonic movements from Mesozoic rifting phases and Eocene compression (Pyrennean Orogeny). Sedimentological, geochemical and physical properties analysis and 14C AMS-dating of a 4 m piston core extracted in the vicinity of the Gran Burato complemented by multibeam and TOPAS surveys allowed characterizing of the sedimentary environment in the study area. The interpretation of these data showed that the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the area controlled by the activity of fluid dynamics.

  14. Is the genetic structure of Gran Chaco populations unique? Interregional perspectives on native South American mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Cabana, Graciela S; Merriwether, D Andrew; Hunley, Keith; Demarchi, Darío A

    2006-09-01

    This study reevaluates the hypothesis in Demarchi et al. (2001 Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 115:199-203) that Gran Chaco peoples demonstrate a unique pattern of genetic diversity due to a distinct regional population history. Specifically, they found populations in the central part of the Gran Chaco, or Central Chaco, to have higher within- and lower between-population mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup frequency variation compared to populations in other South American regions. To test this hypothesis of regional uniqueness, we applied analytical and simulation methods to mtDNA first hypervariable (HVI) region sequence data from a broad set of comparative South and Central American population samples. Contrary to the results of Demarchi et al. (2001 Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 115:199-203), we found that the Gran Chaco's regional within-population diversity is about average among regions, and populations are highly differentiated from each other. When we limited the scale of analysis to the Central Chaco, a more localized subregion of the Gran Chaco, our results fell more in line with the original findings of Demarchi et al. (2001 Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 115:199-203). Still, we conclude that neither the Gran Chaco regional pattern, nor the Central Chaco subregional pattern, is unique within South America. Nonetheless, the Central Chaco pattern accords well with the area's history, including pre-European contact lifeways and the documented historical use of the area as an interregional crossroads. However, we cannot exclude post-European contact disruption of traditional mating networks as an equally plausible explanation for the observed diversity pattern. Finally, these results additionally inform broader models of South American genetic diversity. While other researchers proposed an east-west continental division in patterns of genetic variation (e.g., Fuselli et al. 2003 Mol. Biol. Evol. 20:1682-1691), we found that in the geographically intermediate Central Chaco, a

  15. Tectono-sedimentary evolution and new sections across the western Gran Sasso d'Italia (Central Apennines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Bernoulli, Daniel; Doglioni, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    During Jurassic-Cretaceous times, the area of the central Apennines was part of a large, Bahamian-type carbonate platform-basin system, whereby the area of the Gran Sasso was situated between the carbonate platform of Latium and the Abruzzi in the west and the deep basinal area of Marche-Umbria to the east. This transitional area experienced 1. Early Jurassic rifting of the Adriatic margin, leading to the opening of the Ligurian branch of Tethys; 2. prolonged thermal subsidence of the carbonate-platform slope and base-of-slope in the Jurassic-Cretaceous; 3. decollement along Triassic evaporites, thrusting and folding during the Neogene formation of the arc of Gran Sasso and 4. post-nappe normal faulting persisting to this date. Mapping of the western part of the E-W-trending ridge of the Gran Sasso d'Italia has yielded the following results: 1 - The early Jurassic rifting event led to the segmentation of the platform slope into structural highs (Corno Grande and Acqua San Franco) and basins (Pizzo d'Intermesoli, M. Corvo) as suggested by the pronounced differences in thickness of the early-middle Liassic syn-rift sediments (Corniola Formation). Whereas the Acqua San Franco structural high in the west was buried during the Toarcian, the Corno Grande high in the east persisted throughout Mesozoic times at least into the early Tertiary. The longevity and possible tectonic reactivation of the submarine topography, inherited from early Liassic rifting, persisted way into Jurassic-Middle Miocene as suggested by the pronounced differences in thickness of the Jurassic base-of-slope (Corno Piccolo Formation) and Oligocene to Miocene distal ramp sediments, and sequences punctuated by stratigraphic gaps on the highs. 2 - During the Tertiary orogeny of the Apennines, the inherited Mesozoic structures evolved into N-S trending transfer zones between the individual thrusts and folds over- and underthrusting the more external Laga unit. The axis of the frontal anticline and the

  16. Kdr mutations in Triatoma infestans from the Gran Chaco are distributed in two differentiated foci: Implications for pyrethroid resistance management.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Ivana; Capriotti, Natalia; Fronza, Georgina; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Ons, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides, have been associated with the resistance in Triatoma infestans, an important vector of Chagas' disease. Hence, the sustainability of vector control programs requires the implementation of resistance management strategies. We determined the sensitivity of the molecular assays previously designed for early resistance detection to be used in pooled samples from a wide area of the endemic region, and validated them for their routine use in control campaigns for the monitoring of insecticide resistance in T. infestans. Consequently, we used these methods to examine the distribution of resistance-associated mutations in the sodium channel gene in populations of T. infestans from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco. The PASA and REA assays tested proved sensitive enough to detect kdr SNPs in pooled samples, indicating these assays are suitable for routine screening in insecticide resistance surveillance. Two geographically differentiated foci were detected in T. infestans populations from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco, with populations on the Bolivian-Argentinean border carrying L1014F mutation, and those from the Argentinean Chaco carrying L925I mutation. In all highly resistant populations analyzed, one of both kdr mutations was present, and toxicological assays determined that all pyrethroid resistant populations analyzed herein were sensitive to fenitrothion. The principal cause of pyrethroid resistance in T. infestans from the Gran Chaco ecoregion is kdr mutations in the sodium channel. Different levels of resistance occur in different populations carrying identical mutation, suggesting the existence of contributory mechanisms. PMID:26992297

  17. High Precision U/Pb Geochronology of Eocene-Miocene South American Land Mammal Ages at Gran Barranca, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. E.; Kohn, M. J.; Madden, R. H.; Strömberg, C. E.; Carlini, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Constraining the ages and duration of Cenozoic South American Land Mammal Ages (SALMAs) has been based on 40Ar/39Ar dating and magnetic polarity stratigraphy. At Gran Barranca (68.7°W, 45.7°S) - South America’s most important site and sequence for constraining SALMAs -uncertainties of ~ 1 Myr persist. To better constrain the ages of mammalian and plant assemblages and stable isotope stratigraphies, we employed high-precision (±50 kyr) single-crystal zircon U/Pb dating. These results generally confirm previous chronologies, but change the timing or duration of some SALMAs at Gran Barranca by 0.5-1 Myr. We collected 23 tuffs from six members of the Sarmiento Formation that contain 7 successive formally recognized SALMAs spanning the middle Eocene through the early Miocene. These strata include the type faunas for the Barrancan, Mustersan and Colhuehuapian SALMAs. Zircons were separated and chemically treated using standard techniques, spiked with EARTHTIME ET535, and analyzed for U-Pb ratios at Boise State University. Simpson’s Y, a prominent marker tuff within the Barrancan SALMA, yielded a date of ˜40.0 Ma. The Rosado Tuff, in the Rosado Member, contains Mustersan SALMA age mammals and yields a date of ˜38.3 Ma. Two tuffs in the Lower Puesto Almendra Member (Bed 10 and the Kay Tuff, stratigraphically above a Mustersan SALMA mammal assemblage) yielded ages of ˜37.0 and ˜36.9 Ma respectively. The Big Mammal Tuff at the base of the Colhuehuapian SALMA is ˜20.9 Ma, and the MMZ24.5 Tuff between the Colhuehuapian and Pinturan SALMAs is ˜19.1 Ma. Together with published magnetostratigraphy, these U/Pb dates have the following implications: (a) The known duration of the Barrancan SALMA is shortened by ~ 1 Myr and spans 40.5-39.0 Ma, (b) The Mustersan SALMA at Gran Barranca is between ˜38.3 and ˜37.0 Ma, (c) The Colhuehuapian SALMA must fall between ˜20.9 and ˜19.8 Ma, and (d) the fossil levels referred to the Pinturan SALMA are bracketed between ˜19.1 and

  18. Lifetimes of (214)Po and (212)Po measured with Counting Test Facility at Gran Sasso National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Miramonti, L; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Buizza Avanzini, M; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Carraro, C; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; Chubakov, V; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Göger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grandi, L; Guardincerri, E; Hardy, S; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Koshio, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lewke, T; Lissia, M; Litvinovich, E; Loer, B; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Mantovani, F; Manuzio, G; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Misiaszek, M; Montanari, D; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Nisi, S; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Rossi, N; Sabelnikov, A; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Xhixha, G; Xu, J; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuzel, G

    2014-12-01

    The decays of (214)Po into (210)Pb and of (212)Po into (208)Pb tagged by the previous decays from (214)Bi and (212)Bi have been studied inserting quartz vials inside the Counting Test Facility (CTF) at the underground laboratory in Gran Sasso (LNGS). We find that the mean lifetime of (214)Po is (236.00 ± 0.42(stat) ± 0.15(syst)) μs and that of (212)Po is (425.1 ± 0.9(stat) ± 1.2(syst)) ns. Our results are compatible with previous measurements, have a much better signal to background ratio, and reduce the overall uncertainties. PMID:24725806

  19. Chagas' disease in Aboriginal and Creole communities from the Gran Chaco Region of Argentina: Seroprevalence and molecular parasitological characterization.

    PubMed

    Lucero, R H; Brusés, B L; Cura, C I; Formichelli, L B; Juiz, N; Fernández, G J; Bisio, M; Deluca, G D; Besuschio, S; Hernández, D O; Schijman, A G

    2016-07-01

    Most indigenous ethnias from Northern Argentina live in rural areas of "the Gran Chaco" region, where Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic. Serological and parasitological features have been poorly characterized in Aboriginal populations and scarce information exist regarding relevant T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) and parasitic loads. This study was focused to characterize T. cruzi infection in Qom, Mocoit, Pit'laxá and Wichi ethnias (N=604) and Creole communities (N=257) inhabiting rural villages from two highly endemic provinces of the Argentinean Gran Chaco. DNA extracted using Hexadecyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide reagent from peripheral blood samples was used for conventional PCR targeted to parasite kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) and identification of DTUs using nuclear genomic markers. In kDNA-PCR positive samples from three rural Aboriginal communities of "Monte Impenetrable Chaqueño", minicircle signatures were characterized by Low stringency single primer-PCR and parasitic loads calculated using Real-Time PCR. Seroprevalence was higher in Aboriginal (47.98%) than in Creole (27.23%) rural communities (Chi square, p=4.e(-8)). A low seroprevalence (4.3%) was detected in a Qom settlement at the suburbs of Resistencia city (Fisher Exact test, p=2.e(-21)).The kDNA-PCR positivity was 42.15% in Aboriginal communities and 65.71% in Creole populations (Chi square, p=5.e(-4)). Among Aboriginal communities kDNA-PCR positivity was heterogeneous (Chi square, p=1.e(-4)). Highest kDNA-PCR positivity (79%) was detected in the Qom community of Colonia Aborigen and the lowest PCR positivity in two different surveys at the Wichi community of Misión Nueva Pompeya (33.3% in 2010 and 20.8% in 2014). TcV (or TcII/V/VI) was predominant in both Aboriginal and Creole communities, in agreement with DTU distribution reported for the region. Besides, two subjects were infected with TcVI, one with TcI and four presented mixed infections of TcV plus TcII/VI. Most minicircle signatures

  20. First results from the DarkSide-50 dark matter experiment at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnes, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Crippa, L.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Deo, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kidner, S.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kurlej, A.; Li, P. X.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y. Q.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Okounkova, M.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Papp, L.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-04-01

    We report the first results of DarkSide-50, a direct search for dark matter operating in the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and searching for the rare nuclear recoils possibly induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The dark matter detector is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber with a (46.4 ± 0.7) kg active mass, operated inside a 30 t organic liquid scintillator neutron veto, which is in turn installed at the center of a 1 kt water Cherenkov veto for the residual flux of cosmic rays. We report here the null results of a dark matter search for a (1422 ± 67) kgd exposure with an atmospheric argon fill. This is the most sensitive dark matter search performed with an argon target, corresponding to a 90% CL upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 6.1 ×10-44 cm2 for a WIMP mass of 100 Gev /c2.

  1. A large-scale low-background liquid scintillation detector: the counting test facility at Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimonti, G.; Arpesella, C.; Bacchiocchi, G.; Balata, M.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Brigatti, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F. P.; Cavaletti, R.; Cecchet, G.; Chen, M.; Darnton, N.; Debari, A.; Deutsch, M.; Elisei, F.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Galbiati, C.; Garagiola, A.; Gatti, F.; Giammarchi, M. G.; Giugni, D.; Goldbrunner, T.; Golubchikov, A.; Goretti, A.; Grabar, S.; Hagner, T.; Hartmann, F.; von Hentig, R.; Heusser, G.; Ianni, A.; Jochum, J.; Johnson, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Loeser, F.; Lombardi, P.; Magni, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Manno, I.; Manuzio, G.; Masetti, F.; Mazzucato, U.; Meroni, E.; Neff, M.; Nisi, S.; Nostro, A.; Oberauer, L.; Perotti, A.; Preda, A.; Raghavan, P.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Resconi, E.; Ruscitti, P.; Scardaoni, R.; Schoenert, S.; Smirnov, O.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Ullucci, P.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Vitale, S.; Zaimidoroga, O.

    1998-02-01

    A 4.8 m3 unsegmented liquid scintillation detector at the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso has shown the feasibility of multi-ton low-background detectors operating to energies as low as 250 keV. Detector construction and the handling of large volumes of liquid scintillator to minimize the background are described. The scintillator, 1.5 g PPO/L-pseudocumene, is held in a flexible nylon vessel shielded by 1000 t of purified water. The active detector volume is viewed by 100 photomultipliers, which measure time and charge for each event, from which energy, position and pulse shape are deduced. On-line purification of the scintillator by water extraction, vacuum distillation and nitrogen stripping removed radioactive impurities. Upper limits were established of < 10-7 Bq/kg-scintillator for events with energies 250 keV < E < 800 keV, and < 10-9 Bq/kg-scintillator due to the decay products of uranium and thorium. The isotopic abundance of 14C/12C in the scintillator was shown to be approximately 10-18 by extending the energy window of the detector to 25-250 keV. The 14C abundance and uranium and thorium levels in the CTF are compatible with the Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment.

  2. New foot remains from the Gran Dolina-TD6 Early Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Pablos, Adrián; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and describes new foot fossils from the species Homo antecessor, found in level TD6 of the site of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These new fossils consist of an almost complete left talus (ATD6-95) and the proximal three-quarters of a right fourth metatarsal (ATD6-124). The talus ATD6-95 is tentatively assigned to Hominin 10 of the TD6 sample, an adult male specimen with which the second metatarsal ATD6-70+107 (already published) is also tentatively associated. Analysis of these fossils and other postcranial remains has made possible to estimate a stature similar to those of the specimens from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). The morphology of the TD6 metatarsals does not differ significantly from that of modern humans, Neanderthals and the specimens from Sima de los Huesos. Talus ATD6-95, however, differs from the rest of the comparative samples in being long and high, having a long and wide trochlea, and displaying a proportionally short neck. PMID:22921478

  3. New structures for goat corrals to control peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gorla, David Eladio; Abrahan, Luciana; Hernández, María Laura; Porcasi, Ximena; Hrellac, Hugo Américo; Carrizo, Hugo; Catalá, Silvia Susana

    2013-05-01

    Goat production is an important economic activity for rural communities in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. Goat corrals are important for the survival of peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans. This study evaluated the impact of modifying the traditional structure of goat corrals on T. infestans populations and goat productivity in the region of Los Llanos (La Rioja). Thirty-nine experimental corrals were constructed and 57 traditional corrals were used as controls. We evaluated the infestations of the control and experimental corrals for five years following construction of the structures. The results showed that the new structures did not prevent the colonization, although it enhanced the detection of infestation at low densities of T. infestans. No significant difference was found in T. infestans population abundance between control and experimental corrals, probably because of the different detectability in the two types of structures, especially among the small nymphs. Although goat productivity average was higher in experimental than in control corrals, no significant difference was found because of high variability. The new structures can be used as a complement to promote the development of rural communities. Acceptability and adoption of the new corrals by the owners was high, as the enclosures offered better protection for the goats, increased growth of kids and facilitated herd handling. PMID:23778656

  4. Exploring the association between Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural communities and environmental changes in the southern Gran Chaco.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mariana Laura; Hoyos, Laura; Cabido, Marcelo; Catalá, Silvia Susana; Gorla, David Eladio

    2012-03-01

    The association between land use and land cover changes between 1979-2004 in a 2.26-million-hectare area south of the Gran Chaco region and Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural communities was analysed. The extent of cultural land, open and closed forests and shrubland up to 3,000 m around rural communities in the north, northwest and west of the province of Córdoba was estimated using Landsat satellite imagery. The T. cruzi prevalence was estimated with a cross-sectional serological survey conducted in the rural communities. The land cover showed the same patterns in the 1979, 1999 and 2004 satellite imagery in both the northwest and west regions, with shrinking regions of cultured land and expanding closed forests away from the community. The closed forests and agricultural land coverage in the north region showed the same trend as in the northwest and west regions in 1979 but not in 1999 or 2004. In the latter two years, the coverage remote from the communities was either constant or changed in opposite ways from that of the northwest and west regions. The changes in closed forests and cultured vegetation alone did not have a significant, direct relationship with the occurrence of rural communities with at least one person infected by T. cruzi. This study suggests that the overall decrease in the prevalence of T. cruzi is a consequence of a combined effect of vector control activities and changes in land use and land cover. PMID:22415263

  5. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and vector control activities in rural communities of the southern Gran Chaco (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mariana Laura; Moretti, Edgardo; Basso, Beatriz; Céspedes, Maria Frias; Catalá, Silvia S; Gorla, David E

    2010-03-01

    We compared age-related seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with history of vector control interventions and social and ecological changes in three historically endemic departments of Cordoba province, Argentina, covering an area of 42,600 km(2) of the Gran Chaco region. Using a cross sectional design, blood samples of 5240 people between 6 months and 40 years of age, living in 192 rural communities were analyzed to detect T. cruzi infection using ELISA tests, and confirmed with indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and indirect haemoagglutination. Overall seroprevalence was 5.4%, 7.9% and 7.5% in the north, northwest and west studied areas (average for all areas 6.95%). Seroprevalence for T cruzi increased with population age, especially in age classes older than 15 years of age. Communities of the north and west areas showed 0.59% seroprevalence for T. cruzi in children below 15 years of age, whereas children of the same age in the northwest region showed a seroprevalence of 3.08%. Comparative analyses indicate that vector control activities and land use changes during the last decades are the most likely causes of the overall reduction of T. cruzi prevalence. Results suggest that the vectorial transmission of T. cruzi has been strongly reduced and probably interrupted in the north and west areas, but it is still active in the northwestern rural settlements of Córdoba province. PMID:19945420

  6. Infestation of rural houses by Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in southern area of Gran Chaco in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Porcasi, X; Catalá, S S; Hrellac, H; Scavuzzo, M C; Gorla, D E

    2006-09-01

    The impact of control activities against Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in South America has a marked contrast within and outside the Gran Chaco region. Development of a geographic information system, as part of an improvement in control program activities, allowed analysis of the spatial pattern of house infestations by T. infestans before and after house spraying with deltamethrin in the San Martin Department (an arid Chaco region of central Argentina). The overall peridomestic infestation index decreased from 48.2 to 28.2% after insecticide application. House infestation was spatially clustered in regions with low or high infestation levels that were located east and southwest of the department, respectively. This pattern was detected both before and after the insecticide application. Three environmental variables calculated from a temporal series of MODIS imagery (average of night temperature, maximum of day temperature, and temporal variation of vegetation index) were capable of correctly discriminating 96% of the places belonging to either high or low house infestation observed after the insecticide application. PMID:17017246

  7. The large millimeter telescope/el Gran Telescopio Milimétrico: a new instrument for astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Irvine, William M; Carramiñana, Alberto; Carrasco, Luis; Schloerb, F Peter

    2003-12-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica in Mexico and the University of Massachusetts in the U.S.A. are collaborating to build the world's largest radio telescope that operates at short millimeter wavelengths. This facility, known as the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) or el Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (GTM), is being sited at an altitude of 4600 m on Volcan Sierra Negra in the Mexican state of Puebla. The telescope will be a fully steerable dish with a diameter of 50 m and a surface consisting of 180 panels that are actively adjusted under computer control to correct for deformations due to gravity and temperature gradients. Instruments will include focal plane arrays to image both continuum and spectral line emission from celestial sources. The LMT/GTM will be an extremely powerful facility for studies encompassing almost all areas of astronomy, including astrobiology. In particular, the high sensitivity, angular resolution, and mapping speed will enable detailed investigations of the organic chemistry of interstellar molecular clouds, protoplanetary disks, and comets. PMID:14601929

  8. New structures for goat corrals to control peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, David Eladio; Abrahan, Luciana; Hernández, María Laura; Porcasi, Ximena; Hrellac, Hugo Américo; Carrizo, Hugo; Catalá, Silvia Susana

    2013-01-01

    Goat production is an important economic activity for rural communities in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. Goat corrals are important for the survival of peridomestic populations of Triatoma infestans. This study evaluated the impact of modifying the traditional structure of goat corrals on T. infestans populations and goat productivity in the region of Los Llanos (La Rioja). Thirty-nine experimental corrals were constructed and 57 traditional corrals were used as controls. We evaluated the infestations of the control and experimental corrals for five years following construction of the structures. The results showed that the new structures did not prevent the colonization, although it enhanced the detection of infestation at low densities of T. infestans. No significant difference was found in T. infestans population abundance between control and experimental corrals, probably because of the different detectability in the two types of structures, especially among the small nymphs. Although goat productivity average was higher in experimental than in control corrals, no significant difference was found because of high variability. The new structures can be used as a complement to promote the development of rural communities. Acceptability and adoption of the new corrals by the owners was high, as the enclosures offered better protection for the goats, increased growth of kids and facilitated herd handling. PMID:23778656

  9. Influence of a component of solar irradiance on radon signals at 1 km depth, Gran Sasso, Italy.

    PubMed

    Steinitz, G; Piatibratova, O; Gazit-Yaari, N

    2013-11-01

    Exploratory monitoring of radon is conducted at one location in the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). Measurements (15-min resolution) are performed over a time span of ca 600 days in the air of the surrounding calcareous country rock. Using both α- and γ-ray detectors, systematic and recurring radon signals are recorded. Two primary signal types are determined: (i) non-periodic multi-day (MD) signals lasting 2-10 days and (ii) daily radon (DR) signals-which are of a periodic nature exhibiting a primary 24-h cycle (θ=0.48). The local ancillary environmental conditions (pressure, temperature) seem not to affect radon in air monitored at the site. Long-term patterns of daytime measurements are different from the pattern of night-time measurements indicating a day-night modulation of γ-radiation from radon in air. The phenomenology of the MD and DR signals is similar to situations encountered at other locations where radon is monitored with a high time resolution in geogas at upper crustal levels. In accordance with recent field and experimental results, it is suggested that a component of solar irradiance is affecting the radiation from radon in air, and this influence is further modulated by the diurnal rotation of the Earth. The occurrence of these radon signals in the 1 km deep low-radiation underground geological environment of LNGS provides new information on the time variation of the local radiation environment. The observations and results place the LNGS facility as a high-priority location for performing advanced investigations of these geophysical phenomena. PMID:24204189

  10. Influence of a component of solar irradiance on radon signals at 1 km depth, Gran Sasso, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Steinitz, G.; Piatibratova, O.; Gazit-Yaari, N.

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory monitoring of radon is conducted at one location in the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). Measurements (15-min resolution) are performed over a time span of ca 600 days in the air of the surrounding calcareous country rock. Using both α- and γ-ray detectors, systematic and recurring radon signals are recorded. Two primary signal types are determined: (i) non-periodic multi-day (MD) signals lasting 2–10 days and (ii) daily radon (DR) signals—which are of a periodic nature exhibiting a primary 24-h cycle (θ=0.48). The local ancillary environmental conditions (pressure, temperature) seem not to affect radon in air monitored at the site. Long-term patterns of daytime measurements are different from the pattern of night-time measurements indicating a day–night modulation of γ-radiation from radon in air. The phenomenology of the MD and DR signals is similar to situations encountered at other locations where radon is monitored with a high time resolution in geogas at upper crustal levels. In accordance with recent field and experimental results, it is suggested that a component of solar irradiance is affecting the radiation from radon in air, and this influence is further modulated by the diurnal rotation of the Earth. The occurrence of these radon signals in the 1 km deep low-radiation underground geological environment of LNGS provides new information on the time variation of the local radiation environment. The observations and results place the LNGS facility as a high-priority location for performing advanced investigations of these geophysical phenomena. PMID:24204189

  11. Health evaluation of free-ranging and captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) in the Gran chaco, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Cuéllar, Rosa Leny; Karesh, William B

    2005-12-01

    Bolivia has a total of 47 species of Psittacidae, seven of which have been identified in our study site, the semiarid Gran Chaco of the Isoso. One species, the blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva), is frequently captured by local Isoseño Guaraní Indians for exploitation on the national and international market. These birds are often temporarily housed in small villages under unhygienic conditions with poultry and other domestic species. On occasion, these parrots escape back to the wild. Additionally, many of these birds are kept as pets or are used to lure wild. parrots within slingshot range for subsequent capture. In this study, we evaluated the health status, including the level of exposure to selected infectious agents, in the wild-caught captive birds and free-ranging birds. Physical examinations were performed, and blood was collected, from 54 live birds (20 captive and 34 free-ranging). Feces were collected from 15 birds (seven captive and eight free-ranging). Necropsies were also performed on four recently dead wild-caught birds. On serologic testing, no birds were found to have antibodies to avian influenza virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Marek's disease virus, paramyxovirus-1, paramyxovirus-2, paramyxovirus-3, polyomavirus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, or Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Positive antibody titers were found for psittacine herpesvirus (8/44, 18.2%), Aspergillus spp. (3/51, 5.9%), and Salmonella pullorum (33/49, 67.3%). All three of the birds that tested antibody positive for Aspergillus spp. were captive, whereas six of the eight and 15 of the 33 birds that tested positive for psittacine herpesvirus and S. pullorum, respectively, were wild. PMID:17312715

  12. Influence of a component of solar irradiance on radon signals at 1 km depth, Gran Sasso, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinitz, G.; Piatibratova, O.; Charit-Yaari, N.

    2012-12-01

    Exploratory monitoring of radon is conducted at one location at the deep underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). Measurements (15-min resolution) are performed over a time span of ca. 600 days in the air of the surrounding calcareous country rock. Utilizing both alpha and gamma-ray detectors systematic and recurring radon signals are recorded. Two primary signal types are determined: (a) non-periodic Multi-Day (MD) signals lasting 2-10 days, and (b) Daily Radon (DR) signals - which are of a periodic nature exhibiting a primary 24-h cycle. The local ancillary environmental conditions (P, T) seem not to affect radon in air monitored at the site. Long term patterns of day-time measurements are different from the pattern of night-time measurements indicating a day-night modulation of gamma radiation from radon in air. The phenomenology of the MD and DR signals is similar to situations encountered at other locations where radon is monitored with a high time resolution in geogas at upper crustal levels. In accordance with recent field and experimental results it is suggested that a components of solar irradiance is affecting the radiation from radon in air, and this influence is further modulated by the diurnal rotation of Earth. The occurrence of these radon signals in the 1 km deep low radiation underground geological environment of LNGS provides new information on the time variation of the local radiation environment. The observations and results place the LNGS facility as a high priority location for performing advanced investigations of these geophysical phenomena, due to its location and its infrastructure.

  13. Preliminary Inventory of geomorphosites along The Great Málaga Path (Gran Senda de Málaga).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.; Ferre-Bueno, Emilio; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2016-04-01

    Reynard (2004) defined a geomorphological landscape as a portion of the geomorphological context that is viewed, perceived, (and sometimes ex- ploited) by Man and, when perceived by humans and characterised by certain attributes, it may be considered a wider geomorphosite (Reynard and Panizza, 2005) or a complex of geomorphosites inside of which single geomorphosites can be individuated. Moreover, single geomorphosites belong to a landscape system that is dynamic, and thus the comprehension of a geomorphosite mechanism requires good observations, measurements and quantifications of processes (Reynard 2004). Since 1990s, interest on geomorphosite studies has increased, especially, due to their educational. The aim of this study is to present a preliminary inventory of the main geomorphosites that can be found along the Great Málaga Path (or Gran Senda de Málaga). This route, developed by the Government of Malaga Province, is a pioneer in Andalusia route incorporating the territorial and environmental range of an entire province, integrating it into a journey that stimulates interest in natural spaces. One of the main attractions is crossing most of the more important sites from the geomorphological point of view in the Province of Málaga. In this study, some of them are inventoried in order to highlight their importance and improve their knowledge from educational and touristic purposes. The methodology follows that proposed by the Spanish Geological and Mining Institute (IGME, 2014). References IGME, 2014. Documento metodológico para la elaboración del inventario español de lugares de interés geológico (IELIG). Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid, España, pp. 64. Pelfini, M., Bollati, I. 2014. Landforms and geomorphosites ongoing changes: concepts and implications for geoheritage promotion. Quaestiones Geographicae, 33-1: 131-143. Reynard E., 2004. Géotopes, géo(morpho)sites et paysag- es géomorphologiques. In: E. Reynard, J.P. Pralong (eds

  14. L925I Mutation in the Para-Type Sodium Channel Is Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in Triatoma infestans from the Gran Chaco Region

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Natalia; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando; Ons, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas' disease is an important public health concern in Latin America. Despite intensive vector control efforts using pyrethroid insecticides, the elimination of Triatoma infestans has failed in the Gran Chaco, an ecoregion that extends over Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil. The voltage-gated sodium channel is the target site of pyrethroid insecticides. Point mutations in domain II region of the channel have been implicated in pyrethroid resistance of several insect species. Methods and Findings In the present paper, we identify L925I, a new pyrethroid resistance-conferring mutation in T. infestans. This mutation has been found only in hemipterans. In T. infestans, L925I mutation occurs in a resistant population from the Gran Chaco region and is associated with inefficiency in the control campaigns. We also describe a method to detect L925I mutation in individuals from the field. Conclusions and Significance The findings have important implications in the implementation of strategies for resistance management and in the rational design of campaigns for the control of Chagas' disease transmission. PMID:24466362

  15. Burning, fire prevention and landscape productions among the Pemon, Gran Sabana, Venezuela: toward an intercultural approach to wildland fire management in Neotropical Savannas.

    PubMed

    Sletto, Bjørn; Rodriguez, Iokiñe

    2013-01-30

    Wildland fire management in savanna landscapes increasingly incorporates indigenous knowledge to pursue strategies of controlled, prescriptive burning to control fuel loads. However, such participatory approaches are fraught with challenges because of contrasting views on the role of fire and the practices of prescribed burning between indigenous and state fire managers. Also, indigenous and state systems of knowledge and meanings associated with fire are not monolithic but instead characterized by conflicts and inconsistencies, which require new, communicative strategies in order to develop successful, intercultural approaches to fire management. This paper is based on long-term research on indigenous Pemon social constructs, rules and regulations regarding fire use, and traditional system of prescribed burning in the Gran Sabana, Venezuela. The authors review factors that act as constraints against successful intercultural fire management in the Gran Sabana, including conflicting perspectives on fire use within state agencies and in indigenous communities, and propose strategies for research and communicative planning to guide future efforts for more participatory and effective fire management. PMID:23246908

  16. Co-seismic and post-seismic hydrogeological response of the Gran Sasso carbonate aquifer to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoruso, Antonella; Crescentini, Luca; Petitta, Marco; Rusi, Sergio; Tallini, Marco

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=6.3 April 6 2009 L'Aquila earthquake mainshock produced self-evident co-seismic and post-seismic changes in the hydrogeological setting of the Gran Sasso carbonate fractured aquifer (Adinolfi Falcone et alii, 2008; Barbieri et alii, 2005) in which the seismogenic Paganica Fault, which is responsible for the mainshock, is located (Anzidei et alii, 2009; Atzori et alii, 2009; Chiarabba et alii, 2009; Walters et alii, 2009): i) the sudden co-seismic disappearance of some springs localized exactly along the surface trace of the Paganica Fault; ii) co-seismic and post-seismic increases in the discharge of the Gran Sasso highway tunnel drainages (+20%) and of other springs (+10%) and iii) a progressive increase of the water table (+1m) at the boundary of the aquifer. Taking into account previous data collected since the '90s, and spot and aftershock monitoring data on spring discharge, spring turbidity, water table levels and rainfall events, a preliminary conceptual model of the earthquake's consequences on the Gran Sasso aquifer is proposed, excluding the contribution of seasonal recharge. Co-seismic effects registered immediately after the shock (i.e. disappearance of local springs and discharge peaks), are caused by pore pressure increase related to deformation. Post-seismic effects, observed in the months following the mainshock (i.e. discharges remaining higher than in the inter-seismic period and a progressive increase of the groundwater level), suggest a permanent change in groundwater hydrodynamics. Additional groundwater flowing towards aquifer boundaries and springs reflects a possible increase in hydraulic conductivity, which can be related to fracture clearing and/or dilatancy (Montgomery and Manga, 2003). To validate the proposed conceptual model we analyse pore pressure changes and the Darcy flow pattern immediately after L'Aquila earthquake for a layered poroelastic medium, using a Green's functions approach (Wang and Kumpel, 2003), and compare

  17. Langerhans cell histiocytosis or tuberculosis on a medieval child (Oppidum de la Granède, Millau, France - 10th-11th centuries AD).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Antony; Saint-Pierre, Christophe; Naji, Stephan; Panuel, Michel; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, a skeleton of a 1 - 2.5-year-old child radiocarbon dated from the 10th - 11th century AD was discovered on the oppidum of La Granède (Millau, France). It presents multiple cranial osteolytic lesions having punched-out or geographical map-like aspects associated with sequestrum and costal osteitis. A multi 3D digital approach (CT, μCT and virtual reconstruction) enabled us to refine the description and identify the diploic origin of the lytic process. Furthermore, precise observation of the extent of the lesions and associated reorganization of the skeletal micro-structure were possible. From these convergent pieces of evidence, the differential diagnosis led to three possibilities: Langerhans cell histiocytosis, tuberculosis, or Langerhans cell histiocytosis and tuberculosis. PMID:25747815

  18. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2014-09-01

    The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level. PMID:25141281

  19. Is imidacloprid an effective alternative for controlling pyrethroid-resistant populations of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Gran Chaco ecoregion?

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2014-01-01

    The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level. PMID:25141281

  20. Dolines in Sierra de Quemado and their relationship with the development of the Gran Caverna de Santo Tomàs, Vinales, Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan Gonzalez, Hermes; Diaz Guanche, Carlos; Aldana Vilas, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Dolines are the most representative landforms of karst territories, and have a very significant development in the tropical karst. In the Sierra de los Órganos (West Cuba), the doline development in size and depth has been taken in consideration in several papers, especially after the classic works of Herbert Lehman in the 50's. Recent studies have revealed that horizontal and vertical development of doline is conditioned by tectonics, their spatial location, and is strongly controlled by the local base level. In the Sierra de Quemado, about 30 dolines were recognized with a remarkable variability in shape, size and depth. They are mainly collapsed dolines with different deepening phases, clearly marking the various evolutionary stages of the system, and working as individual entities to control the surface erosion, notably influencing the configuration of the main karst system such as the Gran Caverna de Santo Tomás. Collapse dolines originate as a consequence of the loss of mass, due to speleogenetic processes and the likely fall of the roofs of caves that developed below the dolines. The successive evolution of dolines often took place for the proximity of a cave (active or not), evolving parallelly. When doline deepening reached this level, the retraction of the walls began, which also had an influence on the hypodermic cavities observed in the dolines, and on some foot-caves ("marginal caves" or "füsshölen") that acted as important recharge points. Instability of part of the slope will cause its final collapse. Vertical jointing and faulting, together with the high values in the angles of internal friction, thoroughly contribute to the process of slope recession. Because of their different phases and evolutionary stages, the ranges in the morphometric values of dolines are high: some dolines have dimensions similar to "Tiankeng", with more than 100 metres in diameter and depth. As a rule, the different deepening phases that mark the evolutionary stages of

  1. The role of carnivores and their relationship to hominin settlements in the TD6-2 level from Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saladié, Palmira; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Huguet, Rosa; Cáceres, Isabel; Díez, Carlos; Vallverdú, Josep; Canals, Antoni; Soto, María; Santander, Boris; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-06-01

    Pleistocene level TD6-2 of the Gran Dolina site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) is the result of anthropogenic accumulation. Hominin groups occupied the cave as a home base, where they brought in, butchered and consumed the carcasses of ungulates and other hominins. In this paper, we reassess the role of carnivores in the formation and/or modification of the assemblage. We employed different methods to explore the scenario in which the TD6-2 assemblage was formed: (1) identifying the actor responsible for tooth marks; (2) determining the frequency of carnivore tooth marks and their distribution; (3) identifying the co-occurrence of modifications (butchering marks and carnivore tooth marks); (4) calculating the percentage of change and the epiphysis to shaft ratio. Carnivore tooth marks are scarce, as is the co-occurrence of hominin and carnivore modifications. However, not all tooth marks have been attributed to a particular agent due to the high equifinality between human and carnivore tooth marks. For these reasons, the frequency of tooth marks and the co-occurrence of modifications have been of little help in interpreting the role of carnivores. Axial skeletal remains and the epiphyses of the long bones are in large part missing. The percentage of change and the epiphysis to shaft ratio suggest moderate carnivore ravaging activity. Our data indicate that the role of carnivores in TD6-2 seems to have had an impact on the original assemblage after hominins had extracted a large amount of nutrients from the carcasses. Cannibalized hominin remains showed no carnivore tooth marks and have a greater presence of low survival bones compared to ungulate remains. These findings point to a different taphonomic history suggesting that TD6-2 represents a succession of settlements having different characteristics.

  2. Measurements in the Gran Sasso Laboratory: Evidence for nuclear effects in electrolysis with Pd/Ti and in different tests with deuterated high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celani, F.; Spallone, A.; Liberatori, L.; Stella, B.; Ferrarotto, F.; Corradi, M.; Marini, P.; Fortunati, S.; Tului, M.

    1991-05-01

    Several experiments were performed at the INFN Underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) in order to detect nuclear signals, if any, coming from deuterated materials in the framework of so called ``Cold Fusion.'' We followed three, quite different, lines of experimental researches. In the first set of experiments we used electrolytic solutions of heavy water and 0.1 M LiOH with some addition of gaseous CO2, using as cathode a rod of pure Pd or Ti alloys and as anode a Pt net. We detected several intense bursts of gamma rays, lasting up to 15 minutes of duration time, with energy less than 300 KeV. In the second set of experiments we used pellets of sintered High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC) that underwent deuteration by high pressure (˜30 Bar) and temperature (˜370 K) gas loading procedure. The deuterated samples were several times cycled down to liquid nitrogen temperature and we detected by two independent 3He moderated neutron detectors (1.2% total efficiency), sporadic emission of signals mainly during these thermal cycles. Later on similar tests were performed independently by S. E. Jones and collaborators (Provo Univ., Utah) in a deep underground mine and a very intense and short neutron burst was detected by 16 independent 3He moderated neutron detectors (32% efficiency). In the third set of experiments some additional tests were performed using a low activity Am-Be neutron source, in order to study possible phenomena of enhanced neutron emission by radiation stimulation in these HTSC deuterated compounds. We detected excess counts of 2 static standard deviations, pointing to increased D-D cross section due to the effect of ceramic lattice.

  3. Mauritia flexuosa palm swamp communities: natural or human-made? A palynological study of the Gran Sabana region (northern South America) within a neotropical context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Montoya, Encarni

    2014-09-01

    Mauritia flexuosa L.f. is one of the more widely distributed neotropical palms and is intensively used by humans. This palm can grow in tropical rainforests or can develop a particular type of virtually monospecific communities restricted to warm and wet lowlands of the Orinoco and Amazon basins. It has been proposed that, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the Mauritia swamp communities were restricted to the core of the Amazon basin from where they expanded favoured by the Holocene warmer and wetter climates. It has also been suggested that some of these palm communities might have been the result of human dispersal during the last millennia. Here, we evaluate both hypotheses using the case study of the Venezuelan Gran Sabana (GS) region, where the M. flexuosa swamp communities (locally called morichales) are common and well developed. The morichales did not reach the GS until the last 2000 years, as manifested by sudden increases of Mauritia pollen parallelled by similar trends in charcoal particles as proxies for fire. During the last two millennia, the situation was very similar to the present, characterised by extensive burning practices affecting savannas and savanna-forest ecotones but rarely morichales (selective burning). This strongly suggests that human activities could have been responsible for the penetration of the morichales to the GS. A meta-analysis of the available records of Mauritia pollen across northern South America shows that this palm has been present in the region since at least the last four glacial cycles. During the LGM, Mauritia was likely restricted to few but widespread sites of favourable microclimatic conditions (microrefugia) from where the palm expanded during the Holocene. During the last 2000 years, Mauritia underwent a remarkable expansion in northern South America, which includes the GS. It is proposed that humans could have played a role in this regional expansion of Mauritia communities.

  4. "Dynamic Geodiversity" of glacial environments: new techniques for monitoring landscape variations on Alpine areas. Examples from the Gran Paradiso National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotto, Stefania; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Mortara, Giovanni; Baroni, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    The importance of keeping memory of past morpho-climatic events is particular evident in recently deglaciated areas. The survival of glaciers is now very uncertain, due to climate changes and related effects occurring in the last decades. In the Western Alps, many glaciers are now extinct or show a dramatic reduction of area and thickness. Permafrost and periglacial areas are also responding promptly to climate changes as glaciers do, but they are not good "visual" indicators of climate changes, because they are not easily recognizable. Indeed, Italian glacial elements are constantly monitored by the Italian Glaciological Committe (CGI) in the last two centuries. The volunteers of CGI constantly monitor variations of glacier snout position of a great majority of Italian glaciers. CGI is not only a very important source of historical documentation and information, but also a very important scientific reference of the studies conducted in glacial areas. Particularly, thanks to CGI, it was created an inventory of Italian glaciers was created. Anyway, due to recent rapid changes, it is difficult to quickly update the inventory, also considering the difficulty of reaching alpine high mountain areas. The recent use of Geomatics in geological and geomorphological studies can be applied to evaluate landform changes in glacial and periglacial areas. The combination of remote sensing and on field techniques (i.e. aerial photogrammetry, GPS, Terrestrial photogrammetry, satellite images and LiDaR) provides constant monitoring of landform changes and updating inventories. The Gran Paradiso National Park (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Regions, Western Italian Alps) represents an excellent example of conservation of geodiversity. Many key-elements of the high mountain landscape are present here: glaciers, glacial cirques, rock glaciers, moraines (not only from Holocene, but also from Little Ice Age, of XVI-XIX centuries), steepled peaks, rock walls, roche moutonnée, ravines, debris

  5. Study of an unusual paratyphoid epornitic in canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Madadgar, O; Salehi, T Zahraei; Ghafari, M M; Tamai, I Ashrafi; Madani, S A; Yahyareyat, R

    2009-12-01

    High mortalities in 17 canary flocks from different regions of Tehran, Iran, were reported. Necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed necrotic hepatitis and overall congestive septicaemia in carcasses. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 34 examined samples, two samples from each flock, including visceral organs of carcasses and droppings of live diseased birds. All isolates were typed as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by conventional serotyping. Antibiotic resistance profiling using 33 antibiotics and random amplification of polymorphic DNA differentiation by three primers were performed and showed an identical clonal relationship between these isolates and S. Typhimurium isolated from a sample of feedstuffs. Changing the feed ingredients along with antibiotic therapy via the drinking water by enrofloxacin solution controlled the outbreaks, and mortalities ceased. The zoonotic nature of S. Typhimurium and close contact of bird owners with pet birds in the home environment made the case significant in relation to public health. PMID:19937532

  6. A circular model for song motor control in Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rodrigo G; Trevisan, Marcos A; Amador, Ana; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B

    2015-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is controlled by a network of nuclei distributed across several brain regions, which drives respiratory and vocal motor systems to generate sound. We built a model for birdsong production, whose variables are the average activities of different neural populations within these nuclei of the song system. We focus on the predictions of respiratory patterns of song, because these can be easily measured and therefore provide a validation for the model. We test the hypothesis that it is possible to construct a model in which (1) the activity of an expiratory related (ER) neural population fits the observed pressure patterns used by canaries during singing, and (2) a higher forebrain neural population, HVC, is sparsely active, simultaneously with significant motor instances of the pressure patterns. We show that in order to achieve these two requirements, the ER neural population needs to receive two inputs: a direct one, and its copy after being processed by other areas of the song system. The model is capable of reproducing the measured respiratory patterns and makes specific predictions on the timing of HVC activity during their production. These results suggest that vocal production is controlled by a circular network rather than by a simple top-down architecture. PMID:25904860

  7. Spectroscopic Classification of DES14X3taz as a SLSN-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castander, F. J.; Casas, R.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Perez-Valladares, D.; Miquel, R.; Smith, M.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.

    2015-03-01

    We report optical spectroscopy and classification of DES14X3taz discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (490-920 nm) were obtained using OSIRIS on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), and classification was performed using SuperFit (Howell et al. 2005, Ap.J. 634, 1190). Details of the observations and classification are given below.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: riz photometry in Cyg OB2 (Guarcello+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarcello, M. G.; Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Drew, J. E.; Aldcroft, T.; Kashyap, V. L.

    2012-11-01

    The observations were performed in the r', i', and z' filters with OSIRIS, mounted on the 10.4m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) of the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma, between 2009-09-11 and 2009-09-22. The scale on the detector is 0.127arcsec/pix (1 data file).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 72 faint CV candidates in CRTS (Breedt+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breedt, E.; Gansicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Szkody, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained identification spectra of a total of 72 faint CV candidates identified by the CRTS, using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; La Palma, Spain) and the Gemini telescopes (North: Mauna Kea, Hawaii and South: Cerro Pachon, Chile). The observations were carried out in service mode during 2010, 2011 and 2013. (5 data files).

  10. English in Class and on the Go: Multimodal U-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Sánchez, Soraya

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to analyse different ubiquitous learning (u-Learning) platforms used when learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) as part of the Modern Languages Degree at the Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC). The combination of face-to-face lessons with multimedia content and digital mediated learning allows today's native…

  11. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  12. GTC Classification of DES Supernova Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castander, F. J.; Casas, R.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Perez-Valladares, D.; Miquel, R.; Smith, M.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-03-01

    We report optical spectroscopy and classification of 3 SN candidates discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (490-920 nm) were obtained using OSIRIS on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), and classification was performed using SuperFit (Howell et al. 2005, Ap.J. 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, Ap.J., 666, 1024).

  13. Characterization of Near-Surface Geology and Possible Voids Using Resistivity and Electromagnetic Methods at the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Central New Mexico, June 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Land, Lewis A.; Teeple, Andrew P.

    2006-01-01

    At the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in central New Mexico, a partially excavated pueblo known as Mound 7 has recently become architecturally unstable. Historical National Park Service records indicate both natural caves and artificial tunnels may be present in the area. Knowledge of the local near-surface geology and possible locations of voids would aid in preservation of the ruins. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic as well as direct-current resistivity methods were used to characterize the electrical structure of the near-surface geology and to identify discrete electrical features that may be associated with voids. Time-domain electromagnetic soundings indicate three major electrical layers; however, correlation of these layers to geologic units was difficult because of the variability of lithologic data from existing test holes. Although resistivity forward modeling was unable to conclusively determine the presence or absence of voids in most cases, the high-resistivity values (greater than 5,000 ohm-meters) in the direct-current resistivity data indicate that voids may exist in the upper 50 meters. Underneath Mound 7, there is a possibility of large voids below a depth of 20 meters, but there is no indication of substantial voids in the upper 20 meters. Gridded lines and profiled inversions of frequency-domain electromagnetic data showed excellent correlation to resistivity features in the upper 5 meters of the direct-current resistivity data. This technique showed potential as a reconnaissance tool for detecting voids in the very near surface.

  14. Environmental availability, behavioural diversity and diet: a zooarchaeological approach from the TD10-1 sublevel of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) and Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Fernández Peris, Josep; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2013-06-01

    The suggestion that the Neanderthal linage hominids had predominantly rich diet in meat derived from large game is progressing towards views which propose a higher nutritional diversity, at least in some regions. These postulates situate hominids as the knower of their natural surroundings and make them capable of selecting within the range of resources available in their landscapes. Using a zooarchaeological approach, the taxonomical representation in an anthropogenic site could indicate both the environment diversity that human groups can exploit and the decisions that they make when selecting prey. The Optimal Foraging theory is a basic decision model that is ideally applied within a larger framework of constraining conditions such as differential prey distributions, food-consumer imbalances and/or competition, among others. Nevertheless, if this theory is applied to human behaviour, uncontrolled variables could exist and substantially alter some predictions. These variables may not always be related to the need to optimise the resources; additionally, they can respond to the questions related to nutritional ecology, cultural standards or social relationships conditioned by ecological or technological factors. Environmental and socio-cultural aspects invite us to reflect on the characteristics that delimit the pre-Upper Palaeolithic diet and its correct assessment in relation to the availability of prey in the environment and the human behavioural parameters. In this study, we present data from several levels of Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain, MIS 9-5e) and a sample from the TD10-1 sublevel of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain, MIS 9). Both sites have been interpreted as habitat places and allow us to infer the high plasticity of human groups with respect to methods and techniques of acquisition and use of a diverse spectrum of prey. Environmental availability, duration and type of settlement seem to significantly influence the taxonomical

  15. Evidence for long-term uplift on the Canary Islands from emergent Mio Pliocene littoral deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, Joaquín; Scaillet, Stéphane; Guillou, Hervé; Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Carlos Carracedo, Juan; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan-Francisco; Cilleros, Antonio

    2007-06-01

    Several islands in the Canarian archipelago show marine deposits with identical fossil faunas, which are generally assigned to different glacioeustatic marine episodes: mainly Pleistocene episodes in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, and Mio-Pliocene ones in Gran Canaria. Three fossil species ( Saccostrea chili, Nerita emiliana and Strombus coronatus) characterize all the marine deposits from southern Lanzarote, to the west and south of Fuerteventura and northeast of Gran Canaria. Three other species ( Ancilla glandiformis, Rothpletzia rudista and Siderastraea miocenica) confirm the chronostratigraphic attribution of these deposits. Other more occasional fossils (as Chlamys latissima, Isognomon soldanii and Clypeaster aegyptiacus) fit an upper Miocene and lower Pliocene age. This agrees with new K/Ar ages obtained from pillow lavas emplaced into the marine deposits (ca. 4.1 Ma in Gran Canaria, ca. 4.8 Ma in Fuerteventura) and from underlying (ca. 9.3 Ma in Gran Canaria) or overlying (ca. 9.8 Ma in Lanzarote) lava flows. The marine deposits are eroded but large continuous segments are preserved sloping gently towards the coast. Variations in the highest and the lowest elevations of the deposits apsl (above present sea level) indicate post-depositional uplift movements. Glacioeustatic causes are unlikely to be responsible for these variations on the basis of the coastal location of the deposits and their equatorial fauna characteristic of Mio-Pliocene corals. Differential uplift of the deposits across the archipelago is argued to result from the progressive seaward tilting of the islands along the insular volcanic trail marking the westward migration of hot spot head since 20 Ma. Successive westward accretion of younger volcanic edifices resulted in increasing lithostatic load of the crust with progressive (diachronous) tilting of the older edifices and their palaeo-shorelines marked by past coastal deposits.

  16. First records of Hippocampus algiricus in the Canary Islands (north-east Atlantic Ocean) with an observation of hybridization with Hippocampus hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Otero-Ferrer, F; Herrera, R; López, A; Socorro, J; Molina, L; Bouza, C

    2015-10-01

    Morphometric and genetic analyses confirmed the first records of the West African seahorse Hippocampus algiricus at Gran Canaria Island (north-east Atlantic Ocean), and also the first evidence of interspecific hybridization in seahorses. These results provide additional data on the distribution of H. algiricus that may help to establish future conservation strategies, and uncover a new potential sympatric scenario between H. algiricus and Hippocampus hippocampus. PMID:26365616

  17. FRIDA: the AO Second generation Instrument for GTC, Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, B.; Acosta, J.; Álvarez, L. C.; Bringas, V.; Cardiel, N.; Corrales, A.; Cuevas, S.; Chapa, O.; Díaz, J. J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Garzón, F.; Hammersley, P.; Keiman, C.; Lara, G.; López, J. A.; López, P.; Lucero, D.; Moreno, H.; Pascual, S.; Patrón, J.; Prieto, A.; Rodríguez, A.; Uribe, J.; Watson, A.

    2013-05-01

    FRIDA (inFRrared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) is being designed as a diffraction limited instrument with broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy capabilities to operate in the wavelength range 0.9-2.4 μm. FRIDA is a collaborative project between the main GTC partners, namely, Spain, Mexico and University of Florida. The present paper provides an updated overview of the instrument development.

  18. Opto-mechanical design of FRIDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringas, V.; Lucero, D.; Uribe, J.; Rodríguez, A.; Montoya, J. M.; Estrada, R.; Álvarez, L.; Gómez, E.; Sánchez, B.; Cuevas, S.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Keiman, C.; Chapa, O.; Lara, G.; Eikenberry, S. S.

    2013-05-01

    FRIDA (inFRrared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) is being designed as cryogenic and diffraction limited instrument that will offer with broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy capabilities with Low (R=1400), intermediate (R=4000) and high (R=30000) to operate in the wavelength range 0.9-2.4 μm.

  19. The dynamics of genetic and morphological variation on volcanic islands

    PubMed Central

    Gübitz, Thomas; Thorpe, Roger S; Malhotra, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Oceanic archipelagos of volcanic origin have been important in the study of evolution because they provide repeated natural experiments allowing rigorous tests of evolutionary hypotheses. Ongoing volcanism on these islands may, however, affect the evolutionary diversification of species. Analysis of population structure and phylogeographic patterns in island populations can provide insight into evolutionary dynamics on volcanic islands. We analysed genetic and morphological variation in the gecko Tarentola boettgeri on the island of Gran Canaria and compared it with Tarentola delalandii on Tenerife, a neighbouring volcanic island of similar age but distinctly different geological past. Intraspecific divergence of mitochondrial haplotypes indicates long-term persistence of Tarentola on each island, with a phylogeographic signal left by older volcanic events. More recent volcanic eruptions (approximately 0.2 million years ago on Tenerife, approximately 2.2 million years ago on Gran Canaria) have left a signature of population expansion in the population genetic structure, the strength of which depends on the time since the last major volcanic eruption on each island. While these stochastic events have left traces in morphological variation in Tenerife, in Gran Canaria geographical variation was solely associated with environmental variables. This suggests that historically caused patterns in morphology may be overwritten by natural selection within 2 million years. PMID:15870037

  20. Concurrent atypical diffused tuberculosis and macrorhabdosis in a canary (Serinus canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Seyed Ahmad; Haddad-Marandi, Mohammad Reza; Arabkhazaeli, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    A dead canary from a mixed species zoological garden was presented for diagnostic necropsy. Cachexia with prominent atrophy of pectoral muscles, yellowish brown discoloration of the liver and kidney, dark brown to black intestinal contents and moderate proventricular dilatation with some degree of catarrhal gastritis were the significant macroscopic findings. Parenchymatous organs like the liver, the spleen, the lung and the kidneys were extremely affected by massive diffuse necrosis and heavy infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, histopathologically. Many giant bacilli resembling Macrorrhabdus ornithogaster were seen microscopically in the wet smear of the isthmus mucosa. Ghost-like unstained bacilli were revealed in the Giemsa stained contact smears of the liver and spleen. No typical mycobacterial granulomatous lesion was found in different tissues, but in Ziehl-Neelsen stained thin layer histologic sections from the liver, spleen, lung and kidney, numerous acid fast organisms were diffusely distributed. The case was diagnosed an atypical avian tuberculosis with concurrent macrorhabdosis. Mycobacterium sp. are capable of giving rise to a progressive disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Cases of avian tuberculosis might be overlooked for lack of pathognomonic lesions suggestive of mycobacteriosis. PMID:25992258

  1. MIRADAS - The Next-Generation Near-Infrared Spectrograph for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, S. S.

    2013-05-01

    We describe the Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) being developed by the MIRADAS Consortium institutions (including the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México) for the Gran Telescopio Canarias. MIRADAS is the most powerful astronomical instrument of its kind ever envisioned. The combination of the collecting area of GTC and the multi-object mid-resolution near-infrared spectra provided by MIRADAS make its capabilities unparalleled for addressing some of the leading scientific challenges of the coming decades, with an observing efficiency more than an order of magnitude greater than current capabilities for 10-meter-class telescopes. We briefly review the science drivers for the instrument, the basic design features, and the current status of the instrument development.

  2. Multi-wavelength Observations of Fast Infrared Flares from V404 Cygni in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Dallilar, Yigit; Garner, Alan; Deno Stelter, R.; Gandhi, Poshak; Dhillon, Vik; Littlefair, Stuart; Marsh, Thomas; Fender, Rob P.; Mooley, Kunal

    2016-04-01

    We used the fast photometry mode of our new Canarias InfraRed Camera Experiment (CIRCE) on the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias to observe V404 Cyg, a stellar mass black hole binary, on June 25, 2015 during its 2015 outburst. CIRCE provided 10Hz sampling in the Ks-band (2.2 microns) In addition, we obtained simultaneous multi wavelength data from our collaborators: three GHz radio bands from the AMI telescope and three optical/UV bands (u', g', r') from ULTRACAM on the William Herschel 4.2-meter telescope. We identify fast (1-second) IR flares with optical counterparts of varying strength/color, which we argue arise from a relativistic jet outflow. These observations provide important constraints on the emission processes and physical conditions in the jet forming region in V404 Cygni. We will discuss these results as well as their implications for relativistic jet formation around stellar-mass black holes.

  3. MIRADAS: The Multi-Object R=22K Near-IR Spectropolarimeter for the 10.4-meter GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; MIRADAS Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS), a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=22,000 over the 1-2.5µm bandpass, is being developed by an international consosrtium for the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, as well as industrial partners in the US and Europe. MIRADAS completed its Final Design Review in mid-2015, and is currently undergoing fabrication, with planned first light in 2018/2019. In this paper, we review the overall science drivers and system design for MIRADAS, including key technologies such as cryogenic robotic probe arms, macroslicer mini-IFUs, full Stokes polarimetry, and a highly flexible observing configuration.

  4. Detection and discrimination of Loa loa, Mansonella perstans and Wuchereria bancrofti by PCR-RFLP and nested-PCR of ribosomal DNA ITS1 region.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Maribel; González, Luis Miguel; Carranza, Cristina; Bailo, Begoña; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; Muro, Antonio; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Gárate, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) of two filarial nematodes, Loa loa and Mansonella perstans, was amplified and further sequenced to develop an species-specific polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) protocol for the differentiation of both species from Wuchereria bancrofti, three filarial nematodes with blood circulating microfilariae. The ITS1-PCR product digested with the restriction endonuclease Ase I generated an specific diagnostic pattern for each of the three species. Moreover, three new specific nested-PCRs, targeting the ITS1 region, for differential detection of L. loa, M. perstans and W. bancrofti were developed and used when the ITS1-PCR products were insufficient for the Ase I enzymatic digestion. These filarial species-specific molecular protocols were evaluated in forty blood samples from African adult immigrants attending in the Hospital Insular of Gran Canaria, Canarias, Spain. PMID:20599994

  5. Multi-wavelength Observations of Fast Infrared Flares from V404 Cygni in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallilar, Yigit; Casella, Piergiorgio; Marsh, Tom; Gandhi, Poshak; Fender, Rob; Littlefair, Stuart; Eikenberry, Steve; Garner, Alan; Stelter, Deno; Dhillon, Vik; Mooley, Kunal

    2016-07-01

    We used the fast photometry mode of our new Canarias InfraRed Camera Experiment (CIRCE) on the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias to observe V404 Cyg, a stellar mass black hole binary, on June 25, 2015 during its 2015 outburst. CIRCE provided 10Hz sampling in the Ks-band (2.2 microns) In addition, we obtained simultaneous multi wavelength data from our collaborators: three GHz radio bands from the AMI telescope and three optical/UV bands (u', g', r') from ULTRACAM on the William Herschel 4.2-meter telescope. We identify fast (1-second) IR flares with optical counterparts of varying strength/color, which we argue arise from a relativistic jet outflow. These observations provide important constraints on the emission processes and physical conditions in the jet forming region in V404 Cygni. We will discuss these results as well as their implications for relativistic jet formation around stellar-mass black holes.

  6. A new species of Oromia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Machado, Antonio; López, Heriberto

    2015-01-01

    The weevil Oromia thoracica n. sp. from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) is described and compared to its closest allies. It can easily be distinguished by less sculptured elytra, its differently shaped antennal scrobe, and by the pronotum not constricted anteriorly and expanded over the head. Some ecological data are also provided, and considerations on the fauna occurring in the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS) from the locality of this new species are made. Additional records and comments on other Oromia species as well as an identification key to the species of the genus are given. PMID:25781818

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Detections of transit variations in KOI 806 (Tingley+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingley, B.; Palle, E.; Parviainen, H.; Deeg, H. J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Belmonte, J. A.; Montanes Rodriguez, P.; Murgas, F.; Ribas, I.

    2011-11-01

    g' and z' photometric time series for the last ~1.6hrs of the transit of KOI 806.2 observed with the Gran Telescopio Canarias at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma, Spain. The observations occurred on JD 2455740, revealing a transit timing variation of -103.5+/-6.9 minutes. The raw fits files were bias and flat field corrected using IRAF and the differential photometry determined using the VAPHOT/Vanaliz package (Deeg & Doyle 2001, 2001phot.work...85D). (2 data files).

  8. The GTC Public Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alacid, J. Manuel; Solano, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) archive is operational since November 2011. The archive, maintained by the Data Archive Unit at CAB in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory project, provides access to both raw and science ready data and has been designed in compliance with the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) to guarantee a high level of data accessibility and handling. In this presentation I will describe the main capabilities the GTC archive offers to the community, in terms of functionalities and data collections, to carry out an efficient scientific exploitation of GTC data.

  9. TEM characterisation and interpretation of fabric and structural degree of order in microcrystalline SiO2 phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, C.; Miehe, G.; Fuess, H.

    2002-03-01

    Representative samples of the two fabric varieties of microcrystalline quartz, chalcedony and quartzine, from agates of different origin were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both varieties contain lamellar admixtures of the SiO2 mineral moganite. The transitions from quartz to moganite within the fabric differ in a characteristic way. Whereas in quartzine the gradient between the structures is steep, the transition is more continuous in chalcedony. The morphology of moganite in chalcedony and quartzine is determined by the (101)-face; in pure moganite from Gran Canaria it is governed by the (110)-face.

  10. The characteristics and development status of the control and housekeeping electronics of FRIDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J. J.; Flores-Meza, R.; Sánchez, Beatriz; Patrón, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) is a diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy with low, intermediate and high spectral resolutions in the 0.9 - 2.5 μm wavelength range. FRIDA will be installed at a Nasmyth focus of GTC, behind the AO system. The characteristics and development status of the Control and Housekeeping Electronics are described in this contribution. FRIDA is a collaborative project between the IAC (Spain), UNAM (México), UCM (Spain) and the UF (Florida), lead by UNAM.

  11. Potential role for mucosal IgA in modulating Haemonchus contortus adult worm infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hernández, J N; Hernández, A; Stear, M J; Conde-Felipe, M; Rodríguez, E; Piedrafita, D; González, J F

    2016-06-15

    Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is a haematophagous parasite which causes important economic losses in small ruminants. On the island of Gran Canaria, two sheep breeds coexist which differ in their susceptibility to the infection with H. contortus; the resistant Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) sheep and the susceptible Canaria Sheep (CS) breed. The major target of resistance mechanisms in CHB sheep are directed to the adult parasite stage, reducing the worm burden, and decreased length and fecundity of surviving worms. Mucosal IgA (mIgA) has been shown to be an important regulator of immunity in Haemonchus and Teladorsagia infections; through correlations with larval stages where such mechanisms as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity and enzyme inhibition may mediate resistance. Here for the first time, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation between mIgA and adult worm length and fecundity only in the resistant CHB sheep. In contrast, and as reported in other sheep breeds, mIgA was only negatively correlated against the larval stage in the more susceptible CS breed. This study suggests mIgA may play a role in resistance to both larval and adult stages. PMID:27198794

  12. Los grandes telescopios ópticos e infrarrojos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.

    Recientemente se han puesto en funcionamiento telescopios de 8 y 10 metros de diámetro de su espejo primario que están significando un gran avance en las capacidades observacionales de la Astronomía moderna. Igualmente en nuestro país se está construyendo el Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) que situará a la Astronomía española en la vanguardia de esta disciplina. En mi charla hablaré de las oportunidades observacionales que suponen estos grandes telescopios para la Astronomía moderna. Hablaré del GTC y del esfuerzo español por ser actores principales del desarrollo de la Astronomía moderna. Por último, mostraré brevemente los proyectos futuros de grandes telescopios que se están proponiendo a ambos lados del Atlántico.

  13. GTC OSIRIS transiting exoplanet atmospheric survey: detection of sodium in XO-2b from differential long-slit spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, D. K.; Huitson, C. M.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Pont, F.; Désert, J.-M.; Ehrenreich, D.; Wilson, P. A.; Ballester, G. E.; Fortney, J. J.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2012-10-01

    We present two transits of the hot-Jupiter exoplanet XO-2b using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The time series observations were performed using long-slit spectroscopy of XO-2 and a nearby reference star with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) instrument, enabling differential spectrophotometric transit light curves capable of measuring the exoplanet's transmission spectrum. Two optical low-resolution grisms were used to cover the optical wavelength range from 3800 to 9300 Å. We find that sub-mmag-level slit losses between the target and reference star prevent full optical transmission spectra from being constructed, limiting our analysis to differential absorption depths over ˜1000 Å regions. Wider long slits or multi-object grism spectroscopy with wide masks will likely prove effective in minimizing the observed slit-loss trends. During both transits, we detect significant absorption in the planetary atmosphere of XO-2b using a 50-Å bandpass centred on the Na I doublet, with absorption depths of Δ(Rpl/R★)2 = 0.049 ± 0.017 per cent using the R500R grism and 0.047 ± 0.011 per cent using the R500B grism (combined 5.2σ significance from both transits). The sodium feature is unresolved in our low-resolution spectra, with detailed modelling also likely ruling out significant line-wing absorption over an ˜800 Å region surrounding the doublet. Combined with narrow-band photometric measurements, XO-2b is the first hot Jupiter with evidence for both sodium and potassium present in the planet's atmosphere. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma, and part of the large European Southern Observatory (ESO) programme 182.C-2018.

  14. Dominicanas entre La Gran Manzana y Quisqueya: Family, Schooling, and Language Learning in a Transnational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a one-year qualitative research study, this article explores the transnational lives and experiences of three young women and their little sisters in New York with close ties to the Dominican Republic. Using ethnographic research methods--life history interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and document analysis, I examine…

  15. The Sky Among the Toba of Western Formosa (Gran Chaco, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Cecilia Paula

    Based on the Toba Indians' interpretation of the Pleiades (Dapíchi), the Moon (ÁwoGoik), and the Milky Way (Máñik, Nágaik or Lakawáhegem), we postulate a fluid and constant interaction between the sky and everyday life. Therefore, the change and continuity in their lifestyle may also be traced in the interpretations of the celestial space.

  16. New findings of insecticide resistance in Triatoma infestans (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) from the Gran Chaco.

    PubMed

    Germano, M D; Roca Acevedo, G; Mougabure Cueto, G A; Toloza, A C; Vassena, C V; Picollo, M I

    2010-11-01

    Chagas disease is a major health concern in Latin America, and Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) is responsible for the majority of cases of Chagas disease in the continent. After the discovery of deltamethrin highly resistant populations in the neighboring areas to Yacuiba (Bolivia) and Salvador Mazza (Argentina), we studied T. infestans populations north and southward, with the aim of describing the range of the resistant area. In addition, tests were conducted to describe the susceptibility to fipronil in deltamethrin-resistant populations. Tarija populations were highly resistant to deltamethrin, showing that the resistant area is greater than previously reported. Argentinean and Paraguayan populations were susceptible or presented moderate to low levels of deltamethrin resistance. Resistance to fipronil was found in Bolivian populations, although this insecticide was effective against Argentinean populations. This study shows that the Argentinean and Paraguayan populations are currently under successful control with deltamethrin. However, continuous resistance monitoring is necessary. We found that fipronil is a viable option for Argentina, whereas the resistance found in Bolivia implies that new formulations are needed to control T. infestans in Bolivia. Further research is required to find new alternatives of control in those areas that are currently suffering from high infestation rates. PMID:21175056

  17. Double β experiments with the help of scintillation and HPGe detectors at Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Brudanin, V. B.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Chernyak, D. M.; Danevich, F. A.; d'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Dossovitskiyj, A. E.; Galashov, E. N.; Grinyov, B. V.; Incicchitti, A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kovtun, G. P.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Kudovbenko, V. M.; Laubenstein, M.; Mikhlin, A. L.; Nagornaya, L. L.; Nagorny, S. S.; Nagornyi, P. G.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Podviyanuk, R. B.; Prosperi, D.; Polischuk, O. G.; Shcherban, A. P.; Shlegel, V. N.; Solopikhin, D. A.; Stenin, Y. G.; Suhonen, J.; Tolmachev, A. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Virich, V. D.; Vyshnevskyi, I. M.; Yavetskiy, R. P.; Yurchenko, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    A search for double beta decay of 64,70Zn, 180,186W was carried out by using low background ZnWO4 crystal scintillators, while a CeCl3 scintillation detector was applied to investigate 2β processes in 136,138,142Ce. A search for 2β decay of 96,104Ru, 156,158Dy, 190,198Pt and study of 2ν2β decay of 100Mo to the first excited 0+ level of 100Ru were realized by ultra-low background HPGe γ spectrometry. Moreover, CdWO4 crystal scintillators from enriched 106Cd and 116Cd isotopes were developed to search for 2β decay of 106Cd and 116Cd. Finally, experiments aimed to investigate 96,104Ru and 116Cd are in progress and a new phase of the experiment to search for 2β processes in 106Cd is in preparation.

  18. 77 FR 37808 - Special Local Regulation; East Tawas Offshore Gran Prix, Tawas Bay; East Tawas, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... restrictions upon, and control movement of, vessels in a portion of Tawas Bay. During the enforcement period... aforementioned hazards in mind, the Captain of the Port Detroit has determined that a special local regulation...

  19. Sustainable vector control and management of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Kitron, Uriel; Cecere, M. Carla; Segura, Elsa L.; Cohen, Joel E.

    2007-01-01

    Chagas disease remains a serious obstacle to health and economic development in Latin America, especially for the rural poor. We report the long-term effects of interventions in rural villages in northern Argentina during 1984–2006. Two community-wide campaigns of residual insecticide spraying immediately and strongly reduced domestic infestation and infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in Triatoma infestans bugs and dogs and more gradually reduced the seroprevalence of children <15 years of age. Because no effective surveillance and control actions followed the first campaign in 1985, transmission resurged in 2–3 years. Renewed interventions in 1992 followed by sustained, supervised, community-based vector control largely suppressed the reestablishment of domestic bug colonies and finally led to the interruption of local human T. cruzi transmission. Human incidence of infection was nearly an order of magnitude higher in peripheral rural areas under pulsed, unsupervised, community-based interventions, where human transmission became apparent in 2000. The sustained, supervised, community-based strategy nearly interrupted domestic transmission to dogs but did not eliminate T. infestans despite the absence of pyrethroid-insecticide resistance. T. infestans persisted in part because of the lack of major changes in housing construction and quality. Sustained community participation grew out of establishing a trusted relationship with the affected communities and the local schools. The process included health promotion and community mobilization, motivation, and supervision in close cooperation with locally nominated leaders. PMID:17913895

  20. Ergonomic analysis in the bagging of gran equipment: unsuitability of the work stations.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Suzi; Lemos, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    This analysis was performed in the industry for bagging grain (granular urea) nitrogen fertilizer factory in order to raise the causes of accidents on the operators. Data collection through direct observation and interviews done with the managers and operators have identified the causes of accidents. The results show an evident fact: the working conditions of bagging grain cause embarrassment to the employee, as well as the emergence of pathophysiology due to overload, then the problems of work organization involving mainly equipment, tools and accessories inadequate. At the end of this work are related suggestions, which has as its goal the reduction or even elimination of accidents involving operators bagging grain. PMID:22317548

  1. Double {beta} experiments with the help of scintillation and HPGe detectors at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A.; Konovalov, S. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Belli, P.; D'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Chernyak, D. M.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Kudovbenko, V. M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Podviyanuk, R. B.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vyshnevskyi, I. M.; Yurchenko, S. S.; Brudanin, V. B.; and others

    2011-12-16

    A search for double beta decay of {sup 64,70}Zn, {sup 180,186}W was carried out by using low background ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators, while a CeCl{sub 3} scintillation detector was applied to investigate 2{beta} processes in {sup 136,138,142}Ce. A search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 96,104}Ru, {sup 156,158}Dy, {sup 190,198}Pt and study of 2{nu}2{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the first excited 0{sup +} level of {sup 100}Ru were realized by ultra-low background HPGe {gamma} spectrometry. Moreover, CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators from enriched {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd isotopes were developed to search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd. Finally, experiments aimed to investigate {sup 96,104}Ru and {sup 116}Cd are in progress and a new phase of the experiment to search for 2{beta} processes in {sup 106}Cd is in preparation.

  2. Fast IR photometry of V404 Cyg in outburst with CIRCE/GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallilar, Yigit; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Garner, Alan; Stelter, Richard D.; Gandhi, Poshak; Hardy, Liam K.; Dhillon, Vik S.; Littlefair, Stuart; Fender, Rob; Mooley, Kunal P.

    2016-01-01

    We used the fast photometry mode of the Canarias InfraRed Camera Experiment (CIRCE) on the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias to observe V404 Cyg, a stellar mass black hole binary, on June 25th for about one and a half hour during its 2015 outburst. CIRCE provided 10Hz sampling in the Ks-band (2.2 microns) In addition, we obtained simultaneous multi wavelength data from our collaborators: three GHz radio bands from the AMI telescope and two optical bands (g'-r') from ULTRACAM on the William Herschel 4.2-meter telescope. We extract spectral indices from the three radio bands and an optical-to-infrared color index from infrared and optical lightcurves. With a positive and increasing radio spectral index, we have identified an infrared outburst about 30 minutes with a clear self absorbed synchrotron ejection event. We further investigate the correlation between spectral indexes and multi wavelength flux measurements to understand evolution of ejection event. We also report on very fast IR flares and their correlation with optical events.

  3. MIRADAS control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosich Minguell, Josefina; Garzón Lopez, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected in 2010 by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This paper shows an overview of the MIRADAS control software, which follows the standards defined by the telescope to permit the integration of this software on the GTC Control System (GCS). The MIRADAS Control System is based on a distributed architecture according to a component model where every subsystem is selfcontained. The GCS is a distributed environment written in object oriented C++, which runs components in different computers, using CORBA middleware for communications. Each MIRADAS observing mode, including engineering, monitoring and calibration modes, will have its own predefined sequence, which are executed in the GCS Sequencer. These sequences will have the ability of communicating with other telescope subsystems.

  4. FISICA: The Florida image slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Raines, S. Nicholas; Julian, J.; Gruel, N.; Boreman, Glenn; Hoffmann, Jeff; Rodgers, Michael; Glenn, Paul; Hull-Allen, Greg; Myrick, Bruce; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell

    2006-06-01

    We report on the design and status of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R ˜ 1300 spectra over a 16 × 33″ field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-m telescope, or a 6 × 12″ field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-m telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design, fabrication, laboratory test results, and on-telescope performance for FISICA.

  5. Psoriasis Patients' Knowledge about the Disease and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Moum, Torbjørn; Larsen, Marie Hamilton; Krogstad, Anne Lene

    2013-01-01

    Patients' knowledge about psoriasis and its treatment has been randomly studied previously. The aim of the study is to investigate patients' knowledge about psoriasis in relation to undergoing patient education in the context of climate therapy (CT). The psoriasis knowledge questionnaire (PKQ) was used in a follow-up pre–post study design of Norwegian patients with psoriasis at the age of 20 years and older undergoing CT at Gran Canaria (Spain). Patients completed the PKQ and provided selected demographic, clinical and health information before (T1), immediately after (T2), and 3 months after (T3) CT. Disease severity was assessed using the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). 254 psoriasis patients were included (74%). The PKQ score improved significantly from T1 to T2 and T3 (P < 0.001 for both comparisons). Although patient's knowledge improved, further research should use gold standard designs (experiments) to study the effects of educational interventions in different contexts. PMID:23864852

  6. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Girart, J. M.; Hernanz, M.; Jordi, C.

    This volume documents the contributions presented at the Seventh Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (Sociedad Española de Astronomía, SEA). The event bought together 301 participants who presented 161 contributed talks and 120 posters, the greatest numbers up to now. The fact that most exciting items of the current astronomical research were addressed in the meeting proofs the good health of the SEA, a consolidated organization founded fifteen years ago in Barcelona. Two plenary sessions of the meeting were devoted to the approved entrance of Spain as a full member of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and to the imminent first light of the greatest telescope in the world, the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias), milestones that will certainly lead the Spanish Astronomy in the next future. Link: http://www.springer.com/west/home?SGWID=4-102-22-173725709-0&changeHeader=true

  7. Downwind effects on an arid dunefield from an evolving urbanised area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Calvento, L.; Jackson, D. W. T.; Medina, R.; Hernández-Cordero, A. I.; Cruz, N.; Requejo, S.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of urbanised zones on aeolian dynamics are little understood, particularly within arid areas. This study examines the large-scale influence of a growing tourist resort in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, on the sedimentary dynamics of an arid dunefield. Direct downwind effects from the urban area on the dune field surface are modelled for pre-growth and post-growth phases of the urban development. The geomorphological changes observed in the area stretching from the shoreline to the inland transgressive dune field were documented through aerial photographic and LiDAR evidence. Impacts of the urban growth on airflow, as well as those induced by tourists in the upper beach zone (de-vegetation), are examined through analysis of topographic changes. These impacts on the system are shown to have been synergistic in driving the development of a composite dune ridge, formed by the coalescence of smaller dunes into a distinctive aeolian accumulation ridge.

  8. Applicability of microwave-assisted extraction combined with LC-MS/MS in the evaluation of booster biocide levels in harbour sediments.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2011-01-01

    A new sample treatment method for the determination of four common booster biocides (Diuron, TCMTB, Irgarol 1051 and Dichlofluanid) in harbour sediment samples has been developed that uses liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after microwave-assisted extraction, followed by clean-up and a solid phase extraction preconcentration step (MAE-SPE). The effects of different variables on MAE-SPE were studied. The recoveries obtained were greater than 75%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 7%. The detection limits ranged between 0.1 and 0.3 ng g⁻¹. The developed methodology was successfully applied to the evaluation of the presence of booster biocides in sediment samples from different harbours and marinas of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, Spain). PMID:20947123

  9. S-wave envelope broadening characteristics of microearthquakes in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugalde, Arantza

    2013-04-01

    This study analyzes the S-wave envelope broadening characteristics of 290 earthquakes recorded by 14 stations of the Spanish National Seismograph Network in the Canary Islands region. The S-wave peak delay time ( t p ) and envelope duration ( t q ) parameters are evaluated phenomenologically to infer the strength of velocity inhomogeneities of the medium along each seismic ray path. Crustal (0 ≤ h ≤ 18 km) and upper mantle (18 < h ≤ 80 km) events are analyzed separately. Results in the frequency range 1 to 12 Hz for hypocentral distances from 30 to 600 km show that both t p and t q increase according to a power of hypocentral distance and they are independent of frequency. The spatial distribution of the peak delay time reveals weak strength of heterogeneity in most of the region at shallow depths. Relatively strong inhomogeneous zones are generated under the island of Tenerife and Gran Canaria at depths of 11-22 km.

  10. The daily life of a medium-size Data Centre. The CAB astronomical data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    The Centro de Astrobiología (CAB) Data Centre is the most important astronomical data centre managed by a Spanish institution. Among others, it contains the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the Calar Alto (CAHA) scientific archives. Nevertheless, our activities go well beyond data curation. Generation of high level data products (reduced datasets, catalogues,...), knowledge transfer to other Spanish data centres, development of tools to publish astronomical data in VO-compliant archives and services, development of data mining and analysis tools for an optimum scientific exploitation of our data collections and collaboration with scientific groups with research lines using CAB archive data are some of the topics that will be described in this presentation.

  11. UV doses and skin effects during psoriasis climate therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Hernandez-Palacios, Julio; Lilleeng, Mila; Nilsen, Lill Tove; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is a common autoimmune disease with inflammatory symptoms affecting skin and joints. One way of dealing with psoriasis is by controlled solar UV exposure treatment. However, this treatment should be optimized to get the best possible treatment effect and to limit negative side effects such as erythema and an increased risk of skin cancer. In this study 24 patients at Valle Marina Treatment Center in Gran Canaria were monitored throughout a treatment period of three weeks starting at the beginning of November. The total UV dose to the location was monitored by UV-meters placed on the roof of the treatment centere, and the patients wore individual film dosimeters throughout the treatment period. Skin parameters were accessed by reflection spectroscopy (400-850nm). This paper presents preliminary findings from the skin measurements in the visible part of the spectrum, such as blood oxygenation, erythema and melanin indexes. Reflection spectroscopy was found to be a good tool for such treatment monitoring.

  12. Shield volcanoes of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctic rift: oceanic island similarities, continental signature, and tectonic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeMasurier, Wesley

    2013-06-01

    The Marie Byrd Land volcanic province is largely defined by 18 large (up to ~1,800 km3) alkaline shield volcanoes, each surmounted by a summit section of varied felsic rocks dominated by trachytic flows. They are distributed over a 500 × 800-km block-faulted dome within the West Antarctic rift. The basement contact of volcanic sections is ~500 masl at one site and 3,000 mbsl at another, 70 km away, which illustrates the scale of block faulting but complicates an understanding of volcanic structure. Furthermore, the continental ice sheet buries 16 volcanoes to progressively greater heights inland. However, five are sufficiently exposed to allow meaningful comparisons with alkaline oceanic island volcanoes; these comparisons are used as a guide to estimate the structure of Marie Byrd Land volcanoes. The type example for this study is Mt. Murphy, the most completely exposed volcano. It consists of a 1,400-m section of alkaline basalt overlain by trachyte and benmoreite flows that make up ~7-13 % of the volcano volume. In gross structure and composition, Mt. Murphy is similar to Gran Canaria volcano, Canary Islands, but the percent of felsic rock may be three times that of Gran Canaria, if the estimate is approximately correct. Departures from the oceanic island example are believed to represent the imprint of the Marie Byrd Land lithosphere and tectonic environment on volcano evolution. These include a lack of order in the sequence of felsic rock types, lack of progression toward more silica undersaturated compositions with time, absence of a highly undersaturated mafic resurgent stage, and perhaps, a relatively large volume of felsic rock.

  13. Air pollution and mortality in the Canary Islands: a time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The island factor of the cities of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, along with their proximity to Africa and their meteorology, create a particular setting that influences the air quality of these cities and provides researchers an opportunity to analyze the acute effects of air-pollutants on daily mortality. Methods From 2000 to 2004, the relationship between daily changes in PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, and ozone levels and daily total mortality and mortality due to respiratory and heart diseases were assessed using Generalized Additive Poisson models controlled for potential confounders. The lag effect (up to five days) as well as the concurrent and previous day averages and distributed lag models were all estimated. Single and two pollutant models were also constructed. Results Daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 were found to be associated with an increase in respiratory mortality in Santa Cruz de Tenerife and with increased heart disease mortality in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, thus indicating an association between daily ozone levels and mortality from heart diseases. The effects spread over five successive days. SO2 was the only air pollutant significantly related with total mortality (lag 0). Conclusions There is a short-term association between current exposure levels to air pollution and mortality (total as well as that due specifically to heart and respiratory diseases) in both cities. Risk coefficients were higher for respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, showing a delayed effect over several days. PMID:20152037

  14. Phylogeography and seed dispersal in islands: the case of Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis (Polygonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, María; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Arista, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is an endemic taxon to Macaronesia with diaspore polymorphism. The origin and colonizing route of this taxon in Macaronesia was studied using molecular data and information on diaspore types. Methods Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used in 260 plants from 22 populations of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis, four from the Madeiran archipelago and 18 from the Canary archipelago. Diaspore production was analysed in 9–50 plants from each population used for AFLP analysis. One hundred and one plants from the Madeiran archipelago and 375 plants from the Canary Islands were studied. For each plant the type of diaspore produced was recorded. Key Results Overall populations had low genetic diversity but they showed a geographical pattern of genetic diversity that was higher in the older eastern islands than in the younger western ones. Two types of dispersible diaspores were found: in the eastern Canary islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria), plants produced exclusively long-dispersible diaspores, whereas in the western Canary islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro) and the Madeiran archipelago plants produced exclusively short-dispersible diaspores. Genetically, the studied populations fell into four main island groups: Lanzarote–Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife–El Hierro and La Gomera–Madeira archipelago. Conclusions A Moroccan origin of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is hypothesized with a colonization route from the eastern to the western islands. In addition, at least one gene flow event from La Gomera to the Madeiran archipelago has taken place. During the colonization process the type of dispersible diaspore changed so that dispersability decreased in populations of the westernmost islands. PMID:23267005

  15. Gray transits of WD 1145+017 over the visible band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, R.; Rappaport, S.; Deeg, H. J.; Palle, E.

    2016-04-01

    We have observed several relatively deep transits of the white dwarf WD 1145+017 with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in the wavelength range 480 to 920 nm. The observations covered approximately one hour on 2016 January 18 and two hours on 2016 January 20. There was variable extinction of the white dwarf during much of that time, but this extinction was punctuated by four sharp transits with depths ranging from 25% to 40%. The spectrum was dispersed with a grism and the flux data were ultimately summed into four bands centered at 0.53, 0.62, 0.71, and 0.84 μm. After careful normalization, we find that the flux light curves in all four bands are consistently the same, including through the deepest dips. We use these results to compute Ångström exponents, α, for the particles responsible for the extinction and find |⟨ α ⟩| ≲ 0.06, assuming that the extinction is relatively optically thin. We use the complex indices of refraction for common minerals to set constraints on the median sizes of possible dust grains and find that particle sizes ≲0.5 μm can be excluded for most common minerals. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), on the island of La Palma at the Spanish Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC, and with the IAC80 telescope on the island of Tenerife at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide of the IAC, under Director's discretionary time.

  16. Gray transits of WD 1145+017 over the visible band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, R.; Rappaport, S.; Deeg, H. J.; Palle, E.

    2016-05-01

    We have observed several relatively deep transits of the white dwarf WD 1145+017 with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in the wavelength range 480 to 920 nm. The observations covered approximately one hour on 2016 January 18 and two hours on 2016 January 20. There was variable extinction of the white dwarf during much of that time, but this extinction was punctuated by four sharp transits with depths ranging from 25% to 40%. The spectrum was dispersed with a grism and the flux data were ultimately summed into four bands centered at 0.53, 0.62, 0.71, and 0.84 μm. After careful normalization, we find that the flux light curves in all four bands are consistently the same, including through the deepest dips. We use these results to compute Ångström exponents, α, for the particles responsible for the extinction and find |⟨ α ⟩| ≲ 0.06, assuming that the extinction is relatively optically thin. We use the complex indices of refraction for common minerals to set constraints on the median sizes of possible dust grains and find that particle sizes ≲0.5 μm can be excluded for most common minerals. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), on the island of La Palma at the Spanish Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC, and with the IAC80 telescope on the island of Tenerife at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide of the IAC, under Director's discretionary time.

  17. Lesions targeted to the anterior forebrain disrupt vocal variability associated with testosterone-induced sensorimotor song development in adult female canaries, Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Melvin L; Ball, Gregory F

    2016-01-01

    Learned communication was a trait observed in a limited number of vertebrates such as humans but also songbirds (i.e., species in the suborder passeri sometimes called oscines). Robust male-biased sex-differences in song development and production have been observed in several songbird species. However, in some of these species treating adult females with testosterone (T) induced neuro-behavioral changes such that females become more male-like in brain and behavior. T-treatment in these adult females seemed to stimulate sensorimotor song development to facilitate song masculinization. In male songbirds it was known that the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN) played a modulatory role during song development. LMAN was androgen sensitive and may be a key target of a T-induced recapitulation of a developmental process in adult females. This hypothesis was tested. Adult female canaries were given either a chemical lesion of LMAN or a control sham-surgery. Prior to surgery birds were individually housed for 2-weeks in sound-attenuated chambers to record baseline vocal behavior. Post-surgery birds were given 1-week to recover before subcutaneous implantation with silastic capsules filled with crystalline-T. Birds remained on treatment for 3-weeks (behavioral recordings continued throughout). Birds with a lesion to LMAN had less variability in their song compared with controls. The diversity of syllable and phrase type(s) was greater in sham controls as compared with birds with LMAN lesions. Birds did not differ in song rate. These data suggested that the sustention and conclusion of T-induced sensorimotor song development in adult female canaries required an intact LMAN. PMID:25864444

  18. Flux-Calibrated Emission-Line Imaging of Extended Sources Using GTC/OSIRIS Tunable Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayya, Y. D.; Rosa González, D.; Vega, O.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E.; Bertone, E.; Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the utility of the tunable filters (TFs) for obtaining flux-calibrated emission-line maps of extended objects such as galactic nebulae and nearby galaxies using the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Despite the relatively large field of view (FoV) of OSIRIS (8' × 8'), the change in wavelength across the field (~80 Å) and the long tail of the TF spectral response function are hindrances for obtaining accurate flux-calibrated emission-line maps of extended sources. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that emission-line maps useful for diagnostics of nebulae can be generated over the entire FoV of OSIRIS if we make use of theoretically well-understood characteristics of TFs. We have successfully generated the flux-calibrated images of the nearby large late-type spiral galaxy M101 in the emission lines of Hα, [N II]λ6583, [S II]λ6716 and [S II]λ6731. We find that the present uncertainty in setting the central wavelength of TFs (~1 Å) is the biggest source of error in the emission-line fluxes. By comparing the Hα fluxes of H II regions in our images with the fluxes derived from Hα images obtained using narrow-band filters, we estimate an error of ~11% in our fluxes. The flux-calibration of the images was carried out by fitting the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) griz magnitudes of in-frame stars with the stellar spectra from the SDSS spectral database. This method resulted in an accuracy of 3% in flux-calibration of any narrow-band image, which is as good as, if not better than, what has been feasible using the observations of spectrophotometric standard stars. Thus time-consuming calibration images need not be taken. A user-friendly script under the IRAF environment was developed and is available on request. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the

  19. Optical Observations of Psr J2021+3651 in the Dragonfly Nebula With the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichenko, Aida; Danilenko, Andrey; Shternin, Peter; Shibanov, Yuriy; Ryspaeva, Elizaveta; Zyuzin, Dima; Durant, Martin; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    PSR J2021+3651 is a 17 kyr old rotation powered pulsar detected in the radio, X-rays, and γ-rays. It powers a torus-like pulsar wind nebula with jets, dubbed the Dragonfly, which is very similar to that of the Vela pulsar. The Dragonfly is likely associated with the extended TeV source VER J2019+368 and extended radio emission. We conducted first deep optical observations with the Gran Telescopio Canarias in the Sloan r‧ band to search for optical counterparts of the pulsar and its nebula. No counterparts were detected down to r‧ ≳ 27.2 and ≳24.8 for the point-like pulsar and the compact X-ray nebula, respectively. We also reanalyzed Chandra archival X-ray data taking into account an interstellar extinction-distance relation, constructed by us for the Dragonfly line of sight using the red-clump stars as standard candles. This allowed us to constrain the distance to the pulsar, D=1.8-1.4+1.7 kpc at 90% confidence. It is much smaller than the dispersion measure distance of ˜12 kpc but compatible with a γ-ray “pseudo-distance” of 1 kpc. Based on that and the optical upper limits, we conclude that PSR J2021+3651, similar to the Vela pulsar, is a very inefficient nonthermal emitter in the optical and X-rays, while its γ-ray efficiency is consistent with an average efficiency for γ-pulsars of similar age. Our optical flux upper limit for the pulsar is consistent with the long-wavelength extrapolation of its X-ray spectrum while the nebula flux upper limit does not constrain the respective extrapolation. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), instaled in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma, programme GTC3-11B.

  20. Solving Guzman's Problem: "An Other" Narrative of "La Gran Familia Puertorriquena" in Judith Ortiz Cofer's "The Line of the Sun"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, John V.

    2009-01-01

    The first half of Judith Ortiz Cofer's novel "The Line of the Sun" (1989) narrates events that take place in the small fictional town of Salud, Puerto Rico, during the 1940s and 50s. In the second part of the novel, starting with chapter six, the readers see how two characters from the first half, Rafael and Ramona, and their young children,…

  1. 77 FR 47522 - Special Local Regulation; Port Huron Offshore Gran Prix, St. Clair River; Port Huron, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ] A. Regulatory..., St. Clair River; Port Huron, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a special local regulation on the St. Clair River, Port Huron,...

  2. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV) that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD), Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i) to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii) to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV) bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife) were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST). Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST) showed that both haplotypes belong to

  3. Paleosecular variation of the earth magnetic field at the Canary Islands over the last 15 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Laj, C.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wandres, C.; Guillou, H.

    2015-02-01

    We report on new paleomagnetic directions obtained from 38 lava flows located at Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). One flow is a historical one (1706 AD) and 28 other flows are dated by radiocarbon between 1550 AD and about 13 200 BC. Nine other flows are not dated but they have stratigraphic links with the other flows. Thermomagnetic curves, unblocking temperatures and coercivities suggest that the main carrier of the remanent magnetization is titanomagnetite with various titanium contents in the pseudo-single domain range. Paleodirections were obtained by thermal and alternating field demagnetization on more than 400 specimens. The two youngest flows yield directions well consistent with the data previously published from the Canary Islands but only covering the last 500 yr. Comparison with model predictions indicates that the models account on the long-term for most of the data. However, on short-term scale, a better agreement is observed with the archeomagnetic-based model predictions (ARCH3K and SHA.DIF.14k). Two time intervals (between 25 BC and 85 AD and around 600-700 BC), however, are characterized by more variable paleomagnetic directions, suggesting that the variability of the earth magnetic field was faster than predicted by the models. On a wider geographical scale, a rather good consistency is observed between the Canarian dataset and those from Northern Africa, Spain and Azores. Field information is well consistent with paleomagnetic information for the undated sites and they both confirm that the eruption rate of the Gran Canaria volcanic system was high around 600 BC, 1000 BC and 4650 BC. Refined ages could be obtained for two of the undated sites using archeomagnetic dating. Combined with the data previously published for the last 500 yr, this new dataset is the first long PSV record available for the Canary Islands, significantly contributing to the archeomagnetic/paleomagnetic database at latitudes lower than 30°N. Improvement

  4. The dark nature of GRB 130528A and its host galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Bremer, M.; Winters, J. M.; Gorosabel, J.; Guziy, S.; Pandey, S. B.; Jelínek, M.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Sokolov, Ilya V.; Orekhova, N. V.; Moskvitin, A. S.; Tello, J. C.; Cunniffe, R.; Lara-Gil, O.; Oates, S. R.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Bai, J.; Fan, Y.; Wang, C.; Park, I. H.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We study the dark nature of GRB 130528A through multi-wavelength observations and conclude that the main reason for the optical darkness is local extinction inside of the host galaxy. Methods: Automatic observations were performed at the Burst Optical Observer and Transient Exploring System (BOOTES)-4/MET robotic telescope. We also triggered target of opportunity (ToO) observations at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC + OSIRIS). The host galaxy photometric observations in optical to near-infrared (nIR) wavelengths were achieved through large ground-based aperture telescopes, such as 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT), 6 m Bolshoi Teleskop Alt-azimutalnyi (BTA) telescope, and 2 m Liverpool Telescope (LT). Based on these observations, spectral energy distributions (SED) for the host galaxy and afterglow were constructed. Results: Thanks to millimetre (mm) observations at PdBI, we confirm the presence of a mm source within the XRT error circle that faded over the course of our observations and identify the host galaxy. However, we do not find any credible optical source within early observations with BOOTES-4/MET and 1.5 m OSN telescopes. Spectroscopic observation of this galaxy by GTC showed a single faint emission line that likely corresponds to [OII] 3727 Å at a redshift of 1.250 ± 0.001, implying a star formation rate (M⊙/yr) > 6.18 M⊙/yr without correcting for dust extinction. The probable line-of-sight extinction towards GRB 130528A is revealed through analysis of the afterglow SED, resulting in a value of A^GRBV≥ 0.9 at the rest frame; this is comparable to extinction levels found among other dark GRBs. The SED of the host galaxy is explained well (χ2/d.o.f. = 0.564) by a luminous (MB = -21.16), low-extinction (AV = 0, rest frame), and aged (2.6 Gyr) stellar population. We can explain this apparent contradiction in global and

  5. Transmission spectroscopy of the inflated exo-Saturn HAT-P-19b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallonn, M.; von Essen, C.; Weingrill, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Ribas, I.; Carroll, T. A.; Herrero, E.; Granzer, T.; Claret, A.; Schwope, A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Transiting highly inflated giant planets offer the possibility of characterizing their atmospheres. A fraction of the starlight passes through the high-altitude layers of the planetary atmosphere during transit. The resulting absorption is expected to be wavelength dependent for cloud-free atmospheres with an amplitude of up to 10-3 of the stellar flux, while a high-altitude cloud deck would cause a gray opacity. Aims: We observed the Saturn-mass and Jupiter-sized exoplanet HAT-P-19b to refine its transit parameters and ephemeris as well as to shed first light on its transmission spectrum. We monitored the host star over one year to quantify its flux variability and to correct the transmission spectrum for a slope caused by starspots. Methods: A transit of HAT-P-19b was observed spectroscopically with OSIRIS at the Gran Telescopio Canarias in January 2012. The spectra of the target and the comparison star covered the wavelength range from 5600 to 7600 Å. One high-precision differential light curve was created by integrating the entire spectral flux. This white-light curve was used to derive absolute transit parameters. Furthermore, a set of light curves over wavelength was formed by a flux integration in 41 wavelength channels of 50 Å width. We analyzed these spectral light curves for chromatic variations of transit depth. Results: The transit fit of the combined white-light curve yields a refined value of the planet-to-star radius ratio of 0.1390 ± 0.0012 and an inclination of 88.89 ± 0.32 deg. After a re-analysis of published data, we refine the orbital period to 4.0087844 ± 0.0000015 days. We obtain a flat transmission spectrum without significant additional absorption at any wavelength or any slope. However, our accuracy is not sufficient to significantly rule out the presence of a pressure-broadened sodium feature. Our photometric monitoring campaign allowed for an estimate of the stellar rotation period of 35.5 ± 2.5 days and an improved age

  6. A Sub-Arcsecond Mid-Infrared Survey of X-Ray-Selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson, N. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Packham, Chris; Los Piratas AGN Science Team

    2015-08-01

    Detailed studies of local active galactic nuclei (AGN) following X-ray selection yields significant measurements of the physical properties of the AGN and their host galaxies. In turn, the complete analysis of the nearby cases at high spatial resolution---to distinguish multiple physical components---and high signal-to-noise ratio informs broader surveys of more distant examples where such observations are not possible. We apply these methods in the Los Piratas survey, which emphasizes new observations at mid-infrared wavelengths obtained using CanariCam on the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We measure intrinsic bolometric luminosity of the roughly 100 AGN in the sample using X-rays, ensuring a span of luminosity over a range of activity level (from low-ionization nuclei through Seyfert galaxies and quasars), optical type, and radio loudness. The mid-infrared observations at resolution of ~0.3arcsec correspond to typical spatial scales of 60 pc for the low-luminosity AGN and Seyferts and 400 pc for other types. We isolate the AGN emission that is reprocessed by dust in the central regions, which we model in a clumpy distribution. We distinguish this emission from the stellar contributions on larger scales. Across types, the AGN-heated dust emission is overall well-correlated with the X-ray flux, but stellar contributions can be significant on larger scales, especially at moderate AGN luminosity.

  7. Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs). I. Discovery of 15 Quasars and Bright Galaxies at 5.7 z > 6.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Onoue, Masafusa; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Strauss, Michael A.; Nagao, Tohru; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niida, Mana; Toba, Yoshiki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Asami, Naoko; Bosch, James; Foucaud, Sébastien; Furusawa, Hisanori; Goto, Tomotsugu; Gunn, James E.; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kikuta, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H.; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Price, Paul A.; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Silverman, John D.; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tait, Philip J.; Takada, Masahiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tang, Ji-Jia; Utsumi, Yousuke

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at 5.7 < z < 6.9. This is the initial result from the Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars project, which exploits the exquisite multiband imaging data produced by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Strategic Program survey. The candidate selection is performed by combining several photometric approaches including a Bayesian probabilistic algorithm to reject stars and dwarfs. The spectroscopic identification was carried out with the Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Subaru Telescope for the first 80 deg2 of the survey footprint. The success rate of our photometric selection is quite high, approaching 100% at the brighter magnitudes (z AB < 23.5 mag). Our selection also recovered all the known high-z quasars on the HSC images. Among the 15 discovered objects, six are likely quasars, while the other six with interstellar absorption lines and in some cases narrow emission lines are likely bright Lyman-break galaxies. The remaining three objects have weak continua and very strong and narrow Lyα lines, which may be excited by ultraviolet light from both young stars and quasars. These results indicate that we are starting to see the steep rise of the luminosity function of z ≥ 6 galaxies, compared with that of quasars, at magnitudes fainter than M 1450 ∼ ‑22 mag or z AB ∼ 24 mag. Follow-up studies of the discovered objects as well as further survey observations are ongoing.

  8. Emergent littoral deposits in the eastern Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, Joaquin; Stearns, Charles E.

    1981-03-01

    K-Ar ages ( A. Abdel-Monem, P. D. Watkins, and P. W. Gast, 1971, American Journal of Science271, 490-521; this paper) and revised paleontological determinations ( J. Meco, 1977, "Los Strombus neogenos y cuatenarios del Atlantico euroafricano", Las Palmas, Ediciones del Excmo. Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria) show that "Quaternary" ( R. Crofts, 1967, Quaternaria 9, 247-260; G. Lecointre, K. J. Tinkler, and G. Richards, 1967, Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia Proceedings119, 325-344) littoral deposits on Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are early Pliocene and late Pleistocene. Early and middle Pleistocene strand lines are not represented. Early Pliocene littoral and marine deposits contain a characteristic fossil assemblage: Strombus coronatus, Nerità emiliana, Gryphaea virleti, Patella cf. intermedia, and Rothpletzia rudista. Differences in elevation record differential post-Pliocene uplift of the coastal platforms on which they lie. Late Pleistocene beach deposits at low elevations belong to two groups, an older with Strombus bubonius and a younger without. Differences in elevation of early Pliocene littoral deposits are reflected by differences in elevation of late Pleistocene beach deposits nearby.

  9. SmartPort: A Platform for Sensor Data Monitoring in a Seaport Based on FIWARE.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Pablo; Santana, José Miguel; Ortega, Sebastián; Trujillo, Agustín; Suárez, José Pablo; Domínguez, Conrado; Santana, Jaisiel; Sánchez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Seaport monitoring and management is a significant research area, in which infrastructure automatically collects big data sets that lead the organization in its multiple activities. Thus, this problem is heavily related to the fields of data acquisition, transfer, storage, big data analysis and information visualization. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria port is a good example of how a seaport generates big data volumes through a network of sensors. They are placed on meteorological stations and maritime buoys, registering environmental parameters. Likewise, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) registers several dynamic parameters about the tracked vessels. However, such an amount of data is useless without a system that enables a meaningful visualization and helps make decisions. In this work, we present SmartPort, a platform that offers a distributed architecture for the collection of the port sensors' data and a rich Internet application that allows the user to explore the geolocated data. The presented SmartPort tool is a representative, promising and inspiring approach to manage and develop a smart system. It covers a demanding need for big data analysis and visualization utilities for managing complex infrastructures, such as a seaport. PMID:27011192

  10. Wolf-Rayet stars in M81: detection and characterization using GTC/OSIRIS spectra and HST/ACS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-González, V. M. A.; Mayya, Y. D.; Rosa-González, D.

    2016-08-01

    We here report the properties of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in 14 locations in the nearby spiral galaxy M81. These locations were found serendipitously while analysing the slit spectra of a sample of ˜150 star-forming complexes, taken using the long-slit and multiobject spectroscopic modes of the OSIRIS instrument at the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias. Colours and magnitudes of the identified point sources in the Hubble Space Telescope images compare well with those of individual W-R stars in the Milky Way. Using templates of individual W-R stars, we infer that the objects responsible for the observed W-R features are single stars in 12 locations, comprising of three WNLs, three WNEs, two WCEs and four transitional WN/C types. In diagrams involving bump luminosities and the width of the bumps, the W-R stars of the same sub-class group together, with the transitional stars occupying locations intermediate between the WNE and WCE groups, as expected from the evolutionary models. However, the observed number of 4 transitional stars out of our sample of 14 is statistically high as compared to the 4 per cent expected in stellar evolutionary models.

  11. Diffuse Helium and Hydrogen Degassing to Reveal Hidden Geothermal Resources in Oceanic Volcanic Islands: The Canarian Archipelago Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Dionis, Samara; López, Gabriel; Marrero, Rayco; Padilla, Germán D.; Barrancos, José; Hidalgo, Raúl

    2015-05-01

    We report herein the results of soil gas geochemistry studies, focused mainly on nonreactive and/or highly mobile gases such as He and H2, in five mining licenses at Tenerife and Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain, during 2011-2014. The primary objective was to sort the possible geothermal potential of these five mining licenses, thus reducing the uncertainty inherent to the selection of the areas with highest geothermal potential for future exploration works. By combining the overall information obtained by the statistical-graphical analysis of the soil He and H2 data, the spatial distribution of soil gas concentrations and the analysis of selected chemical ratios of the soil gas to evaluate the influence of deep-seating degassing, two of the five mining licenses ( Garehagua and Abeque, both located in Tenerife Island) seemed to show the highest geothermal potential. These results will be useful for future implementation and development of geothermal energy in the Canaries, the only Spanish territory with potential high-enthalpy geothermal resources, thus the most promising area for high-enthalpy geothermal installations.

  12. A mitochondrial analysis reveals distinct founder effect signatures in Canarian and Balearic goats.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, A; Manunza, A; Jordana, J; Capote, J; Pons, A; Pais, J; Delgado, T; Atoche, P; Cabrera, B; Martínez, A; Landi, V; Delgado, J V; Argüello, A; Vidal, O; Lalueza-Fox, C; Ramírez, O; Amills, M

    2015-08-01

    In the course of human migrations, domestic animals often have been translocated to islands with the aim of assuring food availability. These founder events are expected to leave a genetic footprint that may be recognised nowadays. Herewith, we have examined the mitochondrial diversity of goat populations living in the Canarian and Balearic archipelagos. Median-joining network analysis produced very distinct network topologies for these two populations. Indeed, a majority of Canarian goats shared a single ancestral haplotype that segregated in all sampled islands, suggesting a single founder effect followed by a stepping-stone pattern of diffusion. This haplotype also was present in samples collected from archaeological assemblies at Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, making evident its widespread distribution in ancient times. In stark contrast, goats from Majorca and Ibiza did not share any mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating the occurrence of two independent founder events. Furthermore, in Majorcan goats, we detected the segregation of the mitochondrial G haplogroup that has only been identified in goats from Egypt, Iran and Turkey. This finding suggests the translocation of Asian and/or African goats to Majorca, possibly as a consequence of the Phoenician and Carthaginian colonisations of this island. PMID:26153924

  13. Identification of a novel assemblage G subgenotype and a zoonotic assemblage B in rodent isolates of Giardia duodenalis in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Feliu, Carlos; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

    2014-02-01

    The flagellated parasite Giardia duodenalis is known as one of the most common causes of protozoal diarrhoea in both humans and animals worldwide. The aim of the present work was to perform the first study of G. duodenalis in rodents in the Canary Islands (Spain) and analyse the level of genetic variation and the potential zoonotic role of the isolates. Stool samples were collected from 284 wild rodents and Giardia cysts were detected by light microscopy. The overall prevalence of giardiasis was 25 · 4% and ranged from 19 · 4% in El Hierro to 34% in Gran Canaria. Positive samples were further characterized by PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), β-giardin (BG) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes. Our study revealed assemblage G as the most frequent genotype and identified two rodent-infecting G. duodenalis haplotypes of this assemblage, HI and HII. Phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of haplotype HI, which we suggest to be considered as a novel G. duodenalis sub-assemblage GII, due to the high genetic distances among this sub-genotype and assemblage G. Furthermore, G. duodenalis assemblage B was detected in an inhabited area in La Palma, a fact that may pose a potential risk of G. duodenalis transmission from rodents to humans. PMID:24001274

  14. Development of a sensitive determination method for benzotriazole UV stabilizers in enviromental water samples with stir bar sorption extraction and liquid desorption prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; del Toro-Moreno, Adrián; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2013-07-01

    Benzotriazole UV stabilizers are emerging compounds used in personal care products and can enter surface water after passing through wastewater treatment plants without being removed. Because these analytes are strongly hydrophobic, there is an environmental risk of accumulation in solid matrices and magnification through the trophic chain. In this work, a method based on stir bar sorption extraction with liquid desorption is presented for the extraction of benzotriazole UV stabilizers from water samples. Stir bar sorptive extraction was combined with ultra-high performance LC with MS/MS detection. All important factors affecting the stir bar sorptive extraction procedure are discussed, and the optimized method was applied to seawater and wastewater samples from Gran Canaria Island, providing good selectivity and sensitivity with LODs and limits of quantification in the range of 18.4-55.1 and 61.5-184 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries between 68.4-92.2% were achieved for the more polar compounds, whereas the recoveries were lower for the two less polar compounds, most likely due to their strong absorption into the polydimethylsiloxane stir bar phase that does not allows the complete desorption. The repeatability studies gave RSDs of between 6.45 and 12.6% for all compounds in the real samples. PMID:23576387

  15. Kinematic modeling and path planning for MIRADAS arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, Josep; Gómez, José María.; López, Manuel; Torra, Jordi; Raines, Steven N.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a near-infrared (NIR) multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). It can simultaneously observe multiple targets selected by 20 identical deployable probe arms with pickoff mirror optics. The bases of the arms are fixed to the multiplexing system (MXS) plate, a circular platform, and arranged in a circular layout with minimum separation between elements of the arms. This document presents the MXS prototype P2a, a full-scale, fully operational prototype of a MIRADAS probe arm. This planar closed-loop mechanism compared to other previous designs offers some advantages specially in terms of stability and from the point of view of optics. Unfortunately, these benefits come at the expense of a more complicated kinematics and an unintuitive arm motion. Furthermore, the cryogenic motor controllers used in prototyping impose severe restrictions in path planing. They negatively impact in the slice of pie approach, a collision-avoidance patrolling strategy that can gives good results in other scenarios. This study is a starting point to define collision-free trajectory algorithms for the 20 probe arms of MIRADAS.

  16. THE DUST ENVIRONMENT OF MAIN-BELT COMET P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F.

    2013-06-20

    The Main-Belt Comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) has been imaged using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope at six epochs in the period from 2012 November to 2013 February, with the aim of monitoring its dust environment. The dust tails' brightness and morphology are best interpreted in terms of a model of sustained dust emission spanning four to six months. The total dust mass ejected is estimated at {approx}6-25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} kg. We assume a time-independent power-law size distribution function, with particles in the micrometer to centimeter size range. Based on the quality of the fits to the isophote fields, an anisotropic emission pattern is favored against an isotropic one, in which the particle ejection is concentrated toward high latitudes ({+-}45 Degree-Sign to {+-}90 Degree-Sign ) in a high-obliquity object (I = 80 Degree-Sign ). This seasonally driven ejection behavior, along with the modeled particle ejection velocities, are in remarkable agreement to those we found for P/2010 R2 (La Sagra).

  17. No evidence for large-scale outflows in the extended ionized halo of ULIRG Mrk273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, R. A. W.; Zaurín, J. Rodríguez; Tadhunter, C. N.; Rose, M.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Spoon, H.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.

    2016-06-01

    We present deep new Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) narrow-band images and William Herschel Telescope (WHT) long-slit spectroscopy of the merging system Mrk273 that show a spectacular extended halo of warm ionized gas out to a radius of ˜45 kpc from the system nucleus. Outside of the immediate nuclear regions (r > 6 kpc), there is no evidence for kinematic disturbance in the ionized gas: in the extended regions covered by our spectroscopic slits the emission lines are relatively narrow (full width at half-maximum, FWHM ≲ 350 km s-1) and velocity shifts small (|ΔV| ≲ 250 km s-1). This is despite the presence of powerful near-nuclear outflows (FWHM > 1000 km s-1; |ΔV| > 400 km s-1; r < 6 kpc). Diagnostic ratio plots are fully consistent with Seyfert 2 photoionization to the NE of the nuclear region, however to the SW the plots are more consistent with low-velocity radiative shock models. The kinematics of the ionized gas, combined with the fact that the main structures are aligned with low-surface-brightness tidal continuum features, are consistent with the idea that the ionized halo represents tidal debris left over from a possible triple-merger event, rather than a reservoir of outflowing gas.

  18. VELOCITY DISPERSIONS AND STELLAR POPULATIONS OF THE MOST COMPACT AND MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT {approx}1

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Manso, Jesus; Guzman, Rafael; Barro, Guillermo; Cardiel, Nicolas; Gallego, Jesus; Cenarro, Javier; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Trujillo, Ignacio; Balcells, Marc; Hempel, Angela; Prieto, Mercedes

    2011-09-10

    We present Gran-Telescopio-Canarias/OSIRIS optical spectra of four of the most compact and massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Groth Strip Survey at redshift z {approx} 1, with effective radii R{sub e} = 0.5-2.4 kpc and photometric stellar masses M{sub *} = (1.2-4) x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. We find that these galaxies have velocity dispersions {sigma} = 156-236 km s{sup -1}. The spectra are well fitted by single stellar population models with approximately 1 Gyr of age and solar metallicity. We find that (1) the dynamical masses of these galaxies are systematically smaller by a factor of {approx}6 than the published stellar masses using BRIJK photometry, and (2) when estimating stellar masses as 0.7x M{sub dyn}, a combination of passive luminosity fading with mass/size growth due to minor mergers can plausibly evolve our objects to match the properties of the local population of ETGs.

  19. FISICA: the Florida imager slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Julian, Jeff; Boreman, Glenn; Glenn, Paul; Hull-Allen, Gregory; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Rodgers, Michael; Thompson, Kevin; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell; Myrick, Bruce

    2006-06-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and on-sky performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R~1300 spectra over a 16x33-arcsec field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-meter telescope, or a 6x12-arcsec field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-meter telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design and fabrication of FISICA, as well as laboratory test results for FISICA integrated with the FLAMINGOS instrument. Finally, we present performance results from observations with FISICA at the KPNO 4-m telescope and comparisons of FISICA performance to other available IFUs on 4-m to 8-m-class telescopes.

  20. Cryogenic tests of bimetallic diamond-turned mirrors for the FRIDA integral field unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, Curtis; Eikenberry, Stephen; Cuevas Cardona, Salvador; Chapa, Oscar; Espejo, Carlos; Keiman, Carolina; Sanchez, Beatriz

    2008-07-01

    We describe diamond-turned material tests for the integral field unit (IFU) for the FRIDA instrument (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias). FRIDA is closely based on the design of the successful FISICA cryogenic infrared image slicing device, which used "monolithic" mirror arrays, diamond turned into single pieces of metal. FRIDA, however, will require better roughness characteristics than the 15nm RMS of FISICA to avoid light scatter in FRIDA's shorter wavelength limit (900nm). Al 6061 seems to be limited to this roughness level by its silicate inclusions so some new combination of materials that are compatible with FRIDA's Al 6061 structure must be found. To this end, we have tested six diamond-turned mirrors with different materials and different platings. We used the Zygo interferometer facility at IA-UNAM to do warm and cold profile measurements of the mirrors to investigate possible bimetallic deformation effects. We present a detailed comparison of the various performance characteristics of the test mirrors.

  1. FISICA: the Florida image slicer for infrared cosmology and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Elston, Richard; Guzman, Rafael; Julian, Jeff; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas; Boreman, Glenn; Glenn, Paul E.; Hull-Allen, C. Gregory; Hoffman, Jeff; Rodgers, Michael; Thompson, Kevin; Flint, Scott; Comstock, Lovell; Myrick, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    We report on the design and status of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) - a fully-cryogenic all-reflective image-slicing integral field unit for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph. Designed to accept input beams near f/15, FISICA with FLAMINGOS provides R~1300 spectra over a 16x33-arcsec field-of-view on the Cassegrain f/15 focus of the KPNO 4-meter telescope, or a 6x12-arcsec field-of-view on the Nasmyth or Bent Cassegrain foci of the Gran Telescopio Canarias 10.4-meter telescope. FISICA accomplishes this using three sets of "monolithic" powered mirror arrays, each with 22 mirrored surfaces cut into a single piece of aluminum. We review the optical and opto-mechanical design and fabrication of FISICA, as well as laboratory test results for FISICA integrated with the FLAMINGOS instrument. We also discuss plans for first-light observations on the KPNO 4-meter telescope in July 2004.

  2. Beyond 31 mag arcsec‑2: The Frontier of Low Surface Brightness Imaging with the Largest Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Fliri, Jüergen

    2016-06-01

    The detection of structures in the sky with optical surface brightnesses fainter than 30 mag arcsec‑2 (3σ in 10 × 10 arcsec boxes; r-band) has remained elusive in current photometric deep surveys. Here we show how present-day telescopes of 10 m class can provide broadband imaging 1.5–2 mag deeper than most previous results within a reasonable amount of time (i.e., <10 hr on-source integration). In particular, we illustrate the ability of the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias telescope to produce imaging with a limiting surface brightness of 31.5 mag arcsec‑2 (3σ in 10 × 10 arcsec boxes; r-band) using 8.1 hr on source. We apply this power to explore the stellar halo of the galaxy UGC 00180, a galaxy analogous to M31 located at ∼150 Mpc, by obtaining a radial profile of surface brightness down to μ r ∼ 33 mag arcsec‑2. This depth is similar to that obtained using the star-counts techniques for Local Group galaxies, but is achieved at a distance where this technique is unfeasible. We find that the mass of the stellar halo of this galaxy is ∼4 × 109 M ⊙, i.e., (3 ± 1)% of the total stellar mass of the whole system. This amount of mass in the stellar halo is in agreement with current theoretical expectations for galaxies of this kind.

  3. Exoplanet observations with GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallé, Enric

    2015-12-01

    Our group is presently conducting an observational campaign, using the 10-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), to obtain the transmission spectrum of several exoplanets during a transit event. The GTC instrument OSIRIS is used in its long-slit spectroscopic mode, covering the spectral range of 520-1040 nm, and observations are taken using a set of custom-built slits of various, broad, widths. We integrate the stellar flux of both stars in different wavelength regions producing several light curves and fit transit models in order to obtain the star-to-planet radius ratio Rp/Rs across wavelength. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Bayesian approach is used for the transit fitting. We will show that with our instrumental setup, OSIRIS has been able to reach precisions down to 250 ppm (WASP-48b, V=11.06 mag) for each color light curve 10 nm wide, in a single transit. And accuracies of the order of 500ppm can be obtained for objects with V=16. Central transit timing accuracies have been measured down to 6 seconds.Here, we will present refined planet parameters, the detection of planet color signatures, and the transmission spectra of a set of know and unpublished transiting exoplanets. We will also discuss the capabilities and limitations of GTC with current and future instrumentation, and the role of GTC as tool for the follow up of faint exoplanet targets.

  4. Identification of the risk factors associated with cheese production to implement the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system on cheese farms.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Conrado; Millán, Rafael; Saavedra, Pedro; Jaber, José Raduán; Raposo, António; Sanjuán, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate, by statistical analyses, risk factors on cheese farms that can influence the microbial contamination of their products. Various assessment tools, such as cheese production questionnaires, food handlers' knowledge testing, and hygiene assessment system surveys, were used on 39 cheese farms on the island of Gran Canaria, Spain. The microbiological status of 773 raw milk and cheese samples from the cheese farms was assessed by enumerating total viable counts and 4 pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. The results revealed that the highest contamination by Staph. aureus (4.39%, >10(5)cfu/mL) was found in milk, and the highest contamination by E. coli (5.18%, >10(3) cfu/mL) was found in cheese. Very few samples (0.52%) were contaminated by L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. The factors associated with any tested microorganism were "handling," "knowledge," and "type of milk." Subsequently, multidimensional logistic analysis for contamination by E. coli showed an independent association for factors "cleaning and disinfection test" and "type of milk." The probability of total aerobic contamination of milk increased with lower hygiene assessment system survey scores. These results emphasize the need to apply and maintain good hygiene practices, and to study risk factors to prevent contamination and bacterial growth. Further research is required in other areas with different cheese farm types to reinforce the validity of these results. PMID:26851842

  5. An observation planning algorithm applied to multi-objective astronomical observations and its simulation in COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic sky surveys are now booming, such as LAMOST already built by China, BIGBOSS project put forward by the U.S. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias) telescope developed by the United States, Mexico and Spain. They all use or will use this approach and each fiber can be moved within a certain area for one astrology target, so observation planning is particularly important for this Sky Surveys. One observation planning algorithm used in multi-objective astronomical observations is developed. It can avoid the collision and interference between the fiber positioning units in the focal plane during the observation in one field of view, and the interested objects can be ovserved in a limited round with the maximize efficiency. Also, the observation simulation can be made for wide field of view through multi-FOV observation. After the observation planning is built ,the simulation is made in COSMOS field using GTC telescope. Interested galaxies, stars and high-redshift LBG galaxies are selected after the removal of the mask area, which may be bright stars. Then 9 FOV simulation is completed and observation efficiency and fiber utilization ratio for every round are given. Otherwise,allocating a certain number of fibers for background sky, giving different weights for different objects and how to move the FOV to improve the overall observation efficiency are discussed.

  6. Thermal Emission Photometry of Deep Impact Flyby Target (163249) 2002 GT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J. P.; Reddy, V.; Vilas, F.; 2002 GT Observing Team

    2013-10-01

    Near-Earth asteroid (163249) 2002 GT is now the target of a Deep Impact spacecraft flyby in Jan. 2020 (see Pittichova et al., this volume, for details of the flyby and observing campaign). Thermal emission photometry of 2002 GT was obtained from NIRI on Gemini-North in the L' and M' filters, which are centered at 3.76 and 4.68 microns respectively. J- and K-band reflectance photometry was also acquired in support of the thermal observations. The full JKL'M' set was acquired on UT 2013-Jun-13 at a solar phase angle of 53 degrees. A further set of photometry in J, K, and L' only was carried out on 2013-Jun-19 at a phase angle of 65 degrees. High water vapor conditions at Mauna Kea during this period unfortunately prevented acquisition of a second set of M' measurements. In addition, N-band photometry of 2002 GT was conducted on 2013-Jun-10 from CanariCam at the 10-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias using a beta version of the moving object guiding system. Data were acquired in three filters between 8.7 and 12.5 microns, although the limitations of the guiding are complicating the analysis. (We note that N-band observing was not offered by either Gemini or IRTF during this apparition.) Data analysis is ongoing and results will be discussed. We appreciate the efforts of the Gemini and GTC staff in support of these observing programs.

  7. Early Evolution of Disrupted Asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Licandro, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Pozuelos, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep imaging observations of activated asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) from 2016 late April to early June. The images are best interpreted as the result of a relatively short-duration event with an onset of about {350}-30+10 days before perihelion (i.e., around 2016 February 10), starting sharply and decreasing with {24}-7+10 days (HWHM). The results of the modeling imply that the emission of ∼1.7 × 107 kg of dust, if composed of particles of 1 μm to 1 cm in radius, is distributed following a power law of index ‑3 and having a geometric albedo of 0.15. A detailed fitting of a conspicuous westward feature in the head of the comet-like object indicates that a significant fraction of the dust was ejected along a privileged direction right at the beginning of the event, which suggests that the parent body has possibly suffered an impact followed by a partial or total disruption. From the limiting magnitude reachable with the instrumental setup, and assuming a geometric albedo of 0.15 for the parent body, an upper limit for the size of possible fragment debris of ∼50 m in radius is derived.

  8. Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs). I. Discovery of 15 Quasars and Bright Galaxies at 5.7 z > 6.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Onoue, Masafusa; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Strauss, Michael A.; Nagao, Tohru; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niida, Mana; Toba, Yoshiki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Asami, Naoko; Bosch, James; Foucaud, Sébastien; Furusawa, Hisanori; Goto, Tomotsugu; Gunn, James E.; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kikuta, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H.; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Price, Paul A.; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Silverman, John D.; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tait, Philip J.; Takada, Masahiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tang, Ji-Jia; Utsumi, Yousuke

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at 5.7 < z < 6.9. This is the initial result from the Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars project, which exploits the exquisite multiband imaging data produced by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Strategic Program survey. The candidate selection is performed by combining several photometric approaches including a Bayesian probabilistic algorithm to reject stars and dwarfs. The spectroscopic identification was carried out with the Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Subaru Telescope for the first 80 deg2 of the survey footprint. The success rate of our photometric selection is quite high, approaching 100% at the brighter magnitudes (z AB < 23.5 mag). Our selection also recovered all the known high-z quasars on the HSC images. Among the 15 discovered objects, six are likely quasars, while the other six with interstellar absorption lines and in some cases narrow emission lines are likely bright Lyman-break galaxies. The remaining three objects have weak continua and very strong and narrow Lyα lines, which may be excited by ultraviolet light from both young stars and quasars. These results indicate that we are starting to see the steep rise of the luminosity function of z ≥ 6 galaxies, compared with that of quasars, at magnitudes fainter than M 1450 ˜ ‑22 mag or z AB ˜ 24 mag. Follow-up studies of the discovered objects as well as further survey observations are ongoing.

  9. Testing the AGN unification model in the infrared. First results with GTC/CanariCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Almeida, C.

    2015-05-01

    The unified model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) accounts for a variety of observational differences in terms of viewing geometry alone. However, from the fitting of high spatial resolution infrared (IR) data with clumpy torus models, it has been hinted that the immediate dusty surroundings of Type-1 and 2 Seyfert nuclei might be intrinsically different in terms of covering factor (torus width and number of clouds). Moreover, these torus covering factors also showed variations among objects belonging to the same type, in contradiction with simple unification. Interestingly, these intrinsic differences in Seyfert tori could explain, for example, the lack of broad optical lines in the polarized spectra of about half of the brightest Seyfert 2 galaxies. On the other hand, recent IR interferometry studies have revealed that, in at least four Seyfert galaxies, the mid-IR emission is elongated in the polar direction. These results are difficult to reconcile with unified models, which claim that the bulk of the mid-IR emission comes from the torus. In this invited contribution I summarize the latest results on high angular resolution IR studies of AGN, which constitute a crucial test for AGN unification. These results include those from the mid-infrared instrument CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), which are starting to be published by the CanariCam AGN team, Los Piratas (https://sites.google.com/site/piratasrelatedpublications).

  10. MEGARA fiber bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Calpena, A.; García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Arrillaga, X.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Martínez-Delgado, I.; Carrera, M. A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Sánchez-Moreno, F. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2014-07-01

    MEGARA (Multi Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the future optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). MEGARA has three different fiber bundles, the Large Central Bundle covering 12.5 arcsec x 11.3 arcsec on sky, the Small Compact Bundle, of 8.5 arcsec x 6.7 arcsec, and a Fiber MOS positioner system that is able to place up to 100 mini-bundles with 7 fibers each in MOS configuration within a 3.5 arcmin x 3.5 arcmin FOV. The MEGARA focal plane subsystems are located at one of the GTC Folded Cassegrain focal stations. A field lens provides a telecentric focal plane, where the fibers are located. Micro-lenses arrays couple the telescope beam to the collimator focal ratio at the entrance of the fibers. Finally, the fibers, organized in bundles conducted the light from the focal plane to the pseudo-slit plates at the entrance of the MEGARA spectrograph, which shall be located at one of the Nasmyth platforms. This article also summarizes the prototypes already done and describes the set-up that shall be used to integrate fibers and micro-lens and characterize the fiber bundles.

  11. Spectrally Resolved Intensities of Ultra-Dense Hot Aluminum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, J. M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J. G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Sauvan, P.; Angelo, P.; Dalimier, E.; Schott, R.; Mancini, R.

    2008-10-22

    We present a first study of spectroscopic determination of electron temperature and density spatial profiles of aluminum K-shell line emission spectra from laser-shocked aluminum experiments performed at LULI. The radiation emitted by the aluminum plasma was dispersed with an ultra-high resolution spectrograph ({lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{approx_equal}6000). From the recorded films one can extract a set of time-integrated emission lineouts associated with the corresponding spatial region of the plasma. The observed spectra include the Ly{alpha}, He{beta}, He{gamma}, Ly{beta} and Ly{gamma} line emissions and their associated He- and Li-like satellites thus covering a photon energy range from 1700 eV to 2400 eV approximately. The data analysis rely on the ABAKO/RAPCAL computational package, which has been recently developed at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and takes into account non-equilibrium collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark broadened line shapes and radiation transport calculations.

  12. FRIDA integral field unit manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a cryogenic and diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. This instrument will be installed at Nasmyth B station, behind the GTC Adaptive Optics system (GTCAO). FRIDA will provide the IFS mode using a 30 slices Integral Field Unit (IFU). This IFU design is based on the University of Florida FISICA where the mirror block arrays are diamond turned on monolithic metal blocks. The FRIDA IFU is of the slicer type; conformed mainly by 3 mirror blocks with 30 spherical mirrors each. It also has a Schwarzschild relay based on two off axis spherical mirrors and an afocal system of two parabolic off axis mirrors. Including two insertion mirrors the IFU holds 96 metal mirrors. All the mirrors have been manufactured by diamond turning techniques on monolithic blocks of aluminum 6061-T6 coated by a Nickel alloy. Except for the Schwarzschild relay and the insertion mirrors, 92 mirrors were manufactured by Corning in Keene NH, USA. The different blocks and mirrors are mounted on an opto-mechanical support that ensures the image quality and integrity of the complete IFU. In this work advances on the manufacturing of the FRIDA IFU components are described. Furthermore, the mirror blocks individual verification tests and are also described.

  13. Episodic star formation in a group of LAEs at z = 5.07

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; González-Martín, O.; Castro Rodríguez, N.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Cava, A.; Cardiel, N.; Cabrera Lavers, A.; Gallego, J.; Hernán Caballero, A.; Herrera Ruiz, N.; Ramírez Olivencia, N.

    2014-10-01

    We are undertaking a search for high-redshift low-luminosity Lyman Alpha sources in the SHARDS (Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources) survey. Among the pre-selected Lyman Alpha sources two candidates were spotted, located 3.19 arcsec apart, and tentatively at the same redshift. Here, we report on the spectroscopic confirmation with Gran Telescopio Canarias of the Lyman Alpha emission from this pair of galaxies at a confirmed spectroscopic redshifts of z=5.07. Furthermore, one of the sources is interacting/merging with another close companion that looks distorted. Based on the analysis of the spectroscopy and additional photometric data, we infer that most of the stellar mass of these objects was assembled in a burst of star formation 100 Myr ago. A more recent burst (2 Myr old) is necessary to account for the measured Lyman Alpha flux. We claim that these two galaxies are good examples of Lyman Alpha sources undergoing episodic star formation. Besides, these sources very likely constitute a group of interacting Lyman Alpha emitters (LAEs).

  14. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR = 1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p = 0.024). Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk. PMID:22534004

  15. Kinematic model for Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain): Geodynamic interpretation in the Nubian plate context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrocoso, M.; Carmona, J.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Pérez-Peña, A.; Ortiz, R.; García, A.

    2010-12-01

    Establishment of a geodetic network in Tenerife is the starting point for the use of GPS and other precise geodetic techniques in the support of the study of kinematics and their relation with island volcanic activity. This paper is focused on the characterization of volcanotectonic activity of Tenerife, to determine the geodynamic framework for volcanic surveillance. TEGETEIDE network, set up in 2005 and re-observed each year, is composed of seven GNSS-GPS stations scattered throughout the island. A horizontal deformation model is presented in order to explain the observed island displacement pattern in the geodynamic context of the Nubian plate. According to the models obtained, the most important geologic structures, such as the volcanic rifts and the caldera, determine the current deformation pattern of Tenerife. The geodynamics of the most stable areas of the island behave similarly to that observed from the permanent GNSS-GPS reference stations located in La Palma and Gran Canaria Islands. Anomalous geodynamic behaviour has been detected in two zones of Tenerife, which configure an NW-SE axis crossing the central sector of the island, related with the volcanotectonic activity of the island and its surroundings.

  16. Reappraisal of the extinction of Canariomys bravoi, the giant rat from Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Galván, Bertila; Navarro, Juan Francisco

    2014-06-01

    All the Quaternary endemic rodents of the Canary Islands are currently extinct. The Lava Mouse Malpaisomys insularis inhabited the easternmost islands, whereas the giant rats Canariomys bravoi and Canariomys tamarani lived in the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, respectively. Bones of C. bravoi have appeared in archaeological sites together with shellfish and butchery remains. Traditionally, they have been considered as an evidence of the sporadic consumption of C. bravoi by the aboriginal people, in some instances as recently as the time of the first European contact (14th century AD). Accordingly, the extinction of C. bravoi has been linked to the European colonization of Tenerife. The plausibility of this extinction date has been explored through new radiocarbon dates obtained on selected C. bravoi bones and through a reappraisal of the published dates. Our analysis allowed us to establish an earlier last documented occurrence age for C. bravoi, prior to the third century cal BC, much earlier than previously assumed. The analysis of formerly published 14C dates of archaeological remains from Tenerife shows that samples with confidence intervals (95.54%) that are older or overlap with the last documented record of C. bravoi were performed on materials with large sources of error (such as wood, charcoal or bulk ash-sediments). Conversely, the new radiocarbon dates and analyses presented herein are in agreement with the occurrence of an earlier rapid extinction linked to the first human presence on the island.

  17. Intermittent dust mass loss from activated asteroid P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F.

    2014-02-01

    We present observations and models of the dust environment of activated asteroid P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS). The object displayed a complex morphology during the observations, with the presence of multiple tails. We combined our own observations, all made with instrumentation attached to the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias on La Palma, with previously published Hubble Space Telescope images to build a model aimed at fitting all the observations. Altogether, the data cover a full three month period of observations which can be explained by intermittent dust loss. The most plausible scenario is that of an asteroid rotating with the spinning axis oriented perpendicular to the orbit plane and losing mass from the equatorial region, consistent with rotational break-up. Assuming that the ejection velocity of the particles (v ∼ 0.02-0.05 m s{sup –1}) corresponds to the escape velocity, the object diameter is constrained to ∼30-130 m for bulk densities 3000-1000 kg m{sup –3}.

  18. Evidence of Helminth Infection in Guanche Mummies: Integrating Paleoparasitological and Paleogenetic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Gijón-Botella, Herminia; Del Carmen Del Arco-Aguilar, María; Martín-Oval, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Maffiotte, Conrado; Del Arco-Aguilar, Mercedes; Araújo, Adauto; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2016-04-01

    The Guanches, ancient inhabitants of the Canary Islands, Spain, practiced mummification of their dead. A paleoparasitological and paleogenetic analysis was conducted on mummified bodies (n = 6) (AD 1200, Cal BP 750) belonging to the Guanche culture from Gran Canaria Island. Coprolite and sediment samples (n = 19) were removed from below the abdominal region or sacral foramina. The samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution for 72 hr at 4 C, and the paleoparasitological investigation was conducted by spontaneous sedimentation method and microscopic examination. The results revealed the presence of well-preserved eggs of Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis , and hookworms. Ancient DNA was extracted from sediment samples to elucidate the ancestry of the mummies and for molecular detection of Ascaris sp. infection. Results of paleogenetic analysis demonstrated Ascaris sp. infection using 2 molecular targets, cytb and nad1. The mtDNA haplotypes U6b, U6b1, and HV were identified, which confirmed records of Guanche ancestry. The excellent preservation of Guanche mummies facilitated the paleoparasitological and paleogenetic study, the results of which contribute to our knowledge of Guanche culture and their health status. PMID:26641720

  19. A dispersive liquid-liquid micellar microextraction for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewaters using ultra-high-performace liquid chromatography with DAD detection.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Mahugo-Santana, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2015-03-01

    A dispersive liquid-liquid micellar microextraction (DLLMME) method coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using Diode Array Detector (DAD) detector was developed for the analysis of five pharmaceutical compounds of different nature in wastewaters. A micellar solution of a surfactant, polidocanol, as extraction solvent (100 μL) and chloroform as dispersive solvent (200 μL) were used to extract and preconcentrate the target analytes. Samples were heated above critical temperature and the cloudy solution was centrifuged. After removing the chloroform, the reduced volume of surfactant was then injected in the UHPLC system. In order to obtain high extraction efficiency, the parameters affecting the liquid-phase microextraction, such as time and temperature extraction, ionic strength and surfactant and organic solvent volume, were optimized using an experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, this procedure allows enrichment factors of up to 47-fold. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 µg/L for the different pharmaceuticals. Relative standard deviations were <26% for all compounds. The procedure was applied to samples from final effluent collected from wastewater treatment plants in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain), and two compounds were measured at 67 and 113 µg/L in one of them. PMID:25056775

  20. [Influence of promotional material on hand hygiene in the safety culture of a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Molina-Cabrillana, J; Dorta-Hung, M E; Otero Sanz, L; Henández Vera, J R; Martín-Rodríguez, M M; García de Carlos, P

    2016-06-01

    In order to increase safety culture about hand hygiene by means of messages and reminders about its importance in preventing nosocomial infections, we developed a new set of materials in the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil of Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, constitued by two centres with 450 beds each and acredited for medical internal residents training. We hired a well-known caricaturist, who adapted the messages to the local way of speaking, by using characters that used to appear in his artwork in the local newspaper. Also, we continued to work with other graphic design professionals. We monitored adherence and consumption of products for hand rubbing. We noted an increase in both indicators in the following months after the implementation of this strategy. Moreover, we revised the infrastructures for hand hygiene, and were able to demonstrate improvements in most of the patient care areas. The material was well accepted by professionals, patients and visitors. No other interventions were made, so we think improvements can be attributable to this strategy in our setting. PMID:27157796

  1. Three-dimensional inverse modelling of magnetic anomaly sources based on a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Blanco-Montenegro, Isabel; Arnoso, José

    2016-04-01

    We present a modelling method to estimate the 3-D geometry and location of homogeneously magnetized sources from magnetic anomaly data. As input information, the procedure needs the parameters defining the magnetization vector (intensity, inclination and declination) and the Earth's magnetic field direction. When these two vectors are expected to be different in direction, we propose to estimate the magnetization direction from the magnetic map. Then, using this information, we apply an inversion approach based on a genetic algorithm which finds the geometry of the sources by seeking the optimum solution from an initial population of models in successive iterations through an evolutionary process. The evolution consists of three genetic operators (selection, crossover and mutation), which act on each generation, and a smoothing operator, which looks for the best fit to the observed data and a solution consisting of plausible compact sources. The method allows the use of non-gridded, non-planar and inaccurate anomaly data and non-regular subsurface partitions. In addition, neither constraints for the depth to the top of the sources nor an initial model are necessary, although previous models can be incorporated into the process. We show the results of a test using two complex synthetic anomalies to demonstrate the efficiency of our inversion method. The application to real data is illustrated with aeromagnetic data of the volcanic island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

  2. Spectrally Resolved Intensities of Ultra-Dense Hot Aluminum Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, J. M.; Rodríguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J. G.; Martel, P.; Mínguez, E.; Sauvan, P.; Angelo, P.; Schott, R.; Dalimier, E.; Mancini, R.

    2008-10-01

    We present a first study of spectroscopic determination of electron temperature and density spatial profiles of aluminum K-shell line emission spectra from laser-shocked aluminum experiments performed at LULI. The radiation emitted by the aluminum plasma was dispersed with an ultra-high resolution spectrograph (λ/Δλ≈6000). From the recorded films one can extract a set of time-integrated emission lineouts associated with the corresponding spatial region of the plasma. The observed spectra include the Lyα, Heβ, Heγ, Lyβ and Lyγ line emissions and their associated He- and Li-like satellites thus covering a photon energy range from 1700 eV to 2400 eV approximately. The data analysis rely on the ABAKO/RAPCAL computational package, which has been recently developed at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and takes into account non-equilibrium collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark broadened line shapes and radiation transport calculations.

  3. Intra-annual variation in habitat choice by an endemic woodpecker: Implications for forest management and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Muñoz, Pascual Gil

    2009-09-01

    The Canary Islands great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major canariensis is an endemic bird restricted to the Pinus canariensis forests of Tenerife and Gran Canaria. Classification tree models were applied to explore the relationship of the occurrence of this picid and habitat variables between two contrasting periods (breeding vs. non-breeding seasons) and for the entire annual cycle. During the reproductive period the availability of mature trees (DBH > 60 cm), and snags (dead trees), for nesting and roosting, characterize the breeding territory. Outside the breeding season the choice of locations was driven by a tree cover larger than 28.5% and the presence of trees taller than 8.5 m on average, a pattern explained by the availability of pine seeds in the cones of well-developed canopies, and less so by predation risk. Overall, during the annual cycle, well-developed canopy sites influenced the presence of this picidae (tree cover > 38%) and on more open sites (<38%) the presence of mature trees (DBH> 60 cm) became the second most important predictor of occurrence. We suggest that food abundance and availability could be the ultimate factor explaining the intra-annual variation observed, with the availability of snags being an important factor during nesting. In the range of this endemic, we recommend selective cuts in pine plantations, to allow the trees to set seed and improve their crops, minimizing the elimination of snags, and killing some large pine trees if the priority is to expand the distributional range of the woodpecker.

  4. Accretion and outflow in the proplyd-like objects near Cygnus OB2

    SciTech Connect

    Guarcello, M. G.; Drake, J. J.; Wright, N. J.; García-Alvarez, D.; Kraemer, K. E.

    2014-09-20

    Cygnus OB2 is the most massive association within 2 kpc from the Sun, hosting hundreds of massive stars, thousands of young low mass members, and some sights of active star formation in the surrounding cloud. Recently, 10 photoevaporating proplyd-like objects with tadpole-shaped morphology were discovered in the outskirts of the OB association, approximately 6-14 pc away from its center. The classification of these objects is ambiguous, being either evaporating residuals of the parental cloud that are hosting a protostar inside or disk-bearing stars with an evaporating disk, such as the evaporating proplyds observed in the Trapezium Cluster in Orion. In this paper, we present a study based on low-resolution optical spectroscopic observations made with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy, mounted on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, of two of these protostars. The spectrum of one of the objects shows evidence of accretion but not of outflows. In the latter object, the spectra show several emission lines indicating the presence of an actively accreting disk with outflow. We present estimates of the mass loss rate and the accretion rate from the disk, showing that the former exceeds the latter as observed in other known objects with evaporating disks. We also show evidence of a strong variability in the integrated flux observed in these objects as well as in the accretion and outflow diagnostics.

  5. On the redshift of the very high-energy gamma-ray BL Lac object S2 0109+22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiano, S.; Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Scarpa, R.; Treves, A.

    2016-05-01

    The determination of the redshift of extragalactic gamma-ray sources is of fundamental importance for the interpretation of their emission models and extragalactic population studies, active galactic nuclei classification schemes, and to study the interaction with the extragalactic background light. Here we focus on the BL Lac S2 0109+22, recently detected at very high energies. We obtained a high signal-to-noise optical spectrum at Gran Telescopio Canarias for the source over the spectral range 4000-10 000 Å, to search for spectral features of the host galaxy and/or of the nuclear source and it was compared with previous observations in order to confirm and/or dispute its redshift determination. We find the S2 0109+22 optical spectrum is well represented by a power-law continuum without any absorption or emission feature of equivalent width >0.1 Å. Based on the new optical spectrum, we are able to set a redshift lower limit z > 0.35, assuming the source is hosted by a massive elliptical galaxy typical for this class of sources. The redshift z = 0.265 proposed in the literature for this object is most probably referred to a r = 18.3 galaxy at 15 arcsec from S2 0109. This galaxy could belong to a group of faint galaxies located at z ˜ 0.26.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Hormonal Residues in Treated Waters Using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, hormone consumption has increased exponentially. Because of that, hormone compounds are considered emerging pollutants since several studies have determinted their presence in water influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of oestrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and diethylstilbestrol), androgens (testosterone), and progestogens (norgestrel and megestrol acetate) has been developed to determine these compounds in wastewater samples. Due to the very low concentrations of target compounds in the environment, a solid phase extraction procedure has been optimized and developed to extract and preconcentrate the analytes. Determination and quantification were performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The method developed presents satisfactory limits of detection (between 0.15 and 9.35 ng·L−1), good recoveries (between 73 and 90% for the most of compounds), and low relative standard deviations (under 8.4%). Samples from influents and effluents of two wastewater treatment plants of Gran Canaria (Spain) were analyzed using the proposed method, finding several hormones with concentrations ranged from 5 to 300 ng·L−1. PMID:23533966

  7. Determination of alkylphenol polyethoxylates, bisphenol-A, 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-estradiol and its metabolites in sewage samples by SPE and LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Vega-Morales, T; Sosa-Ferrera, Z; Santana-Rodríguez, J J

    2010-11-15

    Recently, many chemicals released into the environment have been shown to mimic endogenous hormones such as estradiol. It has been demonstrated that these compounds cause several adverse effects on wildlife and humans, such as the feminization of animal species, development of physical abnormalities and birth defects, and reproductive failure. In an effort to model the behaviour of some endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and to establish the level of contamination in sewage samples, a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of nonylphenol, octylphenol and corresponding ethoxylates (1-12), 17α-ethynylestradiol, bisphenol-A, and 17β-estradiol and two of its metabolites have been developed. Identification and quantification were achieved by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Satisfactory detection limits (between 0.5-6 ng L(-1) in the dissolved phase and 1.4-12.7 ng g(-1) in the particulate phase) and analyte recoveries (between 60% and 108%) were achieved for target compounds. The optimised method was applied to the determination of EDCs in liquid sewage samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain). Concentrations of EDCs ranged from <10 ng L(-1) to nearly 1200 ng L(-1) in the dissolved phase, and from 0.005 μg g(-1) to 2.8 μg g(-1) in the suspended particulate matter. PMID:20724070

  8. Localized Starbursts in Dwarf Galaxies Produced by the Impact of Low-metallicity Cosmic Gas Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Amorín, R.; Filho, M. E.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  9. Application of microwave-assisted extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of sex hormones and corticosteroids in sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Santana-Viera, Sergio; Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2016-09-01

    Hormonal compounds are a concern to the international community because they can affect the aquatic biota and are therefore considered to be endocrine-disrupting compounds. These compounds have lipophilic properties, so they tend to accumulate in solid matrices, such as sewage sludge. This work presents the optimization of a microwave-assisted extraction process combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of 15 hormonal compounds in sludge samples. The proposed method has relative standard deviations below 23 %, good recoveries (over 71 %) for all compounds, detection limits that ranged from 1.1 to 7.9 ng g(-1) and quantification limits which ranged from 3.7 to 26.3 ng g(-1). The method was used to analyse sludge samples from four different wastewater treatment plants of Gran Canaria (Spain) with different wastewater treatments. 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, norgestrel and cortisone were detected in sludge samples at concentrations that ranged from 17.3 to 1.44 × 10(3) ng g(-1). The developed method permits the use of small quantities of sample and organic solvents, presents short extractions times and is the first one based on microwave-assisted extraction for the analysis of both sex hormones and corticosteroids. PMID:27503545

  10. Kinematics and trajectory generation for MIRADAS arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, J.; Gómez, J. M.; Torra, J.; López, M.; Raines, S. N.; Eikenberry, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a NIR multi-object spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The instrument has a multiplexing system (MXS) that enables the simultaneous observation of twenty objects located within its field of view. These user selected targets are acquired by twenty deployable robotic probe arms with pickoff mirror optics operating at cryogenic temperatures. The MIRADAS probe arm is a close-loop mechanism designed with optics simplicity in mind, presenting good stability when it is operated upside down. Calculating optimum collision-free trajectories requires a good knowledge of the MIRADAS arm behavior based on its geometry and its mechanical constraints. This study introduces a geometric model for the two degree-of-freedom (DoF) mechanism, including solutions for the forward and inverse kinematics problem. The concepts of zone-of-avoidance (ZoA), workspace and envelope of MIRADAS arm are presented and studied. Finally, the paper proposes two different patrolling approaches that can be exploited when planning trajectories.

  11. Wind Forecasting Based on the HARMONIE Model and Adaptive Finite Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Albert; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Escobar, José María; Montero, Gustavo; Hortal, Mariano; Calvo, Javier; Cascón, José Manuel; Montenegro, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new method for wind field forecasting over complex terrain. The main idea is to use the predictions of the HARMONIE meso-scale model as the input data for an adaptive finite element mass-consistent wind model. The HARMONIE results (obtained with a maximum resolution of about 1 km) are refined in a local scale (about a few metres). An interface between both models is implemented in such a way that the initial wind field is obtained by a suitable interpolation of the HARMONIE results. Genetic algorithms are used to calibrate some parameters of the local wind field model in accordance to the HARMONIE data. In addition, measured data are considered to improve the reliability of the simulations. An automatic tetrahedral mesh generator, based on the meccano method, is applied to adapt the discretization to complex terrains. The main characteristic of the framework is a minimal user intervention. The final goal is to validate our model in several realistic applications on Gran Canaria island, Spain, with some experimental data obtained by the AEMET in their meteorological stations. The source code of the mass-consistent wind model is available online at http://www.dca.iusiani.ulpgc.es/Wind3D/.

  12. SmartPort: A Platform for Sensor Data Monitoring in a Seaport Based on FIWARE

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Pablo; Santana, José Miguel; Ortega, Sebastián; Trujillo, Agustín; Suárez, José Pablo; Domínguez, Conrado; Santana, Jaisiel; Sánchez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Seaport monitoring and management is a significant research area, in which infrastructure automatically collects big data sets that lead the organization in its multiple activities. Thus, this problem is heavily related to the fields of data acquisition, transfer, storage, big data analysis and information visualization. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria port is a good example of how a seaport generates big data volumes through a network of sensors. They are placed on meteorological stations and maritime buoys, registering environmental parameters. Likewise, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) registers several dynamic parameters about the tracked vessels. However, such an amount of data is useless without a system that enables a meaningful visualization and helps make decisions. In this work, we present SmartPort, a platform that offers a distributed architecture for the collection of the port sensors’ data and a rich Internet application that allows the user to explore the geolocated data. The presented SmartPort tool is a representative, promising and inspiring approach to manage and develop a smart system. It covers a demanding need for big data analysis and visualization utilities for managing complex infrastructures, such as a seaport. PMID:27011192

  13. Divulgación del Programa Consolider-GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Zelmanovitch, N.; Mass Hesse, M.; Alfaro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) is the biggest telescope of its class in the world. The CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010-GTC project, First Science with the GTC: Spanish Astron- omy on the Forefront of the European Astronomy, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN (now the Ministry of Economy and competitiveness, MINECO) has used the GTC to: (i) obtain leading science with its data, (ii) increase the involvement of the Spanish astronomical community in developing astronomical instrumentation, (iii) get an important Spanish participation in the new extremely large telescopes generation (ELTs), and (iv) make outreach and communicating to the society the main results. The project CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010-GTC is structured and defined by objectives: 1) GTC: To optimize the GTC and its instruments; 2) SCIENCE: To develop leading science with the GTC; 3) E-ELT: To take advantage of the technological experience obtained with the GTC for the new generation of giant telescopes; 4) INSTRUMENTATION: To promote the Spanish participation in the new instrument developments for the GTC, VLT and the future ELTs; 5) EDUCATION: International School for Advanced Instrumentation (IScAI); and 6) OUTREACH: Outreach and communication of the project scientific results. This poster resumes five years of science communication around the Consolider-GTC project.

  14. Polarized mid-infrared synchrotron emission in the core of Cygnus A

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C.; Tadhunter, C.; Mason, R.; Perlman, E.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Levenson, N. A.; Álvarez, C. A.; Ramírez, E. A.; Telesco, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present high-angular (∼0.''4) resolution mid-infrared (MIR) polarimetric observations in the 8.7 μm and 11.6 μm filters of Cygnus A using CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. A highly polarized nucleus is observed with a degree of polarization of 11% ± 3% and 12% ± 3% and a position angle of polarization of 27° ± 8° and 35° ± 8° in a 0.''38 (∼380 pc) aperture for each filter. The observed rising of the polarized flux density with increasing wavelength is consistent with synchrotron radiation from the parsec-scale jet close to the core of Cygnus A. Based on our polarization model, the synchrotron emission from the parsec-scale jet is estimated to be 14% and 17% of the total flux density in the 8.7 μm and 11.6 μm filters, respectively. A blackbody component with a characteristic temperature of 220 K accounts for >75% of the observed MIR total flux density. The blackbody emission arises from a combination of (1) dust emission in the torus; and (2) diffuse dust emission around the nuclear region, but the contributions of the two components cannot be well-constrained in these observations.

  15. Dust Loss from Activated Asteroid P/2015 X6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Licandro, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Pozuelos, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present observations and dust tail models of activated asteroid P/2015 X6 from deep imaging data acquired at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) from 2015 mid-December to 2016 late January. The results of the modeling indicate that the asteroid has undergone sustained dust loss over a period of two months or longer. The dust parameters, derived from multidimensional fits of the available images, are compatible with either ice sublimation or rotational instability processes. An impulsive event, as might be associated with an impact with another body, is less likely. A power-law distribution of particles, with minimum and maximum radii of 1 μm and 1 cm and a power index of ‑3.3, is found to be consistent with the observations. Depending on the model of ejection velocity adopted, the particle velocities are found to be in the range of 0.3–10 m s‑1. The activation time was between 18 and 26 days before discovery. The total mass ejected from that time to the most recent observation is in the range 5–9 × 106 kg. No dust features giving indication of past activity earlier than the activation time have been observed.

  16. Early Evolution of Disrupted Asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Licandro, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Pozuelos, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep imaging observations of activated asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) from 2016 late April to early June. The images are best interpreted as the result of a relatively short-duration event with an onset of about {350}-30+10 days before perihelion (i.e., around 2016 February 10), starting sharply and decreasing with {24}-7+10 days (HWHM). The results of the modeling imply that the emission of ˜1.7 × 107 kg of dust, if composed of particles of 1 μm to 1 cm in radius, is distributed following a power law of index ‑3 and having a geometric albedo of 0.15. A detailed fitting of a conspicuous westward feature in the head of the comet-like object indicates that a significant fraction of the dust was ejected along a privileged direction right at the beginning of the event, which suggests that the parent body has possibly suffered an impact followed by a partial or total disruption. From the limiting magnitude reachable with the instrumental setup, and assuming a geometric albedo of 0.15 for the parent body, an upper limit for the size of possible fragment debris of ˜50 m in radius is derived.

  17. Deep blank-field catalogue for medium- and large-sized telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Esteban, F. M.; Cabrera Lavers, A.; Cardiel, N.; Alacid, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The observation of blank fields, defined as regions of the sky that are devoid of stars down to a given threshold magnitude, constitutes one of the most relevant calibration procedures required for the proper reduction of astronomical data obtained following typical observing strategies. In this work, we have used Delaunay triangulation to search for deep blank fields throughout the whole sky, with a minimum size of 10 arcmin in diameter and an increasing threshold magnitude from 15 to 18 in the R band of the USNO-B Catalog of the United States Naval Observatory. The result is a catalogue with the deepest blank fields known so far. A short sample of these regions has been tested with the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias, and it has been shown to be extremely useful for medium- and large-sized telescopes. Because some of the regions found could also be suitable for new extragalactic studies, we have estimated the galactic extinction in the direction of each deep blank field. This catalogue is accessible through the virtual observatory tool TESELA, and the user can retrieve - and visualize using ALADIN - the deep blank fields available near a given position in the sky.

  18. Patterns of plankton communities in subtropical waters off the Canary Islands during the late winter bloom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoker, Claire; Ojeda, Alicia; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The microbial planktonic community of the subtropical waters around Gran Canaria Island, Canary Islands, was studied before, during and after the typical late winter bloom. The study consisted of a weekly sampling from October 2005 to June 2006 at five stations. Abundances and biomass of heterotrophic prokaryotes, small autotrophic plankton (picoplankton 0.2-2 μm in ESD), heterotrophic and autotrophic nanoflagellates (nanoplankton mainly in the range of 3-4 μm in ESD), microzooplankton (mainly ciliates and dinoflagellates 15-200 μm in ESD) and mesozooplankton (> 200 μm in ESD) were estimated in order to know the effect of the winter mixing. During all the period of study, microplankton abundance was dominated by small athecate dinoflagellates (15-20 μm in ESD) whereas its biomass was dominated by aloricate ciliates (20-30 μm and > 40 μm in ESD). The bloom began with the increase of autotrophic picoplanktonic cells and small diatoms. Consecutively, nano-, micro-, and mesozooplankton biomass also increased. During the development of the winter bloom, picoplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, microzooplankton, mainly aloricate ciliates, and mesozooplankton showed inverse trends suggesting that the bloom is a succession of complex top-down controls.

  19. Persistent Infection by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain That Was Theorized To Have Advantageous Properties, as It Was Responsible for a Massive Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lago, Laura; Navarro, Yurena; Montilla, Pedro; Comas, Iñaki; Herranz, Marta; Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos; Ruiz Serrano, María Jesús; Bouza, Emilio; García de Viedma, Darío

    2015-11-01

    The strains involved in tuberculosis outbreaks are considered highly virulent and transmissible. We analyzed the case of a patient in Madrid, Spain, who was persistently infected over an 8-year period by the same Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain. The strain was responsible for a severe outbreak on Gran Canaria Island. The case provides us with a unique opportunity to challenge our assumptions about M. tuberculosis Beijing strains. No clinical/radiological findings consistent with a virulent strain were documented, and the in vitro growth rate of the strain in macrophages was only moderate. No secondary cases stemming from this prolonged active case were detected in the host population. The strain did not acquire resistance mutations, despite constant treatment interruptions, and it remained extremely stable, as demonstrated by the lack of single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP)-based differences between the sequential isolates. Our data suggest that the general assumption about M. tuberculosis Beijing strains having advantageous properties (in terms of virulence, transmissibility, and the tendency to acquire mutations and resistance) is not always accurate. PMID:26269618

  20. Imaging the Elusive H-poor Gas in the High adf Planetary Nebula NGC 6778

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    We present the first direct image of the high-metallicity gas component in a planetary nebula (NGC 6778), taken with the OSIRIS Blue Tunable Filter centered on the O ii λ4649+50 Å optical recombination lines (ORLs) at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We show that the emission of these faint O ii ORLs is concentrated in the central parts of the planetary nebula and is not spatially coincident either with emission coming from the bright [O iii] λ5007 Å collisionally excited line (CEL) or the bright Hα recombination line. From monochromatic emission line maps taken with VIMOS at the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find that the spatial distribution of the emission from the auroral [O iii] λ4363 line resembles that of the O ii ORLs but differs from nebular [O iii] λ5007 CEL distribution, implying a temperature gradient inside the planetary nebula. The centrally peaked distribution of the O ii emission and the differences with the [O iii] and H i emission profiles are consistent with the presence of an H-poor gas whose origin may be linked to the binarity of the central star. However, determination of the spatial distribution of the ORLs and CELs in other PNe and a comparison of their dynamics are needed to further constrain the geometry and ejection mechanism of the metal-rich (H-poor) component and hence, understand the origin of the abundance discrepancy problem in PNe.

  1. Formation of composite pyroclasts by welding inside a lithic-rich mafic eruption column (Los Marteles Caldera, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrionandia, F.; Carracedo Sánchez, M.; Arostegui, J.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    The tuff ring of the Los Marteles phreatomagmatic maar (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands) includes a particular unit that comprises abundant composite spheroidal clasts. However, these clasts differ from cored clasts elsewhere that consist of erupted lithic pyroclasts with an adhering rim of coherent chilled magma. The composite clasts here studied range from lapilli to bombs, and are cored or concentrically banded. Among the welded components, several types of primary clasts are discerned that include: (i) juvenile clasts, resultant of the magma inertial fragmentation, and (ii) cognate or accessory lithic clasts. Juvenile clasts include glass spheres (nano- and microachneliths) and crystals. Lithic clasts include lava fragments, scoriae and olivine xenocrysts. Primary clasts are interpreted to have been produced by the explosion of a partially crystallized mafic (SiO2 ≈ 50-55%) magma that erupted into a maar, filled-up with scoriae plus lava fragments. The explosion would have originated as a dense and turbulent gas thrust into which the repeated collisions of melt droplets with solid clasts generated droplet-coated crystals, lithic clasts and single glass spheres. We interpret the cored and concentrically banded pyroclasts to be made of coalesced and/or agglutinated particles coated with a melt rim to the rest of the components. These composite clasts developed spheroidal shapes during transport within a violent Strombolian eruption column due to spin effect and, finally, landed in solid state.

  2. Electronics and mechanisms control system for FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for Adaptive optics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Meza, R.; Cuevas, S.; Díaz, J. J.; Espejo, C.; Keiman, C.; Lara, G.; Sánchez, B.; Uribe, J.

    2012-09-01

    FRIDA will be a common-user near infrared imager and integral field spectrograph covering the wavelength range from 0.9 to 2.5 microns. Primary observing modes driven the instrument design are two: direct imaging and integral field spectroscopy. FRIDA will be installed at the Nasmyth-B platform of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) behind the GTC Adaptive Optics (GTCAO) system. Instrument will use diffraction-limited optics to avoid degrading the high Strehl ratios derived by the GTCAO system in the near infrared. High-performance astronomical instruments with a high reconfiguration degree as FRIDA, not only depends on optical and mechanical efficient designs but also on the good quality of its electronics and control systems design. In fact, astronomical instruments operating performance on telescope greatly relies on electronics and control system. This paper describes the main design topics for the FRIDA electronics and mechanisms control system, pointing on the development that these areas have reached on the project status. FRIDA Critical Design Review (CDR) was held on September 2011.

  3. Frida integral field unit opto-mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Bringas, Vicente; Corrales, Adi; Espejo, Carlos; Lucero, Diana; Rodriguez, Alberto; Sánchez, Beatriz; Uribe, Jorge

    2012-09-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a cryogenic and diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. This instrument will be installed at Nasmyth B station, behind the GTC Adaptive Optics system. FRIDA will provide the IFS mode using a 30 slices Integral Field Unit (IFU). This IFU design is based on University of Florida FISICA where the mirror block arrays are diamond turned on monolithic metal blocks. FRIDA IFU is conformed mainly by 3 mirror blocks with 30 spherical mirrors each. It also has a Schwarzschild relay based on two off axis spherical mirrors and an afocal system of two parabolic off axis mirrors. Including two insertion mirrors the IFU holds 96 metal mirrors. Each block or individual mirror is attached on its own mechanical mounting. In order to study beam interferences with mechanical parts, ghosts and scattered light, an iterative optical-mechanical modeling was developed. In this work this iterative modeling is described including pictures showing actual ray tracing on the opto-mechanical components.

  4. FRIDA diffraction limited NIR instrument: the challenges of its verification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Be.; Keiman, C.; Espejo, C.; Cuevas, S.; Álvarez, L. C.; Chapa, O.; Flores-Meza, R.; Fuentes, J.; Garcés, L.; Lara, G.; López, J. A.; Rodríguez, R.; Watson, A.; Bringas, V.; Corrales, A.; Lucero, D.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, B.; Torres, D.; Uribe, J.

    2014-08-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC)) is designed as a diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy capabilities with low, intermediate and high (R ~ 30,000) spectral resolutions, to operate in the wavelength range 0.9 - 2.5 μm. The integral field unit is based on a monolithic image slicer and the imaging and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. FRIDA will be based on a Nasmyth B of GTC, behind the adaptive optics (AO) system. The key scientific objectives of the instrument include studies of solar system bodies, low mass objects, circumstellar outflow phenomena in advanced stages of stellar evolution, active galactic nuclei high redshift galaxies, including resolved stellar populations, semidetached binary systems, young stellar objects and star forming environments. FRIDA subsystems are presently being manufactured and tested. In this paper we present the challenges to perform the verification of some critical specifications of a cryogenic and diffraction limited NIR instrument as FRIDA. FRIDA is a collaborative project between the main GTC partners, namely, Spain, México and Florida.

  5. Current status of FRIDA: diffraction limited NIR instrument for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Beatriz; Acosta, José A.; Álvarez, Luis C.; Bringas, Vicente; Cardiel, Nicolás.; Corrales, Adi; Cuevas, Salvador; Chapa, Oscar; Díaz, José Javier; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Eliche, Carmen; Espejo, Carlos; Flores, Rubén.; Garzón, Francisco; Hammersley, Peter; Keiman, Carolina; Lara, Gerardo; López, José A.; López, Pablo; Lucero, Diana; Montoya, Jose Manuel; Moreno, Heidy; Pascual, Sergio; Patrón, Jesús; Prieto, Almudena; Raines, N.; Rodríguez, Alberto; Uribe, Jorge; Watson, Alan

    2012-09-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) is designed as a diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy capabilities with low (R ~ 1,500), intermediate (R ~ 4,500) and high (R ~ 30,000) spectral resolutions to operate in the wavelength range 0.9 - 2.5 μm. The integral field unit is based on a monolithic image slicer. The imaging and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2K x 2K detector. FRIDA will be based at the Nasmyth B platform of GTC, behind the AO system. The key scientific objectives of the instrument include studies of solar system bodies, low mass objects, circumstellar outflow phenomena in advanced stages of stellar evolution, active galactic nuclei, high redshift galaxies, resolved stellar populations, semi-detached binary systems, young stellar objects and star forming environments. FRIDA is a collaborative project between the main GTC partners, namely, Spain, México and Florida. In this paper, we present the status of the instrument design as it is currently being prepared for its manufacture, after an intensive prototypes' phase and design optimization. The CDR was held in September 2011.

  6. Anatomy of small-scale mixing along a Northeast Atlantic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Elena; Dijkstra, Henk A.; van der Woerd, Hans; Brussaard, Corina

    2010-05-01

    The study of turbulence occurring at the smallest scales, in the energy dissipation range, is required when evaluating interrelations between turbulent mixing and phytoplankton distribution. To derive microturbulent parameters, microstructure profiler surveys, consisting in high resolution temperature, salinity or velocity vertical profiles have been performed in localized regions of the open ocean. However, they are very localized and based on few datasets, difficult to extrapolate to other regions due to the dependence on the local background conditions. During the STRATIPHYT-I cruise (July-August 2009) from Las Palmas (Gran Canaria) to Reykjavik (Iceland), high resolution measurements of both turbulent mixing (with a Self Contained Autonomous Micro Profiler, SCAMP) and phytoplankton have been carried out in the top 100 m of the ocean. With these data, the gradient from a more stratified, warmer surface water tropical environment to a less stratified subpolar ocean environment is covered. Adding up a total of 15 stations and 148 profiles, it constitutes the most extensive dataset of directly derived vertical mixing coefficients in a latitudinal transect of the Northeast Atlantic. In the presentation, the focus is on the explanation of the changes in turbulent mixing along the cruise section, recalling in its latitudinal gradient and presenting parameters that can further help to evaluate effects in the phytoplankton distribution. Side issues such as the encountered disagreement between heat and density eddy diffusivities and an analysis of the main source of instabilities through GOTM model and an internal wave analysis, are also treated in detail.

  7. MEGARA cryostat advanced design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrusca, D.; Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar; Velázquez, M.; Gil de Paz, A.; Carrasco, E.; Gallego, J.; Cedazo, R.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2014-08-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit and Multi-Object Spectrograph designed for the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias) 10.4m telescope in La Palma. MEGARA project has already passed preliminary design review and the optics critical design review, first-light it is expected to take place at the end of 2016. MEGARA is a development under a GRANTECAN contract. In this paper we summarize the current status of the LN2 open-cycle cryostat which has been designed by the "Astronomical Instrumentation Lab for Millimeter Wavelengths" at the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and emphasize the key parts of the system that have updated since the Preliminary Design, the main activities related to acceptance, integration, fabrication and maintenance plans which fit into the overall structure of the management plan of MEGARA are also described. The cryogenic work package of MEGARA has completed all the design stages and is ready for its Critical Design Review and then proceed to fabrication.

  8. Detection and initial characterisation of an exoplanet atmosphere with small aperture telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernt, I.; Müller, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Granzer, T.

    2013-09-01

    In the recent years atmospheres of exoplanets have been studied with space-based telescopes like the HST or large aperture ground-based telescopes like the Gran Telescopio Canarias. But as the number of suitable exoplanets is rising, comparative studies of atmospheres with a statistically meaningful amount of targets will follow, for which the observational time with large telescopes is limited and expensive. Our aim is to investigate whether it is possible to detect and initially characterise the atmosphere of an exoplanet with small aperture telescopes using chromatic variations in transit depths. We collected multi-color transits in the years 2011 to 2013 using the robotic 1.2m-telescope STELLA on Tenerife as well as the Nordic Optical Telescope and the 70cm-telescope at the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam. The highly inflated Hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b was chosen as target for our pilot study for its favorable large atmospheric scale height and therefore enhanced atmospheric detectability. Models of the atmospheric spectra of HAT-P-32 b indicate that the STELLA-data can be used to distinguish between a dusty and a cloud-free atmosphere using the gradient in transit depth of the observations in the blue band and in the visible band. Here we want to present our project together with the first results of the transit depth analysis.

  9. Major risk from rapid, large-volume landslides in Europe (EU Project RUNOUT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2003-08-01

    Project RUNOUT has investigated methods for reducing the risk from large-volume landslides in Europe, especially those involving rapid rates of emplacement. Using field data from five test sites (Bad Goisern and Köfels in Austria, Tessina and Vajont in Italy, and the Barranco de Tirajana in Gran Canaria, Spain), the studies have developed (1) techniques for applying geomorphological investigations and optical remote sensing to map landslides and their evolution; (2) analytical, numerical, and cellular automata models for the emplacement of sturzstroms and debris flows; (3) a brittle-failure model for forecasting catastrophic slope failure; (4) new strategies for integrating large-area Global Positioning System (GPS) arrays with local geodetic monitoring networks; (5) methods for raising public awareness of landslide hazards; and (6) Geographic Information System (GIS)-based databases for the test areas. The results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary studies of landslide hazards, combining subjects as diverse as geology and geomorphology, remote sensing, geodesy, fluid dynamics, and social profiling. They have also identified key goals for an improved understanding of the physical processes that govern landslide collapse and runout, as well as for designing strategies for raising public awareness of landslide hazards and for implementing appropriate land management policies for reducing landslide risk.

  10. Persistent Infection by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain That Was Theorized To Have Advantageous Properties, as It Was Responsible for a Massive Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Lago, Laura; Navarro, Yurena; Montilla, Pedro; Comas, Iñaki; Herranz, Marta; Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos; Ruiz Serrano, María Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The strains involved in tuberculosis outbreaks are considered highly virulent and transmissible. We analyzed the case of a patient in Madrid, Spain, who was persistently infected over an 8-year period by the same Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain. The strain was responsible for a severe outbreak on Gran Canaria Island. The case provides us with a unique opportunity to challenge our assumptions about M. tuberculosis Beijing strains. No clinical/radiological findings consistent with a virulent strain were documented, and the in vitro growth rate of the strain in macrophages was only moderate. No secondary cases stemming from this prolonged active case were detected in the host population. The strain did not acquire resistance mutations, despite constant treatment interruptions, and it remained extremely stable, as demonstrated by the lack of single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP)-based differences between the sequential isolates. Our data suggest that the general assumption about M. tuberculosis Beijing strains having advantageous properties (in terms of virulence, transmissibility, and the tendency to acquire mutations and resistance) is not always accurate. PMID:26269618

  11. Compositional study of asteroids in the Erigone collisional family using visible spectroscopy at the 10.4 m GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morate, David; de León, Julia; De Prá, Mário; Licandro, Javier; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Campins, Humberto; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; Alí-Lagoa, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    Two primitive near-Earth asteroids, (101955) Bennu and (162173) Ryugu, will be visited by a spacecraft with the aim of returning samples back to Earth. Since these objects are believed to originate in the inner main belt primitive collisional families (Erigone, Polana, Clarissa, and Sulamitis) or in the background of asteroids outside these families, the characterization of these primitive populations will enhance the scientific return of the missions. The main goal of this work is to shed light on the composition of the Erigone collisional family by means of visible spectroscopy. Asteroid (163) Erigone has been classified as a primitive object, and we expect the members of this family to be consistent with the spectral type of the parent body. We have obtained visible spectra (0.5-0.9 μm) for 101 members of the Erigone family, using the OSIRIS instrument at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We found that 87% of the objects have typically primitive visible spectra consistent with that of (163) Erigone. In addition, we found that a significant fraction of these objects (~50%) present evidence of aqueous alteration.

  12. Wavelength self-calibration and sky subtraction for Fabry-Pérot interferometers: applications to OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzirl, T.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Bamford, S. P.; Rodríguez del Pino, B.; Gray, M. E.; Chies-Santos, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    We describe techniques concerning wavelength calibration and sky subtraction to maximize the scientific utility of data from tunable filter instruments. While we specifically address data from the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy instrument (OSIRIS) on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias telescope, our discussion is generalizable to data from other tunable filter instruments. A key aspect of our methodology is a coordinate transformation to polar coordinates, which simplifies matters when the tunable filter data are circularly symmetric around the optical centre. First, we present a method for rectifying inaccuracies in the wavelength calibration using OH sky emission rings. Using this technique, we improve the absolute wavelength calibration from an accuracy of ˜5 to 1 Å, equivalent to ˜7 per cent of our instrumental resolution, for 95 per cent of our data. Then, we discuss a new way to estimate the background sky emission by median filtering in polar coordinates. This method suppresses contributions to the sky background from the outer envelopes of distant galaxies, maximizing the fluxes of sources measured in the corresponding sky-subtracted images. We demonstrate for data tuned to a central wavelength of 7615 Å that galaxy fluxes in the new sky-subtracted image are ˜37 per cent higher, versus a sky-subtracted image from existing methods for OSIRIS tunable filter data.

  13. GTC/OSIRIS SPECTROSCOPIC IDENTIFICATION OF A FAINT L SUBDWARF IN THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Lodieu, N.

    2010-01-10

    We present the discovery of an L subdwarf in 234 deg{sup 2} common to the UK InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey Data Release 2 and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. This is the fifth L subdwarf announced to date, the first one identified in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and the faintest known. The blue optical and near-infrared colors of ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 and its overall spectra energy distribution are similar to the known mid-L subdwarfs. Low-resolution optical (700-1000 nm) spectroscopy with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy spectrograph on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias reveals that ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 exhibits a strong K I pressure-broadened line at 770 nm and a red slope longward of 800 nm, features characteristics of L-type dwarfs. From direct comparison with the four known L subdwarfs, we estimate its spectral type to be sdL4-sdL6 and derive a distance in the interval 94-170 pc. We provide a rough estimate of the space density for mid-L subdwarfs of 1.5 x 10{sup -4} pc{sup -3}.

  14. Temporal Changes in Forest Contexts at Multiple Extents: Three Decades of Fragmentation in the Gran Chaco (1979-2010), Central Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Frate, Ludovico; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Cabido, Marcelo; Hoyos, Laura; Carranza, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The context in which a forest exists strongly influences its function and sustainability. Unveiling the multi-scale nature of forest fragmentation context is crucial to understand how human activities affect the spatial patterns of forests across a range of scales. However, this issue remains almost unexplored in subtropical ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed temporal changes (1979–2010) in forest contexts in the Argentinean dry Chaco at multiple extents. We classified forests over the last three decades based on forest context amount (Pf) and structural connectivity (Pff), which were measured using a moving window approach fixed at eight different extents (from local, ~ 6 ha, to regional, ~ 8300 ha). Specific multi-scale forest context profiles (for the years 1979 and 2010) were defined by projecting Pf vs. Pff mean values and were compared across spatial extents. The distributions of Pf across scales were described by scalograms and their shapes over time were compared. The amount of agricultural land and rangelands across the scales were also analyzed. The dry Chaco has undergone an intensive process of fragmentation, resulting in a shift from landscapes dominated by forests with gaps of rangelands to landscapes where small forest patches are embedded in agricultural lands. Multi-scale fragmentation analysis depicted landscapes in which local exploitation, which perforates forest cover, occurs alongside extensive forest clearings, reducing forests to small and isolated patches surrounded by agricultural lands. In addition, the temporal diminution of Pf’s variability along with the increment of the mean slope of the Pf ‘s scalograms, indicate a simplification of the spatial pattern of forest over time. The observed changes have most likely been the result of the interplay between human activities and environmental constraints, which have shaped the spatial patterns of forests across scales. Based on our results, strategies for the conservation and sustainable management of the dry Chaco should take into account both the context of each habitat location and the scales over which a forest pattern might be preserved, altered or restored. PMID:26630387

  15. Results of ultra-low level 71ge counting for application in the Gallex-solar neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Physics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampel, W.; Kiko, J.; Heusser, G.; Huebner, M.; Kirsten, T.; Schneider, K.; Schlotz, R.

    1985-01-01

    It has been experimentally verified that the Ultra-Low-Level Counting System for the Gallex solar neutrino experiment is capable of measuring the expected solar up silon-flux to plus or minus 12% during two years of operation.

  16. Temporal Changes in Forest Contexts at Multiple Extents: Three Decades of Fragmentation in the Gran Chaco (1979-2010), Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frate, Ludovico; Acosta, Alicia T R; Cabido, Marcelo; Hoyos, Laura; Carranza, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The context in which a forest exists strongly influences its function and sustainability. Unveiling the multi-scale nature of forest fragmentation context is crucial to understand how human activities affect the spatial patterns of forests across a range of scales. However, this issue remains almost unexplored in subtropical ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed temporal changes (1979-2010) in forest contexts in the Argentinean dry Chaco at multiple extents. We classified forests over the last three decades based on forest context amount (Pf) and structural connectivity (Pff), which were measured using a moving window approach fixed at eight different extents (from local, ~ 6 ha, to regional, ~ 8300 ha). Specific multi-scale forest context profiles (for the years 1979 and 2010) were defined by projecting Pf vs. Pff mean values and were compared across spatial extents. The distributions of Pf across scales were described by scalograms and their shapes over time were compared. The amount of agricultural land and rangelands across the scales were also analyzed. The dry Chaco has undergone an intensive process of fragmentation, resulting in a shift from landscapes dominated by forests with gaps of rangelands to landscapes where small forest patches are embedded in agricultural lands. Multi-scale fragmentation analysis depicted landscapes in which local exploitation, which perforates forest cover, occurs alongside extensive forest clearings, reducing forests to small and isolated patches surrounded by agricultural lands. In addition, the temporal diminution of Pf's variability along with the increment of the mean slope of the Pf 's scalograms, indicate a simplification of the spatial pattern of forest over time. The observed changes have most likely been the result of the interplay between human activities and environmental constraints, which have shaped the spatial patterns of forests across scales. Based on our results, strategies for the conservation and sustainable management of the dry Chaco should take into account both the context of each habitat location and the scales over which a forest pattern might be preserved, altered or restored. PMID:26630387

  17. How Satisfied Are Parents of Students in Dual Language Education Programs?: "Me Parece Maravillosa La Gran Oportunidad Que Le Estan Dando a Estos Ninos"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay; Ruth, Tenley

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 724 families of students at eight dual language schools in the southwest United States that focused on parents' satisfaction with their child's academic skills and with program characteristics is reported. Results are explored for parental language, parental education level, program model type, grade level of the child, and years the…

  18. Geochemistry of surface and subsurface waters in quartz-sandstones: significance for the geomorphic evolution of tepui table mountains (Gran Sabana, Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecchia, Marco; Sauro, Francesco; Piccini, Leonardo; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Tisato, Nicola; Lira, Jesus; Vergara, Freddy

    2014-04-01

    In situ measurements of discharge, pH, electric conductivity (EC), temperature, and SiO2 content have been carried out during five expeditions in the last 20 years on the summit plateaus, inside caves and along the rivers of the surrounding lowlands of three tepui massifs in Venezuela (Auyan, Roraima, and Chimanta). Additionally, detailed chemical analyses were performed on waters sampled in a newly discovered extensive quartz-sandstone cave system on the Auyan Tepui. Rock samples of the quartz-sandstone bedrock from different locations have been analysed to obtain their chemical composition with a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. These data show that the majority of silica present in surface and subsurface water comes from dissolution of quartz and only in minor amount from hydrolysis of other silicate minerals. Probably the presence of a hardened crust of iron hydroxides limits the dissolution of silica on the top surface of tepuis. Dissolution in the subsurface, instead, is more significant and causes, in the long term, the “arenisation” of the quartz-sandstone and its subsequent removal by mechanical erosion. On the other hand, waters flowing on the arkosic rock outcropping on the lowland below the tepuis obtain their high dissolved silica content mainly from hydrolysis of silicates. The morphological evolution of these table mountains appears thus to be controlled mainly by the underground weathering of the quartz-sandstone, with the opening of deep fractures (grietas) and the collapse of large underground horizontal cave systems. Scarp retreat, instead, seems to be related to the higher weathering rate of the more arkosic formations underlying the quartz-sandstones.

  19. Energy balance in the ablation zone during the summer season at the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap in the Southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christoph; Kilian, Rolf; Glaser, Michael

    2007-10-01

    The energy balance and ablation of Glaciar Lengua were investigated during the austral summer of 1999/2000. Glaciar Lengua is located in Patagonia, in the southernmost Andes of Chile (53°S), within an extremely maritime climate. The aim of this study was to gain insight into current energy fluxes at this location and to evaluate how the energy fluxes depend on meteorological variables. From February to April 2000 an automated weather station was operated on Glaciar Lengua. Ablation was measured repeatedly at stakes during the same period. The point energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulation. The effective roughness length was adjusted in order to calibrate the model to the measured ablation. It was revealed that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance adding 54% of the energy available for melt. Net radiation contributes only 35% to the overall energy balance. Minor contributors are the latent heat flux (7%) and the heat flux by precipitation (4%). The net radiation shows little variance from day to day. Cross-correlations of the daily mean values of the energy fluxes derived from the energy balance model and meteorological variables reveal that air temperature and wind speed are the key factors controlling the summer energy balance in the ablation area. Melt derived from a multiple regression model based on these two variables correlates with computed melt with a correlation coefficient of 0.92. From the measured ablation, a summer-time degree-day factor of 7.6 mm·°C - 1 was derived for the ablation area.

  20. Phenotypic diversity of Triatoma infestans at the microgeographic level in the Gran Chaco of Argentina and the Andean valleys of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Abrahan, L; Hernández, L; Gorla, D; Catalá, S

    2008-07-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The phenotype of the species varies at different geographic scales. The objective of this study was to compare the antennal phenotype of spatially close T. infestans populations and to evaluate its usefulness as a marker of exchange of individuals between populations. The antennal phenotype of 190 T. infestans from Argentina and Bolivia was analyzed using uni- and multivariate techniques. This study shows heterogeneity of the antennal phenotypes of closely related T. infestans populations living in different habitats. Specimens collected in a goat corral and a rabbit cage in La Rioja (Argentina) were dissimilar to the specimens collected in the nearby intradomestic environment. Similarly, specimens from peridomestic corrals in Cochabamba (Bolivia) were different from the intradomestic and sylvatic specimens, indicating some degree of isolation between these populations. In contrast, T. infestans collected in chicken coops and the intradomestic environment were similar, in all studied regions, suggesting a frequent exchange of individuals between the two habitats and/or because of the similarity of the habitat due to the presence of chickens in the intradomestic environment. We propose that each habitat affects in a particular mode the insect morphology and these changes could be used to identify recolonizing T. infestans. These results support the hypothesis of different degrees of isolation between intradomestic and peridomestic habitats. Within this context, special attention should be given to chicken coops and other close peridomestic structures in relation to the recolonization process of domestic habitats by T. infestans. PMID:18714865

  1. Identification of red supergiants in nearby galaxies with mid-IR photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britavskiy, N. E.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Mehner, A.; García-Álvarez, D.; Prieto, J. L.; Morrell, N. I.

    2014-02-01

    Context. The role of episodic mass loss in massive-star evolution is one of the most important open questions of current stellar evolution theory. Episodic mass loss produces dust and therefore causes evolved massive stars to be very luminous in the mid-infrared and dim at optical wavelengths. Aims: We aim to increase the number of investigated luminous mid-IR sources to shed light on the late stages of these objects. To achieve this we employed mid-IR selection criteria to identity dusty evolved massive stars in two nearby galaxies. Methods: The method is based on mid-IR colors, using 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm photometry from archival Spitzer Space Telescope images of nearby galaxies and J-band photometry from 2MASS. We applied our criteria to two nearby star-forming dwarf irregular galaxies, Sextans A and IC 1613, selecting eight targets, which we followed-up with spectroscopy. Results: Our spectral classification and analysis yielded the discovery of two M-type supergiants in IC 1613, three K-type supergiants and one candidate F-type giant in Sextans A, and two foreground M giants. We show that the proposed criteria provide an independent way for identifying dusty evolved massive stars that can be extended to all nearby galaxies with available Spitzer/IRAC images at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio de El Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, on the island of La Palma, and the 2.5 m du Pont telescope in operation at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.Spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/562/A75

  2. Binary frequency of planet-host stars at wide separations. A new brown dwarf companion to a planet-host star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodieu, N.; Pérez-Garrido, A.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Gauza, B.; Ruiz, M. T.; Rebolo, R.; Pinfield, D. J.; Martín, E. L.

    2014-09-01

    in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile.Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma (program program GTC65-13B).

  3. OB stars at the lowest Local Group metallicity. GTC-OSIRIS observations of Sextans A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, I.; Garcia, M.; Herrero, A.; Simón-Díaz, S.

    2016-01-01

    , or a relatively strong wind. We observe a correlation between HI and OB associations similar to the irregular galaxy IC 1613, confirming the previous result that the most recent star formation of Sextans A is currently ongoing near the rim of the H i cavity. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, on the island of La Palma. Programme ID GTC59-12A.The data are available through the GTC archive: http://https://gtc.sdc.cab.inta-csic.es/gtc/jsp/searchres.jsp

  4. IPHAS and the symbiotic stars. III. New discoveries and their IR spectral energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Flores, E. R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Mampaso, A.; García-Alvarez, D.; Munari, U.; Greimel, R.; Rubio-Díez, M. M.; Santander-García, M.

    2014-07-01

    form at http://www.aanda.orgSpectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A49Based on observations obtained with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the 2.6 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) operated by NOTSA, both located on the island of La Palma at the Spanish Observatory of the Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  5. The STate of the ARt Telescope Educational Collaboration (STARTEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, D. G.; Alonso, J. L.; Altschuler, D.; Cianciolo, F.; Cuesta, L.; Harrison, R.; Hemenway, M. K.; Michaud, P.; Morison, I.; Preston, S.; Rijsdjk, C.; Teays, T.; West, R. M.; Wetzel, M.

    2002-12-01

    The State of the Art Telescope Educational Collaboration (STARTEC) was founded in February 2001 at a meeting in Cape Town, South Africa. The meeting was attended by educational representatives of some of the largest and most advanced astronomical facilities in the world. The attending representatives agreed that astronomy, a basic science with roots in every human culture, possesses an exceptional potential to attract public interest and elevate science literacy around the world. In addition, they agreed that large, state-of-the-art astronomical facilities, as public icons of science and technology, have a responsibility to assume a leading role in astronomy education and public outreach. Accordingly, STARTEC was formed to establish a forum for exchanging resources and expertise in education and public outreach. Goals of the collaboration include: inspiring the general public to appreciate and support astronomy; inspiring and preparing future generations of scientists, engineers and technicians; using the collective visibility of STARTEC institutions to improve science literacy through the news media and to improve public awareness of the threats of light pollution, radio interference and space debris to the world's astronomical environment; leveraging resources and fostering collaborations among STARTEC members for educational programs; and improving members' education and public outreach efforts as well as encouraging other institutions and other scientific disciplines to collaborate on educational and outreach programs. The current members of STARTEC are: Arecibo Observatory, the European Southern Observatory, Gemini Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias and Gran Telescopio Canarias, Jodrell Bank Observatory/PPARC, McDonald Observatory and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, and the South African Astronomical Observatory/Southern Africa Large Telescope. Subsequent meetings of STARTEC

  6. Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands: an ocean testbed for ocean energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Javier; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín.; Llinás, Octavio

    2010-05-01

    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a Governmental Consortium aimed to build and operate an off-shore infrastructure to facilitate the deep sea research and speed up the technology associated. This Consortium is overseen by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Canarian Agency for Research and Innovation. The infrastructure consists of an oceanic platform located in an area with depths between 50-100 meters, close to the continental slope and four kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria, in the archipelago of the Canary Islands. The process of construction will start during the first months of 2010 and is expected to be finished in mid-year 2011. PLOCAN serves five strategic lines: an integral observatory able to explore from the deep ocean to the atmosphere, an ocean technology testbed, a base for underwater vehicles, an innovation platform and a highly specialized training centre. Ocean energy is a suitable source to contribute the limited mix-energy conformed in the archipelago of the Canary Islands with a total population around 2 million people unequally distributed in seven islands. Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife support the 80% of the total population with 800.000 people each. PLOCAN will contribute to develop the ocean energy sector establishing a marine testbed allowing prototypes testing at sea under a meticulous monitoring network provided by the integral observatory, generating valuable information to developers. Reducing costs throughout an integral project management is an essential objective to be reach, providing services such as transportation, customs and administrative permits. Ocean surface for testing activities is around 8 km2 with a depth going from 50 to 100 meters, 4km off the coast. Selected areas for testing have off-shore wind power conditions around 500-600 W/m2 and wave power conditions around 6 kW/m in the East coast and 10 kW/m in the North coast. Marine currents in the Canary Islands are

  7. Uncovering the Deeply Embedded Active Galactic Nucleus Activity in the Nuclear Regions of the Interacting Galaxy Arp 299

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Roche, P. F.; Esquej, P.; González-Martín, O.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Levenson, N. A.; Packham, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Mason, R. E.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Alvarez, C.; Colina, L.; Aretxaga, I.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Perlman, E.; Telesco, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) 8-13 μm spectroscopy of the nuclear regions of the interacting galaxy Arp 299 (IC 694+NGC 3690) obtained with CanariCam (CC) on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The high angular resolution (~0.''3-0.''6) of the data allows us to probe nuclear physical scales between 60 and 120 pc, which is a factor of 10 improvement over previous MIR spectroscopic observations of this system. The GTC/CC spectroscopy displays evidence of deeply embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in both nuclei. The GTC/CC nuclear spectrum of NGC 3690/Arp 299-B1 can be explained as emission from AGN-heated dust in a clumpy torus with both a high covering factor and high extinction along the line of sight. The estimated bolometric luminosity of the AGN in NGC 3690 is 3.2 ± 0.6 × 1044 erg s-1. The nuclear GTC/CC spectrum of IC 694/Arp 299-A shows 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission stemming from a deeply embedded (AV ~ 24 mag) region of less than 120 pc in size. There is also a continuum-emitting dust component. If associated with the putative AGN in IC 694, we estimate that it would be approximately five times less luminous than the AGN in NGC 3690. The presence of dual AGN activity makes Arp 299 a good example to study such phenomena in the early coalescence phase of interacting galaxies.

  8. Associations between Screen Time and Physical Activity among Spanish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A.; Martí-Trujillo, Sara; Lera-Navarro, Angela; Dorado-García, Cecilia; González-Henríquez, Juan J.; Sanchís-Moysi, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12–18 years old) from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3%) and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1%) did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week−1 or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44–0.86) increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. Conclusions/Significance No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity. PMID:21909435

  9. Patterns of pollen dispersal in a small population of the Canarian endemic palm (Phoenix canariensis)

    PubMed Central

    Saro, I; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; González-Pérez, M A; Sosa, P A

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of small populations is greatly influenced by local dispersal patterns and genetic connectivity among populations, with pollen dispersal being the major component of gene flow in many plants species. Patterns of pollen dispersal, mating system parameters and spatial genetic structure were investigated in a small isolated population of the emblematic palm Phoenix canariensis in Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands). All adult palms present in the study population (n=182), as well as 616 seeds collected from 22 female palms, were mapped and genotyped at 8 microsatellite loci. Mating system analysis revealed an average of 5.8 effective pollen donors (Nep) per female. There was strong variation in correlated paternity rates across maternal progenies (ranging from null to 0.9) that could not be explained by the location and density of local males around focal females. Paternity analysis revealed a mean effective pollen dispersal distance of ∼71 m, with ∼70% of effective pollen originating from a distance of <75 m, and 90% from <200 m. A spatially explicit mating model indicated a leptokurtic pollen dispersal kernel, significant pollen immigration (12%) from external palm groves and a directional pollen dispersal pattern that seems consistent with local altitudinal air movement. No evidence of inbreeding or genetic diversity erosion was found, but spatial genetic structure was detected in the small palm population. Overall, the results suggest substantial pollen dispersal over the studied population, genetic connectivity among different palm groves and some resilience to neutral genetic erosion and subsequently to fragmentation. PMID:24619186

  10. Solubility of aerosol trace elements: sources and deposition fluxes in the Canary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelado-Caballero, María Dolores; López-García, Patricia; Patey, Matthew; Prieto, Sandra; Collado, Cayetano; Santana, Desire; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    To date there have been no long-term aerosol studies in the Canary Basin, and current estimates of soluble fluxes of Al, Mn, Fe, P and N for the region are based on limited data available from several oceanographic research cruises which have crossed the region during large transects of the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, aerosol samples have been collected at two stations on the island of Gran Canaria regularly since 2006 (Taliarte, at sea level, and Pico de la Gorra, at 1930 m altitude). Samples have been analysed for total and soluble trace metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Ti). The high temporal resolution of this dataset represents a valuable contribution to the understanding of aerosol deposition of trace metals to the region. Solubility measurements from acetate buffer leaching experiments showed the same tendency in the percentage of soluble metals in the samples: a higher percentage solubility of metals in anthropogenic aerosols and at low dust loading. Moreover, categorisation of aerosol samples with a continental African origin according to air-mass back-trajectories (North of Africa, Central and Western Sahara and Sahel) showed a decreasing tendency in the percentage of soluble Al and Fe to the south. In addition, factors that can affect the percentage solubility values for crustal elements and comparisons with different methods were studied. Freezing the samples stored affects the measurements of Al and Fe solubility. This last result is important for the design of future aerosol sampling programmes and aerosol solubility experiments. Flux estimates for aerosol-derived soluble metals reveal that phosphate is highly depleted relative to Fe and N when compared with Redfield values. It appears that aerosol deposition is an important source of N and trace metals (Fe, Co, Mn and Al) to the NE subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This work has been supported by the European Commission FEDER funds (PCT MAC 2007-2013, ESTRAMAR Mac/3/C177).

  11. Influence of parasitism in dogs on their serum levels of persistent organochlorine compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Carretón, Elena; Camacho, María; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Valerón, Pilar F; Cordón, Yaiza Falcón; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2016-08-15

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are toxic chemicals, which accumulate in humans and animals, as only few species have the capability of eliminating them. However, some authors have pointed to the possibility that certain species of invertebrates (i.e. nematodes) could metabolize this type of compounds. As certain species of nematodes act as parasites of vertebrates, this research was designed to explore the influence of some of the most common parasites of the dogs in their serum levels of 56 common POPs. The study included three groups of dogs (n=64), which were prospectively recruited in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain): a) control animals, non-parasitized (serologically tested negative, n=24); b) dogs tested positive for intestinal parasites and negative for other parasites (n=24); and c) dogs tested positive for heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) and negative for other parasites (n=16). The presence of Dirofilaria immitis was strongly associated with lower serum levels of a wide range of pollutant in their hosts (PCB congeners 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180; hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, anthracene and pyrene). We also found an inverse association between the hosts' serum levels of PCBs and intestinal parasites. We did not find any association with DDT or its metabolites, but this might be explained by the recently suggested ability of dogs for the efficient metabolization of these compounds. According to the results of this study certain forms of parasitism would reduce the bioavailability of the major classes of POPs in dogs. However, further studies are needed to elucidate whether this phenomenon is due to a competence between parasites and hosts or could respond to a possible capability of parasitic nematodes for the metabolization of these POPs. PMID:27096633

  12. OPTICAL PHOTOMETRIC GTC/OSIRIS OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNG MASSIVE ASSOCIATION CYGNUS OB2

    SciTech Connect

    Guarcello, M. G.; Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Aldcroft, T.; Kashyap, V. L.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Drew, J. E.

    2012-10-15

    In order to fully understand the gravitational collapse of molecular clouds, the star formation process, and the evolution of circumstellar disks, these phenomena must be studied in different Galactic environments with a range of stellar contents and positions in the Galaxy. The young massive association Cygnus OB2, in the Cygnus-X region, is a unique target to study how star formation and the evolution of circumstellar disks proceed in the presence of a large number of massive stars. We present a catalog obtained with recent optical observations in the r, i, z filters with OSIRIS, mounted on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS telescope, which is the deepest optical catalog of Cyg OB2 to date. The catalog consists of 64,157 sources down to M = 0.15 M{sub Sun} at the adopted distance and age of Cyg OB2. A total of 38,300 sources have good photometry in all three bands. We combined the optical catalog with existing X-ray data of this region, in order to define the cluster locus in the optical diagrams. The cluster locus in the r - i versus i - z diagram is compatible with an extinction of the optically selected cluster members in the 2.64{sup m} < A{sub V} < 5.57{sup m} range. We derive an extinction map of the region, finding a median value of A{sub V} = 4.33{sup m} in the center of the association, decreasing toward the northwest. In the color-magnitude diagrams, the shape of the distribution of main-sequence stars is compatible with the presence of an obscuring cloud in the foreground {approx}850 {+-} 25 pc from the Sun.

  13. General formulation for the calibration and characterization of narrow-gap etalons: the OSIRIS/GTC tunable filters case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. J.; Cepa, J.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2014-10-01

    Tunable filters (TFs) are a powerful way of implementing narrow-band imaging mode over wide wavelength ranges, without the need of purchasing a large number of narrow-band filters covering all strong emission or absorption lines at any redshift. However, one of its main features is a wavelength variation across the field of view, sometimes termed the phase effect. In this work, an anomalous phase effect is reported and characterized for the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) instrument at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. The transmitted wavelength across the field of view of the instrument depends, not only on the distance to the optical centre, but on wavelength. This effect is calibrated for the red TF of OSIRIS by measuring both normal-incidence light at laboratory and spectral lamps at the telescope at non-normal incidence. This effect can be explained by taking into account the inner coatings of the etalon. In a high spectral resolution etalon, the gap between plates is much larger than the thickness of the inner reflective coatings. In the case of a TF, like that in OSIRIS, the coatings thickness could be of the order of the cavity, which changes drastically the effective gap of the etalon. We show that by including thick and dispersive coatings into the interference equations, the observed anomalous phase effect can be perfectly reproduced. In fact, we find that, for the OSIRIS red TF, a two-coatings model fits the data with an rms of 0.5 Å at all wavelengths and incidence angles. This is a general physical model that can be applied to other TF instruments.

  14. Holocene geomagnetic field intensity variations: Contribution from the low latitude Canary Islands site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, C.; Laj, C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wandres, C.

    2015-11-01

    New absolute paleomagnetic intensity (PI) are investigated from 37 lava flows located at Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). They complete previously published directional results from the same flows and therefore allow to examine the time variations of the full geomagnetic vector. Twenty-eight flows are radiocarbon dated between 1706 AD and about 13 200 BC and one is historical. Eight other flows are not dated but they have stratigraphic links with the dated flows and archeomagnetic ages had been attributed to them based on their paleomagnetic directions. Various mineralogical analyses were conducted, giving access to the nature of the magnetic minerals and to their grain size. We performed the original Thellier and Thellier paleointensity (PI) experiments with a success rate of about 65% coupling this experiment with the strict set of selection criteria PICRIT-03. The mean PIs at the flow level are based on 3 to 12 independent PI determinations except for one site in which only one reliable determination could be obtained. The data indicate some variability in the local field intensity with a prominent PI peak centered around 600 BC and reaching 80 μT (VADM 16 ×1022 Am2), documented for the first time in this region. Combined with the published data obtained from western Africa, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the Azores within a 2000 km-radius around the Canary Islands, our data allow to construct a curve illustrating the Earth magnetic field intensity fluctuations for Southwestern Europe/Western Africa. This curve, compared to the one produced for the Middle East and one calculated for Central Asia shows that maximum intensity patches have a very large geographical extent. They do not yet appear clearly in the models of variations of the dipolar field intensity.

  15. Evidence for temporal evolution in the M33 disc as traced by its star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Michael A.; San Roman, Izaskun; Gallart, Carme; Sarajedini, Ata; Aparicio, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    We present precision radial velocities and stellar population parameters for 77 star clusters in the Local Group galaxy M33. Our Gran Telescopio de Canarias and William Herschel Telescope observations sample both young, massive clusters and known/candidate globular clusters (GCs), spanning ages ˜106-1010 yr, and metallicities, [M/H] ˜ -1.7 to solar. The cluster system exhibits an age-metallicity relation; the youngest clusters are the most metal rich. When compared to H I data, clusters with [M/H] ˜ -1.0 and younger than ˜4 Gyr are clearly identified as a disc population. The clusters show evidence for strong time evolution in the disc radial metallicity gradient (d[M/H]dt/dR = 0.03 dex kpc-1 Gyr-1). The oldest clusters have stronger, more negative gradients than the youngest clusters in M33. The clusters also show a clear age-velocity dispersion relation. The line-of-sight velocity dispersions of the clusters increases with age similar to Milky Way open clusters and stars. The general shape of the relation is reproduced by disc heating simulations, and the similarity between the relations in M33 and the Milky Way suggests that heating by substructure and cooling of the interstellar medium both play a role in shaping this relation. We identify 12 `classical' GCs, six of which are newly identified GC candidates. The GCs are more metal rich than Milky Way halo clusters, and show weak rotation. The inner (R < 4.5 kpc) GCs exhibit a steep radial metallicity gradient (d[M/H]/dR = -0.29 ± 0.11 dex kpc-1) and an exponential-like surface density profile. We argue that these inner GCs are thick disc rather than halo objects.

  16. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 Additional O-type Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sota, A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Herrero, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ˜ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. The GOSSS spectroscopic data in this article were gathered with five facilities: the 1.5 m Telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), the 3.5 m Telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA), and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM).

  17. A mid-infrared spectroscopic atlas of local active galactic nuclei on sub-arcsecond resolution using GTC/CanariCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Esquej, P.; Roche, P. F.; Ramos Almeida, C.; González-Martín, O.; Packham, C.; Levenson, N. A.; Mason, R. E.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alvarez, C.; Aretxaga, I.; López-Rodríguez, E.; Colina, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Imanishi, M.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Perlman, E.

    2016-01-01

    We present an atlas of mid-infrared (mid-IR) ˜ 7.5-13 μm spectra of 45 local active galactic nuclei (AGN) obtained with CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) as part of an ESO/GTC large programme. The sample includes Seyferts and other low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) at a median distance of 35 Mpc and luminous AGN, namely PG quasars, (U)LIRGs, and radio galaxies (RG) at a median distance of 254 Mpc. To date, this is the largest mid-IR spectroscopic catalogue of local AGN at sub-arcsecond resolution (median 0.3 arcsec). The goal of this work is to give an overview of the spectroscopic properties of the sample. The nuclear 12 μm luminosities of the AGN span more than four orders of magnitude, νL12 μm ˜ 3 × 1041-1046 erg s-1. In a simple mid-IR spectral index versus strength of the 9.7 μm silicate feature diagram most LLAGN, Seyfert nuclei, PG quasars, and RGs lie in the region occupied by clumpy torus model tracks. However, the mid-IR spectra of some might include contributions from other mechanisms. Most (U)LIRG nuclei in our sample have deeper silicate features and flatter spectral indices than predicted by these models suggesting deeply embedded dust heating sources and/or contribution from star formation. The 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is clearly detected in approximately half of the Seyfert nuclei, LLAGN, and (U)LIRGs. While the RG, PG quasars, and (U)LIRGs in our sample have similar nuclear νL12 μm, we do not detect nuclear PAH emission in the RGs and PG quasars.

  18. Pronounced Fixation, Strong Population Differentiation and Complex Population History in the Canary Islands Blue Tit Subspecies Complex

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Bengt; Ljungqvist, Marcus; Illera, Juan-Carlos; Kvist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary molecular studies of island radiations may lead to insights in the role of vicariance, founder events, population size and drift in the processes of population differentiation. We evaluate the degree of population genetic differentiation and fixation of the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex using microsatellite markers and aim to get insights in the population history using coalescence based methods. The Canary Island populations were strongly genetically differentiated and had reduced diversity with pronounced fixation including many private alleles. In population structure models, the relationship between the central island populations (La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria) and El Hierro was difficult to disentangle whereas the two European populations showed consistent clustering, the two eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) and Morocco weak clustering, and La Palma a consistent unique lineage. Coalescence based models suggested that the European mainland forms an outgroup to the Afrocanarian population, a split between the western island group (La Palma and El Hierro) and the central island group, and recent splits between the three central islands, and between the two eastern islands and Morocco, respectively. It is clear that strong genetic drift and low level of concurrent gene flow among populations have shaped complex allelic patterns of fixation and skewed frequencies over the archipelago. However, understanding the population history remains challenging; in particular, the pattern of extreme divergence with low genetic diversity and yet unique genetic material in the Canary Island system requires an explanation. A potential scenario is population contractions of a historically large and genetically variable Afrocanarian population, with vicariance and drift following in the wake. The suggestion from sequence-based analyses of a Pleistocene extinction of a substantial part of North Africa and a Pleistocene/Holocene eastward

  19. The development of WIFIS: a wide integral field infrared spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Chou, Richard C. Y.; Moon, Dae-Sik; Ma, Ke; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Chun, Moo-Young; Kim, Sang Chul; Raines, Steven N.; Eisner, Joshua

    2012-09-01

    We present the current results from the development of a wide integral field infrared spectrograph (WIFIS). WIFIS offers an unprecedented combination of etendue and spectral resolving power for seeing-limited, integral field observations in the 0.9 - 1.8 μm range and is most sensitive in the 0.9 - 1.35 μ,m range. Its optical design consists of front-end re-imaging optics, an all-reflective image slicer-type, integral field unit (IFU) called FISICA, and a long-slit grating spectrograph back-end that is coupled with a HAWAII 2RG focal plane array. The full wavelength range is achieved by selecting between two different gratings. By virtue of its re-imaging optics, the spectrograph is quite versatile and can be used at multiple telescopes. The size of its field-of-view is unrivalled by other similar spectrographs, offering a 4.511x 1211 integral field at a 10-meter class telescope (or 2011 x 5011 at a 2.3-meter telescope). The use of WIFIS will be crucial in astronomical problems which require wide-field, two-dimensional spectroscopy such as the study of merging galaxies at moderate redshift and nearby star/planet-forming regions and supernova remnants. We discuss the final optical design of WIFIS, and its predicted on-sky performance on two reference telescope platforms: the 2.3-m Steward Bok telescope and the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We also present the results from our laboratory characterization of FISICA. IFU properties such as magnification, field-mapping, and slit width along the entire slit length were measured by our tests. The construction and testing of WIFIS is expected to be completed by early 2013. We plan to commission the instrument at the 2.3-m Steward Bok telescope at Kitt Peak, USA in Spring 2013.

  20. FRIDA integral field spectroscopy PSF quality simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Salvador

    2014-07-01

    FRIDA (inFRared Imager and Dissector for the Adaptive optics system of the Gran Telescopio Canarias) has been designed as a cryogenic and diffraction limited instrument that will offer broad and narrow band imaging and integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Both, the imaging mode and IFS observing modes will use the same Teledyne 2Kx2K detector. This instrument will be installed at Nasmyth B station, behind the GTC Adaptive Optics system (GTCAO). FRIDA will provide the IFS mode using a 30 slices Integral Field Unit (IFU). This IFU design is based on University of Florida FISICA where the mirror block arrays are diamond turned on monolithic metal blocks. FRIDA IFU is conformed mainly by 2 mirror blocks with 30 spherical mirrors each. The image slicing is performed by a block of 30 cylindrical mirrors each of 400 μm width. It also has a Schwarzschild relay based on two off axis spherical mirrors that adapts the GTCAO corrected PSF to the slicer mirrors dimensions. To readapt the sliced PSF to the spectrograph input numerical aperture the IFU has an afocal system of two parabolic off axis mirrors. The AO PSF is bigger than the slice mirror dimensions and this produces diffraction effects. These diffraction effects combined with the intrinsic IFU and spectrograph aberrations produce the final instrumental PSF of the IFS mode. In order to evaluate the instrumental PSF quality of the FRIDA IFS, modeling simulations were performed by the ZEMAX Physical Optics Propagation (POP) module. In this work the simulations are described and the PSF quality and uniformity on a reconstructed IFS image is evaluated. It is shown the PSF quality of the IFS mode including the instrument manufacturing tolerances fulfills the specifications.

  1. GTC OSIRIS transiting exoplanet atmospheric survey: detection of potassium in HAT-P-1b from narrow-band spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, P. A.; Sing, D. K.; Nikolov, N.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Pont, F.; Fortney, J. J.; Ballester, G. E.; López-Morales, M.; Désert, J.-M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present the detection of potassium in the atmosphere of HAT-P-1b using optical transit narrow-band photometry. The results are obtained using the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias together with the OSIRIS instrument in tunable filter imaging mode. We observed four transits, two at continuum wavelengths outside the potassium feature, at 6792 and 8844 Å, and two probing the potassium feature in the line wing at 7582.0 Å and the line core at 7664.9 Å using a 12 Å filter width (R ˜ 650). The planet-to-star radius ratios in the continuum are found to be Rpl/R⋆ = 0.1176 ± 0.0013 at 6792 Å and Rpl/R⋆ = 0.1168 ± 0.0022 at 8844 Å, significantly lower than the two observations in the potassium line: Rpl/R⋆ = 0.1248 ± 0.0014 in the line wing at 7582.0 Å and Rpl/R⋆ = 0.1268 ± 0.0012 in the line core at 7664.9 Å. With a weighted mean of the observations outside the potassium feature Rpl/R⋆ = 0.1174 ± 0.0010, the potassium is detected as an increase in the radius ratio of ΔRpl/R⋆ = 0.0073 ± 0.0017 at 7582.0 Å and ΔRpl/R⋆ = 0.0094 ± 0.0016 at 7664.9 Å (a significance of 4.3σ and 6.1σ, respectively). We hypothesize that the strong detection of potassium is caused by a large scaleheight, which can be explained by a high temperature at the base of the upper atmosphere. A lower mean molecular mass caused by the dissociation of molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen by the extreme ultraviolet flux from the host star may also partly explain the amplitude of our detection.

  2. Characterising the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets using narrowband spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Paul Anthony; Sing, David; Nikolov, Nikolay; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Pont, Frédéric; Fortney, Jonathan; Ballester, Gilda; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Desert, Jean-Michel; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    2015-08-01

    Transiting hot-Jupiters provide an excellent opportunity to detect and characterise exoplanetary atmospheres. However, to be able to perform a wide scale comparative exoplanetology we have to observe targets which are too faint for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). To do this, we use the the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) telescope together with unique tunable filters capable of precision narrowband photometry at specific wavelengths. This technique coupled with the use of the world’s largest optical telescope allows us to obtain photon-limited sub-mmag narrowband transit spectrophotometry, capable of detecting Na, K, TiO and other important atmospheric species. The detection (and non-detection) of such key species can provide information on the temperature profile of the atmosphere determine the presence and extent of condensate clouds and give us insight into the chemical processes at play. This information is vital to be able to discern different exoplanet atmospheres and will in the future allow us to categorise exoplanets into different sub-classes.In this talk I will present the ground based detection of potassium in HAT-P-1b and describe the techniques used to deal with the systematics present in the data. I will discuss, in context of HST observations, the effects resolution has on the measurements and how atmospheric signatures could be missed if the resolution is not sufficiently high. Tunable filters allow the atmosphere to be probed higher up, where the pressures are lower and where the temperatures may be higher. Such conditions could cause the dissociation of molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen by the EUV flux from the host star. This will have important effects on the amplitude of the detection of alkali metals. With studies such as this one, we are well on our way to performing comparative exoplanetology using statistical methods.

  3. UNCOVERING THE DEEPLY EMBEDDED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN THE NUCLEAR REGIONS OF THE INTERACTING GALAXY Arp 299

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Roche, P. F.; Esquej, P.; Colina, L.; González-Martín, O.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Alvarez, C.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Levenson, N. A.; Packham, C.; Mason, R. E.; Aretxaga, I.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Perlman, E.; Telesco, C. M.

    2013-12-10

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) 8-13 μm spectroscopy of the nuclear regions of the interacting galaxy Arp 299 (IC 694+NGC 3690) obtained with CanariCam (CC) on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The high angular resolution (∼0.''3-0.''6) of the data allows us to probe nuclear physical scales between 60 and 120 pc, which is a factor of 10 improvement over previous MIR spectroscopic observations of this system. The GTC/CC spectroscopy displays evidence of deeply embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in both nuclei. The GTC/CC nuclear spectrum of NGC 3690/Arp 299-B1 can be explained as emission from AGN-heated dust in a clumpy torus with both a high covering factor and high extinction along the line of sight. The estimated bolometric luminosity of the AGN in NGC 3690 is 3.2 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}. The nuclear GTC/CC spectrum of IC 694/Arp 299-A shows 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission stemming from a deeply embedded (A{sub V} ∼ 24 mag) region of less than 120 pc in size. There is also a continuum-emitting dust component. If associated with the putative AGN in IC 694, we estimate that it would be approximately five times less luminous than the AGN in NGC 3690. The presence of dual AGN activity makes Arp 299 a good example to study such phenomena in the early coalescence phase of interacting galaxies.

  4. Agricultural land-use mapping using very high resolution satellite images in Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador Garcia, Mauricio; Arbelo, Manuel; Evora Brondo, Juan Antonio; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Alonso-Benito, Alfonso

    Crop maps are a basic tool for rural planning and a way to asses the impact of politics and infrastructures in the rural environment. Thus, they must be accurate and updated. Because of the small size of the land fields in Canary Islands, until now the crop maps have been made by means of an intense and expensive field work. The tiny crop terraces do not allow the use of traditional medium-size resolution satellite images. The launch of several satellites with sub-meter spatial resolutions in the last years provides an opportunity to update land use maps in these fragmented areas. SATELMAC is a project financed by the PCT-MAC 2007-2013 (FEDER funds). One of the main objectives of this project is to develop a methodology that allows the use of very high resolution satellite images to automate as much as possible the updating of agricultural land use maps. The study was carried out in 3 different areas of the two main islands of the Canarian Archipelago, Tenerife and Gran Canaria. The total area is about 550 km2 , which includes both urban and rural areas. Multitemporal images from Geo-Eye 1 were acquired during a whole agricultural season to extract information about annual and perennial crops. The work includes a detailed geographic correction of the images and dealing with many adverse factors like cloud shadows, variability of atmospheric conditions and the heterogeneity of the land uses within the study area. Different classification methods, including traditional pixel-based methods and object-oriented approach, were compared in order to obtain the best accuracy. An intensive field work was carried out to obtain the ground truth, which is the base for the classification procedures and the validation of the results. The final results will be integrated into a cadastral vector layer.

  5. Similarities between GCS and human motor cortex: complex movement coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos

    2014-07-01

    The "Gran Telescopio de Canarias" (GTC1) is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). The GTC control system (GCS), the brain of the telescope, is is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. On the other hand, the Human motor cortex (HMC) is a region of the cerebrum responsible for the coordination of planning, control, and executing voluntary movements. If we analyze both systems, as far as the movement control of their mechanisms and body parts is concerned, we can find extraordinary similarities in their architectures. Both are structured in layers, and their functionalities are comparable from the movement conception until the movement action itself: In the GCS we can enumerate the Sequencer high level components, the Coordination libraries, the Control Kit library and the Device Driver library as the subsystems involved in the telescope movement control. If we look at the motor cortex, we can also enumerate the primary motor cortex, the secondary motor cortices, which include the posterior parietal cortex, the premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area (SMA), the motor units, the sensory organs and the basal ganglia. From all these components/areas we will analyze in depth the several subcortical regions, of the the motor cortex, that are involved in organizing motor programs for complex movements and the GCS coordination framework, which is composed by a set of classes that allow to the high level components to transparently control a group of mechanisms simultaneously.

  6. The chemical composition of Galactic ring nebulae around massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, C.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; Morisset, C.; García-Rojas, J.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep spectra of ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet (WR) and O-type stars: NGC 6888, G2.4+1.4, RCW 58, S 308, NGC 7635 and RCW 52. The data have been taken with the 10m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 6.5m Clay Telescope. We extract spectra of several apertures in some of the objects. We derive C$^{++}$ and O$^{++}$ abundances from faint recombination lines in NGC 6888 and NGC 7635, permitting to derive their C/H and C/O ratios and estimate the abundance discrepancy factor (ADF) of O$^{++}$. The ADFs are larger than the typical ones of normal HII regions but similar to those found in the ionised gas of star-forming dwarf galaxies. We find that chemical abundances are rather homogeneous in the nebulae where we have spectra of several apertures: NGC 6888, NGC 7635 and G2.4+1.4. We obtain very high values of electron temperature in a peripheral zone of NGC 6888, finding that shock excitation can reproduce its spectral properties. We find that all the objects associated with WR stars show N enrichment. Some of them also show He enrichment and O deficiency as well as a lower Ne/O than expected, this may indicate the strong action of the ON and NeNa cycles. We have compared the chemical composition of NGC 6888, G2.4+1.4, RCW 58 and S 308 with the nucleosynthesis predicted by stellar evolution models of massive stars. We find that non-rotational models of stars of initial masses between 25 and 40 solar masses seem to reproduce the observed abundance ratios of most of the nebulae.

  7. Application of stable carbon isotopes in long term mesocosm studies for carbon cycle investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an effective greenhouse gas. The Oceans absorb ca. 30% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions and thereby partly attenuate deleterious climate effects. A consequence of the oceanic CO2 uptake is a decreased seawater pH and planktonic community shifts. The quantification of the anthropogenic perturbation was investigated through stable carbon isotope analysis in three "long term" mesocosm experiments (Sweden 2013, Gran Canaria 2014, Norway 2015) which reproduced near natural ecosystem conditions under both controlled and modified future CO2 level (up to 2000 ppm) scenarios. Parallel measurements of the stable isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) dissolved organic carbon (δ13CDOC) and particulate carbon (δ13CTPC) both from the mesocosms water column and sediment traps showed similar trends in all the three experiments. A CO2 response was noticeable in the isotopic dataset, but increased CO2 levels had only a subtle effect on the concentrations of the dissolved and particulate organic carbon pool. Distinctive δ13C signatures of the particulate carbon pool both in the water column and the sediments were detectable for the different CO2 treatments and they were strongly correlated with the δ13CDIC signatures but not with the δ13CDOC pool. The validity of the isotopic data was verified by cross-analyses of multiple substances of known isotopic signatures on a GasBench, Elemental Analyser (EA) and on an in-house TOC-IRMS setup for the analysis of δ13CDIC, δ13CTPC and δ13CDOC, respectively. Results from these mesocosm experiments proved the stable carbon isotope approach to be an effective tool for quantifying the uptake and carbon transfer among the various compartments of the marine carbon system.

  8. Scrophularia arguta, a widespread annual plant in the Canary Islands: a single recent colonization event or a more complex phylogeographic pattern?

    PubMed

    Valtueña, Francisco Javier; López, Josefa; Álvarez, Juan; Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Ortega-Olivencia, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have addressed evolution and phylogeography of plant taxa in oceanic islands, but have primarily focused on endemics because of the assumption that in widespread taxa the absence of morphological differentiation between island and mainland populations is due to recent colonization. In this paper, we studied the phylogeography of Scrophularia arguta, a widespread annual species, in an attempt to determine the number and spatiotemporal origins of dispersal events to Canary Islands. Four different regions, ITS and ETS from nDNA and psbA-trnH and psbJ-petA from cpDNA, were used to date divergence events within S. arguta lineages and determine the phylogenetic relationships among populations. A haplotype network was obtained to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes. Our results support an ancient origin of S. arguta (Miocene) with expansion and genetic differentiation in the Pliocene coinciding with the aridification of northern Africa and the formation of the Mediterranean climate. Indeed, results indicate for Canary Islands three different events of colonization, including two ancient events that probably happened in the Pliocene and have originated the genetically most divergent populations into this species and, interestingly, a recent third event of colonization of Gran Canaria from mainland instead from the closest islands (Tenerife or Fuerteventura). In spite of the great genetic divergence among populations, it has not implied any morphological variation. Our work highlights the importance of nonendemic species to the genetic richness and conservation of island flora and the significance of the island populations of widespread taxa in the global biodiversity. PMID:27386073

  9. METAL-RICH PLANETARY NEBULAE IN THE OUTER REACHES OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, B.; Kwitter, K. B.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Henry, R. B. C. E-mail: kkwitter@williams.edu E-mail: henry@ou.edu

    2013-09-01

    Spectroscopic data of two relatively [O III]-luminous planetary nebulae (PNe) have been obtained with the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. M174 and M2496 are each {approx}1 Degree-Sign from the center of M31 along opposite sides of its minor axis. The ensemble of these 2 distant PNe plus 16 similarly luminous outer-disk PNe published previously by Kwitter et al. forms a homogeneous group in luminosity, metal content, progenitor mass, age, and kinematics. The main factual findings of our work are (1) O/H (and other low-mass {alpha} elements and their ratios to O) is uniformly solar-like in all 18 PNe ((12 + log(O/H)) = 8.62 {+-} 0.14); (2) the general sky distribution and kinematics of the ensemble much more closely resemble the rotation pattern of the classical disk of M31 than its halo or bulge; (3) the O/H gradient is surprisingly flat beyond R{sub g} {approx} 20 kpc. The PNe are too metal-rich to be bona fide members of M31's disk or halo, and (4) the abundance patterns of the sample are distinct from those in the spiral galaxies M33, M81, and NGC 300. Using standard PN age diagnostic methods, we suggest that all of the PNe formed {approx}2 Gyr ago in a starburst of metal-rich interstellar medium that followed an M31-M33 encounter about 3 Gyr ago. We review supporting evidence from stellar studies. Other more prosaic explanations, such as dwarf galaxy assimilation, are unlikely.

  10. The chemical composition of Galactic ring nebulae around massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, C.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; Morisset, C.; García-Rojas, J.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep spectra of ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet (WR) and O-type stars: NGC 6888, G2.4+1.4, RCW 58, S 308, NGC 7635 and RCW 52. The data have been taken with the 10m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 6.5m Clay Telescope. We extract spectra of several apertures in some of the objects. We derive C2+ and O2+ abundances from faint recombination lines in NGC 6888 and NGC 7635, permitting to derive their C/H and C/O ratios and estimate the abundance discrepancy factor (ADF) of O2+. The ADFs are larger than the typical ones of normal H II regions but similar to those found in the ionized gas of star-forming dwarf galaxies. We find that chemical abundances are rather homogeneous in the nebulae where we have spectra of several apertures: NGC 6888, NGC 7635 and G2.4+1.4. We obtain very high values of electron temperature in a peripheral zone of NGC 6888, finding that shock excitation can reproduce its spectral properties. We find that all the objects associated with WR stars show N enrichment. Some of them also show He enrichment and O deficiency as well as a lower Ne/O than expected, this may indicate the strong action of the ON and NeNa cycles. We have compared the chemical composition of NGC 6888, G2.4+1.4, RCW 58 and S 308 with the nucleosynthesis predicted by stellar evolution models of massive stars. We find that non-rotational models of stars of initial masses between 25 and 40 M⊙ seem to reproduce the observed abundance ratios of most of the nebulae.

  11. Spectroscopy of 7 radio-loud QSOs at 2 < z < 6: giant Lyman α emission nebulae accreting on to host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Nathan; Humphrey, Andrew; Binette, Luc

    2014-10-01

    We performed long-slit optical spectroscopy (Gran Telescopio Canarias-Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) of 6 radio-loud quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) at redshifts 2 < z < 3, known to have giant (˜50-100 kpc) Lyman α emitting nebulae, and detect extended Lyman α emission for 4, with surface brightness ˜10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 arcsec-2 and line full width at half-maximum 400-1100 (mean 863) km s- 1. We also observed the z ≃ 5.9 radio-loud QSO, SDSS J2228+0110, and found evidence of a ≥10 kpc extended Lyman α emission nebula, a new discovery for this high-redshift object. Spatially resolved kinematics of the 5 nebulae are examined by fitting the Lyman α wavelength at a series of positions along the slit. We found the line-of-sight velocity Δ(v) profiles to be relatively flat. However, 3 of the nebulae appear systematically redshifted by 250-460 km s- 1 relative to the Lyman α line of the QSO (with no offset for the other two), which we argue is evidence for infall. One of these (Q0805+046) had a small (˜100 km s- 1) velocity shift across its diameter and a steep gradient at the centre. Differences in line-of-sight kinematics between these 5 giant nebulae and similar nebulae associated with high-redshift radio galaxies (which can show steep velocity gradients) may be due to an orientation effect, which brings infall/outflow rather than rotation into greater prominence for the sources observed `on-axis' as QSOs.

  12. Parallax of the L4.5 dwarf 2M1821+14 from high-precision astrometry with OSIRIS at GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlmann, J.; Lazorenko, P. F.; Bouy, H.; Martín, E. L.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    We used the OSIRIS camera at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) to monitor the astrometric motion of the L4.5 dwarf 2M1821+14 over 17 months. The astrometric residuals of 11 epochs have an rms dispersion of 0.4 mas, which is larger than the average precision of 0.23 mas per epoch and hints towards an additional signal or excess noise. Comparison of the point-spread functions in OSIRIS and FORS2/VLT images reveals no differences critical for high-precision astrometry, despite the GTC's segmented primary mirror. We attribute the excess noise to an unknown effect that may be uncovered with additional data. For 2M1821+14, we measured a relative parallax of 106.15 ± 0.18 mas and determined a correction of 0.50 ± 0.05 mas to absolute parallax, leading to a distance of 9.38 ± 0.03 pc. We excluded at 3σ confidence the presence of a companion to 2M1821+14 down to a mass ratio of 0.1 (≈5 MJupiter) with a period of 50-1000 d and a separation of 0.1-0.7 au. The accurate parallax allowed us to estimate the age and mass of 2M1821+14 of 120-700 Myr and 0.049^{+0.014}_{-0.024} M⊙, thus confirming its intermediate age and substellar mass. We complement our study with a parallax and proper motion catalogue of 587 stars (i' ≃ 15.5-22) close to 2M1821+14, used as astrometric references. This study demonstrates submas astrometry with the GTC, a capability applicable for a variety of science cases including the search for extrasolar planets and relevant for future astrometric observations with E-ELT and TMT.

  13. Vetting Kepler planet candidates in the sub-Jovian desert with multiband photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón, Knicole D.; Morehead, Robert C.; Ford, Eric B.

    2015-09-01

    We present new multiband transit photometry of three small (Rp ≲ 6 R⊕), short-period (P ≲ 6 d) Kepler planet candidates acquired with the Gran Telescopio Canarias. These observations supplement the results presented in Colón & Ford and Colón, Ford & Morehead, where we used multicolour transit photometry of five Kepler planet candidates to search for wavelength-dependent transit depths and either validate planet candidates or identify eclipsing binary false positives within our sample. In those previous studies, we provided evidence that three targets were false positives and two targets were planets. Here, we present observations that provide evidence supporting a planetary nature for Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) 439.01 and KOI 732.01, and we find that KOI 531.01, a 6 R⊕ planet candidate around an M dwarf, is likely a false positive. We also present a discussion of the purported `sub-Jovian desert' in the orbital period-planet radius plane, which cannot be easily explained by observational bias. Both KOI 439.01 and KOI 732.01 are likely planets located within the so-called desert and should be investigated with further follow-up observations. As only ˜30 of the ˜3600 currently active Kepler planet candidates are located within the sub-Jovian desert, it will be interesting to see if these candidates also survive the vetting process and fill in the gap in the period-radius plane. Confirming planets in this regime will be important for understanding planetary migration and evolution processes, and we urge additional follow-up observations of these planet candidates to confirm their nature.

  14. Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.

  15. Fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of benzotriazole UV stabilizers in sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2015-10-01

    A fast and sensitive sample preparation strategy using fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection has been developed to analyse benzotriazole UV stabilizer compounds in aqueous samples. Benzotriazole UV stabilizer compounds are a group of compounds added to sunscreens and other personal care products which may present detrimental effects to aquatic ecosystems. Fabric phase sorptive extraction is a novel solvent minimized sample preparation approach that integrates the advantages of sol-gel derived hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposite sorbents and the flexible, permeable and hydrophobic surface chemistry of polyester fabric. It is a highly sensitive, fast, efficient and inexpensive device that can be reused and does not suffer from coating damage, unlike SPME fibres or stir bars. In this paper, we optimized the extraction of seven benzotriazole UV filters evaluating the majority of the parameters involved in the extraction process, such as sorbent chemistry selection, extraction time, back-extraction solvent, back-extraction time and the impact of ionic strength. Under the optimized conditions, fabric phase sorptive extraction allows enrichment factors of 10 times with detection limits ranging from 6.01 to 60.7 ng L(-1) and intra- and inter-day % RSDs lower than 11 and 30 % for all compounds, respectively. The optimized sample preparation technique followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection was applied to determine the target analytes in sewage samples from wastewater treatment plants with different purification processes of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Two UV stabilizer compounds were measured in ranges 17.0-60.5 ng mL(-1) (UV 328) and 69.3-99.2 ng mL(-1) (UV 360) in the three sewage water samples analysed. PMID:26345441

  16. DES14X3taz: A Type I Superluminous Supernova Showing a Luminous, Rapidly Cooling Initial Pre-peak Bump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Castander, F. J.; Casas, R.; Prajs, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Nichol, R. C.; Karpenka, N. V.; Bernard, S. R.; Brown, P.; Cartier, R.; Cooke, J.; Curtin, C.; Davis, T. M.; Finley, D. A.; Foley, R. J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Goldstein, D. A.; González-Gaitán, S.; Gupta, R. R.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Kessler, R.; Lidman, C.; Marriner, J.; Nugent, P.; Pritchard, T. A.; Sako, M.; Smartt, S.; Smith, R. C.; Spinka, H.; Thomas, R. C.; Wolf, R. C.; Zenteno, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; DES Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We present DES14X3taz, a new hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova program, with additional photometric data provided by the Survey Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae. Spectra obtained using Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS show DES14X3taz is an SLSN-I at z = 0.608. Multi-color photometry reveals a double-peaked light curve: a blue and relatively bright initial peak that fades rapidly prior to the slower rise of the main light curve. Our multi-color photometry allows us, for the first time, to show that the initial peak cools from 22,000 to 8000 K over 15 rest-frame days, and is faster and brighter than any published core-collapse supernova, reaching 30% of the bolometric luminosity of the main peak. No physical 56Ni-powered model can fit this initial peak. We show that a shock-cooling model followed by a magnetar driving the second phase of the light curve can adequately explain the entire light curve of DES14X3taz. Models involving the shock-cooling of extended circumstellar material at a distance of ≃400 {\\text{}}{R}⊙ are preferred over the cooling of shock-heated surface layers of a stellar envelope. We compare DES14X3taz to the few double-peaked SLSN-I events in the literature. Although the rise times and characteristics of these initial peaks differ, there exists the tantalizing possibility that they can be explained by one physical interpretation.

  17. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Laura M.; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C.; McCoy, Karen D.; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory’s shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in

  18. The optical identification of events with poorly defined locations: the case of the Fermi GBM GRB 140801A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipunov, V. M.; Gorosabel, J.; Pruzhinskaya, M. V.; Postigo, A. de Ugarte; Pelassa, V.; Tsvetkova, A. E.; Sokolov, I. V.; Kann, D. A.; Xu, Dong; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Krushinski, V. V.; Kornilov, V. G.; Balanutsa, P. V.; Boronina, S. V.; Budnev, N. M.; Cano, Z.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chazov, V. V.; Connaughton, V.; Delvaux, C.; Frederiks, D. D.; Fynbo, J. F. U.; Gabovich, A. V.; Goldstein, A.; Greiner, J.; Gress, O. A.; Ivanov, K. I.; Jakobsson, P.; Klose, S.; Knust, F.; Komarova, V. N.; Konstantinov, E.; Krylov, A. V.; Kuvshinov, D. A.; Kuznetsov, A. S.; Lipunova, G. V.; Moskvitin, A. S.; Pal'shin, V. D.; Pandey, S. B.; Poleshchuk, V. A.; Schmidl, S.; Sergienko, Yu. P.; Sinyakov, E. V.; Schulze, S.; Sokolov, V. V.; Sokolova, T. N.; Sparre, M.; Thöne, C. C.; Tlatov, A. G.; Tyurina, N. V.; Ulanov, M. V.; Yazev, S. A.; Yurkov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    We report the early discovery of the optical afterglow of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 140801A in the 137 deg2 3-σ error-box of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). MASTER is the only observatory that automatically reacts to all Fermi alerts. GRB 140801A is one of the few GRBs whose optical counterpart was discovered solely from its GBM localization. The optical afterglow of GRB 140801A was found by MASTER Global Robotic Net 53 s after receiving the alert, making it the fastest optical detection of a GRB from a GBM error-box. Spectroscopy obtained with the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 6-m Big Telescope Alt-azimuth of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences reveals a redshift of z = 1.32. We performed optical and near-infrared photometry of GRB 140801A using different telescopes with apertures ranging from 0.4 to 10.4 m. GRB 140801A is a typical burst in many ways. The rest-frame bolometric isotropic energy release and peak energy of the burst are E_iso = 5.54_{-0.24}^{+0.26} {×} 10^{52} erg and Ep, rest ≃ 280 keV, respectively, which is consistent with the Amati relation. The absence of a jet break in the optical light curve provides a lower limit on the half-opening angle of the jet θ = 6.1°. The observed Epeak is consistent with the limit derived from the Ghirlanda relation. The joint Fermi GBM and Konus-Wind analysis show that GRB 140801A could belong to the class of intermediate duration. The rapid detection of the optical counterpart of GRB 140801A is especially important regarding the upcoming experiments with large coordinate error-box areas.

  19. Mid-infrared imaging- and spectro-polarimetric subarcsecond observations of NGC 1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C.; Roche, P. F.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Nikutta, R.; González-Martín, O.; Álvarez, C. A.; Esquej, P.; Espinosa, J. M. Rodríguez; Perlman, E.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Telesco, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present subarcsecond 7.5-13 μm imaging- and spectro-polarimetric observations of NGC 1068 using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. At all wavelengths, we find: (1) A 90 × 60 pc extended polarized feature in the northern ionization cone, with a uniform ˜44° polarization angle. Its polarization arises from dust and gas emission in the ionization cone, heated by the active nucleus and jet, and further extinguished by aligned dust grains in the host galaxy. The polarization spectrum of the jet-molecular cloud interaction at ˜24 pc from the core is highly polarized, and does not show a silicate feature, suggesting that the dust grains are different from those in the interstellar medium. (2) A southern polarized feature at ˜9.6 pc from the core. Its polarization arises from a dust emission component extinguished by a large concentration of dust in the galaxy disc. We cannot distinguish between dust emission from magnetically aligned dust grains directly heated by the jet close to the core, and aligned dust grains in the dusty obscuring material surrounding the central engine. Silicate-like grains reproduce the polarized dust emission in this feature, suggesting different dust compositions in both ionization cones. (3) An upper limit of polarization degree of 0.3 per cent in the core. Based on our polarization model, the expected polarization of the obscuring dusty material is ≲0.1 per cent in the 8-13 μm wavelength range. This low polarization may be arising from the passage of radiation through aligned dust grains in the shielded edges of the clumps.

  20. A search for methane in the atmosphere of GJ 1214b via GTC narrow-band transmission spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, P. A.; Colón, K. D.; Sing, D. K.; Ballester, G. E.; Désert, J.-M.; Ehrenreich, D.; Ford, E. B.; Fortney, J. J.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; López-Morales, M.; Morley, C. V.; Pettitt, A. R.; Pont, F.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2014-03-01

    We present narrow-band photometric measurements of the exoplanet GJ 1214b using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy instrument. Using tuneable filters, we observed a total of five transits, three of which were observed at two wavelengths nearly simultaneously, producing a total of eight individual light curves, six of these probed the possible existence of a methane absorption feature in the 8770-8850 Å region at high resolution. We detect no increase in the planet-to-star radius ratio across the methane feature with a change in radius ratio of Δ overline{R} = -0.0007 ± 0.0017 corresponding to a scaleheight (H) change of -0.5 ± 1.2H across the methane feature, assuming a hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. We find that a variety of water and cloudy atmospheric models fit the data well, but find that cloud-free models provide poor fits. These observations support a flat transmission spectrum resulting from the presence of a high-altitude haze or a water-rich atmosphere, in agreement with previous studies. In this study, the observations are pre-dominantly limited by the photometric quality and the limited number of data points (resulting from a long observing cadence), which make the determination of the systematic noise challenging. With tuneable filters capable of high-resolution measurements (R ≈ 600-750) of narrow absorption features, the interpretation of our results are also limited by the absence of high-resolution methane models below 1 μm.

  1. A New Low Magnetic Field Magnetar: The 2011 Outburst of Swift J1822.3-1606

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, N.; Israel, G.L.; Esposito, P.; Pons, J. A.; Camero-Arramz, A.; Mignani, R. P.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S..; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Campana, T.; Enoto, T.; Gehrels, N.; Gogus, E.; Gotz, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Makishma, K.; Mereghetti, S.; Oates, S. R.; Palmer, D. M.; Perna, R.; Stella, L.; Tiengo, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the long-term X-ray monitoring with Swift, RXTE, Suzaku, Chandra, and XMM-Newton of the outburst of the newly discovered magnetar Swift J1822.3-1606 (SGR 1822-1606), from the first observations soon after the detection of the short X-ray bursts which led to its discovery, through the first stages of its outburst decay (covering the time span from 2011 July until the end of 2012 April).We also report on archival ROSAT observations which detected the source during its likely quiescent state, and on upper limits on Swift J1822.3-1606's radio-pulsed and optical emission during outburst, with the Green Bank Telescope and the Gran Telescopio Canarias, respectively. Our X-ray timing analysis finds the source rotating with a period of P = 8.43772016(2) s and a period derivative P-dot = 8.3(2)×10(exp -14) s/ s, which implies an inferred dipolar surface magnetic field of B approx. = 2.7×10(exp 13) G at the equator. This measurement makes Swift J1822.3-1606 the second lowest magnetic field magnetar (after SGR 0418+5729). Following the flux and spectral evolution from the beginning of the outburst, we find that the flux decreased by about an order of magnitude, with a subtle softening of the spectrum, both typical of the outburst decay of magnetars. By modeling the secular thermal evolution of Swift J1822.3-1606, we find that the observed timing properties of the source, as well as its quiescent X-ray luminosity, can be reproduced if it was born with a poloidal and crustal toroidal fields of B(sup p) approx.. 1.5×10(exp 14) G and B(sub tor) approx.. 7×10(exp 14) G, respectively, and if its current age is approx. 550 kyr.

  2. The central engine of GRB 130831A and the energy breakdown of a relativistic explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S. R.; Racusin, J. L.; Kann, D. A.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Volnova, A. A.; Trotter, A.; Frank, N.; Cucchiara, A.; Troja, E.; Sbarufatti, B.; Butler, N. R.; Schulze, S.; Cano, Z.; Page, M. J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Lien, A.; Fox, O.; Littlejohns, O.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; de Diego, J. A.; Gonzalez, J.; Richer, M. G.; Román-Zúñiga, C.; Watson, A. M.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Kutyrev, A.; Zane, S.; Hoette, V.; Russell, R. R.; Rumyantsev, V.; Klunko, E.; Burkhonov, O.; Breeveld, A. A.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, yet the nature and physical properties of their energy sources are far from understood. Very important clues, however, can be inferred by studying the afterglows of these events. We present optical and X-ray observations of GRB 130831A obtained by Swift, Chandra, Skynet, Reionization And Transients Infra-Red camera, Maidanak, International Scientific Optical-Observation Network, Nordic Optical Telescope, Liverpool Telescope and Gran Telescopio Canarias. This burst shows a steep drop in the X-ray light curve at ≃105 s after the trigger, with a power-law decay index of α ˜ 6. Such a rare behaviour cannot be explained by the standard forward shock (FS) model and indicates that the emission, up to the fast decay at 105 s, must be of `internal origin', produced by a dissipation process within an ultrarelativistic outflow. We propose that the source of such an outflow, which must produce the X-ray flux for ≃1 d in the cosmological rest frame, is a newly born magnetar or black hole. After the drop, the faint X-ray afterglow continues with a much shallower decay. The optical emission, on the other hand, shows no break across the X-ray steep decrease, and the late-time decays of both the X-ray and optical are consistent. Using both the X-ray and optical data, we show that the emission after ≃105 s can be explained well by the FS model. We model our data to derive the kinetic energy of the ejecta and thus measure the efficiency of the central engine of a GRB with emission of internal origin visible for a long time. Furthermore, we break down the energy budget of this GRB into the prompt emission, the late internal dissipation, the kinetic energy of the relativistic ejecta, and compare it with the energy of the associated supernova, SN 2013 fu.

  3. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  4. DES14X3taz: A type I superluminous supernova showing a luminous, rapidly cooling initial pre-peak bump

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, M.

    2016-02-03

    Here, we present DES14X3taz, a new hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova program, with additional photometric data provided by the Survey Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae. Spectra obtained using Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS show DES14X3taz is an SLSN-I at z = 0.608. Multi-color photometry reveals a double-peaked light curve: a blue and relatively bright initial peak that fades rapidly prior to the slower rise of the main light curve. Our multi-color photometry allows us, for the first time, to show that the initial peak cools from 22,000more » to 8000 K over 15 rest-frame days, and is faster and brighter than any published core-collapse supernova, reaching 30% of the bolometric luminosity of the main peak. No physical (56)Ni-powered model can fit this initial peak. We show that a shock-cooling model followed by a magnetar driving the second phase of the light curve can adequately explain the entire light curve of DES14X3taz. Models involving the shock-cooling of extended circumstellar material at a distance of ≃400 R⊙ are preferred over the cooling of shock-heated surface layers of a stellar envelope. We compare DES14X3taz to the few double-peaked SLSN-I events in the literature. Although the rise times and characteristics of these initial peaks differ, there exists the tantalizing possibility that they can be explained by one physical interpretation.« less

  5. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.

    2012-10-01

    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  6. Patterns of pollen dispersal in a small population of the Canarian endemic palm (Phoenix canariensis).

    PubMed

    Saro, I; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; González-Pérez, M A; Sosa, P A

    2014-09-01

    The genetic diversity of small populations is greatly influenced by local dispersal patterns and genetic connectivity among populations, with pollen dispersal being the major component of gene flow in many plants species. Patterns of pollen dispersal, mating system parameters and spatial genetic structure were investigated in a small isolated population of the emblematic palm Phoenix canariensis in Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands). All adult palms present in the study population (n=182), as well as 616 seeds collected from 22 female palms, were mapped and genotyped at 8 microsatellite loci. Mating system analysis revealed an average of 5.8 effective pollen donors (Nep) per female. There was strong variation in correlated paternity rates across maternal progenies (ranging from null to 0.9) that could not be explained by the location and density of local males around focal females. Paternity analysis revealed a mean effective pollen dispersal distance of ∼71 m, with ∼70% of effective pollen originating from a distance of <75 m, and 90% from <200 m. A spatially explicit mating model indicated a leptokurtic pollen dispersal kernel, significant pollen immigration (12%) from external palm groves and a directional pollen dispersal pattern that seems consistent with local altitudinal air movement. No evidence of inbreeding or genetic diversity erosion was found, but spatial genetic structure was detected in the small palm population. Overall, the results suggest substantial pollen dispersal over the studied population, genetic connectivity among different palm groves and some resilience to neutral genetic erosion and subsequently to fragmentation. PMID:24619186

  7. Stratification effects on the plankton of the subtropical Canary Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoker, Claire; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2013-12-01

    The Canary Current has experienced a progressive warming and a decrease in productivity over the last decades. In order to study the effect of stratification in these waters, we conducted a weekly sampling at one station (28°04‧N 15°21‧E) located ∼3 nmi offshore in the 100 m isobath, at the edge of the island shelf of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands). The sampling was performed over two and a half years, from January 2005 to June 2007, covering the most productive season in subtropical waters, the so-called late winter bloom, three times. The variables measured were temperature, chlorophyll a (Chl a), heterotrophic and autotrophic prokaryotes, pico-, nano-, micro- and mesozooplankton biomass. During 2005, the mixing of the water column started in January, while in 2007 the mixing period was delayed one month. Between years, temperature showed an increase of 0.5 °C, and Chl a decreased to half of the initial concentration (from ∼0.50 to ∼0.25 mg Chl a m-3). Autotrophic picoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryotes decreased between 2005 and 2007. However, neither nanoflagellates nor microplankton showed this decrease. The mesozooplankton biomass outburst lasted for three months in 2005, two in 2006, and only one month in 2007. Contrary to previously hypothesized size relationships, we did not observe an increase in the contribution of autotrophic picoplankton to total phytoplankton during periods of higher stability of the water column, but the opposite. We explain this surprising finding by possible top-down effects and by the success of motile morphotypes of algae (i.e., small dinoflagellates) under stable, nutrient-limited, conditions. Overall, the results suggest that small inter-annual differences in temperature, resulting in a tendency towards more stratified waters, give rise to important changes in the structure of the pelagic ecosystem in subtropical waters through a combination of bottom-up and top-down effects.

  8. The community of deep-sea decapod crustaceans between 175 and 2600 m in submarine canyons of a volcanic oceanic island (central-eastern Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Santana, José I.; González, José A.

    2015-11-01

    The community structure and faunal composition of deep-sea decapod crustaceans in submarine canyons on the slope off Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, central-eastern Atlantic) were investigated. Samples were collected during five research cruises (115 stations) at depths between 175 and 2554 m. A total of 26387 decapod specimens, belonging to 24 families and 38 species, were collected with traps. A cluster analysis of the stations showed four distinct assemblages: (i) in the transition area between shelf and slope (175-302 m); (ii) on the upper slope (361-789 m); (iii) on the middle slope (803-1973 m); and iv) on the lower slope (2011-2554 m). The deep-sea decapod fauna of the Canary Islands is dominated by shrimp of the family Pandalidae, which make up more than 23% of the species. Within the Pandalidae, species of the genus Plesionika stand out as those of greatest abundance on the island slope. The greatest diversity of species was located on the upper slope. The standardized mean abundance and mean biomass for the transition zone between the shelf and slope and for the upper slope were nearly 5 times greater in abundance and 4 times greater in biomass than those estimated for the middle slope, and nearly 53 and 29 times greater for the lower slope, indicating a lower abundance and biomass at the shallower part of the insular slope. The mean weight per individual showed an increasing pattern with depth and an inverse pattern with the bottom temperature and salinity. The existence of depth boundaries around the Canary Islands is known to be closely linked to oceanographic conditions, determined by the water masses present in this archipelago explaining the discontinuities observed at depths of 800 and 2000 m. The boundary observed inside the bathymetric region of the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water can be related with the transition zone between the shelf and the slope of the island.

  9. The Search for Faint Infrared Calibration Standards - Extending Landolt's Standards to V=19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidger, M.; González-Pérez, J. N.; Martín-Luis, F.; Cohen, M.

    ISO has shown the need to obtain a reliable calibration network of good pedigree to permit data from a wide range of instruments, covering an enormous wavelength range, to be calibrated on a consistent scale. We describe the first results of a programme to extend the Landolt calibration standards to at least V=19. At the same time we calibrate into the near-infrared JHK bands and measure fields separated from the celestial equator. This programme is one of several coordinated efforts to find faint type AV and KIII stars suitable for the mid-IR calibration of the Spanish 10-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). We have obtained a total of 34 712 measurements of 373 stars in 26 quasar fields between Declination -30o and +70o, calculating magnitudes with high precision in the visible and near-infrared (UBVRIJHK). We describe the results obtained and the characteristics of the sample of stars. The typical error on the magnitude in a single band is <1%, including all error sources. Very few candidate type AV or KIII stars are found, either in our sample, or amongst the fainter Landolt stars. We conclude that both samples are increasingly dominated by local dwarfs at increasingly faint magnitudes. We discuss the implications for taking mid-infrared calibration to the increasingly faint limits required by post-ISO instrumentation. The next steps in this project will be: -- To increase significantly the number of fields covered to ˜40. -- To take additional observations of all poorly covered fields and to add JHK data where none is available. -- To use our existing database to extend Landolt photometry of Selected Areas to include many stars not previously measured. -- To assign a spectral type to all candidate KIII and AV stars in our sample.

  10. MID-IR SPECTRA OF TYPE Ia SN 2014J IN M82 SPANNING THE FIRST 4 MONTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Telesco, Charles M.; Li, Dan; Barnes, Peter J.; Mariñas, Naibí; Zhang, Han; Höflich, Peter; Álvarez, Carlos; Fernández, Sergio; Rebolo, Rafael; Hough, James H.; Levenson, N. A.; Pantin, Eric; Roche, Patrick E-mail: phoeflich77@gmail.com

    2015-01-10

    We present a time series of 8-13 μm spectra and photometry for SN 2014J obtained 57, 81, 108, and 137 days after the explosion using CanariCam on the Gran Telescopio Canarias. This is the first mid-IR time series ever obtained for a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). These observations can be understood within the framework of the delayed detonation model and the production of ∼0.6 M {sub ☉} of {sup 56}Ni, consistent with the observed brightness, the brightness decline relation, and the γ-ray fluxes. The [Co III] line at 11.888 μm is particularly useful for evaluating the time evolution of the photosphere and measuring the amount of {sup 56}Ni and thus the mass of the ejecta. Late-time line profiles of SN 2014J are rather symmetric and not shifted in the rest frame. We see argon emission, which provides a unique probe of mixing in the transition layer between incomplete burning and nuclear statistical equilibrium. We may see [Fe III] and [Ni IV] emission, both of which are observed to be substantially stronger than indicated by our models. If the latter identification is correct, then we are likely observing stable Ni, which might imply central mixing. In addition, electron capture, also required for stable Ni, requires densities larger than ∼1 × 10{sup 9} g cm{sup –3}, which are expected to be present only in white dwarfs close to the Chandrasekhar limit. This study demonstrates that mid-IR studies of SNe Ia are feasible from the ground and provide unique information, but it also indicates the need for better atomic data.

  11. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009-2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100ngL(-1)). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ(18)O, δ(15)N and δ(34)S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100ngL(-1). The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ(15)N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex volcanic media with several

  12. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 Additional O-type Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sota, A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Herrero, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ∼ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. The GOSSS spectroscopic data in this article were gathered with five facilities: the 1.5 m Telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), the 3.5 m Telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA), and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM).

  13. PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Julia; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Campins, Humberto; Lorenzi, Vania; Licandro, Javier; Morate, David; Tanga, Paolo; Cellino, Alberto; Delbo, Marco

    2015-11-01

    NASA OSIRIS-REx and JAXA Hayabusa 2 sample-return missions have targeted two near-Earth asteroids: (101955) Bennu and (162173) 1999 JU3, respectively. These are primitive asteroids that are believed to originate in the inner belt, where five distinct sources have been identified: four primitive collisional families (Polana, Erigone, Sulamitis, and Clarissa), and a population of low-albedo and low-inclination background asteroids. Identifying and characterizing the populations from which these two NEAs might originate will enchance the science return of the two missions.With this main objective in mind, we initiated in 2010 a spectroscopic survey in the visible and the near-infrared to characterize the primitive collisional families in the inner belt and the low-albedo background population. This is the PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS. So far we have obtained more than 200 spectra using telescopes located at different observatories. PRIMASS uses a variety of ground based facilities. Most of the spectra have been obtained using the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), and the 3.6m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), both located at the El Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain), and the 3.0m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea (Hawai, USA).We present the first results from our on-going survey (de Leon et al. 2015; Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2015; Morate et al. 2015), focused on the Polana and the Erigone primitive families, with visible and near-infrared spectra of more than 200 objects, most of them with no previous spectroscopic data. Our survey is already the largest database of primitive asteroids spectra, and we keep obtaining data on the Sulamitis and the Clarissa families, as well as on the background low-albedo population.

  14. Near- to mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of two buried AGNs of the nearby merging galaxy NGC 6240 with Subaru/IRCS+AO and GTC/CanariCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tamami I.; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Packham, Chris; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Nikutta, Robert; González-Martín, Omaira; Perlman, Eric; Saito, Yuriko; Levenson, Nancy A.

    2014-10-01

    We report near-infrared K ', L', and M ' band imaging observations of the nearby merging galaxy NGC 6240 with the Infrared Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope. The observations were performed with the assistance of the Subaru Adaptive Optics System, and the achieved spatial resolutions were around 0{^''.}10-0{^''.}20. We also obtained new mid-infrared imaging in the Si-2 filter band (8.7 μm) and N-band (7.5-13 μm) spectroscopy of this galaxy with the CanariCam on the Gran Telescopio Canarias with a spatial resolution of 0{^''.}4-0{^''.}5. In the K ' band image the two nuclei of the galaxy each show a double peak suggesting the complex geometry of the source, while the L', M ', and Si-2 band images show single compact structures in each of the two nuclei. Assuming that the center core observed at wavelengths longer than 3.8 μm is associated with dust heated by the buried AGN, we re-evaluated the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the southern nucleus from 2 to 30 μm with additional literature values, and performed the SED+spectroscopy fit using the clumpy torus models of Nenkova et al. (2008a, ApJ, 685, 145; 2008b, ApJ, 685, 160) and a Bayesian fitting approach. The model fit suggests that the high covering factor torus emission in the southern nucleus is also obscured by foreground dust in the host galaxy. The estimated AGN bolometric luminosity of the southern nucleus, Lbol(AGN) ˜ 1 × 1045 erg s-1, accounts for approximately 40% of the whole luminosity of the system.

  15. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Laura M; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C; McCoy, Karen D; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory's shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in

  16. HST and ground-based observations of bright storms on Uranus during 2014-2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, K. M.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M.; De Pater, I.; Hammel, H. B.; Rages, K. A.; Baranec, C.; Delcroix, M.; Wesley, A.; Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Orton, G. S.; Irwin, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    We report the temporal evolution of bright, long-lived cloud features on Uranus. We observed and tracked the features between August 2014 and January 2015 with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck 2 10-m telescope, VLT, Gran Telescopio Canarias, Gemini, William Herschel Telescope, Robo-AO, Pic du Midi 1-m telescope, and multiple smaller telescopes operated by amateur astronomers. Surprisingly bright features were first revealed in the Keck adaptive-optics images in August; this initial set of observations motivated follow-up observations around the world. One of the storms (identified as "Feature F" in Sromovsky et al. 2015, and Feature 2 in de Pater et al. 2015), which was the deepest in that dataset, was bright enough that it was detected by multiple amateur observers, permitting us to trigger a Hubble Target of Opportunity (ToO) observation on October 14th, 2014. A complex of features at this latitude was also observed by Hubble as part of the Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program on November 8-9, 2014. We will present the temporal evolution of the cloud activities from August 2014 through January 2015, and analyze the vertical structure of the cloud features in the Hubble datasets. The Hubble images used in our study were collected with support of HST grants GO13712 to KMS and GO13937 to AAS. Sromovsky et al. 2015, "High S/N Keck and Gemini AO imaging of Uranus during 2012-2014: New cloud patterns, increasing activity, and improved wind measurements." Icarus 258, 192-223. de Pater et al. 2014, "Record-breaking storm activity on Uranus in 2014." Icarus 252, 121-128

  17. A deep look at the nuclear region of UGC 5101 through high angular resolution mid-IR data with GTC/CanariCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Paredes, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Aretxaga, I.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; González-Martín, O.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Packham, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Elitzur, M.; Esquej, P.; García-Bernete, I.; Imanishi, M.; Levenson, N. A.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of the nuclear infrared (IR, 1.6-18 μm) emission of the ultraluminous IR galaxy UGC 5101 to derive the properties of its active galactic nucleus (AGN) and its obscuring material. We use new mid-IR high angular resolution (0.3-0.5 arcsec) imaging using the Si-2 filter (λC = 8.7 μm) and 7.5-13 μm spectroscopy taken with CanariCam (CC) on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. We also use archival Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS and Subaru/COMICS imaging and Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy. We estimate the near- and mid-IR unresolved nuclear emission by modelling the imaging data with GALFIT. We decompose the Spitzer/IRS and CC spectra using a power-law component, which represents the emission due to dust heated by the AGN, and a starburst component, both affected by foreground extinction. We model the resulting unresolved near- and mid-IR, and the starburst subtracted CC spectrum with the CLUMPY torus models of Nenkova et al. The derived geometrical properties of the torus, including the large covering factor and the high foreground extinction needed to reproduce the deep 9.7 μm silicate feature, are consistent with the lack of strong AGN signatures in the optical. We derive an AGN bolometric luminosity Lbol ˜ 1.9 × 1045 erg s-1 that is in good agreement with other estimates in the literature.

  18. Analysis of regional vegetation changes with medium and high resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcello, J.; Eugenio, F.; Medina, A.

    2012-09-01

    The singular characteristics of the Canarian archipelago (Spain) and, in particular, of the Gran Canaria island have allowed the development of a unique biological richness. Almost half of its territory is protected to preserve the natural environment and, in consequence, the monitoring of vegetated regions plays an important role for regional administrations which aim to develop the corresponding policies for the conservation of such ecosystems. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a common index applied for vegetation studies. It is important to emphasize that NDVI is sensor-dependent, and changes are affected by soil background, irradiance, solar position, atmospheric attenuation, season, hydric situation and climate of the area. So, a fixed threshold cannot be set, even for the same sensor or season, to properly segment vegetated areas. In this context, a robust methodology has been applied to ensure a reliable estimation of changes using the same sensor in multiple dates or different sensors. To that respect, a supervised procedure is presented consisting on the selection of different regions within each image to precisely map each cover with its associated NDVI values and, in consequence, obtain for each individual image the optimal threshold to properly segment vegetation without the need to perform the complex preprocessing required to estimate the ground reflectivity. On the other hand, fires are an important aspect of an ecosystem and their study, a fundamental task to perform a complete assessment of the environmental and economic damage. In our work we have also analyzed in detail the fire occurring during 2007 and precisely assessed the results.

  19. A high-resolution numerical study at the Canary Islands off Northwest Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Evan; Colas, Francois; Molemaker, Jeroen; Sangrà, Pablo; Pascual, Ananda; McWilliams, James

    2015-04-01

    The Canary Island archipelago lies partially within the upwelling region off the northwest coast of Africa where it perturbs the southwestward flowing Canary Current. The circulation around the islands is complex, as has been revealed in studies based on satellite imagery and from in situ data. Cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies are shed by the islands. Filaments of cold upwelling water extend from the African coast and interact with the island eddies. However, our understanding of these mesoscale features and their interactions is still limited by the sparsity of data available. Few modelling studies have been done for the Canary Island region, and none has yet specifically addressed the dynamics of the island and coastal circulation. A high-resolution regional ocean model (ROMS) configuration has been developed to study the dynamics in this region. We take an offline-nesting approach: A large domain that covers the Canary Basin at 7.5-km resolution feeds two successively finer domains of 3 and 1 km. The 1 km grid is focused on the Canary Islands and nearby African coast. The surface and boundary forcings are climatological. Results at the basin scale have shown a good agreement with the observed regional seasonal cycle. Here, we present preliminary results from the nested solutions where eddies, fronts and filaments are found in abundance. Model eddy conversion terms confirm the observed seasonal cycle of eddy generation, and point to both baroclinic and barotropic processes as sources of instability. Submesocale activity exhibits a pronounced seasonal cycle which is consistent with previous studies in other regions. Time series of drag and lift forces at the island of Gran Canaria are discussed that show the high variability of the incident Canary Current and the associated eddy generation process.

  20. The effects of agriculture on the volcanic aquifers of the canary islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, E.; Guerra, J. A.; Jiménez, J.; Medina, J. A.; Soler, C.

    1983-12-01

    Agriculture is a basic economic activity in the Canary Islands, a Spanish region in the Atlantic Ocean, facing the Sahara. The main crops are bananas, tomatoes, and other special ones suitable for exportation. Fertilizers are applied in high quantities on the scarce land available. The relatively good vertical permeability of the soils favors the deep infiltration of irrigation return flows. Water is obtained by an extraordinary net of shaft wells and water galleries, supplemented when possible by surface reservoirs in the deep gullies. Water is distributed by an extensive network of pipes and canals, allowing the transportation of water to virtually any point from any water source. Water quality is widely variable, from almost rain water to brackish, with a high frequency of sodium bicarbonate types. Return flows, especially when water is applied with good irrigation techniques and the original quality is poor, are saline and contain chemicals leached from the fertilizers. On Tenerife Island, most of the return flows go to coastal aquifers, while most of the water comes from high-altitude water galleries. Agricultural pollution is not generally appraised, but it exists. It can be masked by the frequent, high natural nitrate content in groundwater. On Gran Canaria Island, since water comes mainly from deep shaft wells near the irrigated areas, the nitrate pollution is much more clear. On La Palma Island, besides the nitrate pollution, a potassium pollution of agricultural origin has been mentioned. Other situations on the remaining islands are also discussed. It can be concluded that agriculture is a big concern for the water quality in many areas and impairs its suitability for other uses. Because of the great depth of the water table, the nitrate pollution may not become obvious for many years, especially for the deep-water galleries.

  1. El análisis de un estudio clínico indica que una combinación de fármacos puede ser de gran eficacia

    Cancer.gov

    El uso de un tratamiento farmacológico combinado para el cáncer de ovario recidivante mostró mejorías significativas, según se informó el día de hoy en el congreso anual de la Sociedad Americana de Oncología Clínica (ASCO). La combinación farmacológica se

  2. Searching for filaments and large-scale structure around DAFT/FADA clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durret, F.; Márquez, I.; Acebrón, A.; Adami, C.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Capelato, H.; Martinet, N.; Sarron, F.; Ulmer, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    the CFHTLS and SDSS-Stripe 82 surveys in the near future. Based on our own data (see Guennou et al. 2014) and archive data obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii, and based on Subaru/SuprimeCam archive data. Also based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Monitoring the NW volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: sixteen years of diffuse CO_{2} degassing surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Halliwell, Simon; Butters, Damaris; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands and, together with Gran Canaria, is the only one that has developed a central volcanic complex characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. At present, one of the most active volcanic structures in Tenerife is the North-West Rift-Zone (NWRZ), which has hosted two historical eruptions: Arenas Negras in 1706 and Chinyero in 1909. Since the year 2000, 47 soil CO2 efflux surveys have been undertaken at the NWRZ of Tenerife Island to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations of CO2 efflux and their relationships with the volcanic-seismic activity. We report herein the last results of diffuse CO2 efflux survey at the NWRZ carried out in July 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area. Measurements were performed in accordance with the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. During 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 103 g m‑2 d‑1. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 403 ± 17 t d‑1, values higher than the background CO2 emission estimated on 143 t d‑1. For all campaigns, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 141 g m‑2 d‑1, with the highest values measured in May 2005. Total CO2 output from the studied area ranged between 52 and 867 t d‑1. Temporal variations in the total CO2 output showed a temporal correlation with the onsets of seismic activity, supporting unrest of the volcanic system, as is also suggested by anomalous seismic activity recorded in the area during April 22-29, 2004. Spatial distribution of soil CO2 efflux values also showed changes in magnitude and amplitude, with higher CO2 efflux values located along a trending WNW-ESE area. Subsurface magma movement is proposed as a cause for the observed changes in the total output of diffuse CO2 emission, as well as for the spatial distribution of

  4. Visible spectroscopy of the Polana-Eulalia family complex: Spectral homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Delbo, M.; Campins, H.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Tanga, P.; Cellino, A.; Bendjoya, P.; Gayon-Markt, J.; Licandro, J.; Lorenzi, V.; Morate, D.; Walsh, K. J.; DeMeo, F.; Landsman, Z.; Alí-Lagoa, V.

    2016-03-01

    The Polana-Eulalia family complex is located in the inner part of the asteroid belt, bounded by the ν6 and the 3:1 resonances, where we can find another three collisional families of primitive asteroids (Erigone, Clarissa, and Sulamitis), and a low-albedo population of background objects. This region of the belt is believed to be the most likely origin of the two primitive near-Earth asteroids that are the current targets of two sample return missions: NASA's OSIRIS-REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 to Asteroids (101955) Bennu and (162173) Ryugu (also known as 1999 JU3), respectively. Therefore, understanding these families will enhance the scientific return of these missions. We present the results of a spectroscopic survey of asteroids in the region of the Polana-Eulalia family complex, and also asteroids from the background population of low-albedo, low-inclination objects. We obtained visible spectra of a total of 65 asteroids, using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), both located at the El Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory, in the island of La Palma (Spain), and the 3.6 m New Technology Telescope (NTT), located at the European Southern Observatory of La Silla, in Chile. From the spectral analysis of our sample we found that, in spite of the presence of distinct dynamical groups, the asteroids in this region present spectral homogeneity at visible wavelengths, showing a continuum of spectral slopes, from blue to moderately red, typical of primitive asteroids classified as B- and C-types. We conclude that visible spectra cannot be used to distinguish between members of the Polana and the Eulalia families, or members of the background population. The visible spectra of the two targets of sample return missions, Asteroids Bennu and Ryugu, are compatible with the spectra of the asteroids in this region, supporting previous studies that suggested either the Polana family or the background population as the most

  5. X-ray long-term variations in the low-luminosity AGN NGC 835 and its circumnuclear emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Martín, O.; Hernández-García, L.; Masegosa, J.; Márquez, I.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Dultzin, D.; Esparza Arredondo, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are thought to be very common in the Universe. Observations and surveys have shown that the number of sources increases for near galaxies and at the low-luminosity regime (the so-called LLAGNs). Furthermore, many AGNs show changes in their obscuration properties at X-rays that may suggest a configuration of clouds very close to the accretion disk. However, these variations could also be due to changes in the intrinsic continuum of the source. It is therefore important to study nearby AGN to better understand the locus and distribution of clouds in the neighbourhood of the nucleus. Aims: We aim to study the nuclear obscuration of LLAGN NGC 835 and its extended emission using mid-infrared observations. Methods: We present sub-arcsecond-resolution mid-infrared 11.5 μm imaging of the LLAGN galaxy NGC 835 obtained with the instrument CanariCam in the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), archival Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy, and archival Chandra data observed in 2000, 2008, and 2013. Results: The GTC/CanariCam 11.5 μm image reveals faint extended emission out to ~6 arcsec. We obtained a nuclear flux of F(11.5 μm) ~ 18 mJy, whereas the extended emission accounts for 90% of the total flux within the 6 arcsec. This means that the low angular resolution (~4 arcsec) IRS spectrum is dominated by this extended emission and not by the AGN. This is clearly seen in the Spitzer/IRS spectrum, which resembles that of star-forming galaxies. Although the extended soft X-ray emission shows some resemblance with that of the mid-infrared, the knots seen at X-rays are mostly located in the inner side of this mid-infrared emission. The nuclear X-ray spectrum of the source has undergone a spectral change between 2000/2008 and 2013. We argue that this variation is most probably due to changes in the hydrogen column density from ~8 × 1023 cm-2 to ~3 × 1023 cm-2. NGC 835 therefore is one of the few LLAGN, together with NGC 1052, in which changes in

  6. El Hierro's floating stones as messengers of crust-magma interaction at depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchardt, S.; Troll, V. R.; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.; Blythe, L. S.; Longpré, M. A.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    During the early stages of the submarine eruption that started on October 10 2011 south of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface. These centimetre- to decimetre-sized "bombs" have been termed "restingolites" after the nearby village La Restinga and consist of a basaltic rind and a white to light grey core that resembles pumice in texture. According to Troll et al. (2011; see also Troll et al. EGU 2012 Abstracts), this material consists of a glassy matrix hosting extensive vesicle networks, which results in extremely low densities allowing these rocks to float on sea water. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses reveal that the "restingolites" originate from the sedimentary rocks (sand-, silt-, and mudstones) that form layer 1 of the oceanic crust beneath El Hierro. During the onset and early stages of the eruption, magma ponded at the base of this sedimentary sequence, breaking its way through the sedimentary rocks to the ocean floor. The textures of the "restingolites" reveal that crust-magma interaction during fragmentation and transport of the xenoliths involved rapid partial melting and volatile exsolution. Xenoliths strikingly similar to those from El Hierro are known from eruptions on other Canary Islands (e.g. La Palma, Gran Canaria, and Lanzarote). In fact, they resemble in texture xenoliths of various protoliths from volcanic areas worldwide (e.g. Krakatao, Indonesia, Cerro Quemado, Guatemala, Laacher See, Germany). This indicates that the process of partial melting and volatile exsolution, which the "restingolites" bear witness of, is probably occurring frequently during shallow crustal magma emplacement. Thermomechanical numerical models of the effect of the density decrease associated with the formation of vesicle networks in partially molten xenoliths show that xenoliths of crustal rocks initially sink in a magma chamber, but may start to float to the chamber roof once they start to heat up

  7. The planetary nebulae and H II regions in NGC 6822 revisited. Clues to AGB nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Peña, Miriam; Flores-Durán, Sheila; Hernández-Martínez, Liliana

    2016-02-01

    Aims: The chemical behaviour of an ample sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) in NGC 6822 is analysed. Methods: Spectrophotometric data of 11 PNe and two H ii regions were obtained with the OSIRIS spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio Canarias. Data for other 13 PNe and three H ii regions were retrieved from the literature. Physical conditions and chemical abundances of O, N, Ne, Ar, and S were derived in a consistent way for 19 PNe and 4 H ii regions. Results: Abundances in the PNe sample are widely distributed showing 12 + log (O/H) from 7.4 to 8.2 and 12 + log (Ar/H) from 4.97 to 5.80. Two groups of PNe can be differentiated: one old with low metallicity (12 + log (O/H) <8.0 and 12 + log (Ar/H) < 5.7) and another younger one with metallicities similar to the values for H ii regions. The old objects are distributed in a larger volume than the young ones. An important fraction of PNe (over 30%) was found to be highly N-rich (Peimbert Type I PNe). Such PNe occur at any metallicity. In addition, about 60% of the sample presents high ionization (He++/He ≥ 0.1), possessing a central star with effective temperature higher than 100 000 K. Possible biases in the sample are discussed. From comparison with stellar evolution models by Karakas (2010) and Fishlock et al. (2014) of the observed N/O abundance ratios, our PNe should have had initial masses that are lower than 4 M⊙, although if the comparison is made with Ne vs. O abundances, the initial masses should have been lower than 2 M⊙. It appears that these models of stars of 2-3 M⊙ are producing too much 22Ne in the stellar surface at the end of the AGB. On the other hand, the comparison with another set of stellar evolution models with a different treatment of convection and on the assumptions about the overshoot of the convective core during the core H-burning phase, provided there is reasonable agreement between the observed and predicted N/O and Ne/H ratios if initial masses of more massive stars are

  8. Mapping the geogenic radon potential of the eastern Canary Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiano, Jesús G.; Alonso, Hector; Arnedo, Miguel. A.; Tejera, Alicia; Martel, Pablo; Gil, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Rafael; González, Jonay

    2014-05-01

    The main contribution of indoor radon comes from soils and thus, the knowledge of the concentration of this gas in soils is important for estimating the risk of finding high radon indoor concentrations. To characterize the behavior of radon in soils, it is common to use the a quantity named Radon Potential which results of a combination of properties of the soil itself and from the underlying rock, such as concentration and distribution of radium, porosity, permeability, the moisture content and meteorological parameters, among others. In this work, the results three year of campaigns of measurement radon gas as well as the permeability in soils of the Eastern Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) are presented. By combining these two parameters and through the use of geostatistic interpolation techniques, the radon potential of soils is estimated and it is used to carry on a classification of the territory into hazard zones according to their potential for radon emanation. To measure the radon soil gas a probe equipped with a "lost" sharp tip is inserted to the desired sampling depth. One of the characteristics of the Canary Islands is the absence of developed soils and so the bedrock is found typically at very shallow depth. This fact has led us to adopt a sampling depth of 50 cm at most. The probe is connected to the continuous radon monitor Durridge RAD7 equipped with a solid-state alpha spectrometer to determine concentration radon using the activity its short-lived progeny. Dried soil air is delivered to the RAD7 radon monitor by pumping. A half hour counting time for all sampling points has been taken. In parallel to the radon measurement campaign, the permeability of soils has also been determined at each point using the permeameter RADON-JOK. The principle of operation of this equipment consists of air withdrawal by means of negative pressure. The gas permeability is then calculated using the known flow of air flowing through the probe

  9. Oesophageal cancer mortality in Spain: a spatial analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aragonés, Nuria; Ramis, Rebeca; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Lope, Virginia; Boldo, Elena Isabel; García-Pérez, Javier; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    Background Oesophageal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Its incidence and mortality rates show a wide geographical variation at a world and regional level. Geographic mapping of age-standardized, cause-specific death rates at a municipal level could be a helpful and powerful tool for providing clues leading to a better understanding of its aetiology. Methods This study sought to describe the geographic distribution of oesophageal cancer mortality for Spain's 8077 towns, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Maps were plotted, depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the spatial pattern of the posterior probability of RR being greater than 1. Results Important differences associated with area of residence were observed in risk of dying from oesophageal cancer in Spain during the study period (1989–1998). Among men, excess risk appeared across the north of the country, along a band spanning the length of the Cantabrian coastline, Navarre, the north of Castile & León and the north-west of La Rioja. Excess risk was likewise observed in the provinces of Cadiz and part of Seville in Andalusia, the islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, and some towns in the Barcelona and Gerona areas. Among women, there was a noteworthy absence of risk along the mid-section of the Cantabrian seaboard, and increases in mortality, not observed for men, in the west of Extremadura and south-east of Andalusia. Conclusion These major gender- and area-related geographical differences in risk would seem to reflect differences in the prevalence of some well-established and modifiable risk factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and diet. In addition, excess risks were in evidence for both sexes in some areas, possibly suggesting the implication of certain local environmental or socio-cultural factors. From a public health standpoint, small-area studies could be very useful for

  10. A basic radial dike swarm of Boa Vista (Cape Verde Archipelago); its significance in the evolution of the island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancochea, Eumenio; Hernán, Francisco; Huertas, María José; Brändle, José Luis

    2012-10-01

    A basic radial dike swarm unrelated to other basic units of Boa Vista (Cape Verde Archipelago) has been localized and characterized in the central sector of the island. According to new radiometric data three main stages in the evolution of Boa Vista are distinguished: the earlier (the Old Volcanic Complex: 17-16 Ma) is equivalent to the shield building stage of Hawaii and the later (the Recent Volcanics (8-4 Ma) is in some aspects comparable to the post-erosional stage. An important intermediate essentially felsic stage (the Trachytic-Phonolitic Complex: 14.3-12.8 Ma) followed the basaltic shield stage. This felsic stage has equivalents in some other oceanic islands as the Canary Islands, specially Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and La Gomera. The central sector of Boa Vista is also occupied by the Felsic Subvolcanic Complex, a unit consisting of phonolitic breccias, syenites and monzonites that represent the Trachytic-Phonolitic Complex hypabyssal roots. The felsic rocks as a whole constitute half of the total amount of igneous rocks on the island making up Boa Vista, the island with the highest percentage of felsic rocks in the Central Atlantic Ocean. More than 200 dikes of the basic radial swarm intruding the Felsic Subvolcanic Complex have been measured. The intensity of the multiple dike injection is sometimes rather high, roughly a dike every 5 m. The individual dikes have an observable mean length of about 300 m. The composition of these dikes is always foiditic (nephelinites, melilitites, and limburgites), slightly different in composition (more alkaline and richer in incompatible elements) to the other basic units of the island (the Old Volcanic Complex and the Recent Volcanics). The radial dikes converge in an area located NW of the geometrical center of Boa Vista, a zone where the hypothetical center of the Old Volcanic Complex and the Trachytic-Phonolitic Complex edifices must also have been situated. The ages obtained from the dikes (between 14.8 and 11.5 Ma

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopy of asteroids in the Polana-family region: Where are the Eulalias?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.; Lorenzi, V.; de Leon, J.; Landsman, Z.; Licandro, J.; Ali-Lagoa, V.

    2014-07-01

    The inner asteroid belt is an important source of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). This region is located between the ν_6 resonance near 2.15 au and the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter at 2.5 au. The two current targets of sample-return missions are believed to originate in the inner belt (e.g., Campins et al. 2010, 2013). These are asteroid (101955) Bennu, target of NASA's OSIRIS-Rex and 1999 JU3, target of JAXA's Hayabusa-2. Both of these asteroids are unlikely to be primordial objects because their collisional lifetime is much shorter than the age of solar system (e.g., Bottke et al. 2005); thus, they are believed to be fragments of larger objects. In searching for their parent bodies, we have studied low-albedo asteroids in the inner belt and we have identified at least five distinct populations: four families (Clarissa, Erigone, Polana and Sulamitis) and the background of low-albedo asteroids outside these families. The background and the Polana family are the two largest populations (Campins et al. 2010; Delbo et al. 2011). In order to characterize this source of NEOs, we decided to carry out a spectroscopic study of the Polana family, which we started in 2010. For this study, we define the Polana family as the low-albedo component of the Nysa-Polana complex. Interestingly, a recent publication (Walsh et al. 2013) suggests that there are two families of primitive asteroids with low inclination in this region that can be distinguished using NIR spectroscopy and that would have (142) Polana and (495) Eulalia as their parents bodies. We present results of two different observational campaigns: Pinilla- Alonso et al. (2014) obtained near-infrared (0.8--2.5 μ m) spectra with NICS at the TNG telescope at the ''El Roque de los Muchachos'' observatory (La Palma, Spain) and with SpeX (Rayner et al. 2003) at NASA's IRTF on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. In de Leon et al. (2014), we present visible spectra of smaller members of this population (H>15), using the 10.4-m Gran

  12. Inadvertent exposure to organochlorine pesticides DDT and derivatives in people from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Zumbado, Manuel; Goethals, Muriel; Alvarez-León, Eva E; Luzardo, Octavio P; Cabrera, Félix; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Domínguez-Boada, Luis

    2005-03-01

    In 1998, one of the largest determinations of organochlorine pesticides in a representative sample of a Spanish population (682 serum samples from the Canary Islands) was made in the context of the "Canary Islands Nutrition Survey" (ENCA). In the Canary Islands, extensive farming areas have been developed in these last decades, with greenhouses dedicated to intensive cultivation using DDT in huge amounts. In Spain, similarly to other European countries, DDT was banned in the late 1970s. The pesticide residues in human serum are indicative of past and present exposure to them. Our objective is to point out the differences of pesticide contamination between islands; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender, age, or habitat of subjects. Concentration of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and o,p'-DDD) was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Almost all of the samples (99.3%) presented detectable levels of some DDT-derivatives, being p,p'-DDE the most frequently detected organochlorine. The median concentration of total DDT body burden, expressed in ng/g fat, present in the Canary Islands (370 ng/g fat) was similar to that found in other European countries, although it was noteworthy that a fourth of the population showed a total DDT body burden higher than 715 ng/g. Interestingly, statistical significant differences were found in serum levels of organochlorine pesticides between islands, being these levels higher in people from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (415 and 612 ng/g fat, respectively), the islands that present both highest population and highest surface devoted to intensive agriculture. As expected, serum levels of both total DDT body burden and p,p'-DDE increased with age. Statistically significant differences were also found in relation to gender, women showing higher levels of these organochlorine pesticides than men. One of the most relevant

  13. Carbon and oxygen abundance gradients in NGC 300 and M33 from optical recombination lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toribio San Cipriano, L.; García-Rojas, J.; Esteban, C.; Bresolin, F.; Peimbert, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present deep spectrophotometry of several H II regions in the nearby low-mass spiral galaxies NGC 300 and M33. The data have been taken with Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy spectrographs attached to the 8-m Very Large Telescope and 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias telescopes, respectively. We have derived precise values of the physical conditions for each object making use of several emission line-intensity ratios. In particular, we have obtained direct determinations of the electron temperature in all the observed objects. We detect pure recombination lines (RLs) of C II and O II in several of the H II regions, permitting to derive their C/H and C/O ratios. We have derived the radial abundance gradient of O for each galaxy making use of collisionally excited lines (CELs) and RLs, as well as the C and N gradients using RLs and CELs, respectively. We obtain the first determination of the C/H gradient of NGC 300 and improve its determination in the case of M33. In both galaxies, the C/H gradients are steeper than those of O/H, leading to negative C/O gradients. Comparing with similar results for other spiral galaxies, we find a strong correlation between the slope of the C/H gradient and MV. We find that some H II regions located close to the isophotal radius (R25) of NGC 300 and M33 show C/O ratios more similar to those typical of dwarf galaxies than those of H II regions in the discs of more massive spirals. This may be related to the absence of flattening of the gradients in the external parts of NGC 300 and M33. Finally, we find very similar N/H gradients in both galaxies and a fair correlation between the slope of the N/H gradient and MV comparing with similar data for a sample of spiral galaxies.

  14. Contributing to a precise and accurate chronostratigraphic time scale for climatic records: Absolute dating and paleomagnetism in lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasco, Romain; Guillou, Herve; Kissel, Catherine; Wandres, Camille; Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Perez Torrado, Francisco Jose

    2014-05-01

    Understanding climatic mechanisms requires a robust and precise timescale allowing long-distance and multi-archives correlations. A unique tool to construct such time scales is provided by the Earth magnetic field (EMF), which is independent from climatic variations and the past evolution of which is recorded in most of the geological/climatic archives. Sedimentary sequences provide continuous records of relative intensities of the EMF on stratigraphic time scales, usually based on orbital tuning. They are transferred onto absolute intensity scale and chronological time scale using robust tie points available for the past ~40 ka. However, for older periods this calibration remains poorly constrained. Our study reports on new tie points over the last 200 ka by combining paleomagnetic and geochronological (K/Ar and 40Ar-39Ar dating) studies on lavas. Based on the K-Ar LSCE age database, a set of 18 lava flows corresponding to potential geomagnetic excursions and/or highs and lows in the paleomagnetic intensity as observed from sediments and occurring in the studied time-window were selected in the Canary Islands (Tenerife, La Palma and Gran Canaria). A total of 205 oriented cores were taken from these 18 lava flows. Rock magnetic experiments include thermomagnetic analyses on each core, hysteresis loop and First Order Reversal Curves. Stepwise thermal demagnetizations in zero-field provided reliable mean-site paleomagnetic direction of the EMF for 15 of the flows. Paleointensity values were determined using the original Thellier and Thellier method. Based on previous experiments, 170 samples were analyzed, among which 51% provided reliable paleointensity values (determined using PICRIT-03 criteria). The geochronological study focused on 40Ar-39Ar dating. Based on preliminary paleomagnetic results, 13 flows were analyzed and 11 provided ages consistent at the 2 sigma level with the already available K-Ar ages. This coupled K/Ar - 40Ar-39Ar results strongly constrain

  15. Long-distance colonization and radiation in gekkonid lizards, Tarentola (Reptilia: Gekkonidae), revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Mateo, J A; López-Jurado, L F

    2000-01-01

    Morphological systematics makes it clear that many non-volant animal groups have undergone extensive transmarine dispersal with subsequent radiation in new, often island, areas. However, details of such events are often lacking. Here we use partial DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes (up to 684 and 320 bp, respectively) to trace migration and speciation in Tarentola geckos, a primarily North African clade which has invaded many of the warmer islands in the North Atlantic Ocean. There were four main invasions of archipelagos presumably by rafting. (i) The subgenus Neotarentola reached Cuba up to 23 million years (Myr) ago, apparently via the North Equatorial current, a journey of at least 6000 km. (ii) The subgenus Tarentola invaded the eastern Canary Islands relatively recently covering a minimum of 120 km. (iii) The subgenus Makariogecko got to Gran Canaria and the western Canary Islands 7-17.5 Myr ago, either directly from the mainland or via the Selvages or the archipelago of Madeira, an excursion of 200-1200 km. (iv) A single species of Makariogecko from Gomera or Tenerife in the western Canaries made the 1400 km journey to the Cape Verde Islands tip to 7 Myr ago by way of the south-running Canary current. Many journeys have also occurred within archipelagos, a minimum of five taking place in the Canaries and perhaps 16 in the Cape Verde Islands. Occupation of the Cape Verde archipelago first involved an island in the northern group, perhaps São Nicolau, with subsequent spread to its close neighbours. The eastern and southern islands were colonized from these northern islands, at least two invasions widely separated in time being involved. While there are just three allopatric species of Makariogecko in the Canaries, the single invader of the Cape Verde Islands radiated into five, most of the islands being inhabited by two of these which differ in size. While size difference may possibly be a product of character

  16. Diffuse helium and hydrogen degassing to reveal hidden geothermal resources in oceanic volcanic islands: The Canarian archipelago case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padrón, Eleazar; Dionis, Samara; López, Gabriel; Melián, Gladys V.; Asensio-Ramos, María; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padilla, German; Barrancos, José; Marrero, Rayco; Hidalgo, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    During geothermal exploration, the geochemical methods are extensively used and play a major role in both exploration and exploitation phases. They are particularly useful to assess the subsurface temperatures in the reservoir, the origin of the fluid, and flow directions within the reservoir. The geochemical exploration is based on the assumption that fluids on the surface reflect physico-chemical and thermal conditions in the geothermal reservoir at depth. However, in many occasions there is not any evidence of endogenous fluids manifestations at surface, that traditionally evidence the presence of an active geothermal system. Discovery of new geothermal systems will therefore require exploration of areas where the resources are either hidden or lie at great depths. Geochemical methods for geothermal exploration at these areas must include soil gas surveys, based on the detection of anomalously high concentrations of some hydrothermal gases in the soil atmosphere, generally between 40 cm and 1 meter depth from the surface. Among soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. This is the case of helium (He) and hydrogen (H2), that have unique characteristics as a geochemical tracer, owing to their chemical and physical characteristics. Enrichments of He and H2 observed in the soil atmosphere can be attributed almost exclusively to migration of deep-seated gas toward the surface. In this work we show the results of soil gas geochemistry studies, focused mainly in non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases as He and H2, in five minning grids at Tenerife and Gran Canaria, Canay Islands, Spain, during 2011-2014. The primary objective was to use different geochemical evidences of deep-seated gas emission to sort the possible

  17. A Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill: an Intedisciplinary Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garrido, Victor J.; Ramos, Antonio; Mancho, Ana M.; Coca, Josep; Wiggins, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    By combining tools from dynamical systems theory and remote sensing techniques, we achieve a remarkable representation of the events following the sinking of the Oleg Naydenov fishing ship, that took place close to the Canary Islands in April 2015 [1]. The emergency services acquired a precise knowledge of the evolution of the spill, occurred after the sinking, by means of a formidable, extremely time-consuming and expensive effort. In this presentation we show that remote sensing techniques [2] allowed a direct observation of the spill in extensive areas. The time evolution of the observed spills was pursued by dynamical systems tools that, based on COPERNICUS IBI velocity fields data, were able to predict the impact of the spill in the coast of Gran Canaria. A deep description of the dispersion processes produced by ocean currents is achieved by means of Lagrangian Descriptors [3,4,5] that highlight an invisible but real dynamical skeleton, governing the transport processes in the area. This research is supported by MINECO ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 and SEV-2015-0554 and grants MTM2014-56392-R, UNLP-13-3E-2664 (2013-2015) and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. [1] V. J. García-Garrido, A. Ramos, A. M. Mancho, J. Coca, S. Wiggins. Assemblage of Tools for a Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill. Preprint (2015). [2] A. Pisano, F. Bignami, R. Santoleri, Oil spill detection in glint-contaminated near-infrared MODIS imagery, Remote Sens. 7 (1) (2015) 1112-1134. [3] C. Mendoza, A. M. Mancho. The hidden geometry of ocean flows. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), 3, 038501-1-038501-4. [4] A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, J. Curbelo, C. Mendoza. Lagrangian Descriptors: A Method for Revealing Phase Space Structures of General Time Dependent Dynamical Systems. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 18 (2013) 3530-3557. [5] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea, S. Wiggins, A.M. Mancho. Lagrangian Descriptors for Two Dimensional, Area Preserving

  18. SHARDS: AN OPTICAL SPECTRO-PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY OF DISTANT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Barro, Guillermo; Villar, Victor; Cardiel, Nicolas; Espino, Nestor; Gallego, Jesus; Ferreras, Ignacio; Rodriguez-Espinosa, Jose Miguel; Balcells, Marc; Cepa, Jordi; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Cenarro, Javier; Charlot, Stephane; Cimatti, Andrea; Conselice, Christopher J.; Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gobat, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA and others

    2013-01-01

    We present the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS), an ESO/GTC Large Program carried out using the OSIRIS instrument on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). SHARDS is an ultra-deep optical spectro-photometric survey of the GOODS-N field covering 130 arcmin{sup 2} at wavelengths between 500 and 950 nm with 24 contiguous medium-band filters (providing a spectral resolution R {approx} 50). The data reach an AB magnitude of 26.5 (at least at a 3{sigma} level) with sub-arcsec seeing in all bands. SHARDS' main goal is to obtain accurate physical properties of intermediate- and high-z galaxies using well-sampled optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with sufficient spectral resolution to measure absorption and emission features, whose analysis will provide reliable stellar population and active galactic nucleus (AGN) parameters. Among the different populations of high-z galaxies, SHARDS' principal targets are massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1, whose existence is one of the major challenges facing current hierarchical models of galaxy formation. In this paper, we outline the observational strategy and include a detailed discussion of the special reduction and calibration procedures which should be applied to the GTC/OSIRIS data. An assessment of the SHARDS data quality is also performed. We present science demonstration results on the detection and study of emission-line galaxies (star-forming objects and AGNs) at z = 0-5. We also analyze the SEDs for a sample of 27 quiescent massive galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 1.0 < z {approx}< 1.4. We discuss the improvements introduced by the SHARDS data set in the analysis of their star formation history and stellar properties. We discuss the systematics arising from the use of different stellar population libraries, typical in this kind of study. Averaging the results from the different libraries, we find that the UV-to-MIR SEDs of the massive quiescent galaxies at z = 1

  19. First EURONEAR NEA discoveries from La Palma using the INT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Hudin, L.; Tudor, V.; Char, F.; Mocnik, T.; Kwiatkowski, T.; de Leon, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Alvarez, C.; Popescu, M.; Cornea, R.; Díaz Alfaro, M.; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Kamiński, K.; Stecklum, B.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Sota, A.; Casanova, V.; Martin Ruiz, S.; Duffard, R.; Zamora, O.; Gomez-Jimenez, M.; Micheli, M.; Koschny, D.; Busch, M.; Knofel, A.; Schwab, E.; Negueruela, I.; Dhillon, V.; Sahman, D.; Marchant, J.; Génova-Santos, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Riddick, F. C.; Mendez, J.; Lopez-Martinez, F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hollands, M.; Kong, A. K. H.; Jin, R.; Hidalgo, S.; Murabito, S.; Font, J.; Bereciartua, A.; Abe, L.; Bendjoya, P.; Rivet, J. P.; Vernet, D.; Mihalea, S.; Inceu, V.; Gajdos, S.; Veres, P.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Abreu Rodriguez, D.

    2015-05-01

    Since 2006, the European Near Earth Asteroids Research (EURONEAR) project has been contributing to the research of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) within a European network. One of the main aims is the amelioration of the orbits of NEAs, and starting in 2014 February we focus on the recovery of one-opposition NEAs using the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) in La Palma in override mode. Part of this NEA recovery project, since 2014 June EURONEAR serendipitously started to discover and secure the first NEAs from La Palma and using the INT, thanks to the teamwork including amateurs and students who promptly reduce the data, report discoveries and secure new objects recovered with the INT and few other telescopes from the EURONEAR network. Five NEAs were discovered with the INT, including 2014 LU14, 2014 NL52 (one very fast rotator), 2014 OL339 (the fourth known Earth quasi-satellite), 2014 SG143 (a quite large NEA), and 2014 VP. Another very fast moving NEA was discovered but was unfortunately lost due to lack of follow-up time. Additionally, another 14 NEA candidates were identified based on two models, all being rapidly followed-up using the INT and another 11 telescopes within the EURONEAR network. They include one object discovered by Pan-STARRS, two Mars crossers, two Hungarias, one Jupiter trojan, and other few inner main belt asteroids (MBAs). Using the INT and Sierra Nevada 1.5 m for photometry, then the Gran Telescopio de Canarias for spectroscopy, we derived the very rapid rotation of 2014 NL52, then its albedo, magnitude, size, and its spectral class. Based on the total sky coverage in dark conditions, we evaluate the actual survey discovery rate using 2-m class telescopes. One NEA is possible to be discovered randomly within minimum 2.8 deg2 and maximum 5.5 deg2. These findings update our past statistics, being based on double sky coverage and taking into account the recent increase in discovery.

  20. Towards an Optimal Multi-Method Paleointensity Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, L. V.; Biggin, A. J.; Langereis, C. G.; Dekkers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Our recently proposed 'multi-method paleointensity approach' consists of at least IZZI-Thellier, MSP-DSC and pseudo-Thellier experiments, complemented with Microwave Thellier experiments for key flows or ages. All results are scrutinized by strict selection criteria to accept only the most reliable paleointensities. This approach yielded reliable estimates of the paleofield for ~70% of all cooling units sampled on Hawaii - an exceptionally high number for a paleointensity study on lavas. Furthermore the credibility of the obtained results is greatly enhanced if more methods mutually agree with in their experimental uncertainties. To further assess the success rate of this new approach, we applied it to two collections of (sub-)recent lavas from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (20 cooling units), and Terceira (Azores, 18 cooling units). Although the mineralogy and rock-magnetic properties of much of these flows seemed less favorable for paleointensity techniques compared to the Hawaiian samples, again the multi-method paleointensity approach yielded reliable estimates for 60-70% of all cooling units. One of the methods, the newly calibrated pseudo-Thellier method, proved to be an important element of our new paleointensity approach yielding reliable estimates for ~50% of the Hawaiian lavas sampled. Its applicability to other volcanic edifices, however, remained questionable. The results from the Canarian and Azorean volcanic edifices provide further constraints on this method's potential. For lavas that are rock-magnetically (i.e. susceptibility-vs-temperature behavior) akin to Hawaiian lavas, the same selection criterion and calibration formula yielded successful results - testifying to the veracity of this new paleointensity method. Besides methodological advances our new record for the Canary Islands also has geomagnetic implications. It reveals a dramatic increase in the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field from ~1250 to ~720 BC, reaching a maximum VADM of ~125 ZAm

  1. Occurrence and distribution of ``moganite'' in agate/chalcedony: a combined micro-Raman, Rietveld, and cathodoluminescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, Jens; Nasdala, Lutz; Kleeberg, Reinhard; Wenzel, Marita

    Agate/chalcedony samples of different origin were investigated by performing Raman, X-ray diffraction (using Rietveld refinement), and cathodoluminescence measurements. These analyses were performed to measure the content and spatial distribution of the silica polymorph moganite, which is considered to represent periodic Brazil-law twinning of α-quartz at the unit-cell scale in agate/chalcedonies. Homogeneous standard samples including the nearly α-quartz free moganite type material from Gran Canaria were analysed in order to compare results of the X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy techniques and to provide a calibration curve for the Raman results. However, due to the different length scales analysed by the two techniques, the ``moganite content'' in microcrystalline SiO2 samples measured by Raman spectroscopy (short-range order) was found to be considerably higher than the ``moganite content'' measured by X-ray diffractometry (long-range order). The difference is explained by the presence of moganite nanocrystals, nano-range moganite lamellae, and single Brazil-law twin-planes that are detected by vibrational spectroscopy but that are not large enough (in the sense of coherently scattering lattice domains) to be detected by X-ray diffractometry. High resolution Raman analysis provides a measure of the moganite content and its spatial variation in microcrystalline silica samples with a lateral resolution in the μm-range. Variations in the moganite-to-quartz ratio are revealed by varying intensity ratios of the main symmetric stretching-bending vibrations (A1 modes) of α-quartz (465cm-1) and moganite (502cm-1), respectively. Traces of Raman microprobe analyses perpendicular to the rhythmic zoning of agates revealed that the moganite-to-quartz ratio is often not uniform but shows a cyclic pattern that correlates with the observed cathodoluminescence pattern (colour and intensity). Data obtained from an agate sample from a fluorite deposit near Okorusu

  2. Characterizing the Atmospheres of Super-Earths and Hot-Jupiters with Narrow-Band Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Knicole D.; Gaidos, E.; Wilson, P. A.; Ford, E. B.; Sing, D. K.; Ballester, G. E.; Desert, J.; Ehrenreich, D.; Fortney, J. J.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Morley, C.; Pettitt, A.; Pont, F.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one thousand extrasolar planets have been discovered, but none are considered true analogs to solar system planets. Instead, we characterize some planets as “super-Earths” or “hot-Jupiters.” It has been possible to characterize the atmospheres of some of these planets via transit observations, which is a crucial stepping stone towards future studies of true solar system analogs. We present narrow-band photometry of several transiting planets, including the super-Earth GJ 1214b and the hot-Jupiters XO-2b and TrES-2b. For GJ 1214b, most studies find that the transmission spectrum is flat, which favors either a high mean molecular weight or cloudy/hazy hydrogen (H) rich atmosphere model. We observed seven transits of GJ 1214b through a narrow K-band (2.141 micron) filter with the Wide Field Camera on the 3.8 meter United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. We observed another five transits at 800-900 nm using tunable filters with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) on the 10.4 meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Our observations support a flat transmission spectrum for GJ 1214b, but we also find that a hydrogen-dominated upper atmosphere cannot be excluded. For hot-Jupiters, potassium has been predicted to be one of the strongest sources of opacity at optical wavelengths and has been previously detected in the atmospheres of XO-2b and TrES-2b. Using OSIRIS on the GTC, we observed three transits of XO-2b and two transits of TrES-2b in multiple bandpasses around the potassium absorption feature at 770 nm. Our technique is somewhat different than in previous studies, and we use our observations to constrain the amount of potassium in these exoplanet atmospheres. We consider how our studies set the stage for future investigations of true Earth and Jupiter analogs that have not yet been discovered.

  3. Observational Studies of Protoplanetary Disks at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Telesco, Charles; Wright, Christopher; Packham, Christopher; Marinas, Naibi

    2013-07-01

    We have used mid-infrared cameras on 8-to-10 m class telescopes to study the properties of young circumstellar disks. During the initial phases of this program we examined a large sample of mid-IR images of standard stars delivered by T-ReCS at Gemini South to evaluate its on-sky performance as characterized by, for example the angular resolution, the PSF shape, and the PSF temporal stability, properties that are most relevant to our high-angular resolution study of disks. With this information we developed an Interactive Data Language (IDL) package of routines optimized for reducing the data and correcting for image defects commonly seen in ground-based mid-IR data. We obtained, reduced, and analyzed mid-IR images and spectra of several Herbig Ae/Be disks (including HD 259431, MWC 1080, VV Ser) and the debris disk (β Pic), and derived their physical properties by means of radiative transfer modeling or spectroscopic decomposition and analyses. These results are highlighted here. During this study, we also helped commission CanariCam, a new mid-IR facility instrument built by the University of Florida for the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) on La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. CanariCam is an imager with spectroscopic, polarimetric, and coronagraphic capabilities, with the dual-beam polarimetry being a unique mode introduced with CanariCam for the first time to a 10 m telescope at mid-IR wavelengths. It is well known that measurements of polarization, originating from aligned dust grains in the disks and their environments, have the potential to shed light on the morphologies of the magnetic fields in these regions, information that is critical to understanding how stars and planets form. We have obtained polarimetric data of several Herbig Ae/Be disks and YSOs, and the data reduction and analyses are in process. We present preliminary results here. This poster is based upon work supported by the NSF under grant AST-0903672 and AST-0908624 awarded to C.M.T.

  4. Confirmation of an exoplanet using the transit color signature: Kepler-418b, a blended giant planet in a multiplanet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingley, B.; Parviainen, H.; Gandolfi, D.; Deeg, H. J.; Palle, E.; Montañés Rodriguez, P.; Murgas, F.; Alonso, R.; Bruntt, H.; Fridlund, M.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We announce confirmation of Kepler-418b, one of two proposed planets in this system. This is the first confirmation of an exoplanet based primarily on the transit color signature technique. Methods: We used the Kepler public data archive combined with multicolor photometry from the Gran Telescopio de Canarias and radial velocity follow-up using FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope for confirmation. Results: We report a confident detection of a transit color signature that can only be explained by a compact occulting body, entirely ruling out a contaminating eclipsing binary, a hierarchical triple, or a grazing eclipsing binary. Those findings are corroborated by our radial velocity measurements, which put an upper limit of ~1 MJup on the mass of Kepler-418b. We also report that the host star is significantly blended, confirming the ~10% light contamination suspected from the crowding metric in the Kepler light curve measured by the Kepler team. We report detection of an unresolved light source that contributes an additional ~30% to the target star, which would not have been detected without multicolor photometric analysis. The resulting planet-star radius ratio is 0.110 ± 0.0025, more than 25% more than the 0.087 measured by Kepler leading to a radius of 1.20 ± 0.16 RJup instead of the 0.94 RJup measured by the Kepler team. Conclusions: This is the first confirmation of an exoplanet candidate based primarily on the transit color signature, demonstrating that this technique is viable from ground for giant planets. It is particularly useful for planets with long periods such as Kepler-418b, which tend to have long transit durations. While this technique is limited to candidates with deep transits from the ground, it may be possible to confirm earth-like exoplanet candidates with a few hours of observing time with an instrument like the James Webb Space Telescope. Additionally, multicolor photometric analysis of transits can reveal unknown stellar neighbors

  5. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  6. The Starlight Initiative in relation to the A&WHI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Cipriano

    2015-08-01

    Launched in 2007 on the occasion of the Starlight Conference (La Palma), the Starlight Initiative is designed as an international action in defence of the values associated with the night sky and the general right to observe the stars.The contribution of the Starlight initiative to UNESCO's Astronomy and World Heritage Thematic Initiative is focused on some actions that provide new perspectives on the heritage of astronomy in the framework of the Global Strategy for the balanced, representative and credible World Heritage List.1. Recognition of Windows to the Universe, the Astronomical Observatories of High Mountain. Only a few places on the planet where we find a unique combination of environmental and natural circumstances: well conserved spaces with very little alteration to natural starlight. These exceptional sites, including their natural components, can be considered as “landscapes of science and knowledge”. As we would have expected, the world’s largest contemporary observatories, true scientific monuments, are located in these places and are, to a greater or lesser extent, historical sources of modern astronomical culture. The case of Mauna Kea (Hawaii), the Canarian observatories (Spain), Pic-du-Midi (France) and northern Chile observatories are for an ensemble of discrete sites that have outstanding universal significance as a group.2. Highlight the importance of heritage of astronomy in ancient island cultures. One aspect scarcely represented in the case studies on this subject. In this context, Risco Caído and the sacred mountains of Gran Canaria can be taken as reference on the evolution of astronomical cultures in complete isolation.3. Emphasize the importance of preserving the dark skies and natural lighting in the conservation of biodiversity and landscapes in prime locations with outstanding natural values, including cultural landscapes. This represents a new dimension that affects the improvement of properties included in the List, and

  7. Reactive Halogen Species in the Marine Boundary Layer: A Comparision of the Mauretanian and the Peruvian upwelling regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampel, Johannes; Tschritter, Jens; Pöhler, Denis; Großmann, Katja; Horbanski, Martin; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Reactive halogen species (RHS) such as bromine oxide (BrO) or iodine oxide (IO) play a major role in the chemistry of ozone in both, the troposphere, and the stratosphere and possibly influence the ozone budget on a global scale. In order to estimate the amount of RHS release from marine sources DOAS measurements in three different upwelling regions (Mauritanian, African equatorial and Peruvian) as well as long-term-observations at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) were performed within the SOPRAN Project (BMBF Förderkennzeichen 03F0611F). In 2010 the HaloCaVe campaign with a set of DOAS instruments on the CVAO and RV Poseidon allowed for an intercomparision of Long-Path-DOAS (LP), Multi-Axis-DOAS (MAX) and Cavity-Enhanced-DOAS (CE) measurements on shore as well as for extending these observations to a larger area with the simultaneous ship-borne MAX-DOAS measurements during the DRIVE campaign from Gran Canaria to Cape Verde and back along the mauretanian coast. A re-evaluation of the entire data set is presented. LP- and MAX-DOAS observations show significant BrO concentrations of several ppt with strong variations from day to day and a diurnal cycle with a maximum at sunrise and sunset and a minimum during noon. In opposite to previous measurements, IO was below the detection limit of 0.5 ppt for the LP-DOAS and CE-DOAS instrument. From the ship (DRIVE campaign) locally restricted BrO hotspots with mixing ratios of up to 10ppt were observed in the Mauritanian costal upwelling. These findings allow new conclusions on the relevance of halogens on this marine environment which will be presented. Within the SOPRAN cruise M91 on RV Meteor the upwelling region along the coast of Peru has been investigated in December 2012. First results from MAX-DOAS and CE-DOAS measurements will be presented and compared to those from the Atlantic. Both instruments measured NO2, IO and glyoxal mixing ratios, the MAX-DOAS additionally BrO and formaldehyde. We observed

  8. Compositional study of asteroids in the Erigone collisional family using visible spectroscopy at the 10.4m GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morate, David; de León, Julia; De Prá, Mário; Licandro, Javier; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Campins, Humberto; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; Alí-Lagoa, Víctor

    2015-11-01

    Asteroid families are formed by the fragments produced by the disruption of a common parent body (Bendjoya & Zappalà 2002). Primitive asteroids in the solar system are believed to have undergone less thermal processing than the S-complex asteroids. Thus, study of primitive asteroid families provides information about the solar system formation period. The Erigone collisional family, together with other three families (Polana, Clarissa and Sulamitis), are believed to be the origin of the two primitive Near-Earth asteroids that are the main targets of the NASA’s OSIRIS-REx ((101955) Bennu) and JAXA’s Hayabusa 2 ((162173) 1999 JU3) missions (Campins et al. 2010; Campins et al. 2013; Lauretta et al. 2010; Tsuda et al. 2013). These spacecrafts will visit the asteroids, and a sample of their surface material will be returned to Earth. Understanding of the families that are considered potential sources will enhance the scientific return of the missions. The main goal of the work presented here is to characterize the Erigone collisional family. Asteroid (163) Erigone has been classified as a primitive object (Bus 1999; Bus & Binzel 2002), and we expect the members of this family to be consistent with the spectral type of the parent body. We have obtained visible spectra (0.5-0.9 μm) for 101 members of the Erigone family, using the OSIRIS instrument at the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We performed a taxonomical classification of these asteroids, finding that the number of primitive objects in our sample is in agreement with the hypothesis of a common parent body. In addition, we have found a significant fraction of asteroids in our sample that present evidences of aqueous alteration. Study of aqueous alterations is important, as it can give information on the heating processes of the early Solar System, and for the associated astrobiological implications (it has been suggested that the Earth’s present water supply was brought here by asteroids, instead of comets

  9. A total and polarized infrared flux view of the AGN clumpy torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Rodriguez, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamical theories consider the torus of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) to be part of an outflow wind moving away from the central engine. In this framework, the torus is a particular region of the wind, where dusty and optically thick clouds are formed. The outflows are strongly related to the accretion rate and magnetic field strength, which play an important role in the creation, morphology and evolution of the torus. Through infrared (IR) imaging and polarimetry observations, this dissertation (1) searches for signatures of dusty tori in low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN); (2) explores the role and strength of magnetic field in the torus; and (3) investigates the nucleus of radio-loud AGN. Recent theoretical models predicted that LLAGN do not host a Seyfert-like torus, since low-luminosities (<1042 erg s-1 ) cannot sustain the required outflow rate. High-spatial resolution mid-IR (MIR) imaging and nuclear spectral energy distribution of 22 LLAGN reveals different IR characteristics by dividing the sample in terms of the Eddington ratio. These galaxies show a diversity of nuclear morphologies and have a high MIR/X-ray luminosity ratio compared to higher-luminosity AGN. Star formation, jets and/or truncated accretion disk can explain the MIR excess. Although several models have been made to account for the outflowing dusty winds from the central engine, the magnetic field strength at the position of the torus remains poorly characterized. Through a novel study using near-IR polarimetry, the magnetic field strength in the clumpy torus was estimated. Specifically, if paramagnetic alignment is assumed in the dusty clouds of the torus, the magnetic field strength of the torus of IC5063 is estimated to be in the range of 12--128 mG. Alternatively, Chandrasekhar-Fermi method suggests a lower-limit magnetic field strength of 13 mG. For the archetypical radio-loud AGN, Cygnus A, MIR polarimetry using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio de Canarias revealed a high

  10. A NEW LOW MAGNETIC FIELD MAGNETAR: THE 2011 OUTBURST OF SWIFT J1822.3-1606

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, N.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Israel, G. L.; Esposito, P.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Pons, J. A.; Mignani, R. P.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S.; Oates, S. R.; Campana, S.; Enoto, T.; Goegues, E.; Goetz, D.; Makishima, K.; Mereghetti, S.; Palmer, D. M.; and others

    2012-07-20

    We report on the long-term X-ray monitoring with Swift, RXTE, Suzaku, Chandra, and XMM-Newton of the outburst of the newly discovered magnetar Swift J1822.3-1606 (SGR 1822-1606), from the first observations soon after the detection of the short X-ray bursts which led to its discovery, through the first stages of its outburst decay (covering the time span from 2011 July until the end of 2012 April). We also report on archival ROSAT observations which detected the source during its likely quiescent state, and on upper limits on Swift J1822.3-1606's radio-pulsed and optical emission during outburst, with the Green Bank Telescope and the Gran Telescopio Canarias, respectively. Our X-ray timing analysis finds the source rotating with a period of P = 8.43772016(2) s and a period derivative P-dot =8.3(2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} s s{sup -1}, which implies an inferred dipolar surface magnetic field of B {approx_equal} 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G at the equator. This measurement makes Swift J1822.3-1606 the second lowest magnetic field magnetar (after SGR 0418+5729). Following the flux and spectral evolution from the beginning of the outburst, we find that the flux decreased by about an order of magnitude, with a subtle softening of the spectrum, both typical of the outburst decay of magnetars. By modeling the secular thermal evolution of Swift J1822.3-1606, we find that the observed timing properties of the source, as well as its quiescent X-ray luminosity, can be reproduced if it was born with a poloidal and crustal toroidal fields of B{sub p} {approx} 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} G and B{sub tor} {approx} 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} G, respectively, and if its current age is {approx}550 kyr.

  11. Evolved Rocks in Ocean Islands Formed by Melting of Metasomatized Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Torsvik, T. H.; Horvath, P.; Harris, C.; Webb, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Corfu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Evolved rocks like trachyte occur as minor components of many plume-related basaltic ocean islands (e.g. Hawaii, Gran Canaria, Azores, Réunion), and are typically interpreted as products of extreme fractional crystallization from broadly basaltic magmas. Trachytes from Mauritius (Indian Ocean) suggest otherwise. Here, 6.8 Ma nepheline-bearing trachytes (SiO2 ~63%, Na2O + K2O ~12%) are enriched in all incompatible elements except Ba, Sr and Eu, which show prominent negative anomalies. Initial eNd values cluster at 4.03 ± 0.15 (n = 13), near the lower end of the range for Mauritian basalts (eNd = 3.70 - 5.75), but initial Sr is highly variable (ISr = 0.70408 - 0.71034) suggesting secondary deuteric alteration. Fractional crystallization models starting with a basaltic parent fail, because when plagioclase joins olivine in the crystallizing assemblage, residual liquids become depleted in Al2O3, produce no nepheline, and do not approach trachytic compositions. Mauritian basalts and trachytes do not fall near the ends of known miscibility gaps, eliminating liquid immiscibility processes. Partial melting of extant gabbroic bodies, either from the oceanic crust or from Réunion plume-related magmas should yield quartz-saturated melts different from the critically undersaturated Mauritian trachytes. A remaining possibility is that the trachytes represent direct, small-degree partial melts of fertile, perhaps metasomatized mantle. This is supported by the presence of trachytic glasses in many mantle xenoliths, and experimental results show that low-degree trachytic melts can be produced from mantle peridotites even under anhydrous conditions. If some feldspar is left behind as a residual phase, this would account for the negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies observed in Mauritian trachytes. Two trachyte samples that are less depleted in these elements contain xenocrysts of anorthoclase, Al-rich cpx and Cl-rich kaersutite that are out of equilibrium with host trachyte magmas

  12. KIC 10526294: a slowly rotating B star with rotationally split, quasi-equally spaced gravity modes (Corrigendum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pápics, P. I.; Moravveji, E.; Aerts, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Triana, S. A.; Bloemen, S.; Southworth, J.

    2014-10-01

    Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated by the Isaac Newton Group on the island of La Palma at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Holocene geomagnetic field variations from low latitude site: contribution from the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Perez-Torrado, Francisco; Carrracedo, Juan-Carlos; Wandres, Camille

    2016-04-01

    Full geomagnetic vector information was retrieved from 37 lava flows (corresponding to 38 sites because one flow was sampled at two different localities) located in Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Twenty-eight flows are dated between 1706 AD and about 13200 BC and one is historical. Eight other non-dated flows have stratigraphic links with the dated flows and at the end, our study allowed us to attribute to them archeomagnetic ages based on their paleomagnetic characteristics. Various mineralogical analyses were conducted, giving access to the nature and grain size of the magnetic minerals. Full stepwise (about 13 steps) thermal and AF demagnetizations were conducted on more than 400 samples to determine the paleomagnetic directions. The individual MAD values are on the average about 2° and the mean precision parameter at the flow scale (alpha95) is 4.2°. For paleointensities (PI), we performed the original Thellier and Thellier experiments with a success rate of about 65%, coupling it with the strict set of selection criteria PICRIT-03. The mean PIs at the flow level are based on 3 to 12 independent PI determinations except for one site in which only one reliable determination could be obtained. The obtained data are unique in this area over the 1000-14000 BC period and they are complementary to the dataset obtained in the Canary Islands for the last 500 years. Over the last 3 kyr, they indicate some variability in the local field intensity with a prominent PI peak centered around 600 BC and reaching 80 μT (VADM 16 x 10 ^22 Am ^2), documented by four different flows and associated to significantly easterly deviated declinations. The directional data are rather consistent with the most recent models proposed for that area but the obtained PI indicate that models largely underestimate the paleointensities. Combined with published data obtained from western Africa, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the Azores within a 2000 km-radius around the Canary

  14. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häder, D.-P.

    Solar UV degrades dissolved organic carbon photolytically so that they can readily be taken up by bacterioplankton. On the other hand solar UV radiation inhibits bacterioplankton activity. Bacterioplankton productivity is far greater than previously thought and is comparable to phytoplankton primary productivity. According to the "microbial loop hypothesis," bacterioplankton is seen in the center of a food web, having a similar function to phytoplankton and protists. The penetration of UV and PAR into the water column can be measured. Marine waters show large temporal and regional differences in their concentrations of dissolved and particulate absorbing substances. A network of dosimeters (ELDONET) has been installed in Europe ranging from Abisko in Northern Sweden to Gran Canaria. Cyanobacteria are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen which is then made available to higher plants. The agricultural potential of cyanobacteria has been recognized as a biological fertilizer for wet soils such as in rice paddies. UV-B is known to impair processes such as growth, survival, pigmentation, motility, as well as the enzymes of nitrogen metabolism and CO 2 fixation. The marine phytoplankton represents the single most important ecosystem on our planet and produces about the same biomass as all terrestrial ecosystems taken together. It is the base of the aquatic food chain and any changes in the size and composition of phytoplankton communities will directly affect food production for humans from marine sources. Another important role of marine phytoplankton is to serve as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Recent investigations have shown a large sensitivity of most phytoplankton organisms toward solar short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UV-B); even at ambient levels of UV-B radiation many organisms seem to be under UV stress. Because of their requirement for solar energy, the phytoplankton dwell in the top layers of the water column. In this near-surface position

  15. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity of the mantle beneath the Canary Islands: a discussion of the paper of Gurenko et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Macpherson, Colin G.; Lowry, David; Pearson, D. Graham

    2012-07-01

    Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) report laser-assisted fluorination (LF) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) 18O/16O datasets for olivine grains from the Canary Islands of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma and El Hierro. As with prior studies of oxygen isotopes in Canary Island lavas (e.g. Thirlwall et al. Chem Geol 135:233-262, 1997; Day et al. Geology 37:555-558, 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:6565-6589, 2010), these authors find variations in δ18Ool (~4.6-6.0 ‰) beyond that measured for mantle peridotite olivine (Mattey et al. Earth Planet Sci Lett 128:231-241, 1994) and interpret this variation to reflect contributions from pyroxenite-peridotite mantle sources. Furthermore, Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) speculate that δ18Ool values for La Palma olivine grains measured by LF (Day et al. Geology 37:555-558, 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:6565-6589, 2010) may be biased to low values due to the presence of altered silicate, possibly serpentine. The range in δ18Ool values for Canary Island lavas are of importance for constraining their origin. Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) took a subset (39 SIMS analyses from 13 grains from a single El Hierro lava; EH4) of a more extensive dataset (321 SIMS analyses from 110 grains from 16 Canary Island lavas) to suggest that δ18Ool is weakly correlated ( R 2 = 0.291) with the parameter used by Gurenko et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 277:514-524, 2009) to describe the estimated weight fraction of pyroxenite-derived melt ( Xpx). With this relationship, end-member δ18O values for HIMU-peridotite (δ18O = 5.3 ± 0.3 ‰) and depleted pyroxenite (δ18O = 5.9 ± 0.3 ‰) were defined. Although the model proposed by Gurenko et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:349-363, 2011) implicates similar pyroxenite-peridotite mantle sources to those proposed by Day et al. (Geology 37:555-558, 2009, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:6565-6589, 2010

  16. Origin and significance of the 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek-Pedroza, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi; Carracedo, Juan C.; Klügel, Andreas; Harris, Chris; Wiesmaier, Sebastian; Berg, Sylvia E.; Barker, Abigail K.

    2014-05-01

    samples to be Si-oversaturated, partly corundum-normative, but with not magmatic mineral components in the norm. 5) Trace element concentrations of xeno-pumice are unlike any magmatic rocks from El Hierro and La Palma, but similar to known sedimentary rocks from the region. 6) A distinct Eu anomaly, typical for continentally derived sediment, is present in xeno-pumice but absent in El Hierro and La Palma magmatic rocks. Lastly, 7) Oxygen isotope values range from 9.1 to 11.6 o (n=6), which are elevated with respect to magmatic rocks from the Canaries (5.2 to ~ 7 o), but are characteristic for sediment derived from a mixture of continental (S- and I-type) granite sources. The combined datasets allow for a more thorough discussion on the origin of El Hierro xeno-pumice and we conclude that xeno-pumice is compositionally akin to sedimentary rocks from the region, but strikingly dissimilar to magmatic rocks from El Hierro and La Palma. We suggest a dominantly sedimentary origin for xeno-pumice. Xeno-pumice is therefore not an indicator for explosive felsic magma within volcanic plumbing systems, but a reflection of magma-crust interaction during ascent and emplacement. The occurrence of similar frothy sedimentary xenoliths in recent and historical eruptions on Lanzarote, Gran Canaria, Tenerife and La Palma make a case for xeno-pumice being a common phenomenon in the region.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO_{2} degassing at the N-S volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during 2002-2015 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Mar; Ingman, Dylan; Alexander, Scott; Barrancos, José; Rodríguez, Fátima; Melián, Gladys; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands and, together with Gran Canaria Island, is the only one with a central volcanic complex that started to grow at about 3.5 Ma. Nowadays the central complex is formed by Las Cañadas caldera, a volcanic depression measuring 16×9 km that resulted from multiple vertical collapses and was partially filled by post-caldera volcanic products. Up to 297 mafic monogenetic cones have been recognized on Tenerife, and they represent the most common eruptive activity occurring on the island during the last 1 Ma (Dóniz et al., 2008). Most of the monogenetic cones are aligned following a triple junction-shaped rift system, as result of inflation produced by the concentration of emission vents and dykes in bands at 120o to one another as a result of minimum stress fracturing of the crust by a mantle upwelling. The main structural characteristic of the southern volcanic rift (N-S) of the island is an apparent absence of a distinct ridge, and a fan shaped distribution of monogenetic cones. Four main volcanic successions in the southern volcanic rift zone of Tenerife, temporally separated by longer periods (˜70 - 250 ka) without volcanic activity, have been identified (Kröchert and Buchner, 2008). Since there are currently no visible gas emissions at the N-S rift, diffuse degassing surveys have become an important geochemical tool for the surveillance of this volcanic system. We report here the last results of diffuse CO2 efflux survey at the N-S rift of Tenerife, performed using the accumulation chamber method in the summer period of 2015. The objectives of the surveys were: (i) to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area and (ii) to evaluate occasional CO2 efflux surveys as a volcanic surveillance tool for the N-S rift of Tenerife. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 31.7 g m‑2 d‑1. A spatial distribution map, constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure, did not show an

  18. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hader, D P

    2000-01-01

    Solar UV degrades dissolved organic carbon photolytically so that they can readily be taken up by bacterioplankton. On the other hand solar UV radiation inhibits bacterioplankton activity. Bacterioplankton productivity is far greater than previously thought and is comparable to phytoplankton primary productivity. According to the "microbial loop hypothesis," bacterioplankton is seen in the center of a food web, having a similar function to phytoplankton and protists. The penetration of UV and PAR into the water column can be measured. Marine waters show large temporal and regional differences in their concentrations of dissolved and particulate absorbing substances. A network of dosimeters (ELDONET) has been installed in Europe ranging from Abisko in Northern Sweden to Gran Canaria. Cyanobacteria are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen which is then made available to higher plants. The agricultural potential of cyanobacteria has been recognized as a biological fertilizer for wet soils such as in rice paddies. UV-B is known to impair processes such as growth, survival, pigmentation, motility, as well as the enzymes of nitrogen metabolism and CO2 fixation. The marine phytoplankton represents the single most important ecosystem on our planet and produces about the same biomass as all terrestrial ecosystems taken together. It is the base of the aquatic food chain and any changes in the size and composition of phytoplankton communities will directly affect food production for humans from marine sources. Another important role of marine phytoplankton is to serve as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Recent investigations have shown a large sensitivity of most phytoplankton organisms toward solar short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UV-B); even at ambient levels of UV-B radiation many organisms seem to be under UV stress. Because of their requirement for solar energy, the phytoplankton dwell in the top layers of the water column. In this near-surface position

  19. Clinical comparison of indium-111 acetylacetone and indium-111 tropolone granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Burt, R.W.; Park, H.M.; Mock, B.H.; Witt, R.M.; Tobolski, M.M.; Wellman, H.N.

    1986-11-01

    This clinical study compares the efficacy of two /sup 111/In white blood cells preparations. Seventy-six patients were imaged after an injection of granulocytes (GRAN) isolated on a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient and labeled with (/sup 111/In)acetylacetone (ACAC) in saline; 105 patients were imaged after an injection of GRAN isolated on a metrizamide-plasma gradient and labeled with (/sup 111/In)tropolone (TROP) in plasma. Early (2-4 hr), intermediate (4-6 hr), and delayed (24 hr) images were obtained. The specificity was quite high (94-100%) in both preparations and no statistical differences could be found. The sensitivity for ACAC-GRAN for the early, intermediate, and delayed images were 39%, 63%, and 64%, respectively; for TROP-GRAN it was 80%, 89%, and 92%, respectively. In all cases the TROP-GRAN images were significantly more sensitive than the ACAC-GRAN images obtained at the same time after injection (p less than 0.001 for early and delayed images, 0.01 less than p less than 0.025 for intermediate images). For ACAC-GRAN the intermediate and delayed images were significantly more sensitive than the early images, while no significant difference could be found for TROP-GRAN. In a blinded experiment, the ability of TROP-GRAN to demonstrate a lesion was compared to that of ACAC-GRAN. TROP-GRAN demonstrated the lesions better than ACAC-GRAN, both in the early and late images (p less than 0.001). TROP-GRAN visualization scores at 4-6 hr equaled those obtained 24 hr after injection. In conclusion, GRAN separated and labeled in plasma with TROP are superior to those separated and labeled in saline with ACAC in three ways: higher visualization scores, earlier visualization of the lesion, and greater sensitivity.

  20. The Cluster Ground Segment and Operations - maintaining the high quality of services at lower cost -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpp, J.

    The Cluster ground segment mostly consists of that which was built in the early 1990s for the original Cluster mission which was destroyed in 1996 The four Cluster spacecraft were rebuilt and launched in Summer 2000 The Cluster mission has been in its routine operational phase since February 2001 After a data extension phase which added the upgraded Maspalomas terminal as a second Cluster dedicated ground station to the original VILSPA-1 station the mission is in its second extension phase and preparing to fly up to end 2009 The operational concept of Cluster is presented with emphasis on services to the user community such as response time monitoring of quality of operational service such as publishing the science data return ratio and anomalies in the space and ground segment With a considerable re-design and upgrade of the ground segment the annual mission costs for the additional 4 mission years could be reduced by 25 while maintaining the prime requirements of the mission The re-design and upgrade is subject of the paper presented It is shown how a combination of greatly differing measures can lead to this considerable reduction in cost Moving the ground station support from VILSPA-1 to Perth takes advantage of the orbit evolution and allows reducing significantly the staffing of Spacecraft controllers By making use of redundancies and margins in the space segment sharing of the Perth station with the XMM project is possible To share the station between two projects is facilitated by the migration from the old telemetry processors

  1. The Andean Common Market: An Experiment in Regional Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Reynold E.

    The Grupo Andino (GRAN) was formed in 1969 as an effort at economic integration by six Latin American countries (Bolivia, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela). It was an outgrowth of its predecessor, the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA), which had been formed in 1960 with eleven member countries. The Andean Group (GRAN) from…

  2. Trigonometric parallaxes of young field L dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Miles-Páez, P. A.; Peña Ramírez, K.; Rebolo, R.; Pallé, E.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: We aim to determine the trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of a sample of ten field L0-L5 dwarfs with spectroscopic evidence for low-gravity atmospheres. The ten sources were located in color-absolute magnitude diagrams and in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram for age and mass derivations and were compared with field and star cluster dwarfs of related spectral classification and with state-of-the-art solar-metallicity evolutionary models. Methods: We obtained J and Ks imaging data using 2-4 m class telescopes with a typical cadence of one image per month between 2010 January and 2012 December, in which the data cover a time baseline of nearly three years. We also obtained low resolution optical spectra (R ~ 300, 500-1100 nm) using the 10 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias to assess the presence of lithium absorption in four targets and confirm their young age. The derived parallaxes and proper motions were combined with data from the literature to determine Teff, luminosity, and space velocities. All this information along with the lithium observations was used to assess the ages and masses of the sample. The astrometric curves were also examined for periodic perturbations indicative of unseen companions. Results: Trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions were derived to typical accuracies of a milliarcsecond (mas) and ±10 mas yr-1, respectively. All ten L dwarfs have large motions (μ ≥ 70 mas yr-1) and are located at distances between 9 and 47 pc. They lie above and on the sequence of field dwarfs in the diagrams of absolute J and Ks magnitude versus spectral type and luminosity versus effective temperature, which implies ages similar to or smaller than those typical of the field. In the HR diagram, 2MASS J00332386-1521309 (L4), 2MASS J00452143+1634446 (L2), 2MASS J03552337+1133437 (L5), 2MASS J05012406-0010452 (L4), G 196-3B (L3), 2MASS J17260007+1538190 (L3), and 2MASS J22081363+2921215 (L3) occupy locations that are compatible with the most

  3. The control unit of the near infrared spectrograph of the EUCLID space mission: preliminary design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Díaz-García, José Javier; Tubío-Araujo, Óscar Manuel; Gómez-Sáenz, Jaime; Peña-Godino, Antonio; Velasco-Fernández, Tirso; Sánchez-Prieto, Sebastián.; Villó-Pérez, Isidro; Rebolo-López, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    The Near Infrared Spectrograph and Photometer (NISP) is one of the instruments on board the ESA EUCLID mission. The Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena and Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias are responsible of the Instrument Control Unit of the NISP (NI-ICU) in the Euclid Consortium. The NI-ICU main functions are: communication with the S/C and the Data Processing Unit, control of the Filter and Grism Wheels, control of the Calibration Unit and thermal control of the instrument. This paper presents the NI-ICU status of definition and design at the end of the preliminary design phase.

  4. Dynamical systems techniques reveal the sexual dimorphic nature of motor patterns in birdsong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J. M.; Alliende, J. A.; Amador, A.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2006-10-01

    In this work we analyze the pressure motor patterns used by canaries (Serinus canaria) during song, both in the cases of males and testosterone treated females. We found a qualitative difference between them which was not obvious from the acoustical features of the uttered songs. We also show the diversity of patterns, both for males and females, to be consistent with a recently proposed model for the dynamics of the oscine respiratory system. The model not only allows us to reproduce qualitative features of the different pressure patterns, but also to account for all the diversity of pressure patterns found in females.

  5. [Susceptibility of birds other than chickens to infectious laryngotracheitis].

    PubMed

    Hilbink, F W

    1985-06-01

    Susceptibility to infectious laryngotracheitis virus was studied in peafowl (Pavo cristatus), various species of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Lophura swinhoeii, Lophophorus impejanus), guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris), canaries (Serinus canaria), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnic japonica). Apart from clinical observations, experiments were evaluated in terms of histopathology, immunofluorescence, serology and recovery of virus. Only peafowl and pheasants were found to be susceptible, pheasants responding more strongly than chickens to ocular vaccination and intratracheal inoculation. The other species were found to be refractory. PMID:2990066

  6. Planeta Vivo Radio: a 365 chapter story between science and radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David; Villalba, Eustaquio; Rodríguez, Fátima; Álvarez, Domingo; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    PLANETA VIVO RADIO (http://www.planetavivoradio.es/) is a joint effort of the Spanish National Public Radio in the Canary Islands (RNE-Canarias) and Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) to broadcast scientific and technological advances related to Earth Sciences and the Earth Planet. This initiative was born in a very special year, 2008, the International Year of the Planet Earth, and is actually co-financed by the Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Tenerife (PCTT) and co-financed by the PROCIVMAC project. This 50 minutes weekly radio program broadcast scientists' interviews and scientific/technological reports related to the state of the art of several topics of scientific and social interest in addition to a weekly report of natural hazards that have occurred in the Earth Planet during the last week turning "PLANETAVIVORADIO" as a milestone of the Earth Sciences for the society. Since that moment, Planeta Vivo Radio has been broadcasted through 365 weeks in a continuous way. Several modifications have been added to the program, being divided today into eight different parts, a mix with interviews, reports, ephemerals, bios, agenda and the review to the most prominent natural hazards occurring through the last seven days. Since October 2015, Planeta Vivo Radio is the longest science radio program ever broadcasted in the Canary Islands.

  7. Possible mechanisms of host resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhengyu; González, Jorge Francisco; Hernandez, Julia N.; McNeilly, Tom N.; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Frew, David; Morrison, Tyler; Yu, Peng; Li, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus appears to be the most economically important helminth parasite for small ruminant production in many regions of the world. The two sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands display distinctly different resistant phenotypes under both natural and experimental infections. Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) tends to have significantly lower worm burden and delayed and reduced egg production than the susceptible Canaria Sheep (CS). To understand molecular mechanisms underlying host resistance, we compared the abomasal mucosal transcriptome of the two breeds in response to Haemonchus infection using RNAseq technology. The transcript abundance of 711 and 50 genes were significantly impacted by infection in CHB and CS, respectively (false discovery rate <0.05) while 27 of these genes were significantly affected in both breeds. Likewise, 477 and 16 Gene Ontology (GO) terms were significantly enriched in CHB and CS, respectively (P < 1.0 × 10−4). A broad range of mechanisms have evolved in resistant CHB to provide protection against the parasite. Our findings suggest that readily inducible acute inflammatory responses, complement activation, accelerated cell proliferation and subsequent tissue repair, and immunity directed against parasite fecundity all contributed to the development of host resistance to parasitic infection in the resistant breed. PMID:27197554

  8. Possible mechanisms of host resistance to Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhengyu; González, Jorge Francisco; Hernandez, Julia N; McNeilly, Tom N; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Frew, David; Morrison, Tyler; Yu, Peng; Li, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus appears to be the most economically important helminth parasite for small ruminant production in many regions of the world. The two sheep breeds native to the Canary Islands display distinctly different resistant phenotypes under both natural and experimental infections. Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) tends to have significantly lower worm burden and delayed and reduced egg production than the susceptible Canaria Sheep (CS). To understand molecular mechanisms underlying host resistance, we compared the abomasal mucosal transcriptome of the two breeds in response to Haemonchus infection using RNAseq technology. The transcript abundance of 711 and 50 genes were significantly impacted by infection in CHB and CS, respectively (false discovery rate <0.05) while 27 of these genes were significantly affected in both breeds. Likewise, 477 and 16 Gene Ontology (GO) terms were significantly enriched in CHB and CS, respectively (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). A broad range of mechanisms have evolved in resistant CHB to provide protection against the parasite. Our findings suggest that readily inducible acute inflammatory responses, complement activation, accelerated cell proliferation and subsequent tissue repair, and immunity directed against parasite fecundity all contributed to the development of host resistance to parasitic infection in the resistant breed. PMID:27197554

  9. Limitations of biodiversity databases: case study on seed-plant diversity in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M; Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto

    2007-06-01

    Databases on the distribution of species can be used to describe the geographic patterns of biodiversity. Nevertheless, they have limitations. We studied three of these limitations: (1) inadequacy of raw data to describe richness patterns due to sampling bias, (2) lack of survey effort assessment (and lack of exhaustiveness in compiling data about survey effort), and (3) lack of coverage of the geographic and environmental variations that affect the distribution of organisms. We used a biodiversity database (BIOTA-Canarias) to analyze richness data from a well-known group (seed plants) in an intensively surveyed area (Tenerife Island). Observed richness and survey effort were highly correlated. Species accumulation curves could not be used to determine survey effort because data digitalization was not exhaustive, so we identified well-sampled sites based on observed richness to sampling effort ratios. We also developed a predictive model based on the data from well-sampled sites and analyzed the origin of the geographic errors in the obtained extrapolation by means of a geographically constrained cross-validation. The spatial patterns of seed-plant species richness obtained from BIOTA-Canarias data were incomplete and biased. Therefore, some improvements are needed to use this database (and many others) in biodiversity studies. We propose a protocol that includes controls on data quality, improvements on data digitalization and survey design to improve data quality, and some alternative data analysis strategies that will provide a reliable picture of biodiversity patterns. PMID:17531062

  10. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis). PMID:19683397

  11. Obligatory course unit! Trainee astronomers learn to communicate their future scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, C.

    2008-06-01

    A scientist must not only do science, but must also know how to communicate it. It is possible that he or she even ends up becoming devoted professionally either to outreach or to teaching. Therefore, the Master's Degree Course in Astrophysics, created by the University of La Laguna (ULL) with the collaboration of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), includes in its programme the four-month core course unit Communicating Astronomy: Professional Results and Educational Practice (in Spanish, Comunicación de Resultados Cientificos y Didactica de la Astronomia), that is worth three ECTs. In this poster, I present the results of our experience from the academic year 2006-2007, in which seventeen Master's students, in addition to learning the skills necessary to communicating their results within the scientific community, have also studied the language of popularisation in a practical and fun way through role-playing as science writers and schoolteachers in the classroom.

  12. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2012-04-23

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  13. Encephalitozoon hellem infection in aviary passerine and psittacine birds in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rosell, J; Máinez, M; Didier, E S; Bowers, L C; Marco, A; Juan-Sallés, C

    2016-03-30

    A European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis), a canary (Serinus canaria), and a lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) captive-bred at three different private aviaries in Spain were submitted for necropsy with a history of weakness and ruffled feathers, weight loss associated with glossitis, and respiratory disease, respectively. Microscopically, enterocytes in the jejunum and ileum contained colonies of gram- and Stamp-positive, oval to elliptical microorganisms within parasitophorous vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm. Nested PCR using MSP primers that target microsporidian RNA genes produced amplicons of expected size for Encephalitozoon species, and analysis of forward and reverse DNA sequences confirmed the presence of Encephalitozoon hellem in all cases. The main cause of death of all three birds consisted of concurrent infections. However, intestinal encephalitozoonosis may have contributed to exacerbated catabolism. Encephalitozoonosis (or microsporidiosis) has been rarely described in passerine birds. PMID:26921040

  14. 'Out of tune': consequences of inbreeding on bird song.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Raïssa A; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-07-27

    The expression of bird song is expected to signal male quality to females. 'Quality' is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but, surprisingly, there is very limited evidence if and how genetic aspects of male quality are reflected in song. Here, we manipulated the genetic make-up of canaries (Serinus canaria) via inbreeding, and studied its effects upon song output, complexity, phonetics and, for the first time, song learning. To this end, we created weight-matched inbred and outbred pairs of male fledglings, which were subsequently exposed to the same tutor male during song learning. Inbreeding strongly affected syllable phonetics, but there were little or no effects on other song features. Nonetheless, females discriminated among inbred and outbred males, as they produced heavier clutches when mated with an outbred male. Our study highlights the importance of song phonetics, which has hitherto often been overlooked. PMID:27466453

  15. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2014-05-06

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  16. HERMES at Mercator, competitive high-resolution spectroscopy with a small telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin , G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2014-01-01

    HERMES, a fibre-fed high-resolution (R = 85 000) échelle spectrograph with good stability and excellent throughput, is the work-horse instrument of the 1.2-m Mercator telescope on La Palma. HERMES targets building up time series of high-quality data of variable stellar phenomena, mainly for asteroseismology and binary-evolution research. In this paper we present the HERMES project and discuss the instrument design, performance, and a future upgrade. We also present some results of the first four years of HERMES observations. We illustrate the value of small telescopes, equipped with efficient instrumentation, for high-resolution spectroscopy. Based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  17. Mechanics of LIRIS (long-slit intermediate-resolution infrared spectrograph) at first commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Elvio; Acosta-Pulido, Jose; Cadavid, Emilio; Correa, Santiago; Peraza, Lorenzo; Redondo, Pablo; Sanchez, Vicente; Tenegi, Fabio; Manchado, Arturo; Barreto, Mary

    2004-09-01

    LIRIS is a near-infrared intermediate resolution spectrograph with added capabilities for multi-slit, imaging, coronography, and polarimetry, developed by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC). It will be a common user instrument for the Cassegrain focus of the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma. At its first commissioning, that was held in February 2003, the functionality of the mechanisms (entrance wheel, central wheels and camera wheel) under variable orientation of the telescope was verified, and no thermal nor structural problems arose. The functionality of the mechanical interface with telescope (allows for up to 5 mm of lateral displacements in the attachment plane), of the LIRIS handling trolley, of the transport equipment and of all the equipments used in the integration was also checked. For the second commissioning of LIRIS, which has been held in March 2004, some modifications have been done. The results of both commissionings were satisfactory.

  18. Motor control of sound frequency in birdsong involves the interaction between air sac pressure and labial tension

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-01-01

    Frequency modulation is a salient acoustic feature of birdsong. Its control is usually attributed to the activity of syringeal muscles, which affect the tension of the labia responsible for sound production. We use experimental and theoretical tools to test the hypothesis that for birds producing tonal sounds such as domestic canaries (Serinus canaria), frequency modulation is determined by both the syringeal tension and the air sac pressure. For different models, we describe the structure of the isofrequency curves, which are sets of parameters leading to sounds presenting the same fundamental frequencies. We show how their shapes determine the relative roles of syringeal tension and air sac pressure in frequency modulation. Finally, we report experiments that allow us to unveil the features of the isofrequency curves. PMID:24730873

  19. A Bibliometric Study to Manage a Journal Collection in an Astronomical Library: Some Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Monique

    The evaluation of the use of library collections is a fundamental tool for the development of a relevant and cost-effective collection. Bibliometrics offers several methods to measure the level of use of collections. In this paper, we present the first results of a bibliometric analysis of the references cited in the articles published by authors of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias during the last decade. We have determined which kinds of publications and which journals are mainly used. We also have studied the ages of the cited journals and their cost-effectiveness. Additionally, to see if the advent of the WWW in the mid 1990s has influenced the reading or citing practices of the authors, we have compared two sets of data: articles published over the period 1991--3 that we define as the pre-WWW period and articles published over the period 1997--9 defined as the WWW period.

  20. STELIB: A library of stellar spectra at R ~ 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Borgne, J.-F.; Bruzual, G.; Pelló, R.; Lançon, A.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Sanahuja, B.; Schaerer, D.; Soubiran, C.; Vílchez-Gómez, R.

    2003-05-01

    We present STELIB, a new spectroscopic stellar library, available at http://webast.ast.obs-mip.fr/stelib. STELIB consists of an homogeneous library of 249 stellar spectra in the visible range (3200 to 9500 Å), with an intermediate spectral resolution (la 3 Å) and sampling (1 Å). This library includes stars of various spectral types and luminosity classes, spanning a relatively wide range in metallicity. The spectral resolution, wavelength and spectral type coverage of this library represents a substantial improvement over previous libraries used in population synthesis models. The overall absolute photometric uncertainty is 3%. Based on observations collected with the Jacobus Kaptein Telescope, (owned and operated jointly by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council of the UK, The Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek of The Netherlands and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias of Spain and located in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos on La Palma which is operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias), the 2.3 m telescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring, Australia, and the VLT-UT1 Antu Telescope (ESO). Tables \\ref{cat1} to \\ref{cat6} and \\ref{antab1} to A.7 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. The Stellar Library STELIB library is also available at the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/402/433

  1. Comparing high-throughput methods to measure NK cell-mediated antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity during HIV-infection.

    PubMed

    Konstantinus, Iyaloo N; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Kriek, Jean-Mari; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2016-07-01

    HIV-specific binding antibody responses, including those mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), provided the best functional correlate of lower risk of infection in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine clinical trial. The aim of this study was to compare two high-throughput flow cytometry based methods to measure HIV-specific ADCC responses, the GranToxilux and PanToxilux assays. Plasma from nine HIV-1 seropositive individuals was screened for binding antibody titres against HIV-1 subtype C gp120 by ELISA and western blot. Plasma from six HIV-negative individuals was included as controls. Both ADCC assays used subtype C gp120-coated CEM.NKRCCR5 cells as targets. The PanToxilux assay (which measured both granzyme B and caspase activity) measured higher levels of direct natural killer (NK) cell killing of K562 tumour cells than the GranToxilux assay (granzyme B alone; p<0.05). In ADCC assays in which NK cell killing was directed against gp120-coated CEM.NKRCCR5 cells in an antibody-dependent manner, plasma from HIV-positive individuals yielded significantly higher levels of ADCC activity than the HIV-negative controls. In contrast to direct killing, the GranToxilux assay measured similar levels of ADCC killing as the PanToxilux assay but had significantly lower background cytotoxicity against target cells coated with HIV negative serum. In conclusion, the PanToxilux assay was more sensitive for detecting direct NK cell killing of K562 cells than the GranToxilux assay, although the GranToxilux assay performed better at detecting HIV-specific ADCC activity, because of lower background cytotoxicity from HIV-negative serum. This is the first study to compare GranToxilux and PanToxilux ability to detect ADCC during HIV infection. PMID:27094485

  2. Complicating osteomyelitis imaged with Tc-99m MDP, In-111 granulocytes, and Ga-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Park, H.M.; Mock, B.H.; Burt, R.W.; Kernick, C.B.; Ruoff, A.C. III; Sinn, H.J.; Wellman, H.N.; Vamc, R.L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Gallium-67 and 3-phase bone scan (3P) studies, though very sensitive, are not very specific in evaluating suspected osteomyelitis (OM) which is superimposed upon other diseases that cause increased bone turnover (IBT). The authors compared In-111 acetylacetone labeled granulocytes (In-111) GRAN) with 3P in 57 such patients; 29 of these patients had Ga-67 studies as well. In-111 GRAN had a sensitivity of 100% in acute OM, 62% in chronic OM, and a specificity of 96%. Gallium-67 ruled out OM when the study was normal; it diagnosed OM when the relative uptake of Ga-67 exceeded the uptake of Tc-99m MDP, or when the skeletal distribution of Ga-67 was different from that of the TC-99m MDP. Unfortunately, these criteria were met in only 28% of the subjects. The simple approach of increased Ga-67 activity meant OM gave a sensitivity of 100%, but an unacceptable specificity of 38%. Chronic cellulitis or long-standing decubiti were seldom detected by IN-111 GRAN. Clinically obvious soft tissue infections or cellulitis were seen with In-111 GRAN 27% of the time, and 17% of the time with Ga-67. The authors conclude that when added to 3P, In-111 GRAN provided more useful information than did Ga-67. A combination of all 3 studies did not significantly increase the diagnostic yield. Performing In-111 GRAN without 3P in patients with IBT is not recommended since the 3P provides anatomic information that aids in the differentiation of OM from soft tissue infections.

  3. [An automated registry program for nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Polanco-González, Carlos; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales presentan un gran reto para la medicina hospitalaria, en general, y para las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en particular. Su elevada prevalencia, la gran morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, el incremento de la estancia hospitalaria y, en consecuencia, los costos de la atención médica han hecho que los programas de vigilancia, control y prevención de infecciones nosocomiales sean una parte toral de los protocolos de seguridad para el paciente y un indicador de calidad de la atención médica. PMID:25643679

  4. Cosmic ray physics with the OPERA Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugiere, T.

    2010-04-01

    OPERA is a long-baseline neutrino experiment located in the Hall C of the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory at an average depth of 3.8 km.w.e., corresponding to muon energies at surface higher than 1.5 TeV. In this paper we focus on the potentialities of OPERA used as a cosmic ray detector. We report on the measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio, on the analysis of upgoing muons induced by atmospheric neutrinos and on the large cosmics showers inducing coincidences between different experiments in Gran Sasso.

  5. Coincident observation of air [hacek C]erenkov light by a surface array and muon bundles by a deep underground detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Bam, B.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Corona, A.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Cormack, R.; Coutu, S.; DeCataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; DeMarzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kertzman, M.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittlebrunn, M.; Mon

    1994-09-01

    We report on the simultaneous observation of atmospheric [hacek C]erenkov light by a prototype five telescope array, GRACE, (Gran Sasso Air [hacek C]erenkov Experiment) with deep underground muons in the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory). The telescope array was deployed at Campo Imperatore above the Gran Sasso Laboratory for a run completed in the fall of 1992. The total live time for the combined surface-underground operation was [similar to]100 h during which more than 300 events were seen in coincidence. The efficacy of this technique to monitor the electromagnetic and penetrating muon components of a cosmic-ray-induced cascade is discussed.

  6. An Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening for the LAMMPS Granular Package

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhr, Bryan; Brake, Matthew Robert; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2015-03-01

    The following details the implementation of an analytical elastic plastic contact model with strain hardening for normal im pacts into the LAMMPS granular package. The model assumes that, upon impact, the co llision has a period of elastic loading followed by a period of mixed elastic plas tic loading, with contributions to each mechanism estimated by a hyperbolic seca nt weight function. This function is implemented in the LAMMPS source code as the pair style gran/ep/history. Preliminary tests, simulating the pouring of pure nickel spheres, showed the elastic/plastic model took 1.66x as long as similar runs using gran/hertz/history.

  7. The Impact of LUNA Results on Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavino, Carlo

    2011-10-28

    LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) is devoted to measure nuclear cross sections relevant in astroparticle physics. The facility operates underground, at the 'Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso'(LNGS), where the cosmic ray induced background is very low. The LUNA measurements are important in neutrino physics, in the study of the Sun and other celestial bodies, in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

  8. The Gerda experiment for the search of 0 νββ decay in 76Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, K.-H.; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Altmann, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Chkvorets, O.; Cossavella, F.; D`Andragora, A.; Demidova, E. V.; Denisov, A.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Froborg, F.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gasparro, J.; Gazzana, S.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kankanyan, R.; Kianovsky, S.; Kihm, T.; Kiko, J.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knapp, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kröninger, K.; Kusminov, V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Lenz, D.; Liao, H.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, J.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Marissens, G.; Mayer, S.; Meierhofer, G.; Nemchenok, I.; Niedermeier, L.; Nisi, S.; Oehm, J.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Pandola, L.; Peiffer, P.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Ritter, F.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schubert, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwan, U.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Seitz, H.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stelzer, F.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Trunk, U.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Vogt, S.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-03-01

    The Gerda collaboration is performing a search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge with the eponymous detector. The experiment has been installed and commissioned at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and has started operation in November 2011. The design, construction and first operational results are described, along with detailed information from the R&D phase.

  9. Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a microscale pH titration technique that utilizes an automatic pipet. A small aliquot (1-5 mL) of the analyte solution is titrated with repeated additions of titrant, and the pH is determined after each delivery. The equivalence point is determined graphically by either the second derivative method or a Gran plot. The pipet can be…

  10. A first walk on the DarkSide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; et al

    2016-05-31

    DarkSide-50 (DS-50) at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS), Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a TPC with liquid argon. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. Here, the DS-50 detector performances and the results of the first physics run are reviewed in this proceeding.

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF SOME ESTIMATORS OF FLUVIAL TOTAL PHOSPHORUS LOAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of estimating total phosphorus (TP) loads to receiving waters usually is constrained by availability of concentration data as discharge (flow) data normally are comparatively abundant. sing 4 years of daily observations from three tributaries to the Great Lakes (Gran...

  12. Resultados de estudio para cáncer de pulmón indica

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre métodos de detección para reducir el número de muertes por cáncer de pulmón al detectar cánceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

  13. New results of the Borexino experiment: pp solar neutrino detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino experiment is an ultra-pure liquid scintillator detector, running at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). Borexino has completed the real time spectroscopy of the solar neutrinos generated in the proton-proton chain in the core of the Sun. This article reviews the Borexino experiment and the first direct measurment of pp solar neutrinos.

  14. The DarkSide Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, B.; Agnes, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cariello, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Catalanotti, S.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; De Deo, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Kendziora, C.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kurlej, A.; Li, P. X.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meyers, P. D.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Musico, P.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Papp, L.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Segreto, E.; Shields, E.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Watson, A.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    DarkSide-50 at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS), Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a liquid argon TPC. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. The detector performances and the results of the first physics run are presented in this proceeding.

  15. Ácaros del mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  16. Combinación de fármacos reduce pólipos del duodeno FAP

    Cancer.gov

    En un estudio clínico pequeño de personas con un padecimiento heredado que aumenta en gran medida el riesgo de cáncer gastrointestinal, una combinación de dos fármacos ha mostrado que reduce lesiones precancerosas en el duodeno.

  17. Validity of the Factor Structure of Conners' CPT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Kovalik-Gran, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A previous factor analysis of the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) indicates that the test measures 5 sub-functions of attention, namely "focused attention," "hyperactivity/impulsivity," "sustained attention," "vigilance," and "change in control." The present study further analyzes the results from Egeland & Kowalik-Gran to…

  18. Evaluation and Demonstration of a Mobile Steam Applicator to Disinfest Soil in Field-grown California Strawberry and Flower Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steam can effectively kill soil borne pests if soil temperatures can be raised to 70 °C for 20 min. The Ferrari Sterilter is capable of generating super heated steam to reach these temperatures within 5 to 7 min. Frontal plates on the machine allow it to thoroughly heat the soil to 30 cm depth, gran...

  19. The Teacher's Perspective in Older Education: The Experience of Teaching in a University for Older People in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdran, Montserrat; Pinazo, Sacramento; Triado, Carme

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore university lecturers' descriptions of their teaching experience with older students. Twelve teachers of the Nau Gran (a university program for older people [UPOP] in Valencia, Spain) were interviewed. We analyzed their responses to questions about their experience of teaching older adults, the rewarding aspects…

  20. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  1. Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

  2. Mid-IR Observations of AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, Christopher C.; Alonso Herrero, Almudena; Levenson, Nancy A.; Piratas AGN Group

    2016-01-01

    We present new observations of AGN, predominantly from the 10.4m GranTeCan. These observations are modeled and interpreted within the context of the clumpy torus models. In this poster we present our recent results and interpretation of the model outputs.

  3. Windows beyond the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, R.

    2007-10-12

    DAMA is an observatory for rare processes at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the I.N.F.N. (LNGS). Here some arguments will be shortly summarised on the investigation on dark matter (DM) particles by annual modulation signature and on some of the performed searches for double beta decay modes.

  4. Luminescence chronology of cave sediments at the Atapuerca paleoanthropological site, Spain.

    PubMed

    Berger, G W; Pérez-González, A; Carbonell, E; Arsuaga, J L; Bermúdez de Castro, J-M; Ku, T-L

    2008-08-01

    Ascertaining the timing of the peopling of Europe, after the first out-of-Africa demographic expansion at the end of the Pliocene, is of great interest to paleoanthropologists. One of the earliest direct evidences for fossil hominins in western Europe comes from an infilled karstic cave site called Gran Dolina at Atapuerca, in a stratum approximately 1.5m below the Brunhes-Matuyama (B-M) geomagnetic boundary (780ka) within lithostratigraphic unit TD6. However, most of the meters of fossil- and tool-bearing strata at Gran Dolina have been difficult to date. Therefore, we applied both thermoluminescence (TL) and infrared-stimulated-luminescence (IRSL) multi-aliquot dating methods to fine-silt fractions from sediment samples within Gran Dolina and the nearby Galería cave site. We also applied these methods to samples from the present-day surface soils on the surrounding limestone hill slopes to test the luminescence-clock-zeroing-by-daylight assumption. Within the uppermost 4m of the cave deposits at Gran Dolina, TL and paired TL and IRSL ages range stratigraphically from 198+/-19ka to 244+/-26ka. Throughout Gran Dolina, all luminescence results are stratigraphically self-consistent and, excepting results from two stratigraphic units, are consistent with prior ESR-U-series ages from progressively deeper strata. Thermoluminescence ages culminate at 960+/-120ka approximately 1m below the 780ka B-M boundary. At Galería, with one exception, TL and IRSL ages range stratigraphically downward from 185+/-26ka to 503+/-95ka at the base of the lowermost surface-inwash facies. These results indicate that TL and (sometimes) IRSL are useful dating tools for karstic inwash sediments older than ca. 100ka, and that a more accurate chronostratigraphic correlation is now possible among the main Atapuerca sites (Gran Dolina, Galería, Sima de los Huesos). Furthermore, the oldest TL age of ca. 960ka from Gran Dolina, consistent with biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic evidence, implies

  5. Photometric observations of comet 81P/Wild 2 during the 2010 perihelion passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, I.; Barbieri, C.; Ho, T.-M.; Lazzarin, M.; Cremonese, G.; Küppers, M.; Magrin, S.; Marchi, S.

    2012-05-01

    Context. The Jupiter-family comet 81P/Wild 2, target of the NASA Stardust mission, is very important in the context of the studies of pristine objects in the solar system. First, it was only recently deflected into the present orbit, having spent at least 300 yr at higher heliocentric distance prior to the orbital change in 1974. It is therefore likely that the comet experienced a recent activation with consequent low alteration of its original material. Second, it is the only comet whose coma material was brought back to Earth for laboratory analysis. We observed the object between 2010 February 9 and September 9 for a total of 11 nights during the 2010 perihelion passage. Aims: The goals of the campaign were the characterization of the comet's dust activity and the comparison with previous apparitions to derive hints on the secular behavior of the object. Methods: Broadband R- and I-images were acquired using three instruments: ALFOSC, CAMELOT, and TCP. The first one is mounted at the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, while the second and the third are mounted at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias 0.82-m telescope on Tenerife. We analyzed the presence and variability of dust structures in the coma with image-enhancing techniques, the radial profile of the dust brightness, and we measured the dust production rate and the dust reddening. Results: We found evidence of a long-lasting sunward fan and anti-solar tail activity throughout all our observations up to a heliocentric distance of 2.42 AU. Afρ measurements suggest a pre-perihelion peak of the activity, caused by a seasonal effect, plus two post-perihelion outbursts. Both spatial and Afρ radial profiles indicate a steady-state coma at nucleocentric distances greater than ~1000-2000 km. The color analysis reveals a moderately reddened dust with a 6-9%/1000 Å reddening, consistent with the current picture of cometary dust. The second outburst emitted dust with lower reddening. Conclusions: The

  6. A high-resolution spectroscopic survey of late-type stars: chromospheric activity, rotation, kinematics, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Santiago, J.; Montes, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Crespo-Chacón, I.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R. M.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; de Castro, E.; Cornide, M.

    2010-05-01

    National Commission for Astronomy; the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias; the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias; with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias; and with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) operated by McDonald Observatory on behalf of The University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database and VizieR catalog access tool, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France.Tables A.1-A.4 and reduced spectra are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/514/A97

  7. Rotational modulation of the photospheric and chromospheric activity in the young, single K2-dwarf PW And

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Santiago, J.; Montes, D.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; Ramsey, L. W.

    2003-12-01

    , jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy, with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias and with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) operated by McDonald Observatory on behalf of The University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. Tables 1, 3, 4 and Figs. 4, 7, 8, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  8. Multiwavelength optical observations of chromospherically active binary systems. III. High resolution echelle spectra from Ca II H & K to Ca II IRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; De Castro, E.; Cornide, M.; Latorre, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2000-10-01

    Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Tables 3, 5, 6, 7 also at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  9. Teleplaneta: a 7 year-long effort to spread natural hazard's knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David; Álvarez, Domingo; Marrero, Nieves; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the main and toughest goals for a geoscientist is to have a properly communication with the society when the time comes for showing results, scientific advances or whatever kind of remarkable event. The complexity of the scientific terminology, and the existence of a few communication channels, often prevents lay people to know about how the advance of science is occurring or how new discoveries are helping us to have a better understanding about the Planet Earth. In that respect, mass media provide the most powerful tool to enhance this communication, both radio and TV broadcasting, since the wealth of Earth-sciences' related information available on issues like global climate, water, energy and natural hazards remain largely unknown to the public and often untapped by policy and decision makers. Almost 75% of the Earth population lives in areas that had been hit, at least once in the last 20 years, by earthquakes, severe storms, flooding or droughts. TELEPLANETA is a joint effort of the Spanish National Public Television in the Canary Islands (RTVE-Canarias) and the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) for raising public awareness of the impact of these natural hazards in the society, with an understandable language away from too much technical terms but basically avoiding the gruesome side of this kind of events. TELEPLANETA tries to give a scientific explanation of why these hazards occur, focusing on the visual communication with the viewers. This weekly TV program is broadcasted through the worldwide coverage news channel - 24 Hours Channel - of the Spanish National Public TV (TVE). Actually immersed on our 7th season, TELEPLANETA has gone through a challenging improvement, from a barely 4 minute outsider program to a 20 minutes long, full enhanced TV show. We actually provide accurate information about natural hazards, but also a weekly review of twitteŕs best pictures and comments regarding nature, as well as scientific report at the most

  10. The quiet Sun magnetic field observed with ZIMPOL on THEMIS. I. The probability density function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommier, V.; Martínez González, M.; Bianda, M.; Frisch, H.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Gelly, B.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, E.

    2009-11-01

    polarimetric accuracy are, however, needed to confirm the results obtained in the present work. Based on observations made with the French-Italian telescope THEMIS operated by the CNRS and CNR on the island of Tenerife in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Present address: Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, vía Láctea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.

  11. Surface abundances of ON stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Palacios, A.; Howarth, I.; Georgy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.

    2015-06-01

    Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias; 5) the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A109

  12. Properties of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, S. D.; Nilsson, K.; Heidt, J.; Esser, J.; Schultz, T.

    2014-09-01

    Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  13. The high-redshift gamma-ray burst GRB 140515A. A comprehensive X-ray and optical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melandri, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; D'Avanzo, P.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Nappo, F.; Nava, L.; Japelj, J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Oates, S.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Ghirlanda, G.; Gafton, E.; Ghisellini, G.; Gnedin, N.; Goldoni, P.; Gorosabel, J.; Libbrecht, T.; Malesani, D.; Salvaterra, R.; Thöne, C. C.; Vergani, S. D.; Xu, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-09-01

    High-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer several advantages when studying the distant Universe, providing unique information about the structure and properties of the galaxies in which they exploded. Spectroscopic identification with large ground-based telescopes has improved our knowledge of this kind of distant events. We present the multi-wavelength analysis of the high-zSwift GRB GRB 140515A (z = 6.327). The best estimate of the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium towards the burst is xHI ≤ 0.002. The spectral absorption lines detected for this event are the weakest lines ever observed in GRB afterglows, suggesting that GRB 140515A exploded in a very low-density environment. Its circum-burst medium is characterised by an average extinction (AV ~ 0.1) that seems to be typical of z ≥ 6 events. The observed multi-band light curves are explained either with a very hard injected spectrum (p = 1.7) or with a multi-component emission (p = 2.1). In the second case a long-lasting central engine activity is needed in order to explain the late time X-ray emission. The possible origin of GRB 140515A in a Pop III (or in a Pop II star with a local environment enriched by Pop III) massive star is unlikely. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, ESO, the VLT/Kueyen telescope, Paranal, Chile (proposal code: 093.A-0069), on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (programme 49-008), and on observations made with the Italian 3.6-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (programme A26TAC_63).Appendix A is available in electronic form at

  14. SN 2011A: A Low-luminosity Interacting Transient with a Double Plateau and Strong Sodium Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jaeger, T.; Anderson, J. P.; Pignata, G.; Hamuy, M.; Kankare, E.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Folatelli, G.; Förster, F.; González-Gaitán, S.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Inserra, C.; Kotak, R.; Lira, P.; Morrell, N.; Taddia, F.; Tomasella, L.

    2015-07-01

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the optical transient SN 2011A. Our data span 140 days after discovery including {BVRI} u\\prime g\\prime r\\prime i\\prime z\\prime photometry and 11 epochs of optical spectroscopy. Originally classified as a type IIn supernova (SN IIn) due to the presence of narrow Hα emission, this object shows exceptional characteristics. First, the light curve shows a double plateau, a property only observed before in the impostor SN 1997bs. Second, SN 2011A has a very low luminosity ({M}V=-15.72), placing it between normal luminous SNe IIn and SN impostors. Third, SN 2011A shows low velocity and high equivalent width absorption close to the sodium doublet, which increases with time and is most likely of circumstellar origin. This evolution is also accompanied by a change in line profile; when the absorption becomes stronger, a P Cygni profile appears. We discuss SN 2011A in the context of interacting SNe IIn and SN impostors, which appears to confirm the uniqueness of this transient. While we favor an impostor origin for SN 2011A, we highlight the difficulty in differentiating between terminal and non-terminal interacting transients. This paper includes data obtained with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes and du Pont telescope; the Gemini-North Telescope, Mauna Kea, USA (Gemini Program GN-2010B-Q67, PI: Stritzinger); the PROMPT telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile; with the Liverpool Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council; based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias; the NTT from ESO Science Archive

  15. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N. II. Super Li-rich giant HD 107028

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamów, M.; Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Wolszczan, A.; Kowalik, K.; Nowak, G.; Adamczyk, M.; Deka-Szymankiewicz, B.

    2015-09-01

    the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  16. Influence of organic acids on the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity of Adirondack Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, R. K.; Gherini, S. A.

    1993-04-01

    Past approaches for evaluating the effects of organic acids on the acid-base characteristics of surface waters have typically treated them solely as weak acids. Analysis of data collected by the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC) from 1469 lakes throughout the Adirondack region shows that this approach is not valid. While the data indicate that natural organics contain a continuum of acid functional groups, many of which display weak acid characteristics, a significant fraction of the organic acid is strong (pKa < 3). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contributes 4.5-5 μeq/mg DOC of strong acid to solution. The associated anions make a negative contribution to Gran acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). Because organic anions can produce negative Gran ANC values, the common practice of considering negative values of Gran ANC evidence of acidification solely by mineral acids is not valid. The strength of organic acids also influences the observed deviation between Gran ANC values and ANC values calculated as the difference between base cation and mineral acid anion concentrations (CB - CA). Ninety percent of the deviation is due to the presence of strong organics while the remaining 10% is due to DOC-induced curvature in the F1 Gran function. Organic acids can also strongly influence pH. Their largest effects were found in the 0-50 μeq/L Gran ANC range where they depressed pH by up to 1.5 units. In addition, a method for predicting changes in pH in response to changes in mineral acidity, DOC, or both without having to rely on inferred thermodynamic constants and the uncertainties associated with them has been developed. Using the predictive method, the response of representative lakes from four sensitive lake classes to a 15-μeq/L decrease in mineral acidity ranged from +0.17 to +0.38 pH units. If concurrent increases in DOC are considered, the pH changes would be even smaller.

  17. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, J.; Bartalucci, S.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu (Petrascu, C.; Di Matteo, S.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Romero Vidal, A.; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2013-07-01

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10-29 - 10-30, thus improving the previous limit by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented.

  18. Updated results of the OPERA long baseline neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, Artem; Opera Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The OPERA neutrino detector built in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory is designed to detect νμ → ντ oscillations in direct appearance mode. The hybrid apparatus consists of an emulsion/lead target complemented by electronic detectors. It is placed in the long-baseline CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam (CNGS) 730 km away from the source. The experimental setup and ancillary facilities used to extract data recorded in the emulsion will be described, with the special procedures used to locate the interactions vertices and detect short decay topologies. OPERA is taking data since 2008. A first ντ interaction candidate was already published in 2010. An improved analysis scheme associated with a more detailed simulation has been developed and new results with increased statistics will be presented.

  19. The Cngs Facility:. Performance and Operational Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwendtner, Edda; Cornelis, Karel; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Ferrari, Alfredo; Pardons, Ans; Vincke, Heinz; Wenninger, Joerg; Sala, Paola; Guglielmi, Alberto

    2010-04-01

    The CNGS facility (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) aims at directly detecting muon to tau neutrino oscillations. An intense muon-neutrino beam (1E17 muon neutrinos/day) is generated at CERN and directed over 732 km towards the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, LNGS, in Italy, where two large and complex detectors, OPERA and ICARUS, are located. CNGS is the first long-baseline neutrino facility in which the measurement of the oscillation parameters is performed by observation of tau-neutrino appearance. In this paper, an overview of the CNGS facility is presented. The experience gained in operating this 500 kW neutrino beam facility is described. Major events since the commissioning of the facility in 2006 are summarized. Highlights on CNGS beam performance since the start of physics run in 2008 are given.

  20. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    SciTech Connect

    Best, A.

    2015-02-24

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.

  1. Statistical differentiation of bananas according to their mineral composition.

    PubMed

    Forster, Markus Paul; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2002-10-01

    The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were determined in banana cultivars Gran enana and Pequeña enana cultivated in Tenerife and in cv. Gran enana bananas from Ecuador. The mineral concentrations in the bananas from Tenerife and from Ecuador were clearly different. The cultivar did not influence the mineral concentrations except in the case of Fe. Variations according to cultivation method (greenhouse and outdoors) and farming style (conventional and organic) in the mineral concentrations in the bananas from Tenerife were observed. The mineral concentrations in the internal part of the banana were higher than those in the middle and external parts. Representation of double log correlations K-Mg and Zn-Mn tended to separate the banana samples according to origin. Applying factor and cluster analysis, the bananas from Ecuador were well separated from the bananas produced in Tenerife, and therefore, these are useful tools for differentiating the origin of bananas. PMID:12358491

  2. New Records of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Bolívar State in South Eastern Venezuela, with 27 New Species for the State and 5 of Them New in the Country

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Jesús; Guzmán, Hernán; Estrada, Yarys; Ramírez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This is the first part of a series of studies related to mosquito ecological and biogeographic aspects. A total of 69 mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) was collected in 16 localities sampled in the Gran Sabana Municipality, Canaima National Park, and Venezuela. Twenty-seven mosquito species are recorded for the first time from Bolívar State, Venezuela. Five of them species are reported for the first time in Venezuela: Anopheles malefactor Dyar and Knab (1907); Chagasia bonneae Root (1927); Chagasia ablusa Harbach (2009); Culex anduzei Lane (1944), and Uranotaenia leucoptera Theobald (1907). Their medical importance is commented, and ecological and epidemiological aspects are discussed. A checklist of the mosquito species reported in the Gran Sabana County is given. PMID:25853113

  3. El círculo meridiano automático de San Fernando - San Juan. Sus primeros pasos en el hemisferio sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamaci, C. C.; Muiños, J. L.; Gallego, M.; Pérez, J. A.; Marmolejo, L.; Navarro, J. L.; Sedeño, J.; Vallejos, M.; Belizón, F.

    Se informa sobre el estado actual del Círculo Meridiano Automático de San Fernando-San Juan. El instrumento (Grubb-Parson, de 178mm de abertura y 2665 mm de distancia focal) es gemelo del que se encuentra en las Islas Canarias, y fue instalado durante los meses de julio y agosto de 1996 en la estación astronómica ``Dr. C.U.Cesco" (El Leoncito, Barreal), a unos 200 km de distancia de la ciudad de San Juan, merced a un Convenio de Cooperación Científica, firmado en 1994 entre el ROA (España) y el OAFA (Argentina). En la actualidad se está llevando a cabo un programa de prueba cuyos resultados preliminares muestran que el telescopio está en buenas condiciones para observar estrellas de hasta magnitud aproximada 14.5, con buenos errores de observación (<0.12" en ascensión recta y declinación).

  4. Two Jets from the Protostellar System L1551 IRS 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlund, C. V. Malcolm; Liseau, René

    1998-05-01

    Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations of the jet emanating from the young stellar object L1551 IRS 5 clearly show a structure with two components, one of which terminates in a working surface only 1500 AU from the originating sources. This particular jet is found to be less dense than the ambient medium. Its Mach disk is found to be very small, only ~45 AU. We show that this jet cannot be the driver of the large-scale molecular outflow in L1551 for two reasons: (1) the jet fails to provide the necessary momentum by at least a factor of 100, and, (2) having a dynamic age ~3 orders of magnitude less than that of the outflow, this jet has no causal relationship with the molecular flow. The morphology and velocity field of the two components are consistent with them being separate entities, and we suggest that there are in fact two jets, each possibly originating from a different young stellar object. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated jointly on the island of La Palma by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. A search for planets in the metal-enriched binary HD 219542

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; Gratton, R. G.; Endl, M.; Barbieri, M.; Claudi, R. U.; Cosentino, R.; Lucatello, S.; Marzari, F.; Scuderi, S.

    2003-07-01

    The components of the wide binary HD 219542 were recently found to differ in metallicity by about 0.1 dex (Gratton et al. \\cite{paper1}). In this paper, we present the results of 2 years of high precision radial velocity monitoring of these stars performed at the Telecopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) using the high resolution spectrograph SARG. No indication for radial velocity variations above the measurement errors ( ~ 5 m s-1) was found for the metal richer component A. This allows us to place upper mass-limits for planets around this star. HD 219542 B instead shows a low amplitude variation with a 112 day period at a confidence level of ~ 96-97%. This might suggest the presence of a Saturn-mass planet, although it is still possible that these variations are due to moderate activity of the star. Tests based on variations of bisectors, stellar magnitude and line equivalent widths were inconclusive so far. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, using FEROS spectrograph at 1.5 m telescope (proposal ID: 69.D-0338).

  6. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  7. MAIA, a three-channel imager for asteroseismology: instrument design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Gert; Bloemen, Steven; Morren, Johan; Perez Padilla, Jesus; Prins, Saskia; Pessemier, Wim; Vandersteen, Jeroen; Merges, Florian; Østensen, Roy; Van Winckel, Hans; Aerts, Conny

    2013-11-01

    MAIA, an acronym for Mercator Advanced Imager for Asteroseismology, is a three-channel instrument that targets fast-cadence three-colour photometry, installed at the 1.2-m Mercator telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). This instrument observes a 9.4 × 14.1 arcmin2 field-of-view simultaneously in three wavelength bands on three large frame-transfer CCDs. These detectors were developed for ESA's cancelled Eddington space mission and were offered on permanent loan to the Institute of Astronomy (KU Leuven, Belgium). MAIA uses its own ugr photometric system that is a crude approximation of the SDSS system. The instrument is designed to perform multi-colour observations for asteroseismology, with specific emphasis on subdwarf and white dwarf single and binary stars. We describe the design of the instrument, discuss key components, and report on its performance and first results. Based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  8. Understanding A-type supergiants. II. Atmospheric parameters and rotational velocities of Galactic A-type supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, E.; Talavera, A.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.

    1999-06-01

    We present the second paper of a series whose aim is to perform a global study of Galactic A-supergiants. Very little work has been carried out to determine the stellar parameters of these stars. This is illustrated with a brief review of some previous works. In this paper we analyze the determination of absolute magnitudes, spectral types and atmospheric parameters using the most recent Kurucz LTE blanketed model atmospheres and we discuss the applicability of the calibrations, such as the Schmidt-Kaler's (\\cite{Sch-K}) calibration. Rotation is also an important parameter in A-supergiants but their rotational velocities are poorly known. We have calculated projected rotational velocities from the Fourier analysis of the observed Mg II (4481 Ä) line. Based on observations made with the INT and JKT telescopes operated on the island of La Palma by the RGO in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, with the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory, Spain, with the Bernard Lyot 2m telescope at Pic Du Midi Observatory, France and observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile

  9. Avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: evidence for a well-developed sense of smell in birds?

    PubMed

    Steiger, Silke S; Fidler, Andrew E; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-10-22

    Among vertebrates, the sense of smell is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in sensory neurons within the olfactory epithelium. Comparative genomic studies suggest that the olfactory acuity of mammalian species correlates positively with both the total number and the proportion of functional OR genes encoded in their genomes. In contrast to mammals, avian olfaction is poorly understood, with birds widely regarded as relying primarily on visual and auditory inputs. Here, we show that in nine bird species from seven orders (blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; black coucal, Centropus grillii; brown kiwi, Apteryx australis; canary, Serinus canaria; galah, Eolophus roseicapillus; red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus; kakapo, Strigops habroptilus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; snow petrel, Pagodroma nivea), the majority of amplified OR sequences are predicted to be from potentially functional genes. This finding is somewhat surprising as one previous report suggested that the majority of OR genes in an avian (red jungle fowl) genomic sequence are non-functional pseudogenes. We also show that it is not the estimated proportion of potentially functional OR genes, but rather the estimated total number of OR genes that correlates positively with relative olfactory bulb size, an anatomical correlate of olfactory capability. We further demonstrate that all the nine bird genomes examined encode OR genes belonging to a large gene clade, termed gamma-c, the expansion of which appears to be a shared characteristic of class Aves. In summary, our findings suggest that olfaction in birds may be a more important sense than generally believed. PMID:18628122

  10. Lessons learned with the Active Phasing Experiment: comparison of four optical phasing sensors on a segmented Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonte, F.; Surdej, I.

    The adaptive optics capabilities are strongly limited by the quality of the phasing of the primary mirror of the extremely large telescope. Up to date, the Keck telescopes are the only segmented telescope phased with a quality enabling the application of adaptive optics. The Active Phasing Experiment has been installed at the Namyth focus of the Very Large Telescope Melipal during the last 6 months. Its purpose is to understand and compare different technological concepts for an optical phasing sensor dedicated to the European Extremely Large Telescope. The pupil of the telescope is segmented in 61 hexagonal segments by projecting it on an Active Segmented Mirror. The ASM is controlled by a dual wavenlength interferometer made by Fogale Nanotech with a nanometric precision. The segmented pupil is distributed in parallel to four optical phasing sensors. They are a pyramid sensor, a curvature sensor, a phase filtering sensor and a ShackHartmann sensor. They have been developed respectively by Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Florenze, Instituto Astrofisica Canarias in Tenerife, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille and ESO. The global behaviour of the optical phasing sensors will be described and preliminary results of the Active Phasing Experiments obtained on sky will be explained. The extrapolation of the results to the EELT and the potential consequences for the adaptive optics will be given. The Active Phasing Experiment has been financed by the European Union and the European Southern Observatory via the Sixth European Union Framework Program for Research and Technological Development under the contract number 011863.

  11. Aromatase inhibition rapidly affects in a reversible manner distinct features of birdsong.

    PubMed

    Alward, Beau A; de Bournonville, Catherine; Chan, Trevor T; Balthazart, Jacques; Cornil, Charlotte A; Ball, Gregory F

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has implicated steroid hormones, specifically estrogens, in the rapid modulation of cognitive processes. Songbirds have been a useful model system in the study of complex cognitive processes including birdsong, a naturally learned vocal behavior regulated by a discrete steroid-sensitive telencephalic circuitry. Singing behavior is known to be regulated by long-term actions of estrogens but rapid steroid modulation of this behavior has never been examined. We investigated if acute actions of estrogens regulate birdsong in canaries (Serinus canaria). In the morning, male canaries sing within minutes after light onset. Birds were injected with fadrozole, a potent aromatase inhibitor, or vehicle within 2-5 minutes after lights on to implement a within-subjects experimental design. This single injection of fadrozole reduced the motivation to sing as well as song acoustic stereotypy, a measure of consistency over song renditions, on the same day. By the next day, however, all song measures that were affected had returned to baseline. This study indicates that estrogens also act in a rapid fashion to regulate two distinct features of song, a learned vocal behavior. PMID:27573712

  12. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  13. FastCam optomechanical system design and manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murga, Gaizka; Sanquirce, Rubén; Campo, Ramón; Oscoz, Alex; López, Roberto; Rebolo, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    FastCam is an instrument jointly developed by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT), designed to obtain high spatial resolution images in the optical wavelength range from ground-based telescopes (http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam and http://www.iac.es/telescopes/Manuales/manualfastcam.pdf). The instrument is equipped with a very low noise and very fast readout speed EMCCD camera which provides short exposure images to an FPGA-based processor which performs the selection, recenterg and combination of images in real-time (applying Lucky Imaging techniques) to provide diffraction limited resolution images in 1-4 m class telescopes from 500 to 1100 nm. IDOM has contributed to this new state-of-the-art instrument with the design of an optomechanical system conceived to maximize the image scale stability of the system for astrometry. The combination of aluminum plates, carbon fiber (CFRP) rods and stainless steel mounts in the optical bench defines an athermalized and stiff design to meet the requirements of thermal and mechanical stability. This work has been done with the support of the Aerospace Subprogramme of the Spanish Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI) and the INTEK programme of the Basque Development Agency (SPRI).

  14. SUNRISE: a balloon-borne telescope for high resolution solar observations in the visible and UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Sami K.; Gandorfer, Achim M.; Schuessler, Manfred; Curdt, W.; Lites, Bruce W.; Martinez-Pillet, Valentin; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Title, Alan M.

    2003-02-01

    Sunrise is a light-weight solar telescope with a 1 m aperture for spectro-polarimetric observations of the solar atmosphere. The telescope is planned to be operated during a series of long-duration balloon flights in order to obtain time series of spectra and images at the diffraction-limit and to study the UV spectral region down to ~200 nm, which is not accessible from the ground. The central aim of Sunrise is to understand the structure and dynamics of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. Through its interaction with the convective flow field, the magnetic field in the solar photosphere develops intense field concentrations on scales below 100 km, which are crucial for the dynamics and energetics of the whole solar atmosphere. In addition, Sunrise aims to provide information on the structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere and on the physics of solar irradiance changes. Sunrise is a joint project of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie (MPAe), Katlenburg-Lindau, with the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik (KIS), Freiburg, the High-Altitude Observatory (HAO), Boulder, the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab. (LMSAL), Palo Alto, and the Instituto de Astrofi sica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife. In addition, there are close contacts with associated scientists from a variety of institutes.

  15. SUNRISE: high-resolution UV/VIS observations of the Sun from the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandorfer, Achim M.; Solanki, Sami K.; Schüssler, Manfred; Curdt, Werner; Lites, Bruce W.; Martínez Pillet, Valentin; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Title, Alan M.

    2004-10-01

    SUNRISE is a balloon-borne solar telescope with an aperture of 1m, working in the UV/VIS optical domain. The main scientific goal of SUNRISE is to understand the structure and dynamics of the magnetic field in the atmosphere of the Sun. SUNRISE will provide diffraction-limited images of the photosphere and chromosphere with an unpredecented resolution down to 35km at wavelengths around 220nm. Focal-plane instruments are a spectrograph/polarimeter, a Fabry-Perot filter magnetograph, and a filter imager. The first stratospheric long-duration balloon flight of SUNRISE over Antarctica is planned in winter 2006/2007. SUNRISE is a joint project of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Sonnensystemforschung (MPS), Katlenburg-Lindau, with the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS), Freiburg, the High-Altitude Observatory (HAO), Boulder, the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab. (LMSAL), Palo Alto, and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife. In this paper we will present an overview on the mission and give a description of the instrumentation, now, at the beginning of the hardware construction phase.

  16. First Contact with Astronomy for a Large Number of Pupils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Spanish Royal Society of Physics (RSEF) co-operates with several European institutions to promote Physics and Astronomy in schools through the project ""Fisica en Acción"". This project started in 2000 integrated with the project ""Physics on Stage"" created by CERN ESA and ESO. ""Fisica en Accion"" is a Spanish competition bringing together a group of teachers in a common endeavour: * showing ""physics demonstrations"" to general audiences * engaging pedagogical presentations to introduce science into the classroom. The national final event of this competition takes place annually in a science museum during one weekend (entrance is free). The Science Fair is especially well received by visitors who can ask the demonstrators-teachers questions. Younger visitors enjoy experimenting for themselves. After the first year the RSEF introduced special prizes to encourage schools to participate in astronomical categories. The ""Centro de Astrobiologia de Madrid"" gave a cash prize and a visit to their headquarters to the winners. The ""Instituto Astrofísico de Canarias"" offered a prize of a trip to its observatories. In summary the astronomical elements of ""Fisica en Acción"" stimulate the teachers and students' interest in international activities and has been the first contact with Astronomy for a large number of pupils.

  17. OSIRIS tunable imager and spectrograph for the GTC: from design to commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Beatriz; Aguiar-González, Marta; Barreto, Roberto; Becerril, Santiago; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bongiovanni, Angel; Cepa, Jordi; Correa, Santiago; Chapa, Oscar; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Espejo, Carlos; Farah, Alejandro; Fragoso, Ana Belén.; Fernández, Patricia; Flores, Rubén.; Fuentes, F. Javier; Gago, Fernando; Garfias, Fernando; Gigante, José Vicente; González, Jesús; González-Escalera, Victor; Hernández, Belén.; Hernandez, Elvio; Herrera, Alberto; Herrera, Guillermo; Joven, Enrique; Langarica, Rosalia; Lara, Gerardo; López, José Carlos; López, Roberto; Militellon, Carmelo; Moreno, Heidy; Peraza, Lorenzo; Pérez, Angeles; Pérez, Jaime; Rasilla, José Luis; Rosich, Josefina; Tejada, Carlos; Tinoco, Silvio; Vaz, Txinto; Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) was the optical Day One instrument for the 10.4m Spanish telescope GTC. It is installed at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain). This instrument has been operational since March-2009 and covers from 360 to 1000 nm. OSIRIS observing modes include direct imaging with tunable and conventional filters, long slit and low resolution spectroscopy. OSIRIS wide field of view and high efficiency provide a powerful tool for the scientific exploitation of GTC. OSIRIS was developed by a Consortium formed by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Instituto de Astronomía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IA-UNAM). The latter was in charge of the optical design, the manufacture of the camera and collaboration in the assembly, integration and verification process. The IAC was responsible for the remaining design of the instrument and it was the project leader. The present paper considers the development of the instrument from its design to its present situation in which is in used by the scientific community.

  18. Real-time lucky imaging in FastCam project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ramos, L. F.; Piqueras Meseguer, J. J.; Martin Hernando, Y.; Oscoz, A.; Rebolo, R.

    2008-07-01

    Lucky imaging techniques implemented by the FastCam group (see http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam/) at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias have demonstrated its ability to obtain spectacular diffraction limited images in telescopes ranging from 1 to 4.2 m in visible wavelengths (mainly in the I band), at the expense of using only a small percentage of the available images. This work presents the development of a real-time processor, FPGA-based, capable of performing all the required processing involved in the lucky imaging technique: Bias and flat-field correction, quality evaluation of images, quality threshold for image selection, image recentering and accumulation, and finally sending through Gigabit Ethernet both raw and processed images to a PC computer. Furthermore, a real time display is generated directly from FPGA showing both types of images, plus a histogram of the computed quality values and the threshold used. All processes can co-exist physically located in separated places inside the FPGA, using its natural parallel approach, and can easily handle the 512x512 pixels at 30 fps found at the sensor camera output (an Andor Ixon+ DU-897ECSO EMCCD). Flexibility and parallel processing features of the reconfigurable logic have been used to implement a novel imaging strategy for segmented-mirror telescopes, allowing separate evaluation of every segment and posterior accumulation to achieve the resolution limit of a single segment with the integration capability of the full primary mirror.

  19. Spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, L.; Perinotto, M.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Mampaso, A.

    2003-03-01

    Spectroscopic observations of 48 emission-line objects of M 33 have been obtained with the multi-object, wide field, fibre spectrograph AF2/WYFFOS at the 4.2 m WHT telescope (La Palma, Spain). Line intensities and logarithmic extinction, cbeta , are presented for 42 objects. Their location in the Sabbadin & D'Odorico diagnostic diagram (Hα /[S II] vs. Hα /[N II]) suggests that >70% of the candidates are Planetary Nebulae (PNe). Chemical abundances and nebular physical parameters have been derived for the three of the six PNe where the 4363 Å, [O II]i emission line was measurable. These are disc PNe, located within a galactocentric distance of 4.1 kpc, and, to date, they are the farthest PNe with a direct chemical abundance determination. No discrepancy in the helium, Oxygen and Argon abundances has been found in comparison with corresponding abundances of PNe in our Galaxy. Only a lower limit to the sulphur abundance has been obtained since we could not detect any [S III] line. N/H appears to be lower than the Galactic value; some possible explanations for this under-abundance are discussed. Based on observations obtained at the 4.2 m WHT telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  20. Library of high and mid-resolution spectra in the CA II H & K, Hα, Hβ NA i D1, D2, and He i D3 line regions of F, G, K and M field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Martin, E. L.; Fernandez-Figueroa, M. J.; Cornide, M.; de Castro, E.

    1997-06-01

    In this work we present spectroscopic observations centered in the spectral lines most widely used as optical indicators of chromospheric activity (Hα, Hβ, Ca ii H & K, and He i D3) in a sample of F, G, K and M chromospherically inactive stars. The spectra have been obtained with the aim of providing a library of high and mid-resolution spectra to be used in the application of the spectral subtraction technique to obtain the active-chromosphere contribution to these lines in chromospherically active single and binary stars. This library can also be used for spectral classification purposes. A digital version with all the spectra is available via ftp and the World Wide Web (WWW) in both ASCII and FITS formats. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton telescope and the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Royal Greenwich Observatory at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and with the 2.2 m telescope of the Centro Astronomico Hispano-Aleman of Calar Alto (Almeria, Spain) operated jointly by the Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Spanish Comision Nacional de Astronomia. The spectra of the stars listed in Table \\protect\\ref{tab:par} are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  1. Serendipitous Discovery of a Projected Pair of QSOs Separated by 4.5 arcsec on the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, K. E.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krogager, J.-K.; Vestergaard, M.; Møller, P.; Arabsalmani, M.; Geier, S.; Noterdaeme, P.; Ledoux, C.; Saturni, F. G.; Venemans, B.

    2016-07-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of a projected pair of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) with an angular separation of Δθ = 4.50 arcsec. The redshifts of the two QSOs are widely different: one, our program target, is a QSO with a spectrum consistent with being a narrow line Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus at z = 2.05. For this target we detect Lyα, C iv, and C iii]. The other QSO, which by chance was included on the spectroscopic slit, is a Type 1 QSO at a redshift of z = 1.68, for which we detect C iv, C iii], and Mg ii. We compare this system to previously detected projected QSO pairs and find that only about a dozen previously known pairs have smaller angular separation. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, on the island of La Palma jointly operated by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  2. Tests of VPHGs in the NIR for use at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insausti, Maider; Garzón, Francisco; Madrigal, Roque; Fimia, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    We report on the performances measured at room temperature, before and after a cryogenic cooling cycle, of a set of NIR Volume Phase Holographic Gratings (VPHGs) manufactured at the Miguel Hernández University (UMH, Elche, Spain) aimed at their use in astronomical instrumentations. VPHGs are novel optical components which can replace standard ruled transmission gratings, offering some advantages. Instead of a surface modulation, a diffraction index modulation printed in a volume of material generates the diffraction according to the required specifications. While VPHGs are becoming an option for instruments working in the optical regime at room temperature, their use is still minimal in the NIR wavebands due to the stringent requirements impose by the cryogenic environment. But their good properties in terms of high transmission and compact mechanical design are kept even in cryogenic, so efforts to develop such devices functional at cryogenic temperatures are underway in several institutions. We report results on transmission of newly manufactured VPHGs. These results were achieved through a collaborative effort within the European network OPTICON WP6, “New Materials and Processes in Astronomical Instrumentation”, and whose participating institutions are Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Universidad Miguel Hernández, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (INAF) and Politecnico di Milano.

  3. Bilateral coordination and the motor basis of female preference for sexual signals in canary song.

    PubMed

    Suthers, Roderick A; Vallet, Eric; Kreutzer, Michel

    2012-09-01

    The preference of female songbirds for particular traits in the songs of courting males has received considerable attention, but the relationship of preferred traits to male quality is poorly understood. Female domestic canaries (Serinus canaria, Linnaeus) preferentially solicit copulation with males that sing special high repetition rate, wide-band, multi-note syllables, called 'sexy' or A-syllables. Syllables are separated by minibreaths but each note is produced by pulsatile expiration, allowing high repetition rates and long duration phrases. The wide bandwidth is achieved by including two notes produced sequentially on opposite sides of the syrinx, in which the left and right sides are specialized for low or high frequencies, respectively. The emphasis of low frequencies is facilitated by a positive relationship between syllable repetition rate and the bandwidth of the fundamental frequency of notes sung by the left syrinx, such that bandwidth increases with increasing syllable repetition rate. The temporal offset between notes prevents cheating by unilaterally singing a note on the left side with a low fundamental frequency and prominent higher harmonics. The syringeal and respiratory motor patterns by which sexy syllables are produced support the hypothesis that these syllables provide a sensitive vocal-auditory indicator of a male's performance limit for the rapid, precisely coordinated interhemispheric switching, which is essential for many sensory and motor processes involving specialized contributions from each cerebral hemisphere. PMID:22875764

  4. Design and performance of the ESA Optical Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Viera, Teodora; Moreno-Arce, Heidi; Rasilla, Jose L.; Gago, Fernando; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Gomez, Panchita; Ballesteros Ramirez, Ezequiel

    2002-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has undertaken the development of Optical Data Relay payloads, aimed at establishing free space optical communication links between satellites. The first of such systems put into orbit is the SILEX project, in which an experimental link between a GEO satellite (ARTEMIS) and a LEO satellite (SPOT IV) will be used to relay earth observation data. In order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of these and future optical communications systems, ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreement for the building of the Optical Ground Station (OGS) in the IAC Teide Observatory, which consists basically of a 1-meter telescope and the suitable instrumentation for establishing and testing bi-directional optical links with satellites. The presence of the atmosphere in the data path posses particular problems, with an impact on the instrumentation design. The transmission, reception and measurement functions, along with the overall control of the instruments, are performed at OGS by the Focal Plane Control Electronics (FPCE). The design and performance of this instrumentation is presented, emphasizing the Pointing, Acquisition and Tracking, the Tuneable Laser and the Master Control.

  5. Propagation experiments in the near infrared along a 150-km path and from stars in the Canarian archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeron, Adolfo; Rubio, Juan A.; Belmonte, Aniceto M.; Garcia, Enrique; Prud'homme, Tony; Sodnik, Zoran; Connor, Chris

    2002-03-01

    Within the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX project, aimed at experimentally demonstrating the feasibility of inter-satellite optical communications links, an Optical Ground Station (OGS) has been built by ESA in the premises of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC, Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands) Observatory of Teide, in the Tenerife island. The OGS is designed to test the optical communications payload on board the ESA's Artemis satellite and to perform ground-satellite optical communications experiments. As part of the OGS design study, an assessment of the impact of the atmosphere on the ground- satellite links was carried out. This assessment included experimental characterizations of the atmospheric effects through both measurements from stars in positions close to the Artemis one in bands comprising the SILEX wavelengths, using the IAC's Mons telescope in the Observatory of Teide, and measurements on a horizontal link with a transmitter near the IAC's Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma island, based on a laser diode similar to those to be used in SILEX, and a receiver in the Teide Observatory, almost 150 km apart, in the Tenerife island. The 830-nm wavelength horizontal measurements allowed checking the variations in the behavior of the atmospheric turbulence through the diurnal cycle. Besides the information relevant to assess the OGS performance, the horizontal-propagation experiments allowed to gather a considerable amount of propagation data on a very long path, most of it 2400 m above the sea.

  6. Analysis of the preliminary optical links between ARTEMIS and the Optical Ground Station